Sample records for salmonid sexual development

  1. Influence of Waterway Development on Migrational Characteristics of Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Willamette River, Oregon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Ward; Anthony A. Nigro; Ruth A. Farr; Christopher J. Knutsen

    1994-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Portland Harbor development in the lower Willamette River on the migration and behavior of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.), the habitat occupied by juvenile salmonids, and predation on juvenile salmonids by northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis. Juvenile salmonids were abundant in the lower Willamette River during spring; radio-tagged juvenile steelhead O. mykiss and yearling chinook salmon O.

  2. The sexually dimorphic on the Y-chromosome gene (sdY) is a conserved male-specific Y-chromosome sequence in many salmonids

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Ayaka; Nicol, Barbara; Jouanno, Elodie; Quillet, Edwige; Fostier, Alexis; Guyomard, René; Guiguen, Yann

    2013-01-01

    All salmonid species investigated to date have been characterized with a male heterogametic sex-determination system. However, as these species do not share any Y-chromosome conserved synteny, there remains a debate on whether they share a common master sex-determining gene. In this study, we investigated the extent of conservation and evolution of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) master sex-determining gene, sdY (sexually dimorphic on the Y-chromosome), in 15 different species of salmonids. We found that the sdY sequence is highly conserved in all salmonids and that sdY is a male-specific Y-chromosome gene in the majority of these species. These findings demonstrate that most salmonids share a conserved sex-determining locus and also strongly suggest that sdY may be this conserved master sex-determining gene. However, in two whitefish species (subfamily Coregoninae), sdY was found both in males and females, suggesting that alternative sex-determination systems may have also evolved in this family. Based on the wide conservation of sdY as a male-specific Y-chromosome gene, efficient and easy molecular sexing techniques can now be developed that will be of great interest for studying these economically and environmentally important species. PMID:23745140

  3. Development and Corroboration of a Bioenergetics Model for Northern Pikeminnow Feeding on Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James H. Petersen; David L. Ward

    1999-01-01

    A bioenergetics model was developed and corroborated for northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis, an important predator on juvenile salmonids in the Pacific Northwest. Predictions of modeled predation rate on salmonids were compared with field data from three areas of John Day Reservoir (Columbia River). To make bioenergetics model estimates of predation rate, three methods were used to approximate the change in

  4. Developing a Predation Index and Evaluating Ways to Reduce Salmonid Losses to Predation in the Columbia River Basin, Final Report August 1988September 1990

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nigro; Anthony A

    1990-01-01

    We report our results of studies to develop a predation index and evaluate ways to reduce juvenile salmonid losses to predation in the Columbia River Basin. Study objectives of each were: develop an index to estimate predation losses of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp) in reservoirs throughout the Columbia River Basin, describe the relationships among predator-caused mortality of juvenile salmonids and

  5. Sexual scripts and sexual risk behaviors among black heterosexual men: development of the sexual scripts scale.

    PubMed

    Bowleg, Lisa; Burkholder, Gary J; Noar, Seth M; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J; Tschann, Jeanne M

    2015-04-01

    Sexual scripts are widely shared gender and culture-specific guides for sexual behavior with important implications for HIV prevention. Although several qualitative studies document how sexual scripts may influence sexual risk behaviors, quantitative investigations of sexual scripts in the context of sexual risk are rare. This mixed methods study involved the qualitative development and quantitative testing of the Sexual Scripts Scale (SSS). Study 1 included qualitative semi-structured interviews with 30 Black heterosexual men about sexual experiences with main and casual sex partners to develop the SSS. Study 2 included a quantitative test of the SSS with 526 predominantly low-income Black heterosexual men. A factor analysis of the SSS resulted in a 34-item, seven-factor solution that explained 68 % of the variance. The subscales and coefficient alphas were: Romantic Intimacy Scripts (? = .86), Condom Scripts (? = .82), Alcohol Scripts (? = .83), Sexual Initiation Scripts (? = .79), Media Sexual Socialization Scripts (? = .84), Marijuana Scripts (? = .85), and Sexual Experimentation Scripts (? = .84). Among men who reported a main partner (n = 401), higher Alcohol Scripts, Media Sexual Socialization Scripts, and Marijuana Scripts scores, and lower Condom Scripts scores were related to more sexual risk behavior. Among men who reported at least one casual partner (n = 238), higher Romantic Intimacy Scripts, Sexual Initiation Scripts, and Media Sexual Socialization Scripts, and lower Condom Scripts scores were related to higher sexual risk. The SSS may have considerable utility for future research on Black heterosexual men's HIV risk. PMID:24311105

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF FIELD-BASED EMPIRICAL MODELS OF SUITABLE TEMPERATURE REGIMES FOR INTERIOR SALMONIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interior salmonids are species of growing interest and concern in the Pacific Northwest. Evidence of population declines associated with habitat loss and fragmentation have culminate in every species being listed, or proposed or petitioned for listing under he Endangered Species...

  7. Clock genes and their genomic distributions in three species of salmonid fishes: Associations with genes regulating sexual maturation and cell cycling

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Clock family genes encode transcription factors that regulate clock-controlled genes and thus regulate many physiological mechanisms/processes in a circadian fashion. Clock1 duplicates and copies of Clock3 and NPAS2-like genes were partially characterized (genomic sequencing) and mapped using family-based indels/SNPs in rainbow trout (RT)(Oncorhynchus mykiss), Arctic charr (AC)(Salvelinus alpinus), and Atlantic salmon (AS)(Salmo salar) mapping panels. Results Clock1 duplicates mapped to linkage groups RT-8/-24, AC-16/-13 and AS-2/-18. Clock3/NPAS2-like genes mapped to RT-9/-20, AC-20/-43, and AS-5. Most of these linkage group regions containing the Clock gene duplicates were derived from the most recent 4R whole genome duplication event specific to the salmonids. These linkage groups contain quantitative trait loci (QTL) for life history and growth traits (i.e., reproduction and cell cycling). Comparative synteny analyses with other model teleost species reveal a high degree of conservation for genes in these chromosomal regions suggesting that functionally related or co-regulated genes are clustered in syntenic blocks. For example, anti-müllerian hormone (amh), regulating sexual maturation, and ornithine decarboxylase antizymes (oaz1 and oaz2), regulating cell cycling, are contained within these syntenic blocks. Conclusions Synteny analyses indicate that regions homologous to major life-history QTL regions in salmonids contain many candidate genes that are likely to influence reproduction and cell cycling. The order of these genes is highly conserved across the vertebrate species examined, and as such, these genes may make up a functional cluster of genes that are likely co-regulated. CLOCK, as a transcription factor, is found within this block and therefore has the potential to cis-regulate the processes influenced by these genes. Additionally, clock-controlled genes (CCGs) are located in other life-history QTL regions within salmonids suggesting that at least in part, trans-regulation of these QTL regions may also occur via Clock expression. PMID:20670436

  8. Risk factors for development of sexually abusive behaviour in sexually victimised adolescent boys: cross sectional study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Skuse; Arnon Bentovim; Jill Hodges; Jim Stevenson; Chriso Andreou; Monica Lanyado; Michelle New; Bryn Williams; Dean McMillan

    1998-01-01

    AbstractObjective: To identify factors that may increase the risk of a sexually victimised adolescent boy developing sexually abusive behaviour.Design: Sexually victimised boys who had sexually abused other children were compared with sexually victimised boys who had not done so.Setting: Social services departments in south east England were invited to refer sexually abused and sexually abusing boys to a London postgraduate

  9. Context-dependent sexual advertisement: plasticity in development of sexual ornamentation throughout the lifetime

    E-print Network

    Badyaev, Alex

    Context-dependent sexual advertisement: plasticity in development of sexual ornamentation, USA Introduction Female mate choice often favours sexual ornaments and displays that reliably indicate elaboration of sexual ornamentation in males is thought to increase the cost of ornament production and thus

  10. A Prospective Investigation of the Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on the Development of Sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Jennie G.; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2010-01-01

    The sexual attitudes and activities of 77 sexually abused and 89 comparison women (mean age = 20.41, SD = 3.38) were assessed 10 years after disclosure in a longitudinal, prospective study of the long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse. Abused participants were more preoccupied with sex, younger at first voluntary intercourse, more likely to have been teen mothers, and endorsed lower birth control efficacy than comparison participants. When psychological functioning earlier in development was examined, sexual preoccupation was predicted by anxiety, sexual aversion was predicted by childhood sexual behavior problems, and sexual ambivalence (simultaneous sexual preoccupation and sexual aversion) was predicted by pathological dissociation. Findings also indicate that biological father abuse may be associated with greater sexual aversion and sexual ambivalence. PMID:12795580

  11. Viruses and viral diseases of salmonids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tokuo Sano

    1995-01-01

    Salmonid fishes are one of the most important aquatic resources in the world, and since salmonid fish culture was initiated many years ago, it has been developing with the times in several countries. In particular, the intensive culture of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, has developed over the past 30 years in the USA, Europe, Japan and elsewhere. However, the successes

  12. Improving Sexuality Education: The Development of Teacher-Preparation Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Elissa M.; Goldfarb, Eva S.; Russell, Susan; Seabert, Denise; Wallen, Michele; Wilson, Kelly L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Teaching sexuality education to support young people's sexual development and overall sexual health is both needed and supported. Data continue to highlight the high rates of teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted disease, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, among young people in the United States as well as the…

  13. MICROBIOLOGY: Timing the Sexual Development of Parasites

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stephen L. Hajduk (Josephine Bay Paul Center; )

    2006-08-04

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Mair et al. report the mechanism underlying the regulation of gene expression during the sexual cycle of this parasite. Like other eukaryotes, the malaria parasite stores maternal RNA in the female gamete for later use in directing early development. An RNA helicase is a key regulator of this process.

  14. Adolescent Development and Sexuality. Adolescent Decisions Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brion-Meisels, Steven; And Others

    This teacher's manual is one volume in a six volume curriculum for the secondary level, designed to provide a systematic, group-oriented approach to decision-making in areas crucial to adolescent development: sexuality and social relationships, drug (substance) use and abuse, work, juvenile law, and people and government. An introductory section…

  15. Sexuality among Adolescents with Moderate Disabilities: Promoting Positive Sexual Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harader, Dana L.; Fullwood, Harry; Hawthorne, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents with moderate disabilities are not being given vital information regarding their sexuality and ways to behave responsibly with their peers. This article examines the laws that govern the education of all persons with disabilities, how societal norms and attitudes have contributed to this lack of sexuality knowledge, how these…

  16. Development of a rapid and efficient microinjection technique for gene insertion into fertilized salmonid eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, D.P.; Welt, M.; Leung, F.C.

    1990-10-01

    An efficient one-step injection technique for gene insertion into fertilized rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) eggs is described, and basic parameters affecting egg survival are reported. Freshly fertilized rainbow trout eggs were injected in the perivitelline space with a recombinant mouse metallothionein-genomic bovine growth hormone (bGH) DNA construct using a 30-gauge hypodermic needle and a standard microinjection system. Relative to control, site of injection and DNA concentration did not affect the egg survival, but injections later than 3--4 hours post fertilization were detrimental. The injection technique permitted treatment of 100 eggs/hr with survivals up to 100%, resulting in a 4% DNA uptake rate as indicated by DNA dot blot analysis. Positive dot blot results also indicated that the injected DNA is able to cross the vitelline membrane and persist for 50--60 days post hatching, obviating the need for direct injection into the germinal disk. Results are consistent with previous transgenic fish work, underscoring the usefulness of the technique for generating transgenic trout and salmonids. 24 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Developing a Predation Index and Evaluating Ways to Reduce Salmonid Losses to Predation in the Columbia River Basin, Final Report August 1988-September 1990.

    SciTech Connect

    Nigro, Anthony A.

    1990-12-01

    We report our results of studies to develop a predation index and evaluate ways to reduce juvenile salmonid losses to predation in the Columbia River Basin. Study objectives of each were: develop an index to estimate predation losses of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp) in reservoirs throughout the Columbia River Basin, describe the relationships among predator-caused mortality of juvenile salmonids and physical and biological variables, examine the feasibility of developing bounty, commercial or recreational fisheries on northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) and develop a plan to evaluate the efficacy of predator control fisheries; determine the economic feasibility of developing bounty and commercial fisheries for northern squawfish, assist ODFW with evaluating the economic feasibility of recreational fisheries for northern squawfish and assess the economic feasibility of utilizing northern squawfish, carp (Cyprinus carpio) and suckers (Castostomus spp) in multispecies fisheries; evaluate commercial technology of various fishing methods for harvesting northern squawfish in Columbia River reservoirs and field test the effectiveness of selected harvesting systems, holding facilities and transportation systems; and modify the existing Columbia River Ecosystem Model (CREM) to include processes necessary to evaluate effects of removing northern squawfish on their population size structure and abundance, document the ecological processes, mathematical equations and computer (FORTRAN) programming of the revised version of CREM and conduct systematic analyses of various predator removal scenarios, using revised CREM to generate the simulations. Individual reports are indexed separately.

  18. The Internet, Sex, and Youths: Implications for Sexual Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SYLVAIN C. BOIES; GAIL KNUDSON; JULIAN YOUNG

    2004-01-01

    This article summarizes the research to date on youths' online sexual activities pertaining to socialization, education, and entertainment. It presents how these activities relate to the overall sexuality and mental health of adolescents and young adults, while situating the findings within a perspective of psychosocial and sexual development. It also provides information relevant to the prevention and treatment of problematic

  19. Identity Development Among Sexual-Minority Youth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ritch C. Savin-Williams

    \\u000a \\u000a Sexual identity is the name and meaning individuals assign to themselves based on the most salient sexual aspects of their life – such as\\u000a sexual attractions, fantasies, desires, and behaviors. Sexual identities usually fall within existing social categories, such\\u000a as straight, bisexual, or lesbian\\/gay, and are historically and culturally specific. Youth in today’s cohort have expanded\\u000a the list of sexual

  20. Vaccination against salmonid bacterial kidney disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) of salmonid fishes, caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, has presented challenges for development of effective vaccines, despite several decades of research. The only vaccine against BKD that is commercially licensed is an injectable preparation containing live cells ...

  1. Significance of Selective Predation and Development of Prey Protection Measures for Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs: Annual Report, February 1992-February 1993.

    SciTech Connect

    Poe, Thomas P.; Gadomski, Dena M.

    1994-09-01

    This document is the 1992 annual report of progress for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) research Project No. 82-003 conducted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), the Oregon Cooperative Fishery Research Unit (OCFRU), and the Idaho Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (ICFWRU). The approach was to present the progress achieved during 1992 in a series of separate reports for each major project task. Each report is prepared in the format of a scientific paper and is able to stand alone, whatever the state of progress or completion. Reports 1, 2, and 4 consist of the Abstract only (journal papers were submitted in lieu of reports). This project has two major goals. One is to understand the significance of selective predation and prey vulnerability by determining if substandard juvenile salmonids (dead, injured, stressed, diseased, or naive) are more vulnerable to predation by northern squawfish, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, than standard or normal juvenile salmonids. The second goal is to develop and test prey protection measures to control predation on juvenile salmonids by reducing predator-smolt encounters or predator capture efficiency. Separate abstracts have been submitted to the database for the seven articles in this report.

  2. Transcriptional evolution underlying vertebrate sexual development.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Nicole; Neuwald, Jennifer L; Literman, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Explaining the diversity of vertebrate sex-determining mechanisms ranging from genotypic (GSD) to temperature-dependent (TSD) remains a developmental and evolutionary conundrum. Using a phylogenetic framework, we explore the transcriptional evolution during gonadogenesis of several genes involved in sexual development, combining novel data from Chrysemys picta turtles (TSD) and published data from other TSD and GSD vertebrates. Our novel C. picta dataset underscores Sf1 and Wt1 as potential activators of the thermosensitive period and uncovered the first evidence of Dax1 involvement in male development in a TSD vertebrate. Contrasting transcriptional profiles revealed male-biased Wt1 expression in fish while monomorphic expression is found in tetrapods but absent in turtles. Sf1 expression appears highly labile with transitions among testicular, ovarian, and non-sex-specific gonadal formation patterns among and within lineages. Dax1's dual role in ovarian and testicular formation is found in fish and mammals but is dosage-sensitive exclusively in eutherian mammals due to its X-linkage in this group. Contrastingly, Sox9 male-biased and Aromatase female-biased expression appear ancestral and virtually conserved throughout vertebrates despite significant heterochronic changes in expression as other elements likely replaced their function in early gonadogenesis. Finally, research avenues are highlighted to further study the evolution of the regulatory network of sexual development. PMID:23108853

  3. SALMONID PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pharmacology and toxicology of Salmonids are described. Authors also document territorial behavior of salmonids and their response to effects of drugs, chemicals or pollutants. Current literature is cited as the best source of information regarding the use of drugs and chemicals ...

  4. Development of an Index to Bird Predation of Juvenile Salmonids within the Yakima River, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Gassley, James M.; Grue, Christian E. (University of Washington, School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, Seattle, WA)

    2001-10-01

    Avian predation of fish is suspected to contribute to the loss of juvenile spring chinook salmon in the Yakima Basin, potentially constraining natural production. In 1997 and 1998, the Yakama/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW)--whose goal is to increase natural production historically present within the Yakima River--initiated investigations to assess the feasibility of developing an index to avian predation of juvenile salmon within the river. This research--conducted by Dr. Steve Mathews and David Phinney of the University of Washington--confirmed that Ring-billed Gulls and Common Mergansers were the primary avian predators of juvenile salmon, and that under certain conditions could significantly impact migrating smolt populations. Beginning in 1999, the Washington Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit was asked by the YKFP and the WDFW to continue development of avian consumption indices. Monitoring methods developed by Mathews and Phinney were adopted (with modifications) and monitoring of impacts to juvenile salmon along river reaches and at areas of high predator/prey concentrations (colloquially referred to as ''hotspots'') continued. New efforts initiated in 1999 included piscivorous bird surveys at smolt acclimation sites operated by the Yakama Nation, monitoring of the North Fork Teanaway River for changes in avian piscivore abundance associated with the installation of the Jack Creek acclimation facility, and aerial surveys seeking to identify avian piscivores along the length of the Yakima River. In 1999, piscivorous birds were counted from river banks at hotspots and from a raft or drift boat along river reaches. Consumption by gulls was based on direct observations of foraging success and modeled abundance; consumption by Common Mergansers (which forage underwater) was estimated using published dietary requirements and modeled abundance. A second-order polynomial equation was used to interpolate gull and Common Merganser abundance on days when surveys were not conducted. Seasonal patterns of avian piscivore abundance were identified, diurnal patterns of gull abundance at hotspots were identified, predation indices were calculated for hotspots and summer river reaches, and the efficacy of aerial surveys for estimating bird abundance within river reaches was evaluated. Primary avian predators were California and Ring-billed Gulls at hotspots and Common Mergansers within upper river reaches. Estimated take (presumed to be salmonids) by gulls at hotspots (22 April-30 May) was 4,084 fish at the Chandler Bypass Outfall and 12,636 fish at Horn Rapids Dam. Combined take was 2.65% of the salmonids passing over Chandler Dam or 0.89 % of all smolts estimated passing or being released from the Chandler Dam area during the 1999 smolt migration season. Estimated take by Common Mergansers within upper river reaches in summer was 4,092 kg between 7 May and 18 August 1999.

  5. The role of childhood trauma, psychological problems, and coping in the development of deviant sexual fantasies in sexual offenders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Maniglio

    2011-01-01

    To understand how and why most people entertain deviant sexual fantasies without really desiring to act on them whereas some people put them into practice, it is essential to better understand the origin, development, and functions of deviant sexual fantasy in sexual offenders. The present paper investigates three areas of the literature on sexual offenders, i.e. early traumatic experiences, psychological

  6. An Ethnographic Analysis of Adolescent Sexual Minority Website Usage: Exploring Notions of Information Seeking and Sexual Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulfridge, Rocky M.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explores the website usage of adolescent sexual minorities, examining notions of information seeking and sexual identity development. Sexual information seeking is an important element within human information behavior and is uniquely problematic for young sexual minorities. Utilizing a contemporary gay teen website, this…

  7. Alcohol and Sexual Consent Scale: Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Rose Marie; Matthews, Molly R.; Weiner, Judith; Hogan, Kathryn M.; Popson, Halle C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish a short measure of attitudes toward sexual consent in the context of alcohol consumption. Methods: Using a multistage and systematic measurement development process, the investigators developed the Alcohol and Sexual Consent Scale using a sample of college students. Results: The resulting 12-item scale, the Alcohol and…

  8. Sexual Consent in Heterosexual Relationships: Development of a New Measure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terry Humphreys; Ed Herold

    2007-01-01

    The extensive research on date rape attitudes and experiences has left sexual consent itself largely unexamined. The objective\\u000a of this study was to develop a measure to assess women’s and men’s attitudes and behaviors regarding sexual consent. Using\\u000a both focus groups (N?=?18) and a mail survey (N?=?514) of undergraduate students at a Canadian university, two scales of sexual consent were

  9. Development and application of a salmonid EST database and cDNA microarray: data mining and interspecific hybridization characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rise, Matthew L; von Schalburg, Kristian R; Brown, Gordon D; Mawer, Melanie A; Devlin, Robert H; Kuipers, Nathanael; Busby, Maura; Beetz-Sargent, Marianne; Alberto, Roberto; Gibbs, A Ross; Hunt, Peter; Shukin, Robert; Zeznik, Jeffrey A; Nelson, Colleen; Jones, Simon R M; Smailus, Duane E; Jones, Steven J M; Schein, Jacqueline E; Marra, Marco A; Butterfield, Yaron S N; Stott, Jeff M; Ng, Siemon H S; Davidson, William S; Koop, Ben F

    2004-03-01

    We report 80,388 ESTs from 23 Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) cDNA libraries (61,819 ESTs), 6 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) cDNA libraries (14,544 ESTs), 2 chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) cDNA libraries (1317 ESTs), 2 sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) cDNA libraries (1243 ESTs), and 2 lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) cDNA libraries (1465 ESTs). The majority of these are 3' sequences, allowing discrimination between paralogs arising from a recent genome duplication in the salmonid lineage. Sequence assembly reveals 28,710 different S. salar, 8981 O. mykiss, 1085 O. tshawytscha, 520 O. nerka, and 1176 C. clupeaformis putative transcripts. We annotate the submitted portion of our EST database by molecular function. Higher- and lower-molecular-weight fractions of libraries are shown to contain distinct gene sets, and higher rates of gene discovery are associated with higher-molecular weight libraries. Pyloric caecum library group annotations indicate this organ may function in redox control and as a barrier against systemic uptake of xenobiotics. A microarray is described, containing 7356 salmonid elements representing 3557 different cDNAs. Analyses of cross-species hybridizations to this cDNA microarray indicate that this resource may be used for studies involving all salmonids. PMID:14962987

  10. Reproductive strategy, sexual development and attraction to facial characteristics.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, R Elisabeth; Law Smith, Miriam J; Boothroyd, Lynda G; Moore, Fhionna R; Davis, Hasker P; Stirrat, Michael; Tiddeman, Bernard; Perrett, David I

    2006-12-29

    Sexual reproduction strategies vary both between and within species in the level of investment in offspring. Life-history theories suggest that the rate of sexual maturation is critically linked to reproductive strategy, with high investment being associated with few offspring and delayed maturation. For humans, age of puberty and age of first sex are two developmental milestones that have been associated with reproductive strategies. Stress during early development can retard or accelerate sexual maturation and reproduction. Early age of menarche is associated with absence of younger siblings, absence of a father figure during early life and increased weight. Father absence during early life is also associated with early marriage, pregnancy and divorce. Choice of partner characteristics is critical to successful implementation of sexual strategies. It has been suggested that sexually dimorphic traits (including those evident in the face) signal high-quality immune function and reproductive status. Masculinity in males has also been associated with low investment in mate and offspring. Thus, women's reproductive strategy should be matched to the probability of male investment, hence to male masculinity. Our review leads us to predict associations between the rate of sexual maturation and adult preferences for facial characteristics (enhanced sexual dimorphism and attractiveness). We find for men, engaging in sex at an early age is related to an increased preference for feminized female faces. Similarly, for women, the earlier the age of first sex the greater the preference for masculinity in opposite-sex faces. When we controlled sexual dimorphism in male faces, the speed of sexual development in women was not associated with differences in preference for male facial attractiveness. These developmental influences on partner choice were not mediated by self-rated attractiveness or parental relationships. We conclude that individuals assort in preferences based on the rapidity of their sexual development. Fast developing individuals prefer opposite-sex partners with an increased level of sexually dimorphic facial characteristics. PMID:17118929

  11. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Interpersonal Sexual Objectification Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozee, Holly B.; Tylka, Tracy L.; Augustus-Horvath, Casey L.; Denchik, Angela

    2007-01-01

    This study reports on the development and psychometric evaluation of the Interpersonal Sexual Objectification Scale (ISOS). Data from 576 college women were collected in three studies. Exploratory factor analysis uncovered two factors: Body Evaluation and Unwanted Explicit Sexual Advances; confirmatory factor analysis supported this factor…

  12. Water temperatures within spawning beds in two chalk streams and implications for salmonid egg development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acornley, R. M.

    1999-02-01

    Water temperatures within brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) spawning gravels were measured in two Hampshire chalk streams from October 1995 to April 1996 inclusive. During the winter, mean intra-gravel water temperatures were higher than those in the stream, and increased with depth in the gravel bed. The amplitude of diel fluctuations in water temperature decreased with depth in the gravel bed, although diel fluctuations were still evident at a depth of 30 cm. Differences in intra-gravel temperature gradients between the two study sites were attributed to differences in the amplitude of stream water temperature fluctuations and there was no evidence that either of the study sites were located in zones of upwelling groundwater. Published equations are used to predict, from temperature, the timing of important stages in the development of brown trout embryos (eyeing, hatching and emergence) for eggs spawned in the autumn and winter and buried at different depths in the gravel bed.

  13. Development of sexual dimorphism in the Drosophila testis

    PubMed Central

    Whitworth, Cale; Jimenez, Erin; Van Doren, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The creation of sexual dimorphism in the gonads is essential for producing the male and female gametes required for sexual reproduction. Sexual development of the gonads involves both somatic cells and germ cells, which often undergo sex determination by different mechanisms. While many sex-specific characteristics evolve rapidly and are very different between animal species, gonad function and the formation of sperm and eggs appear more similar and may be more conserved. Consistent with this, the doublesex/mab3 Related Transcription factors (DMRTs) are important for gonad sexual dimorphism in a wide range of animals, including flies, worms and mammals. Here we explore how sexual dimorphism is regulated in the Drosophila gonad, focusing on recent discoveries relating to testis development. We will discuss how sex determination in both the germline and the soma are utilized to create a testis, including the role of the key somatic sex determination factor doublesex. PMID:23087832

  14. Sexual dimorphism of the developing human brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay N. Giedd; F. Xavier Castellanos; Jagath C. Rajapakse; A. Catherine Vaituzis; Judith L. Rapoport

    1997-01-01

    1.1. Sexual dimorphism of human brain anatomy has not been well-studied between 4 and 18 years of age, a time of emerging sex differences in behavior and the sexually specific hormonal changes of adrenarche (the predominantly androgenic augmentation of adrenal cortex function occurring at approximately age 8) and puberty.2.2. To assess sex differences in brain structures during this developmental period

  15. Persistence of Salmonid Redds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffington, J. M.; Buxton, T.; Fremier, A. K.; Hassan, M. A.; Yager, E.

    2013-12-01

    The construction of redds by spawning salmonids modifies fluvial processes in ways that are beneficial to egg and embryo survival. Redd topography induces hyporheic flow that oxygenates embryos incubating within the streambed and creates form drag that reduces bed mobility and scour of salmonid eggs. Winnowing of fine material during redd construction also coarsens the streambed, increasing bed porosity and hyporheic flow and reducing bed mobility. In addition to the biological benefits, redds may influence channel morphology by altering channel hydraulics and bed load transport rates depending on the size and extent of redds relative to the size of the channel. A key question is how long do the physical and biological effects of redds last? Field observations indicate that in some basins redds are ephemeral, with redd topography rapidly erased by subsequent floods, while in other basins, redds can persist for years. We hypothesize that redd persistence is a function of basin hydrology, sediment supply, and characteristics of the spawning fish. Hydrology controls the frequency and magnitude of bed mobilizing flows following spawning, while bed load supply (volume and caliber) controls the degree of textural fining and consequent bed mobility after spawning, as well as the potential for burial of redd features. The effectiveness of flows in terms of their magnitude and duration depend on hydroclimate (i.e., snowmelt, rainfall, or transitional hydrographs), while bed load supply depends on basin geology, land use, and natural disturbance regimes (e.g., wildfire). Location within the stream network may also influence redd persistence. In particular, lakes effectively trap sediment and regulate downstream flow, which may promote long-lived redds in stream reaches below lakes. These geomorphic controls are modulated by biological factors: fish species (size of fish controls size of redds and magnitude of streambed coarsening); life history (timing of spawning and incubation relative to high flows); and population size (density of redds and extent of streambed alteration within a given reach). Species and life history also control the location of spawning within the basin, dictating the flow and sediment supply regimes. A theoretical framework is developed for predicting redd persistence as a function of the above physical and biological factors. We expect that long-lived redds will indicate either that the river is not competent to re-work the effects of spawning or that spawning occurs after peak flow events that are capable of modifying redd features. The longevity of redds and their associated effects on fluvial processes also provides a measure of the degree of potential ecological conditioning for future generations of fish. Future work will test the framework in field and laboratory settings.

  16. Examining the Development and Sexual Behavior of Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    A careful examination of young men's sexuality by health professionals in pediatrics, primary care and reproductive health is foundational to adolescent male sexual health and healthy development. Through a review of existing literature, this article provides background and a developmental framework for sexual health services for adolescent boys. The article first defines and provides an overview of adolescent boys’ sexual health, and then discusses developmentally focused research on the following topics: (1) early romantic relationships and the evolution of power and influence within these relationships; (2) developmental “readiness” for sex and curiosity; (3) boys’ need for closeness and intimacy; (4) adopting codes of masculinity; (5) boys’ communicating about sex; and (6) contextual influences from peers, families, and providers. This article concludes by examining the implications of these data for sexual health promotion efforts for adolescent males, including HPV vaccination. PMID:20307842

  17. Development of an Index to Bird Predation of Juvenile Salmonids within the Yakima River, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Major, III, Walter; Grue, Christian E.; Ryding, Kristen E. (University of Washington, School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, Seattle, WA)

    2002-08-01

    Avian predation of fish is suspected to contribute to the loss of out-migrating juvenile salmonids in the Yakima Basin, potentially constraining natural and artificial production. In 1997 and 1998, the Yakima/ Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP)--whose goal is increasing natural production within the Yakima River--initiated investigations to assess the feasibility of developing an index to avian predation of juvenile salmon within the river. This research confirmed that Ring-billed Gulls and Common Mergansers were the primary avian predators of juvenile salmon (Phinney et al. 1998), and that under certain conditions could significantly impact migrating smolt populations. Beginning in 1999, the Washington Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (WACFWRU) was asked by the YKFP to continue development of avian consumption indices. Monitoring methods developed by Phinney et al. (1998) were adopted (with modifications) and monitoring of impacts to juvenile salmon along river reaches and at areas of high predator/prey concentrations (colloquially referred to as ''hotspots'') has continued each year through 2001. In 2001, piscivorous birds were counted from river banks at hotspots and from a raft or drift boat along river reaches. Consumption by gulls at hotspots was based on direct observations of foraging success and modeled abundance; consumption by all other piscivorous birds was estimated using published dietary requirements and modeled abundance. Seasonal patterns of avian piscivore abundance were identified, diurnal patterns of gull abundance at hotspots were identified, and predation indices were calculated for hotspots and river reaches (for both spring and summer). Changes in survey methods in 2001 included the addition of surveys in the ''Canyon'' reach during spring and altering the method of directly measuring gull feeding rates at hotspots. Primary avian predators in 2001 were ''gulls'' (California and Ring-billed) at hotspots and Common Mergansers within upper river reaches. Consumption on the lower reaches was distributed among a number of species, with slightly more then half of all fish consumption being attributed to American White Pelicans. Estimated consumption by gulls at both hotspots combined (8 Apr-30 Jun) was 169,883 fish. Assuming a worst case scenario (all fish taken were smolts) this represented approximately 4.9% of all smolts estimated passing or being released from the Prosser Dam area during the 2001 smolt migration season. Total gull abundances and estimates of consumption between the two hotspot sites were opposite that seen in 2000. Foraging gulls at Horn Rapids Dam were regressed against flow for the 3 years and found to be significant (alpha = 0.1, P=0.081, r{sup 2} = .2589). A similar 3-year regression vs fish passage through the Chandler Juvenile Fish Facility, however, did not show a significant relationship (alpha = 0.1, P = 0.396, r{sup 2} = .3708). Total estimated take by Common Mergansers across all strata surveyed was 14,777 kg between 8 Apr and 31 Aug, 2001. Approximately 66 percent of that consumption was within the upper river reaches (Stratum 1) where there is a known breeding population of mergansers. Graphical comparisons of merganser abundances over the three years (1999-2001) in the upper reaches of the Yakima River suggest an increase in 2001 from the previous 2 years in both the spring and summer survey periods, but overlapping confidence intervals prevent assumptions regarding upward or downward trends in abundance.

  18. Complications in the Development of a Female Sexual Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magagna, Jeanne; Pepper Goldsmith, Tara

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the struggle to develop a female sexual identity and the importance of the roles of the father and mother in this struggle. The clinical illustration is taken from the psychotherapy of an anorectic adolescent.

  19. The role of sexually explicit material in the sexual development of same-sex-attracted black adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Arrington-Sanders, Renata; Harper, Gary W; Morgan, Anthony; Ogunbajo, Adedotun; Trent, Maria; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2015-04-01

    Sexually explicit material (SEM) (including Internet, video, and print) may play a key role in the lives of Black same-sex sexually active youth by providing the only information to learn about sexual development. There is limited school- and/or family-based sex education to serve as models for sexual behaviors for Black youth. We describe the role SEM plays in the sexual development of a sample of Black same-sex attracted (SSA) young adolescent males ages 15-19. Adolescents recruited from clinics, social networking sites, and through snowball sampling were invited to participate in a 90-min, semi-structured qualitative interview. Most participants described using SEM prior to their first same-sex sexual experience. Participants described using SEM primarily for sexual development, including learning about sexual organs and function, the mechanics of same-gender sex, and to negotiate one's sexual identity. Secondary functions were to determine readiness for sex; to learn about sexual performance, including understanding sexual roles and responsibilities (e.g., "top" or "bottom"); to introduce sexual performance scripts; and to develop models for how sex should feel (e.g., pleasure and pain). Youth also described engaging in sexual behaviors (including condom non-use and/or swallowing ejaculate) that were modeled on SEM. Comprehensive sexuality education programs should be designed to address the unmet needs of young, Black SSA men, with explicit focus on sexual roles and behaviors that may be inaccurately portrayed and/or involve sexual risk-taking (such as unprotected anal intercourse and swallowing ejaculate) in SEM. This work also calls for development of Internet-based HIV/STI prevention strategies targeting young Black SSA men who may be accessing SEM. PMID:25677334

  20. The Role of Sexually Explicit Material (SEM) in the Sexual Development of Black Young Same-Sex-Attracted Men

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Anthony; Ogunbajo, Adedotun; Trent, Maria; Harper, Gary W.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Sexually explicit material (SEM) (including Internet, video, and print) may play a key role in the lives of Black same-sex sexually active youth by providing the only information to learn about sexual development. There is limited school-and/or family-based sex education to serve as models for sexual behaviors for Black youth. We describe the role SEM plays in the sexual development of a sample of Black same-sex attracted (SSA) young adolescent men ages 15–19. Adolescents recruited from clinics, social networking sites, and through snowball sampling were invited to participate in a 90-min, semi-structured qualitative interview. Most participants described using SEM prior to their first same-sex sexual experience. Participants described using SEM primarily for sexual development, including learning about sexual organs and function, the mechanics of same-gender sex, and to negotiate one’s sexual identity. Secondary functions were to determine readiness for sex; to learn about sexual performance, including understanding sexual roles and responsibilities (e.g., “top” or “bottom”); to introduce sexual performance scripts; and to develop models for how sex should feel (e.g., pleasure and pain). Youth also described engaging in sexual behaviors (including condom non-use and/or swallowing ejaculate) that were modeled on SEM. Comprehensive sexuality education programs should be designed to address the unmet needs of young, Black SSA young men, with explicit focus on sexual roles and behaviors that may be inaccurately portrayed and/or involve sexual risk-taking (such as unprotected anal intercourse and swallowing ejaculate) in SEM. This work also calls for development of Internet-based HIV/STI prevention strategies targeting young Black SSA men who maybe accessing SEM. PMID:25677334

  1. [Development of sexuality and motivational aspects of sexual behavior in men with obsessive-compulsive disorders].

    PubMed

    2014-09-01

    Sexual behavior and formation of sexuality in men with obsessive-compulsive disorder is one of the pressing issues in contemporary medicine. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by the development of intrusive thoughts, memories, movements and actions, as well as a variety of pathological fears (phobias). Increase in the number of patients with this pathology in modern clinical practice of neurotic disorders, the young age of the patients and as a result violation of interpersonal, communicational and sexual nature is quite apparent. The study involved 35 men aged 23 to 47 years with clinical signs of OCD. We determined the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms using the Yale-Brown scale. We established the presence of a mild degree of disorder in 34,3% of cases; in 48,6% of cases disorder of moderate severity was diagnosed; remaining 17.1% were assessed subclinical condition of OCD at the applicable scale. The system of motivational maintenance of sexual behavior in men with obsessive-compulsive disorders is investigated. Motives of sexual behavior of the investigated men with the pathology are determined. The presented research in men with OCD have established multidimensionality and complexity of motivational ensuring of sexual behavior. PMID:25341245

  2. Tetraploid production in salmonids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tetraploid induction is of interest to aquaculture and fisheries as part of a more efficient means of producing triploid fish by mating a tetraploid parent with a diploid parent (tetraploid-derived triploids). Tetraploid induction has previously been reported in salmonids including rainbow trout a...

  3. A Putative Rhamnogalacturonase Required for Sexual Development of Neurospora Crassa

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, M. A.; Merino, S. T.; Metzenberg, R. L.

    1997-01-01

    In previous work, the asd-1 (ascus development) gene of the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa was identified as a gene expressed preferentially during the sexual cycle and shown to be essential for normal sexual development. The asd-1 gene has been sequenced and further characterized. It contains two introns, the first of which is in-frame and inefficiently or differentially spliced. The predicted ASD-1 protein has extensive homology with rhamnogalacturonase B of Aspergillus aculeatus, which cleaves the backbone within the ramified hairy regions of pectin. In homozygous asd-1 crosses, sexual development is initiated and large numbers of normal-sized asci are formed. Ascospore delineation does not occur, however, and no sexual progeny are produced. As most asd-1 asci contain eight nuclei, the two meiotic divisions and subsequent mitotic division typical of normal crosses seem to occur, but the haploid nuclei are not partitioned into ascospores. In wild-type crosses, the ASD-1 protein is present in large amounts in croziers and young asci, but it is only faintly detectable in more mature asci containing developing ascospores. Models to explain the possible role of a rhamnogalacturonase in sexual development are presented. PMID:9178004

  4. Housing sexuality: domestic space and the development of female sexuality in the fiction of Angela Carter and Jeanette Winterson

    E-print Network

    Cantrell, Samantha E.

    2005-08-29

    of psychoanalytic theories of female sexuality (most notably the theories of Sigmund Freud) that are grounded in the idea that normal femininity is characterized by passivity and that penis envy plays a central role in the development of female sexuality. Freud... context limits his understanding of female sexuality: Sade, the eighteenth-century lecher, knew that manipulation of the clitoris was the unique key to the female orgasm, but a hundred years later, Sigmund Freud, a Viennese intellectual, did not wish...

  5. Does Positive Youth Development Predict Adolescent Attitudes about Sexuality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Erin N.; Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among individual factors, parental factors, involvement in activities, and adolescent attitudes regarding sex (the outcome variable). We suggest that Positive Youth Development (PYD) research and programming should include promoting healthy sexuality as an important developmental outcome…

  6. Sexual reproduction, development and larval biology in scleractinian corals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yusef H. Fadlallah

    1983-01-01

    This paper brings together widely scattered information on sexual reproduction in scleractinian corals. It includes a review of information and ideas on sex determination, gametogenesis, gametogenic cycles, fertilization and embryonic development, spawning and planula release, larval behavior, settlement and metamorphosis. The review deals with corals from different habitats and organismic assemblages, including tropical reef corals, temperate water corals, solitary and

  7. Biotechnology: surrogate broodstock produces salmonids.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yutaka; Yoshizaki, Goro; Takeuchi, Toshio

    2004-08-01

    A worldwide decline in the number of wild salmonids calls for strategies to restore endangered populations. Here we show that germ cells can be transplanted between two different salmonid species, with the subsequent production of xenogenic, donor-derived offspring. This pioneering xenotransplantation technology may eventually find applications in facilitating the production of commercially valuable fish, as well as in species conservation. PMID:15295587

  8. Association between nonylphenol exposure and development of secondary sexual characteristics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Lien; Lee, Han-Yun; Chuang, Hsin-Yi; Guo, Bey-Rong; Mao, I-Fang

    2009-08-01

    Previous studies have reported that p-nonylphenol (NP) can advance the age at vaginal opening in prepubertal rats. A significant exposure levels of NP was found in Taiwanese population even from the prenatal stage. The purposes of this study are to examine the urinary NP concentration of pubertal students in Taiwan and to explore its association with the development of secondary sexual characteristics. 786 pubertal students were recruited. The NP was determined using solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescent detection. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data on occurrence of secondary sexual characteristics in the subjects. About 30% of the urine samples were positively detected. The NP concentrations ranged from ND to 178.25 microg g(-1) cr. Fifteen percent of the Taiwanese girls between 10.5 and 10.9 years old reported having undergone menarche, which was higher than the white girls (4.6%) and the black girls (8%). There was no significant difference of urinary NP levels between groups of having and not having secondary sexual characteristics because body mass index (BMI) had significant effects on sexual development. After adjusting the effect of age and BMI, the menarcheal age remained inversely correlated with the increase of urinary NP levels. Nonylphenol exposure could disturb pubertal development and the pubertal girls seem more sensitive than pubertal boys to the exposure of endocrine disruption chemicals (EDCs). The effects of early maturation as well as the health implications need further study. PMID:19476970

  9. THE DEVELOPMENT OF FEMALE SEXUAL BEHAVIOR REQUIRES PREPUBERTAL ESTRADIOL

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Olivier; Baum, Michael J.; Bakker, Julie

    2011-01-01

    The classic view of brain and behavioral sexual differentiation holds that the neural mechanisms controlling sexual behavior in female rodents develop in the absence of ovarian sex hormone actions. However, in a previous study, female aromatase knockout (ArKO) mice, which cannot convert testosterone to estradiol, showed deficient male-oriented partner preference and lordosis behaviors in response to adult ovarian hormones, raising the possibility that estradiol may contribute to the development of these female sexual behaviors. In the present experiments, administering estradiol prepubertally (between postnatal days P15–P25) significantly enhanced the ability of ArKO female mice to display lordosis behavior in response to ovarian hormones administered later in adulthood whereas treatment with estradiol over an earlier postnatal period (P5–P15) had no such effect. Treatment of ArKO females with estradiol between P15–P25 also rescued their later preference to approach distal cues from an intact male over an estrous female. ArKO females also displayed significantly less female-directed (male-typical) mounting behavior than wild type control females when treated with testosterone in adulthood. Prepubertal estradiol treatment failed to reverse this deficit in ArKO females whereas earlier postnatal estradiol augmented later mounting in both genotypes. Our results provide new evidence for an organizing role of prepubertal estradiol in the development of neural mechanisms that control female-typical sexual behavior. PMID:21490197

  10. Microenterprise Development Interventions for Sexual Risk Reduction: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ramon; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Muessig, Kathryn E.; Tucker, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive interventions that address both individual and structural determinants associated with HIV/STI risk are gaining increasing attention over the past decade. Microenterprise development offers an appealing model for HIV prevention by addressing poverty and gender equality. This study systematically reviewed the effects of microenterprise development interventions on HIV/STI incidence and sexual risk behaviors. Microenterprise development was defined as developing small business capacity among individuals to alleviate poverty. Seven eligible research studies representing five interventions were identified and included in this review. All of the studies targeted women, and three focused on sex workers. None measured biomarker outcomes. All three sex worker studies showed significant reduction in sexual risk behaviors when compared to the control group. Non-sex worker studies showed limited changes in sexual risk behavior. This review indicates the potential utility of microenterprise development in HIV risk reduction programs. More research is needed to determine how microenterprise development can be effectively incorporated in comprehensive HIV control strategies. PMID:23963497

  11. Microenterprise development interventions for sexual risk reduction: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cui, Rosa R; Lee, Ramon; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Muessig, Kathryn E; Tucker, Joseph D

    2013-11-01

    Comprehensive interventions that address both individual and structural determinants associated with HIV/STI risk are gaining increasing attention over the past decade. Microenterprise development offers an appealing model for HIV prevention by addressing poverty and gender equality. This study systematically reviewed the effects of microenterprise development interventions on HIV/STI incidence and sexual risk behaviors. Microenterprise development was defined as developing small business capacity among individuals to alleviate poverty. Seven eligible research studies representing five interventions were identified and included in this review. All of the studies targeted women, and three focused on sex workers. None measured biomarker outcomes. All three sex worker studies showed significant reduction in sexual risk behaviors when compared to the control group. Non-sex worker studies showed limited changes in sexual risk behavior. This review indicates the potential utility of microenterprise development in HIV risk reduction programs. More research is needed to determine how microenterprise development can be effectively incorporated in comprehensive HIV control strategies. PMID:23963497

  12. Effects of feeding level and sexual maturation on fatty acid metabolism gene expression in muscle, liver, and visceral adipose tissue of diploid and triploid rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many cultured fish species, such as salmonids, gonadal development occurs at the expense of stored energy and nutrients, including lipids. However, mechanisms regulating nutrient repartitioning during sexual maturation are not well understood. This study investigated effects of ration level and s...

  13. Understanding Early Sexual Development (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Parent's Guide to Surviving the Teen Years Female Reproductive System Male Reproductive System All About Puberty When Can I "Go Out" With Someone? Help! Is This My Body? Male Reproductive System When Will I Start Developing? Everything You Wanted ...

  14. Hormones and History: The Evolution and Development of Primate Female Sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Wallen, Kim; Zehr, Julia L.

    2005-01-01

    Sexual behavior is required for reproduction in internally fertilizing species but poses significant social and physical risks. Females in many nonprimate species have evolved physical and behavioral mechanisms restricting sexual behavior to when females are fertile. The same hormones producing female fertility also control these mechanisms, assuring that sex only occurs when reproduction is possible. In contrast to nonprimate mammals, hormones do not regulate the capacity to engage in sex in female anthropoid primates, uncoupling fertility and the physical capacity to mate. Instead, in primates, sexual motivation has become the primary coordinator between sexual behavior and fertility. This dependence upon psychological mechanisms to coordinate physiology with behavior is possibly unique to primates, including humans, and allows a variety of nonphysiological influences, particularly social context, to regulate sexual behavior. The independence between hormonal state and sexual behavior allows sex to be used for social purposes. This complex regulation of primate sexuality develops during adolescence, where female monkeys show both hormonally influenced sexual motivation and socially modulated sexual behavior. We present findings from rhesus monkeys illustrating how social context and hormonal state interact to modulate adolescent and adult sexuality. It is argued that this flexibility in sexual behavior, combined with a tight regulation of sexual motivational systems by reproductive hormones, allows sexual behavior to be used for nonreproductive purposes while still assuring its occurrence during periods of female fertility. The evolutionary pressures that produced such flexibility in sexual behavior remain puzzling, but may reflect the importance of sexuality to primate social attraction and cohesion. PMID:15216429

  15. SEXUAL MATURATION IN GIRLS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF ESTROGEN-INDUCED

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SEXUAL MATURATION IN GIRLS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF ESTROGEN-INDUCED GONADOTROPIC HORMONE RELEASE J and pubertal girls to discover the stage of female sexual development at which the stimulatory estro- gen release. #12;MATERIALS AND METHODS The subjects were healthy girls. Each girl's sexual maturation

  16. Latino Sexual Styles: Developing a Nuanced Understanding of Risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beth Bourdeau; Volker K. Thomas; Janie K. Long

    2008-01-01

    Theoreticians in adolescent sexuality have called for research that is contextual, health-focused, balanced between males and females, and from the perspective of adolescents, noting that scales developed by Buzwell and Rosenthal (1996) are promising. Cross-cultural validation of the measures in the United States. should include Latino adolescents, as they are the fastest-growing ethnic group. Contextual issues for this population include

  17. Sexual reproduction, development and larval biology in scleractinian corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadlallah, Yusef H.

    1983-12-01

    This paper brings together widely scattered information on sexual reproduction in scleractinian corals. It includes a review of information and ideas on sex determination, gametogenesis, gametogenic cycles, fertilization and embryonic development, spawning and planula release, larval behavior, settlement and metamorphosis. The review deals with corals from different habitats and organismic assemblages, including tropical reef corals, temperate water corals, solitary and colonial forms. A summary table of coral species and their known reproductive characteristics is presented.

  18. Sexually distinct development of vocal pathways in Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Ayako; Muñoz, Martha M.; Bose, Tina O.; Oberlander, Joseph G.; Smith, Shane

    2010-01-01

    Deterministic rules, rather than experience, are thought to regulate the development of simple behaviors in vertebrates and invertebrates. We revisited this issue through examination of the sexually distinct vocalizations of African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis), a reproductive behavior used by sexually mature males and females. We discovered that, as expected for simple behavior, female vocalizations develop through deterministic rules r. The rare calls of juvenile females are indistinguishable from those of adult females. The vocal pathways of juvenile females, as measured by the contractile properties of the laryngeal muscles (the vocal muscles) and the laryngeal motoneuron somata (vocal motoneurons) size, are the developmental default and do not differentiate as they mature. Male Xenopus, in contrast, produce extensive vocalizations with rudimentary acoustic structure before reaching sexual maturity. Moreover, the functional properties of the vocal central pattern generator mature before muscle fibers and motoneuron size are fully masculinized. The results suggest that neuronal activity during development may be important in organizing the contractile properties of the muscle fibers in male, but not in female Xenopus. PMID:20635351

  19. Current Concepts in Disorders of Sexual Development

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Disorders of sex development (DSD) with or without ambiguous genitalia require medical attention to reach a definite diagnosis. Advances in identification of molecular causes of abnormal sex, heightened awareness of ethical issues and this necessitated a re-evaluation of nomenclature. The term DSD was proposed for congenital conditions in which chromosomal, gonadal or anatomical sex is atypical. In general, factors influencing sex determination are transcriptional regulators, whereas factors important for sex differentiation are secreted hormones and their receptors.The current intense debate on the management of patients with intersexuality and related conditions focus on four major issues: 1) aetiological diagnosis, 2) assignment of gender, 3) indication for and timing of genital surgery, 4) the disclosure of medical information to the patient and his/her parents. The psychological and social implications of gender assignment require a multidisciplinary approach and a team which includes ageneticist, neonatologist, endocrinologist, gynaecologist, psychiatrist, surgeon and a social worker. Each patient should be evaluated individually by multidisciplinary approach. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21911322

  20. Physiological levels of testosterone kill salmonid leukocytes in vitro

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slater, C.H.; Schreck, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    Adult spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) elaborate high plasma concentrations of testosterone during sexual maturation, and these levels of testosterone have been shown to reduce the salmonid immune response in vitro. Our search for the mechanism of testosterone's immunosuppressive action has led to the characterization of an androgen receptor in salmonid leukocytes. In the present study we examined the specific effects that testosterone had on salmonid leukocytes. Direct counts of viable leukocytes after incubation with and without physiological levels of testosterone demonstrate a significant loss of leukocytes in cultures exposed to testosterone. At least 5 days of contact with testosterone was required to produce significant immunosuppression and addition of a 'conditioned media' (supernatant from proliferating lymphocytes not exposed to testosterone) did not reverse the immunosuppressive effects of testosterone. These data lead us to conclude that testosterone may exert its immunosuppressive effects by direct action on salmonid leukocytes, through the androgen receptor described, and that this action leads to the death of a significant number of these leukocytes.

  1. Preliminary Estimates of Loss of Juvenile Anadromous Salmonids to Predators in John Day Reservoir and Development of a Predation Model : Interim Report, 1986

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rieman; Bruce E

    1986-01-01

    We made preliminary estimates of the loss of juvenile salmonids to predation by walleye, Stizostedion v. vitreum, and northern squawfish, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, in John Day Reservoir in 1984 and 1985 using estimates of predator abundance and daily prey consumption rates. Preliminary estimates may be biased and may be adjusted as much as 30%, but indications are that predation could account

  2. Parenting and Adolescents’ Sexual Development in Western Societies: A Literature Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanneke de Graaf; Ine Vanwesenbeeck; Liesbeth Woertman; Wim Meeus

    2010-01-01

    This review examines associations between parenting styles and the psychosexual development of adolescents. Methods and results of empirical studies of associations between parental support, control, and knowledge and the sexual behavior and sexual health of adolescents are described and evaluated. The results show that, in general, higher scores on support, control, and knowledge relate to a delay of first sexual

  3. Development of Populations 177 6.6 Growth of Populations with Sexual Reproduction

    E-print Network

    Alsmeyer, Gerold

    Development of Populations 177 6.6 Growth of Populations with Sexual Reproduction G. Alsmeyer In Section 5.9, we studied the effect of sexual reproduction on criticality and ex- tinction risk-negative Alsmeyer G (2005). Growth of Populations with Sexual Reproduction. In: Branching Processes: Variation

  4. Developing a Practical Parenting Workshop: A Case Study in Family Sexual Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croatt, Heidi S.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation discusses the development and assessment of a parent intervention and training program. Out of concern for the sexual health of adolescents in the United States, both parents and researchers have called for programs assisting parents in the sexual education of their children. Encouraging sexual communication and increasing the…

  5. Puerto Rico SPH and Indiana HPER Develop Sexual Health Promotion Partnership

    E-print Network

    Quirk, Gregory J.

    Puerto Rico SPH and Indiana HPER Develop Sexual Health Promotion Partnership The University the diversity of the academic units. The initial objective of this agreement is to establish a Sexual Health Promotion Partnership between the newly created Latin American Center for Sexual Health Promotion at the UPR

  6. The Impact of Clergy-Perpetrated Sexual Abuse: The Role of Gender, Development, and Posttraumatic Stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason M. Fogler; Jillian C. Shipherd; Stephanie Clarke; Jennifer Jensen; Erin Rowe

    2008-01-01

    The literature on clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse suggests that there are two modal populations of survivors: boys and adult women. We review what is known about trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder following sexual abuse and explore the different treatment needs for these two survivor groups. For children, clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse can catastrophically alter the trajectory of psychosocial, sexual, and spiritual development.

  7. Title: Replicated stream system for the evaluation of hatchery and wild juvenile salmonid interaction and development of innovative

    E-print Network

    interaction and development of innovative culture technologies Proposal Number: 35015 Direct questions Have replication for experimental designs capable of detecting small to modest (differences in variables

  8. The adrenal cortex and sexual differentiation during early human development.

    PubMed

    Asby, Daniel J; Arlt, Wiebke; Hanley, Neil A

    2009-03-01

    Human sexual differentiation is a critical process whereby a strict dimorphism is established that enables future reproductive success as phenotypic males and females. Significant components of this differentiation pathway unfold during the first three months of gestation when they are sensitive to disruption by abnormal hormonal influences. Excessive exposure of female development to androgens in conditions such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia causes virilization. However, recently we have suggested that female development normally takes place in the presence of low, yet significant, levels of androgen, implying a need for strict regulation to avoid virilization and the potential for a biological role of androgens in females that has not been fully elucidated. Here, we review androgen-dependent male differentiation of the external genitalia in humans, and link this to current understanding of female development and steroidogenesis in the developing adrenal cortex. PMID:18670886

  9. Evolutionary consequences of habitat loss for Pacific anadromous salmonids

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Michelle M; Carlson, Stephanie M; Beechie, Timothy J; Pess, George R; Jorgensen, Jeffrey C; Sogard, Susan M; Sultan, Sonia E; Holzer, Damon M; Travis, Joseph; Sanderson, Beth L; Power, Mary E; Carmichael, Richard W

    2008-01-01

    Large portions of anadromous salmonid habitat in the western United States has been lost because of dams and other blockages. This loss has the potential to affect salmonid evolution through natural selection if the loss is biased, affecting certain types of habitat differentially, and if phenotypic traits correlated with those habitat types are heritable. Habitat loss can also affect salmonid evolution indirectly, by reducing genetic variation and changing its distribution within and among populations. In this paper, we compare the characteristics of lost habitats with currently accessible habitats and review the heritability of traits which show correlations with habitat/environmental gradients. We find that although there is some regional variation, inaccessible habitats tend to be higher in elevation, wetter and both warmer in the summer and colder in the winter than habitats currently available to anadromous salmonids. We present several case studies that demonstrate either a change in phenotypic or life history expression or an apparent reduction in genetic variation associated with habitat blockages. These results suggest that loss of habitat will alter evolutionary trajectories in salmonid populations and Evolutionarily Significant Units. Changes in both selective regime and standing genetic diversity might affect the ability of these taxa to respond to subsequent environmental perturbations. Both natural and anthropogenic and should be considered seriously in developing management and conservation strategies. PMID:25567633

  10. Perceptions of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors: Development and Initial Validation of a New Scale to Measure Stereotypes of Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zafar, Sadia; Ross, Erin C.

    2013-01-01

    The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale was developed to assess stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Scale items were derived from two studies that elicited cultural and personal beliefs about, and emotions experienced towards adult childhood sexual abuse survivors among university undergraduates. Two scales, Emotions and…

  11. Development of an Index to Bird Predation of Juvenile Salmonids within the Yakima River, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Grassley, James M.; Grue, Christian E.; Major, III, Walter (University of Washington, School of Aquatic and Fishery Science, Seattle, WA)

    2002-01-01

    Avian predation of fish is suspected to contribute to the loss of juvenile spring chinook salmon in the Yakima Basin, potentially constraining natural production. In 1997 and 1998, the Yakama/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW)--whose goal is to increase natural production historically present within the Yakima River--initiated investigations to assess the feasibility of developing an index to avian predation of juvenile salmon within the river. This research--conducted by Dr. Steve Mathews and David Phinney of the University of Washington--confirmed that Ring-billed Gulls and Common Mergansers were the primary avian predators of juvenile salmon, and that under certain conditions could impact migrating smolt populations. Beginning in 1999, the Washington Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (WACFWRU) was asked by the YKFP and the WDFW to continue development of avian consumption indices. Monitoring methods developed by Phinney et al. (1998) were adopted (with modifications) and monitoring of impacts to juvenile salmon along river reaches and at areas of high predator/prey concentrations (colloquially referred to as ''hotspots'') continued through 2000. In 2000, piscivorous birds were counted from river banks at hotspots and from a raft or drift boat along river reaches. Consumption by gulls at Hotspots was based on direct observations of foraging success and modeled abundance; consumption by all other piscivorous birds was estimated using published dietary requirements and modeled abundance. Further development of the avian consumption index model provided an estimation of smolt consumption for the 2000 survey season. Seasonal patterns of avian piscivore abundance were identified, diurnal patterns of gull abundance at hotspots were identified, predation indices were calculated for hotspots and spring and summer river reaches, and the efficacy of aerial surveys for estimating bird abundance within river reaches was evaluated. The only change in survey methods in 2000 was the shortening (in river miles) of surveys on the North Fork of the Teanaway River and the shifting of start and stop dates for river drifts and hotspot surveys. Primary avian predators in 2000 were ''gulls'' (California and Ring-billed) at hotspots and Common Mergansers within upper river reaches. Estimated consumption by gulls at both hotspots combined (10 April-30 June) was 163,475 fish. Assuming a worst case scenario (all fish taken were smolts) this represented 6.0% of all smolts estimated passing or being released from the Chandler Dam area during the 2000 smolt migration season. Total estimated take by Common Mergansers across all strata surveyed was 7,654 kg between 10 Apr and 30 Aug, 2000. Seventy-three percent of that consumption was within the upper river reaches (Stratum 1) where there is a known breeding population of mergansers.

  12. On Early Starters and Late Bloomers: The Development of Sexual Behavior in Adolescence Across Personality Types

    PubMed Central

    Overbeek, Geertjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between personality and sexual development among mid-adolescents. In the current study, we used a person-centered approach to investigate the relation between personality types and the development of sexual behavior. We hypothesized that undercontrolling adolescents would engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior compared to their resilient and overcontrolling peers. Data were used from 407 mid-adolescents (Mage = 14.5) followed across four measurement waves spanning 18 months. Results from latent class analyses (LCA) identified the three classical personality types: resilients, undercontrollers, and overcontrollers. Controlling for perceived pubertal timing and biological sex, latent growth curve analyses in Mplus showed that, at baseline, undercontrollers were more sexually experienced and engaged in more casual and risky sexual behavior than resilients and overcontrollers. Although initial levels of sexual behavior differed by personality types, over time increases in sexual behavior occurred at a similar rate across the types. Overall, the current study showed that undercontrolling adolescents are early sexual developers who engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior than other adolescents. The implications of these findings for longer-term differences in sexual behavior between personality types in later adolescence are discussed. PMID:24007372

  13. Assessment and Development of Rehabilitation Plans for Counselors Who Have Sexually Exploited Their Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoener, Gary Richard; Gonsiorek, John

    1988-01-01

    Asserts that counselors who sexually exploit clients require rehabilitation before returning to practice. Presents model for assessment and development of rehabilitation plans for impaired practitioners who have sexual contact with their clients. Includes a classification system for perpetrator, assessment process that leads to development of…

  14. Preliminary Estimates of Loss of Juvenile Anadromous Salmonids to Predators in John Day Reservoir and Development of a Predation Model : Interim Report, 1986.

    SciTech Connect

    Rieman, Bruce E.

    1986-03-01

    We made preliminary estimates of the loss of juvenile salmonids to predation by walleye, Stizostedion v. vitreum, and northern squawfish, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, in John Day Reservoir in 1984 and 1985 using estimates of predator abundance and daily prey consumption rates. Preliminary estimates may be biased and may be adjusted as much as 30%, but indications are that predation could account for the majority of unexplained loss of juvenile salmonids in John Day Reservoir. Total loss was estimated at 4.1 million in 1984 and 3.3 million in 1985. Northern squawfish consumed 76% and 92% of these totals, respectively. The majority of loss occurred in mid reservoir areas, but loss in a small area, the boat-restricted zone immediately below McNary Dam, was disproportionately large. Peaks in loss in May and July corresponded with peaks in availability of salmonids. Estimated mortality from predation for April through June in 1984 and 1985 was 9% and 7% respectively, for chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and 10% and 15% for steelhead, Salmogairdneri. Mortality was variable with time but tended to increase over the period of migration. Mortality of chinook was estimated at 26% to 55% during July and August. A model of predation in John Day Reservoir is outlined. The model includes a predation submodel that can calculate loss from predator number and consumption rate; a population submodel that can relate predator abundance and population structure to recruitment, exploitation, natural mortality and growth; and a distribution submodel that can apportion predators among areas of the reservoir over time. Applications of the model are discussed for projecting expected changes in predation over time and identifying management alternatives that might limit the impact of predation.

  15. Girls' sexual development in the inner city: from compelled childhood sexual contact to sex-for-things exchanges.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Eloise; Golub, Andrew; Johnson, Bruce D

    2003-01-01

    Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) has been linked to a wide variety of adverse psychological and behavioral outcomes. This paper describes girls' sexual development in the inner city based on qualitative material from a long-term ethnographic (observational) study. For many inner-city girls, early and then continued experiences of being compelled to have sex were found to be part of a pathway leading to independent sexuality that often involved prostitution, teen pregnancy, early motherhood, school dropout, limited involvement with jobs, drug abuse, multiple children by different fathers and single-parent families. Quotes from respondents illustrate the mechanics of this process and how it is sustained by the deprivations of structural disadvantage, prevailing subcultural norms, violence and illicit drug use. PMID:15105084

  16. The Role of Beliefs in Sexual Behavior of Adolescents: Development and Validation of an Adolescent Sexual Expectancies Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourdeau, Beth; Grube, Joel W.; Bersamin, Melina M.; Fisher, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the development and psychometric properties of the Adolescent Sexual Expectancies Scale (ASEXS). Data were obtained from three annual longitudinal surveys of youth aged 10-17 at the first administration (N = 932 at Wave 3). Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that 4 correlated factors corresponding to Social Risk, Social…

  17. Working with Parents to Promote Healthy Adolescent Sexual Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Bouris, Alida

    2009-01-01

    Although parents play a vital role in fostering healthy sexuality-related attitudes and behaviors among adolescents, many parents struggle with how to address sexuality-related topics with their adolescent child. This article provides practitioners with evidence-based frameworks and guidelines on how to work with parents in order to improve their…

  18. Adolescent Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Thomasina H.

    2003-01-01

    This article offers a medical and psychosocial perspective of adolescent sexual development. Sub-types of sexual development are discussed as well as treatment implications for allied health providers. (Contains 38 references.) (Author)

  19. Developing a Scale of Perception of Sexual Abuse in Youth Sports (SPSAYS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Thomas A., III.; Byon, Kevin K.

    2014-01-01

    A scale was developed to measure perceptions of sexual abuse in youth sports by assessing (a) the perceived prevalence of sexual abuse committed by pedophilic youth sport coaches, (b) the perceived likelihood that a coach is a pedophile, (c) perceptions on how youth sport organizations should manage the risk of pedophilia, and (d) media influence…

  20. Sociosexual Identity Development and Sexual Risk Taking of Acculturating Collegiate Gay and Bisexual Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, J. Michael; Brooks, Ann K.; Ross, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    How collegiate gay and bisexual men acquire a sociosexual identity appears to affect their sexual health. Analysis of interview data from 25 self-identified collegiate gay or bisexual men resulted in the development of a collective sexual script for men acquiring a sociosexual identity. Changes in an individual's acting out of a cultural scenario…

  1. Development of Standardized Clinical Training Cases for Diagnosis of Sexual Abuse using a Secure Telehealth Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Lori D.; Thraen, Ioana; Kaplan, Rich; Goede, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The training of physicians, nurse examiners, social workers and other health professional on the evidentiary findings of sexual abuse in children is challenging. Our objective was to develop peer reviewed training cases for medical examiners of child sexual abuse, using a secure web based telehealth application (TeleCAM). Methods:…

  2. Gender differences in the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse and in the development of pediatric PTSD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Walker; P. D. Carey; N. Mohr; D. J. Stein; S. Seedat

    2004-01-01

    Summary Despite an extensive literature on the links between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), our knowledge on the effects of gender in relation to the risks for sexual victimization and subsequent PTSD is limited. We review current knowledge of gender differences in prevalence of CSA and the role of gender in subsequent development of child and

  3. Development and Validation of Questionnaire Measuring Attitudes towards Sexual Health among University Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nina Nemèiæ; Sandra Novak; Ivana Novosel; Ozren Kronja; Darko Hren

    To develop a questionnaire on attitudes towards sexual health and validate it on a sample of medical and non-medical students and adult women. Methods For the purpose of constructing a Likert-type scale, four medical students generated 130 statements re- flecting clearly positive or negative attitudes towards sexual health. The scale had five scoring points (1 - strongly disagree, 2 -

  4. Developing and Establishing School-Based Sexual Health Services: Issues for School Nursing Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayter, Mark; Owen, Jenny; Cooke, Jo

    2012-01-01

    School-based sexual health clinics are emerging as one of the key ways to promote sexual health among young people, and school nurses play an important role in developing and delivering these services. This study used a qualitative design to explore the experiences of health professionals and policy makers involved in setting up such services in…

  5. Immunological and therapeutic strategies against salmonid cryptobiosis.

    PubMed

    Woo, Patrick T K

    2010-01-01

    Salmonid cryptobiosis is caused by the haemoflagellate, Cryptobia salmositica. Clinical signs of the disease in salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) include exophthalmia, general oedema, abdominal distension with ascites, anaemia, and anorexia. The disease-causing factor is a metalloprotease and the monoclonal antibody (mAb-001) against it is therapeutic. MAb-001 does not fix complement but agglutinates the parasite. Some brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis cannot be infected (Cryptobia-resistant); this resistance is controlled by a dominant Mendelian locus and is inherited. In Cryptobia-resistant charr the pathogen is lysed via the Alternative Pathway of Complement Activation. However, some charr can be infected and they have high parasitaemias with no disease (Cryptobia-tolerant). In infected Cryptobia-tolerant charr the metalloprotease is neutralized by a natural antiprotease, alpha2 macroglobulin. Two vaccines have been developed. A single dose of the attenuated vaccine protects 100% of salmonids (juveniles and adults) for at least 24 months. Complement fixing antibody production and cell-mediated response in vaccinated fish rise significantly after challenge. Fish injected with the DNA vaccine initially have slight anaemias but they recover and have agglutinating antibodies. On challenge, DNA-vaccinated fish have lower parasitaemias, delayed peak parasitaemias and faster recoveries. Isometamidium chloride is therapeutic against the pathogen and its effectiveness is increased after conjugation to antibodies. PMID:20052385

  6. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Stigmatization, Internalizing Symptoms, and the Development of Sexual Difficulties and Dating Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A.; Cleland, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    Potential pathways from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to subsequent romantic intimacy problems were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 160 ethnically diverse youth with confirmed CSA histories. Participants were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery, when they were 8-15 years of age, and again 1-6 years later. Stigmatization…

  7. Varieties of male-sexual-identity development in clinical practice: a neuropsychoanalytic model

    PubMed Central

    Stortelder, Frans

    2014-01-01

    Variations of sexual identity development are present in all cultures, as well as in many animal species. Freud – founding father of psychoanalysis – believed that all men have an inherited, bisexual disposition, and that many varieties of love and desire are experienced as alternative pathways to intimacy. In the neuropsychoanalytic model, psychic development starts with the constitutional self. The constitutional self is comprised of the neurobiological factors which contribute to sexual identity development. These neurobiological factors are focused on biphasic sexual organization in the prenatal phase, based on variations in genes, sex hormones, and brain circuits. This psychosocial construction of sexual identity is determined through contingent mirroring by the parents and peers of the constitutional self. The development of the self—or personal identity—is linked with the development of sexual identity, gender-role identity, and procreative identity. Incongruent mirroring of the constitutional self causes alienation in the development of the self. Such alienation can be treated within the psychoanalytic relationship. This article presents a contemporary, neuropsychoanalytic, developmental theory of male-sexual identity relating to varieties in male-sexual-identity development, with implications for psychoanalytic treatment, and is illustrated with three vignettes from clinical practice. PMID:25566168

  8. The development of the crime scene behavior risk measure for sexual offense recidivism.

    PubMed

    Dahle, Klaus-Peter; Biedermann, Jürgen; Lehmann, Robert J B; Gallasch-Nemitz, Franziska

    2014-12-01

    The inclusion of crime scene behavior in actuarial risk assessment so far is insufficient, unsystematic, and neglecting factors theoretically relevant to sexual recidivism. Therefore, the goal of the current study was to develop a brief actuarial risk scale based on crime scene characteristics. The development sample consisted of data (police databases, paper records, and the National Conviction Registry) from 955 male sexual offenders (77% German citizens, 20% foreign nationals, mean age = 35 years, convicted for sexual abuse and/or sexual violence). Further, the independent cross-validation-sample consisted of data from 77 sexual offenders. The 7 items that are comprised by the Crime Scene Behavior Risk (CBR) measure showed high predictive accuracy for sexual recidivism with little variation between the development (c index = .72) and the replication sample (c index = .74). Further, the CBR was found to provide significant incremental validity and improve the predictive accuracy of the Static-99R risk assessment tool. Given the predictive and incremental validity of the CBR it is suggested that sexual offender risk assessment can be improved by utilizing crime scene behavior. The CBR is currently being used in addition to the Static-99R by the State Office of Criminal Investigations in Berlin to prioritize released sexual offenders for police supervision. PMID:24707910

  9. Sexual and Ethnic Identity Development among Gay/Bisexual/Questioning (GBQ) Male Ethnic Minority Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, Omar B.; Harper, Gary W.; Fernandez, M. Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Identity development is a critical task of adolescence and occurs across multiple areas of self identification. Though research on the identity development process among individuals who are ethnic and sexual minorities has been conducted for individuals who have one minority status or the other, few studies have examined these processes in persons who are both ethnic and sexual minorities. This qualitative study examined the dual identity development processes related to ethnic and sexual identity among gay/bisexual/questioning (GBQ) Latino and African American male adolescents. Results indicated that the processes associated with the development of sexual orientation and ethnic identity occur concurrently. However, the actual processes involved with the development of each identity not only differed, but seemed to be independent of each other since neither process was referenced in the development of the other. Overall, the process of ethnic identity development involved the process of becoming aware of one’s ethnic and cultural heritage, while sexual identity development involved finding one’s own personally relevant sexual orientation label and connecting to that community. The implications of these findings for the development of interventions to assist in the healthy development of GBQ adolescents are discussed. PMID:19594249

  10. Anticipation of the sexual and gender development of children adopted by same-sex couples.

    PubMed

    Gato, Jorge; Fontaine, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to characterize beliefs surrounding the sexual and gender development of children adopted by lesbian and gay couples. Participants were 768 Portuguese university students. Using a quasiexperimental design, participants were presented with identical descriptions of a couple interested in adopting a child, manipulating couple sexual orientation and child gender. Participants were then asked to anticipate three aspects of the sexual and gender development of the adopted child: sexual orientation, gender role behavior, and gender identity. MANOVAs and follow-up ANOVAs were conducted in order to analyze the data. Results indicated that participants, particularly males, considered children adopted by either lesbian or gay couples to have a lower probability of developing a normative sexual and gender identity than children adopted by heterosexual couples. Both men and women considered that children would emulate the sexual orientation of their same-sex parents, and that a boy's gender role behavior was more at risk if he was adopted by a lesbian couple. Moreover, men were apprehensive about the gender role behavior of a boy adopted by a gay male couple. Overall, these results indicate persistence of biased evaluations of the sexual and gender development of children adopted by lesbian and gay parents. Furthermore, both gender of the participant and gender of the child play an important role in these evaluations. Results are discussed and interpreted as a way of "doing gender" in the context of hegemonic masculinity. PMID:23837556

  11. Consenting to sexual activity: the development and psychometric assessment of dual measures of consent.

    PubMed

    Jozkowski, Kristen N; Sanders, Stephanie; Peterson, Zoë D; Dennis, Barbara; Reece, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Sexual assault prevention efforts have focused on educating students to obtain consent as a mechanism to reduce sexual assault, yet little is known about how college students consent to sex. Additionally, there are currently no measures available to assess students' consent to sex. The current study aimed to better understand college students consent by using a systematic approach to develop validated measures of sexual consent. This study integrated mixed methods via three phases and two waves of data collection to develop two measures of consent. In Phase 1, qualitative data were collected from college students (n = 185) to inform the design of quantitative measures aimed at assessing sexual consent at last sexual intercourse. In Phase 2, items were written for the closed-ended quantitative instrument and reviewed by a team of experts, educators, and clinicians. In Phase 3, a quantitative survey was administered to college students (n = 660) which included the measures of consent developed from the Phase 1 data; the measures were assessed for their psychometric properties. Exploratory factor analyses were utilized to assess the measures and resulted in five factors each for both consent scales. Both scales had high internal consistency reliability, showed gender differences, and showed differences across relationship status (single vs. in a relationship). The two newly developed measures assess unique constructs of consent and demonstrate assessments of specific concepts. Our findings provide an important contribution to the field of sexuality as these measures can be used in future research to better understand sexual consent. PMID:24452630

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PERIOD OF SENSITIVITY OF FETAL MALE SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT TO VINCLOZOLIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Characterization of the period of sensitivity of fetal male sexual development to vinclozolin. Wolf CJ, LeBlanc GA, Ostby JS, Gray LE Jr. Endocrinology Branch, MD 72, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U....

  13. Nutritional Eye Diseases in Salmonids: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven G. Hughes

    1985-01-01

    During the past decade, ocular abnormalities (including cataracts) have become a serious problem in salmonid hatcheries throughout the world. Among the many causes of visual impairment in cultured salmonids, six have their basis in nutritional deficiencies: Vitamin A deficiency causes exophthalmia, along with clouding and severe degeneration of the cornea and retina; thiamin deficiency primarily involves clouding of the cornea;

  14. Genetic variation and fitness in salmonids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shizhen Wang; Jeffrey J. Hard; Fred Utter

    2002-01-01

    Over the last quarter century, many studieshave attempted to clarify the relationshipbetween genetic variability and fitness, butfew of these have involved salmonid fishes. Examination of studies of salmonids revealsthat such a relationship varies both among andwithin species. A correlation between geneticvariability and fitness can be affected bygenetic background, environment, and age, andit also depends upon the genetic markers andphenotypes evaluated.

  15. Effects of feeding level and sexual maturation on carcass and fillet characteristics and indices of protein degradation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sexual maturation in many species of fish including salmonids requires mobilization of energy and nutrient resources to support gonad growth. During sexual maturation, particularly vitellogenesis, proteins are mobilized from muscle tissue, which is evidenced by increased expression of proteolytic g...

  16. Apomictic and sexual germline development differ with respect to cell cycle, transcriptional, hormonal and epigenetic regulation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Anja; Schmid, Marc W; Klostermeier, Ulrich C; Qi, Weihong; Guthörl, Daniela; Sailer, Christian; Waller, Manuel; Rosenstiel, Philip; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2014-07-01

    Seeds of flowering plants can be formed sexually or asexually through apomixis. Apomixis occurs in about 400 species and is of great interest for agriculture as it produces clonal offspring. It differs from sexual reproduction in three major aspects: (1) While the sexual megaspore mother cell (MMC) undergoes meiosis, the apomictic initial cell (AIC) omits or aborts meiosis (apomeiosis); (2) the unreduced egg cell of apomicts forms an embryo without fertilization (parthenogenesis); and (3) the formation of functional endosperm requires specific developmental adaptations. Currently, our knowledge about the gene regulatory programs underlying apomixis is scarce. We used the apomict Boechera gunnisoniana, a close relative of Arabidopsis thaliana, to investigate the transcriptional basis underlying apomeiosis and parthenogenesis. Here, we present the first comprehensive reference transcriptome for reproductive development in an apomict. To compare sexual and apomictic development at the cellular level, we used laser-assisted microdissection combined with microarray and RNA-Seq analyses. Conservation of enriched gene ontologies between the AIC and the MMC likely reflects functions of importance to germline initiation, illustrating the close developmental relationship of sexuality and apomixis. However, several regulatory pathways differ between sexual and apomictic germlines, including cell cycle control, hormonal pathways, epigenetic and transcriptional regulation. Enrichment of specific signal transduction pathways are a feature of the apomictic germline, as is spermidine metabolism, which is associated with somatic embryogenesis in various plants. Our study provides a comprehensive reference dataset for apomictic development and yields important new insights into the transcriptional basis underlying apomixis in relation to sexual reproduction. PMID:25010342

  17. Apomictic and Sexual Germline Development Differ with Respect to Cell Cycle, Transcriptional, Hormonal and Epigenetic Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Anja; Schmid, Marc W.; Klostermeier, Ulrich C.; Qi, Weihong; Guthörl, Daniela; Sailer, Christian; Waller, Manuel; Rosenstiel, Philip; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2014-01-01

    Seeds of flowering plants can be formed sexually or asexually through apomixis. Apomixis occurs in about 400 species and is of great interest for agriculture as it produces clonal offspring. It differs from sexual reproduction in three major aspects: (1) While the sexual megaspore mother cell (MMC) undergoes meiosis, the apomictic initial cell (AIC) omits or aborts meiosis (apomeiosis); (2) the unreduced egg cell of apomicts forms an embryo without fertilization (parthenogenesis); and (3) the formation of functional endosperm requires specific developmental adaptations. Currently, our knowledge about the gene regulatory programs underlying apomixis is scarce. We used the apomict Boechera gunnisoniana, a close relative of Arabidopsis thaliana, to investigate the transcriptional basis underlying apomeiosis and parthenogenesis. Here, we present the first comprehensive reference transcriptome for reproductive development in an apomict. To compare sexual and apomictic development at the cellular level, we used laser-assisted microdissection combined with microarray and RNA-Seq analyses. Conservation of enriched gene ontologies between the AIC and the MMC likely reflects functions of importance to germline initiation, illustrating the close developmental relationship of sexuality and apomixis. However, several regulatory pathways differ between sexual and apomictic germlines, including cell cycle control, hormonal pathways, epigenetic and transcriptional regulation. Enrichment of specific signal transduction pathways are a feature of the apomictic germline, as is spermidine metabolism, which is associated with somatic embryogenesis in various plants. Our study provides a comprehensive reference dataset for apomictic development and yields important new insights into the transcriptional basis underlying apomixis in relation to sexual reproduction. PMID:25010342

  18. Surgical and ethical challenges in disorders of sexual development.

    PubMed

    Fallat, Mary E; Hertweck, Paige; Ralston, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    A resolution to the difficulties faced by parents, physicians, and pediatric patients in treating DSDs will only come with better communication and improved research methodologies. Advocacy groups and the Internet have allowed the intersex community to have a larger role in guiding the research and the ethical frameworks that are used in treating these disorders. These disorders are unusual and collaboration across medical centers should be the rule rather than the exception. When possible, treatments that are innovative or experimental should be subjected to rigorous research oversight [29,30]. Defined periods of family crisis in which counseling and education become important are at the time of diagnosis [30,31], at the time of any surgical procedure, and at the beginning of major developmental stages. Historically, children were often left uninformed until someone judged them old and mature enough to comprehend how they were different. These attempts to protect individual children from their condition may have left them vulnerable to a personal crisis at an age when sexual identity and identity with a peer group are important. Both the needs of the child and the adult the child will become should be considered in making treatment decisions for children and adolescents with DSDs. It is best to counsel parents and educate developing children in a way that parallels chronologic and conceptual growth. When possible, the child should be involved in an age-appropriate fashion in the decision-making process and accurate information about the child's history and body should be made available. In addition, parents and families need as much information as possible and support systems that will help them navigate these challenging situations. PMID:22789583

  19. Temporal evaluation of commitment to sexual development in Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The production of gametocytes is essential for transmission of malaria parasites from the mammalian host to the mosquito vector. However the process by which the asexual blood-stage parasite undergoes commitment to sexual development is not well understood. This process is known to be sensitive to environmental stimuli and it has been suggested that a G protein dependent system may mediate the switch, but there is little evidence that the Plasmodium falciparum genome encodes heterotrimeric G proteins. Previous studies have indicated that the malaria parasite can interact with endogenous erythrocyte G proteins, and other components of the cyclic nucleotide pathway have been identified in P. falciparum. Also, the polypeptide cholera toxin, which induces commitment to gametocytogenesis is known to catalyze the ADP-ribosylation of the ?s class of heterotrimeric G protein ? subunits in mammalian systems has been reported to detect a number of G? subunits in P. falciparum-infected red cells. Methods Cholera toxin and Mas 7 (a structural analogue of Mastoparan) were used to assess the role played by putative G protein signalling in the commitment process, both are reported to interact with different components of classical G?s and G?i/o signalling pathways. Their ability to induce gametocyte production in the transgenic P. falciparum line Pfs16-GFP was determined and downstream effects on the secondary messenger cAMP measured. Results Treatment of parasite cultures with either cholera toxin or MAS 7 resulted in increased gametocyte production, but only treatment with MAS 7 resulted in a significant increase in cAMP levels. This indicates that MAS 7 acts either directly or indirectly on the P. falciparum adenylyl cyclase. Conclusion The observation that cholera toxin treatment did not affect cAMP levels indicates that while addition of cholera toxin does increase gametocytogenesis the method by which it induces increased commitment is not immediately obvious, except that is unlikely to be via heterotrimeric G proteins. PMID:23607486

  20. The Development of a Sexual Abuse Severity Score: Characteristics of Childhood Sexual Abuse Associated with Trauma Symptomatology, Somatization, and Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zink, Therese; Klesges, Lisa; Stevens, Susanna; Decker, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and is associated with both mental and physical health problems in adulthood. Using data from an age- and sex-stratified population survey of 600 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents, a Sexual Abuse Severity Score was developed. The abuse characteristics of 156 CSA respondents were associated with…

  1. What Young People Want From a Sexual Health Website: Design and Development of Sexunzipped

    PubMed Central

    Carswell, Kenneth; Murray, Elizabeth; Free, Caroline; Stevenson, Fiona; Bailey, Julia V

    2012-01-01

    Background Sexual health education in the United Kingdom is of variable quality, typically focusing on the biological aspects of sex rather than on communication, relationships, and sexual pleasure. The Internet offers a unique opportunity to provide sexual health education to young people, since they can be difficult to engage but frequently use the Internet as a health information resource. Objectives To explore through qualitative research young people’s views on what elements of a sexual health website would be appealing and engaging, and their views on the content, design, and interactive features of the Sexunzipped intervention website. Methods We recruited 67 young people aged 16–22 years in London, UK. We held 21 focus groups and 6 one-to-one interviews to establish sexual health priorities, views on website look and feel, and what features of a sexual heath website would attract and engage them. Two researchers facilitated the focus groups, using a semistructured topic guide to lead the discussions and asking open questions to elicit a range of views. The discussions and interviews were audio recorded and detailed notes were made on key topics from the audio recording. Young people’s views influenced design templates for the content and interactive features of Sexunzipped. Results Young people particularly wanted straightforward information on sexual pleasure, sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy, how to communicate with partners, how to develop skills in giving pleasure, and emotions involved in sex and relationships. Focus group participants wanted social interaction with other young people online and wanted to see themselves reflected in some way such as through images or videos. Conclusions While it is challenging to meet all of young people’s technological and design requirements, consultation with the target audience is valuable and necessary in developing an online sexual health intervention. Young people are willing to talk about sensitive issues, enjoy the discussions, and can offer key insights that influence intervention development. PMID:23060424

  2. Sexual development in the industrial workhorse Trichoderma reesei

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, Verena; Seibel, Christian; Kubicek, Christian P.; Schmoll, Monika

    2009-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are indispensable biotechnological tools for the production of organic chemicals, enzymes, and antibiotics. Most of the strains used for industrial applications have been—and still are—screened and improved by classical mutagenesis. Sexual crossing approaches would yield considerable advantages for research and industrial strain improvement, but interestingly, industrially applied filamentous fungal species have so far been considered to be largely asexual. This is also true for the ascomycete Trichoderma reesei (anamorph of Hypocrea jecorina), which is used for production of cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes. In this study, we report that T. reesei QM6a has a MAT1-2 mating type locus, and the identification of its respective mating type counterpart, MAT1-1, in natural isolates of H. jecorina, thus proving that this is a heterothallic species. After being considered asexual since its discovery more than 50 years ago, we were now able to induce sexual reproduction of T. reesei QM6a and obtained fertilized stromata and mature ascospores. This sexual crossing approach therefore opens up perspectives for biotechnologically important fungi. Our findings provide a tool for fast and efficient industrial strain improvement in T. reesei, thus boosting research toward economically feasible biofuel production. In addition, knowledge of MAT-loci and sexual crossing techniques will facilitate research with other Trichoderma spp. relevant for agriculture and human health. PMID:19667182

  3. Sexual development in the industrial workhorse Trichoderma reesei.

    PubMed

    Seidl, Verena; Seibel, Christian; Kubicek, Christian P; Schmoll, Monika

    2009-08-18

    Filamentous fungi are indispensable biotechnological tools for the production of organic chemicals, enzymes, and antibiotics. Most of the strains used for industrial applications have been--and still are--screened and improved by classical mutagenesis. Sexual crossing approaches would yield considerable advantages for research and industrial strain improvement, but interestingly, industrially applied filamentous fungal species have so far been considered to be largely asexual. This is also true for the ascomycete Trichoderma reesei (anamorph of Hypocrea jecorina), which is used for production of cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes. In this study, we report that T. reesei QM6a has a MAT1-2 mating type locus, and the identification of its respective mating type counterpart, MAT1-1, in natural isolates of H. jecorina, thus proving that this is a heterothallic species. After being considered asexual since its discovery more than 50 years ago, we were now able to induce sexual reproduction of T. reesei QM6a and obtained fertilized stromata and mature ascospores. This sexual crossing approach therefore opens up perspectives for biotechnologically important fungi. Our findings provide a tool for fast and efficient industrial strain improvement in T. reesei, thus boosting research toward economically feasible biofuel production. In addition, knowledge of MAT-loci and sexual crossing techniques will facilitate research with other Trichoderma spp. relevant for agriculture and human health. PMID:19667182

  4. Retrospective Recall of Sexual Orientation Identity Development Among Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Adults

    PubMed Central

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Antonucci, Toni C.; Mays, Vickie M.; Cochran, Susan D.

    2011-01-01

    Although recent attention has focused on the likelihood that contemporary sexual minority youth (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual [GLB]) are “coming out” at younger ages, few studies have examined if early sexual orientation identity development is also present in older GLB cohorts. We analyze retrospective data on the timing of sexual orientation milestones in a sample of sexual minorities drawn from the California Quality of Life Surveys. Latent profile analysis of 1,260 GLB adults, ages 18-84 years identified three trajectories of development: Early (n = 951, milestones spanning ages 12 to 20), Middle (n = 239, milestones spanning ages 18 to 31), and Late (n = 70, milestones spanning ages 32 to 43). Motivated by previous research on variability in adolescent developmental trajectories, post-hoc analyses of the Early Profile group identified two sub-groups: Child-Onset (n = 284, milestones spanning ages 8 to 18), and Teen-Onset (n = 667, milestones spanning ages 14 to 22). Nearly all patterns of development were identity-centered, with average age of self-identification as GLB preceding average age of first same-sex sexual activity. Overall, younger participants and the majority of older participants were classified to the Early Profile, suggesting that early development is common regardless of age cohort. The additional gender differences observed in the onset and pace of sexual orientation identity development warrant future research. PMID:21942662

  5. PROCESSES LEADING SELF-IDENTIFIED HETEROSEXUALS TO DEVELOP INTO SEXUAL MINORITY SOCIAL JUSTICE ALLIES: A QUALITATIVE EXPLORATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie Marie Duhigg

    2007-01-01

    The impact of homonegativity on both sexual minorities and heterosexuals is profoundly debilitating. Due to the implicit power of their privileged status, heterosexually-identified individuals can serve a crucial role as allies in eliminating sexual minority oppression. Because minimal research exists around heterosexual identity issues, broadly, and sexual minority ally development, specifically, it is difficult to promote such ally work without

  6. Development of non-lethal sampling of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in salmonids: effects of lipid and inorganic components of fins.

    PubMed

    Graham, Conor T; Harrison, Simon S C; Harrod, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The preferred tissue for analyses of fish stable isotope ratios for most researchers is muscle, the sampling of which typically requires the specimen to be sacrificed. The use of non-destructive methods in fish isotopic research has been increasing recently, but as yet is not a standard procedure. Previous studies have reported varying levels of success regarding the utility of non-lethally obtained stable isotope materials, e.g. fins, but none have accounted for the potential compounding effects of inorganic components of fin rays or lipids. Comparisons of carbon (?(13)C) and nitrogen (?(15)N) stable isotope ratios of muscle with adipose and caudal fin of two salmonids, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and brown trout (Salmo trutta L.), revealed that caudal fin can be used as a non-destructive surrogate for muscle in stable isotope analysis, but that adipose fin, where available, is a better proxy. The use of a published model to inexpensively counteract the confounding effect of lipids, which are depleted in (13)C, greatly improved the relationship between fish muscle and fins. However, efforts to account for the inorganic components of fin rays were counterproductive and required twice the biomass of fins clipped from each fish. As this experiment was conducted on wild fish, controlled laboratory studies are required to confirm these field observations. PMID:23937861

  7. Development and Validation of a Five-Factor Sexual Satisfaction and Distress Scale for Women: The Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women (SSS-W)

    PubMed Central

    Meston, Cindy; Trapnell, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Introduction This article presents data based on the responses of over 800 women who contributed to the development of the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women (SSS-W). Aim The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive, multifaceted, valid, and reliable self-report measure of women’s sexual satisfaction and distress. Methods Phase I involved the initial selection of items based on past literature and on interviews of women diagnosed with sexual dysfunction and an exploratory factor analysis. Phase II involved an additional administration of the questionnaire, factor analyses, and refinement of the questionnaire items. Phase III involved administration of the final questionnaire to a sample of women with clinically diagnosed sexual dysfunction and controls. Results Psychometric evaluation of the SSS-W conducted in a sample of women meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for female sexual dysfunction and in a control sample provided preliminary evidence of reliability and validity. The ability of the SSS-W to discriminate between sexually functional and dysfunctional women was demonstrated for each of the SSS-W domain scores and total score. Conclusion The SSS-W is a brief, 30-item measure of sexual satisfaction and sexual distress, composed of five domains supported by factor analyses: contentment, communication, compatibility, relational concern, and personal concern. It exhibits sound psychometric properties and has a demonstrated ability to discriminate between clinical and nonclinical samples. PMID:16422909

  8. Detection of endocrine disrupters: Evaluation of a Fish Sexual Development Test (FSDT)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrik Holbech; Karin Kinnberg; Gitte I. Petersen; Petra Jackson; Ketil Hylland; Leif Norrgren; Poul Bjerregaard

    2006-01-01

    Managed by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), a comprehensive work is carried out in numerous laboratories to develop test guidelines for the detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals in humans, and various animal species. Development of tests to detect chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties in fish is a part of that work. A Fish Sexual Development Test (FSDT)

  9. Mediating factors in the development of psychopathology in victims of childhood sexual abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer L. Steel; Greg Wilson; Herb Cross; James Whipple

    1996-01-01

    The effects of sexual abuse and victim-offender characteristics have been studied extensively in relation to short- and long-term psychological consequences. However, few studies have focused on mediating factors in the development of psychological sequelae associated with sexual abuse. Three hundred seventy-nine students at Washington State University were recruited from psychology courses and administered a battery of assessments. These assessments included

  10. Analytical developments in toxicological investigation of drug-facilitated sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Negrusz, Adam; Gaensslen, R E

    2003-08-01

    This paper gives a general overview of the drug-facilitated sexual assault phenomenon. Sexual assault perpetrated on both women and men, while incapacitated by so-called date-rape drugs, recently became the focus of many investigations conducted by law enforcement agencies in the US throughout the 1990s; an alarming increase in reports of this crime as well as in the number of scientific publications on drug-facilitated sexual assault has been observed. The list of drugs reportedly associated with sexual assault is long and among others includes flunitrazepam with other benzodiazepines such as diazepam, temazepam, clonazepam, oxazepam, as well as gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), ketamine, and scopolamine. We discuss the most recent analytical developments in the toxicological investigation of drug-facilitated rape designed to reveal drug presence and that may help successfully prosecute perpetrators. PMID:12682705

  11. Sexually dimorphic body size and development time plasticity in Aedes mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wormington, Jillian D.; Juliano, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in insects often accompanies a sexual difference in development time, sexual bimaturism (SBM). Goal To determine whether three Aedes mosquito species have similar plasticity in SSD, attain sexual dimorphism through similar strategies, and whether SSD and SBM are associated. Organisms Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti, and Aedes triseriatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods In four different food availability environments, we quantified plastic responses of relative growth rate (RGR), development time, and adult body size in individually reared males and females. Results Food availability affected RGR differently for the sexes for all three species. The RGR of males and females differed significantly in the 0.1 g/L food treatment. This difference did not account for observed SSD. Food levels over which the largest changes in RGR were observed differed among the species. Male and female adult mass and development time were jointly affected by food availability in a pattern that differed among the three species, so that degree of SSD and SBM changed differentially with food availability for all three species. Development time was generally less sexually dimorphic than mass, particularly in A. albopictus. At lower food levels, A. aegypti and A. triseriatus had accentuated dimorphism in development time. These results, combined with our knowledge of mosquito life history, suggest that a direct benefit of SBM is improbable for mosquitoes and that the observed intersexual differences in development time are more likely byproducts of selection for SSD. PMID:25663826

  12. The role of masturbation in healthy sexual development: perceptions of young adults.

    PubMed

    Kaestle, Christine E; Allen, Katherine R

    2011-10-01

    Despite efforts to identify masturbation as a strategy to improve sexual health, promote relational intimacy, and reduce unwanted pregnancy, STIs, and HIV transmission, masturbation as a context for healthy sexual development has been met with silence or trepidation in the scientific and educational communities. Relegated to the realm of commercial media, rather than rational discourse in families, schools, and the general public, young people receive mixed messages about this non-reproductive sexual behavior. In order to explore how young adults have learned about masturbation and currently perceive masturbation, we conducted a grounded theory study of 72 college students (56 females; 16 males) enrolled in a human sexuality class. Findings revealed that a young adult's perceptions of and feelings toward masturbation were the result of a developmental process that included: (1) learning about the act of masturbation and how to do it, (2) learning and internalizing the social contradiction of stigma and taboo surrounding this pleasurable act, and (3) coming to terms with this tension between stigma and pleasure. Although nearly all participants learned about masturbation through the media and peers (not parents or teachers), gender was salient in coming to terms with the contradiction of stigma and pleasure. Most of the women reported either still struggling with the contradiction or accepting it as normal. Most of the men recognized the beneficial aspects for healthy sexual development that result from masturbation. Both male and female participants identified differential sexual scripts as contributing to the double standard. PMID:21293916

  13. The role of parent-child bonding, attachment, and interpersonal problems in the development of deviant sexual fantasies in sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Maniglio, Roberto

    2012-04-01

    To understand the origin, development, and functions of deviant sexual fantasy in sexual offenders, the present article investigates three areas of the literature on sexual offenders (i.e., parent-child relationships, attachment, and interpersonal problems), hypothesizing a possible path through which dysfunctional parent-child relationships might lead to deviant sexual fantasies. The review of the literature provides indirect evidence that an insecure attachment style developed in response to dysfunctional parenting practices may generate feelings of inadequacy and inferiority to others and a lack of the self-confidence and social skills to initiate or maintain consensual intimate relationships with appropriate others. It is hypothesized that such problems, in turn, might promote low levels of intimacy and satisfaction in romantic relationships and serious and chronic emotional loneliness, withdrawal, and negative attitudes (such as anger and hostility) toward potential partners, leading to a progressive retirement from the real world and refuge in an internal world of deviant sexual fantasies in order to satisfy attachment-related needs for intimacy, emotional closeness, or power. Such a combination of insecure attachment, interpersonal problems, and use of deviant sexual fantasies as a means to achieve the intimacy, power, or control absent from reality might predispose to sexual offending. PMID:22467644

  14. A review of hydroacoustic studies for estimation of salmonid downriver migration past hydroeiectric facilities on the Columbia and Snake Rivers in the 1980s

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard E. Thorne; Gary E. Johnson

    1993-01-01

    Hydroelectric development on the Columbia and Snake Rivers substantially impacted salmonid populations. The 1980 Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act mandated development of a program to mitigate these impacts. Hydroacoustics was one of the techniques that were applied to study the temporal and spatial characteristics of the downstream salmonid migration. Over 60 hydroacoustic studies were conducted at the

  15. A comparative study of pregnant teenagers' parenting attitudes and knowledge of sexuality and child development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark W. Roosa

    1983-01-01

    A survey was taken to determine pregnant teenagers' knowledge of sexuality and child development and their parenting attitudes relative to comparison groups. The results indicate that the knowledge and attitude base of pregnant teenagers is almost identical to that of never-pregnant teenagers. However, adult mothers scored slightly but significantly higher than the teenagers on a measure of child development knowledge

  16. The makings of maleness: towards an integrated view of male sexual development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dagmar Wilhelm; Peter Koopman

    2006-01-01

    As the mammalian embryo develops, it must engage one of the two distinct programmes of gene activity, morphogenesis and organogenesis that characterize males and females. In males, sexual development hinges on testis determination and differentiation, but also involves many coordinated transcriptional, signalling and endocrine networks that underpin the masculinization of other organs and tissues, including the brain. Here we bring

  17. Factors protecting against the development of adjustment difficulties in young adults exposed to childhood sexual abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael T. Lynskey; David M. Fergusson

    1997-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this study were to identify the factors which discriminated young people exposed to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) who developed psychiatric disorder or adjustment difficulties in young adulthood from those young people exposed to CSA who did not develop psychiatric disorder or adjustment difficulties by age 18.Method: Data were gathered on a birth cohort of 1,025 New

  18. The physiology and toxicology of salmonid eggs and larvae in relation to water quality criteria.

    PubMed

    Finn, Roderick Nigel

    2007-03-30

    The purpose of this review is to collate physiological knowledge on salmonid eggs and larvae in relation to water quality criteria. Salmonid genera reviewed include Coregonus, Thymallus, Salvelinus, Salmo, and Oncorhynchus spp. When physiological data for salmonids are lacking, the zebrafish and medaka models are included. The primary focus is on the underlying mechanisms involved in the hydro-mineral, thermal, and respiratory biology with an extended section on the xenobiotic toxicology of the early stages. Past and present data reveal that the eggs of salmonids are among the largest shed by any broadcast spawning teleost. Once ovulated, the physicochemical properties of the ovarian fluid provide temporary protection from external perturbations and maintain the eggs in good physiological condition until spawning. Following fertilisation and during early development the major structures protecting the embryo from poor water quality are the vitelline membrane, the enveloping layer and the chorion. The vitelline membrane is one of the least permeable membranes known, while the semi-permeable chorion provides both physical and chemical defense against metals, pathogens, and xenobiotic chemicals. In part these structures explain the lower sensitivity of the eggs to chemical imbalance compared to the larvae, however the lower metabolic rate and the chronology of gene expression and translational control suggest that developmental competence also plays a decisive role. In addition, maternal effect genes provide a defense potential until the mid-blastula transition. The transition between maternal effect genes and zygotic genes is a critical period for the embryo. The perivitelline fluids are an important trap for cations, but are also the major barrier to diffusion of gases and solutes. Acidic environmental pH interferes with acid-base and hydromineral balance but also increases the risk of aluminium and heavy metal intoxication. These risks are ameliorated somewhat by the presence of ambient humic acid. High temperatures during development may be teratogenic, cause sexual bias, or long-term effects on muscle cellularity. Xenobiotics cause inhibition of neural acetylcholine esterase and carboxylases and disrupt the normal signalling pathways of hormones by binding to relevant receptors and mimicking their actions. A complex suite of genes is activated in response to environmental or parentally transmitted xenobiotics. The primary defense mechanism in embryos involves resistance to uptake but later biotransformation via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-mediated activation of members of the cytochrome mixed-function mono-oxygenase superfamily (CYP1A, CYP2B, and CYP3A) and subsequent glucuronidation or glutathionation. Due to the number of duplicate or triplicate genes coding for intermediates in the signalling pathways, and cross-talk between nuclear orphan receptors and steroid hormone receptors, a large number of complications arise in response to xenobiotic intoxicaton. One such syndrome, known as blue-sac disease causes an anaphylactoid response in hatched larvae due to increased permeability in the vascular endothelium that coincides with AHR-mediated CYP induction. Early embryos also respond to such xenobiotic insults, but apparently have an immature translational control for expression of CYP proteins, which coincides with a lack of excretory organs necessary for the end-point of biotransformation. Other syndromes (M74 and Cayuga) are now associated with thiamine deficiency. Where possible guidelines for water quality criteria are suggested. PMID:17316838

  19. Development of a nested polymerase chain reaction for amplification of a sequence of the p57 gene of Renibacterium salmoninarum that provides a highly sensitive method for detection of the bacterium in salmonid kidney

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chase, D.M.; Pascho, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Nucleic acid-based assays have shown promise for diagnosing Renibacterium salmoninarum in tissues and body fluids of salmonids. DeVelopment of a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to detect a 320 bp DNA segment of the gene encoding the p57 protein of R. salmoninarum is described. Whereas a conventional PCR for a 383 bp segment of the p57 gene reliably detected 1000 R. salmoninarum cells per reaction in kidney tissue, the nested PCR detected as few as 10 R. salmoninarum per reaction in kidney tissue. Two DNA extraction methods for the nested PCR were compared and the correlation between replicate samples was generally higher in samples extracted by the QIAamp system compared with those extracted by the phenol/chloroform method. The specificity of the nested PCR was confirmed by testing DNA extracts of common bacterial fish pathogens and a panel of bacterial species reported to cause false-positive reactions in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the fluorescent antibody test (FAT) for R. salmoninarum. Kidney samples from 74 naturally infected chinook Salmon were examined by the nested PCR, the ELISA, and the FAT, and the detected prevalences of R. salmoninarum were 61, 47, and 43%, respectively.

  20. Natural born killers?: the development of the sexually sadistic serial killer.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B R; Becker, J V

    1997-01-01

    Today's society seems enthralled with serial killers in the news and the media. Forensic psychiatrists often interview serial killers after they have been caught. There are retrospective studies and case reports of individuals who have committed sexually sadistic serial murders. However, there exists a dearth of case reports on adolescents who have expressed serious fantasies about becoming serial killer prior to actualizing their fantasy. This article presents nine clinical cases of 14- to 18-year-olds who have clinically significant fantasies of becoming a serial killer. Similarities exist in these adolescent cases when compared with retrospective studies and case reports of serial killers on the role of sexually sadistic fantasies and actual killings. Since it has been established that sexual paraphilias may develop at a young age, one can surmise that sadistic paraphilias may also develop in some adolescents. The question is posed, can we predict which of these adolescents may go on to actually become serial killers? This article focuses on how the sexually sadistic fantasy can eventually be acted out and possible motives for the act to be repeated multiple times. Finally, recommendations are made about assessing and treating a youngster who expresses violent sexually sadistic killing fantasies so that attempts can be made to interrupt the progression to actual killing. PMID:9323659

  1. Development of Muscularity and Weight Concerns in Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Males

    PubMed Central

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Corliss, Heather L.; Blood, Emily A.; Field, Alison E.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the development of muscularity and weight concerns among heterosexual and sexual minority males in adolescence. Method Participants were 5,868 males from the Growing Up Today Study, a US prospective cohort spanning ages 9–25 years. Generalized estimating equations were used to test sexual orientation differences in the development of muscularity concerns, weight gain attempts, and weight and shape concern. Results Desire for bigger muscles increased slightly each year across adolescence (? =.10, 95% C.I.= .09, .11) regardless of sexual orientation, but gay and bisexual participants reported greater desire for toned muscles than completely and mostly heterosexual males (?=.39, 95% C.I.=.21, .57). Desire for toned muscles did not change with age. Attempts to gain weight increased three-fold across adolescence, with up to 30% reporting weight gain attempts by age 16. Although underweight males (the smallest weight status class) were most likely to attempt to gain weight, most of the observed weight gain attempts were by healthy (69%) and overweight/obese (27%) males, suggesting that most attempts were medically unnecessary and could lead to overweight. Sexual minority participants were 20% less likely to report weight gain attempts than completely heterosexual participants. Weight and shape concern increased with age, with gay and bisexual participants experiencing a significantly greater increase than heterosexual males. Conclusions Sexual orientation modifies the development and expression of male weight and muscularity concerns. The findings have implications for early interventions for the prevention of obesity and eating disorder risk in heterosexual and sexual minority males. PMID:23316852

  2. Homosexuality as a Consequence of Epigenetically Canalized Sexual Development Author(s): William R. Rice, Urban Friberg and Sergey Gavrilets

    E-print Network

    Gavrilets, Sergey

    Homosexuality as a Consequence of Epigenetically Canalized Sexual Development Author(s): William R;HOMOSEXUALITY AS A CONSEQUENCE OF EPIGENETICALLY CANALIZED SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT William R. Rice Department Synthesis, University of Tennessee Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 USA e-mail: gavrila@tiem.utk.edu keywords

  3. On the Road to Well-Being: The Development of a Communication Framework for Sexual Health

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Susan J.; Stellato, Adam; Stephens, Jennifer; Kirby, Susan; Forsythe, Ann; Ivankovich, Megan B.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Recognizing the need to work with all partners who have an interest in addressing sexual health issues, we explored values held by diverse stakeholders in the United States. Based on these findings, we developed a framework for use in communicating about sexual health issues and potential solutions. Methods Our methods included an environmental scan, small-group metaphor elicitation and message framing assessments, interviews, and online surveys with diverse members of the public and health professionals. Results Of four overarching value-based themes, two were best accepted across audiences: the first theme emphasized the importance of protecting health along the road of life through enabling good choices, and the second called for adding health promotion approaches to traditional disease prevention control. Nearly all supporting statements evaluated were effective and can be used to support either of the two best accepted overarching themes. Conclusions Although there is a great diversity of opinion regarding how to address sexual health issues in the U.S., among diverse stakeholders we found some common values in our exploratory work. These common values were translated into message frameworks. In particular, the idea of broadening sexual health programs to include wellness-related approaches to help expand disease control and prevention efforts resonated with stakeholders across the political spectrum. These findings show promise for improved sexual health communication and a foundation on which to build support across various audiences, key opinion leaders, and stakeholders. PMID:23450884

  4. Development and validation of the belief in Female Sexual Deceptiveness scale.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Darrin L; Cervantes, Emanuel; Espinosa, Joanna C

    2015-03-01

    This article describes the development of a scale measuring the extent of men's belief in female sexual deceptiveness. This belief has been postulated as a component of hostile masculinity and a precursor to more serious sexual-assault-facilitating cognitions, though it has not yet been studied empirically. From a final pool of 22 items, the 14-item Belief in Female Sexual Deceptiveness (BFSD) scale was constructed. Data were collected via online survey from 131 predominantly Hispanic college males; scale items were selected by exploratory factor analysis. Three moderately strongly correlated factors emerged, though they overlapped strongly and are currently considered only for future study. An 8-item short form of the BFSD scale (the BFSD-S) was created, as well. The full BFSD scale showed strong internal consistency and significant correlations with gender role attitudes, unequal/coercive relationship attitudes, history of misperceiving women's platonic interest as sexual, history of sexual frustration in relationships, adult attachment, belief in immanent justice, attitudes toward intimate partner violence, and rape myth acceptance. Patterns of divergent correlations with other measures also supported the scale's validity. The BFSD-S performed nearly identically to the BFSD. Limitations, future directions, and implications are discussed. PMID:24920000

  5. Father-daughter interactions and the sexual development of the adopted girl

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis A. Berman; Dennis R. Jensen

    1973-01-01

    Presents 4 case examples to clarify the relationship between the interaction of father and adopted daughter and the daughter's subsequent sexual development. They are discussed with reference to the theoretical model that views the roles of daughters as similar to the behavior that will be required of them as adults, while those of sons must unlearn their roles as they

  6. Development and Validation of a Gender Expression Measure among Sexual Minority Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehavot, Keren; King, Kevin M.; Simoni, Jane M.

    2011-01-01

    Gender expression varies considerably among lesbian and bisexual women and may be related to various stressors and health outcomes. However, no current measure adequately assesses gender expression in this community. Thus, the authors conducted three studies to develop and validate the Gender Expression Measure among Sexual Minority Women…

  7. Late-stage clinical development in lower urogenital targets: sexual dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Usman

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, late-stage clinical drug development that primarily focuses on urogenital targets has centered around four areas of medical need (both unmet need and aiming to improve on existing therapies). These include male sexual dysfunction (MSD), female sexual dysfunction (FSD), prostatic pathology (neoplastic, pre-neoplasitic, and non-neoplastic), and improvement in lower urinary tract symptoms. Despite the regulatory approval of compounds to treat erectile dysfunction (ED), benign prostatic hyperplasia, a number of treatments for overactive bladder, and stress urinary incontinence, there remains a deficiency in addressing a number of conditions that arise out of pathophysiological dysfunction resulting in lower urogenital tract sexual conditions. In terms of late-stage clinical development, significant progress has most recently been made in MSD development, especially in understanding further a common and complex sexual dysfunction – that of premature ejaculation. The search also continues for compounds that improve ED in terms of better efficacy and superior safety profile compared to the currently marketed phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitors. Whilst there are no approved medications to treat the subtypes of FSD, there has been significant progress in attempting to better understand how to appropriately assess treatment benefit in clinical trial settings for this difficult to diagnose and treat condition. This review will focus on late-stage human clinical development pertaining to MSD and FSD. PMID:16465180

  8. Improving the Fit: Adolescents' Needs and Future Programs for Sexual and Reproductive Health in Developing Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane Hughes; Ann P. McCauley

    1998-01-01

    Demand is growing in developing countries for sexual and reproductive health programs for young people. However, little scientifically based evidence exists about which program approaches are most effective in shaping healthy behaviors. Careful evaluation and research must be increased, but meanwhile, planners need guidance as they expand programming. Research indicates that current programs often do not match the needs and

  9. Sexual reproduction and mating-typemediated strain development in the penicillin-producing fungus

    E-print Network

    Kück, Ulrich

    Sexual reproduction and mating-type­mediated strain development in the penicillin-producing fungus, being the original and present-day indus- trial source of the antibiotic penicillin. The species has to penicillin production. Furthermore, the MAT1-1­1 mating-type gene, known primarily for a role in govern- ing

  10. The Development and Psychometric Assessment of the Adolescent Sexual Coercion Risk Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Lasgaard, Mathias; Elklit, Ask; Koss, Mary P.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a psychometric measure of risk for sexual victimization from adolescent peers. Items were generated on the basis of the literature and on consultations with a multidisciplinary group of key informants. The items were administered to a sample of 327 female Grade-9 students and examined using exploratory…

  11. MORN1 has a conserved role in asexual and sexual development1 across the Apicomplexa2

    E-print Network

    Gubbels, Marc-Jan

    1 MORN1 has a conserved role in asexual and sexual development1 across the Apicomplexa2 3 4 Running erythrocytic schizogony of Plasmodium falciparum. During asexual proliferation MORN17 is associated. These data fit a model10 with a conserved role for MORN1 during IMC assembly in all variations of asexual11

  12. Let's Talk about Sex: Development of a Sexual Health Program for Nepali Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Michelle R.; Harman, Jennifer J.; Shrestha, Deepti Khati

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test the feasibility of conducting a sexual health intervention for women in Nepal, a country with high political and economic instability and strong patriarchal systems. Of the 88 women enrolled, 100% retention was obtained over three sessions, and 85% completed a 1-month follow-up. Recruitment was so…

  13. "InFection Four": Development of a Youth-Informed Sexual Health Card Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, Melissa; Jagoda, Patrick; Heathcock, Stephen; Sutherland, Ainsley

    2014-01-01

    Games may be useful tools for learning and communicating about sexual and reproductive health. This article discusses the collaborative design and subsequent evaluation of a narrative-based card game. This game was created in a workshop based on positive youth development, which allowed youth to be involved as game designers and game players.…

  14. Ultrastructure of the epididymis and vas deferens of agoutis at different stages of sexual development.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, M A M; Oliveira, M F; Santos, P R S; Assis Neto, A C

    2014-10-01

    The agouti (Dasyprocta spp.) is a rodent found predominantly in the Brazilian Caatinga and has importance as an alternative source of protein. In this study, the objective was to describe the ultrastructure of components of sperm pathways, especially the epididymis and vas deferens, during sexual development of agoutis kept in captivity. Segments of the vas deferens and epididymis of 8 agouti males at different stages of sexual development (prepubescent, prepubertal, pubescent, and adult) were fixed in glutaraldehyde. The following laboratory procedures were performed: histology following the standard protocol for semithin cut (toluidine blue), and transmission electron microscopy. This was a pioneer study in which it was observed that the epididymis of agoutis is composed of principal, basal, halogen, apical, and clean cells. During prepubescent and prepubertal stages, clean cells were observed in addition to principal, basal, and halogen cells. Once puberty was reached, apical cells were also present, and clean cells were no longer visible. This epithelial change during sexual development is possibly due to physiological functions. The interaction between these cells supports this, and age probably influenced the change. With regard to the vas deferens, this study was also a pioneer to note that before pubescence there were two muscle layers, differing from older animals, which had three muscle layers. This may be due to lack of sperm transit in younger animals. We concluded that the pseudostratified stereociliated epithelium of the epididymis and vas deferens of agoutis kept in captivity undergo morphological and functional changes during sexual development. PMID:25028182

  15. Population, sexual and reproductive health, rights and sustainable development: forging a common agenda.

    PubMed

    Newman, Karen; Fisher, Sarah; Mayhew, Susannah; Stephenson, Judith

    2014-05-01

    This article suggests that sexual and reproductive health and rights activists seeking to influence the post-2015 international development paradigm must work with sustainable development advocates concerned with a range of issues, including climate change, environmental issues, and food and water security, and that a way of building bridges with these communities is to demonstrate how sexual and reproductive health and rights are relevant for these issues. An understanding of population dynamics, including urbanization and migration, as well as population growth, can help to clarify these links. This article therefore suggests that whether or not sexual and reproductive health and rights activists can overcome resistance to discussing "population", become more knowledgeable about other sustainable development issues, and work with others in those fields to advance the global sustainable development agenda are crucial questions for the coming months. The article also contends that it is possible to care about population dynamics (including ageing and problems faced by countries with a high proportion of young people) and care about human rights at the same time. It expresses concern that, if sexual and reproductive health and rights advocates do not participate in the population dynamics discourse, the field will be left free for those for whom respecting and protecting rights may be less of a priority. PMID:24908456

  16. MAXIMIZING GROWTH AND SEXUAL MATURATION OF SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS IN SUPPORT OF MULTI-GENERATION TEST DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hemmer, R.L., G.M. Cripe and L.R. Goodman. In press. Maximizing Growth and Sexual Maturation of Sheepshead Minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) in Support of Multi-Generation Test Development (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November 2004, Portland...

  17. Research on Adolescent Sexual Orientation: Development, Health Disparities, Stigma, and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saewyc, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    The decade between 1998 and 2008 saw rapid increases in research on adolescent sexual orientation development and related health issues, both in the quantity and in the quality of studies. While much of the research originated in North America, studies from other countries also contributed to emerging understanding of developmental trajectories…

  18. Influence of cadmium, copper, and pentachlorophenol on growth and sexual development of Eisenia andrei (Oligochaeta; Annelida)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. M. Gestel; W. A. Dis; E. M. Dirven-van Breemen; P. M. Sparenburg; R. Baerselman

    1991-01-01

    In the existing guidelines for earthworm toxicity testing, mortality is the only test criterion. Mortality is, however, not a very sensitive parameter, and from an ecological point of view growth and reproduction are more important for a proper risk assessment of chemicals in soil. In this study the growth and sexual development of juvenile earthworms were considered as test criteria

  19. Puberty and adolescent sexuality.

    PubMed

    Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Sexuality emerges as a major developmental element of puberty and the adolescent years that follow. However, connecting the sexuality that emerges with puberty and elements of adult sexuality is difficult because much adolescent sexuality research addresses the transition to partnered sexual behaviors (primarily coitus) and consequences such as unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This review proposes a framework of an expanded understanding of puberty and adolescent sexuality from the perspective of four hallmarks of adult sexuality: sexual desire; sexual arousal; sexual behaviors; and, sexual function. This approach thus addresses important gaps in understanding of the ontogeny of sex and the continuum of sexuality development from adolescence through the adult lifespan. PMID:23998672

  20. Salmonid redd dewatering: What do we know

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, C D; Neitzel, D A

    1983-11-01

    Dewatering of salmonid spawning areas causes abrupt changes in the intergravel environment that may lead to extensive losses of development phases while intergravel in redds. Information on tolerance to dewatering and the extent of physicochemical changes in the gravel during dewatering can be used to assess potential impacts and to design and implement effective mitigation methods. Studies with fall chinook salmon are summarized, and the comparisons are made with results from available literature. Potentially useful methods of mitigation are mentioned. We found that prehatch phases (cleavage eggs and embryos) can be dewatered for several successive days and survive, but posthatch phases (eleutheroembryos and alevins) usually die within 24 hours. Survival of prehatch phases during extended dewatering requires maintenance of favorable intergravel temperature and moisture levels. Elevated temperatures (up to 22/sup 0/C) can be tolerated for up to 8 hours without direct adverse effects, but freezing temperatures (/sup -/1.0/sup 0/C or below) are lethal. Dewatered gravels must remain sufficient moisture to provide near 100% humidity for egg and embryo survival. In field situations, physicochemical conditions that limit survival in dewatered gravels include residual flow, temperature, gravel size and composition, and dissolved oxygen. Biological variables such as alevin behavior and certain species characteristics also influence survival. 29 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Sexual differences in insect development time in relation

    E-print Network

    Kratochvíl, Lukas

    .3 Temperature and insect development time As ectotherms insects rely on external sources of heat. Consequently, we cannot say that ectotherms 205 #12;require a certain length of time for development. They require to measure the rate of development of ectotherms? (b) How to analyse differences in the rate of development

  2. Development of avian external genitalia: interspecific differences and sexual differentiation of the male and female phallus.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Ana M; Brennan, Patricia L R; Cohn, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Avian genitalia, particularly in waterfowl, are extremely diverse. Penis morphology varies among species, and penis length and elaboration are associated with the frequency of forced extra-pair copulations, yet the developmental mechanisms responsible for this variation are unknown. In addition, females have a small phallic structure that is homologous to the male phallus, but little is known about when or how sexual differentiation takes place. To determine whether species-specific genital morphologies and sexual differentiation occur during duck embryonic development, we characterized development from the onset of genital tubercle initiation through stages of sexual differentiation in 3 species. Pekin and Laysan ducks have long, thick penises, whereas those of Mandarin ducks are shorter and thinner. Development of the genital tubercle is similar throughout the pre-hatching period across the 3 species, suggesting that differences in penis morphology arise post-hatching. We observed that male and female phallus development is similar at early stages, but the female phallus later regresses. Then, we compared male and female genital development between ducks and chickens, which develop a non-intromittent penis. We found that external genital development in male and female chickens resembles that of female ducks, which raises the possibility that male phallus development became feminized during galliform evolution. PMID:25011524

  3. The impact of sexual abuse on female development: Lessons from a multigenerational, longitudinal research study

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2013-01-01

    This is a report on the research design and findings of a 23-year longitudinal study of the impact of intrafamilial sexual abuse on female development. The conceptual framework integrated concepts of psychological adjustment with theory regarding how psychobiological factors might impact development. Participants included 6- to 16-year-old females with substantiated sexual abuse and a demographically similar comparison group. A cross-sequential design was used and six assessments have taken place, with participants at median age 11 at the first assessment and median age 25 at the sixth assessment. Mothers of participants took part in the early assessments and offspring took part at the sixth assessment. Results of many analyses, both within circumscribed developmental stages and across development, indicated that sexually abused females (on average) showed deleterious sequelae across a host of biopsychosocial domains including: earlier onsets of puberty, cognitive deficits, depression, dissociative symptoms, maladaptive sexual development, hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal attenuation, asymmetrical stress responses, high rates of obesity, more major illnesses and healthcare utilization, dropping out of high school, persistent psottraumatic stress disorder, self-mutilation, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnoses, physical and sexual revictimization, premature deliveries, teen motherhood, drug and alcohol abuse, and domestic violence. Offspring born to abused mothers were at increased risk for child maltreatment and overall maldevelopment. There was also a pattern of considerable within group variability. Based on this complex network of findings, implications for optimal treatments are elucidated. Translational aspects of extending observational research into clinical practice are discussed in terms that will likely have a sustained impact on several major public health initiatives. PMID:23786689

  4. [Effects of central precocious puberty on physical and sexual development in children].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lan; Zhong, Yan

    2014-05-01

    As abnormal pubertal development, central precocious puberty (CPP) is manifested by the secondary sexual characteristics, skeletal maturation, and physical development in advance. It ultimately affects the adult height of children, even producing some psychological and behavioral problems such as fear and anxiety. Currently, gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) is recognized as the best medicine worldwide for treating CPP in order to increase children's final adult height; however, it has some adverse effects on the growth and development of children. This paper reviews the effects of CPP and GnRHa on children's physical and sexual development, with the aim of increasing physicians awareness of this disease and the safety of medication. PMID:24857013

  5. Homosexuality via canalized sexual development: A testing protocol for a new epigenetic model

    PubMed Central

    Rice, William R; Friberg, Urban; Gavrilets, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    We recently synthesized and reinterpreted published studies to advance an epigenetic model for the development of homosexuality (HS). The model is based on epigenetic marks laid down in response to the XX vs. XY karyotype in embryonic stem cells. These marks boost sensitivity to testosterone in XY fetuses and lower it in XX fetuses, thereby canalizing sexual development. Our model predicts that a subset of these canalizing epigenetic marks stochastically carry over across generations and lead to mosaicism for sexual development in opposite-sex offspring – the homosexual phenotype being one such outcome. Here, we begin by outlining why HS has been under-appreciated as a commonplace phenomenon in nature, and how this trend is currently being reversed in the field of neurobiology. We next briefly describe our epigenetic model of HS, develop a set of predictions, and describe how epigenetic profiles of human stem cells can provide for a strong test of the model. PMID:23868698

  6. "You Want Me to Talk to Children about What?" Responding to the Subject of Sexuality Development in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciaraffa, Mary; Randolph, Theresa

    2011-01-01

    Many people think it is taboo to talk about sex with children. Adults reinforce this belief when, for example, they use substitute words rather than "vagina" or "penis". They may be embarrassed to learn about children's sexual development or ask others for assistance. Although most people in US society are open about sexuality now, the topic of…

  7. Implications of Our Developing Understanding of Risk and Protective Factors in the Treatment of Adult Male Sexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes our developing knowledge of factors that contribute added risk of sexual recidivism (risk factors) and factors that are associated with a reduced risk of sexual recidivism (protective factors). Specific implications for the design of future treatment programs are drawn. This information is contrasted with the common foci of…

  8. Expanding Our Reach: The Potential for Youth Development Professionals in Community-Based Organizations to Provide Sexuality Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Christopher M.; Reece, Michael; Dodge, Brian; Wright, Eric; Sherwood-Laughlin, Catherine; Baldwin, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents in the United States continue to face sexual health issues. While community-based organizations (CBOs) have a long history of addressing the sexual health needs of those they serve, little attention has been given to CBOs focused on adolescent populations and the role youth development professionals (YDPs) might play in the advancement…

  9. In ovo exposure to o,p -DDE affects sexual development but not sexual differentiation in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papoulias, D.M.; Villalobos, S.A.; Meadows, J.; Noltie, D.B.; Giesy, J.P.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    Despite being banned in many countries, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) continue to be found in fish tissues at concentrations of concern. Like o,p -DDT, o,p -DDE is estrogenic and is believed to exert its effects through binding to the estrogen receptor. The limited toxicologic data for o,p -DDE suggest that it decreases fecundity and fertility of fishes. We conducted an egg injection study using the d-rR strain of medaka and environmentally relevant concentrations of o,p -DDE to examine its effects on sexual differentiation and development. The gonads of exposed fish showed no evidence of sex reversal or intersex. However, other gonad abnormalities occurred in exposed individuals. Females exhibited few vitellogenic oocytes and increased atresia. Male testes appeared morphologically normal but were very small. Gonadosomatic index values for both sexes were lower for exposed fish. Our observations of abnormal female and very small male gonads after in ovo o,p -DDE exposure may be indicative of effects on early endocrine processes important for normal ovarian and testicular development.

  10. Freshwater aspects of anadromous salmonid enhancement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gould, Rowan W.

    1982-01-01

    Freshwater enhancement of anadromous salmonid populations has been practiced in the United States and Canada since the late 1800's. Reduction of natural spawning habitat and increasing fishing pressure make artificial enhancement a possible alternative to declining populations. Enhancement of anadromous salmonids involved improvement of the natural environment and reducing natural mortality. Methods of enhancement include fishways, spawning and rearing channels, stream rehabilitation, lake fertilization, environmental management, and artificial propagation techniques. Five Pacific salmon species and steelhead trout are commonly enhanced, primarily in watershed entering the Pacific Ocean and Great Lakes. Enhancement efforts contribute heavily to a commercial and sport industry realizing over $1.5 billion.

  11. The White Collar Complex Is Involved in Sexual Development of Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seunghoon; Yun, Sung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Sexual spores (ascospores) of Fusarium graminearum, a homothallic ascomycetous fungus, are believed to be the primary inocula for epidemics of the diseases caused by this species in cereal crops. Based on the light requirement for the formation of fruiting bodies (perithecia) of F. graminearum under laboratory conditions, we explored whether photoreceptors play an important role in sexual development. Here, we evaluated the roles of three genes encoding putative photoreceptors [a phytochrome gene (FgFph) and two white collar genes (FgWc-1 and FgWc-2)] during sexual development in F. graminearum. For functional analyses, we generated transgenic strains lacking one or two genes from the self-fertile Z3643 strain. Unlike the wild-type (WT) and add-back strains, the single deletion strains (?FgWc-1 and ?FgWc-2) produced fertile perithecia under constant light on complete medium (CM, an unfavorable medium for sexual development) as well as on carrot agar (a perithecial induction condition). The expression of mating-type (MAT) genes increased significantly in the gene deletion strains compared to the WT under both conditions. Deletion of FgFph had no significant effect on sexual development or MAT gene expression. In contrast, all of the deletion strains examined did not show significant changes in other traits such as hyphal growth, mycotoxin production, and virulence. A split luciferase assay confirmed the in vivo protein-protein interactions among three photoreceptors along with FgLaeA, a global regulator of secondary metabolism and fungal development. Introduction of an intact copy of the A. nidulans LreA and LreB genes, which are homologs of FgWc-1 and FgWc-2, into the ?FgWc-1 and ?FgWc-2 strains, respectively, failed to repress perithecia formation on CM in the gene deletion strains. Taken together, these results demonstrate that FgWc-1 and FgWc-2, two central components of the blue-light sensing system, negatively regulate sexual development in F. graminearum, which differs from the regulation pattern in A. nidulans. PMID:25785736

  12. The White Collar Complex Is Involved in Sexual Development of Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hun; Kim, Hee-Kyoung; Lee, Seunghoon; Yun, Sung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Sexual spores (ascospores) of Fusarium graminearum, a homothallic ascomycetous fungus, are believed to be the primary inocula for epidemics of the diseases caused by this species in cereal crops. Based on the light requirement for the formation of fruiting bodies (perithecia) of F. graminearum under laboratory conditions, we explored whether photoreceptors play an important role in sexual development. Here, we evaluated the roles of three genes encoding putative photoreceptors [a phytochrome gene (FgFph) and two white collar genes (FgWc-1 and FgWc-2)] during sexual development in F. graminearum. For functional analyses, we generated transgenic strains lacking one or two genes from the self-fertile Z3643 strain. Unlike the wild-type (WT) and add-back strains, the single deletion strains (?FgWc-1 and ?FgWc-2) produced fertile perithecia under constant light on complete medium (CM, an unfavorable medium for sexual development) as well as on carrot agar (a perithecial induction condition). The expression of mating-type (MAT) genes increased significantly in the gene deletion strains compared to the WT under both conditions. Deletion of FgFph had no significant effect on sexual development or MAT gene expression. In contrast, all of the deletion strains examined did not show significant changes in other traits such as hyphal growth, mycotoxin production, and virulence. A split luciferase assay confirmed the in vivo protein-protein interactions among three photoreceptors along with FgLaeA, a global regulator of secondary metabolism and fungal development. Introduction of an intact copy of the A. nidulans LreA and LreB genes, which are homologs of FgWc-1 and FgWc-2, into the ?FgWc-1 and ?FgWc-2 strains, respectively, failed to repress perithecia formation on CM in the gene deletion strains. Taken together, these results demonstrate that FgWc-1 and FgWc-2, two central components of the blue-light sensing system, negatively regulate sexual development in F. graminearum, which differs from the regulation pattern in A. nidulans. PMID:25785736

  13. The association between sexually transmitted pathogens and cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia in a developing community.

    PubMed Central

    Kharsany, A B; Hoosen, A A; Moodley, J; Bagaratee, J; Gouws, E

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the association of sexually transmitted pathogens in women with cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN). SETTING--An urban tertiary referral hospital serving a large indigent developing community. PARTICIPANTS--48 women attending a colposcopy clinic and 49 women attending a family planning clinic. METHODS--Vaginal, endocervical, rectal swab specimens and sera were collected for the detection of sexually transmitted pathogens. Cervical cytology was performed on all patients. Women attending the colposcopy clinic had confirmation of abnormal cervical cytology by colposcopic directed biopsy. RESULTS--The mean age of women with CIN (33 years) was significantly greater than that of the women without CIN (28 years) and that of the family planning group (26 years). There was a high prevalence of sexually transmitted pathogens in all women. A significantly higher prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was found in women with CIN compared to those without (50% vs 20%; p = 0.034). The human papilloma virus (HPV) was detected in 46% of women with CIN and 65% of those without CIN. Chlamydia trachomatis (21%) and Trichomonas vaginalis (39%) were detected frequently in women with CIN. C. trachomatis (14%-21%) was detected more frequently than Neisseria gonorrhoeae (3-5%) in all asymptomatic women studied. CONCLUSION--This study demonstrates a high prevalence of sexually transmitted pathogens in women with and without CIN as well as family planning clinic attenders. Bacterial vaginosis was a significant finding in women with CIN. C. trachomatis was detected in a high proportion of all women studied and found more commonly than N. gonorrhoeae. We therefore recommend that all women attending gynaecological services in a developing community be investigated and treated for sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:8244352

  14. Apilarnil reduces fear and advances sexual development in male broilers but has no effect on growth.

    PubMed

    Altan, O; Yücel, B; Açikgöz, Z; Seremet, C; Köso?lu, M; Turgan, N; Ozgönül, A M

    2013-06-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to determine the possibility of stimulating sexual development at an early age in male and female broiler chickens by administration of apilarnil, a natural bee product, in the pre-pubertal period. 2. From 28 to 55 d of age, birds were given apilarnil orally. The effects of low (2.5 g/bird) and high (7.5 g/bird) doses of apilarnil on growth performance, testicular weight, secondary sexual characteristics, blood lipids, testosterone and fearful behaviour were evaluated. 3. Apilarnil administration did not cause a positive effect on growth performance of male and female broilers suggesting that apilarnil did not have an anabolic effect. 4. Apilarnil administration suppressed blood glucose and cholesterol. 5. Birds receiving apilarnil remained immobile for a shorter period in a tonic imobiliy test and showed less home-cage avoidance responses suggesting a lower level of fearfulness. 6. Increases in testicular weight, testosterone concentration and comb growth in males receiving apilarnil implied that it stimulates the sexual maturation at an early age. However, a similar stimulation of secondary sexual characteristics was not observed in females. PMID:23796118

  15. Adolescent sexuality.

    PubMed

    Grant, L M; Demetriou, E

    1988-12-01

    The consequences of adolescent sexual behavior are an enormous burden both for the adolescent and society. The problem is not that teens are sexually active but rather that they have little preparation and guidance in developing responsible sexual behavior. Developmentally, adolescents reach physical maturity before they are cognitively able to appreciate the consequences of their behavior. A teenager's primary source of information regarding sexuality is his or her peer group, all of whom are experiencing and reinforcing the same behaviors. The family, the major socializer of other behaviors, is not as powerful a force in shaping responsible sexual behavior because of parental discomfort with sex education and sexual discussions. This is the result of a social milieu in which sex is frequently portrayed but rarely linked with responsible behavior or accurate, nonjudgmental information. The pediatric practitioner is in an ideal position to intervene in these dynamics. In the office, the practitioner can provide accurate sexual information to both parents and adolescents, support parental-child communication on sexual issues, and provide appropriate services or referral. In the community, the practitioner can advocate for school-based sex education as well as act as an information resource. Finally, the practitioner can advocate for the health care needs for adolescents on a national level, supporting legislation that provides adolescents with information and access to services necessary to make responsible sexual decisions. PMID:3059299

  16. COMPARATIVE MAPS OF SALMONID GENOMES: AN UPDATE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The construction of detailed comparative maps for salmonid fishes is an important goal that will help transfer genetic information between species, study chromosome evolution, and compare the genetic architecture of complex traits across taxa. In this poster, we report on consolidating comparative m...

  17. GROWING APART TOGETHER: THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONTRASTING SEXUAL SIZE

    E-print Network

    Cox, Robert

    SCELOPORUS LIZARDS ROBERT M. COX 1,3,4 AND HENRY B. JOHN-ALDER 1,2 1 Graduate Program in Ecology study of two sympatric lizard congeners with opposite patterns of SSD (Sceloporus virgatus: female begun to develop Sceloporus lizards as a model comparative system for integrative studies

  18. New Insights into Placozoan Sexual Reproduction and Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Eitel; Loretta Guidi; Heike Hadrys; Maria Balsamo; Bernd Schierwater

    2011-01-01

    Unraveling animal life cycles and embryonic development is basic to understanding animal biology and often sheds light on phylogenetic relationships. A key group for understanding the evolution of the Metazoa is the early branching phylum Placozoa, which has attracted rapidly increasing attention. Despite over a hundred years of placozoan research the life cycle of this enigmatic phylum remains unknown. Placozoa

  19. Development of Heterosexuals into Sexual-Minority Allies: A Qualitative Exploration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie M. Duhigg; Sharon S. Rostosky; Barry E. Gray; Mary K. Wimsatt

    2010-01-01

    Heterosexually identified individuals can serve a crucial role as allies in eliminating sexual prejudice and the resulting\\u000a policies that discriminate against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. However, few studies have systematically\\u000a examined the development of heterosexual allies. Consensual qualitative research methods (Hill et al., The Counseling Psychologist,\\u000a 25, 517–572, 1997) were used to analyze individual interviews conducted with

  20. Polycomb group gene function in sexual and asexual seed development in angiosperms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julio C. M. Rodrigues; Ming Luo; Frédéric Berger; Anna M. G. Koltunow

    2010-01-01

    In sexually reproducing angiosperms, double fertilization initiates seed development, giving rise to two fertilization products,\\u000a the embryo and the endosperm. In the endosperm, a terminal nutritive tissue that supports embryo growth, certain genes are\\u000a expressed differentially depending on their parental origin, and this genomic imbalance is required for proper seed formation.\\u000a This parent-of-origin effect on gene expression, called genomic imprinting,

  1. Development of a rapid, 96-well alkaline based differential DNA extraction method for sexual assault evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William R. Hudlow; Martin R. Buoncristiani

    We present a rapid alkaline lysis procedure for the extraction of DNA from sexual assault evidence that generates purified sperm fraction extracts that yield STR typing results similar to those obtained from the traditional organic\\/dithiothreitol differential extraction. Specifically, a sodium hydroxide based differential extraction method has been developed in a single-tube format and further optimized in a 96-well format. The

  2. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers in the sexual-apomictic complex Taraxacum officinale (dandelion)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Falque; J. J. B. Keurentjes; J. M. T. Bakx-Schotman; P. J. van Dijk

    1998-01-01

    Microsatellite markers were developed in Taraxacum officinale to study gene flow between sexual and apomictic plants and to identify clones. Twenty five thousand genomic DNA clones were\\u000a hybridized with a (CT)12D probe. The density of (GA\\/CT)\\u000a n\\u000a repeats was estimated at one every 61?kb in the T. officinale genome, which translates to 13?500 repeats per haploid genome. Ninety two percent

  3. Normal sexual development and fertility in testatin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Töhönen, Virpi; Frygelius, Jessica; Mohammadieh, Majid; Kvist, Ulrik; Pelliniemi, Lauri J; O'Brien, Kevin; Nordqvist, Katarina; Wedell, Anna

    2005-06-01

    The testatin gene was previously isolated in a screen focused on finding novel signaling molecules involved in sex determination and differentiation. testatin is specifically upregulated in pre-Sertoli cells in early fetal development, immediately after the onset of Sry expression, and was therefore considered a strong candidate for involvement in early testis development. testatin expression is maintained in the adult Sertoli cell, and it can also be found in a small population of germ cells. Testatin shows homology to family 2 cystatins, a group of broadly expressed small secretory proteins that are inhibitors of cysteine proteases in vitro but whose in vivo functions are unclear. testatin belongs to a novel subfamily among the cystatins, comprising genes that all show expression patterns that are strikingly restricted to reproductive tissue. To investigate a possible role of testatin in testis development and male reproduction, we have generated a mouse with targeted disruption of the testatin gene. We found no abnormalities in the testatin knockout mice with regard to fetal and adult testis morphology, cellular ultrastructure, body and testis weight, number of offspring, spermatogenesis, or hormonal parameters (testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone). PMID:15923608

  4. A cascade of DNA binding proteins for sexual commitment and development in Plasmodium

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Thomas D.; Pfander, Claudia; Dickens, Nicholas J.; Religa, Agnieszka A.; Bushell, Ellen; Graham, Anne L.; Cameron, Rachael; Kafsack, Bjorn F.C.; Williams, April E.; Llinas, Manuel; Berriman, Matthew; Billker, Oliver; Waters, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Commitment to and completion of sexual development are essential for malaria parasites (protists of the genus Plasmodium) to be transmitted through mosquitoes1. The molecular mechanism(s) responsible for commitment have been hitherto unknown. Here we show that PBAP2-G, a conserved member of the ApiAP2 family of transcription factors, is essential for the commitment of asexually replicating forms to sexual development in P. berghei, a malaria parasite of rodents. PBAP2-G was identified from mutations in its encoding gene, PBANKA_143750, which account for the loss of sexual development frequently observed in parasites transmitted artificially by blood passage. Systematic gene deletion of conserved ApiAP2 genes in Plasmodium confirmed the role of PBAP2-G and revealed a second ApiAP2 member (PBANKA_103430, termed PBAP2-G2) that significantly modulates but does not abolish gametocytogenesis indicating that a cascade of ApiAP2 proteins are involved in commitment to the production and maturation of gametocytes. The data suggest a mechanism of commitment to gametocytogenesis in Plasmodium consistent with a positive feedback loop involving PBAP2G which might be exploited to prevent the transmission of this pernicious parasite. PMID:24572359

  5. A cascade of DNA-binding proteins for sexual commitment and development in Plasmodium.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Abhinav; Hughes, Katie R; Modrzynska, Katarzyna K; Otto, Thomas D; Pfander, Claudia; Dickens, Nicholas J; Religa, Agnieszka A; Bushell, Ellen; Graham, Anne L; Cameron, Rachael; Kafsack, Bjorn F C; Williams, April E; Llinás, Manuel; Berriman, Matthew; Billker, Oliver; Waters, Andrew P

    2014-03-13

    Commitment to and completion of sexual development are essential for malaria parasites (protists of the genus Plasmodium) to be transmitted through mosquitoes. The molecular mechanism(s) responsible for commitment have been hitherto unknown. Here we show that PbAP2-G, a conserved member of the apicomplexan AP2 (ApiAP2) family of DNA-binding proteins, is essential for the commitment of asexually replicating forms to sexual development in Plasmodium berghei, a malaria parasite of rodents. PbAP2-G was identified from mutations in its encoding gene, PBANKA_143750, which account for the loss of sexual development frequently observed in parasites transmitted artificially by blood passage. Systematic gene deletion of conserved ApiAP2 genes in Plasmodium confirmed the role of PbAP2-G and revealed a second ApiAP2 member (PBANKA_103430, here termed PbAP2-G2) that significantly modulates but does not abolish gametocytogenesis, indicating that a cascade of ApiAP2 proteins are involved in commitment to the production and maturation of gametocytes. The data suggest a mechanism of commitment to gametocytogenesis in Plasmodium consistent with a positive feedback loop involving PbAP2-G that could be exploited to prevent the transmission of this pernicious parasite. PMID:24572359

  6. Visual method for evaluating the state of sexual development in male grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis).

    PubMed

    Ferryman, Mark; Mayle, Brenda A; Morgan, Geoff W

    2006-01-01

    Stages of sexual development in grey squirrels were classified by scoring the presence of periscrotal hair and staining, as well as the position, size and colour of testes, to develop a visual breeding score (VBS). The VBS was a highly significant predictor of the presence and concentration of epididymal spermatozoa, which were produced from 12 months of age. Two classes of producers were identified: 'high' with spermatozoa levels > 10 x 10(6) mL(-1) and 'low' with spermatozoa levels < 10 x 10(6) mL(-1). Sperm motility was variable across all levels of productive males but was generally higher in the 'high' group, indicating that these were 'functional' males. Sexual regression was observed in two autumn periods. The VBS was less effective in determining states of regression and redevelopment; the confidence of classification improved when age class (adult or prepubertal) and date of capture was known. The use of the VBS to classify stages of sexual development in grey squirrels will improve selection of animals for studies of population biology and fertility control, and has potential application in captive breeding studies of rare Sciuridae species. PMID:16554014

  7. Mathematical modeling in biological populations through branching processes. Application to salmonid populations.

    PubMed

    Molina, Manuel; Mota, Manuel; Ramos, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    This work deals with mathematical modeling through branching processes. We consider sexually reproducing animal populations where, in each generation, the number of progenitor couples is determined in a non-predictable environment. By using a class of two-sex branching processes, we describe their demographic dynamics and provide several probabilistic and inferential contributions. They include results about the extinction of the population and the estimation of the offspring distribution and its main moments. We also present an application to salmonid populations. PMID:24526259

  8. Development of an attachment-informed measure of sexual behavior in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Szielasko, Alicia L; Symons, Douglas K; Lisa Price, E

    2013-04-01

    There is considerable interest in relations between sexual behavior and romantic attachment styles in adolescence as attachment needs are increasingly met through intimate partners rather than parents. The objectives of this research were to organize a measure of sexual behavior within an attachment theory framework, and then show that this new measure uniquely predicted sexual approach styles and invasive sexual experiences. 190 18- and 19-year-old university students in late adolescence completed sexual behavior items that were provided ambivalent (anxious) and avoidant dimensions. These were systematically related to the romantic attachment dimensions of the Experiences in Close Relationships - Revised. However, even after romantic relationship style, gender, and social desirability were controlled, avoidance in sexual relationships predicted lifetime sexual partner number and negatively predicted positive sexual strategies, and ambivalence in sexual relationships predicted invasive and coercive sexual behaviors. A measure specific to sexual relationships informs the attachment and romantic context of sex in late adolescence. PMID:23414943

  9. Surface Flow Outlets to Protect Juvenile Salmonids Passing Through Hydropower Dams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary E. Johnson; Dennis D. Dauble

    2006-01-01

    We reviewed results of research conducted by engineers and biologists over the past 50 years related to development of surface flow outlets (SFOs) for juvenile salmonids that migrate downstream past hydropower dams. An SFO is a nonturbine, water-efficient passage route with an overflow structure through which flow and fish pass over a dam. Our review covered 69 SFOs in Europe

  10. Sexual Assault

    MedlinePLUS

    ... assault fact sheet Sexual assault fact sheet ePublications Sexual assault fact sheet Print this fact sheet Sexual assault ... assaulted? More information on sexual assault What is sexual assault? Sexual assault and abuse is any type of ...

  11. Salmon lice – impact on wild salmonids and salmon aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Torrissen, O; Jones, S; Asche, F; Guttormsen, A; Skilbrei, O T; Nilsen, F; Horsberg, T E; Jackson, D

    2013-01-01

    Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, are naturally occurring parasites of salmon in sea water. Intensive salmon farming provides better conditions for parasite growth and transmission compared with natural conditions, creating problems for both the salmon farming industry and, under certain conditions, wild salmonids. Salmon lice originating from farms negatively impact wild stocks of salmonids, although the extent of the impact is a matter of debate. Estimates from Ireland and Norway indicate an odds ratio of 1.1:1-1.2:1 for sea lice treated Atlantic salmon smolt to survive sea migration compared to untreated smolts. This is considered to have a moderate population regulatory effect. The development of resistance against drugs most commonly used to treat salmon lice is a serious concern for both wild and farmed fish. Several large initiatives have been taken to encourage the development of new strategies, such as vaccines and novel drugs, for the treatment or removal of salmon lice from farmed fish. The newly sequenced salmon louse genome will be an important tool in this work. The use of cleaner fish has emerged as a robust method for controlling salmon lice, and aquaculture production of wrasse is important towards this aim. Salmon lice have large economic consequences for the salmon industry, both as direct costs for the prevention and treatment, but also indirectly through negative public opinion. PMID:23311858

  12. Development of Topical Microbicides to Prevent the Sexual Transmission of HIV

    PubMed Central

    Buckheit, Robert W.; Watson, Karen M.; Morrow, Kathleen M.; Ham, Anthony S.

    2009-01-01

    Women comprise almost 50% of the population of people living with HIV and the majority of these women contracted the virus through sexual transmission in monogamous relationships in the developing world. In these environments, where women are not empowered to protect themselves through the negotiation of condom use, effective means of preventing HIV transmission are urgently needed. In the absence of an approved and effective vaccine, microbicides have become the strategy of choice to provide women with the ability to prevent HIV transmission from their infected partners. Topical microbicides are agents specifically developed and formulated for use in either the vaginal or rectal environment that prevent infection by sexually transmitted infectious organisms, including pathogenic viruses, bacteria and fungi. Although a microbicidal product will have many of the same properties as other anti-infective agents and would be similarly developed through human clinical trials, microbicide development bears its own challenges related to formulation and delivery and the unique environment in which the product must act, as well as the requirement to develop a product that is acceptable to the user. Herein, perspectives based on preclinical and clinical microbicide development experience, which have led to an evolving microbicide development algorithm, will be discussed. This article forms part of a special issue of Antiviral Research marking the 25th anniversary of antiretroviral drug discovery and development, Vol 85, issue 1, 2010”. PMID:19874851

  13. Problematic Sexual Behaviour in a Secure Psychiatric Setting: Challenges and Developing Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Gareth V.; Hebb, Jo

    2005-01-01

    Sexually abusive behaviours are common in a forensic psychiatric population, both before admission and while hospitalized. A survey of our medium security facility found that 41% of patients had a history of sexually abusive behaviours, ranging from convictions for sexual assault through to current episodes of sexual harassment. Most forensic…

  14. REPORT OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONSENSUS DEVELOPMENT CONFERENCE ON FEMALE SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION: DEFINITIONS AND CLASSIFICATIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROSEMARY BASSON; JENNIFER BERMAN; ARTHUR BURNETT; LEONARD DEROGATIS; DAVID FERGUSON; JEAN FOURCROY; IRWIN GOLDSTEIN; ALESSANDRA GRAZIOTTIN; JULIA HEIMAN; ELLEN LAAN; SANDRA LEIBLUM; HARIN PADMA-NATHAN; RAYMOND ROSEN; KATHLEEN SEGRAVES; R. TAYLOR SEGRAVES; RIDWAN SHABSIGH; MARCALEE SIPSKI; GORM WAGNER; BEVERLY WHIPPLE

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Female sexual dysfunction is highly prevalent but not well defined or understood. We evaluated and revised existing definitions and classifications of female sexual dysfunction. Materials and Methods: An interdisciplinary consensus conference panel consisting of 19 experts in female sexual dysfunction selected from 5 countries was convened by the Sexual Function Health Council of the American Foundation for Urologic Disease.

  15. Evaluating the Need for Sex Education in Developing Countries: Sexual Behaviour, Knowledge of Preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections/HIV and Unplanned Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Susheela; Bankole, Akinrinola; Woog, Vanessa

    2005-01-01

    Young people's need for sex education is evidenced by their typically early initiation of sexual activity, the often involuntary context within which they have sexual intercourse, high-risk sexual behaviours and the inadequate levels of knowledge of means of protecting their sexual health. The earliness of initiation of sexual intercourse has…

  16. Sexually transmitted diseases in Ethiopia. Social factors contributing to their spread and implications for developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Plorde, D S

    1981-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases in developing countries are causing concern to those responsible for their control and eradication. To gain a better understanding of the problems involved in a country struggling with development, the economic and psychosocial factors influencing the spread of STD in Ethiopia have been studied. Increased migration and urbanisation and the changing role of women have led to a rise in prostitution. Thus changes in the social structure--particularly in relation to the education and employment of women--and improved medical services are essential for the long-term control of STD. PMID:6895708

  17. Interactions between fine-grained sediment delivery, river bed deposition and salmonid spawning success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattison, I.; Sear, D. A.; Collins, A. L.; Jones, J. I.; Naden, P. S.

    2015-03-01

    Salmonids clean river bed gravels to lay their eggs. However, during the incubation period fine sediment infiltrates the bed. This has been found to limit the success of salmonid spawning, as fine sediment reduces gravel permeability resulting in intra-gravel flow velocities and O2 concentrations decreasing. The success of salmonid spawning is therefore a function of the coincidence of fine sediment delivery and the development of the salmonid eggs. The presence of fine sediment also exerts sub-lethal effects on the rate of egg development with a negative feedback slowing and extending the incubation process meaning the eggs are in the gravels for longer and susceptible to more potential sediment delivery events. The SIDO (Sediment Intrusion and Dissolved Oxygen)-UK model is a physically-based numerical model which simulates the effect of fine sediment deposition on the abiotic characteristics of the salmonid redd, along with the consequences for egg development and survival. This model is used to investigate the interactions and feedbacks between the timing and concentrations of suspended sediment delivery events, and the deposition of fine sediment within the gravel bed, and the consequences of this on the rate of egg development and survival. The model simulations suggest that egg survival is highly sensitive to suspended sediment concentrations, particularly to changes in the supply rate of sand particles. The magnitude, frequency and specific timing of sediment delivery events effects egg survival rates. The modelling framework is also used to investigate the impact of the rate of gravel infilling by sediment. The hypotheses of continual, discrete event and non-linear decline in the rate of infilling are investigated.

  18. TMC-1 attenuates C. elegans development and sexual behaviour in a chemically defined food environment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liusuo; Gualberto, Daisy G; Guo, Xiaoyan; Correa, Paola; Jee, Changhoon; Garcia, L Rene

    2015-01-01

    Although diet affects growth and behaviour, the adaptive mechanisms that coordinate these processes in non-optimal food sources are unclear. Here we show that the C. elegans tmc-1 channel, which is homologous to the mammalian tmc deafness genes, attenuates development and inhibits sexual behaviour in non-optimal food, the synthetic CeMM medium. In CeMM medium, signalling from the pharyngeal MC neurons and body wall muscles slows larval development. However, in the non-standard diet, mutation in tmc-1 accelerates development, by impairing the excitability of these cells. The tmc-1 larva can immediately generate ATP when fed CeMM, and their fast development requires insulin signalling. Our findings suggest that the tmc-1 channel indirectly affects metabolism in wild-type animals. In addition to regulating the development, we show that mutating tmc-1 can relax diet-induced inhibition of male sexual behaviour, thus indicating that a single regulator can be genetically modified to promote growth rate and reproductive success in new environments. PMID:25695879

  19. Regulation of sexual development in the basal termite Cryptotermes secundus: mutilation, pheromonal manipulation or honest signal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korb, Judith

    2005-01-01

    Social insect colonies are not the harmonious entities they were once considered. Considerable conflicts exist between colony members, as has been shown for Hymenoptera. For termites, similar studies are lacking, but aggressive manipulations have been claimed to regulate sexual development, and even to account for the evolution of workers. This study on a basal termite, Cryptotermes secundus (Kalotermitidae), suggests that the importance of aggressive manipulations in termites has been overemphasized. Wing-bud mutilations, a means proposed to regulate the development of dispersing sexuals (alates), seem to be artifacts of handling conditions that cause disturbance. Aggressive behaviors never occurred unless colonies were disturbed. Theoretical considerations further showed that the potential for intense conflict among termite nestmates is low compared to hymenopteran societies. Strong conflicts are only expected to occur over the replacement of natal reproductives that died, while less intense conflicts should exist over the development into alates when food in the colony becomes limiting. Accordingly, intracolonial aggressive interactions over replacement are common, whereas nestmates seem to manipulate alate development via proctodeal feeding when food resources decline. However, the latter is rather an honest signal than a manipulation because only the most competent prospective dispersers can impede the development of nestmates.

  20. Expression of Dmrt1 in the Genital Ridge of Mouse and Chicken Embryos Suggests a Role in Vertebrate Sexual Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher S. Raymond; Jae R. Kettlewell; Betsy Hirsch; Vivian J. Bardwell; David Zarkower

    1999-01-01

    Sex-determining mechanisms are highly variable between phyla. Only one example has been found in which structurally and functionally related genes control sex determination in different phyla: the sexual regulators mab-3 of Caenorhabditis elegans and doublesex of Drosophila both encode proteins containing the DM domain, a novel DNA-binding motif. These two genes control similar aspects of sexual development, and the male

  1. Avian Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River: 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Collis, Ken; Adamany, Stephanie; Roby, Daniel D.; Craig, David P.; Lyons, Donald E.

    2000-04-01

    The authors initiated a field study in 1997 to assess the impacts of fish-eating colonial waterbirds (i.e., terns, cormorants, and gulls) on the survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River. Here the authors present results from the 1998 breeding season, the second field season of work on this project. The research objectives in 1998 were to: (1) determine the location, size, nesting chronology, nesting success, and population trajectories of breeding colonies of fish-eating birds in the lower Columbia River; (2) determine diet composition of fish-eating birds, including taxonomic composition and energy content of various prey types; (3) estimate forage fish consumption rates, with special emphasis on juvenile salmonids, by breeding adults and their young; (4) determine the relative vulnerability of different groups of juvenile salmonids to bird predation; (5) identify foraging range, foraging strategies, and habitat utilization by piscivorous waterbirds; and (6) test the feasibility of various alternative methods for managing avian predation on juvenile salmonids and develop recommendations to reduce avian predation, if warranted by the results.

  2. Low summer water temperatures influence occurrence of naturalized salmonids across a mountain watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullner, S.A.; Hubert, W.A.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated relationships between the absence of salmonids and low summer water temperatures across a 150-km2 Rocky Mountain watershed. A model predicting maximum July water temperature (MJT) from measurements of perennial stream length, wetted width, and midrange basin elevation was developed from temperature data obtained at 20 sites across the watershed. The model was used to predict MJT in 75 reaches across the watershed where salmonids were sampled. The lowest predicted MJT in reaches where age-0 and juvenile-adult brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis were observed was 9??C. The lowest predicted MJT in reaches where age-0 progeny of the genus Oncorhynchus spp. (i.e., rainbow trout O. mykiss or cutthroat trout O. clarkii) were observed was 13??C and where Oncorhynchus spp. adults where observed was 12??C. The probability of occurrence of both age-0 and adult brook trout and Oncorhynchus spp. increased as MJT increased above these thresholds. Our results indicate that low MJT in some portions of a mountain watershed can be related to the absence of salmonids. Consequently, data on MJT may provide managers with a means of assessing where summer water temperatures are not suitable for establishment of naturalized salmonid populations. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  3. Fear, food and sexual ornamentation: plasticity of colour development in Trinidadian guppies

    PubMed Central

    Ruell, E. W.; Handelsman, C. A.; Hawkins, C. L.; Sofaer, H. R.; Ghalambor, C. K.; Angeloni, L.

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of male ornamentation often reflects compromises between sexual and natural selection, but it may also be influenced by phenotypic plasticity. We investigated the developmental plasticity of male colour ornamentation in Trinidadian guppies in response to two environmental variables that covary in nature: predation risk and food availability. We found that exposure to chemical predator cues delayed the development of pigment-based colour elements, which are conspicuous to visual-oriented predators. Predator cues also reduced the size of colour elements at the time of maturity and caused adult males to be less colourful. To the best of our knowledge, these findings provide the first example of a plastic reduction in the development of a sexually selected male ornament in response to predator cues. The influence of predator cues on ornamentation probably affects individual fitness by reducing conspicuousness to predators, but could reduce attractiveness to females. Reduced food availability during development caused males to delay the development of colour elements and mature later, probably reflecting a physiological constraint, but their coloration at maturity and later in adulthood was largely unaffected, suggesting that variation in food quantity without variation in quality does not contribute to condition dependence of the trait. PMID:23466982

  4. Ontogenetic development and sexual dimorphism of franciscana dolphin skull: A 3D geometric morphometric approach.

    PubMed

    del Castillo, Daniela L; Flores, David A; Cappozzo, Humberto L

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study the postnatal ontogenetic development of Pontoporia blainvillei skull, identifying major changes on shape, and relating them to relevant factors in the life history of the species. We analyzed a complete ontogenetic series (73?, 83?) with three-dimensional geometric morphometric techniques. Immature dolphins showed a very well-developed braincase and a poorly developed rostrum, and the principal postnatal changes affected the rostrum and the temporal fossa, both structures implied functionally to the feeding apparatus, thus suggesting a specialized mode for catch fast prey in P. blainvillei. Osseous elements associated with sound production were already well developed on immature dolphins, suggesting the importance of this apparatus since the beginning of postnatal life. Sexual dimorphism was detected on both shape and size variables. Females were bigger than males, in accordance with previous studies. Shape differences between sexes were found on the posterior part of premaxillaries and external bony nares (P?sexual dimorphism is related to differences on vocalization capabilities. PMID:25052760

  5. sexual Assault sexual Assault

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    sexual Assault sexual Assault if You Are a Victim of a sexual Assault 1. Get to a safe place. 2. Call out for help. 3. DiAl 6111 or ask someone to ring for you and state "sEXUAl AssAUlT" giving exact. if You Witness a sexual Assault 1. Everyone is asked to assist in making the campus a safe place by being

  6. An organizer controls the development of the "sword," a sexually selected trait in swordtail fish.

    PubMed

    Eibner, Cornelius; Pittlik, Silke; Meyer, Axel; Begemann, Gerrit

    2008-01-01

    Male swordtail fish of the genus Xiphophorus (Poeciliidae) possess a "sword" that is composed of several colored elongated ventral fin rays of the caudal fin. The sword is a secondary sexual trait that evolved through sexual selection by female preference. To uncover the developmental mechanisms underlying the metamorphosis from a juvenile caudal fin to the sword, we have devised a transplantation protocol to assay the fate of single transplanted fin rays and their interactions with flanking rays. These experiments provide evidence for the existence of a previously unrecognized inductive signal that originates in those rays that develop into the two longest sword rays. This "sword organizer" causes adjacent fin rays to grow and become integrated into the sword and induces the development of an additional, typically pigmented sword in grafts to the dorsal part of the caudal fin. We show that the potential to develop a sword is restricted to certain parts of the caudal fin. Our findings suggest that the evolution of swords in swordtails required the acquisition of two developmental mechanisms: the establishment of signaling competence in prospective sword rays in the embryo or early larva, and its activation through androgen signaling in adult male fish. PMID:18638317

  7. Sexual Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Parents can help their adolescent make healthy choices Sexual Health News & Information Understanding Sexual Health Public Health Reports ... infectious diseases, reproductive health and sexual violence prevention. Sexual Health Topics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Up-to-date information ...

  8. A Global Assessment of Salmon Aquaculture Impacts on Wild Salmonids

    E-print Network

    Myers, Ransom A.

    A Global Assessment of Salmon Aquaculture Impacts on Wild Salmonids Jennifer S. Ford* , Ransom A, wild salmon catch and abundance have declined dramatically in the North Atlantic and in much of farmed salmon. Previous studies have shown negative impacts on wild salmonids, but these results have

  9. GENOMIC RESOURCES FOR STUDYING EARLY LIFE STAGE SALMONID HEALTH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic approaches are being used to study pathological and normal processes in early life stage salmonids. Early Mortality Syndrome (EMS), a disease associated with low egg thiamine levels, causes early life stage mortality and low recruitment of Great Lakes salmonids including lake trout. We use...

  10. FURUNCULOSIS OF SALMONIDS : VACCINATION ATTEMPTS IN RAINBOW TROUT

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    FURUNCULOSIS OF SALMONIDS : VACCINATION ATTEMPTS IN RAINBOW TROUT (SALMO GAIRDNERI) BY FORMALIN modèle expérimental choisi pour reproduire la maladie. Furunculosis is a fish bacteriosis caused and the losses that it causes among Salmonids, mainly under fish-farming conditions, pathologists have very early

  11. Salmonid Abundance and Distribution in the middle Green River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karrigan S. Börk

    Salmonid abundance and distribution in the Green River between Flaming Gorge Dam the Split Mountain Boat Ramp (middle Green River, Figure 1) are governed by recruitment, habitat requirements and interspecific competition, played out on the framework of the Green river hydrology and geomorphology. Although salmonids historically did not inhabit the middle Green River after the end of the last glaciation,

  12. Teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse: problems with existing research leading to new scale development.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kerryann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Mathews, Ben; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des

    2010-05-01

    This paper details a systematic literature review identifying problems in extant research relating to teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse and offers a model for new attitude scale development and testing. Scale development comprised a five-phase process grounded in contemporary attitude theories, including (a) developing the initial item pool, (b) conducting a panel review, (c) refining the scale via an expert focus group, (d) building content validity through cognitive interviews, and (e) assessing internal consistency via field testing. The resulting 21-item scale displayed construct validity in preliminary testing. The scale may prove useful as a research tool, given the theoretical supposition that attitudes may be changed with time, context, experience, and education. Further investigation with a larger sample is warranted. PMID:20509079

  13. Language choice and sexual communication among Xhosa speakers in Cape Town, South Africa: implications for HIV prevention message development

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Demetria; Schensul, Stephen; Mlobeli, Regina

    2011-01-01

    Communicating about sex is a vital component of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and influences how HIV educators convey messages to communities and how couples negotiate safer sex practices. However, sexual communication inevitably confronts culturally based behavioral guidelines and linguistic taboos unique to diverse social contexts. The HIV interventionist needs to identify the appropriate language for sexual communication given the participants and the message. Ethnographic research can help facilitate the exploration of how sex terminology is chosen. A theoretical framework, developed to guide HIV interventionists, suggests that an individual's language choice for sexual communication is influenced by gender roles and power differentials. In-depth interviews, free listing and triadic comparisons were conducted with Xhosa men and women in Cape Town, South Africa, to determine the terms for male genitalia, female genitalia and sexual intercourse that are most appropriate for sexual communication. Results showed that sexual terms express cultural norms and role expectations where men should be powerful and resilient and women should be passive and virginal. For HIV prevention education, non-mother tongue (English and Zulu) terms were recommended as most appropriate because they are descriptive, but allow the speaker to communicate outside the restrictive limits of their mother tongue by reducing emotive cultural connotations. PMID:21059802

  14. Sexual reproduction and mating-type–mediated strain development in the penicillin-producing fungus Penicillium chrysogenum

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Julia; Hoff, Birgit; O’Gorman, Céline M.; Wolfers, Simon; Klix, Volker; Binger, Danielle; Zadra, Ivo; Kürnsteiner, Hubert; Pöggeler, Stefanie; Dyer, Paul S.; Kück, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Penicillium chrysogenum is a filamentous fungus of major medical and historical importance, being the original and present-day industrial source of the antibiotic penicillin. The species has been considered asexual for more than 100 y, and despite concerted efforts, it has not been possible to induce sexual reproduction, which has prevented sexual crosses being used for strain improvement. However, using knowledge of mating-type (MAT) gene organization, we now describe conditions under which a sexual cycle can be induced leading to production of meiotic ascospores. Evidence of recombination was obtained using both molecular and phenotypic markers. The identified heterothallic sexual cycle was used for strain development purposes, generating offspring with novel combinations of traits relevant to penicillin production. Furthermore, the MAT1-1–1 mating-type gene, known primarily for a role in governing sexual identity, was also found to control transcription of a wide range of genes with biotechnological relevance including those regulating penicillin production, hyphal morphology, and conidial formation. These discoveries of a sexual cycle and MAT gene function are likely to be of broad relevance for manipulation of other asexual fungi of economic importance. PMID:23307807

  15. Sexual Identity Development and Self-Esteem as Predictors of Body Image in a Racially Diverse Sample of Gay Men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dana Udall-Weiner

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between sexual identity development and body image, as well as the potential mediating effect of self-esteem, in a community sample of gay men. A diverse group of participants (N = 172), recruited through listservs and flyers, completed an online survey. Regression analyses were conducted to assess the relationships between identity development and self-esteem, identity

  16. Abnormalities of Sexual Development in Male Rats with in Utero and Lactational Exposure to the Antiandrogenic Plasticizer Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert W. Moore; Thomas A. Rudy; Tien-Min Lin; Kinarm Ko; Richard E. Peterson

    Several members of the phthalate ester family have antiandrogenic properties, yet little is known about how exposure to these ubiquitous environmental contaminants early in development may affect sexual development. We conducted experiments to determine effects of in utero and lacta- tional exposure to the most prevalent phthalate ester, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), on male reproductive system development and sexual behavior. Sprague-Dawley

  17. Resilience in Community: A Social Ecological Development Model for Young Adult Sexual Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Lindsey; Darnell, Doyanne A.; Rhew, Isaac C.; Lee, Christine M.; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Family support and rejection are associated with health outcomes among sexual minority women (SMW). We examined a social ecological development model among young adult SMW, testing whether identity risk factors or outness to family interacted with family rejection to predict community connectedness and collective self-esteem. Lesbian and bisexual women (N = 843; 57% bisexual) between the ages of 18–25 (M = 21.4; SD = 2.1) completed baseline and 12-month online surveys. The sample identified as White (54.2%), multiple racial backgrounds (16.6%), African American (9.6%) and Asian/Asian American (3.1%); 10.2% endorsed a Hispanic/Latina ethnicity. Rejection ranged from 18–41% across family relationships. Longitudinal regression indicated that when outness to family increased, SMW in highly rejecting families demonstrated resilience by finding connections and esteem in sexual minority communities to a greater extent than did non-rejected peers. But, when stigma concerns, concealment motivation, and other identity risk factors increased over the year, high family rejection did not impact community connectedness and SMW reported lower collective self-esteem. Racial minority SMW reported lower community connectedness, but not lower collective self-esteem. Families likely buffer or exacerbate societal risks for ill health. Findings highlight the protective role of LGBTQ communities and normative resilience among SMW and their families. PMID:25572956

  18. Resilience in community: a social ecological development model for young adult sexual minority women.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Lindsey; Darnell, Doyanne A; Rhew, Isaac C; Lee, Christine M; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-03-01

    Family support and rejection are associated with health outcomes among sexual minority women (SMW). We examined a social ecological development model among young adult SMW, testing whether identity risk factors or outness to family interacted with family rejection to predict community connectedness and collective self-esteem. Lesbian and bisexual women (N = 843; 57 % bisexual) between the ages of 18-25 (M = 21.4; SD = 2.1) completed baseline and 12-month online surveys. The sample identified as White (54.2 %), multiple racial backgrounds (16.6 %), African American (9.6 %) and Asian/Asian American (3.1 %); 10.2 % endorsed a Hispanic/Latina ethnicity. Rejection ranged from 18 to 41 % across family relationships. Longitudinal regression indicated that when outness to family increased, SMW in highly rejecting families demonstrated resilience by finding connections and esteem in sexual minority communities to a greater extent than did non-rejected peers. But, when stigma concerns, concealment motivation, and other identity risk factors increased over the year, high family rejection did not impact community connectedness and SMW reported lower collective self-esteem. Racial minority SMW reported lower community connectedness, but not lower collective self-esteem. Families likely buffer or exacerbate societal risks for ill health. Findings highlight the protective role of LGBTQ communities and normative resilience among SMW and their families. PMID:25572956

  19. Human Sexuality: Responsible Life Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryder, Verdene; Smith, Peggy B.

    This book provides a complete course in human sexuality. It can also be used to supplement a family living course. Text content provides current information for teaching high school students about sexuality issues. The text offers basic information on growth and development, sexual development, pregnancy, and birth. It explains the sexual decision…

  20. Identification of De Novo Copy Number Variants Associated with Human Disorders of Sexual Development

    PubMed Central

    Tannour-Louet, Mounia; Han, Shuo; Corbett, Sean T.; Louet, Jean-Francois; Yatsenko, Svetlana; Meyers, Lindsay; Shaw, Chad A.; Kang, Sung-Hae L.; Cheung, Sau Wai; Lamb, Dolores J.

    2010-01-01

    Disorders of sexual development (DSD), ranging in severity from genital abnormalities to complete sex reversal, are among the most common human birth defects with incidence rates reaching almost 3%. Although causative alterations in key genes controlling gonad development have been identified, the majority of DSD cases remain unexplained. To improve the diagnosis, we screened 116 children born with idiopathic DSD using a clinically validated array-based comparative genomic hybridization platform. 8951 controls without urogenital defects were used to compare with our cohort of affected patients. Clinically relevant imbalances were found in 21.5% of the analyzed patients. Most anomalies (74.2%) evaded detection by the routinely ordered karyotype and were scattered across the genome in gene-enriched subtelomeric loci. Among these defects, confirmed de novo duplication and deletion events were noted on 1p36.33, 9p24.3 and 19q12-q13.11 for ambiguous genitalia, 10p14 and Xq28 for cryptorchidism and 12p13 and 16p11.2 for hypospadias. These variants were significantly associated with genitourinary defects (P?=?6.08×10?12). The causality of defects observed in 5p15.3, 9p24.3, 22q12.1 and Xq28 was supported by the presence of overlapping chromosomal rearrangements in several unrelated patients. In addition to known gonad determining genes including SRY and DMRT1, novel candidate genes such as FGFR2, KANK1, ADCY2 and ZEB2 were encompassed. The identification of risk germline rearrangements for urogenital birth defects may impact diagnosis and genetic counseling and contribute to the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of human sexual development. PMID:21048976

  1. Differences in sexual development in inbred and outbred zebrafish (Danio rerio) and implications for chemical testing.

    PubMed

    Brown, A Ross; Bickley, Lisa K; Ryan, Thomas A; Paull, Gregory C; Hamilton, Patrick B; Owen, Stewart F; Sharpe, Alan D; Tyler, Charles R

    2012-05-15

    Outbred laboratory animal strains used in ecotoxicology are intended to represent wild populations. However, breeding history may vary considerably between strains, driving differences in genetic variation and phenotypes used for assessing effects of chemical exposure. We compared a range of phenotypic endpoints in zebrafish from four different "breeding treatments" comprising a Wild Indian Karyotype (WIK) zebrafish strain and a WIK/Wild strain with three levels of inbreeding (F(IT)=n, n+0.25, n+0.375) in a new Fish Sexual Development Test (FSDT). There were no differences between treatments in terms of egg viability, hatch success or fry survival. However, compared with WIKs, WIK/Wild hybrids were significantly larger in size, with more advanced gonadal (germ cell) development at the end of the test (63 days post fertilisation). Increasing the levels of inbreeding in the related WIK/Wild lines did not affect body size, but there was a significant male-bias (72%) in the most inbred line (F(IT)=n+0.375). Conversely, in the reference WIK strain there was a significant female-bias in the population (80% females). Overall, our results support the use of outbred zebrafish strains in the FSDT, where one of the core endpoints is sex ratio. Despite increased variance (and reduced statistical power) for some endpoints, WIK/Wild outbreds (F(IT)=n) met all acceptance criteria for controls in this test, whereas WIKs failed to comply with tolerance limits for sex ratio (30-70% females). Sexual development was also more advanced in WIK/Wild outbreds (cf. WIKs), providing greater scope for detection of developmental reproductive toxicity following chemical exposure. PMID:22360940

  2. Low-dose effects of bisphenol A on early sexual development in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Sofie; Axelstad, Marta; Boberg, Julie; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Pedersen, Gitte Alsing; Hass, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely detected in human urine and blood. BPA has been reported to impair many endpoints for reproductive and neurological development; however, it is controversial whether BPA has effects in the microgram per kilogram dose range. The aim of the current study was to examine the influence of BPA on early sexual development in male and female rats at dose levels covering both regulatory no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) (5 and 50?mg/kg bw per day) as well as doses in the microgram per kilogram dose range (0.025 and 0.25?mg/kg bw per day). Time-mated Wistar rats (n=22) were gavaged during pregnancy and lactation from gestation day 7 to pup day 22 with 0, 0.025, 0.25, 5 or 50?mg/kg bw per day BPA. From 0.250?mg/kg and above, male anogenital distance (AGD) was significantly decreased, whereas decreased female AGD was seen from 0.025?mg/kg bw per day and above. Moreover, the incidence of nipple retention in males appeared to increase dose relatedly and the increase was statistically significant at 50?mg/kg per day. No significant changes in reproductive organ weights in the 16-day-old males and females and no signs of maternal toxicity were seen. The decreased AGD at birth in both sexes indicates effects on prenatal sexual development and provides new evidence of low-dose adverse effects of BPA in rats in the microgram per kilogram dose range. The NOAEL in this study is clearly below 5?mg/kg for BPA, which is used as the basis for establishment of the current tolerable daily intake (TDI) by EFSA; thus a reconsideration of the current TDI of BPA appears warranted. PMID:24298045

  3. Blue light acts as a double-edged sword in regulating sexual development of Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei).

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Ling; Kuo, Hsiao-Che; Tung, Shu-Yu; Hsu, Paul Wei-Che; Wang, Chih-Li; Seibel, Christian; Schmoll, Monika; Chen, Ruey-Shyang; Wang, Ting-Fang

    2012-01-01

    The industrially important cellulolytic filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is the anamorph of the pantropical ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina. H. jecorina CBS999.97 strain undergoes a heterothallic reproductive cycle, and the mating yields fertilized perithecia imbedded in stromata. Asci in the perithecia contain 16 linearly arranged ascospores. Here, we investigated H. jecorina sexual development under different light regimes, and found that visible light was dispensable for sexual development (stroma formation and ascospore discharge). By contrast, constant illumination inhibited stroma formation, and an interruption of the darkness facilitated timely stroma formation in a 12 h/12 h light-dark photoperiod. The results of genetic analyses further revealed that H. jecorina blue-light photoreceptors (BLR1, BLR2) and the photoadaptation protein ENV1 were not essential for sexual development in general. BLR1, BLR2 and ENV1 are orthologues of the conserved Neurospora crassa WC-1, WC-2 and VVD, respectively. Moreover, BLR1 and BLR2 mediate both positive and negative light-dependent regulation on sexual development, whereas ENV1 is required for dampening the light-dependent inhibitory effect in response to changes in illumination. Comparative genome-wide microarray analysis demonstrated an overview of light-dependent gene expression versus sexual potency in CBS999.97 (MAT1-2) haploid cells. Constant illumination promotes abundant asexual conidiation and high levels of hpp1 transcripts. hpp1 encodes a h (hybrid)-type propheromone that exhibits features of both yeast a and a pheromone precursors. Deletion of hpp1 could rescue stroma formation but not ascospore generation under constant illumination. We inferred that the HPP1-dependent pheromone signaling system might directly prevent stroma formation or simply disallow the haploid cells to acquire sexual potency due to abundant asexual conidiation upon constant illumination. PMID:23028710

  4. Molecular responses to 17?-estradiol in early life stage salmonids.

    PubMed

    Marlatt, Vicki L; Sun, Jinying; Curran, Cat A; Bailey, Howard C; Kennedy, Chris K; Elphick, James R; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2014-07-01

    Environmental estrogens (EE) are ubiquitous in many aquatic environments and biological responses to EEs in early developmental stages of salmonids are poorly understood compared to juvenile and adult stages. Using 17?-estradiol (E2) as a model estrogen, waterborne exposures were conducted on early life stage rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; egg, alevin, swim-up fry) and both molecular and physiological endpoints were measured to quantify the effects of E2. To investigate developmental stage-specific effects, laboratory exposures of 1 ?g/L E2 were initiated pre-hatching as eyed embryos or post-hatching upon entering the alevin stage. High mortality (?90%) was observed when E2 exposures were initiated at the eyed embryo stage compared to the alevin stage (?35% mortality), demonstrating stage-specific sensitivity. Gene expression analyses revealed that vitellogenin was detectable in the liver of swim-up fry, and was highly inducible by 1 ?g/L E2 (>200-fold higher levels compared to control animals). Experiments also confirmed the induction of vitellogenin protein levels in protein extracts isolated from head and tail regions of swim-up fry after E2 exposure. These findings suggest that induction of vitellogenin, a well-characterized biomarker for estrogenic exposure, can be informative measured at this early life stage. Several other genes of the reproductive endocrine axis (e.g. estrogen receptors and androgen receptors) exhibited decreased expression levels compared to control animals. In addition, chronic exposure to E2 during the eyed embryo and alevin stages resulted in suppressive effects on growth related genes (growth hormone receptors, insulin-like growth factor 1) as well as premature hatching, suggesting that the somatotropic axis is a key target for E2-mediated developmental and growth disruptions. Combining molecular biomarkers with morphological and physiological changes in early life stage salmonids holds considerable promise for further defining estrogen action during development, and for assessing the impacts of endocrine disrupting chemicals in vivo in teleosts. PMID:24698784

  5. Assessing the reliability and validity of the Chinese Sexual Assault Symptom Scale (C-SASS): scale development and validation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang-Hwai; Lee, Jin-Chuan; Yuan, Yu-Hsi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to establish and verify the psychometric and structural properties of the self-report Chinese Sexual Assault Symptom Scale (C-SASS) to assess the trauma experienced by Chinese victims of sexual assault. An earlier version of the C-SASS was constructed using a modified list of the same trauma symptoms administered to an American sample and used to develop and validate the Sexual Assault Symptom Scale II (SASS II). The rationale of this study is to revise the earlier version of the C-SASS, using a larger and more representative sample and more robust statistical analysis than in earlier research, to permit a more thorough examination of the instrument and further confirm the dimensions of sexual assault trauma in Chinese victims of rape. In this study, a sample of 418 victims from northern Taiwan was collected to confirm the reliability and validity of the C-SASS. Exploratory factor analysis yielded five common factors: Safety Fears, Self-Blame, Health Fears, Anger and Emotional Lability, and Fears About the Criminal Justice System. Further tests of the validity and composite reliability of the C-SASS were provided by the structural equation modeling (SEM). The results indicated that the C-SASS was a brief, valid, and reliable instrument for assessing sexual assault trauma among Chinese victims in Taiwan. The scale can be used to evaluate victims in sexual assault treatment centers around Taiwan, as well as to capture the characteristics of sexual assault trauma among Chinese victims. PMID:24128426

  6. Determination of erythromycin in medicated salmonid fish feed by liquid chromatography and UV spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    De Alwis, Hemakanthi G; Girard, Lauren; Kijak, Philip J; Rummel, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    A simple, robust LC-UV method was developed to assay erythromycin in medicated salmonid feed. In this method, erythromycin was extracted from feed with acetonitrile and water, cleaned up by SPE, evaporated to dryness, reconstituted, and analyzed by LC-UV. The resulting method produced high accuracy, 82-90%, for both salmon and trout feed that represented varied pellet sizes and ingredient amounts. The intraday and interday precisions, at < or = 6 and 5%, respectively, indicated the method's good repeatability. Calibration was linear over the range of drug concentrations typically used in medicated feed. An independent analyst validation further demonstrated the repeatability of the method. The developed method could support the drug approval process for erythromycin in medicated salmonid fish feed. PMID:24645499

  7. Modification of a salmonid alphavirus replicon vector for enhanced expression of heterologous antigens.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tz-Chun; Johansson, Daniel X; Liljeström, Peter; Evensen, Øystein; Haugland, Øyvind

    2015-03-01

    A salmonid alphavirus (SAV) replicon has been developed to express heterologous antigens but protein production was low to modest compared with terrestrial alphavirus replicons. In this study, we have compared several modifications to a SAV replicon construct and analysed their influence on foreign gene expression. We found that an insertion of a translational enhancer consisting of the N-terminal 102 nt of the capsid gene, together with a nucleotide sequence encoding the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 2A peptide, caused a significant increase in EGFP reporter gene expression. The importance of fusing a hammerhead (HH) ribozyme sequence at the 5' end of the viral genome was also demonstrated. In contrast, a hepatitis D virus ribozyme (HDV-RZ) sequence placed at the 3' end did not augment expression of inserted genes. Taken together, we have developed a platform for optimized antigen production, which can be applied for immunization of salmonid fish in the future. PMID:25395591

  8. Sexuality: A Human Condition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkman, Anne H.

    1975-01-01

    Rehabilitation has too long ignored a vital concern for those who are disabled--their sexuality. The author describes the scope of the problem of sexual function in disability and its validity as a rehabilitation issue. Also explored is the rehabilitation professional's role in facilitating the client's sexual development. (Author/EA)

  9. Sexual Development in Lucilia cuprina (Diptera, Calliphoridae) Is Controlled by the Transformer Gene

    PubMed Central

    Concha, Carolina; Scott, Maxwell J.

    2009-01-01

    Insects use an amazing variety of genetic systems to control sexual development. A Y-linked male determining gene (M) controls sex in the Australian sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina, an important pest insect. In this study, we isolated the L. cuprina transformer (Lctra) and transformer2 (Lctra2) genes, which are potential targets of M. The LCTRA and LCTRA2 proteins are significantly more similar to homologs from tephritid insects than Drosophila. The Lctra transcript is alternatively spliced such that only females make a full-length protein and the presence of six TRA/TRA2 binding sites in the female first intron suggest that Lctra splicing is autoregulated as in tephritids. LCTRA is essential for female development as RNAi knockdown of Lctra mRNA leads to the development of male genitalia in XX adults. Analysis of Lctra expression during development shows that early and midstage male and female embryos express the female form of Lctra and males express only the male form by the first instar larval stage. Our results suggest that an autoregulatory loop sustains female development and that expression of M inhibits Lctra autoregulation, switching its splicing to the male form. The conservation of tra function and regulation in a Calliphorid insect shows that this sex determination system is not confined to Tephritidae. Isolation of these genes is an important step toward the development of a strain of L. cuprina suitable for a genetic control program. PMID:19433631

  10. Partial urorectal septum malformation sequence in a kitten with disorder of sexual development.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Brice S; Pain, Amélie; Meynaud-Collard, Patricia; Nowacka-Woszuk, Joanna; Szczerbal, Izabela; Switonski, Marek; Chastant-Maillard, Sylvie

    2014-12-01

    A 2-month-old kitten exhibited simultaneously an imperforate anus, hypospadias, rectourethral fistula and genital dysgenesis (penis restricted to the glans, absence of prepuce and bifid scrotum). Surgical correction consisted of separation of the urinary and digestive tracts, perineal urethrostomy and connection of the rectum to the newly made anal opening. Pathological examination of the testes, conventionally removed at 9 months of age, showed no mature spermatozoa and underdevelopment of germ and Leydig cells. In humans, the absence of an anal opening in association with abnormal sexual development defines the urorectal septum malformation sequence. Here, we describe the first case of this syndrome in a kitten with a normal male karyotype (38,XY) and a normal coding sequence for the SRY gene. Both the rectourethral fistula and observed genital abnormalities might have been induced by a disturbance in the hedgehog signalling pathway. However, although four polymorphic sites were identified by DHH gene sequencing, none cosegregated with the malformation. PMID:24718294

  11. EFFECTS OF PRENATAL TESTOSTERONE PROPIONATE ON THE SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT OF MALE AND FEMALE RATS: A DOSE-RESPONSE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Prenatal Testosterone Propionate on the Sexual Development of Male and Female Rats: A Dose-Response Study Cynthia J. Wolf1,2, Andrew Hotchkiss3, Joseph S. Ostby1, Gerald A. LeBlanc2 and L. Earl Gray1,4, Jr. ABSTRACT Testosterone plays a major role in ...

  12. EFFECTS OF PRENATAL TESTOSTERONE PROPIONATE ON SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT OF MALE AND FEMALE RATS: A DOSE-RESPONSE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Prenatal Testosterone Propionate on Sexual Development of Male and Female Rats: A Dose-Response Study Cynthia Wolf1,2, Joe Ostby1*, Andrew Hotchkiss3, Gerald LeBlanc2, and L. Earl Gray, Jr.1 1USEPA, NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, RTP, NC; 2Dept. of To...

  13. Using the Freirian Model To Develop an Ethnically Sensitive Sexuality Education Curriculum for an American Indian Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Deborah Downing

    A case study of the Eagle Creek community in the Cherokee Nation explored the development of a sexuality education curriculum using Paulo Freire's model. Data indicated that the curriculum empowered people, helped to uncover socio-political and cultural issues that affect behavior, and emphasized the collective knowledge that emerges when a group…

  14. Relationships of Pubertal Development among Early Adolescents to Sexual and Nonsexual Risk Behaviors and Caregivers' Parenting Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo, Helen P.; Rose, Allison; Bhaskar, Brinda; Walker, Leslie R.

    2012-01-01

    Using a school-based sample of fifth graders (mean age = 10.38, SD = 0.66) and their parents (N = 408) from Washington, D.C., the authors examine associations of pubertal development with early adolescents' sexual and nonsexual risk behaviors and their caregivers' parenting behaviors and of these risk behaviors with parenting behaviors. Results…

  15. Uncommonly Good: Exploring How Mass Media May Be a Positive Influence on Young Women's Sexual Health and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, L. Monique; Day, Kyla M.; Epstein, Marina

    2006-01-01

    This chapter discusses several ways in which the media may serve as a positive force in young women's sexual health and development through the information and models they provide and the opportunities they offer for validation and self-expression. (Contains 1 table.)

  16. Building a scientific framework for studying hormonal effects on behavior and on the development of the sexually dimorphic nervous system

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been increasing concern that low-dose exposure to hormonally active chemicals disrupts sexual differentiation of the brain and peripheral nervous system. There also has been active drug development research on the therapeutic potential of hormone therapy on behaviors. T...

  17. "Teacher Talk": The Problems, Perspectives and Possibilities of Developing a Comprehensive Sexual Health Education Curriculum for Australian Muslim Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanjakdar, Fida

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that examines how a group of teachers at a Victorian Islamic College deliberated on how to develop an appropriate sexual health education curriculum for their Muslim students. Teachers found themselves challenged by the current restrictive curriculum structures, policies and practices at their school. They also found…

  18. What couples say about their recovery of sexual intimacy after prostatectomy: toward the development of a conceptual model of couples’ sexual recovery after surgery for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wittmann, Daniela; Carolan, Marsha; Given, Barbara; Skolarus, Ted A.; Crossley, Heather; An, Lawrence; Palapattu, Ganesh; Clark, Patricia; Montie, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Interventions designed to help couples recover sexual intimacy after prostatectomy have not been guided by a comprehensive conceptual model. Aim We examined a proposed biopsychosocial conceptual model of couples’ sexual recovery that included functional, psychological and relational aspects of sexuality, surgery-related sexual losses, and grief and mourning as recovery process. Methods We interviewed twenty couples pre-operatively and 3-months post-operatively. between 2010 and 2012. Interviews were analyzed with Analytic Induction qualitative methodology, using NVivo software. Paired t-tests described functional assessment data. Study findings led to a revised conceptual model. Main Outcome Measures Couples’ experiences were assessed through semi-structured interviews; male participants’ sexual function was assessed with the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite and female participants’ sexual function with the Female Sexual Function Index. Results Pre-operatively, 30% of men had erectile dysfunction (ED), 84% of partners were post-menopausal. All valued sexual recovery, but worried about cancer spread and surgery side-effects. Faith in themselves and their surgeons led 90% of couples to overestimate erectile recovery. Post-operatively, most men had ED and lost confidence. Couples’ sexual activity decreased. Couples reported feeling loss and grief: cancer diagnosis was the first loss, followed by surgery-related sexual losses. Couples’ engagement in intentional sex, patients’ acceptance of erectile aids and partners’ interest in sex aided the recovery of couples’ sexual intimacy recovery. Unselfconscious sex, not return to erectile function baseline, was seen as the endpoint. Survey findings documented participants’ sexual function losses, confirming qualitative findings. Conclusions Couples’ sexual recovery requires addressing sexual function, feelings about losses and relationship simultaneously. Peri-operative education should emphasize the roles of nerve damage in ED and grief and mourning in sexual recovery. PMID:25358901

  19. Sustainable development, demography and sexual and reproductive health: inseparable linkages and their policy implications.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The greatest challenge today is to meet the needs of current and future generations, of a large and growing world population, without imposing catastrophic pressures on the natural environment. Meeting this challenge depends on decisive policy changes in three areas: more inclusive economic growth, greener economic growth, and population policies. This article focuses on efforts to address and harness demographic changes for sustainable development, which are largely outside the purview of the current debate. Efforts to this end must be based on the recognition that demographic changes are the cumulative result of individual choices and opportunities, and that demographic changes are best addressed through policies that enlarge these choices and opportunities, with a focus on ensuring unrestricted and universal access to sexual and reproductive health information and services, empowering women to fully participate in social, economic and political life, and investing in the education of the younger generation beyond the primary level. The article provides a strong argument for why the Programme of Action that was agreed at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) 20 years ago continues to hold important implications and lessons for the formulation of the post-2015 development agenda, which is expected to supersede the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). PMID:24908454

  20. Partner notification for sexually transmitted infections in developing countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The feasibility and acceptability of partner notification (PN) for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in developing countries was assessed through a comprehensive literature review, to help identify future intervention needs. Methods The Medline, Embase, and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify studies published between January 1995 and December 2007 on STI PN in developing countries. A systematic review of the research extracted information on: (1) willingness of index patients to notify partners; (2) the proportion of partners notified or referred; (3) client-reported barriers in notifying partners; (4) infrastructure barriers in notifying partners; and (5) PN approaches that were evaluated in developing countries. Results Out of 609 screened articles, 39 met our criteria. PN outcome varied widely and was implemented more often for spousal partners than for casual or commercial partners. Reported barriers included sociocultural factors such as stigma, fear of abuse for having an STI, and infrastructural factors related to the limited number of STD clinics, and trained providers and reliable diagnostic methods. Client-oriented counselling was found to be effective in improving partner referral outcomes. Conclusions STD clinics can improve PN with client-oriented counselling, which should help clients to overcome perceived barriers. The authors speculate that well-designed PN interventions to evaluate the impact on STI prevalence and incidence along with cost-effectiveness components will motivate policy makers in developing countries to allocate more resources towards STI management. PMID:20082718

  1. A transcriptional switch underlies commitment to sexual development in malaria parasites.

    PubMed

    Kafsack, Björn F C; Rovira-Graells, Núria; Clark, Taane G; Bancells, Cristina; Crowley, Valerie M; Campino, Susana G; Williams, April E; Drought, Laura G; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P; Baker, David A; Cortés, Alfred; Llinás, Manuel

    2014-03-13

    The life cycles of many parasites involve transitions between disparate host species, requiring these parasites to go through multiple developmental stages adapted to each of these specialized niches. Transmission of malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) from humans to the mosquito vector requires differentiation from asexual stages replicating within red blood cells into non-dividing male and female gametocytes. Although gametocytes were first described in 1880, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in commitment to gametocyte formation is extremely limited, and disrupting this critical developmental transition remains a long-standing goal. Here we show that expression levels of the DNA-binding protein PfAP2-G correlate strongly with levels of gametocyte formation. Using independent forward and reverse genetics approaches, we demonstrate that PfAP2-G function is essential for parasite sexual differentiation. By combining genome-wide PfAP2-G cognate motif occurrence with global transcriptional changes resulting from PfAP2-G ablation, we identify early gametocyte genes as probable targets of PfAP2-G and show that their regulation by PfAP2-G is critical for their wild-type level expression. In the asexual blood-stage parasites pfap2-g appears to be among a set of epigenetically silenced loci prone to spontaneous activation. Stochastic activation presents a simple mechanism for a low baseline of gametocyte production. Overall, these findings identify PfAP2-G as a master regulator of sexual-stage development in malaria parasites and mark the first discovery of a transcriptional switch controlling a differentiation decision in protozoan parasites. PMID:24572369

  2. A transcriptional switch underlies commitment to sexual development in human malaria parasites

    PubMed Central

    Kafsack, Björn F.C.; Rovira-Graells, Núria; Clark, Taane G.; Bancells, Cristina; Crowley, Valerie M.; Campino, Susana G.; Williams, April E.; Drought, Laura G.; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P.; Baker, David A.; Cortés, Alfred; Llinás, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The life cycles of many parasites involve transitions between disparate host species, requiring these parasites to go through multiple developmental stages adapted to each of these specialized niches. Transmission of malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) from humans to the mosquito vector requires differentiation from asexual stages replicating within red blood cells into non-dividing male and female gametocytes. Although gametocytes were first described in 1880, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in commitment to gametocyte formation is extremely limited and disrupting this critical developmental transition remains a long-standing goal1. We show here that expression levels of the DNA-binding protein PfAP2-G correlate strongly with levels of gametocyte formation. Using independent forward and reverse genetics approaches, we demonstrate that PfAP2-G function is essential for parasite sexual differentiation. By combining genome-wide PfAP2-G cognate motif occurrence with global transcriptional changes resulting from PfAP2-G ablation, we identify early gametocyte genes as likely targets of PfAP2-G and show that their regulation by PfAP2-G is critical for their wild-type level expression. In the asexual blood-stage parasites pfap2-g appears to be among a set of epigenetically silenced loci2,3 prone to spontaneous activation4. Stochastic activation presents a simple mechanism for a low baseline of gametocyte production. Overall, these findings identify PfAP2-G as a master regulator of sexual-stage development in malaria parasites and mark the first identification of a transcriptional switch controlling a differentiation decision in protozoan parasites. PMID:24572369

  3. Sexually dimorphic adaptations in basal maternal stress physiology during pregnancy and implications for fetal development.

    PubMed

    Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Campbell, Tavis; Letourneau, Nicole

    2015-06-01

    There is clear evidence of reciprocal exchange of information between the mother and fetus during pregnancy but the majority of research in this area has focussed on the fetus as a recipient of signals from the mother. Specifically, physiological signals produced by the maternal stress systems in response to the environment may carry valuable information about the state of the external world. Prenatal stress produces sex-specific adaptations within fetal physiology that have pervasive and long-lasting effects on development. Little is known, however, about the effects of sex-specific fetal signals on maternal adaptations to pregnancy. The current prospective study examined sexually dimorphic adaptations within maternal stress physiology, including the hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and associations with fetal growth. Using diurnal suites of saliva collected in early and late pregnancy, we demonstrate that basal cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) differ by fetal sex. Women carrying female fetuses displayed greater autonomic arousal and flatter (but more elevated) diurnal cortisol patterns compared to women carrying males. Women with flatter daytime cortisol trajectories and more blunted sAA awakening responses also had infants with lower birth weight. These maternal adaptations are consistent with sexually dimorphic fetal developmental/evolutionary adaptation strategies that favor growth for males and conservation of resources for females. The findings provide new evidence to suggest that the fetus contributes to maternal HPA axis and ANS regulation during pregnancy and that these systems also contribute to the regulation of fetal growth. PMID:25827961

  4. Physiological Assessment of Wild and Hatchery Juvenile Salmonids : Final Report, 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Donald A.; Beckman, Brian R.; Dickhoff, Walton W.

    2003-08-01

    It is generally held that hatchery-reared salmonids are of inferior quality and have lower smolt-to-adult survival compared to naturally-reared salmon. The overall objectives of the work performed under this contract were the following: (1) Characterize the physiology and development of naturally rearing juvenile salmonids to: (2) Allow for the design of effective rearing programs for producing wild-like smolts in supplementation and production hatchery programs. (3) Examine the relationship between growth rate and size on the physiology and migratory performance of fish reared in hatchery programs. (4) Examine the interaction of rearing temperature and feed rate on the growth and smoltification of salmon for use in producing a more wild-like smolt in hatchery programs.

  5. Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bulllying

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Harassment and Sexual Bullying Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? What Are Sexual ... technology to harass someone sexually (like sending inappropriate text messages, pictures, or videos). Sometimes sexual harassment can ...

  6. Development of a Clinical Instrument to Record Sexual Aggression in an Inpatient Psychiatric Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Nicole Tuomi; Sheitman, Brian; Hazelrigg, Mark; Carmel, Harold; Williams, Jim; Paesler, Betty

    2007-01-01

    While there are a number of instruments that assess historical factors related to sexual aggression for the purposes of risk assessment, there is a notable absence of measures that assess change in ongoing, sexually aggressive behaviours engaged in by people who reside in psychiatric hospitals. The purpose of this report is to describe the…

  7. Ethical Parenting of Sexually Active Youth: Ensuring Safety While Enabling Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.

    2013-01-01

    The protection of children from harm is commonly accepted as the cardinal duty of parents. In the USA, where young people's sexuality is often regarded with anxiety, attempts to restrict adolescent sexual behaviour are seen as ethically justified and even required of "good" parents. Running counter to popular anxiety surrounding…

  8. Toward a Sexual Ethics Curriculum: Bringing Philosophy and Society to Bear on Individual Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    For over a decade, battles have raged between conservative Abstinence Only Until Marriage (AOUM) sexuality education advocates and liberal Comprehensive Sexuality Education (CSE) advocates. While these battles have focused on the inclusion of health information about contraception and whether or not a curriculum must advocate abstinence as the…

  9. The Psychological Measurement of Childhood Sexual Development in Western Societies: Methodological Challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanneke de Graaf; Jany Rademakers

    2011-01-01

    Children can display sexual behavior or have sexual experiences. Different psychological research methods are available for studying these kinds of behaviors and feelings, such as interviewing or observing children (direct methods), asking adolescents or adults to retrospectively report their childhood memories or using intermediaries to observe children (indirect methods). Each of these methods has its own advantages and limitations. Based

  10. Sexual identity development among gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths: consistency and change over time.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Hunter, Joyce; Braun, Lisa

    2006-02-01

    A longitudinal report of 156 gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths examined changes in sexual identity over time. Fifty-seven percent of the youths remained consistently self-identified as gay/lesbian, 18% transited from bisexual to gay/lesbian, and 15% consistently identified as bisexual over time. Although youths who consistently identified as gay/lesbian did not differ from other youths on time since experiencing sexual developmental milestones, they reported current sexual orientation and sexual behaviors that were more same-sex centered and they scored higher on aspects of the identity integration process (e.g., more certain, comfortable, and accepting of their same-sex sexuality, more involved in gay-related social activities, more possessing of positive attitudes toward homosexuality, and more comfortable with others knowing about their sexuality) than youths who transited to a gay/lesbian identity and youths who consistently identified as bisexual. Contrary to the hypothesis that females are more sexually fluid than males, female youths were less likely to change identities than male youths. The finding that youths who transited to a gay/lesbian identity differed from consistently gay/lesbian youths suggests that identity integration continues after the adoption of a gay/lesbian sexual identity. PMID:16817067

  11. Development of the Sexual Sensation-Seeking Scale for African American Adolescent Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph DiClemente; Robin R. Milhausen; Laura F. Salazar; Joshua Spitalnick; Jessica McDermott Sales; Richard A. Crosby; Sinead N. Younge; Gina M. Wingood

    2010-01-01

    We used data derived from two independent studies to examine the psychometric properties of a new scale to measure adolescents’ willingness to engage in sexual sensation-seeking behavior. In Study 1, the Sexual Sensation-Seeking Scale for Adolescents (SSSA) was administered to a sample of 715 African American adolescents ranging in age from 15 to 21 years. The SSSA demonstrated strong internal

  12. Development of an Attachment-Informed Measure of Sexual Behavior in Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szielasko, Alicia L.; Symons, Douglas K.; Price, E. Lisa

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable interest in relations between sexual behavior and romantic attachment styles in adolescence as attachment needs are increasingly met through intimate partners rather than parents. The objectives of this research were to organize a measure of sexual behavior within an attachment theory framework, and then show that this new…

  13. Hormones and history: The evolution and development of primate female sexuality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kim Wallen; Julia L. Zehr

    2004-01-01

    Sexual behavior is required for reproduction in internally fertilizing species but poses significant social and physical risks. Females in many nonprimate species have evolved physical and behavioral mechanisms restricting sexual behavior to when females are fertile. The same hormones producing female fertility also control these mechanisms, assuring that sex only occurs when reproduction is possible. In contrast to nonprimate mammals,

  14. Is It Bullying or Sexual Harassment? Knowledge, Attitudes, and Professional Development Experiences of Middle School Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charmaraman, Linda; Jones, Ashleigh E.; Stein, Nan; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study fills a gap in the literature by examining how school staff members view bullying and sexual harassment and their role in preventing both. Given recent legislation, increasingly more attention is paid to bully prevention; however, student-on-student sexual harassment is less addressed. Methods: Four focus groups were…

  15. Development of the renal sexual segment in immature snakes: effect of sex steroid hormones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randolph W. Krohmer; Dora Martinez; Robert T. Mason

    2004-01-01

    The renal sexual segment (RSS) of immature Northern and Diamondback Water Snakes and Red-Sided Garter Snakes exhibited varying responses to testosterone or 17?-estradiol. In both male and female water snakes, kidney mass was not a reliable indicator of hormone treatment, whereas tubule diameter, epithelial height and number of sexual granules responded to hormone treatment. In male water snakes, either hormone

  16. Twenty years after International Conference on Population and Development: where are we with adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights?

    PubMed

    Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Svanemyr, Joar; Amin, Avni; Fogstad, Helga; Say, Lale; Girard, Françoise; Temmerman, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    The International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994 laid out a bold, clear, and comprehensive definition of reproductive health and called for nations to meet the educational and service needs of adolescents to enable them to deal in a positive and responsible way with their sexuality. In the context of the ongoing review of the International Conference on Population and Development Programme of Action and the considerations for a post-2015 development agenda, this article summarizes the findings of the articles presented in this volume and identifies key challenges and critical answers that need to be tackled in addressing adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights. The key recommendations are to link the provision of sexuality education and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services; build awareness, acceptance, and support for youth-friendly SRH education and services; address gender inequality in terms of beliefs, attitudes, and norms; and target the early adolescent period (10-14 years). The many knowledge gaps, however, point to the pressing need for further research on how to best design effective adolescent SRH intervention packages and how best to deliver them. PMID:25528975

  17. Sexual harassment proclivities in men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John B. Pryor

    1987-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to develop and validate a measure of sexual harassment proclivities in males. Previous studies of sexual harassment were reviewed and a gap in the current knowledge of the psychological characteristics of sexual harassers was revealed. A possible technique for studying sexual harassment proclivities was suggested by recent research on rape proclivities. Two initial studies using this

  18. Non-salmonids in a salmonid fishway: what do 50 years of data tell us about past and future fish passage?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M ALLEN-COOPER; D. A. B RAND

    Salmonid fishways have been used in many countries for non-salmonid fishes, including Australia, but generally with poor results. Trapping the entrance and exit of a 1:9 gradient salmonid fishway on the Murray River confirmed very poor passage of native fish, with <1% of the most abundant species ascending. Fifty years of fish passage monitoring showed the numbers of three native

  19. Gas Bubble Trauma Monitoring and Research of Juvenile Salmonids, 1994-1995 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hans, Karen M.

    1997-07-01

    This report describes laboratory and field monitoring studies of gas bubble trauma (GBT) in migrating juvenile salmonids in the Snake and Columbia rivers. The first chapter describes laboratory studies of the progression of GBT signs leading to mortality and the use of the signs for GBT assessment. The progression and severity of GBT signs in juvenile salmonids exposed to different levels of total dissolved gas (TDG) and temperatures was assessed and quantified. Next, the prevalence, severity, and individual variation of GBT signs was evaluated to attempt to relate them to mortality. Finally, methods for gill examination in fish exposed to high TDG were developed and evaluated. Primary findings were: (1) no single sign of GBT was clearly correlated with mortality, but many GBT signs progressively worsened; (2) both prevalence and severity of GBT signs in several tissues is necessary; (3) bubbles in the lateral line were the earliest sign of GBT, showed progressive worsening, and had low individual variation but may develop poorly during chronic exposures; (4) fin bubbles had high prevalence, progressively worsened, and may be a persistent sign of GBT; and (5) gill bubbles appear to be the proximate cause of death but may only be relevant at high TDG levels and are difficult to examine. Chapter Two describes monitoring results of juvenile salmonids for signs of GBT. Emigrating fish were collected and examined for bubbles in fins and lateral lines. Preliminary findings were: (1) few fish had signs of GBT, but prevalence and severity appeared to increase as fish migrated downstream; (2) there was no apparent correlation between GBT signs in the fins, lateral line, or gills; (3) prevalence and severity of GBT was suggestive of long-term, non-lethal exposure to relatively low level gas supersaturated water; and (4) it appeared that GBT was not a threat to migrating juvenile salmonids. 24 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. In utero exposure to chloroquine alters sexual development in the male fetal rat

    SciTech Connect

    Clewell, Rebecca A. [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)], E-mail: rclewell@thehamner.org; Pluta, Linda; Thomas, Russell S.; Andersen, Melvin E. [Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Chloroquine (CQ), a drug that has been used extensively for the prevention and treatment of malaria, is currently considered safe for use during pregnancy. However, CQ has been shown to disrupt steroid homeostasis in adult rats and similar compounds, such as quinacrine, inhibit steroid production in the Leydig cell in vitro. To explore the effect of in utero CQ exposure on fetal male sexual development, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given a daily dose of either water or chloroquine diphosphate from GD 16-18 by oral gavage. Chloroquine was administered as 200 mg/kg CQ base on GD 16, followed by two maintenance doses of 100 mg/kg CQ base on GD 16 and 18. Three days of CQ treatment resulted in reduced maternal and fetal weight on GD 19 and increased necrosis and steatosis in the maternal liver. Fetal livers also displayed mild lipid accumulation. Maternal serum progesterone was increased after CQ administration. Fetal testes testosterone, however, was significantly decreased. Examination of the fetal testes revealed significant alterations in vascularization and seminiferous tubule development after short-term CQ treatment. Anogenital distance was not altered. Microarray and RT-PCR showed down-regulation of several genes associated with cholesterol transport and steroid synthesis in the fetal testes. This study indicates that CQ inhibits testosterone synthesis and normal testis development in the rat fetus at human relevant doses.

  1. Transition from pediatric to adult surgery care for patients with disorders of sexual development.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Kate A; Fallat, Mary E

    2015-04-01

    Disorders of sexual development (DSDs) are relatively rare congenital conditions in which the development of the chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex is atypical. Some conditions may not manifest until puberty or adulthood. The examination and workup of either an infant or an older patient with suspected DSD should be directed and performed systematically by a multidisciplinary team. Ideally, the team will include those with not only an interest in DSD but also experience with this group of patients. This article will briefly orient the reader to the conditions and decisions that may have been made during infancy, childhood, and adolescence and then focus on the challenges that may accompany transitioning the care of DSD patients from pediatric to adult surgeons and specialists to enable appropriate decisions and care. The actual transition will optimally involve a well-developed action plan that will take place gradually over a number of years as the person becomes educated about their condition and empowered to participate knowingly and actively in their own care. PMID:25770370

  2. Quantitative three-dimensional reconstruction: feasibility for studies of sexually dimorphic hypothalamic development in rats.

    PubMed

    Scallet, Andrew C; Meredith, John M

    2002-01-01

    The adult rat brain develops through an interplay of neuronal proliferation with programmed cell death. Sensory stimulation, as well as growth factors and steroids, may alter the balance between these competing processes. "Endocrine disrupters" (EDs) may do the same by mimicry or modulation of endogenous hormones. The sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN) of the medial preoptic hypothalamus contains a high concentration of estrogen receptors (ERs). The SDN develops to a final adult volume, which may be used as an indication of the hormonal conditions during perinatal development. Although male rats have been repeatedly observed to have a greater adult SDN volume than female rats, variability between the actual measurements reported (both within and between laboratories) have been rather large. Exposure of female rats to testosterone (or excessive estradiol, beyond the binding capacity of alpha-fetoprotein) has been shown to masculinize them through a P450 aromatase that converts testosterone to estrogen in the SDN. Exposure of males to estradiol may feminize them at low doses through interference with the synthesis of their endogenous testosterone, which normally acts on SDN ERs following aromatization. We have employed computer-assisted reconstruction methods in order to render the SDN within the surrounding hypothalamus in 3-D for computation of its volume. Ongoing studies are investigating whether exposure through the diet to estrogenic endocrine disruptors such as genistein, nonylphenol, and ethinyl estradiol might produce effects similar to those of estradiol itself on the adult SDN. PMID:11836074

  3. Individual and combined roles of malonichrome, ferricrocin, and TAFC siderophores in Fusarium graminearum pathogenic and sexual development

    PubMed Central

    Oide, Shinichi; Berthiller, Franz; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Adam, Gerhard; Turgeon, B. Gillian

    2015-01-01

    Intra- and extracellular iron-chelating siderophores produced by fungal non-ribosomal peptide synthetases have been shown to be involved in reproductive and pathogenic developmental processes and in iron and oxidative stress management. Here we report individual and combined contributions of three of these metabolites to developmental success of the destructive cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. In previous work, we determined that deletion of the NPS2 gene, responsible for intracellular siderophore biosynthesis, results in inability to produce sexual spores when mutants of this homothallic ascomycete are selfed. Deletion of the NPS6 gene, required for extracellular siderophore biosynthesis, does not affect sexual reproduction but results in sensitivity to iron starvation and oxidative stress and leads to reduced virulence to the host. Building on this, we report that double mutants lacking both NPS2 and NPS6 are augmented in all collective phenotypes of single deletion strains (i.e., abnormal sexual and pathogenic development, hypersensitivity to oxidative and iron-depletion stress), which suggests overlap of function. Using comparative biochemical analysis of wild-type and mutant strains, we show that NPS1, a third gene associated with siderophore biosynthesis, is responsible for biosynthesis of a second extracellular siderophore, malonichrome. nps1 mutants fail to produce this metabolite. Phenotypic characterization reveals that, although single nps1 mutants are like wild-type with respect to sexual development, hypersensitivity to ROS and iron-depletion stress, and virulence to the host, triple nps1nps2nps6 deletion strains, lacking all three siderophores, are even more impaired in these attributes than double nps2nps6 strains. Thus, combinatorial mutants lacking key iron-associated genes uncovered malonichrome function. The intimate connection between presence/absence of siderophores and resistance/sensitivity to ROS is central to sexual and pathogenic development. PMID:25628608

  4. Seasonal Juvenile Salmonid Presence and Migratory Behavior in the Lower Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Jessica A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Welch, Ian D.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.

    2009-04-30

    To facilitate preparing Biological Assessments of proposed channel maintenance projects, the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers contracted the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to consolidate and synthesize available information about the use of the lower Columbia River and estuary by juvenile anadromous salmonids. The information to be synthesized included existing published documents as well as data from five years (2004-2008) of acoustic telemetry studies conducted in the Columbia River estuary using the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System. For this synthesis, the Columbia River estuary includes the section of the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam at river kilometer (Rkm) 235 downstream to the mouth where it enters the Pacific Ocean. In this report, we summarize the seasonal salmonid presence and migration patterns in the Columbia River estuary based on information from published studies as well as relevant data from acoustic telemetry studies conducted by NOAA Fisheries and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) between 2004 and 2008. Recent acoustic telemetry studies, conducted using the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS; developed by the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers), provided information on the migratory behavior of juvenile steelhead (O. mykiss) and Chinook salmon in the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam to the Pacific Ocean. In this report, Section 2 provides a summary of information from published literature on the seasonal presence and migratory behavior of juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River estuary and plume. Section 3 presents a detailed synthesis of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead migratory behavior based on use of the JSATS between 2004 and 2008. Section 4 provides a discussion of the information summarized in the report as well as information drawn from literature reviews on potential effects of channel maintenance activities to juvenile salmonids rearing in or migrating through the Columbia River estuary and plume.

  5. Fine sediment impacts on Salmonid spawning success: Relative effects of pore blockage and oxygen demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattison, I.; Sear, D.; Collins, A.; Jones, I.; Naden, P.

    2013-12-01

    Salmonids act as geomorphic agents constructing a spawning habitat (redd) with fine sediment being washed out of the bed, increasing porosity around the incubating eggs. However, during the incubation period fine sediment infiltrates back into the river bed and degrades the habitat quality. Fine sediment has been found to reduce survival rates of salmonid eggs in both field and laboratory experiments, with the main hypotheses used to explain this being (a) fine sediment reduces gravel permeability and intra-gravel flow velocities; (b) intra-gravel O2 concentrations decrease due to reduced supply and increased consumption by organic sediments; and (c) clay particles block the exchange of O2 across the egg membrane. The SIDO (Sediment Intrusion and Dissolved Oxygen)-UK model is a physically based numerical model which stimulates the effect of fine sediment intrusion on the abiotic characteristics of the salmonid redd, along with the consequences for egg development and survival. This has been used to assess the sensitivity of salmonid egg survival to changes in the quantity and composition of fine sediment, including particle size and sediment oxygen demand. Results indicate that egg survival is highly sensitive to the discharge and the suspended sediment concentrations, particularly to changes in the supply rate of sand particles, rather than silt and clay. This can be explained by the increased likelihood of blocking of intra-gravel pores by larger sand particles, which reduce intra-gravel flow velocities and the supply of oxygen rich water. Furthermore, this effect of sediment mass has been found to be more important than the sediment oxygen consumption process. These findings have implications for how we manage the sediment delivery problem, especially as future projections indicate increased sediment delivery under climate and land management change.

  6. Sexual Identity Trajectories Among Sexual-Minority Youths: Gender Comparisons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ritch C. Savin-Williams; Lisa M. Diamond

    2000-01-01

    The present investigation explored gender differences in sexual identity development—first same-sex attractions, self-labeling, same-sex sexual contact, and disclosure—among 164 sexual-minority young adults. Based on interviews, results indicated the value of assessing gender differences in the context, timing, spacing, and sequencing of sexual identity milestones. Adolescent males had an earlier onset of all milestones except disclosure. The context for sexual identity

  7. Differential invasion success of salmonids in southern Chile: patterns and hypotheses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arismendi, Ivan; Penaluna, Brooke E.; Dunham, Jason B.; García de Leaniz, Carlos; Soto, Doris; Fleming, Ian A.; Gomez-Uchidam, Daniel; Gajardo, Gonzalo; Vargas, Pamela V.; León-Muñoz, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Biological invasions create complex ecological and societal issues worldwide. Most of the knowledge about invasions comes only from successful invaders, but less is known about which processes determine the differential success of invasions. In this review, we develop a framework to identify the main dimensions driving the success and failure of invaders, including human influences, characteristics of the invader, and biotic interactions. We apply this framework by contrasting hypotheses and available evidence to explain variability in invasion success for 12 salmonids introduced to Chile. The success of Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salmo trutta seems to be influenced by a context-specific combination of their phenotypic plasticity, low ecosystem resistance, and propagule pressure. These well-established invaders may limit the success of subsequently introduced salmonids, with the possible exception of O. tshawytscha, which has a short freshwater residency and limited spatial overlap with trout. Although propagule pressure is high for O. kisutch and S. salar due to their intensive use in aquaculture, their lack of success in Chile may be explained by environmental resistance, including earlier spawning times than in their native ranges, and interactions with previously established and resident Rainbow Trout. Other salmonids have also failed to establish, and they exhibit a suite of ecological traits, environmental resistance, and limited propagule pressure that are variably associated with their lack of success. Collectively, understanding how the various drivers of invasion success interact may explain the differential success of invaders and provide key guidance for managing both positive and negative outcomes associated with their presence.

  8. Developing an Assessment of Sexual Identity Management for Lesbian and Gay Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mary Z.; Croteau, James M.; DiStefano, Teresa M.; Chung, Y. Barry

    2001-01-01

    Psychometric properties of the Workplace Sexual Identity Management Measure were tested with 172 professionals. Results suggest it successfully assesses a continuum of lesbian and gay identity management strategies (passing, covering, implicitly out, explicitly out). (Contains 27 references.) (SK)

  9. The Development of Reproductive Strategy in Females: Early Maternal Harshness ? Earlier Menarche ? Increased Sexual Risk Taking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay Belsky; Laurence Steinberg; Renate M. Houts; Bonnie L. Halpern-Felsher

    2010-01-01

    To test a proposition central to J. Belsky, L. Steinberg, and P. Draper’s (1991) evolutionary theory of socialization—that pubertal maturation plays a role in linking early rearing experience with adolescent sexual risk taking (i.e., frequency of sexual behavior) and, perhaps, other risk taking (e.g., alcohol, drugs, delinquency)—the authors subjected longitudinal data on 433 White, 62 Black, and 31 Hispanic females

  10. THE ROLE OF ANDROGENS AND ESTROGENS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF BRAIN AND PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: APPROACHES TO DEVELOPING ANIMAL MODELS FOR SEXUALLY DIMORPHIC BEHAVIORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides an overview of research on the effects of hormonally active chemicals on sexual differentiation of the brain including (a) research on the role of androgens and estrogens in the development of the brain and peripheral nervous system, (b) approaches to d...

  11. Maintaining sexuality in menopause.

    PubMed

    Nappi, Rossella E; Martini, Ellis; Martella, Silvia; Capuano, Francesca; Bosoni, David; Giacomini, Sonia; Beraghi, Matteo; Spinillo, Arsenio

    2014-03-13

    Sexual health in the menopause is a medical challenge because the progressive decline of sexual hormones interacts with the aging process and many psychosocial stressors modulate vulnerability for sexual symptoms (low sexual desire, poor arousal and lubrication, dyspareunia, orgasmic dysfunction and lack of satisfaction). In clinical practice, a coordinated approach is needed to optimally manage the risk for developing female sexual dysfunction (FSD), especially when chronic conditions are present. Biomedical and psychosocial interventions include general education, recognition of signs and symptoms, promotion of health, attention to the partner and individualization of treatment. Counselling to overcome personal and relational difficulties should be always combined with hormonal and non-hormonal strategies to maximize biological signals driving the sexual response. By enhancing women's abilities to cope with sexual changes at midlife, health care providers may significantly optimize healthy aging and partnership. PMID:24879777

  12. Cellular localization of steroid hormone-regulated proteins during sexual development in achlya

    SciTech Connect

    Brunt, S.A.; Silver, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    In the fungus Achlya ambisexualis sexual development in the male strain E87 is controlled by the steroid hormone antheridiol. To investigate the effects of antheridiol on the synthesis and/or accumulation of specific cellular proteins we have analyzed (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled proteins from control and hormone-treated cells using both one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) PAGE. The addition of the hormone antheridiol to vegetatively growing cells of Achlya E87 was found to result in changes in the synthesis and/or accumulation of at least 16 specific proteins, which could be localized to the cytoplasmic, nuclear or cell was/cell membrane fractions. The most prominent changes observed in the hormone-treated cells included the appearance in the cytoplasmic fraction of labeled proteins at 28.4 and 24.3kD which were not detectable in control cells, and a significant enrichment in the labeling of a 24.3kD protein in the cell wall/cell membrane fraction. Quantitative changes in the (/sup 35/S)methionine labeling of several other proteins were noted in all three cell fractions.

  13. Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Yakima River Tributaries, 2001-2002 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Johnson, Christopher L. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2003-04-01

    The benefits that marine derived nutrients from adult salmon carcasses provide to juvenile salmonids are increasingly being recognized. Current estimates suggest that only 6-7% of marine-derived nitrogen and phosphorus that were historically available to salmonids in the Pacific Northwest are currently available. Food limitation may be a major constraint limiting the restoration of salmonids. A variety of methods have been proposed to offset this nutrient deficit including: allowing greater salmon spawning escapement, stocking hatchery salmon carcasses, and stocking inorganic nutrients. Unfortunately, each of these methods has some ecological or socio-economic shortcoming. We intend to overcome many of these shortcomings by making and evaluating a pathogen free product that simulates a salmon carcass (analog). Abundant sources of marine derived nutrients are available such as fish offal from commercial fishing and salmon carcasses from hatcheries. However, a method for recycling these nutrients into a pathogen free analog that degrades at a similar rate as a natural salmon carcass has never been developed. We endeavored to (1) develop a salmon carcass analog that will increase the food available to salmonids, (2) determine the pathways that salmonids use to acquire food from analogs, and (3) determine the benefits to salmonids and the potential for application to salmonid restoration. We used a before-after-control-impact-paired design in six tributaries of the upper Yakima basin to determine the utility of stocking carcass analogs. Our preliminary results suggest that the introduction of carcass analogs into food-limited streams can be used to restore food pathways previously provided by anadromous salmon. The analogs probably reproduced both of the major food pathways that salmon carcasses produce: direct consumption and food chain enhancement. Trout and salmon fed directly on the carcass analogs during the late summer and presumably benefited from the increased invertebrate biomass later in the year. Future reports will analyze whether any benefits are statistically detectable. The risks of using carcass analogs also appear to be low. Pathogens appear to be killed in the manufacturing process of the analogs. In addition, preliminary results suggest that fish exposed to the analogs did not have higher incidences of pathogens. The water quality was also not degraded by the analog additions with the exception of a temporary surface film. Finally, our anecdotal observations, suggested that there was not an increase in the number of predators during the first year of analog distribution. In summary, the risks of analog placement appear to be low but the benefits appear to be high. All results should be considered preliminary until further analyses and field work are conducted.

  14. Sexual Assault

    MedlinePLUS

    Indian Health Service The Federal Health Program for American Indians and Alaska Natives Feedback Employee Resources • A to ... Assault Sexual assault is a significant problem affecting American Indians and Alaska Natives. Sexual assault refers to sexual ...

  15. Sexual Assault

    MedlinePLUS

    Sexual assault is any sexual activity to which you haven't freely given your consent. This includes completed ... trust, a friend, an acquaintance, or a stranger. Sexual assault can affect your health in many ways. It ...

  16. Expression and Sequence Evolution of Aromatase cyp19a1 and Other Sexual Development Genes in East African Cichlid Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Böhne, Astrid; Heule, Corina; Boileau, Nicolas; Salzburger, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Sex determination mechanisms are highly variable across teleost fishes and sexual development is often plastic. Nevertheless, downstream factors establishing the two sexes are presumably conserved. Here, we study sequence evolution and gene expression of core genes of sexual development in a prime model system in evolutionary biology, the East African cichlid fishes. Using the available five cichlid genomes, we test for signs of positive selection in 28 genes including duplicates from the teleost whole-genome duplication, and examine the expression of these candidate genes in three cichlid species. We then focus on a particularly striking case, the A- and B-copies of the aromatase cyp19a1, and detect different evolutionary trajectories: cyp19a1A evolved under strong positive selection, whereas cyp19a1B remained conserved at the protein level, yet is subject to regulatory changes at its transcription start sites. Importantly, we find shifts in gene expression in both copies. Cyp19a1 is considered the most conserved ovary-factor in vertebrates, and in all teleosts investigated so far, cyp19a1A and cyp19a1B are expressed in ovaries and the brain, respectively. This is not the case in cichlids, where we find new expression patterns in two derived lineages: the A-copy gained a novel testis-function in the Ectodine lineage, whereas the B-copy is overexpressed in the testis of the speciest-richest cichlid group, the Haplochromini. This suggests that even key factors of sexual development, including the sex steroid pathway, are not conserved in fish, supporting the idea that flexibility in sexual determination and differentiation may be a driving force of speciation. PMID:23883521

  17. Improving care for women after gynecological cancer: the development of a sexuality clinic.

    PubMed

    Barbera, Lisa; Fitch, Margaret; Adams, Lauran; Doyle, Catherine; Dasgupta, Tracey; Blake, Jennifer

    2011-12-01

    The impact of a gynecological cancer diagnosis and the subsequent treatment on women is profound, both physically and psychologically, in particular with respect to sexual function and sexuality. We describe our experience creating a specialized clinic to address concerns about sexual health and rehabilitation. We used a case study approach to describe the clinic's inception and first 2 years of operation. Fifty-six survivors of gynecological cancer were seen at the clinic in the first 2 years. These patients had a significant symptom burden, many related to menopause, as well as those aftereffects of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and surgical operation as well as psychological and emotional responses to cancer. The most common interventions were education and counseling. Patients reported high levels of satisfaction with their experience at the clinic. We hope our experience may be of assistance to others considering a similar endeavor. PMID:21926930

  18. Interspecies Synchrony in Salmonid Densities Associated with Large-Scale Bioclimatic Conditions in Central Idaho

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy Copeland; Kevin A. Meyer

    2011-01-01

    The abundance of lotic salmonids varies substantially through time, but the extent to which several sympatric species respond coherently to large-scale bioclimatic conditions has rarely been investigated for freshwater fishes. We compared correlations in salmonid density in central Idaho and examined the relationships between changes in salmonid density and the variation in large-scale bioclimatic conditions as indexed by stream flow,

  19. Streptococcus phocae, an emerging pathogen for salmonid culture.

    PubMed

    Romalde, Jesús L; Ravelo, Carmen; Valdés, Iván; Magariños, Beatriz; de la Fuente, Eduardo; Martín, Carolina San; Avendaño-Herrera, Rubén; Toranzo, Alicia E

    2008-07-27

    This work describes the characterization of the causal agent of disease outbreaks that, from 1999, occurred repeatedly during the summer months (temperatures higher than 15 degrees C) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) cage-farmed in Chile affecting both smolts and adult fish cultured in estuary and marine waters, reaching in some occasions a cumulative mortality up to 25% of the affected population. Diseased fish showed exophthalmia with accumulation of purulent and haemorrhagic fluid around eyes, and ventral petechial haemorrhages. At necropsy, haemorrhage in the abdominal fat, pericarditis, and enlarged liver, spleen and kidney are common pathological changes. Gram-stained smears revealed the presence of Gram-positive cocci, beta-hemolytic, negative for oxidase and catalase tests. Although biochemical characterization of the isolates using the miniaturized system rapid ID 32 Strep suggested their assignation to genus Gemella, sequencing and RFLP analysis of the 16S rRNA revealed that bacteria associated with the mortalities belong to Streptococcus phocae. Serological studies demonstrated that all the salmon isolates are antigenically homogeneous, which can facilitate the development of preventive measures and, although sharing some antigenical determinants, they belong to a different Lancefield group than the type strain isolated from seals. On the basis of these facts, we conclude that the species S. phocae is an emerging pathogen for salmonid culture in Chile, and it should be included as a new member of the warm water streptococcosis. PMID:18280675

  20. Environmental pollutants and diseases of sexual development in humans and wildlife in South Africa: harbingers of impact on overall health?

    PubMed

    Riana Bornman, M S; Bouwman, Hindrik

    2012-08-01

    This study deals with disorders of sexual development in humans, wildlife and animals in an urban nature reserve (RNR) and a currently DDT-sprayed malarial area. High levels of oestrogenic chemical residues in water, sediment and tissue; skewed sex ratios; reduced biodiversity; gonadal malformations in sharptooth catfish and freshwater snails; intersex in catfish; and impaired spermatogenesis in catfish and striped mouse are of serious concern in the RNR. Persistent eggshell thinning in African darter eggs, intersex in male Mozambican tilapia, follicular atresia in females and impaired spermatogenesis in males following laboratory exposure of parent fish to environmentally relevant DDT and DDE concentrations, and abnormalities in freshwater snails were found in the DDT-sprayed area. Human studies related to DDT exposure indicated impaired semen quality, a weak association with sperm chromatin defects and higher risks for external urogenital birth defects in those who were born to mothers whose houses were sprayed and those who were homemakers (stay at home mother) instead of being employed. These findings indicate that diseases of sexual development occurred in both human and wildlife populations exposed to environmental endocrine disruptor chemicals in South Africa. The chemical mixtures, possibly related to disorders of sexual differentiation (DSD), were very different between the two. However, DSD occurred concurrently in the malarial area, possibly indicating that humans and wildlife shared exposures. Moreover, it emphasizes the importance of suspecting disease in the other when disease is found in either human or wildlife populations. PMID:22827388

  1. Sexually Dimorphic Effects of Alcohol Exposure during Development on the Processing of Social Cues

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Sandra J.; Leggett, Darnica C.; Cronise, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The study used an animal model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) to investigate the impact of alcohol exposure during a period equivalent to all three trimesters in humans on social recognition memory. It was hypothesized that the effects on specific aspects of social recognition memory would be sexually dimorphic. Methods: This study exposed rats to ethanol during both the prenatal and early postnatal periods. Two control groups included a group exposed to the administration procedures but not ethanol and a non-treated group. At ?90 days, all rats were tested repeatedly in a test of social recognition memory with a juvenile animal of the same sex. Experimental rats of both sexes were allowed to investigate an unknown juvenile for either 2, 3 or 5 min and then, after a delay of 30, 60, 120 and 180 min, were allowed to investigate the same juvenile for 5 min. Results: Male rats investigated the juvenile for much longer than female rats. Ethanol-exposed male rats showed a deficit in recognition memory that was evident with longer delays when the initial investigation time was either 2- or 3-min long. In contrast, ethanol-exposed female rats showed a deficit in recognition memory only when the initial investigation period was of 2 min. Measurement of oxytocin receptor binding in the amygdala region indicated that ethanol exposure lowered oxytocin receptor binding in females but not males. Conclusions: The results suggest that ethanol exposure during development caused a deficit in memory duration but not encoding in males and a deficit in encoding but not memory duration in females. The deficit in ethanol-exposed females may be related to changes in oxytocin receptors in the amygdala. PMID:19767624

  2. Sexual and reproductive health and rights in the sustainable development goals and the post-2015 development agenda: less than a year to go.

    PubMed

    Haslegrave, Marianne

    2014-11-01

    Since the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo in 1994 there have been significant achievements in moving towards the goal of sexual and reproductive health and rights. Yet there have also been disappointments, as demonstrated in the Millennium Development Goals, even though in 2007 a target on reproductive health was added. Most recently, the 20-year review of the implementation of the ICPD Programme of Action, ICPD Beyond 2014, has taken place, which has moved forward the sexual and reproductive health and rights agenda. But, the main arena for future negotiations has changed and the UN is in the process of negotiating the post-2015 development agenda and the sustainable development goals (SDGs). This paper assesses what has been taking place since 2013 and provides information as to how the process for the post-2015 development agenda and the SDGs are likely to move forward. An understanding of what has been achieved, the processes as they are now proceeding and their future development are important for moving towards the ultimate goal of achieving sexual and reproductive health and rights in the next 15 years. PMID:25555767

  3. Sustaining salmonid populations: A caring understanding of naturalness of taxa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, J.L.; Regier, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    Species of the family of Salmonidae occur naturally in Northern Hemisphere waters that remain clear and cool to cold in summer. For purposes of reproduction, salmonids generally behaviorally respond to the currents of streams and lakes in recently glaciated areas. For feeding and maturation, many larger species migrate into existing systems of large lakes, seas, and oceans. The subfamilies include Salmoninae, Coregoninae, and Thymallinae. In many locales and regions of the hemisphere, numerous species of these subfamilies evolved and self-organized into species flocks or taxocenes of bewildering complexity. For example, any individual species may play different or unique ecological roles in different taxocenes. The northern Pacific and Atlantic Ocean ecosystems, with their seas and tributaries, each contained a metacomplex of such taxocenes that, in their natural state some centuries ago, resembled each other but differed in many ways. Humans have valued all species of this family for subsistence, ceremonial, naturalist, gustatory, angling, and commercial reasons for centuries. Modern progressive humans (MPHs), whose industrial and commercial enterprises have gradually spread over this hemisphere in recent time, now affect aquatic ecosystems at all scales from local to global. These human effects mingle in complex ways that together induce uniquely natural salmonid taxocenes to disintegrate with the loss of species, including those groups least tolerant to human manipulations, but extending more recently to those taxa more adapted to anthropogenic change. As we leave the modern era, dominated by MPHs, will we find ways to live sustainably with salmonid taxocenes that still exhibit self-organizational integrity, or will only individual, isolated populations of salmonid species, derived from those most tolerant of MPHs, survive? To achieve future sustainability of salmonids, we suggest implementation of a search for intuitive knowledge based on faith in the wisdom of nature and a caring-sharing, behavioral structure based on "survival of the wisest" for both humans and salmonids. ?? 2004 by the American Fisheries Society.

  4. Identification of genes differentially expressed during apomictic and sexual development in buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apomixis, an asexual method of reproduction through seeds with the absence of meiosis and fertilization holds great potential for plant breeding and hybrid seed production. Buffelgrass, an apomictic forage grass, has well characterized apomictic, facultative and sexual accessions to study apomictic...

  5. Sexually Harassing Behavior against Adolescent Girls in Rural Bangladesh: Implications for Achieving Millennium Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alam, Nurul; Roy, Swapan K.; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the extent and type of sexually harassing behavior or intimidations unmarried adolescent girls experienced on their way to school, college or social visits and type of perpetrators in victims' view in rural Bangladesh using data of the 2004 National Nutrition Programme baseline survey. The survey collected self-reported data on…

  6. Male Adolescents' View on Sexual Activity as Basis for the Development of Aids-Prevention Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steyn, Hester; Myburgh, Chris P.H.; Poggenpoel, Marie

    2005-01-01

    The world regards AIDS as the most disastrous health threat in the world. HIV/AIDS- related issues amongst adolescents were initially neglected due to the visible impact of this pandemic on babies and adults. Adolescents' behavior is however regarded as high-risk because of their involvement in sexual activities from a young age. The purpose of…

  7. Management Implications of a Model of Predation by a Resident Fish on Juvenile Salmonids Migrating through a Columbia River Reservoir

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond C. Beamesderfer; Bruce E. Rieman; Lewis J. Bledsoe; Steven Vigg

    1990-01-01

    We constructed a model ofpredation by northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis on juvenile salmonids migrating through John Day Reservoir. The model predicts salmonid survival as a function of number and distribution of northern squawfish, number and timing of juvenile salmonids entering the reservoir, salmonid residence time, water temperature, and flow. The model predicted survival similar to independent estimates for 1983–1986 and

  8. A salmonid EST genomic study: genes, duplications, phylogeny and microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Koop, Ben F; von Schalburg, Kristian R; Leong, Jong; Walker, Neil; Lieph, Ryan; Cooper, Glenn A; Robb, Adrienne; Beetz-Sargent, Marianne; Holt, Robert A; Moore, Richard; Brahmbhatt, Sonal; Rosner, Jamie; Rexroad, Caird E; McGowan, Colin R; Davidson, William S

    2008-01-01

    Background Salmonids are of interest because of their relatively recent genome duplication, and their extensive use in wild fisheries and aquaculture. A comprehensive gene list and a comparison of genes in some of the different species provide valuable genomic information for one of the most widely studied groups of fish. Results 298,304 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from Atlantic salmon (69% of the total), 11,664 chinook, 10,813 sockeye, 10,051 brook trout, 10,975 grayling, 8,630 lake whitefish, and 3,624 northern pike ESTs were obtained in this study and have been deposited into the public databases. Contigs were built and putative full-length Atlantic salmon clones have been identified. A database containing ESTs, assemblies, consensus sequences, open reading frames, gene predictions and putative annotation is available. The overall similarity between Atlantic salmon ESTs and those of rainbow trout, chinook, sockeye, brook trout, grayling, lake whitefish, northern pike and rainbow smelt is 93.4, 94.2, 94.6, 94.4, 92.5, 91.7, 89.6, and 86.2% respectively. An analysis of 78 transcript sets show Salmo as a sister group to Oncorhynchus and Salvelinus within Salmoninae, and Thymallinae as a sister group to Salmoninae and Coregoninae within Salmonidae. Extensive gene duplication is consistent with a genome duplication in the common ancestor of salmonids. Using all of the available EST data, a new expanded salmonid cDNA microarray of 32,000 features was created. Cross-species hybridizations to this cDNA microarray indicate that this resource will be useful for studies of all 68 salmonid species. Conclusion An extensive collection and analysis of salmonid RNA putative transcripts indicate that Pacific salmon, Atlantic salmon and charr are 94–96% similar while the more distant whitefish, grayling, pike and smelt are 93, 92, 89 and 86% similar to salmon. The salmonid transcriptome reveals a complex history of gene duplication that is consistent with an ancestral salmonid genome duplication hypothesis. Genome resources, including a new 32 K microarray, provide valuable new tools to study salmonids. PMID:19014685

  9. Childhood Sexual Abuse and the Development of Recurrent Major Depression in Chinese Women

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Cai, Yiyun; Cong, Enzhao; Liu, Ying; Gao, Jingfang; Li, Youhui; Tao, Ming; Zhang, Kerang; Wang, Xumei; Gao, Chengge; Yang, Lijun; Li, Kan; Shi, Jianguo; Wang, Gang; Liu, Lanfen; Zhang, Jinbei; Du, Bo; Jiang, Guoqing; Shen, Jianhua; Zhang, Zhen; Liang, Wei; Sun, Jing; Hu, Jian; Liu, Tiebang; Wang, Xueyi; Miao, Guodong; Meng, Huaqing; Li, Yi; Hu, Chunmei; Li, Yi; Huang, Guoping; Li, Gongying; Ha, Baowei; Deng, Hong; Mei, Qiyi; Zhong, Hui; Gao, Shugui; Sang, Hong; Zhang, Yutang; Fang, Xiang; Yu, Fengyu; Yang, Donglin; Liu, Tieqiao; Chen, Yunchun; Hong, Xiaohong; Wu, Wenyuan; Chen, Guibing; Cai, Min; Song, Yan; Pan, Jiyang; Dong, Jicheng; Pan, Runde; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Zhenming; Liu, Zhengrong; Gu, Danhua; Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Qiwen; Li, Yihan; Chen, Yiping; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Shi, Shenxun; Flint, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Background Our prior study in Han Chinese women has shown that women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are at increased risk for developing major depression (MD). Would this relationship be found in our whole data set? Method Three levels of CSA (non-genital, genital, and intercourse) were assessed by self-report in two groups of Han Chinese women: 6017 clinically ascertained with recurrent MD and 5983 matched controls. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression. Results We confirmed earlier results by replicating prior analyses in 3,950 new recurrent MD cases. There were no significant differences between the two data sets. Any form of CSA was significantly associated with recurrent MD (OR 4.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) [3.19–5.24]). This association strengthened with increasing CSA severity: non-genital (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.58–3.15), genital (OR 5.24, 95% CI 3.52–8.15) and intercourse (OR 10.65, 95% CI 5.56–23.71). Among the depressed women, those with CSA had an earlier age of onset, longer depressive episodes. Recurrent MD patients those with CSA had an increased risk for dysthymia (OR 1.60, 95%CI 1.11–2.27) and phobia (OR 1.41, 95%CI 1.09–1.80). Any form of CSA was significantly associated with suicidal ideation or attempt (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.20–1.89) and feelings of worthlessness or guilt (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.02–2.02). Intercourse (OR 3.47, 95%CI 1.66–8.22), use of force and threats (OR 1.95, 95%CI 1.05–3.82) and how strongly the victims were affected at the time (OR 1.39, 95%CI 1.20–1.64) were significantly associated with recurrent MD. Conclusions In Chinese women CSA is strongly associated with recurrent MD and this association increases with greater severity of CSA. Depressed women with CSA have some specific clinical traits. Some features of CSA were associated with greater likelihood of developing recurrent MD. PMID:24489940

  10. Highly Recombinant VGII Cryptococcus gattii Population Develops Clonal Outbreak Clusters through both Sexual Macroevolution and Asexual Microevolution

    PubMed Central

    Croll, Daniel; Li, Wenjun; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Carter, Dee A.; Cuomo, Christina A.; Kronstad, James W.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT An outbreak of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus gattii began in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) in the late 1990s. This outbreak consists of three clonal subpopulations: VGIIa/major, VGIIb/minor, and VGIIc/novel. Both VGIIa and VGIIc are unique to the PNW and exhibit increased virulence. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of isolates from these three groups, as well as global isolates, and analyzed a total of 53 isolates. We found that VGIIa/b/c populations show evidence of clonal expansion in the PNW. Whole-genome sequencing provided evidence that VGIIb originated in Australia, while VGIIa may have originated in South America, and these were likely independently introduced. Additionally, the VGIIa outbreak lineage may have arisen from a less virulent clade that contained a mutation in the MSH2 ortholog, but this appears to have reverted in the VGIIa outbreak strains, suggesting that a transient mutator phenotype may have contributed to adaptation and evolution of virulence in the PNW outbreak. PNW outbreak isolates share genomic islands, both between the clonal lineages and with global isolates, indicative of sexual recombination. This suggests that VGII C. gattii has undergone sexual reproduction, either bisexual or unisexual, in multiple locales contributing to the production of novel, virulent subtypes. We also found that the genomes of two basal VGII isolates from HIV+ patients contain an introgression tract spanning three genes. Introgression substantially contributed to intra-VGII polymorphism and likely occurred through sexual reproduction with VGI. More broadly, these findings illustrate how both microevolution and sexual reproduction play central roles in the development of infectious outbreaks from avirulent or less virulent progenitors. PMID:25073643

  11. Internet Sexualities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola Döring

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a The term “internet sexuality” (or OSA, online sexual activities) refers to sexual-related content and activities observable\\u000a on the internet (cf. Adams, Oye, & Parker, 2003; Cooper, McLoughlin, & Campbell, 2000; Leiblum & Döring, 2002). It designates\\u000a a variety of sexual phenomena (e.g., pornography, sex education, sexual contacts) related to a wide spectrum of online services\\u000a and applications (e.g., websites, online

  12. Embedding sexual and reproductive health and rights in a transformational development framework: lessons learned from the MDG targets and indicators.

    PubMed

    Yamin, Alicia Ely; Boulanger, Vanessa M

    2013-11-01

    This paper explores the intended and unintended consequences of the selection of MDG 5 as a global goal, together with its respective targets and indicators, and places what happened to MDG 5, and sexual and reproductive health and rights more broadly, into the context of the development model that was encoded in the MDGs. Over the last decade, as the MDGs increasingly took centre stage in development and their use evolved, they were inappropriately converted from global goals into national planning targets. This conversion was particularly detrimental in the case of MDG 5. It not only created a narrowing in terms of policies and programming, but also had an enormous impact on the discourse of development itself, reshaping the field in terms of the organization and dissemination of knowledge, and underscoring that the process of setting targets and indicators is far from neutral but encodes normative values. Looking forward, it is not adequate to propose an MDG+ framework based on the same structure. Sexual and reproductive health and rights must be placed back into the global discourse, using development to empower women and marginalized populations, and to address structural inequalities that are fundamental to sustained social change. The new development framework should include a strong narrative of social transformation in which fit-for-purpose targets and indicators play a role, but do not overtake or restrict the broader aims of advancing social, political, and gender justice. PMID:24315065

  13. Analysis of Historic Data for Juvenile and Adult Salmonid Production. Phase 1, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hilborn, Ray; Pascual, Miguel; Donnelly, Robert; Coronado-Hernadez, Claribel

    1993-11-01

    Survival of hatchery reared Columbia River chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) salmon from release to return is highly variable and thought to be related to river flow during juvenile outmigration in the spring. The purpose of this project is to examine the relationship between survival of coded-wire-tagged (CWT) Columbia River salmonids and in-river flow and other freshwater factors. This report covers Phase 1, in which two methods to estimate survival were developed and evaluated, and criteria for data selection were established.

  14. Exposure of prepubertal beef bulls to cycling females does not enhance sexual development.

    PubMed

    Miller, N A; Fike, K E

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether continuous, long-term, fenceline exposure of prepubertal beef bulls to cycling beef females reduced age at puberty and influenced the percentage of bulls that passed an initial breeding soundness examination (BSE). Bulls (Angus, n = 37; Simmental, n = 22; Hereford, n = 10; Simmental × Angus, n = 8) at an average age of 202 ± 21.5 days were given either continuous fenceline and visual exposure to cycling females (exposed, n = 41) or no exposure (control, n = 36). Estrus was induced in cycling beef females so at least three females were in standing estrus each week during the 182 days of exposure to bulls. Scrotal circumference (SC), body weight, and blood samples were collected every 28 days. When bulls had SC of 26 cm or more, semen samples were obtained monthly via electroejaculation until puberty was achieved (?50 × 10(6) sperm/mL with at least 10% progressive motility). Behavioral observations were conducted twice monthly: once when females were in estrus and once during diestrus. Homosexual mounting, flehmen responses, and number of times near penned females were recorded for each observation period. Breeding soundness examinations were conducted when the average age of bulls was 364 ± 21.5 days. Normal sperm morphology of at least 70% and sperm motility of at least 30% were required to pass the BSE. Age, body weight, and SC at puberty did not differ between exposed and control bulls (320 ± 28 and 311 ± 29 days; 466.2 ± 12.2 and 437.7 ± 13.5 kg; and 34.4 ± 2.5 and 34.9 ± 2.5 cm, respectively). Percentage of bulls passing their initial BSE did not differ between treatments (exposed, 87.8%; control, 75.0%). Treatment, month, and female estrous stage interacted (P = 0.05) to affect the number of mount attempts and flehmen responses. Exposed bulls entered the cow area more times (P < 0.001) during estrus than diestrus in Months 1, 2, and 3. We concluded that bulls given continuous, long-term, fenceline exposure to cycling beef females do not have enhanced sexual development. PMID:24888685

  15. Adolescent Sexual Activity and the Development of Delinquent Behavior: The Role of Relationship Context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Paige Harden; Jane Mendle

    2011-01-01

    Despite the well-established association between adolescent sexual activity and delinquent behavior, little research has examined\\u000a the potential importance of relationship contexts in moderating this association. The current study used longitudinal, behavioral\\u000a genetic data on 519 same-sex twin pairs (48.6% female) divided into two age cohorts (13–15 and 16–18 years olds) drawn from\\u000a the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Analyses tested

  16. Does Knowledge about Sexuality Prevent Adolescents from Developing Rape-Supportive Beliefs?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascal Mallet; Dominique Herbé

    2011-01-01

    Believing that rape is acceptable in some situations may account for adolescent boys' perpetration of forced sex on girls. This study was intended to examine two hypothesized cognitive factors of adolescents' rape-supportive beliefs: general knowledge, measured with grade point average (GPA); and specific knowledge about sexuality, measured with a newly devised questionnaire. Fourteen-year-old adolescents (N = 248) participated in a short-term longitudinal

  17. Development and implementation of mass media campaigns to delay sexual initiation among African American and White youth.

    PubMed

    Noar, Seth M; Zimmerman, Rick S; Palmgreen, Philip; Cupp, Pamela K; Floyd, Brenikki R; Mehrotra, Purnima

    2014-01-01

    Reducing new HIV/STD infections among at-risk adolescents requires developing and evaluating evidence-based health communication approaches. Research overwhelmingly supports the conclusion that early sexual initiation is associated with STDs and other negative outcomes in later years (e.g., unintended pregnancy). The authors' research group secured funding from the National Institute of Mental Health to develop, implement, and rigorously evaluate televised mass media campaigns to delay initiation of sexual intercourse among African American and White adolescents in two cities in the Southeastern United States. The focus of the present study is on the development and implementation of the campaigns, including (a) rationale and theoretical underpinnings; (b) collection, screening, and assessment of existing public service announcements; (c) development of new public service announcements; (d) study design and campaign airing plan; and (e) message exposure achieved in the campaigns. Health communication campaigns hold much promise in reaching at-risk adolescent populations with targeted, timely, and relevant risk-reduction messages. PMID:24093220

  18. Highly recombinant VGII Cryptococcus gattii population develops clonal outbreak clusters through both sexual macroevolution and asexual microevolution.

    PubMed

    Billmyre, R Blake; Croll, Daniel; Li, Wenjun; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Carter, Dee A; Cuomo, Christina A; Kronstad, James W; Heitman, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    An outbreak of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus gattii began in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) in the late 1990s. This outbreak consists of three clonal subpopulations: VGIIa/major, VGIIb/minor, and VGIIc/novel. Both VGIIa and VGIIc are unique to the PNW and exhibit increased virulence. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of isolates from these three groups, as well as global isolates, and analyzed a total of 53 isolates. We found that VGIIa/b/c populations show evidence of clonal expansion in the PNW. Whole-genome sequencing provided evidence that VGIIb originated in Australia, while VGIIa may have originated in South America, and these were likely independently introduced. Additionally, the VGIIa outbreak lineage may have arisen from a less virulent clade that contained a mutation in the MSH2 ortholog, but this appears to have reverted in the VGIIa outbreak strains, suggesting that a transient mutator phenotype may have contributed to adaptation and evolution of virulence in the PNW outbreak. PNW outbreak isolates share genomic islands, both between the clonal lineages and with global isolates, indicative of sexual recombination. This suggests that VGII C. gattii has undergone sexual reproduction, either bisexual or unisexual, in multiple locales contributing to the production of novel, virulent subtypes. We also found that the genomes of two basal VGII isolates from HIV(+) patients contain an introgression tract spanning three genes. Introgression substantially contributed to intra-VGII polymorphism and likely occurred through sexual reproduction with VGI. More broadly, these findings illustrate how both microevolution and sexual reproduction play central roles in the development of infectious outbreaks from avirulent or less virulent progenitors. Importance: Cryptococcus gattii is the causative agent responsible for ongoing infections in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and western Canada. The incidence of these infections increased dramatically in the 1990s and remains elevated. These infections are attributable to three clonal lineages of C. gattii, VGIIa, VGIIb, and VGIIc, with only VGIIa identified once previously in the Pacific Northwest prior to the start of the outbreak, albeit in a less virulent form. This study addresses the origin and emergence of this outbreak, using whole-genome sequencing and comparison of both outbreak and global isolates. We show that VGIIa arose mitotically from a less virulent clonal group, possibly via the action of a mutator phenotype, while VGIIb was likely introduced from Australia, and VGIIc appears to have emerged in the United States or in an undersampled locale via sexual reproduction. This work shows that multiple processes can contribute to the emergence of an outbreak. PMID:25073643

  19. Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River, Estuary, and Plume in 2010

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Skalski, John R.; Deters, Katherine A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Townsend, Richard L.; Titzler, P. Scott; Hughes, Michael S.; Kim, Jin A.; Trott, Donna M.

    2011-09-01

    Uncertainty regarding the migratory behavior and survival of juvenile salmonids passing through the lower Columbia River and estuary after negotiating dams on the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) prompted the development and application of the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS). The JSATS has been used to investigate the survival of juvenile salmonid smolts between Bonneville Dam (river kilometer (rkm) 236) and the mouth of the Columbia River annually since 2004. In 2010, a total of 12,214 juvenile salmonids were implanted with both a passive integrated transponder (PIT) and a JSATS acoustic transmitter. Using detection information from JSATS receiver arrays deployed on dams and in the river, estuary, and plume, the survival probability of yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts tagged at John Day Dam was estimated form multiple reaches between rkm 153 and 8.3 during the spring. During summer, the survival probability of subyearling Chinook salmon was estimated for the same reaches. In addition, the influence of routes of passage (e.g., surface spill, deep spill, turbine, juvenile bypass system) through the lower three dams on the Columbia River (John Day, The Dalles, and Bonneville) on juvenile salmonid smolt survival probability from the dams to rkm 153 and then between rkm 153 and 8.3 was examined to increase understanding of the immediate and latent effects of dam passage on juvenile salmon survival. Similar to previous findings, survival probability was relatively high (>0.95) for most groups of juvenile salmonids from the Bonneville Dam tailrace to about rkm 50. Downstream of rkm 50 the survival probability of all species and run types we examined decreased markedly. Steelhead smolts suffered the highest mortality in this lower portion of the Columbia River estuary, with only an estimated 60% of the tagged fish surviving to the mouth of the river. In contrast, yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon smolts survived to the mouth of the river at higher rates, with estimated survival probabilities of 84% and 86%, respectively. The influence of route of passage at the lower three dams in the FCRPS on juvenile salmonid survival appeared to be relatively direct and immediate. Significant differences in estimated survival probabilities of juvenile salmonid smolts among groups with different dam passage experiences were often detected between the dams and rkm 153. In contrast, the influence of route of passage on survival to the mouth of the Columbia River was not apparent among the groups of tagged juvenile salmonids with different FCRPS passage experiences after they had already survived to a point about 80 km downstream of Bonneville Dam. Yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts that migrated through the lower estuary in off-channel habitats took two to three times longer to travel through these lower reaches and their estimated survival probabilities were not significantly different from that of their cohorts which migrated in or near the navigation channel. A large proportion of the tagged juvenile salmonids migrating in or near the navigation channel in the lower estuary crossed from the south side of the estuary near Astoria, Oregon and passed through relatively shallow expansive sand flats (Taylor Sands) to the North Channel along the Washington shore of the estuary. This migratory behavior may contribute to the avian predation losses observed on for fish (2 to 12% of fish in this study).

  20. The "Right" Sexuality for Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Feminist researchers in psychology and education have been theorizing about the kind of sexuality girls ought to have. They are not afraid to investigate morality and what makes a good life. While they explore the meaning and cultural context of girls' sexual development, the good sexual life they describe may be an elusive ideal that, in the end,…

  1. Sexual Education for Psychiatric Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Stephen B.; Scott, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors seek to promote sexuality curriculum development in departments of psychiatry. Methods: The authors first focus on educational philosophy about what residents can be taught about sexual topics and then provide numerical and narrative resident evaluation data following a 6-month, half day per week rotation in a sexuality

  2. A salmonid EST genomic study: genes, duplications, phylogeny and microarrays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Salmonids are of interest because of their relatively recent genome duplication, and their extensive use in wild fisheries and aquaculture. A comprehensive gene list and a comparison of genes in some of the different species provide valuable genomic information for one of the most wide...

  3. Geomorphic Processes and Salmonid Habitat in Sulphur and Carneros Creeks,

    E-print Network

    Geomorphic Processes and Salmonid Habitat in Sulphur and Carneros Creeks, Napa River Watershed by the Napa County Resource Conservation District (RCD) · Two tributaries to the Napa River: Sulphur Creek group's needs: Basic understanding of watershed form and function, specific management recommendations

  4. Distribution of Myxobolus cerebralis in Salmonid Fishes in Montana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J. Baldwin; James E. Peterson; Gayle C. McGhee; Kenneth D. Staigmiller; E. S. Motteram; Christopher C. Downs; Danielle R. Stanek

    1998-01-01

    Over an approximately 2-year period, 20,974 fish (trout and other salmonid species) from 230 separate waters (creeks, rivers, lakes, reservoirs, ponds, hatcheries, and irrigation ditches) within 21 of the 22 major drainages in Montana were examined for Myxobolus cerebralis. Nine of the major river drainages have waters containing infected fish: Beaverhead, Big Hole, Blackfoot, Clark Fork above the Bitterroot River,

  5. Rainmap Database: Mapping the Salmonids (Rainbow Trout) Genome

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Institut National de Recherche Agronomique (France) provides online databases of genomes for several organisms, including Salmonids (Rainbow Trout). The database is updated as more data becomes available, and provide records on loci, genes, microsatellites, polymorphisms, probes, enzymes, homologue loci, alleles, primers, references, and links to external databases. Instructions for submitting data to the databases are provided on-site.

  6. NORWEGIAN SALMONID FARMING AND GLOBAL WARMING: SOCIOECONOMIC IMPACTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Øystein Hermansen; Knut Heen

    2012-01-01

    Temperature increases in Norwegian waters are likely to influence productivity for salmonid aquaculture. As sites are experiencing different temperature regimes, the impact on productivity will vary. The spatial distribution of Norwegian salmon farming depends on both institutional and physical conditions. At present, the general location of farms is restricted by the authorities, but in the case of large productivity differences,

  7. Detection of salmonid thermal refugia from airborne thermal infrared (TIR) imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugdale, S. J.; Bergeron, N.; Rousseau, M.

    2010-12-01

    During elevated summer temperatures, salmonid species seek out areas of cool, well-oxygenated river water to alleviate thermal stress. Collectively known as ‘thermal refugia’, these are of great significance to the ability of salmonids to survive increased water temperatures, and a better understanding of their spatial and temporal characteristics may aid mitigation strategies against the possible effects of climate change on rivers. However, thermal refugia are traditionally hard to detect, and their in-river abundance and spatial patterns are largely unknown. Although previous research has examined TIR imaging as a means to sense river temperatures, few have achieved a resolution amenable to the detection of small thermal anomalies typically used by salmonids, with the majority of literature focusing on the general application of thermal imaging to river temperature detection and analysis. From preliminary research, we note that riverine thermal anomalies (as viewed from TIR imagery) can comprise a number of different forms resulting from a diverse range of sources. Given that the structural, spatial and temporal dynamics of thermal refugia in gravel bed rivers are a presumably a function of the complex geomorphological processes within a catchment, the ability to discriminate multi-scale thermal refugia may aid our comprehension not only of the behaviour of salmonids during high temperature events, but also of the geomorphological phenomena that are fundamental in governing river temperature heterogeneity. Initial thermal infrared imagery acquired in August 2009 suggested that while it is possible to manually detect riverine temperature anomalies, the creation of a dedicated remote sensing platform capable of obtaining both TIR and RGB photography easily and with a resolution amenable to refugia detection would greatly aid our ability to discriminate true refugia from other thermal anomalies (false positives). To this end, we have developed a system able to simultaneously acquire high resolution thermal (c. 20cm GSD) and optical (c. 3cm GSD) imagery with a view towards automatically detecting and classifying refugia. This paper presents the preliminary results of several thermal image acquisition flights undertaken in Quebec, Canada, both before and after the development of the new photography system (Summer 2009 and 2010 respectively), with the intention of exploring the various types of different refugia visible to thermal images. Early indications (both from imagery and ground validation) suggest that while the streamwise location of thermal refugias appears to be temporally stable, their form, extent and temperature are highly dynamic.

  8. Internet Sexualities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döring, Nicola

    The term “internet sexuality” (or OSA, online sexual activities) refers to sexual-related content and activities observable on the internet (cf. Adams, Oye, & Parker, 2003; Cooper, McLoughlin, & Campbell, 2000; Leiblum & Döring, 2002). It designates a variety of sexual phenomena (e.g., pornography, sex education, sexual contacts) related to a wide spectrum of online services and applications (e.g., websites, online chat rooms, peer-to-peer networks). If an even broader range of computer networks - such as the Usenet or bulletin board systems - is included in this extensional definition, one speaks of “online sexuality” or “cybersexuality.”

  9. Early age at first sexual intercourse and early pregnancy are risk factors for cervical cancer in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Louie, K S; de Sanjose, S; Diaz, M; Castellsagué, X; Herrero, R; Meijer, C J; Shah, K; Franceschi, S; Muñoz, N; Bosch, F X

    2009-01-01

    Early age at first sexual intercourse (AFSI) has long been associated with an increased risk of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC). Age at first pregnancy (AFP) and ICC have been investigated less, although AFSI and AFP are strongly interrelated in most developing countries. A pooled analysis of case–control studies on ICC from eight developing countries with 1864 cases and 1719 controls investigated the roles of AFSI, AFP, and ICC risk. Age at first sexual intercourse, AFP and age at first marriage (AFM) were highly interrelated and had similar ICC risk estimates. Compared with women with AFSI ?21 years, the odds ratio (OR) of ICC was 1.80 (95% CI: 1.50–2.39) among women with AFSI 17–20 years and 2.31 (95% CI: 1.85–2.87) for AFSI ?16 years (P-trend <0.001). No statistical interaction was detected between AFSI and any established risk factors for ICC. The ICC risk was 2.4-fold among those who reported AFSI and AFP at ?16 years compared with those with AFSI and AFP at ?21 years. These data confirm AFSI and AFB as risk factors for ICC in eight developing countries, but any independent effects of these two events could not be distinguished. PMID:19277042

  10. An in vivo model fish system to test chemical effects on sexual differentiation and development: exposure to ethinyl estradiol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papoulias, D.M.; Noltie, D.B.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    A model system was characterized which may be used as an in vivo screen for effects of chemicals or environmental mixtures on sexual differentiation and development of reproductive organs and gametes. We evaluated the effects of a model environmental estrogen, ethinyl estradiol (EE2), on the d-rR strain of medaka, Oryzias latipes, using a nano-injection exposure. Gonad histopathology indicated that a single injection of 0.5-2.5 ng EE2/egg can cause phenotypic sex-reversal of genetic males to females. Sex-reversals could be detected as early as 7 days post-hatch. Sex-reversed males had female-typical duct development and the secondary sex characteristics we measured were generally consistent with phenotype, with the exception of a few EE2-exposed XX and XY females which possessed ambiguous anal fins. Using discriminant analysis, we determined that the presence or absence of the secondary sex characteristic, a dorsal fin notch, was a very reliable indicator of gonadal sex. No instances of gonadal intersexes were observed. Ethinyl estradiol also appeared to reduce growth but not condition (weight-at-length) and exposed XX females appeared to have a higher incidence of atretic follicles relative to controls. Our results suggest that estrogenic chemicals may influence sexual differentiation and development and that the medaka model is well suited to assessing these effects. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  11. Gas Bubble Disease Monitoring and Research of Juvenile Salmonids : Annual Report 1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Maule, Alec G.; Beeman, John W.; Hans, Karen M.; Mesa, M.G.; Haner, P.; Warren, J.J. [Geological Survey, Cook, WA (United States). Columbia River Research Lab.

    1997-10-01

    This document describes the project activities 1996--1997 contract year. This report is composed of three chapters which contain data and analyses of the three main elements of the project: field research to determine the vertical distribution of migrating juvenile salmonids, monitoring of juvenile migrants at dams on the Snake and Columbia rivers, and laboratory experiments to describe the progression of gas bubble disease signs leading to mortality. The major findings described in this report are: A miniature pressure-sensitive radio transmitter was found to be accurate and precise and, after compensation for water temperature, can be used to determine the depth of tagged-fish to within 0.32 m of the true depth (Chapter 1). Preliminary data from very few fish suggest that depth protects migrating juvenile steelhead from total dissolved gas supersaturation (Chapter 1). As in 1995, few fish had any signs of gas bubble disease, but it appeared that prevalence and severity increased as fish migrated downstream and in response to changing gas supersaturation (Chapter 2). It appeared to gas bubble disease was not a threat to migrating juvenile salmonids when total dissolved gas supersaturation was < 120% (Chapter 2). Laboratory studies suggest that external examinations are appropriate for determining the severity of gas bubble disease in juvenile salmonids (Chapter 3). The authors developed a new method for examining gill arches for intravascular bubbles by clamping the ventral aorta to reduce bleeding when arches were removed (Chapter 3). Despite an outbreak of bacterial kidney disease in the experimental fish, the data indicate that gas bubble disease is a progressive trauma that can be monitored (Chapter 3).

  12. Functional Roles of FgLaeA in Controlling Secondary Metabolism, Sexual Development, and Virulence in Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Seong-Mi; McCormick, Susan P.; Butchko, Robert A. E.; Proctor, Robert H.; Yun, Sung-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight in cereal crops, produces mycotoxins such as trichothecenes and zearalenone in infected plants. Here, we focused on the function of FgLaeA in F. graminearum, a homolog of Aspergillus nidulans LaeA encoding the global regulator for both secondary metabolism and sexual development. Prior to gene analysis, we constructed a novel luciferase reporter system consisting of a transgenic F. graminearum strain expressing a firefly luciferase gene under control of the promoter for either TRI6 or ZEB2 controlling the biosynthesis of these mycotoxins. Targeted deletion of FgLaeA led to a dramatic reduction of luminescence in reporter strains, indicating that FgLaeA controls the expression of these transcription factors in F. graminearum; reduced toxin accumulation was further confirmed by GC-MS analysis. Overexpression of FgLaeA caused the increased production of trichothecenes and additional metabolites. RNA seq-analysis revealed that gene member(s) belonging to ?70% of total tentative gene clusters, which were previously proposed, were differentially expressed in the ?FgLaeA strain. In addition, ?FgLaeA strains exhibited an earlier induction of sexual fruiting body (perithecia) formation and drastically reduced disease symptoms in wheat, indicating that FgLaeA seems to negatively control perithecial induction, but positively control virulence toward the host plant. FgLaeA was constitutively expressed under both mycotoxin production and sexual development conditions. Overexpression of a GFP-FgLaeA fusion construct in the ?FgLaeA strain restored all phenotypic changes to wild-type levels and led to constitutive expression of GFP in both nuclei and cytoplasm at different developmental stages. A split luciferase assay demonstrated that FgLaeA was able to interact with FgVeA, a homolog of A. nidulans veA. Taken together, these results demonstrate that FgLaeA, a member of putative FgVeA complex, controls secondary metabolism, sexual development, and virulence in F. graminearum, although the specific regulation pattern differs from that of LaeA in A. nidulans. PMID:23874628

  13. Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Klickitat River Tributaries, 2001-2005 Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zendt, Joe; Sharp, Bill (Yakama Nation Fisheries, Toppenish, WA)

    2006-09-01

    This report describes the work completed by the Yakama Nation Fisheries Program (YNFP) in the Klickitat subbasin in south-central Washington under BPA innovative project No.200105500--Influences of stocking salmon carcass analogs on salmonids in Columbia River Tributaries. Salmon carcasses historically provided a significant source of marine-derived nutrients to many stream systems in the Columbia basin, and decreased run sizes have led to a loss of this nutrient source in many streams. Partners in this project developed a pathogen-free carcass analog and stocked the analogs in streams with the following objectives: restoring food availability to streams with reduced anadromous salmon returns; mimicking the natural pathways and timing of food acquisition by salmonids; minimizing unintended negative ecological effects; and increasing the growth and survival of salmonids. In the Klickitat subbasin, carcass analogs were stocked in two streams in 2002 and 2003; a third stream was used as a control. Salmonid fish abundance, growth, and stomach contents were monitored in all three streams before and after carcass analog placement. Fish, invertebrate, and periphyton samples were also collected for stable isotope analysis (to determine if nutrients from carcass analogs were incorporated into the stream food web). Water quality samples were also collected to determine if nutrient overloading occurred in streams. Significant differences in growth were found between fish in treated and untreated stream reaches. Fish in treatment reaches exhibited higher instantaneous growth rates approximately one month after the first carcass analog stocking. Stomach contents sampling indicated that salmonid fish routinely consumed the carcass analog material directly, and that stomach fullness of fish in treatment reaches was higher than in untreated reaches in the first few weeks following carcass analog stockings. No significant differences were detected in fish abundance between treatment and control streams after carcass analog stocking. Stable isotope analysis provided some evidence that nutrients (primarily nitrogen) were incorporated into periphyton and invertebrates, although this evidence is not strong. No significant differences in water quality were observed between treatment and control streams after analog stocking. Although no significant changes were observed in fish abundance, this study does provide evidence that carcass analogs provide a viable and potentially useful alternative to stocking salmon carcasses. The analogs provide a direct food source to salmonids, and show some potential for providing nutrients for stream food webs. They can also increase stomach fullness and growth rates of individual fish. This nutrient source may very well improve individual fish condition sufficiently to improve overwintering or smolt survival. Further refinement of stocking densities and timing, treatment duration, and tailoring analog placement to individual stream characteristics (such as channel confinement and flow) will further improve the usefulness of carcass analogs.

  14. Epidemiology and Control of Infectious Diseases of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin, 1983 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, John L.

    1984-11-01

    The Department of Microbiology at Oregon State University with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration conducted a study relating to the epidemiology and control of three fish diseases of salmonids in the Columbia River Basin. These three diseases were ceratomyxosis which is caused by the myxosporidan parasite Ceratomyxa shasta, bacterial kidney disease, the etiological agent of which is Renibacterium salmoninarum, and infectious hematopoietic necrosis, which is caused by a rhabdovirus. Each of these diseases is highly destructive and difficult or impossible to treat with antimicrobial agents. The presence of ceratomyxosis in rainbow trout exposed at McNary and Little Goose Dams extends the range of this disease about 200 miles further up the Columbia River and into the Snake River drainage. Wallowa steelhead trout were less resistant to this disease than other upriver stocks tested. Juvenile salmonids entering the Columbia River estuary were collected periodically between May to September, 1983. Nine percent of the beach seined chinook salmon and 5, 11 and 12%, respectively, of the purse seined coho and chinook salmon and steelhead trout were infected with Ceratomyxa shasta. Experiments indicated ceratomyxosis progresses in salt water at the same rate as in fresh water once the fish have become infected. These data indicate a longer exposure to infective stages of C. shasta than previously identified and that approximately 10% of the migrating salmonids are infected and will probably die from this organism after entering salt water. Since sampling began in 1981 the bacterial kidney disease organism, Renibacterium salmoninarum, has been detected by the fluorescent antibody test in seven salmonid species caught in the open ocean off the coasts of Washington and Oregon. The bacterium has been found primarily in chinook salmon (11%) with lesions in 2.5% of these fish. This disease was also detected at levels ranging from 17% in coho salmon to 25% in chinook salmon seined from the Columbia River just before entering the estuary. Interpretation of these numbers suggests an even greater economic impact on Columbia River salmonid stocks than that proposed for C. shasta. Fertilized eggs from bacterial kidney disease infected parents examined after one month of incubation revealed the presence of bacteria with identical morphology to R. salmoninarum on or in the egg wall further reinforcing the proposed vertical transmission of this disease organism. Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus was recovered at the 67% level from seeded water samples supplemented with 1% fetal calf serum. Virus injected into unfertilized eggs survived for over two weeks; in eyed eggs the virus also replicated. Epizootics caused by IHNV occurred in two of the 8 separate groups of steelhead trout fingerlings held in LJV treated water at Round Butte Hatchery. Comparing these results to those in the vertical transmission experiment where none of the groups developed IHNV suggests that vertical transmission of IHNV, if it occurs, is a very infrequent or random event. On three occasions IHNV was detected in ovarian fluid samples after storage for 6--9 days at 4 C. No virus had been detected in these samples at spawning. This suggests the presence of an interfering substance, perhaps anti-IHNV antibody in ovarian fluid. This observation raises the possibility that IHNV is much more widespread throughout Columbia River Basin salmonid stocks than previously believed.

  15. A review of factors influencing the availability of dissolved oxygen to incubating salmonid embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greig, S. M.; Sear, D. A.; Carling, P. A.

    2007-01-01

    Previous investigations into factors influencing incubation success of salmonid progeny have largely been limited to the development of empirical relationships between characteristics of the incubation environment and survival to emergence. It is suggested that adopting a process-based approach to assessing incubation success aids identification of the precise causes of embryonic mortalities, and provides a robust framework for developing and implementing managerial responses.Identifying oxygen availability within the incubation environment as a limiting factor, a comprehensive review of trends in embryonic respiration, and processes influencing the flux of oxygenated water through gravel riverbeds is provided. The availability of oxygen to incubating salmonid embryos is dependent on the exchange of oxygenated water with the riverbed, and the ability of the riverbed gravel medium to transport this water at a rate and concentration appropriate to support embryonic respiratory requirements. Embryonic respiratory trends indicate that oxygen consumption varies with stage of development, ambient water temperature and oxygen availability. The flux of oxygenated water through the incubation environment is controlled by a complex interaction of intragravel and extragravel processes and factors. The processes driving the exchange of channel water with gravel riverbeds include bed topography, bed permeability, and surface roughness effects. The flux of oxygenated water through riverbed gravels is controlled by gravel permeability, coupling of surface-subsurface flow and oxygen demands imposed by materials infiltrating riverbed gravels. Temporally and spatially variable inputs of groundwater can also influence the oxygen concentration of interstitial water. Copyright

  16. Pilot Study in the Development of an Interactive Multimedia Learning Environment for Sexual Health Interventions: A Focus Group Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goold, P. C.; Bustard, S.; Ferguson, E.; Carlin, E. M.; Neal, K.; Bowman, C. A.

    2006-01-01

    In the UK there are high rates of sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies amongst young people. There is limited and contradictory evidence that current sexual health education interventions are effective or that they improve access to appropriate sexual health services. This paper describes the outcome of focus group work with…

  17. Impact of the Potholes Reservoir Caspian Tern Breeding Colony on Out-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids in the Mid-Columbia River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina J. Maranto; Thomas P. Good; Francis K. Wiese; Julia K. Parrish

    2010-01-01

    We examined the foraging behavior and diet of Caspian terns Hydroprogne caspia breeding at Potholes Reservoir, Washington, in 2003, 2005, and 2006, and we developed a bioenergetics model to estimate impacts on juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. from Columbia River stocks. Potholes Reservoir Caspian terns mostly foraged on local fish (68–97% of tern bill loads) rather than traveling to the Columbia

  18. Index of Predation on Juvenile Salmonids by Northern Squawfish in the Lower and Middle Columbia River and in the Lower Snake River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Ward; James H. Petersen; John J. Loch

    1995-01-01

    We developed a predation index to describe the relative magnitude of predation on juvenile salmonids by northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis throughout the lower and middle Columbia River and lower Snake River. The predation index was the product of an abundance index and a consumption index. We evaluated various catch indices and found that catch per unit effort best reflected differences

  19. Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary in 2009

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Carter, Jessica A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Titzler, P. Scott; Hughes, Michael S.

    2010-08-01

    The study reported herein was funded as part of the Anadromous Fish Evaluation Program, which is managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The Anadromous Fish Evaluation Program study code is EST P 02 01: A Study of Salmonid Survival and Behavior through the Columbia River Estuary Using Acoustic Tags. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Fisheries for the USACE Portland District. Estimated survival of acoustic-tagged juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead through the lower Columbia River and estuary in 2009 was lowest in the final 50 km of the estuary. Probability of survival was relatively high (>0.90) for yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon from the Bonneville Dam forebay (rkm 236) to Three-tree Point (rkm 49.6). Survival of juvenile Chinook salmon declined sharply through the lower 50 km of the estuary. Acoustic-tagged steelhead smolts did not survive as well as juvenile Chinook salmon between Bonneville Dam and the mouth of the Columbia River. Steelhead survival began to decline farther upstream (at rkm 86) relative to that of the Chinook salmon stocks. Subyearling Chinook salmon survival decreased markedly as the season progressed. It remains to be determined whether later migrating subyearling Chinook salmon are suffering increasing mortality as the season progresses or whether some portion of the apparent loss is due to fish extending their freshwater residence. This study provided the first glimpse into what promises to be a very informative way to learn more about how juvenile salmonid passage experiences through the FCRPS may influence their subsequent survival after passing Bonneville Dam. New information regarding the influence of migration pathway through the lower 50 km of the Columbia River estuary on probability of survival of juvenile salmonids, combined with increased understanding regarding the foraging distances and time periods of avian predators should prove useful in developing or assessing management actions to reduce losses of juvenile salmonid smolts that attempt to pass through the estuary on their seaward migration.

  20. Sexual Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... big part of being human. Love, affection and sexual intimacy all play a role in healthy relationships. ... both men and women. Factors that can affect sexual health include Fear of unplanned pregnancy Concerns about ...

  1. WIRED FOR REPRODUCTION: Organization and Development of Sexually Dimorphic Circuits in the Mammalian Forebrain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard B. Simerly

    2002-01-01

    ? Abstract Mammalian,reproduction,depends,on the coordinated,expression,of behavior,with precisely timed physiological,events that are fundamentally,different in males,and females. An improved,understanding,of the neuroanatomical,relation- ships between,sexually dimorphic,parts of the forebrain has contributed to a significant paradigm,shift in how,functional neural systems,are approached,experimentally. This review focuses on the organization of interconnected,limbic-hypothalamic pathways that participate in the neural control of reproduction,and summarizes,what is known about the developmental,neurobiology,of these

  2. Positive and negative cognitions of sexual submission: relationship to sexual violence.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Cheryl A; Byers, Sandra E

    2006-08-01

    This study investigated gender differences in cognitions of sexual submission as well as their association with sexual violence. Participants were 292 heterosexual undergraduate students who completed a 56-item checklist assessing positive and negative sexual cognitions; they also completed measures assessing experiences of sexual abuse in childhood, experiences of sexual coercion in adulthood, and use of sexual coercion. Two 10-item sexual submission subscales were developed from the checklist. One reflected how often respondents had experienced the sexual submission items as positive. The other reflected how often these items were experienced as negative. When overall frequency of sexual cognitions was controlled, compared to the men, the women reported a significantly greater frequency of both positive and negative cognitions of sexual submission. Submission cognitions were more often negative for women and were more often positive for men. Men and women who had experienced sexual abuse in childhood reported more frequent positive sexual submission cognitions but not more negative sexual submission cognitions. Conversely, men and women who had experienced sexual coercion in adulthood reported more frequent negative sexual submission cognitions but not more positive sexual submission cognitions. Having used sexual coercion was associated with more frequent positive cognitions of sexual submission for both men and women. Implications for the proposed links between sexual violence and preferences for cognitions of sexual submission are discussed. PMID:16909319

  3. More Than a Repair Enzyme: Aspergillus nidulans Photolyase-like CryA Is a Regulator of Sexual Development

    PubMed Central

    Bayram, Özgür; Biesemann, Christoph; Krappmann, Sven; Galland, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Cryptochromes are blue-light receptors that have presumably evolved from the DNA photolyase protein family, and the genomes of many organisms contain genes for both types of molecules. Both protein structures resemble each other, which suggests that light control and light protection share a common ancient origin. In the genome of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, however, only one cryptochrome/photolyase-encoding gene, termed cryA, was identified. Deletion of the cryA gene triggers sexual differentiation under inappropriate culture conditions and results in up-regulation of transcripts encoding regulators of fruiting body formation. CryA is a protein whose N- and C-terminal synthetic green fluorescent protein fusions localize to the nucleus. CryA represses sexual development under UVA350-370 nm light both on plates and in submerged culture. Strikingly, CryA exhibits photorepair activity as demonstrated by heterologous complementation of a DNA repair-deficient Escherichia coli strain as well as overexpression in an A. nidulans uvsB? genetic background. This is in contrast to the single deletion cryA? strain, which does not show increased sensitivity toward UV-induced damage. In A. nidulans, cryA encodes a novel type of cryptochrome/photolyase that exhibits a regulatory function during light-dependent development and DNA repair activity. This represents a paradigm for the evolutionary transition between photolyases and cryptochromes. PMID:18495868

  4. Associations between youth homelessness, sexual offenses, sexual victimization, and sexual risk behaviors: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Heerde, Jessica A; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A

    2015-01-01

    Homeless youth commonly report engaging in sexual risk behaviors. These vulnerable young people also frequently report being sexually victimized. This systematic review collates, summarizes, and appraises published studies of youth investigating relationships between homelessness, perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior. A systematic search of seventeen psychology, health, and social science electronic databases was conducted. Search terms included "homeless*," "youth," "offend*," "victimization," "crime," "rape," "victim*," and "sex crimes." Thirty-eight studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Findings showed homeless youth commonly report being raped and sexually assaulted, fear being sexually victimized, and engage in street prostitution and survival sex. Rates of victimization and sexual risk behavior were generally higher for females. Given the paucity of longitudinal studies and limitations of current studies, it is unclear whether homelessness is prospectively associated with sexual victimization or engagement in sexual risk behavior, and whether such associations vary cross nationally and as a function of time and place. Future prospective research examining the influence of the situational context of homelessness is necessary to develop a better understanding of how homelessness influences the perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior among homeless youth. PMID:25411128

  5. Colonial Waterbird Predation on Juvenile Salmonids Tagged with Passive Integrated Transponders in the Columbia River Estuary: Vulnerability of Different Salmonid Species, Stocks, and Rearing Types

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken Collis; Daniel D. Roby; David P. Craig; Brad A. Ryan; Richard D. Ledgerwood

    2001-01-01

    Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags implanted in Columbia River basin juvenile salmonids Oncorhyncus spp. were recovered from breeding colonies of Caspian terns Sterna caspia and double-crested cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus on Rice Island, a dredge spoil island in the Columbia River estuary. Tags were recovered to assess the relative vulnerability of different salmonid species, stocks, and rearing types to avian predators.

  6. Colonial Waterbird Predation on Juvenile Salmonids Tagged with Passive Integrated Transponders in the Columbia River Estuary: Vulnerability of Different Salmonid Species, Stocks, and Rearing Types

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken Collis; Daniel D. Roby; David P. Craig; Brad A. Ryan; Richard D. Ledgerwood

    2001-01-01

    Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags implanted in Columbia River basin juvenile salmonids Oncorhyncusspp. were recovered from breeding colonies of Caspian terns Sterna caspia and double-crested cormorants Phalacrocorax aurituson Rice Island, a dredge spoil island in the Columbia River estuary. Tags were recovered to assess the relative vulnerability of different salmonid species, stocks, and rearing types to avian predators. We detected

  7. Sexual Intimacy After Sexual Assault or Sexual Abuse1

    E-print Network

    Machel, Hans

    Sexual Intimacy After Sexual Assault or Sexual Abuse1 Many survivors find that their sexual attitudes and reactions are impacted after a sexual assault or sexual abuse. While these effects are not permanent, they can be very frustrating as they can decrease the enjoyment of one's sexual life and intimacy

  8. Sexual Harassment in the 90's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Nora M. Fraser

    This document discusses the developing law of sexual harassment. Sexual harassment is discussed not only in the school environment, but also in the workplace. Two legally recognized forms of sexual harassment are described: (1) quid pro quo, or demanding sexual favors in exchange for grades, raises, promotions; and (2) the hostile environment…

  9. Sexual conflict

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracey Chapman; Göran Arnqvist; Jenny Bangham; Locke Rowe

    2003-01-01

    Sexual conflict occurs when the genetic interests of males and females diverge. Recent evidence supporting the view that male and female genomes are in conflict has now revolutionized the way in which we interpret interactions between the sexes, and suggests that sexual conflict is a potent force in male–female coevolution. Here, we consider the nature of sexual conflict and what

  10. Herpes simplex virus 2 : a boon to develop other sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Shimpi; Devi, Pushpa; Devi, Bimla

    2013-04-01

    Genital herpes is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. Though, mostly asymptomatic, it acts as a potential risk factor for acquisition of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The present study was undertaken to know sero-prevalence of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2), syphilis and HIV among STI clinic attendees and to detect the diagnostic utility of HSV2 IgM antibodies. The study group included 170 individuals attending STI clinic irrespective of their presenting complaints. Their sera were subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of HSV2 IgM antibodies. The samples were also screened for HIV and syphilis. Twenty-seven (15.88%) out of 170 persons were found to be seropositive for HSV2 IgM antibodies. Syphilis was detected in 13 individuals (7.65%). Twelve individuals (7.06%) were found to be reactive for anti HIV I antibodies. Ten of the genital herpes patients (37.04%), did not have any complaint of genital ulcer. Eight HSV2 patients (29.63%) had coinfection with HIV I, 6 (22.22%) with syphilis and 2 (07.41%) had co-infection with both HIV and syphilis. A significant proportion of the patients with genital herpes presented without the history of genital ulcers. Thus, its detection and treatment among asymptomatic patients is significant so as to reduce its transmission and other STIs. PMID:24475553

  11. Effect of three larval diets on larval development and male sexual performance of Anopheles gambiae s.s.

    PubMed

    Yahouédo, Gildas A; Djogbénou, Luc; Saïzonou, Jacques; Assogba, Bénoît S; Makoutodé, Michel; Gilles, Jeremie R L; Maïga, Hamidou; Mouline, Karine; Soukou, Bhonna K; Simard, Frédéric

    2014-04-01

    Population replacement/elimination strategies based on mass-release of sterile or otherwise genetically modified (male) mosquitoes are being considered in order to expand the malaria vector control arsenal on the way to eradication. A challenge in this context, is to produce male mosquitoes that will be able to compete and mate with wild females more efficiently than their wild counterparts, i.e. high fitness males. This study explored the effect of three larval food diets developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency on the overall fitness and mating performance of male Anopheles gambiae s.s. mosquitoes (Kisumu strain). Larval development (pupation and emergence rate, development time) was monitored, and adult wing length and energy reserves at emergence (i.e. lipids, sugars, glycogen and proteins) were measured. Male sexual performance was assessed through an insemination test whereby one male and 10 virgin females were maintained together in the same cage in order to record the number of inseminated females per 24h. Our results show that males reared on Diets 2 and 3 performed best during larval development. Males provided with treatment 2.2 had a shorter development time and performed best in insemination tests. However, these males had the lowest overall lifespan, suggesting a trade-off between longevity and sexual performances which needs to be taken into consideration when planning release. The results from this work were discussed in the context of sterile insect techniques or genetic control methods which is today one of the strategy in the overall mosquito control and elimination efforts. PMID:24291460

  12. Sexual Health and Reproduction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ingrid Waldron

    This activity provides questions and Web sites to guide student investigation of birth control methods, fetal development, risks of alcohol and smoking during pregnancy, changes during puberty, and HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases.

  13. Sexuality and Dementia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Awards Program Development PolicyDigest Newsletter Caregiver Connect SF Bay Area Services Family Care Navigator Research Registry Support ... recent conference of the Caregiver Resource Centers of California, the keynote presentation was on sexuality and intimacy. ...

  14. Polyphasic characterization of Aeromonas salmonicida isolates recovered from salmonid and non-salmonid fish.

    PubMed

    Diamanka, A; Loch, T P; Cipriano, R C; Faisal, M

    2013-11-01

    Michigan's fisheries rely primarily upon the hatchery propagation of salmonid fish for release in public waters. One limitation on the success of these efforts is the presence of bacterial pathogens, including Aeromonas salmonicida, the causative agent of furunculosis. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of A. salmonicida in Michigan fish, as well as to determine whether biochemical or gene sequence variability exists among Michigan isolates. A total of 2202 wild, feral and hatchery-propagated fish from Michigan were examined for the presence of A. salmonicida. The examined fish included Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), coho salmon, O. kisutcha (Walbaum), steelhead trout, O. mykiss (Walbaum), Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill), and yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill). Among these, 234 fish yielded a brown pigment-producing bacterium that was presumptively identified as A. salmonicida. Further phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses identified representative isolates as Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and revealed some genetic and biochemical variability. Logistic regression analyses showed that infection prevalence varied according to fish species/strain, year and gender, whereby Chinook salmon and females had the highest infection prevalence. Moreover, this pathogen was found in six fish species from eight sites, demonstrating its widespread nature within Michigan. PMID:23444966

  15. Perceived realism moderates the relation between sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes in dutch adolescents.

    PubMed

    Baams, Laura; Overbeek, Geertjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Doornwaard, Suzan M; Rommes, Els; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined whether the development of sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes would be more strongly interrelated when adolescents perceived sexualized media images as highly realistic. We used data from a three-wave longitudinal sample of 444 Dutch adolescents aged 13-16 years at baseline. Results from parallel process latent growth modeling multigroup analyses showed that higher initial levels of sexualized media consumption were associated with higher initial level of permissive sexual attitudes. Moreover, increases of sexualized media consumption over time were associated with increases of permissive sexual attitudes over time. Considering the moderation by perceived realism, we found these effects only for those who perceived sexualized media as more realistic. Findings for male and female adolescents were similar except for the relations between initial levels and subsequent development. Among male adolescents who perceived sexualized media images to be realistic, higher initial levels of permissive sexual attitudes were related to subsequent less rapid development of sexualized media consumption. For male adolescents who perceived sexualized media to be less realistic, higher initial levels of sexualized media consumption were related to a subsequent less rapid development of permissive sexual attitudes. These relations were not found for female adolescents. Overall, our results suggest that, in male and female adolescents, those with a high level of perceived realism showed a correlated development of sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes. These findings point to a need for extended information on how to guide adolescents in interpreting and handling sexualized media in everyday life. PMID:25501659

  16. LEAFY COTYLEDON1, a Key Regulator of Seed Development, Is Expressed in Vegetative and Sexual Propagules of Selaginella moellendorffii

    PubMed Central

    Kirkbride, Ryan C.; Fischer, Robert L.; Harada, John J.

    2013-01-01

    LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) is a central regulator of seed development that plays a key role in controlling the maturation phase during which storage macromolecules accumulate and the embryo becomes tolerant of desiccation. We queried the genomes of seedless plants and identified a LEC1 homolog in the lycophyte, Selaginellamoellendorffii, but not in the bryophyte, Physcomitrellapatens. Genetic suppression experiments indicated that Selaginella LEC1 is the functional ortholog of Arabidopsis LEC1. Together, these results suggest that LEC1 originated at least 30 million years before the first seed plants appeared in the fossil record. The accumulation of Selaginella LEC1 RNA primarily in sexual and asexual reproductive structures suggests its involvement in cellular processes similar to those that occur during the maturation phase of seed development. PMID:23776713

  17. The gene csd is the primary signal for sexual development in the honeybee and encodes an SR-type protein.

    PubMed

    Beye, Martin; Hasselmann, Martin; Fondrk, M Kim; Page, Robert E; Omholt, Stig W

    2003-08-22

    Haplodiploid organisms comprise about 20% of animals. Males develop from unfertilized eggs while females are derived from fertilized eggs. The underlying mechanisms of sex determination, however, appear to be diverse and are poorly understood. We have dissected the complementary sex determiner (csd) locus in the honeybee to understand its molecular basis. In this species, csd acts as the primary sex-determining signal with several alleles segregating in populations. Males are hemizygous and females are heterozygous at this locus; nonreproducing diploid males occur when the locus is homozygous. We have characterized csd by positional cloning and repression analysis. csd alleles are highly variable and no transcription differences were found between sexes. These results establish csd as a primary signal that governs sexual development by its allelic composition. Structural similarity of csd with tra genes of Dipteran insects suggests some functional relation of what would otherwise appear to be unrelated sex-determination mechanisms. PMID:12941271

  18. [The impact of male phytoestrogenization on the somato-sexual development and fertility of the offsprings in rats].

    PubMed

    Seliukova, N Iu; Karpenko, N O; Korenieva, Ie M; Somova, O V; Smolienko, N P; Pocherniaieva, S S; Brechka, N M

    2014-01-01

    The effect of phytoestrogen-rich diet administered to male rats in a dose 20 mg/kg of body weight for 30 days with the mixture of phytoestrogens on reproductive function of male offspring and the effect of additional phytoestrogenization during milk feeding have been investigated. It was shown that male phytoestrogenization leads to feminization of the offsprings. Specifically, at birth, the ano-genital distance in males was less than that measured in control rats: (2.7 +/- 0.1) vs (3.1 +/- 0.0) mm (P < 0.05). This and additional phytoestrogenization of newborn rats during milk feeding inhibit their somatic and sexual development, weakening sexual activity in adults and reducing fertility at the expense of dectreased fertilizing capacity of sperm. A possible mechanism for the observed effects may be a reduction of relative androgenization due to increased of estradiol concentration by 3-4 times. Analysis of the data revealed a significant impact of phytoestrogens in father's diet on reproductive function of their offsprings under conditions of additional phytoestrogenization after birth. PMID:25007526

  19. Examining key design decisions involved in developing a serious game for child sexual abuse prevention

    PubMed Central

    Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Jones, Christian M.; Rolfe, Ben; Pozzebon, Kay

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the key decisions made in the design of Orbit, a child sexual abuse prevention computer game targeted at school students between 8 and 10 years of age. Key decisions include providing supported delivery for the target age group, featuring adults in the program, not over-sanitizing game content, having a focus on building healthy self-concept of players, making the game engaging and relatable for all players and evaluating the program. This case study has implications for the design of Serious Games more generally, including that research should underpin game design decisions, game designers should consider ways of bridging the game to real life, the learning that arises from the game should go beyond rote-learning, designers should consider how the player can make the game-world their own and comprehensive evaluations of Serious Games should be undertaken. PMID:24550880

  20. Examining key design decisions involved in developing a serious game for child sexual abuse prevention.

    PubMed

    Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Jones, Christian M; Rolfe, Ben; Pozzebon, Kay

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the key decisions made in the design of Orbit, a child sexual abuse prevention computer game targeted at school students between 8 and 10 years of age. Key decisions include providing supported delivery for the target age group, featuring adults in the program, not over-sanitizing game content, having a focus on building healthy self-concept of players, making the game engaging and relatable for all players and evaluating the program. This case study has implications for the design of Serious Games more generally, including that research should underpin game design decisions, game designers should consider ways of bridging the game to real life, the learning that arises from the game should go beyond rote-learning, designers should consider how the player can make the game-world their own and comprehensive evaluations of Serious Games should be undertaken. PMID:24550880

  1. Chitinases Are Essential for Sexual Development but Not Vegetative Growth in Cryptococcus neoformans? †

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Lorina G.; Specht, Charles A.; Lodge, Jennifer K.

    2009-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pathogen that mainly infects immunocompromised individuals. The fungal cell wall of C. neoformans is an excellent target for antifungal therapies since it is an essential organelle that provides cell structure and integrity. Importantly, it is needed for localization or attachment of known virulence factors, including melanin, phospholipase, and the polysaccharide capsule. The polysaccharide fraction of the cryptococcal cell wall is a complex structure composed of chitin, chitosan, and glucans. Chitin is an indispensable component of many fungal cell walls that contributes significantly to cell wall strength and integrity. Fungal cell walls are very dynamic, constantly changing during cell division and morphogenesis. Hydrolytic enzymes, such as chitinases, have been implicated in the maintenance of cell wall plasticity and separation of the mother and daughter cells at the bud neck during vegetative growth in yeast. In C. neoformans we identified four predicted endochitinases, CHI2, CHI21, CHI22, and CHI4, and a predicted exochitinase, hexosaminidase, HEX1. Enzymatic analysis indicated that Chi2, Chi22, and Hex1 actively degraded chitinoligomeric substrates. Chi2 and Hex1 activity was associated mostly with the cellular fraction, and Chi22 activity was more prominent in the supernatant. The enzymatic activity of Hex1 increased when grown in media containing only N-acetylglucosamine as a carbon source, suggesting that its activity may be inducible by chitin degradation products. Using a quadruple endochitinase deletion strain, we determined that the endochitinases do not affect the growth or morphology of C. neoformans during asexual reproduction. However, mating assays indicated that Chi2, Chi21, and Chi4 are each involved in sexual reproduction. In summary, the endochitinases were found to be dispensable for routine vegetative growth but not sexual reproduction. PMID:19734369

  2. Endohelminth parasites from salmonids in intensive culture from southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Torres, P; Quintanilla, J C; Rozas, M; Miranda, P; Ibarra, R; San Martín, M F; Raddatz, B; Wolter, M; Villegas, A; Canobra, C; Hausdorf, M; Silva, R

    2010-06-01

    A total of 228 salmonids (90 Oncorhynchus mykiss, 48 Oncorhynchus kisutch, and 90 Salmo salar) from 8 intensive aquaculture centers in the south of Chile were examined for endohelminths parasites between December 2008 and May 2009. The body cavities of 2 O. mykiss were infected by Diphyllobothrium sp. plerocercoids (prevalence: 6.7%, mean intensity: 1.0, mean abundance: 0.07) from the Lake Tarahuin hatchery on the south of Chiloé Island. Also, tetraphyllidean plerocercoids (prevalence: 3.3%, mean intensity: 1, mean abundance: 0.03) and fourth-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium aduncum (prevalence: 6.7%, mean intensity: 1, mean abundance 0.07) were observed in O. kisutch from a marine hatchery in Chiloé. The occurrences of Diphyllobothrium sp. in a lake and a tetraphyllidean plerocercoid from marine cultured salmonid in Chiloé are reported for first time. No muscular infection by helminths was recorded in the fish examined. PMID:20557217

  3. Genetics and genomics of disease resistance in salmonid species.

    PubMed

    Yáñez, José M; Houston, Ross D; Newman, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Infectious and parasitic diseases generate large economic losses in salmon farming. A feasible and sustainable alternative to prevent disease outbreaks may be represented by genetic improvement for disease resistance. To include disease resistance into the breeding goal, prior knowledge of the levels of genetic variation for these traits is required. Furthermore, the information from the genetic architecture and molecular factors involved in resistance against diseases may be used to accelerate the genetic progress for these traits. In this regard, marker assisted selection and genomic selection are approaches which incorporate molecular information to increase the accuracy when predicting the genetic merit of selection candidates. In this article we review and discuss key aspects related to disease resistance in salmonid species, from both a genetic and genomic perspective, with emphasis in the applicability of disease resistance traits into breeding programs in salmonids. PMID:25505486

  4. Genetics and genomics of disease resistance in salmonid species

    PubMed Central

    Yáñez, José M.; Houston, Ross D.; Newman, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Infectious and parasitic diseases generate large economic losses in salmon farming. A feasible and sustainable alternative to prevent disease outbreaks may be represented by genetic improvement for disease resistance. To include disease resistance into the breeding goal, prior knowledge of the levels of genetic variation for these traits is required. Furthermore, the information from the genetic architecture and molecular factors involved in resistance against diseases may be used to accelerate the genetic progress for these traits. In this regard, marker assisted selection and genomic selection are approaches which incorporate molecular information to increase the accuracy when predicting the genetic merit of selection candidates. In this article we review and discuss key aspects related to disease resistance in salmonid species, from both a genetic and genomic perspective, with emphasis in the applicability of disease resistance traits into breeding programs in salmonids. PMID:25505486

  5. Salmonid influences on rivers: A geomorphic fish tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVries, Paul

    2012-07-01

    Studies of the effects of salmonids on the environment have focused primarily on the biological linkages between salmon runs and stream ecology. Less effort has focused on geomorphic effects. A review of the literature indicates potential (i) direct effects in response to mass spawning of salmonids, including changes in streambed and bank morphology and annual volumes of bedload transported; and (ii) indirect effects including supply of nutrients to the riparian zone, which may influence the in-channel dynamics of large woody debris and bank stability, and effects on population density of net-spinning caddisfly larvae which may influence streambed stability in finer gravel substrates. More research is needed over long time frames, however, to ascertain whether such effects are geomorphically significant at larger spatial and longer temporal scales, and to estimate the sizes of populations required to cause geomorphically significant responses. Some possible studies are suggested.

  6. SEXUAL ASSAULT AND SEXUAL HARASSMENT QUICK REFERENCE

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Michael

    SEXUAL ASSAULT AND SEXUAL HARASSMENT QUICK REFERENCE Sexual Assault Definition ­ any form of sexual contact without both parties' voluntary consent. Contrary to what most people think, sexual assault. ­ Zvulony & Company ­ The Law of Sexual Assault in Canada. Sexual Harassment Definition ­ is comment

  7. Asymmetric competition drives lake use of coexisting salmonids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Jonsson; N. Jonsson; Kjetil Hindar; T. G. Northcote; S. Engen

    2008-01-01

    To what degree are population differences in resource use caused by competition and the occupation of adjacent positions along\\u000a environmental gradients evidence of competition? Habitat use may be the result of a competitive lottery, or restricted by\\u000a competition. We tested to what extent population differences in habitat use of two salmonids, cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) and Dolly Varden charr (Salvelinus

  8. Weir removal in salmonid streams: implications, challenges and practicalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Garcia de Leaniz

    2008-01-01

    Low-head dams and weirs can greatly limit the distribution and abundance of Atlantic salmon and other migratory salmonids\\u000a in streams. Weirs can significantly increase the vulnerability of migratory fish to anglers, alter natural migration patterns,\\u000a and exacerbate the effects of opportunistic predators. Overcrowding of fish at downstream pools can also facilitate the spread\\u000a of parasites and infectious diseases, magnify the

  9. Linking Forests and Fish: The Relationship Between Productivities of Salmonids and Forest Stands in Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilzbach, P.; Frazey, S.

    2005-05-01

    Productivities of resident salmonid populations, upland, and riparian areas in 25 small watersheds of coastal northern California were estimated and compared to determine if: 1) upland site productivity predicted riparian site productivity; 2) either upland or riparian site productivity predicted salmonid productivity; and 3) other parameters explained more of the variance in salmonid productivity than upland or riparian site productivity. Salmonid productivity was indexed by total salmonid biomass, length of age 1 fish, and percent habitat saturation. Upland and riparian site productivities were estimated using site indices for redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and red alder (Alnus rubra), respectively. Upland and riparian site indices were correlated, but neither factor contributed to the best approximating models of salmonid biomass or fish length at age one. Salmonid biomass was best described by a positive relationship with drainage area, and length at age was best described by a positive relationship with percent of riparian hardwoods. Percent habitat saturation was not well described by any of the models constructed. Lack of a relationship between upland conifer and salmonid productivity suggests that management of land for timber productivity and component streams for salmonid production in these sites will require separate, albeit integrated, strategies.

  10. Ceratomyxa shasta genotypes cause differential mortality in their salmonid hosts.

    PubMed

    Hurst, C N; Bartholomew, J L

    2012-10-01

    Ceratomyxa shasta is a myxozoan parasite of salmonid fish. In natural communities, distinct genotypes of the parasite are associated with different salmonid hosts. To test the hypothesis that genotypes of C. shasta cause differential mortality, the polychaete host was experimentally infected with different parasite genotypes. Genotype I was obtained from Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and genotype II from either coho salmon, O. kisutch, or rainbow trout, O. mykiss, We then challenged four salmonid strains: Chinook and coho salmon that occur in sympatry with the parasite and allopatric Chinook salmon and rainbow trout. Parasite genotype I caused mortality only in Chinook strains, although mortality in the allopatric strain also occurred from exposure to genotype II. A second experiment demonstrated that genotype II could be separated into two biotypes based on differential mortality in rainbow trout and coho salmon. These differential patterns of mortality as a result of infection by certain genotypes of C. shasta support field observations and suggest a co-evolutionary relationship between these parasites and their hosts. PMID:22808922

  11. Sublethal toxicity of chlorpyrifos to salmonid olfaction after hypersaline acclimation.

    PubMed

    Maryoung, Lindley A; Blunt, Brian; Tierney, Keith B; Schlenk, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Salmonid habitats can be impacted by several environmental factors, such as salinization, which can also affect salmonid tolerance to anthropogenic stressors, such as pesticides. Previous studies have shown that hypersaline acclimation enhances the acute toxicity of certain organophosphate and carbamate pesticides to euryhaline fish; however, sublethal impacts have been far less studied. The current study aims to determine how hypersaline acclimation and exposure to the organophosphate chlorpyrifos (CPF) impact salmonid olfaction. Combined acclimation and exposure to CPF was shown to impact rainbow trout olfaction at the molecular, physiological, and behavioral levels. Concurrent exposure to hypersalinity and 0.5?g/L CPF upregulated four genes (chloride intracellular channel 4, G protein zgc:101761, calcium calmodulin dependent protein kinase II delta, and adrenergic alpha 2C receptor) that inhibit olfactory signal transduction. At the physiological level, hypersalinity and chlorpyrifos caused a decrease in sensory response to the amino acid l-serine and the bile salt taurocholic acid. Combined acclimation and exposure also negatively impacted behavior and reduced the avoidance of a predator cue (l-serine). Thus, acclimation to hypersaline conditions and exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of chlorpyrifos caused an inhibition of olfactory signal transduction leading to a decreased response to odorants and impairment of olfactory mediated behaviors. PMID:25697678

  12. Sexual behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Catherine H.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual health is not merely the absence of disease, but the ability to have informed, consensual, safe, respectful, and pleasurable sexual relationships. The majority of the population are sexually active, most with someone of the opposite sex. The frequency and range of sexual practices that people engage in declines with age, but for many, sexual activity continues well into later life. Different aspects of sexual health affect people at different times throughout their lives. As people in the UK tend to first have sex around the age of 16, but do not start living with a partner until much later, the avoidance of sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancy is necessary for many for a number of years. As people get older, their sexual health needs change and they become more concerned with the impact of their general health on their ability to have sex. Some people experience non-volitional sex (sex against their will); although this occurs typically in late teenage it may affect women and men at any age and so requires consideration throughout life. As many people find it difficult to talk about sex and sexual health matters, health professionals should make sexual health enquiry a component of their holistic healthcare. PMID:24966786

  13. Sexually dimorphic effects of NMDA receptor antagonism on brain-pituitary-gonad axis development in the platyfish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Katherine M.; Miller, Shelly A.; Sower, Stacia A.; Schreibman, Martin P.

    2002-01-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR) is found in hypothalamic nuclei involved in the regulation of reproduction in several species of mammals and fishes. NMDAR is believed to affect reproductive development and function by regulating gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)-producing cells. These pathways are likely to be sexually dimorphic, as are several other neurotransmitter systems involved in reproductive function. In this report, male and female platyfish received intraperitoneal injections of 0, 5, 10, 20, 40 or 60 microg/g body wt. of the non-competitive NMDAR antagonist MK-801. Injections began at 6 weeks of age and continued thrice weekly until control animals reached puberty, as evidenced by anal fin maturation. The percent of pubescent animals was significantly affected by sex and treatment, with fewer MK-801-injected females in puberty than control females at each dose (P<0.001), and fewer pubescent females than males at 10, 20 and 40 microg/g (P<0.05). There were no MK-801-related effects in males. Histological analyses revealed typical immature gonads and pituitary glands in treated females, and typical mature morphology in control females and all males. Immunocytochemical distribution of the R1 subunit of the NMDAR within the brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis was limited to GnRH-containing brain cells in all animals; however, NMDAR1 distribution was in an immature pattern in treated females and a mature pattern in all others. Neural concentrations of GnRH were unaffected by MK-801 treatment in both sexes. These data suggest that in the platyfish, NMDAR influence on reproductive development is sexually dimorphic and occurs at, or above, the level of GnRH-containing cells of the BPG axis.

  14. Sexual Dimorphism

    E-print Network

    Frayer, David W.; Wolpoff, Milford H.

    1985-01-01

    and "socially imposed monogamy" showed greater sexual differ- ences in stature than ones following what the authors described as "ecologically imposed" monogamous patterns, which led these authors to postulate that patterns of sexual dimorphism in humans... of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 1Order of the authors is alphabetical. INTRODUCTION That the human species exhibits sexual dimorphism in size, shape, and be- havior is an obvious conclusion from anyone?s simple participation...

  15. Still Off-Limits? Staff Views on Supporting Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual People with Intellectual Disabilities to Develop Sexual and Intimate Relationships?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, David; Howarth, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    Background: In the UK and elsewhere, there is a growing policy and legislative imperative to ensure that people with intellectual disabilities are supported to develop relationships, including sexual ones. However, gay, lesbian and bisexual people with intellectual disabilities may have additional needs or face particular barriers in this area of…

  16. EFFECTS OF MIXTURES OF PHTHALATES, PESTICIDES AND TCDD ON SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATON IN RATS: A RISK FRAMEWORK BASED UPON DISRUPTION OF COMMON DEVELOPING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since humans are exposed to more than one chemical at a time, concern has arisen about the effects of mixtures of chemicals on human reproduction and development. We are conducting studies to determine the 1) classes of chemicals that disrupt sexual differentiation via different ...

  17. A Comparison of Self-Reported Puberty Using the Pubertal Development Scale and the Sexual Maturation Scale in a School-Based Epidemiologic Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Lyndal; Clements, Jackie; Bertalli, Nadine; Evans-Whipp, Tracy; McMorris, Barbara J.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To examine concordance between two self-reported measures of puberty: Sexual Maturation Scale (SMS) and Pubertal Development Scale (PDS) and their acceptability to adolescents. Methods: Participants of a school-based study in grades 5, 7 and 9 were classified into one of 5 pubertal stages using each method. Results: 2864 students (age…

  18. Rape Myth Acceptance, Hypermasculinity, and SAT Scores as Correlates of Moral Development: Understanding Sexually Aggressive Attitudes in First-Year College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatum, Jerry L.; Foubert, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Male perpetrated sexual aggression has long been recognized as a serious problem on college campuses. The purpose of this multiple regression correlation study was to assess the relationship between levels of moral development (measured by the Defining Issues Test) and the degree to which first-year college men (N = 161) ascribed to rape…

  19. The Pornographic Context of Sexual Offences: Reflections on the Contemporary Sexual Mentality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Boutellier

    2000-01-01

    This essay-like article explores the pornographic context of sexual violence. The analysis is based on Giddens' book about the development of intimacy and sexuality in late modernity. Sexual morality nowadays combines a tolerant mentality towards pornography and a claim for prudence in the daily relationship between the sexes. This 'schizophrenic' moral situation gives a special meaning to sexual violence, which

  20. The Structural Properties of Sexual Fantasies for Sexual Offenders: A Preliminary Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Dion; Ward, Tony; Belofastov, Aleksandra; Beech, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    While the phenomenon of sexual fantasy has been researched extensively, little contemporary inquiry has investigated the structural properties of sexual fantasy within the context of sexual offending. In this study, a qualitative analysis was used to develop a descriptive model of the phenomena of sexual fantasy during the offence process.…

  1. Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes of Men with Intellectual Disability Who Sexually Offend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsky, Yona; Frijters, Jan; Griffiths, Dorothy M.; Watson, Shelley L.; Williston, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Background: Various explanations of sexual offending in men with intellectual disability (ID) have stressed sexual deviance and a lack of developmental socio-sexual knowledge. Method: Using the normative dataset of people with ID from the development of the "Socio-Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Assessment Tool--Revised" (SSKAAT-R: Griffiths &…

  2. Sexuality, culture and society: shifting paradigms in sexuality research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Parker

    2009-01-01

    Over the course of the past three decades, there has been a significant increase of research on the social and cultural dimensions of sexuality. This paper reviews three major phases in the development of this work. In the first phase, work focusing on the social construction of sexual experience developed an important critique of the biomedical and sexological approaches that

  3. A comparison of Visual Prey Detection Among Species of Piscivorous Salmonids: Effects of Light and Low Turbidities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael M. Mazur; David A. Beauchamp

    2003-01-01

    Differences in reaction distance to prey fish by piscivorous salmonids can alter predator–prey interactions under different visual conditions. We compared reaction distances of three piscivorous salmonids commonly found in western lakes: cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarki utah, rainbow trout, O. mykiss, and the nonnative lake char, Salvelinus namaycush. Reaction distances to salmonid prey were measured as functions of light and turbidity

  4. Caspian Tern Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in the Mid-Columbia River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle Antolos; Daniel D. Roby; Donald E. Lyons; Ken Collis; Allen F. Evans; Mike Hawbecker; Brad A. Ryan

    2005-01-01

    We used a bioenergetics approach to determine the magnitude of predation by Caspian terns Sterna caspia on juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. in the mid-Columbia River during 2000 and 2001. Caspian terns nesting on Crescent Island, Washington, located below the confluence of the Snake and Columbia rivers, consumed several hundred thousand juvenile salmonids each year of the study. Tern consumption of

  5. Assessment of Native Salmonids Above Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho; 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Kevin A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    1999-03-01

    Native resident salmonids in the western United States are in decline throughout much of their range. The purpose of the multi-phased project is to restore native salmonids in the upper Snake River basin to self-sustaining, harvestable levels.

  6. Feeding of Predaceous Fishes on Out-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids in John Day Reservoir, Columbia River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas P. Poe; Hal C. Hansel; Steven Vigg; Douglas E. Palmer; Linda A. Prendergast

    1991-01-01

    Diets of northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, walleye Stizostedion vitreum, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus from John Day Reservoir were examined to determine the extent of predation on juvenile salmonids during seaward migrations of the salmonids during April–August 1983–1986. Juvenile Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss were the most important food group (by weight) of

  7. Detection of Regional Trends in Salmonid Habitat in Coastal Streams, Oregon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kara J. Anlauf; William Gaeuman; Kim K. Jones

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater habitat quality is broadly recognized as fundamental to the viability of salmonid populations. Temporal trends in freshwater habitat have rarely been quantified, however, perhaps owing to a lack of methodical and rigorous time series data sets. We present an approach for evaluating change in freshwater habitat using data from a long-term program to monitor salmonid populations and their habitats

  8. Sexual Risk Behavior Among Youth With Perinatal HIV Infection in the United States: Predictors and Implications for Intervention Development

    PubMed Central

    Tassiopoulos, Katherine; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Mellins, Claude; Kacanek, Deborah; Malee, Kathleen; Allison, Susannah; Hazra, Rohan; Siberry, George K.; Smith, Renee; Paul, Mary; Van Dyke, Russell B.; Seage, George R.

    2013-01-01

    Background.?Factors associated with initiation of sexual activity among perinatally human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected (PHIV+) youth, and the attendant potential for sexual transmission of antiretroviral (ARV) drug-resistant HIV, remain poorly understood. Methods.?We conducted cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of PHIV+ youth aged 10–18 years (mean, 13.5 years) enrolled in the US-based Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study between 2007 and 2009. Audio computer-assisted self-interviews (ACASI) were used to collect sexual behavior information. Results.?Twenty-eight percent (95% confidence interval [CI], 23%–33%) (92/330) of PHIV+ youth reported sexual intercourse (SI) (median initiation age, 14 years). Sixty-two percent (57/92) of sexually active youth reported unprotected SI. Among youth who did not report history of SI at baseline, ARV nonadherence was associated with sexual initiation during follow-up (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.87; 95% CI, 1.32–6.25). Youth living with a relative other than their biological mother had higher odds of engaging in unprotected SI than those living with a nonrelative. Thirty-three percent of youth disclosed their HIV status to their first sexual partner. Thirty-nine of 92 (42%) sexually active youth had HIV RNA ?5000 copies/mL after sexual initiation. Viral drug resistance testing, available for 37 of these 39 youth, identified resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in 62%, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in 57%, protease inhibitors in 38%, and all 3 ARV classes in 22%. Conclusions.?As PHIV+ youth become sexually active, many engage in behaviors that place their partners at risk for HIV infection, including infection with drug-resistant virus. Effective interventions to facilitate youth adherence, safe sex practices, and disclosure are urgently needed. PMID:23139252

  9. Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePLUS

    ... diseases Behavioral indicators Inappropriate sex-role relationship between victim and suspect Inappropriate, unusual, or aggressive sexual behavior How can I learn more? "Speaking the unspeakable: An interview about elder sexual assault with Holly Ramsey-Klawsnik, Ph.D" in nexus , ...

  10. Sexual Sadism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Berner; Peter Berger; Andreas Hill

    2003-01-01

    Definitions of sexual sadism in ICD-10 and DSM-IV will be presented as well as the historical routes of the concept. Today studies on differently selected clinical samples reveal a different distribution of sexual sadism versus masochism with masochism prevailing in general especially outpatient psychiatric facilities, and sadism prevailing in forensic settings, thus corroborating the concept of two separated diagnoses sadism

  11. Sexual selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malte Andersson; Yoh Iwasa

    1996-01-01

    Competition over mates takes many forms and has far-reaching consequences for many organisms. Recent work suggests that relative reproductive rates of males and females, sperm competition and quality variation among mates affect the strength of sexual selection. Song, other display, body size, visual ornaments and material resource offerings are often sexually selected. There is much empirical evidence of mate choice,

  12. Sexual health

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Anna

    2004-01-01

    IN 2001 the government produced the first ever National strategy for sexual health and HIV.1 The strategy called for a broader role for general practice in the promotion of better sexual health. Surveys undertaken in the United Kingdom (UK) in recent years suggest that more people have more sexual partners than ever before. This has been associated with a rise in sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Screening and testing for Chlamydia trachomatis have become more widespread in the UK. Risk assessment and sexual history taking are described. They need to be carried out confidentially and non-judgmentally. Confidentiality training for all staff, including a requirement to sign confidentiality statements, is recommended. Partner notification can be done in a variety of different settings including general practice. A new course for those working in primary care has been devised, aiming to equip participants with the basic knowledge, skills, and attitudes for the effective management of STIs. PMID:15113524

  13. Sea lice as a density-dependent constraint to salmonid farming

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Peder A.; Kristoffersen, Anja B.; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Jimenez, Daniel; Aldrin, Magne; Stien, Audun

    2012-01-01

    Fisheries catches worldwide have shown no increase over the last two decades, while aquaculture has been booming. To cover the demand for fish in the growing human population, continued high growth rates in aquaculture are needed. A potential constraint to such growth is infectious diseases, as disease transmission rates are expected to increase with increasing densities of farmed fish. Using an extensive dataset from all farms growing salmonids along the Norwegian coast, we document that densities of farmed salmonids surrounding individual farms have a strong effect on farm levels of parasitic sea lice and efforts to control sea lice infections. Furthermore, increased intervention efforts have been unsuccessful in controlling elevated infection levels in high salmonid density areas in 2009–2010. Our results emphasize host density effects of farmed salmonids on the population dynamics of sea lice and suggest that parasitic sea lice represent a potent negative feedback mechanism that may limit sustainable spatial densities of farmed salmonids. PMID:22319130

  14. The contribution of molecular epidemiology to the understanding and control of viral diseases of salmonid aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology is a science which utilizes molecular biology to define the distribution of disease in a population (descriptive epidemiology) and relies heavily on integration of traditional (or analytical) epidemiological approaches to identify the etiological determinants of this distribution. The study of viral pathogens of aquaculture has provided many exciting opportunities to apply such tools. This review considers the extent to which molecular epidemiological studies have contributed to better understanding and control of disease in aquaculture, drawing on examples of viral diseases of salmonid fish of commercial significance including viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), salmonid alphavirus (SAV) and infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV). Significant outcomes of molecular epidemiological studies include: Improved taxonomic classification of viruses A better understanding of the natural distribution of viruses An improved understanding of the origins of viral pathogens in aquaculture An improved understanding of the risks of translocation of pathogens outwith their natural host range An increased ability to trace the source of new disease outbreaks Development of a basis for ensuring development of appropriate diagnostic tools An ability to classify isolates and thus target future research aimed at better understanding biological function While molecular epidemiological studies have no doubt already made a significant contribution in these areas, the advent of new technologies such as pyrosequencing heralds a quantum leap in the ability to generate descriptive molecular sequence data. The ability of molecular epidemiology to fulfil its potential to translate complex disease pathways into relevant fish health policy is thus unlikely to be limited by the generation of descriptive molecular markers. More likely, full realisation of the potential to better explain viral transmission pathways will be dependent on the ability to assimilate and analyse knowledge from a range of more traditional information sources. The development of methods to systematically record and share such epidemiologically important information thus represents a major challenge for fish health professionals in making the best future use of molecular data in supporting fish health policy and disease control. PMID:21466673

  15. Men's sexual self-schema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara L. Andersen; Jill M. Cyranowski; Derek Espindle

    1999-01-01

    Sexual self-schemas are cognitive generalizations about sexual aspects of oneself. In Part 1, a measure of men's sexual self-schema is developed. Studies of test—retest and internal consistency reliability and validity studies of factor analysis, internal structure, convergent and discriminant validity, process, group difference, and change are provided. The construct consists of 3 dimensions: passionate—loving, powerful-aggressive, and open-minded-liberal traits. In Part

  16. Biology and Sexual Minority Status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Byne

    The purpose of this chapter is to provide clinicians with an overview of current knowledge pertaining to the biology of sexual\\u000a minority status. Under the umbrella of sexual minority are included homosexuals, bisexuals, transgenders and intersexes. The\\u000a most developed biologic theory pertaining to sexual minority status is the prenatal hormonal\\u000a hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, prenatal hormones act (primarily during

  17. A pilot study to test the differential validity of a genital injury severity scale, in development for use in forensic sexual assault examinations.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Hillary J; Cosby, Cecily D; Kelly, Dana; Paolinetti, Lauri A

    2012-03-01

    Methods of examining the sexual assault patient are not standardized and a definition of what constitutes significant genital injury after sexual assault (SA) remains controversial. This pilot study tests the empirical validity (initial differential validity) of a genital injury severity scale (GISS) under development by the authors with the hypothesis that women who report SA have more severe external genital injuries than those who engage in consensual intercourse (CI). In this observational, prospective study, an initially developed GISS is applied and the exam results of 59 CI volunteers and 185 SA patients are compared. All examinations were performed by experienced sexual assault forensic examiners (SAFE) using toluidine blue (TB) and colposcopy. The Independent Samples Median Test indicates a significant difference in median genital injury type between CI and SA subjects (p < 0.0001). There is a significant difference in the prevalence of Class A (less severe) and Class B injuries (more severe) between the SA and the CI groups (SA: Class A 60%/Class B 40%; CI: Class A 90%/Class B 10% (p= 0.0001)). This initial validation study shows effectiveness in using magnification and TB, combined with a standardized injury severity scale, in describing external genital injury in women after sexual intercourse. PMID:22372396

  18. Implicit Cognitive Distortions and Sexual Offending

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Mihailides; Grant J. Devilly; Tony Ward

    2004-01-01

    This work develops and tests the semantic-motivation hypothesis of sexual offenders' implicit cognitions. This hypothesis posits that sexual offenders' cognitive distortions emerge at the interface between implicit motivation and cognition. The semantic-motivation hypothesis is used to guide the development of 3 implicit association tests (IATs). These IATs were used to test for the existence of 3 expected child sexual offender

  19. Sexual Values and Risky Sexual Behaviors Among Latino Youths

    PubMed Central

    Deardorff, Julianna; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Flores, Elena; Ozer, Emily J.

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT Understanding Latino youths’ sexual values is key to informing HIV prevention efforts. Few studies have examined associations between culturally based sexual values and behaviors among Latinos. METHODS A sample of 839 sexually active Latinos aged 16–22 residing in San Francisco were interviewed in 2003–2006. Multiple regression and multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between sexual values and behaviors, while adjusting for language use (a proxy for acculturation) and other covariates. RESULTS The importance attached to female virginity was negatively associated with the number of sexual partners women had had in their lifetime (odds ratio, 0.8) and in the past year (0.9), and was positively associated with women’s nonuse of condoms, rather than consistent use, during the first month of their current relationships (1.8). For men, the importance of satisfying sexual needs increased with the numbers of lifetime and recent sexual partners (1.4 and 1.1, respectively), and with inconsistent condom use in the first month of their relationships (1.9). Comfort with sexual communication was positively associated with inconsistent use or nonuse of condoms in the last month of both men’s and women’s current relationships (2.0–2.2). For women, considering satisfaction of sexual needs important was associated with more sexual partners only among those who attached little value to female virginity. CONCLUSIONS It is important to integrate themes of virginity and sexual desire into intervention curricula so youth can better understand how these sexual norms influence their developing sexual identities and behaviors. PMID:20415881

  20. A Multidimensional Model of Sexual Health and Sexual and Prevention Behavior Among Adolescent Women

    PubMed Central

    Hensel, Devon J.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Sexual health refers a state of lifespan well-being related to sexuality. Among young people, sexual health has multiple dimensions, including the positive developmental contributions of sexuality, as well as the acquisition of skills pertinent to avoiding adverse sexual outcomes such as unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Existing efforts to understand sexual health, however, have yet to empirically operationalize a multi-dimensional model of sexual health and to evaluate its association to different sexual/prevention behaviors. Methods Sexual health dimensions and sexual/prevention behaviors were drawn from a larger longitudinal cohort study of sexual relationships among adolescent women (N =387, 14–17 years). Second order latent variable modeling (AMOS/19.0) evaluated the relationship between sexual health and dimensions and analyzed the effect of sexual health to sexual/prevention outcomes. Results All first order latent variables were significant indicators of sexual health (?: 0.192 – 0.874, all p < .001). Greater sexual health was significantly associated with sexual abstinence, as well as with more frequent non-coital and vaginal sex, condom use at last sex, a higher proportion of condom-protected events, use of hormonal or other methods of pregnancy control and absence of STI. All models showed good fit. Conclusions Sexual health is an empirically coherent structure, in which the totality of its dimensions is significantly linked to a wide range of outcomes, including sexual abstinence, condom use and absence of STI. This means that, regardless of a young person’s experiences, sexual health is an important construct for promoting positive sexual development and for primary prevention. PMID:23332488

  1. Tonight is an online program to help first-year students understand and address sexual assault and dating violence before, during, and after they happen. This interactive program was developed with extensive input

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Tonight is an online program to help first-year students understand and address sexual assault and dating violence before, during, and after they happen. This interactive program was developed experiencing physical, emotional, and/or sexual abuse by a dating partner in the past 12 months.ii Tonight

  2. Global climate change and effects on Pacific Northwest salmonids: An exploratory case study

    SciTech Connect

    Shankle, S.A.

    1990-09-01

    Recently, a number of papers have addressed global warming and freshwater fisheries. The recent report to Congress by the US Environmental Protection Agency included an analysis of potential effects of global warming on fisheries of the Great Lakes, California, and the Southeast. In California, the report stated that salinity increases in the San Francisco Bay could enhance the abundance of marine fish species, while anadromous species could be adversely affected. This paper discusses global climate changes and the effects on Pacific Northwest Salmonids. The impacts of climate change or Spring Chinook production in the Yakima Sub-basin was simulated using a computer modeling system developed for the Northwest Power planning council. 35 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  3. Intracellular siderophores are essential for ascomycete sexual development in heterothallic Cochliobolus heterostrophus and homothallic Gibberella zeae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Connections between fungal development and secondary metabolism have been reported previously, but as yet, no comprehensive analysis of a family of secondary metabolites and their possible role in fungal development has been reported. In the present study, mutant strains of the heterothallic ascomyc...

  4. Abnormalities of sexual development in male rats with in utero and lactational exposure to the antiandrogenic plasticizer Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, R W; Rudy, T A; Lin, T M; Ko, K; Peterson, R E

    2001-01-01

    Several members of the phthalate ester family have antiandrogenic properties, yet little is known about how exposure to these ubiquitous environmental contaminants early in development may affect sexual development. We conducted experiments to determine effects of in utero and lactational exposure to the most prevalent phthalate ester, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), on male reproductive system development and sexual behavior. Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed with corn oil or DEHP (0, 375, 750, or 1,500 mg/kg/day, per os) from gestation day 3 through postnatal day (PND) 21. Dose-related effects on male offspring included reduced anogenital distance, areola and nipple retention, undescended testes, and permanently incomplete preputial separation. Testis, epididymis, glans penis, ventral prostate, dorsolateral prostate, anterior prostate, and seminal vesicle weights were reduced at PND 21, 63, and/or 105-112. Additional dose-related effects included a high incidence of anterior prostate agenesis, a lower incidence of partial or complete ventral prostate agenesis, occasional dorsolateral prostate and seminal vesicle agenesis, reduced sperm counts, and testicular, epididymal, and penile malformations. Many DEHP-exposed males were sexually inactive in the presence of receptive control females, but sexual inactivity did not correlate with abnormal male reproductive organs. These results suggest that in utero and lactational DEHP exposure also inhibited sexually dimorphic central nervous system development. No major abnormalities were found in any of eight control litters, but DEHP caused severe male reproductive system toxicity in five of eight litters at 375 mg/kg/day, seven of eight litters at 750 mg/kg/day, and five of five litters at 1,500 mg/kg/day. These results demonstrate that the male reproductive system is far more sensitive to DEHP early in development than when animals are exposed as juveniles or adults. The effects of DEHP on male reproductive organs and sexual behaviors and the lack of significant effects on time to vaginal opening and first estrus in their littermates demonstrate that DEHP (and/or its metabolites) affects development of the male reproductive system primarily by acting as an antiandrogen. The pattern of effects of in utero and lactational DEHP exposure differed from patterns caused by other phthalate esters, and the preponderance of anterior prostate agenesis appears to be unique among all chemicals. These results suggest that DEHP acts partly by mechanisms distinct from those of other antiandrogens. PMID:11333183

  5. Effect of normative masculinity on males' dysfunctional sexual beliefs, sexual attitudes, and perceptions of sexual functioning.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Michael J; Marks, Anthony D G; Lykins, Amy D

    2015-01-01

    Male sexual dysfunction is a prevalent and distressing condition, which may be exacerbated by the sufferer's perceptions of masculinity and normative sexual behavior. This study sought to investigate the effect of social context on males' beliefs regarding sexual behavior. The research examined the effect of male role modeling and masculine cues on males' dysfunctional sexual beliefs, sexual attitudes, and self-perceptions of sexual functioning. A sample of 140 male participants, with a mean age of 29 years, was exposed to pictorial and verbal cues that presented different versions of male behavior across three conditions. Results indicated that males exposed to models and cues of traditional masculinity showed significantly increased levels of dysfunctional sexual beliefs and traditional sexual attitudes relative to males exposed to models of modern masculinity. Results also indicated that males exposed to traditional masculine stimuli reported lower levels of sexual inhibition due to fear of performance failure than males exposed to models of modern masculinity. The potential role of social context is discussed in the development and maintenance of male sexual dysfunction and its implications for treatment. PMID:24558985

  6. Child sexual abuse, links to later sexual exploitation/high-risk sexual behavior, and prevention/treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen

    2010-10-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly. PMID:20679329

  7. Sexual assertiveness mediates the effect of social interaction anxiety on sexual victimization risk among college women.

    PubMed

    Schry, Amie R; White, Susan W

    2013-03-01

    Sexual victimization is prevalent among college women and is associated with adverse psychological consequences. Social anxiety, particularly related to interpersonal interaction, may increase risk of sexual victimization among college women by decreasing sexual assertiveness and decreasing the likelihood of using assertive resistance techniques. This study examined social interaction anxiety as a risk factor for sexual victimization. College women (n=672) completed online measures of social interaction anxiety, sexual assertiveness, and sexual victimization experiences. Social interaction anxiety was significantly positively related to likelihood of experiencing coerced sexual intercourse, and significant indirect effects, via decreased sexual refusal assertiveness, were found for both coerced sexual intercourse and rape. Social anxiety may be an important psychological barrier to assertive resistance during risky sexual situations, and developers of risk reduction programs for college women should consider including methods to help women overcome their social anxiety in order to successfully use assertive resistance techniques. PMID:23312432

  8. From violence exposure to development of sexual risk in low-income urban girls: the role of psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Helen W; Pettineo, Laura; Edmonds, Alexus; Goodman, Elizabeth A; Emerson, Erin; Donenberg, Geri R

    2015-04-01

    This longitudinal study examined psychopathology as an explanatory mechanism linking childhood violence exposure (CVE) to sexual risk in 177 African American girls recruited from mental health clinics serving low-income communities in Chicago. Beginning at average age 14, girls completed five interviews over 2 years and a sixth assessment including trauma history. CVE reflected sexual, physical, or witnessed violence before age 12. Latent growth modeling accounted for developmental change across the six time points. Externalizing, but not internalizing, symptoms mediated the pathway from CVE to number of partners (indirect effect = .16, 95 % CIBCBS = .04-.29) and inconsistent condom use (indirect effect = .11, CIBCBS = .004-.21). Externalizing problems associated with CVE may help to explain its relationship with sexual risk in low-income, treatment-seeking African American girls. Behavioral interventions addressing aggression, impulsivity, and general risk-taking may be most effective in reducing sexual risk in this population. PMID:24801477

  9. Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed

    Tian, Hua; Li, Yun; Wang, Wei; Wu, Peng; Ru, Shaoguo

    2012-09-01

    Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine-disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi-static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long-term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17?-estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine-disrupting action. PMID:22714039

  10. Functional analysis of hydrophobin genes in sexual development of Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Terhem, Razak B; van Kan, Jan A L

    2014-10-01

    Hydrophobins are small secreted fungal proteins that play roles in growth and development of filamentous fungi, i.e. in the formation of aerial structures and the attachment of hyphae to hydrophobic surfaces. In Botrytis cinerea, three hydrophobin genes have been identified. Studies by Mosbach et al. (2011) showed that hydrophobins are neither involved in conferring surface hydrophobicity to conidia and aerial hyphae of B. cinerea, nor are they required for virulence. The present study investigated the role of hydrophobins in sclerotium and apothecium development. Expression analysis revealed high expression of the Bhp1 gene during different stages of apothecium development. Two Bhp1 splice variants were detected that differ by an internal stretch of 13 amino acid residues. Seven different mutants in which either a single, two or three hydrophobin genes were knocked out, as well as two wild type strains of opposite mating types, were characterized for sclerotium and apothecium development. No aberrant morphology was observed in sclerotium development when single deletion mutants in hydrophobin genes were analyzed. Sclerotia of double knock out mutant ?Bhp1/?Bhp3 and the triple knock out mutant, however, showed easily wettable phenotypes. For analyzing apothecium development, a reciprocal crossing scheme was setup. Morphological aberrations were observed in crosses with two hydrophobin mutants. When the double knock out mutant ?Bhp1/?Bhp2 and the triple knock out mutant were used as the maternal parent (sclerotia), and fertilized with wild type microconidia, the resulting apothecia were swollen, dark brown in color and had a blotched surface. After initially growing upwards toward the light source, the apothecia in many cases collapsed due to loss of structural integrity. Aberrant apothecium development was not observed in the reciprocal cross, when these same mutants were used as the paternal parent (microconidia). These results indicate that the presence of hydrophobins in maternal tissue is important for normal development of apothecia of B. cinerea. PMID:25181040

  11. Development and Evaluation of a Sexual Decision-Making and Social Skills Program: \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Noell; Dennis Ary; Terry Duncan

    1997-01-01

    A series of interactive videodisc programs designed to reduce HIV\\/STD risk behaviors was developed and evaluated. Separate programs were developed for each of three race\\/ethnicities (African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian) at each of two age levels (middle school and high school) using extensive formative procedures. Each program uses scenarios with extensive branching story lines to teach decision-making skills and socially

  12. A Global Assessment of Salmon Aquaculture Impacts on Wild Salmonids

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Jennifer S; Myers†, Ransom A

    2008-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, wild salmon catch and abundance have declined dramatically in the North Atlantic and in much of the northeastern Pacific south of Alaska. In these areas, there has been a concomitant increase in the production of farmed salmon. Previous studies have shown negative impacts on wild salmonids, but these results have been difficult to translate into predictions of change in wild population survival and abundance. We compared marine survival of salmonids in areas with salmon farming to adjacent areas without farms in Scotland, Ireland, Atlantic Canada, and Pacific Canada to estimate changes in marine survival concurrent with the growth of salmon aquaculture. Through a meta-analysis of existing data, we show a reduction in survival or abundance of Atlantic salmon; sea trout; and pink, chum, and coho salmon in association with increased production of farmed salmon. In many cases, these reductions in survival or abundance are greater than 50%. Meta-analytic estimates of the mean effect are significant and negative, suggesting that salmon farming has reduced survival of wild salmon and trout in many populations and countries. PMID:18271629

  13. Large scale modelling of salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) infection pressure based on lice monitoring data from Norwegian salmonid farms.

    PubMed

    Kristoffersen, Anja B; Jimenez, Daniel; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Grøntvedt, Randi; Stien, Audun; Jansen, Peder A

    2014-12-01

    Infection by parasitic sea lice is a substantial problem in industrial scale salmon farming. To control the problem, Norwegian salmonid farms are not permitted to exceed a threshold level of infection on their fish, and farms are required to monitor and report lice levels on a weekly basis to ensure compliance with the regulation. In the present study, we combine the monitoring data with a deterministic model for salmon lice population dynamics to estimate farm production of infectious lice stages. Furthermore, we use an empirical estimate of the relative risk of salmon lice transmission between farms, that depend on inter-farm distances, to estimate the external infection pressure at a farm site, i.e. the infection pressure from infective salmon lice of neighbouring farm origin. Finally, we test whether our estimates of infection pressure from neighbouring farms as well as internal within farm infection pressure, predicts subsequent development of infection in cohorts of farmed salmonids in their initial phase of marine production. We find that estimated external infection pressure is a main predictor of salmon lice population dynamics in newly stocked cohorts of salmonids. Our results emphasize the importance of keeping the production of infectious lice stages at low levels within local networks of salmon farms. Our model can easily be implemented for real time estimation of infection pressure at the national scale, utilizing the masses of data generated through the compulsory lice monitoring in salmon farms. The implementation of such a system should give the salmon industry greater predictability with respect to salmon lice infection levels, and aid the decision making process when the development of new farm sites are planned. PMID:25480132

  14. Sexual Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from a disease or health condition. The Most Common Types of Sexual Problems in Older Adults For women, age-related changes due to menopause include: lack of interest difficulty with lubrication inability to reach a climax ( ...

  15. Healthy Sexuality

    MedlinePLUS

    ... about sexual function as described by Masters and Johnson in the mid-1960s. They described 4 stages, ... returns to its unstimulated state. Since Masters and Johnson, other researchers have modified the original concept with ...

  16. Teenage Sexuality

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Books Four Stages of Coming Out Staying Out Late and Curfews Date Rape Healthy Children Radio: Acne and Common Skin Problems of Adolescents (Audio) Birth Control for Sexually Active Teens Dangers ...

  17. Sexual Difficulties

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sex. Medicines: Many commonly prescribed drugs have sexual side effects. For instance, some drugs used to treat depression can suppress libido. Surgery: Women who have undergone breast cancer surgery, for example, may feel less desirable or ...

  18. Role of the medical auxiliary in the control of sexually transmitted disease in a developing country.

    PubMed Central

    Arya, O P; Bennett, F J

    1976-01-01

    Venereal diseases are becoming a major health problem in many developing countries where the greater part of primary medical care is undertaken by medical auxiliaries. Under these circumstances, the medical auxiliary has an important role to play in the control of these diseases but he can only do this with adequate training, support, and supervision from the professional doctors and specialists. In this paper, the role of the medical auxiliary is outlined and a case is also made for a specially-trained cadre for venereal disease work in busy urban clinics in developing countries. PMID:946783

  19. Psychological consequences of sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Mason, Fiona; Lodrick, Zoe

    2013-02-01

    Sexual violence is an important issue worldwide and can have long-lasting and devastating consequences. In this chapter, we outline the psychological reactions to serious sexual assault and rape, including development of post-traumatic stress disorder. Myths and stereotypes surrounding this subject, and their potential effect on the emotional response and legal situation, are discussed. PMID:23182852

  20. Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Hua; Li, Yun; Wang, Wei; Wu, Peng; Ru, Shaoguo, E-mail: rusg@ouc.edu.cn

    2012-09-01

    Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine?disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi?static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long?term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17??estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine?disrupting action. -- Highlights: ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused an increase in 17??estradiol levels of male guppies. ? Monocrotophos pesticide induced vitellogenin synthesis of male guppies. ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused a decrease in testosterone levels of male guppies. ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused demasculinization of male sexual characteristics. ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused a reduction in reproductive success of male guppies.

  1. Sexuality and Sexual Rights in Muslim Societies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liz Ercevik Amado

    2009-01-01

    In August 2008, the Coalition for Sexual and Bodily Rights in Muslim Societies (CSBR) organized the CSBR Sexuality Institute, the first international Institute on sexuality and sexual rights in Muslim societies in Malaysia. Liz Amado presents how the Institute expanded the discourse, knowledge and thinking around sexuality in Muslim societies, as well as providing a unique space for the much

  2. Detecting sexual conflict and sexually antagonistic coevolution

    E-print Network

    Day, Troy

    Detecting sexual conflict and sexually antagonistic coevolution Locke Rowe1,2,* and Troy Day3,4 1 by providing an operational definition of sexual conflict that applies to both inter- and intralocus conflict approaches for detecting interlocus sexual conflict and resultant sexually antagonistic coevolution. We

  3. SEXUAL MISCONDUCT/SEXUAL ASSAULT POLICY

    E-print Network

    Dennett, Daniel

    SEXUAL MISCONDUCT/SEXUAL ASSAULT POLICY Office of Equal Opportunity Purpose: To establish a work and educational environment at Tufts University that is free from Sexual Misconduct, which includes sexual harassment, sex/gender discrimination, sexual assault, rape and other gender-based misconduct, through

  4. Sexual Attitude Reassessment for Psychiatric Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dincin, Jerry; Wise, Shirley

    1979-01-01

    Sexuality programs are one part of the program at Thresholds, a rehabilitation center for psychiatric patients (17 to 50 years old). A 16 week sexuality group includes seven phases: initial interview; beginning group development (health care, contraception, reproduction, sexuality); masturbation; intercourse; homosexuality; coed group discussion;…

  5. Adolescent Sexual Education: Designing Curriculum That Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quincy, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper, "Adolescent Sexual Education: Designing Curriculum That Works", is to present some basic curriculum necessities for developing an in-school sexual education program that results in decreasing the number of teenagers initiating sex, thus reducing the number of teen pregnancies and cases of sexually transmitted…

  6. Sexually dimorphic development and binding characteristics of NMDA receptors in the brain of the platyfish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, K. M.; Schreibman, M. P.; Yablonsky-Alter, E.; Banerjee, S. P.

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated age- and gender-specific variations in properties of the glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in a freshwater teleost, the platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus). Prior localization of the immunoreactive (ir)-R1 subunit of the NMDAR protein (R1) in cells of the nucleus olfactoretinalis (NOR), a primary gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-containing brain nucleus in the platyfish, suggests that NMDAR, as in mammals, is involved in modulation of the platyfish brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis. The current study shows that the number of cells in the NOR displaying ir-R1 is significantly increased in pubescent and mature female platyfish when compared to immature and senescent animals. In males, there is no significant change in ir-R1 expression in the NOR at any time in their lifespan. The affinity of the noncompetitive antagonist ((3)H)MK-801 for the NMDAR is significantly increased in pubescent females while maximum binding of ((3)H)MK-801 to the receptor reaches a significant maximum in mature females. In males, both MK-801 affinity and maximum binding remain unchanged throughout development. This is the first report of gender differences in the association of NMDA receptors with neuroendocrine brain areas during development. It is also the first report to suggest NMDA receptor involvement in the development of the BPG axis in a nonmammalian vertebrate. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  7. Comparative evaluation of molecular diagnostic tests for Nucleospora salmonis and prevalence in migrating juvenile salmonids from the Snake River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Badil, Samantha; Elliott, Diane G.; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Hedrick, Ronald P.; Clemens, Kathy; Blair, Marilyn; Purcell, Maureen K.

    2011-01-01

    Nucleospora salmonis is an intranuclear microsporidian that primarily infects lymphoblast cells and contributes to chronic lymphoblastosis and a leukemia-like condition in a range of salmonid species. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of N. salmonis in out-migrating juvenile hatchery and wild Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss from the Snake River in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. To achieve this goal, we first addressed the following concerns about current molecular diagnostic tests for N. salmonis: (1) nonspecific amplification patterns by the published nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) test, (2) incomplete validation of the published quantitative PCR (qPCR) test, and (3) whether N. salmonis can be detected reliably from nonlethal samples. Here, we present an optimized nPCR protocol that eliminates nonspecific amplification. During validation of the published qPCR test, our laboratory developed a second qPCR test that targeted a different gene sequence and used different probe chemistry for comparison purposes. We simultaneously evaluated the two different qPCR tests for N. salmonis and found that both assays were highly specific, sensitive, and repeatable. The nPCR and qPCR tests had good overall concordance when DNA samples derived from both apparently healthy and clinically diseased hatchery rainbow trout were tested. Finally, we demonstrated that gill snips were a suitable tissue for nonlethal detection of N. salmonis DNA in juvenile salmonids. Monitoring of juvenile salmonid fish in the Snake River over a 3-year period revealed low prevalence of N. salmonis in hatchery and wild Chinook salmon and wild steelhead but significantly higher prevalence in hatchery-derived steelhead. Routine monitoring of N. salmonis is not performed for all hatchery steelhead populations. At present, the possible contribution of this pathogen to delayed mortality of steelhead has not been determined.

  8. Determine the Influence of Time Held in “Knockdown” Anesthesia on Survival and Stress of Surgically Implanted Juvenile Salmonids

    SciTech Connect

    Woodley, Christa M.; Wagner, Katie A.; Knox, Kasey M.

    2012-01-31

    The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) was developed for the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers Portland District (USACE) to address questions related to survival and performance measures of juvenile salmonids as they pass through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). Researchers using JSATS acoustic transmitters (ATs) were tasked with standardizing the surgical implantation procedure to ensure that the stressors of handling and surgery on salmonids were consistent and less likely to cause effects of tagging in survival studies. Researchers questioned whether the exposure time in 'knockdown' anesthesia (or induction) to prepare fish for surgery could influence the survival of study fish (CBSPSC 2011). Currently, fish are held in knockdown anesthesia after they reach Stage 4 anesthesia until the completion of the surgical implantation of a transmitter, varies from 5 to 15 minutes for studies conducted in the Columbia Basin. The Columbia Basin Surgical Protocol Steering Committee (CBSPSC ) expressed concern that its currently recommended 10-minute maximum time limit during which fish are held in anesthetic - tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222, 80 mg L-1 water) - could increase behavioral and physiological costs, and/or decrease survival of outmigrating juvenile salmonids. In addition, the variability in the time fish are held at Stage 4 could affect the data intended for direct comparison of fish within or among survival studies. Under the current recommended protocol, if fish exceed the 10-minute time limit, they are to be released without surgical implantation, thereby increasing the number of fish handled and endangered species 'take' at the bypass systems for FCRPS survival studies.

  9. Comparative evaluation of molecular diagnostic tests for Nucleospora salmonis and prevalence in migrating juvenile salmonids from the Snake River, USA.

    PubMed

    Badil, Samantha; Elliott, Diane G; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Hedrick, Ronald P; Clemens, Kathy; Blair, Marilyn; Purcell, Maureen K

    2011-03-01

    Nucleospora salmonis is an intranuclear microsporidian that primarily infects lymphoblast cells and contributes to chronic lymphoblastosis and a leukemia-like condition in a range of salmonid species. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of N. salmonis in out-migrating juvenile hatchery and wild Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss from the Snake River in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. To achieve this goal, we first addressed the following concerns about current molecular diagnostic tests for N. salmonis: (1) nonspecific amplification patterns by the published nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) test, (2) incomplete validation of the published quantitative PCR (qPCR) test, and (3) whether N. salmonis can be detected reliably from nonlethal samples. Here, we present an optimized nPCR protocol that eliminates nonspecific amplification. During validation of the published qPCR test, our laboratory developed a second qPCR test that targeted a different gene sequence and used different probe chemistry for comparison purposes. We simultaneously evaluated the two different qPCR tests for N. salmonis and foundthat both assays were highly specific, sensitive, and repeatable. The nPCR and qPCR tests had good overall concordance when DNA samples derived from both apparently healthy and clinically diseased hatchery rainbow trout were tested. Finally, we demonstrated that gill snips were a suitable tissue for nonlethal detection of N. salmonis DNA in juvenile salmonids. Monitoring of juvenile salmonid fish in the Snake River over a 3-year period revealed low prevalence of N. salmonis in hatchery and wild Chinook salmon and wild steelhead but significantly higher prevalence in hatchery-derived steelhead. Routine monitoring of N. salmonis is not performed for all hatchery steelhead populations. At present, the possible contribution of this pathogen to delayed mortality of steelhead has not been determined. PMID:21699133

  10. Choline incorporation by Schistosoma mansoni: distribution of choline metabolites during development and after sexual differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ancelin, M.L.; Torpier, G.; Vial, H.J.; Capron, A.

    1987-06-01

    Choline metabolism was investigated in Schistosoma mansoni during the main phases of its development, namely, schistosomula, 11- and 15-day-old worms, and adults. At the physiological choline concentration used in the assay (20 microM), betaine was, along with phosphatidylcholine, one of the most abundant choline metabolites, revealing considerable choline oxidation activity. Very little radioactivity was associated with CDP-choline, whereas a sustained incorporation into phosphocholine occurred. These results provide good evidence that CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase plays a regulatory role in the de novo pathway of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. During development, the incorporation of choline into its various metabolites was maximal in 11-day-old worms. At this stage, the oxidative pathway predominated over the Kennedy pathway, whereas at all other stages the de novo phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis was predominant. Furthermore, choline incorporation into betaine was much more important in the adult female worm than in the male, indicating a major difference in choline incorporation and distribution between the 2 sexes of the adult worms.

  11. In vivo localization of antibodies raised against Eimeria maxima wall forming bodies during sexual intracellular development.

    PubMed

    Frölich, Sonja; Shahparee, Annisha; Wasinger, Valerie C; Wallach, Michael

    2014-11-01

    SUMMARY Apicomplexan parasites cause devastating diseases in humans and livestock. Previously we demonstrated that antibodies targeting transmissible forms of the apicomplexan parasite, Eimeria, are effective at reducing parasite shedding thus preventing the transmission of the disease. However, the mechanisms responsible have not been fully defined. Moreover, there is no direct evidence that the parasite-specific IgG antibodies can reach the parasite developing in the enterocytes of the infected chicken host. This study summarizes our efforts using host immunity, parasite proteomics and 3D microscopy to provide a step forward in our understanding of how this immune response works. Eimeria maxima is an important pathogen of poultry and used as a surrogate for a number of human pathogens including Toxoplasma and Plasmodium. Our studies demonstrate that immunization with the purified wall forming bodies (WFBs) results in a production of parasite-specific IgG antibodies, which have the ability to reach in situ gametocytes in the intestinal lumen and permeate the enterocyte/parasite membranes in order to bind to the cytoplasmic Type 1 and Type 2 WFBs. This raises the intriguing possibility that via this process antibodies block the development of Eimeria maxima in vivo. PMID:25075563

  12. Trenbolone causes mortality and altered sexual differentiation in Xenopus tropicalis during larval development.

    PubMed

    Olmstead, Allen W; Kosian, Patricia A; Johnson, Rodney; Blackshear, Pamela E; Haselman, Jonathan; Blanksma, Chad; Korte, Joseph J; Holcombe, Gary W; Burgess, Emily; Lindberg-Livingston, Annelie; Bennett, Blake A; Woodis, Kacie K; Degitz, Sigmund J

    2012-10-01

    Trenbolone is an androgen agonist used in cattle production and has been measured in aquatic systems associated with concentrated animal-feeding operations. In this study, the authors characterized the effects of aqueous exposure to 17?-trenbolone during larval Xenopus tropicalis development. Trenbolone exposure resulted in increased mortality of post-Nieuwkoop-Faber stage 58 tadpoles at concentrations ?100?ng/L. Morphological observations and the timing of this mortality are consistent with hypertrophy of the larynx. Development of nuptial pads, a male secondary sex characteristic, was induced in tadpoles of both sexes at 100?ng/L. Effects on time to complete metamorphosis or body sizes were not observed; however, grow-outs placed in clean media for six weeks were significantly smaller in body size at 78?ng/L. Effects on sex ratios were equivocal, with the first experiment showing a significant shift in sex ratio toward males at 78?ng/L. In the second experiment, no significant effects were observed up to 100?ng/L, although overall sex ratios were similar. Histological assessment of gonads at metamorphosis showed half with normal male phenotypes and half that possessed a mixed-sex phenotype at 100?ng/L. Hypertrophy of the Wolffian ducts was also observed at this concentration. These results indicate that larval 17?-trenbolone exposure results in effects down to 78?ng/L, illustrating potential effects from exposure to androgenic compounds in anurans. PMID:22847831

  13. A Bias Caused by Ectopic Development Produces Sexually Dimorphic Sperm In Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, Christopher; Viviano, Jeffrey; Ellis, Ronald E

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Self-fertile hermaphrodites have evolved independently several times in the genus Caenorhabditis [1, 2]. These XX hermaphrodites make smaller sperm than males [3, 4], which they use to fertilize their own oocytes. Since larger sperm outcompete smaller sperm in nematodes [3–5], it had been assumed that this dimorphism evolved in response to sperm competition. However, we show that it was instead caused by a developmental bias. When we transformed females of the species C. remanei into hermaphrodites [6], their sperm were significantly smaller than those of males. Because this species never makes hermaphrodites in the wild, this dimorphism cannot be due to selection. Instead, analyses of the related nematode C. elegans suggest that this dimorphism might reflect the development of sperm within the distinct physiological environment of the hermaphrodite gonad. These results reveal a new mechanism for some types of developmental bias — the effects of a novel physical location alter the development of ectopic cells in predictable ways. PMID:21835620

  14. Developing a Valid and Reliable Instrument to Predict the Protective Sexual Behaviors in Women at Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi, Razieh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Yaghmaei, Farideh; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: One much needed tool to assist with the monitoring and evaluation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevention programs is to provide a valid instrument to measure protective sexual behavior and related factors. Objectives: The current study aimed to design a valid and reliable instrument to predict the protective sexual behaviors of women at risk of HIV in Iran. Patients and Methods: The current study was a sequential mixed cross-sectional and methodological research. Initially, via a qualitative research, constructs and factors associated with sexual protective behavior of women at risk were identified through 25 in-depth interviews. The questionnaire on predictors of protective sexual behaviors in women at risk of HIV (PSPB) was designed based on a qualitative study, and then its qualitative validity, content, and construct validity were evaluated. Exploratory factor analysis was performed and 200 women at risk participated. Results: Seven concepts emerged after exploratory factor analysis of the 48 items. The content validity ratio (CVR) of the questionnaire constructs were 0.55 to 0.76, and content validity index (CVI) structure was 0.86 to 0.95. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the entire questionnaire was 0.78, and correlation coefficient of the test-retest reliability for the constructs was from 0.73 to 0.89. Conclusions: The current study proved the capability of the predictors of sexual protective behavior in women at risk for HIV questionnaire as a valid and reliable instrument for the Iranian community. PMID:25593717

  15. Healthy Aging -- Sexual Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) Sexual health More information on sexual health Many older women ... Protecting yourself Return to top More information on Sexual health Read more from womenshealth.gov Sexually Transmitted Infections ...

  16. Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility

    MedlinePLUS

    ... org • URL www.asrm.org PATIENT FACT SHEET Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility You probably don't realize ... of this, sexual problems can arise. What is sexual dysfunction? Doctors divide normal sexual function into 3 ...

  17. Community perspectives on developing a sexual health agenda for gay and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Landers, Stewart; Pickett, Jim; Rennie, Leo; Wakefield, Steve

    2011-04-01

    Community mobilization around gay rights in the late 1960s and 1970s led to the first efforts to improve the health of gay and bisexual men. In the 1980s the deadly AIDS epidemic was responded to with fierce organizing and community activism, primarily led by gay men. Today, community involvement is crucial to many advocacy and organizing efforts for the health of gay and bisexual men. This article begins with the roots of this history and then describes how they are reflected in a number of key health initiatives for this community including the National Black Gay Men's Advocacy Coalition, the Legacy Project, International Rectal Microbicide Advocates and the Gay Men's Health Agenda. A path forward is described in terms of next steps for advocacy for gay men's health and the health of gay and bisexual men of color emphasizing cultural viability, development of new leaders, and strategic alliances. PMID:21336606

  18. 1. You are developing a dissertation project on phenotypic plasticity in body size at maturity in the sexually dimorphic livebearing fish, Limia perugia. To get some pilot data, you enlist the help of a Bio 395 student, who

    E-print Network

    Sargent, Robert Craig

    1. You are developing a dissertation project on phenotypic plasticity in body size at maturity in the sexually dimorphic livebearing fish, Limia perugia. To get some pilot data, you enlist the help of a Bio

  19. Factors associated with sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking, and sexual satisfaction among African-American adolescent females

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Jessica M.; Smearman, Erica; Brody, Gene H.; Milhausen, Robin; Philibert, Robert A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2013-01-01

    Sexuality-related constructs such as sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking (SSS) and sexual satisfaction have been related to sexual behaviors that place one at risk for adverse consequences such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs), HIV, and unintended pregnancy. The biopsychosocial model posits an array of factors, ranging from social environmental factors, biological, and psychological predispositions that may be associated with these sexuality constructs in adolescent samples. African-American females aged 14-20 were recruited from reproductive health clinics for an HIV intervention. Baseline survey and follow-up DNA data (N=304) was used to assess biological, psychological and social environmental associations with the sexuality constructs of arousal, SSS, and sexual satisfaction. In multivariable linear regressions, a higher depressive symptom rating was associated with higher arousability while short serotonin allele(s) status was associated with lower arousability. Impulsivity and perceived peer norms supportive of unsafe sexual behaviors were associated with increased SSS, and short serotonin allele(s) status was associated with lower SSS. Higher social support was also associated with higher levels of sexual satisfaction while short serotonin allele(s) status was associated with lower satisfaction. The sexuality constructs were also significantly related to number of sex partners, frequency of vaginal sex, and number of unprotected vaginal sex acts in the past six months. These findings emphasize the importance of understanding biopsychosocial factors, including the role of serotonin as an indicator of natural variations in sexual inclination and behaviors, that influence sexuality constructs, which in turn are associated with sexual behaviors, to allow further refinement of sexual health clinical services and programs and promote the development of healthy sexuality. PMID:24262218

  20. Adolescent sexuality and disability.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Jacob A; Klingbeil, Fred; Bryen, Diane Nelson; Silverman, Brett; Thomas, Anila

    2002-11-01

    Regardless of what our beliefs about sex and disability may be, as health care providers we can promote the health and well being of our patients with disabilities in several ways. First and perhaps foremost, physical and programmatic barriers to accessing general health care including routine gynecologic care must be dramatically reduced. The promise of Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act must be aggressively extended to our health care system to ensure equal access to routine health care for all. Second, knowledge of community resources that can support the healthy development and exercise of responsible and satisfying sexuality is critical. For example, health care providers should know about adaptive and assistive technologies as well as the use of personal care assistants to support the healthy although sometimes nontypical expression of one's sexuality. Centers for Independent Living are community resources that are often underutilized by the medical profession. These centers--run by and for people with disabilities--are likely resources and allies for providing education, role models, and peer mentoring around relationships, intimacy, sexuality, sexual expression, and parenting with a disability. Finally, sex education is a must and should include the following: Basic facts of life, reproduction, and sexual intercourse; Human growth and development Human reproduction and anatomy Self-pleasuring/masturbation and the use of sexual aids Intimacy and privacy Pregnancy and child birth Contraception and abortion Family life and parenthood Sexual response and consensual sex Sexual orientation Sexual abuse HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. The question should not be whether sex education is provided to persons with disabilities, but rather how it is most effectively provided. Health sex education must include the development of effective communication skills, decision-making skills, assertiveness, and the ability to say "no." It must also include ways to create satisfying relationships. For more information about sex education as it relates to people with disabilities, the following abbreviated resource list may be helpful: http://www.sexualhealth.com http://www.lookingglass.com Ludwig S, Hingsburger, D. Being sexual: an illustrated series on sexuality and relationships. SIECCAN, 850 Coxwell, Aven., East York, Ontario, M4C 5R1 Tel: 416-466-5304; Fax: 416-778-0785. Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States (SIECUS), 130 West 42nd Street, Suite 350, New York, NY 10036. Tel: 212-819-9770. National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities (NICHCY), P.O. Box 1492, Washington, DC 20013; Tel/TTY: 800-695-0285; Fax: 202-884-8641; Internet: www.nichcy.org Non-Latex Supplies (Ask your pharmacist if not available) Trojan-Supra: http://www.trojancondoms.com Durex-Avanti: http://www.durex.com Female Health Company-FC Female Condom http://www.femalehealth.com Pasante--EzOn http://www.postalcondoms.co.uk (available in Canada and U.K.). PMID:12465564

  1. Diverting victims of commercial sexual exploitation from juvenile detention: development of the InterCSECt screening protocol.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, Emily J; Dabney, Jonathan D; Russell, Kelli

    2015-04-01

    Identifying victims of commercial sexual exploitation in the juvenile justice system is a challenging complexity requiring concerted organizational commitment. Using a three-tiered, trauma-informed screening process, a 3½-month pilot intervention was implemented in Clark County Juvenile Court (Washington) to identify victims in an effort to connect them to community youth advocates and sexual assault resources. A total of 535 boys and girls ages 9 to 19 were screened during intake; 47 of these youth reported risk factors associated with commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) and were subsequently referred to community advocates. Six youth (all girls) were confirmed CSEC victims and were successfully diverted from juvenile detention. Study results suggest that despite the lack of reliable data surrounding the prevalence of CSEC, juvenile justice agencies need to become educated on the risk factors to triage victims to services. PMID:25038222

  2. Sexual activity diminishes male virility in two Coccinella species: consequences for female fertility and progeny development.

    PubMed

    Michaud, J P; Bista, Mahadev; Mishra, Geetanjali; Omkar; Singh, Omkar

    2013-10-01

    Male contributions, both chemical and behavioural, can influence female sperm usage and reproductive success. To determine whether such male factors are subject to depletion in Coccinella septempunctata and Coccinella transversalis, we tested the effects of male mating history on male virility, as estimated by measures of mating behaviour, female reproductive success and progeny fitness, with parental age held constant. Overt measures of male mating effort (wriggling duration, number of shaking bouts and total copula duration) all diminished from virgin to 5×mated males and were mirrored by concurrent declines in female fecundity and fertility(measured over 20 days). Paternal effects were also observed which diminished as a function of mating history, suggesting that transgenerational signals of male origin are also subject to depletion. Progeny of virgin fathers had higher rates of survival(C. transversalis) and faster development (both species) than progeny of 5×mated fathers. Seminal fluid proteins are known to have allohormonal properties and can stimulate female fecundity and fertility in a number of insects, making them strong candidates for depletion as a function of mating activity. However, it is also possible that sperm limitation and/or reduced tactile stimulation of females by multiple-mated males may have contributed to some of the observed effects. PMID:23590838

  3. Sexual sadism.

    PubMed

    Berner, Wolfgang; Berger, Peter; Hill, Andreas

    2003-08-01

    Definitions of sexual sadism in ICD-10 and DSM-IV will be presented as well as the historical routes of the concept. Today studies on differently selected clinical samples reveal a different distribution of sexual sadism versus masochism with masochism prevailing in general especially outpatient psychiatric facilities, and sadism prevailing in forensic settings, thus corroborating the concept of two separated diagnoses sadism versus masochism. In forensic settings the diagnosis of a sadistic character disorder (sadistic personality disorder [SPD] according DSM-III-R) is found to a much higher degree than in other clinical samples (50-fold). Our own follow-up study on a forensic sample implies that sadism as a paraphilia is of relevance for relapse-rates of sex-offenders. Symptoms of SPD can be combined with sexual sadism, or occur independently. This may corroborate arguments in favor of a dimensional concept of sexual sadism. Symptoms of SPD may then be a sign of generalization of sadistic traits at least in some cases. A concept of two factors contributing to sadistic pleasure is suggested, one taking the aspect of bodily gratification by sexual-aggressive stimuli as decisive, and the other taking inner representation of hostile objects into consideration (stressing the antisocial-anger-rage aspect). PMID:12971180

  4. Genital Appearance Dissatisfaction: Implications for Women’s Genital Image Self-Consciousness, Sexual Esteem, Sexual Satisfaction, and Sexual Risk

    PubMed Central

    Schick, Vanessa R.; Calabrese, Sarah K.; Rima, Brandi N.; Zucker, Alyssa N.

    2010-01-01

    Findings regarding the link between body image and sexuality have been equivocal, possibly because of the insensitivity of many of body image measures to potential variability across sensory aspects of the body (e.g., appearance versus odor), individual body parts (e.g., genitalia versus thighs), and social settings (e.g., public versus intimate). The current study refined existing methods of evaluating women’s body image in the context of sexuality by focusing upon two highly specified dimensions: satisfaction with the visual appearance of the genitalia and self-consciousness about the genitalia during a sexual encounter. Genital appearance dissatisfaction, genital image self-consciousness, and multiple facets of sexuality were examined with a sample of 217 undergraduate women using an online survey. Path analysis revealed that greater dissatisfaction with genital appearance was associated with higher genital image self-consciousness during physical intimacy, which, in turn, was associated with lower sexual esteem, sexual satisfaction, and motivation to avoid risky sexual behavior. These findings underscore the detrimental impact of negative genital perceptions on young women’s sexual wellbeing, which is of particular concern given their vulnerability at this stage of sexual development as well as the high rates of sexually transmitted infections within this age group. Interventions that enhance satisfaction with the natural appearance of their genitalia could facilitate the development of a healthy sexual self-concept and provide long-term benefits in terms of sexual safety and satisfaction. PMID:20824180

  5. The brief sexual attitudes scale.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, Clyde; Hendrick, Susan S; Reich, Darcy A

    2006-02-01

    The measurement of sexual attitudes is important, and ease of scale usability is one key aspect of measurement. This paper details three studies conducted to develop a briefer and thus more efficient version of the multidimensional Sexual Attitudes Scale (43 items). The first two studies (I and II) employed existing data sets to develop a 23-item version of the Sexual Attitudes Scale, using exploratory factor analysis in Study I and confirmatory factor analysis in Study II. The same four subscales of Permissiveness, Birth Control (formerly called Sexual Practices), Communion, and Instrumentality were retained in the 23-item measure, called the Brief Sexual Attitudes Scale. Study III was a prospective data collection using only the 23 items composing the Brief Sexual Attitudes Scale. The four subscales were hypothesized to correlate with a number of relationship measures in predictable ways. Results indicated that the Brief Sexual Attitudes Scale is a reliable and valid measure of the four sexual attitudes, and has strong psychometric properties. It should be effective and efficient for both research and clinical uses. PMID:16817070

  6. Measuring Iranian women's sexual behaviors: Expert opinion

    PubMed Central

    Ghorashi, Zohreh; Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Yousefy, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    The cultural compatibility of sexually related instruments is problematic because the contexts from which the concepts and meanings were extracted may be significantly different from related contexts in a different society. This paper describes the instruments that have been used to assess sexual behaviors, primarily in Western contexts. Then, based on the instruments’ working definition of ‘sexual behavior’ and their theoretical frameworks, we will (1) discuss the applicability or cultural compatibility of existing instruments targeting women's sexual behaviors within an Iranian context, and (2) suggest criteria for sexually related tools applicable in Iranian settings. Iranian women's sexual scripts may compromise the existing instruments’ compatibility. Suggested criteria are as follows: understanding, language of sexuality, ethics and morality. Therefore, developing a culturally comprehensive measure that can adequately examine Iranian women's sexual behaviors is needed. PMID:25250346

  7. Adolescent sexual activity.

    PubMed

    Braverman, P K; Strasburger, V C

    1993-11-01

    Adolescents are becoming sexually active at younger ages. One half of the adolescents in the United States are sexually active. This article reviews adolescent sexual activity, including rates of sexual activity, sexual practices, gay and lesbian youth, and factors affecting the initiation of sexual activity. In addition, adolescent pregnancy, with possible outcomes and effects on teen parents and their offspring, is discussed. PMID:8299296

  8. Student Sexual Misconduct Policy

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jianyu

    Student Sexual Misconduct Policy 2014-2015 #12;1 BOSTON COLLEGE STUDENT SEXUAL MISCONDUCT POLICY INDEX I. INTRODUCTION II. BUILDING AN EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT FREE FROM SEXUAL MISCONDUCT III. PROHIBITED BEHAVIOR a. Definitions i. Sexual Misconduct ii. Sexual Harassment iii. Sexual Assault iv. Consent

  9. Genetic variation for tolerance to acidic water in salmonids.

    PubMed

    Gjedrem, T; Rosseland, B O

    2012-01-01

    Water pH is an important factor affecting the general water quality as well as quality traits in fishes, and the magnitude of the effect varies among species. The massive and negative effect of acidification of rivers and lakes became evident during the 1960s and 1970s and caused the depletion of fish stocks in several countries in the northern hemisphere. Significant variation in tolerance to acidic water has been documented among salmonid species, and large genetic variation has been identified among strains of brown trout Salmo trutta, brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. For S. trutta, S. fontinalis and S. salar, there is considerable additive genetic variation in tolerance to acidic water, with heritabilities (h(2)) ranging from 0·09 to 0·27 for dead eyed-eggs (the period most sensitive to low pH). The main reasons for depletion of freshwater fish stocks are discussed. PMID:22220886

  10. Sexual harassment in government

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rick Bellows; Brian H. Kleiner

    2001-01-01

    Briefly defines sexual harassment before discussing the pertinent section of the Civil Rights Act 1964. Outlines the procedures of the Equal Employment Opportunities Commission and looks at developments through the use of recent case law. Gives some examples of high profile cases. Concludes that there is an increased frequency in workplace relationships and there is a need for appropriate guidelines

  11. Sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Dupre, A R; Hampton, H L; Morrison, H; Meeks, G R

    1993-09-01

    Sexual assault continues to represent the most rapidly growing violent crime in America. Vital legal reforms are underway, but statistics prove a persistent rise in rape incidence with poor conviction rates. This knowledge, along with the vast multitude of emotional sequelae of rape and self-perceived inferior legal status of women, results in a high percentage of unreported cases. It is imperative that health care providers understand the horrific nature of sexual assault in order to provide appropriate care. All medical care personnel involved in the care of potential rape victims should be briefed in historic and modern legalities of sexual assault. Specific training in emergent and chronic care, both physical and mental, in conjunction with an understanding of rape legislation is vital if health care professionals are to appropriately care for victims of rape. PMID:8414312

  12. Transporting juvenile salmonids around dams impairs adult migration.

    PubMed

    Keefer, Matthew L; Caudill, Christopher C; Peery, Christopher A; Lee, Steven R

    2008-12-01

    Mitigation and ecosystem-restoration efforts may have unintended consequences on both target and nontarget populations. Important effects can be displaced in space and time, making them difficult to detect without monitoring at appropriate scales. Here, we examined the effects of a mitigation program for juvenile salmonids on subsequent adult migration behaviors and survival. Juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) were collected and uniquely tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags at Lower Granite Dam (Washington State, USA) on the Snake River and were then either transported downstream in barges in an effort to reduce out-migration mortality or returned to the river as a control group. Returning adults were collected and radio-tagged at Bonneville Dam (Washington-Oregon, USA) on the Columbia River 1-3 years later and then monitored during approximately 460 km of their homing migrations. The proportion of adults successfully homing was significantly lower, and unaccounted loss and permanent straying into non-natal rivers was higher, for barged fish of both species. On average, barged fish homed to Lower Granite Dam at rates about 10% lower than for in-river migrants. Barged fish were also 1.7-3.4 times more likely than in-river fish to fall back downstream past dams as adults, a behavior strongly associated with lower survival. These results suggest that juvenile transport impaired adult orientation or homing abilities, perhaps by disrupting sequential imprinting processes during juvenile out-migration. While juvenile transportation has clear short-term juvenile-survival benefits, the delayed effects that manifest in adult stages illustrate the need to assess mitigation success throughout the life cycle of target organisms, i.e., the use of fitness-based measures. In the case of Snake River salmonids listed under the Endangered Species Act, the increased straying and potential associated genetic and demographic effects may represent significant risks to successful recovery for both target and nontarget populations. PMID:19263886

  13. Involving the Hard to Reach: Developing and Evaluating a Sexual Health Programme for Early School Leavers in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, William C. W.; Holroyd, Eleanor A.; Lee, Albert; Wong, Jonathan C. P.; Leung, Phil W. S.

    2011-01-01

    Early school leavers cannot access school-based sex education programmes, increasing their vulnerability to sexual health issues. This study evaluated a culturally-sensitive and target-orientated sex education programme involving this group. Early school leavers were recruited from two branches of the Chinese Young Men's Christian Association in…

  14. Language Choice and Sexual Communication among Xhosa Speakers in Cape Town, South Africa: Implications for HIV Prevention Message Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Demetria; Schensul, Stephen; Mlobeli, Regina

    2011-01-01

    Communicating about sex is a vital component of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and influences how HIV educators convey messages to communities and how couples negotiate safer sex practices. However, sexual communication inevitably confronts culturally based behavioral guidelines and linguistic taboos unique to diverse social…

  15. Sexual activity patterns in rams.

    PubMed Central

    Bernon, D E; Shrestha, J N

    1984-01-01

    Behaviour was measured in reproductively experienced rams from three crossbred strains and two pure breeds (Suffolk and Finnish Landrace) in an attempt to develop a method for rapid screening of sexually aggressive rams and to measure breed differences in sexual activity. A set sequential pattern of activity need not occur in sexually experienced rams, and components of their sexual behaviour may be influenced by the estrual status of the ewe. The data indicate that the number of attempted mounts is an acceptable selection tool, with a mount following a short period of investigation most likely to be followed by coitus. Two sequential ten minute periods are sufficient for rapid screening of rams for short-term sexual activity levels. PMID:6713255

  16. Measurement and Design Issues in the Study of Adolescent Sexual Behavior and the Evaluation of Adolescent Sexual Health Behavior Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael; Palacios, Rebecca; Penhollow, Tina M.

    2012-01-01

    To improve the quality of research and commentary concerning adolescent sexuality and evaluation of both comprehensive sexuality education and abstinence education programs, this article aims to help readers (1) select appropriate measures to study adolescent sexual behavior, (2) develop appropriate study designs to evaluate adolescent sexual

  17. New Protocetid Whale from the Middle Eocene of Pakistan: Birth on Land, Precocial Development, and Sexual Dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    Gingerich, Philip D.; ul-Haq, Munir; von Koenigswald, Wighart; Sanders, William J.; Smith, B. Holly; Zalmout, Iyad S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Protocetidae are middle Eocene (49–37 Ma) archaeocete predators ancestral to later whales. They are found in marine sedimentary rocks, but retain four legs and were not yet fully aquatic. Protocetids have been interpreted as amphibious, feeding in the sea but returning to land to rest. Methodology/Principal Findings Two adult skeletons of a new 2.6 meter long protocetid, Maiacetus inuus, are described from the early middle Eocene Habib Rahi Formation of Pakistan. M. inuus differs from contemporary archaic whales in having a fused mandibular symphysis, distinctive astragalus bones in the ankle, and a less hind-limb dominated postcranial skeleton. One adult skeleton is female and bears the skull and partial skeleton of a single large near-term fetus. The fetal skeleton is positioned for head-first delivery, which typifies land mammals but not extant whales, evidence that birth took place on land. The fetal skeleton has permanent first molars well mineralized, which indicates precocial development at birth. Precocial development, with attendant size and mobility, were as critical for survival of a neonate at the land-sea interface in the Eocene as they are today. The second adult skeleton is the most complete known for a protocetid. The vertebral column, preserved in articulation, has 7 cervicals, 13 thoracics, 6 lumbars, 4 sacrals, and 21 caudals. All four limbs are preserved with hands and feet. This adult is 12% larger in linear dimensions than the female skeleton, on average, has canine teeth that are 20% larger, and is interpreted as male. Moderate sexual dimorphism indicates limited male-male competition during breeding, which in turn suggests little aggregation of food or shelter in the environment inhabited by protocetids. Conclusions/Significance Discovery of a near-term fetus positioned for head-first delivery provides important evidence that early protocetid whales gave birth on land. This is consistent with skeletal morphology enabling Maiacetus to support its weight on land and corroborates previous ideas that protocetids were amphibious. Specimens this complete are virtual ‘Rosetta stones’ providing insight into functional capabilities and life history of extinct animals that cannot be gained any other way. PMID:19194487

  18. “HEY, WHY DON'T YOU WEAR A SHORTER SKIRT?”Structural Vulnerability and the Organization of Sexual Harassment in Temporary Clerical Employment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JACKIE KRASAS ROGERS; KEVIN D. HENSON

    1997-01-01

    Research on sexual harassment in the workplace has followed several trajectories: the extent of sexual harassment, labeling sexual harassment, responses to sexual harassment, and contributing factors to sexual harassment. Much of this research has been necessarily applied, leaving theoretical frameworks concerning sexual harassment underdeveloped. This research uses the case of the sexual harassment of temporary workers to develop grounded theory

  19. Factors Affecting the Survival of Upstream Migrant Adult Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 9 of 11.

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, Dennis D.; Mueller, Robert P.

    1993-06-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is developing conservation planning documentation to support the National Marine Fisheries Service`s (NMFS) recovery plan for Columbia Basin salmonid stocks that are currently listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Information from the conservation planning documentation will be used as a partial scientific basis for identifying alternative conservation strategies and to make recommendations toward conserving, rebuilding, and ultimately removing these salmon stocks from the list of endangered species. This report describes the adult upstream survival study, a synthesis of biological analyses related to conditions affecting the survival of adult upstream migrant salmonids in the Columbia River system. The objective of the adult upstream survival study was to analyze existing data related to increasing the survival of adult migrant salmonids returning to the Snake River system. The fate and accountability of each stock during its upstream migration period and the uncertainties associated with measurements of escapement and survival were evaluated. Operational measures that affected the survival of adult salmon were evaluated including existing conditions, augmented flows from upstream storage release, and drawdown of mainstem reservoirs. The potential impacts and benefits of these measures to each ESA stock were, also described based on considerations of species behavior and run timing.

  20. Clinical manifestations of pancreas disease outbreaks in Norwegian marine salmon farming - variations due to salmonid alphavirus subtype.

    PubMed

    Jansen, M D; Jensen, B Bang; Brun, E

    2015-04-01

    Pancreas disease (PD) in Norwegian salmonid aquaculture has traditionally been caused by salmonid alphavirus (SAV) subtype 3. Following the isolation of a novel SAV subtype in 2010, marine SAV2, two separate endemic areas have developed. It has been debated whether disease outbreaks due to marine SAV2 result in milder clinical manifestations compared to outbreaks caused by SAV3. The aim of this study was to descriptively investigate site-level differences in the clinical manifestations of marine SAV2 and SAV3 at Norwegian seawater sites diagnosed with PD in 2012. The findings suggest that Norwegian PD outbreaks caused by marine SAV2 result in lower mortality and milder clinical signs compared to outbreaks caused by SAV3. For sites without reported PD-related mortality, there was no difference in the mortality levels between sites infected by marine SAV2 and SAV3. The results also indicate that there are no differences in grading quality at slaughter between the SAV subtypes. PMID:24661057

  1. Detection and quantification of Renibacterium salmoninarum DNA in salmonid tissues by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chase, D.M.; Elliott, D.G.; Pascho, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Renibacterium salmoninarum is an important salmonid pathogen that is difficult to culture. We developed and assessed a real-time, quantitative, polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for the detection and enumeration of R. salmoninarum. The qPCR is based on TaqMan technology and amplifies a 69-base pair (bp) region of the gene encoding the major soluble antigen (MSA) of R. salmoninarum. The qPCR assay consistently detected as few as 5 R. salmoninarum cells per reaction in kidney tissue. The specificity of the qPCR was confirmed by testing the DNA extracts from a panel of microorganisms that were either common fish pathogens or reported to cause false-positive reactions in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Kidney samples from 38 juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in a naturally infected population were examined by real-time qPCR, a nested PCR, and ELISA, and prevalences of R. salmoninarum detected were 71, 66, and 71%, respectively. The qPCR should be a valuable tool for evaluating the R. salmoninarum infection status of salmonids.

  2. TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY Sexual Misconduct Information Packet

    E-print Network

    Zhuang, Yu

    Assault, Sexual Violence, Sexual Harassment of Conduct, "Sexual Misconduct" is any of the following: SEXUAL HARASSMENT "Unwelcome verbal, written TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY Sexual Misconduct Information Packet Sexual

  3. Healthy Sex and Sexual Health: New Directions for Studying Outcomes of Sexual Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Vasilenko, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual behavior is an important aspect of adolescent development with implications for well-being. These chapters highlight important perspectives on studying sexual health from a normative, developmental perspective, such as viewing a range of sexual behaviors as life events; considering potentially positive physical health, mental health, social…

  4. Factors Influencing the Relationship between Sexual Trauma and Risky Sexual Behavior in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nicole L.; Johnson, Dawn M.

    2013-01-01

    While the relationship between sexual trauma and risky sexual behavior (RSB) has received much attention, only a handful of studies have investigated the factors that protect victims of sexual trauma from developing this maladaptive pattern of behavior. The current study investigated the protective role of social support, quality and quantity, in…

  5. Sexuality Education and Young People's Sexual BehaviorA Review of Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Grunseit; Susan Kippax; Peter Aggleton; Mariella Baldo; Gary Slutkin

    1997-01-01

    To assess the effects of HIV\\/AIDS and sexuality education on young people's sexual behavior; a comprehensive literature review was commissioned by the Office of Intervention Development and Support within the World Health Organization's Global Programme on AIDS. Fifty-two reports were reviewed. Of 47 studies that evaluated interventions, 25 reported that HP\\/\\/AIDS and sexuality education neither increased nor decreased sexual activity

  6. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Lookout Point Dam, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Trott, Donna M.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2011-07-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Lookout Point Dam (LOP) on the Middle Fork Willamette River. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). The goal of the study was to provide fish passage and distribution data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at LOP and others dams in USACE’s Willamette Valley Project in response to the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. During the year-long study period - February 1, 2010 to January 31, 2011the objectives of the hydroacoustic evaluation of fish passage and distribution at LOP were to: 1. Estimate passage rates, run timing, horizontal distribution, and diel distribution at turbine penstock intakes for smolt-size fish. 2. Estimate passage rates, run timing and diel distribution at turbine penstock intakes for small-size fish. 3. Estimate passage rates and run timing at the regulating outlets for smolt-size fish. 4. Estimate vertical distribution of smolt-size fish in the forebay near the upstream face of the dam. The fixed-location hydroacoustic technique was used to accomplish the objectives of this study. Transducers (420 kHz) were deployed in each penstock intake, above each RO entrance, and on the dam face; a total of nine transducers (2 single-beam and 7 split-beam) were used. We summarize the findings from the hydroacoustic evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at LOP during February 2010 through January 2011 as follows. • Fish passage rates for smolt-size fish (> ~90 mm) were highest during December-January and lowest in mid-summer through early fall. • During the entire study period, an estimated total of 142,463 fish ± 4,444 (95% confidence interval) smolt-size fish passed through turbine penstock intakes. • Diel periodicity of smolt-size fish showing crepuscular peaks was evident in fish passage into turbine penstock intakes. • Run timing for small-size fish (~65-90 mm) peaked (702 fish) on December 18. Downstream passage of small-size juvenile fish was variable, occurring on two days in the spring, eight days in the summer, and at times throughout late fall and winter. A total of 7,017 ± 690 small-size fish passed through the turbine penstock intakes during the study period. • Relatively few fish passed into the ROs when they were open in summer (2 fish/d) and winter (8 fish/d). • Fish were surface-oriented with 62-80% above 10 m deep. The highest percentage of fish (30-60%) was in the 5-10 m depth bin. We draw the following conclusions from the study. • The non-obtrusive hydroacoustic data from this study are reliable because passage estimates and patterns were similar with those observed in the direct capture data from the tailrace screw trap and were consistent with distribution patterns observed in other studies of juvenile salmonid passage at dams. • Fish passage at LOP was apparently affected but not dominated by dam operations and reservoir elevation. • The surface-oriented vertical distribution of fish we observed supports development of surface passage or collector devices. In summary, the high-resolution spatially and temporally data reported herein provide detailed estimates of vertical, horizontal, diel, daily, and seasonal passage and distributions at LOP during March 2010 through January 2011. This information is applicable to management decisions on design and development of surface passage and collections devices to help restore Chinook salmon populations in the Middle Fork Willamette River watershed above Lookout Point Dam.

  7. Involving the hard to reach: developing and evaluating a sexual health programme for early school leavers in Hong Kong

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William C. W. Wong; Eleanor A. Holroyd; Albert Lee; Jonathan C. P. Wong; Phil W. S. Leung

    2011-01-01

    Early school leavers cannot access school-based sex education programmes, increasing their vulnerability to sexual health issues. This study evaluated a culturally-sensitive and target-orientated sex education programme involving this group. Early school leavers were recruited from two branches of the Chinese Young Men's Christian Association in Hong Kong. These potential peer educators (PEs) attended five three-hour workshops providing comprehensive sex and

  8. Young Women’s Social and Occupational Development and Mental Health in the Aftermath of Child Sexual Abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth A. Schilling; Robert H. Aseltine Jr; Susan Gore

    2007-01-01

    We examined social role functioning and depressive symptoms of young adults who were abused as children in data from a longitudinal\\u000a community sample. Sexually abused women and men were more depressed during their senior year of high school, and this difference\\u000a was more pronounced 2 years later. We then examined a mediational model to determine whether social functioning explained\\u000a the course

  9. Advancing sexual and reproductive health and rights in low- and middle-income countries: Implications for the post-2015 global development agenda

    PubMed Central

    Germain, Adrienne; Sen, Gita; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia; Shankar, Mridula

    2015-01-01

    The papers and commentaries in this special issue illuminate progress made by low- and middle-income countries towards implementation of the Programme of Action (PoA) agreed by 179 countries during the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994. The PoA presents a path-breaking sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) framework for global and national population and health policies. While progress towards implementation has been made at global, regional and national levels, continuing and new challenges require that high priority be given to SRHR for all, particularly women and girls, during the remaining months of the millennium development goals and in the United Nations post-2015 development agenda. This paper highlights three critical gaps, raised in other papers: inequalities in access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information and services; the widespread need to improve SRH services to meet public health, human rights and medical ethics standards for quality of care; and the absence or inadequate use of accountability mechanisms to track and remedy the other two. We discuss priority actions to achieve equality, quality and accountability in SRHR policies, programmes and services, especially those that should be included in the post-2015 development agenda. PMID:25628182

  10. Advancing sexual and reproductive health and rights in low- and middle-income countries: implications for the post-2015 global development agenda.

    PubMed

    Germain, Adrienne; Sen, Gita; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia; Shankar, Mridula

    2015-01-01

    The papers and commentaries in this special issue illuminate progress made by low- and middle-income countries towards implementation of the Programme of Action (PoA) agreed by 179 countries during the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994. The PoA presents a path-breaking sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) framework for global and national population and health policies. While progress towards implementation has been made at global, regional and national levels, continuing and new challenges require that high priority be given to SRHR for all, particularly women and girls, during the remaining months of the millennium development goals and in the United Nations post-2015 development agenda. This paper highlights three critical gaps, raised in other papers: inequalities in access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information and services; the widespread need to improve SRH services to meet public health, human rights and medical ethics standards for quality of care; and the absence or inadequate use of accountability mechanisms to track and remedy the other two. We discuss priority actions to achieve equality, quality and accountability in SRHR policies, programmes and services, especially those that should be included in the post-2015 development agenda. PMID:25628182

  11. Differential regulation of msx genes in the development of the gonopodium, an intromittent organ, and of the "sword," a sexually selected trait of swordtail fishes (Xiphophorus).

    PubMed

    Zauner, Hans; Begemann, Gerrit; Marí-Beffa, Manuel; Meyer, Axel

    2003-01-01

    The possession of a conspicuous extension of colored ventral rays of the caudal fin in male fish of swordtails (genus Xiphophorus) is a prominent example for a trait that evolved by sexual selection. To understand the evolutionary history of this so-called sword molecularly, it is of interest to unravel the developmental pathways responsible for extended growth of sword rays during development of swordtail males. We isolated two msx genes and showed that they are differentially regulated during sword outgrowth. During sword growth in juvenile males, as well as during testosterone-induced sword development and fin ray regeneration in the sword after amputation, expression of msxC is markedly up-regulated in the sword forming fin rays. In contrast, msxE/1 is not differentially expressed in ventral and dorsal male fin rays, suggesting a link between the development of male secondary sexual characters in fins and up-regulation of msxC expression. In addition, we showed that msx gene expression patterns differ significantly between Xiphophorus and zebrafish. We also included in our study the gonopodium, a testosterone-dependent anal fin modification that serves as a fertilization organ in males of live-bearing fishes. Our finding that increased levels of msxC expression are associated with the testosterone-induced outgrowth of the gonopodium might suggest either that at least parts of the signaling pathways that pattern the evolutionary older gonopodium have been coopted to evolve a sexually selected innovation such as the sword or that increased msxC expression may be inherent to the growth process of long fin rays in general. PMID:12950626

  12. Sexuality and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2000-01-01

    Describes normal aspects of sexuality during the early years, including masturbation and children's fanciful sexual ideas. Presents inappropriately mature sexual knowledge as a danger sign of abuse. Discusses whether and what teachers/caregivers should tell children about sexuality, and notes the importance of teaching staff about sexual identity…

  13. Relationship between sexual compulsivity and sexual risk behaviors among chinese sexually active males.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wei; Lau, Joseph T F; Tsui, Hi Yi; Gu, Jing; Wang, Zixin

    2015-04-01

    Compulsivity is defined as "an insistent, repetitive, intrusive, and unwanted urge to perform specific acts often in ritualized or routinized fashions." Sexual compulsivity has been shown to be associated with some high risk sexual behaviors related to HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI). In some Western countries, the 10-item Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS) has been developed to assess people's sexual compulsivity but no Chinese version has been validated. This study validated the Chinese version of the SCS and investigated its associations with specific sexual behaviors. In 2008, a random telephone survey was conducted in the sexually active male general population in Hong Kong, interviewing 1,048 participants. The Chinese version of the SCS was found to be internally consistent (Cronbach's ? = 0.88 for the overall scale), with a mean total score of 20.7 (SD = 4.7). An exploratory factor analysis procedure extracted two factors that were named Controllability and Functional Consequences. Higher SCS scores were associated with multiple female sexual partnerships in the last 6 months, having had sex with either non-regular partner(s) or female sex worker(s) in the last 6 months, having contracted STI in the last 6 months, and inconsistent condom use with either non-regular partner(s) or female sex worker(s) in the last 6 months. The scale can be used to assess sexual compulsivity among sexually active Chinese men in Hong Kong. It can potentially be used in other Chinese communities. Further confirmatory studies are warranted. PMID:25030121

  14. Assessment of Salmonids and Their Habitat Conditions in the Walla Walla River Basin within Washington, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, Glen; Trump, Jeremy; Gembala, Mike

    2003-09-01

    This study began in 1998 to assess salmonid distribution, relative abundance, genetics, and the condition of salmonid habitats in the Walla Walla River basin. Stream flows in the Walla Walla Basin continue to show a general trend that begins with a sharp decline in discharge in late June, followed by low summer flows and then an increase in discharge in fall and winter. Manual stream flow measurements at Pepper bridge showed an increase in 2002 of 110-185% from July-September, over flows from 2001. This increase is apparently associated with a 2000 settlement agreement between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the irrigation districts to leave minimum flows in the river. Stream temperatures in the Walla Walla basin were similar to those in 2001. Upper montane tributaries maintained maximum summer temperatures below 65 F, while sites in mid and lower Touchet and Walla Walla rivers frequently had daily maximum temperatures well above 68 F (high enough to inhibit migration in adult and juvenile salmonids, and to sharply reduce survival of their embryos and fry). These high temperatures are possibly the most critical physiological barrier to salmonids in the Walla Walla basin, but other factors (available water, turbidity or sediment deposition, cover, lack of pools, etc.) also play a part in salmonid survival, migration, and breeding success. The increased flows in the Walla Walla, due to the 2000 settlement agreement, have not shown consistent improvements to stream temperatures. Rainbow/steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) trout represent the most common salmonid in the basin. Densities of Rainbow/steelhead in the Walla Walla River from the Washington/Oregon stateline to Mojonnier Rd. dropped slightly from 2001, but are still considerably higher than before the 2000 settlement agreement. Other salmonids including; bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), and brown trout (Salmo trutta) had low densities, and limited distribution throughout the basin. A large return of adult spring chinook to the Touchet River drainage in 2001 produced higher densities of juvenile chinook in 2002 than have been seen in recent years, especially in the Wolf Fork. The adult return in 2002 was substantially less than what was seen in 2001. Due to poor water conditions and trouble getting personnel hired, spawning surveys were limited in 2002. Surveyors found only one redd in four Walla Walla River tributaries (Cottonwood Ck., East Little Walla Walla, West Little Walla Walla, and Mill Ck.), and 59 redds in Touchet River tributaries (10 in the North Fork Touchet, 30 in the South Fork Touchet, and 19 in the Wolf Fork). Bull trout spawning surveys in the upper Touchet River tributaries found a total of 125 redds and 150 live fish (92 redds and 75 fish in the Wolf Fork, 2 redds and 1 fish in the Burnt Fork, 0 redds and 1 fish in the South Fork Touchet, 29 redds and 71 fish in the North Fork Touchet, and 2 redds and 2 fish in Lewis Ck.). A preliminary steelhead genetics analysis was completed as part of this project. Results indicate differences between naturally produced steelhead and those produced in the hatchery. There were also apparent genetic differences among the naturally produced fish from different areas of the basin. Detailed results are reported in Bumgarner et al. 2003. Recommendations for assessment activities in 2003 included: (1) continue to monitor the Walla Walla River (focusing from the stateline to McDonald Rd.), the Mill Ck system, and the Little Walla Walla System. (2) reevaluate Whiskey Ck. for abundance and distribution of salmonids, and Lewis Ck. for bull trout density and distribution. (3) select or develop a habitat survey protocol and begin to conduct habitat inventory and assessment surveys. (4) summarize bull trout data for Mill Ck, South Fork Touchet, and Lewis Ck. (5) begin to evaluate temperature and flow data to assess if the habitat conditions exist for spring chinook in the Touchet River.

  15. The sexual cascade and the rise of pre-ejaculatory (Darwinian) sexual selection, sex roles, and sexual conflict.

    PubMed

    Parker, Geoff A

    2014-10-01

    After brief historic overviews of sexual selection and sexual conflict, I argue that pre-ejaculatory sexual selection (the form of sexual selection discussed by Darwin) arose at a late stage in an inevitable succession of transitions flowing from the early evolution of syngamy to the evolution of copulation and sex roles. If certain conditions were met, this "sexual cascade" progressed inevitably, if not, sexual strategy remained fixed at a given stage. Prolonged evolutionary history of intense sperm competition/selection under external fertilization preceded the rise of advanced mobility, which generated pre-ejaculatory sexual selection, followed on land by internal fertilization and reduced sperm competition in the form of postcopulatory sexual selection. I develop a prospective model of the early evolution of mobility, which, as Darwin realized, was the catalyst for pre-ejaculatory sexual selection. Stages in the cascade should be regarded as consequential rather than separate phenomena and, as such, invalidate much current opposition to Darwin-Bateman sex roles. Potential for sexual conflict occurs throughout, greatly increasing later in the cascade, reaching its peak under precopulatory sexual selection when sex roles become highly differentiated. PMID:25147177

  16. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage at The Dalles Dam Sluiceway, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Hedgepeth, J; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.; Skalski, John R.

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District engaged the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate fish passage at The Dalles Dam powerhouse in 2005. The goal of the study was to provide information on smolt passage that will inform decisions on long-term measures and operations to enhance sluiceway passage and reduce turbine passage to improve smolt survival at the dam. The study addressed one of the main programs dedicated to improving juvenile salmonid survival at The Dalles Dam: Surface Flow Bypass. The study objectives (see below) were met using a combination of hydroacoustic and hydraulic data. The study incorporated fixed-location hydroacoustic methods across the entire powerhouse, with especially intense sampling using multiple split-beam transducers at all sluiceway portals. We did not sample fish passage at the spillway in 2005. In the sluiceway nearfield, we used an acoustic camera to track fish movements. The fish data were interpreted with hydraulic data from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Fish passage data were collected in the framework of an “experiment” using a randomized block design (3-day treatments; two treatments) to compare two sluiceway operational configurations: Sluice 2+5 and Sluice 2+19 (six gates open for each configuration). Total project outflow was 76% of the 10-year average for spring and 71% of the 10-year average for summer. Based on these findings, we make the following recommendations: 1) The sluice should be operated 24 h/d from April until November. 2) Open six rather than three sluice gates to take advantage of the maximum hydraulic capacity of the sluiceway. 3) Open the three gates above the western-most operating main turbine unit and the three gates at MU 8 where turbine passage rates are relatively high. 4) Operate the turbine units below open sluice gates as a standard fish operations procedure. 5) Develop hydraulic and entrance enhancements to the sluiceway to tap the potential of The Dalles Dam sluiceway to be highly efficient and effective at passing juvenile salmonids. 6) Consider the following elements for surface flow bypasses during design of any sluiceway enhancements at The Dalles Dam: Form an extensive surface flow bypass flow net (surface bypass discharge greater than ~7% of total project discharge) at both west and east ends of the dam; Create a gradual increase in water velocity approaching the surface flow bypass (ideally, acceleration < 1 m/s per meter); Make water velocities at an entrance high enough (> 3 m/s) to entrain the subject juvenile fishes, e.g., 10,000 cfs or so; Adapt the shape and orientation of the surface entrance(s) to fit site-specific features, i.e., test a Removable Sluiceway Weir. 7)The Dalles Dam sluiceway has potential to be highly efficient and effective at passing juvenile salmonids. We recommend tapping this potential with enhancements to the sluiceway.

  17. An online database for IHN virus in Pacific Salmonid fish: MEAP-IHNV

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, Gael

    2012-01-01

    The MEAP-IHNV database provides access to detailed data for anyone interested in IHNV molecular epidemiology, such as fish health professionals, fish culture facility managers, and academic researchers. The flexible search capabilities enable the user to generate various output formats, including tables and maps, which should assist users in developing and testing hypotheses about how IHNV moves across landscapes and changes over time. The MEAP-IHNV database is available online at http://gis.nacse.org/ihnv/ (fig. 1). The database contains records that provide background information and genetic sequencing data for more than 1,000 individual field isolates of the fish virus Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), and is updated approximately annually. It focuses on IHNV isolates collected throughout western North America from 1966 to the present. The database also includes a small number of IHNV isolates from Eastern Russia. By engaging the expertise of the broader community of colleagues interested in IHNV, our goal is to enhance the overall understanding of IHNV epidemiology, including defining sources of disease outbreaks and viral emergence events, identifying virus traffic patterns and potential reservoirs, and understanding how human management of salmonid fish culture affects disease. Ultimately, this knowledge can be used to develop new strategies to reduce the effect of IHN disease in cultured and wild fish.

  18. [Adolescent sexuality].

    PubMed

    Calero, Juan del Rey

    2010-01-01

    The social Adolescent features are insecurity, narcissism, eroticism, more impetuosity than reason. 1/3 of adolescents have risk behaviour for health. The pregnancy rate in adolescent are 9/1,000 (11,720, the abort about 50 %). The total abort (2009) were 114,480. Increase the rate of 8,4 (1990) to 14,6/ 1,000 (2009). The sexual education fails. The consulting about contraceptives get pregnancy of the OR 3,2, condom OR 2,7. The adolescent are influenced in his matter: oeer have 70-75 % of influence, mother 30-40 %, father 15 %, for yhe environment and education Cyberspace access to information: 33 % exposed to unwanted sexual materials, 1 in 7 solicited sexual online. The argument have 4 central topic: Morality and Responsibility, Desire (responsibility vs gratification), Danger (fear related to pregnancy and STD/VIH), and Victimization. The prevention of STD: so called safe sex, delayed, and abstinence, Prevention HPV vaccine. The information is not enough, are necessary personal integral formation in values as self control, abstinence, mutual respect, responsibility, reasonable decisions. PMID:21877398

  19. Localization of Eimeripain, an Eimeria tenella Cathepsin B-Like Cysteine Protease, during Asexual and Sexual Intracellular Development in Chicken Ceca

    PubMed Central

    MATSUBAYASHI, Makoto; HATTA, Takeshi; MIYOSHI, Takeharu; ANISUZZAMAN; SASAI, Kazumi; YAMAJI, Kayoko; SHIMURA, Kameo; ISOBE, Takashi; KITA, Kiyoshi; TSUJI, Naotoshi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hemorrhagic diarrhea in poultry is caused by Eimeria tenella, the most pathogenic avian coccidian parasite, and new approaches to treat the disease are continually being sought. Although eimeripain, a cathepsin B-like cysteine protease from E. tenella, has recently been identified as a novel anticoccidial drug target, its localization during the intracellular development of parasites remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate the expression of eimeripain during asexual and sexual development of E. tenella in vivo. Promature eimeripain was detected only in the early immature second generation of schizonts. In contrast, the mature eimeripain was most strongly detected in the middle-sized immature second generation of schizonts. Both promature and mature eimeripain disappeared depending on the maturation level of second generation of schizonts, but were strongly expressed again in the third generation of schizonts. In the sexual stage, both promature and mature eimeripain were detected in the cytoplasm of micro- and macro-gametocytes and zygotes, but expression became weak in zoites forming oocysts. Collectively, our findings suggest that eimeripain might play a key role in the differentiation of intracellular zoites in the ceca and could be an interesting candidate to develop a novel, effective anti-coccidian drug. PMID:24366155

  20. Localization of eimeripain, an Eimeria tenella cathepsin B-like cysteine protease, during asexual and sexual intracellular development in chicken ceca.

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Makoto; Hatta, Takeshi; Miyoshi, Takeharu; Anisuzzaman; Sasai, Kazumi; Yamaji, Kayoko; Shimura, Kameo; Isobe, Takashi; Kita, Kiyoshi; Tsuji, Naotoshi

    2014-04-01

    Hemorrhagic diarrhea in poultry is caused by Eimeria tenella, the most pathogenic avian coccidian parasite, and new approaches to treat the disease are continually being sought. Although eimeripain, a cathepsin B-like cysteine protease from E. tenella, has recently been identified as a novel anticoccidial drug target, its localization during the intracellular development of parasites remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate the expression of eimeripain during asexual and sexual development of E. tenella in vivo. Promature eimeripain was detected only in the early immature second generation of schizonts. In contrast, the mature eimeripain was most strongly detected in the middle-sized immature second generation of schizonts. Both promature and mature eimeripain disappeared depending on the maturation level of second generation of schizonts, but were strongly expressed again in the third generation of schizonts. In the sexual stage, both promature and mature eimeripain were detected in the cytoplasm of micro- and macro-gametocytes and zygotes, but expression became weak in zoites forming oocysts. Collectively, our findings suggest that eimeripain might play a key role in the differentiation of intracellular zoites in the ceca and could be an interesting candidate to develop a novel, effective anti-coccidian drug. PMID:24366155

  1. The Social/Sexual Environment of Gay Men Residing in a Rural Frontier State: Implications for the Development of HIV Prevention Programs

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Mark L.; Bowen, Anne M.; Horvath, Keith J.

    2008-01-01

    Context The incidence and prevalence of HIV/AIDS is increasing among rural men who have sex with men (MSM). Yet little is known about the social/sexual environment of rural frontier areas. Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the social/sexual environment of gay men living in rural areas and how this environment contributes to the development of HIV/AIDS prevention programs. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in Wyoming. In-depth guided interviews were conducted with 39 self-identified gay men. Data were analyzed for emergent themes using constant comparative analysis. Findings Four broadly related themes emerged. Participants perceive that they live in a hostile social environment in which the potential for becoming a target of violence is present. In order to cope with this social reality, men adopt strategies to assimilate into the predominant heterosexual culture and to look for sex partners. These, in turn, are related to their attitudes about HIV/AIDS and prevention activities. Notably, the Internet was discussed by participants as a means for men to connect to a larger gay society and look for sex partners and as a potential venue to HIV/AIDS prevention programs. Conclusions Data provided a number of implications for developing HIV/AIDS prevention programs targeting rural MSM. Especially apparent was the need for programs to be mindful of the desire to keep one's sexual preferences shielded from public knowledge and the effect this may have on recruiting rural MSM to participate in prevention activities. The Internet, because men can access it privately, might provide a venue for prevention projects. PMID:15667009

  2. Comparative Performance of Acoustic-tagged and PIT-tagged Juvenile Salmonids

    SciTech Connect

    Hockersmith, Eric E.; Brown, Richard S.; Liedtke, Theresa L.

    2008-02-01

    Numerous research tools and technologies are currently being used to evaluate fish passage and survival to determine the impacts of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) on endangered and threatened juvenile salmonids, including PIT tags, balloon tags, hydroacoustic evaluations, radio telemetry, and acoustic telemetry. Each has advantages and disadvantages, but options are restricted in some situations because of limited capabilities of a specific technology, lack of detection capability downstream, or availability of adequate numbers of fish. However, there remains concern about the comparative effects of the tag or the tagging procedure on fish performance. The recently developed Juvenile Salmonid Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) acoustic transmitter is the smallest active acoustic tag currently available. The goal of this study was to determine whether fish tagged with the JSATS acoustic-telemetry tag can provide unbiased estimates of passage behavior and survival within the performance life of the tag. We conducted both field and laboratory studies to assess tag effects. For the field evaluation we released a total of 996 acoustic-tagged fish in conjunction with 21,026 PIT-tagged fish into the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam on 6 and 13 May. Travel times between release and downstream dams were not significantly different for the majority of the reaches between acoustic-tagged and PIT-tagged fish. In addition to the field evaluation, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted to determine if growth and survival of juvenile Chinook salmon surgically implanted with acoustic transmitters is different than untagged or PIT tagged juvenile Chinook salmon. Only yearling fish with integrated and non-integrated transmitters experienced mortalities, and these were low (<4.5%). Mortality among sub-yearling control and PIT-tag treatments ranged up to 7.7% while integrated and non-integrated treatments had slightly higher rates (up to 8.3% and 7.9% respectively). No acoustic transmitters were shed by yearling fish during the course of the 90 day study. Up to 7.8% of subyearling fish expelled transmitters. Tags were expelled from 5 to 63 days post-surgery. The average time to expulsion was 27 days; few fish expelled transmitters within 14 days of implantation or less. Histological results suggest that inflammation associated with implantation of an acoustic transmitter can produce fibrous tissue which can invade and possibly damage internal organs soon after implantation. Reactions severe enough to damage organs however, were limited to only ~20% of subyearling Chinook salmon, all of which were under 101mm and 12g at tagging. The infiltration of the fibrous tissue into organs was observed most often in fish held for 21 days and appeared to decrease in subsequent holding times.

  3. Removal of small dams and its influence on physical habitat for salmonids in a Norwegian river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fjeldstad, Hans-Petter; Barlaup, Bjørn; Stickler, Morten; Alfredsen, Knut; Gabrielsen, Sven-Erik

    2010-05-01

    While research and implementation of upstream migration solutions is extensive, and indeed often successful, full scale restoration projects and investigations of their influence on fish biology are rare in Norway. Acid deposition in Norwegian catchments peaked in the 1980's and resulted in both chronically and episodically acidified rivers and Salmonids in River Nidelva, one of the largest cathments in southern Norway, where extinct for decades. During this period hydropower development in the river paid limited attention to aquatic ecology. Weirs were constructed for esthetic purposes in the late 1970's and turned a 3 km stretch into a lake habitat, well suited for lake dwelling fish species, but unsuited for migration, spawning and juvenile habitat for salmonids. Since 2005, continuous liming to mitigate acidification has improved the water quality and a program for reintroduction of Atlantic salmon has been implemented. We used hydraulic modeling to plan the removal of two weirs on a bypass reach of the river. The 50 meters wide concrete weirs were blasted and removed in 2007, and ecological monitoring has been carried out in the river to assess the effect of weir removal. Topographic mapping, hydraulic measurements and modeling, in combination with biological surveys before and after the removal of the weirs, has proved to represent a powerful method for design of physical habitat adjustments and assessing their influence on fish biology. The model results also supported a rapid progress of planning and executing of the works. While telemetry studies before weir removal suggested that adult migration past the weirs was delayed with several weeks the fish can now pass the reach with minor obstacles. Spawning sites were discovered in the old bed substrate and were occupied already the first season after water velocities increased to suitable levels for spawning. Accordingly, the densities of Atlantic salmon juveniles have shown a marked increased after the conclusion of the project. Catches of pike and cyprinids on the reach is reduced, indicating that their habitat is no longer suitable, while salmon anglers have found new favorite spots in the restored pools and runs.

  4. Selective advantage for sexual reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2006-03-01

    We develop a simplified model for sexual replication within the quasispecies formalism. We assume that the genomes of the replicating organisms are two-chromosomed and diploid, and that the fitness is determined by the number of chromosomes that are identical to a given master sequence. We also assume that there is a cost to sexual replication, given by a characteristic time ?seek during which haploid cells seek out a mate with which to recombine. If the mating strategy is such that only viable haploids can mate, then when ?seek= 0 , it is possible to show that sexual replication will always outcompete asexual replication. However, as ?seek increases, sexual replication only becomes advantageous at progressively higher mutation rates. Once the time cost for sex reaches a critical threshold, the selective advantage for sexual replication disappears entirely. The results of this talk suggest that sexual replication is not advantageous in small populations per se, but rather in populations with low replication rates. In this regime, the cost for sex is sufficiently low that the selective advantage obtained through recombination leads to the dominance of the strategy. In fact, at a given replication rate and for a fixed environment volume, sexual replication is selected for in high populations because of the reduced time spent finding a reproductive partner.

  5. Selective advantage for sexual reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2006-06-01

    This paper develops a simplified model for sexual reproduction within the quasispecies formalism. The model assumes a diploid genome consisting of two chromosomes, where the fitness is determined by the number of chromosomes that are identical to a given master sequence. We also assume that there is a cost to sexual reproduction, given by a characteristic time ?seek during which haploid cells seek out a mate with which to recombine. If the mating strategy is such that only viable haploids can mate, then when ?seek=0 , it is possible to show that sexual reproduction will always out compete asexual reproduction. However, as ?seek increases, sexual reproduction only becomes advantageous at progressively higher mutation rates. Once the time cost for sex reaches a critical threshold, the selective advantage for sexual reproduction disappears entirely. The results of this paper suggest that sexual reproduction is not advantageous in small populations per se, but rather in populations with low replication rates. In this regime, the cost for sex is sufficiently low that the selective advantage obtained through recombination leads to the dominance of the strategy. In fact, at a given replication rate and for a fixed environment volume, sexual reproduction is selected for in high populations because of the reduced time spent finding a reproductive partner.

  6. Sexuality After Breast Cancer: Need for Guideline

    PubMed Central

    Vaziri, Sh; Lotfi Kashani, F

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical experiences have revealed that patients with breast cancer experience various sexual problems following their treatment. Breast cancer negatively impacts the sexual life of the afflicted couples, and as a traumatic event can influence women’s psychosexual functioning and intimate relationship. This review focuses on sexuality after breast cancer and on a growing need for bio-psycho-social guidelines for breast cancer treatment. Methods This study aims to review the literature on management, psychological outcomes and sexual dysfunction in patients with breast cancer. Results Although the benefits of the current treatment strategies are well established, many cancer survivors are at risk for developing psycho physiological symptoms including sexual dysfunction. Cancer and treatment-related factors can influence sexual functioning. We review current treatment-related side effects on sexual functioning such as desire, arousal and orgasm in breast cancer patients. Despite the impact of medical treatment on survival of patients with breast cancer, no satisfactory steps have been taken towards improving sexual functioning of these patients. Conclusion Breast cancer affects many aspects of sexuality, including changes in physical functioning and in the perception of feminity. Sexual dysfunction following breast cancer should be diagnosed and managed as a systematic approach with multidisciplinary inputs. Healthcare professionals should assess the effects of medical and surgical treatment on the sexuality of breast cancer survivors.

  7. Childhood sexual abuse, adolescent sexual behaviors and sexual revictimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Fergusson; L. John Horwood; Michael T. Lynskey

    1997-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this study were to examine the extent to which exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was associated with increased rates of sexual risk taking behaviors and sexual revictimization during adolescence.Method: A birth cohort of 520 New Zealand born young women was studied at regular intervals from birth to the age of 18. At age 18 retrospective

  8. Evolution of the sex chromosomes in salmonid fishes.

    PubMed

    Phillips, R B

    2013-01-01

    Most of the information on sex chromosomes in salmonid fishes is for species in the 3 genera of the subfamily Salmoninae found in North America: Salvelinus, Salmo and Oncorhynchus. All of the species are male heterogametic with XY sex determination. Morphologically distinguishable sex chromosomes are found only in Salvelinus namaycush,S. fontinalis and Oncorhynchus mykiss. Sex chromosomes have been identified in the other species using a combination of chromosome mapping and fluorescence in situ hybridization with probes containing sex-linked markers. Although all species share conserved linkage groups, the major sex-determining locus (SD) is found at the telomere of a different linkage group in almost every species, suggesting that the SD often transposes to a new location at the time of speciation. In a couple of species, intraspecific variation has been found in the chromosomal location of the SD. Recently, sdY has been identified as the major sex-determining gene in rainbow trout, and it maps to the sex linkage group in all of these species. BACs containing sdY have been isolated and sequenced in O.mykiss, and the genetic markers adjacent to sdY are not sex-linked in the other Oncorhynchus species, suggesting that the transposed region is very small. Possible explanations for the frequent occurrence of transposition of the SD are discussed. PMID:24107355

  9. Assessment of harbor seal predation on adult salmonids in a Pacific Northwest estuary.

    PubMed

    Wright, Bryan E; Riemer, Susan D; Brown, Robin F; Ougzin, Aicha M; Bucklin, Katherine A

    2007-03-01

    The populations of many native species have increased or expanded in distribution in recent decades, sometimes with negative consequences to sympatric native species that are rarer or less adaptable to anthropogenic changes to the environment. An example of this phenomenon from the Pacific Northwest is predation by locally abundant pinnipeds (seals and sea lions) on threatened, endangered, or otherwise depleted salmonid (Oncorhynchus spp.) populations. We used survey sampling methodology, acoustic telemetry, and molecular genetics to quantify the amount of harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) predation on a depressed run of coho salmon (O. kisutch) and to determine whether some seals consumed a disproportionately higher number of salmonids than others. Based on a probability sample totaling 759.5 h of observation, we estimated that seals consumed 1161 adult salmonids (95% CI = 503-1818 salmonids) during daylight hours over an 18.9-km estuarine study area in Oregon during an 84-d period in fall 2002. Simultaneous tracking of 56 seals via an acoustic telemetry array indicated that a small proportion of marked seals (12.5%) exhibited behavior that was consistent with specialization on salmonids. These seals spent the majority of their time in the riverine portion of the study area and did so disproportionately more at night than day. Genetic analysis of 116 salmonid structures recovered from 11 seal fecal samples suggested that coho salmon accounted for approximately one-half of total salmonid consumption. Though subject to considerable uncertainty, the combined results lead us to infer that seals consumed 21% (range = 3-63%) of the estimated prespawning population of coho salmon. We speculate that the majority of the predation occurred upriver, at night, and was done by a relatively small proportion of the local seal population. Understanding the extent and nature of pinniped predation can provide important inputs into risk assessments and other modeling efforts designed to aid the conservation and recovery of salmonids in the Pacific Northwest. Such understanding may also help inform management actions designed to reduce the impact of pinniped predation on salmonids, which potentially range from short-term lethal removal programs to long-term ecosystem restoration and protection efforts. PMID:17489243

  10. Your Sexual Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... during treatment of a sexual problem? • Glossary Your Sexual Health 4. Sexual pain disorder What are desire problems? ... by women. A lack of desire before having sex is normal for some women. They may not ...

  11. Selection of Film Clips and Development of a Video for the Investigation of Sexual Decision Making among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah E. Woolf-King; Stephen Maisto; Michael Carey; Peter Vanable

    2010-01-01

    Experimental research on sexual decision making is limited, despite the public health importance of such work. We describe formative work conducted in advance of an experimental study designed to evaluate the effects of alcohol intoxication and sexual arousal on risky sexual decision making among men who have sex with men. In Study 1, we describe the procedures for selecting and

  12. Clinicians' perspective of the relational processes for family and individual development during the mediation of religious and sexual identity disclosure.

    PubMed

    Etengoff, Chana; Daiute, Colette

    2015-03-01

    Although the psychological literature regarding gay men from religious families is continually expanding, it is also limited in that few studies focus on the use of therapy in the negotiation of the interrelated systems of religion, sexuality, and family. Utilizing a cultural historical activity theory-based process of analysis, this study focuses on the narratives of 12 clinicians discussing 230 conflicts and how those conflicts are mediated in both productive (e.g., seeking secular support) and unproductive ways (e.g., bringing one's son to an exorcist) by gay men and their religious families independent of and at the advice of their therapists. PMID:25364980

  13. Mitochondrial Carnitine-Dependent Acetyl Coenzyme A Transport Is Required for Normal Sexual and Asexual Development of the Ascomycete Gibberella zeae

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hokyoung; Min, Kyunghun; Lee, Jungkwan; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol

    2012-01-01

    Fungi have evolved efficient metabolic mechanisms for the exact temporal (developmental stages) and spatial (organelles) production of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA). We previously demonstrated mechanistic roles of several acetyl-CoA synthetic enzymes, namely, ATP citrate lyase and acetyl-CoA synthetases (ACSs), in the plant-pathogenic fungus Gibberella zeae. In this study, we characterized two carnitine acetyltransferases (CATs; CAT1 and CAT2) to obtain a better understanding of the metabolic processes occurring in G. zeae. We found that CAT1 functioned as an alternative source of acetyl-CoA required for lipid accumulation in an ACS1 deletion mutant. Moreover, deletion of CAT1 and/or CAT2 resulted in various defects, including changes to vegetative growth, asexual/sexual development, trichothecene production, and virulence. Although CAT1 is associated primarily with peroxisomal CAT function, mislocalization experiments showed that the role of CAT1 in acetyl-CoA transport between the mitochondria and cytosol is important for sexual and asexual development in G. zeae. Taking these data together, we concluded that G. zeae CATs are responsible for facilitating the exchange of acetyl-CoA across intracellular membranes, particularly between the mitochondria and the cytosol, during various developmental stages. PMID:22798392

  14. Relating Sexual Sadism and Psychopathy to One Another, Non-Sexual Violence, and Sexual Crime Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Carrie A.; Knight, Raymond A.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual sadism and psychopathy have been theoretically, clinically, and empirically linked to violence. Although both constructs are linked to predatory violence, few studies have sought to explore the covariation of the two constructs, and even fewer have sought to conceptualize the similarities of violence prediction in each. The current study considered all four Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) facets and employed well-defined, validated measures of sadism to elucidate the relation between sadism and psychopathy, as well as to determine the role of each in the prediction of non-sexual violence and sexual crime behaviors. Study 1 assessed 314 adult, male sex offenders using archival ratings, as well as the self-report Multidimensional Inventory of Development, Sex, and Aggression (the MIDSA). Study 2 used archival ratings to assess 599 adult, male sex offenders. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of crime scene descriptions yielded four sexual crime behavior factors: Violence, Physical Control, Sexual Behavior, and Paraphilic. Sadism and psychopathy covaried, but were not coextensive; sadism correlated with Total PCL-R, Facet 1, and Facet 4 scores. The constructs predicted all non-sexual violence measures, but predicted different sexual crime behavior factors. The PCL-R facets collectively predicted the Violence and Paraphilic factors, whereas sadism only predicted the Violence factor. PMID:24019144

  15. SALMOD: a population model for salmonids: user's manual. Version W3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholow, John; Heasley, John; Laake, Jeff; Sandelin, Jeff; Coughlan, Beth A.K.; Moos, Alan

    2002-01-01

    SALMOD is a computer model that simulates the dynamics of freshwater salmonid populations, both anadromous and resident. The conceptual model was developed in a workshop setting (Williamson et al. 1993) using fish experts concerned with Trinity River chinook restoration. The model builds on the foundation laid by similar models (see Cheslak and Jacobson 1990). The model’s premise that that egg and fish mortality are directly related to spatially and temporally variable micro- and macrohabitat limitations, which themselves are related to the timing and amount of streamflow and other meteorological variables. Habitat quality and capacity are characterized by the hydraulic and thermal properties of individual mesohabitats, which we use as spatial “computation units” in the model. The model tracks a population of spatially distinct cohorts that originate as gees and grow from one life stage to another as a function of local water temperature. Individual cohorts either remain in the computational unit in which they emerged or move, in whole or in part, to nearby units (see McCormick et al. 1998). Model processes include spawning (with red superimposition and incubation losses), growth (including egg maturation), mortality, and movement (freshet-induced, habitat-induced, and seasonal). Model processes are implemented such that the user (modeler) has the ability to more-or-less program the model on the fly to create the dynamics thought to animate the population. SALMOD then tabulates the various causes of mortality and the whereabouts of fish.

  16. Sensitivity of salmonid freshwater life history in western US streams to future climate conditions.

    PubMed

    Beer, W Nicholas; Anderson, James J

    2013-08-01

    We projected effects of mid-21st century climate on the early life growth of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) in western United States streams. Air temperature and snowpack trends projected from observed 20th century trends were used to predict future seasonal stream temperatures. Fish growth from winter to summer was projected with temperature-dependent models of egg development and juvenile growth. Based on temperature data from 115 sites, by mid-21st century, the effects of climate change are projected to be mixed. Fish in warm-region streams that are currently cooled by snow melt will grow less, and fish in suboptimally cool streams will grow more. Relative to 20th century conditions, by mid-21st century juvenile salmonids' weights are expected to be lower in the Columbia Basin and California Central Valley, but unchanged or greater in coastal and mountain streams. Because fish weight affects fish survival, the predicted changes in weight could impact population fitness depending on other factors such as density effects, food quality and quantity changes, habitat alterations, etc. The level of year-to-year variability in stream temperatures is high and our analysis suggests that identifying effects of climate change over the natural variability will be difficult except in a few streams. PMID:23640715

  17. Incipient toxicity of lithium to freshwater organisms representing a salmonid habitat

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, R.; Klopfer, D.C.; Skalski, J.R.

    1981-07-01

    Because the eventual development of fusion power reactors could increase the mining, use and disposal of lithium five-fold by the year 2000, potential effects from unusual amounts of lithium in aquatic environments were investigated. Freshwater oganisms representing a Pacific Northwest salmonid habitat were exposed to elevated conentrations of lithium. Nine parameters were used to determine the incipient toxicity of lithium to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), insect larvae (Chironomus sp.), and Columbia River periphyton. All three groups of biota were incipiently sensitive to lithium at concentrations ranging between 0.1 and 1 mg/L. These results correspond with the incipient toxicity of beryllium, a chemically similar component of fusion reactor cores. A maximum lithium concentration of 0.01 mg/L occurs naturally in most freshwater environments (beryllium is rarer). Therefore, a concentration range of 0.01 to 0.1 mg/L may be regarded as approaching toxic concentrations when assessing the hazards of lithium in freshwaters.

  18. Vertical transmission of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa), the causative agent of salmonid proliferative kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Abd-Elfattah, Ahmed; Fontes, Inês; Kumar, Gokhlesh; Soliman, Hatem; Hartikainen, Hanna; Okamura, Beth; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2014-04-01

    The freshwater bryozoan, Fredericella sultana, is the main primary host of the myxozoan endoparasite, Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae which causes proliferative kidney disease (PKD) of salmonid fish. Because spores that develop in bryozoan colonies are infectious to fish, bryozoans represent the ultimate source of PKD. Bryozoans produce numerous seed-like dormant stages called statoblasts that enable persistence during unfavourable conditions and achieve long-distance dispersal. The possibility that T. bryosalmonae may undergo vertical transmission via infection of statoblasts has been the subject of much speculation since this is observed in close relatives. This study provides the first evidence that such vertical transmission of T. bryosalmonae is extensive by examining the proportions of infected statoblasts in populations of F. sultana on two different rivers systems and confirms its effectiveness by demonstrating transmission from material derived from infected statoblasts to fish hosts. Vertical transmission in statoblasts is likely to play an important role in the infection dynamics of both bryozoan and fish hosts and may substantially contribute to the widespread distribution of PKD. PMID:24229733

  19. Isolation, characterization and cross-salmonid amplification of 31 microsatellite loci in the lake whitefish ( Coregonus clupeaformis , Mitchill)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SEAN M. ROGERS; MARIE-HÉLÈNE MARCHAND; LOUIS BERNATCHEZ

    Coregonine fish represent the most successful evolutionary lineage of salmonids with Coregonus as the most speciose salmonid genus inhabiting numerous postglacial lakes across the northern hemisphere. We isolated and characterized 31 polymorphic microsatel- lite loci in Coregonus clupeaformis with an average number of 5.3 alleles per locus (range three to eight) and an overall expected heterozygosity of 0.74 ± ±

  20. Application of Thermal Infrared (FLIR) and Visible Videography to the Monitoring and Restoration of Salmonid Habitat in the Pacific Northwest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Poage; C. Torgersen; D. Norton; B. McIntosh

    The focus of this project is the application of thermal infrared and visible videography to the monitoring and restoration of riparian areas important for rare and endangered species of salmonids in the Pacific Northwest. Basin and reach-level patterns of water temperatures within ranges critical to salmonids can be described using imagery acquired with an airborne Forward-Looking Infrared (FLIR) thermal scanner.

  1. A DNA-based Identification Key to Pacific Northwest Freshwater Mussel Glochidia: Importance to Salmonid and Mussel Conservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard G. Gustafson; Eric M. Iwamoto

    2005-01-01

    Glochidia larvae of unionacean mussels native to Pacific coast drainages are temporary obligate parasites on the gills or fins of fish, including juvenile Pacific salmonids. This parasitic condition in fishes has been termed glochidiosis, and may have a detrimental impact on both long- and short-term survival and growth in juvenile salmonids, particularly in hatcheries. Here we report diagnostic differences in

  2. Estimated Loss of Juvenile Salmonids to Predation by Northern Squawfish, Walleyes, and Smallmouth Bass in John Day Reservoir, Columbia River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce E. Rieman; Raymond C. Beamesderfer; Steven Vigg; Thomas P. Poe

    1991-01-01

    –We estimated the loss of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. to predation by northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis, walleyes Stizostedion vitreum, and smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in John Day Reservoir during 1983–1986. Our estimates were based on measures of daily prey consumption, predator numbers, and numbers of juvenile salmonids entering the reservoir during the April–August period of migration. We estimated the mean

  3. Assessment of Salmonids and Their Habitat Conditions in the Walla Walla River Basin within Washington, Annual Report 2002-2003

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glen Mendel; Jeremy Trump; Mike Gembala

    2003-01-01

    This study began in 1998 to assess salmonid distribution, relative abundance, genetics, and the condition of salmonid habitats in the Walla Walla River basin. Stream flows in the Walla Walla Basin continue to show a general trend that begins with a sharp decline in discharge in late June, followed by low summer flows and then an increase in discharge in

  4. Sexuality and Reproductive Issues (PDQ)

    MedlinePLUS

    Sexuality and Reproductive Issues (PDQ®) Sexual Problems as a Side Effect of Cancer Factors Affecting Sexual Function in Cancer Patients Assessing Sexual Function in Cancer Patients Treatment of Sexual Problems in Cancer ...

  5. Sexual health for people living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Kathy; Ray, Sunanda

    2007-05-01

    Sexual health is defined in terms of well-being, but is challenged by the social, cultural and economic realities faced by women and men with HIV. A sexual rights approach puts women and men with HIV in charge of their sexual health. Accurate, accessible information to make informed choices and safe, pleasurable sexual relationships possible is best delivered through peer education and health professionals trained in empathetic approaches to sensitive issues. Young people with HIV especially need appropriate sex education and support for dealing with sexuality and self-identity with HIV. Women and men with HIV need condoms, appropriate services for sexually transmitted infections, sexual dysfunction and management of cervical and anogenital cancers. Interventions based on positive prevention, that combine protection of personal health with avoiding HIV/STI transmission to partners, are recommended. HIV counselling following a positive test has increased condom use and decreased coercive sex and outside sexual contacts among discordant couples. HIV treatment and care have reduced stigma and increased uptake of HIV testing and disclosure of positive status to partners. High adherence to antiretroviral therapy and safer sexual behaviour must go hand-in-hand. Sexual health services have worked with peer educators and volunteer groups to reach those at higher risk, such as sex workers. Technological advances in diagnosis of STIs, microbicide development and screening and vaccination for human papillomavirus must be available in developing countries and for those with the highest need globally. PMID:17531749

  6. The Developmental Association of Sexual Self-Concept with Sexual Behavior among Adolescent Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensel, Devon J.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; O'Sullivan, Lucia F.; Orr, Donald P.

    2011-01-01

    Developing a sexual self-concept is an important developmental task of adolescence; however, little empirical evidence describes this development, nor how these changes are related to development in sexual behavior. Using longitudinal cohort data from adolescent women, we invoked latent growth curve analysis to: (1) examine reciprocal development

  7. Development and Validation of the Korean Version of the Female Sexual Function Index-6 (FSFI-6K)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yumi; Joo, Jungnam; Park, KiByung; Lee, Suji; Seo, Sijung; Lee, Dong Ock; Park, Sang-Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the validity and reliability of the Korean version of the Female Sexual Function Index-6 (FSFI-6K). Materials and Methods Participants were recruited from February 2013 to July 2013. The primary survey was conducted for 220 participants, and a follow-up was conducted 3 weeks (±1 week) after the primary survey. The FSFI-6K data were analyzed and compared to the reference values in the original FSFI. Results Of the 220 participants, 199 (90.5%) returned to follow-up, 18 (8.2%) had no further contact, and 3 (1.4%) declined to respond. The internal consistency of the FSFI-6K as measured by Cronbach's alpha was 0.888 and the reliability based on test-retest intraclass correlation was 0.606; these values were acceptable. The cutoff used for diagnosis of female sexual dysfunction by an receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was a score of 21; the sensitivity and specificity for this curve are 0.89 and 0.86, respectively. The area under the receiver operating curve was 0.948. Conclusion The FSFI-6K has high internal consistency and acceptable reliability. This validated questionnaire can be used for the Korean population. PMID:25048509

  8. Thoreau's sexuality.

    PubMed

    Harding, W

    1991-01-01

    Although Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) has often been described as lacking in sexual drive or at most a rather reluctant heterosexual, a close study of his life and writings indicates the presence of a pronounced vein of homoeroticism--although there seems to be no concrete evidence of any homosexual activity on his part. Cognizance of that homoeroticism helps one to understand many elements of his life and writings and suggests that his intense love of nature may have resulted from sublimation of that homoeroticism. PMID:1880400

  9. PREVENTION OF SEXUAL ASSAULT IN NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    Eze, U.O.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual assault occurs commonly worldwide and is particularly pervasive in the developing world. The background to sexual violence is important in the understanding of the ramifications of the problem. Some elements that offer the means to the prevention of sexual assault in the community are important highlights especially where the means - expertise and facilities - for managing cases of sexual assault is grossly inadequate. These concepts, though are applicable universally, are however discussed in the context of the developing world and with particular emphasis on the Nigerian situation. Their applicability in sexual assault prevention is derived from previous studies in different parts of the world that highlight the viability of these interventions. Therefore if one posits that sexual assault can be prevented, certain responsibilities are imperative; some challenges must be anticipated; and special needs/circumstances should be catered for. PMID:25161422

  10. Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Travelers.

    PubMed

    Hynes, Noreen A

    2005-03-01

    International travelers engaging in casual sex are at risk for acquiring sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV. The frequency of international travel emphasizes the need for a travel sexual activity history to be included in the clinical assessment of any returned traveler. When formulating a differential diagnosis, the STD prevalence rates at the travel destination and the risk profile of the traveler and the sexual partner need to be considered. Casual sex with host country nationals residing in tropical and subtropical areas of the developing world increases the traveler's risk for acquiring STDs rarely seen in industrialized countries, particularly bacterial genital ulcer diseases. Pretravel counseling needs to include education on STD prevention. A post-travel STD diagnostic evaluation is indicated when casual sexual activity has occurred during travel, regardless of whether symptoms are present. PMID:15727741

  11. Sexual rights and sexual cultures: reflections on \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Robins

    2006-01-01

    The paper is divided into three sections. The first section focuses on the contested nature of the sexual politics that surrounded the Jacob Zuma rape trial. This sexual politics was not simply the background to the \\

  12. Marine effect of introduced salmonids: Prey consumption by exotic steelhead and anadromous brown trout in the Patagonian Continental Shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ciancio, J.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Pascual, M.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of stable isotope analysis, we estimated the marine diet of the most abundant anadromous salmonid species in Patagonian Atlantic basins. The results were coupled with bioenergetic and population models to estimate the consumption of food by salmonids and was compared with that by seabirds, the most abundant top predators in the area. Amphipods were the main salmonid prey, followed by sprat, silversides, squid, and euphausiids. The total consumption, even assuming large anadromous salmonid populations, represented <5% of the total consumption by seabirds. We also identified the particular seabird colonies and artisanal fisheries with which salmonid trophic interactions at a more local scale could be significant. ?? 2010, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  13. Siblings, Aggression, and Sexuality: Adding the Lateral

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Servaas van Beekum

    This article focuses on the importance of sibling relations in the development of script and in the evolution of erotic and sexual sen- sibilities. Freud's original view on the early development of sexuality and aggression was focused on the vertical, in particular, on the dynamics of the father-son r elationship as highlighted by the Oedipus complex. It took almost a

  14. Implicit Cognitive Distortions and Sexual Offending

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Mihailides; Grant J. Devilly; Tony Ward

    2004-01-01

    This work develops and tests the semantic-motivation hypothesis of sexual offend- ers' implicit cognitions. This hypothesis posits that sexual offenders' cognitive distortions emerge at the interface between implicit motivation and cognition. The semantic-motivation hypothesis is used to guide the development of 3 im- plicit association tests (IATs). These IATs were used to test for the existence of 3 expected child

  15. Studies on the possibility of vertical transmission of Norwegian salmonid Alphavirus in production of Atlantic salmon in Norway.

    PubMed

    Bratland, André; Nylund, Are

    2009-09-01

    Disease associated with salmonid Alphavirus (SAV) infection is a significant problem for farm production of salmonids in Europe. The SAV subtype 3 (SAV3) is a Norwegian subtype present exclusively in production systems for Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in western Norway. It has been suggested that SAV3 is transmitted through smolt transport from the main area for SAV disease in western Norway to as far as northern Norway. One explanation for this type of spread is that SAV is present at freshwater production sites for Atlantic salmon smolts. The present study confirms this, showing that SAV3 is present at smolt production sites in Norway. At two sites in northern Norway that had received eggs from broodfish companies in Hordaland County, western Norway, 2-4-g fry were positive for SAV3. Hence, it cannot be excluded that vertical transmission could have contributed to the presence of SAV3 in northern Norway. In the present study, we followed the normal production cycle for Atlantic salmon in a fish farming company in Hordaland County. Twelve of 353 broodfish in study 1 and 28 of 31 broodfish in study 2 were found to be carriers of SAV3. In the same two studies, SAV was also detected in eggs (1 of 220), eyed eggs (3 of 270), and fry (6 of 600). The SAV was not detected in parr, smolts, or postsmolts, but after a year at sea the fish developed SAV disease. Given the difficulties in tracing the virus through the production cycle until development of SAV disease in the marine farm, we cannot draw any firm conclusions about whether vertical transmission occurs in Norwegian salmon production, and we cannot exclude the possibility that the development of SAV after 1 year at sea was caused by horizontal transmission rather than vertical transmission. PMID:20043403

  16. Long-term changes in river-floodplain dynamics: implications for salmonid habitat in the Interior Columbia Basin, USA.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Matthew J; Gergel, Sarah E; Beechie, Timothy J; McClure, Michelle M

    2011-07-01

    Rivers and their associated floodplains are among the world's most highly altered ecosystems, resulting in billions of dollars in restoration expenditures. Successful restoration of these systems requires information at multiple spatial scales (from localized reaches to broader-scale watersheds), as well as information spanning long time frames. Here, we develop a suite of historical landscape indicators of riverine status, primarily from the perspective of salmonid management, using a case study in the Interior Columbia Basin, Washington, USA. We use a combination of historical and modern aerial photography to quantify changes in land cover and reach type, as well as potential fish habitat within channel and off-channel floodplain areas. As of 1949, 55% of the Wenatchee River floodplain had been converted to agriculture. By 2006, 62% had been modified by anthropogenic development, of which 20% was due to urban expansion. The historical percentage of agricultural land in the watershed and the contemporary percentage of urban area surpass thresholds in land cover associated with deleterious impacts on river systems. In addition, the abundance of reach types associated with the highest quality salmonid habitat (island braided and meandering reaches) has declined due to conversion to straight reach types. The area occupied by fish habitats associated with channel migration (slow/stagnant channels and dry channels) has declined approximately 25-30%. Along highly modified rivers, these habitats have also become increasingly fragmented. Caveats related to visual quality and seasonal timing of historical photographs were important considerations in the interpretation of changes witnessed for headwater island braided systems, as well as for floodplain ponds. Development of rigorous, long-term, multi-scale monitoring techniques is necessary to guide the management and restoration of river-floodplain systems for the diversity of ecosystem services they provide. PMID:21830708

  17. Tolerance of Sexual Harassment: A Laboratory Paradigm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Angelone; Damon Mitchell; Kara Carola

    2009-01-01

    The present study attempted to develop a laboratory analogue for the study of tolerance for sexual harassment by using an\\u000a online speed-dating paradigm. In that context, the relation between participants’ sexual harassment attitudes, perpetrator\\u000a attractiveness, perpetrator status, and perceived dating potential of the perpetrator were examined as factors influencing\\u000a participants’ tolerance of sexually harassing behavior. Participants were 128 female college

  18. Lect. 15: Sexual selection Sexual dimorphism

    E-print Network

    with reproduction) Selection for sexual dimorphism? · Fitness under natural selection: typically same for both sexes Survival ReproductionFitness Selection for sexual dimorphism? · Must act on sexes differently · Process Fitness Sexual selection · Differential reproductive success due to variation among individuals in ability

  19. The Problem... ! Sexual Assault & Sexual Harassment are

    E-print Network

    VandeVord, Pamela

    of rape or attempted rape between the age of 14 and 25 ! 9 out of 10 date rapes are not reported ! Women the Terms Sexual Assault #Sexual activity, including but not limited to rape, attempted rape or oral sex, guilt) $ Date rape, a form of sexual assault, is rape by someone the victim is dating. $ Acquaintance

  20. Effect of mono-ortho and di-ortho substituted polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners on leopard frog survival and sexual development.

    PubMed

    Jofré, Mariana Beatriz; Karasov, William H

    2008-02-01

    We tested the effect of mono-ortho and di-ortho PCB congeners on northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) hatching success, survival and sexual development. Embryos and tadpoles were exposed to two levels (0.5 and 50 microg/l) of two PCBs. PCBs 101 and 70 were selected because they were present in amphibians collected in the Fox River-Green Bay ecosystem and they have the theoretical structural requirements to be able to bind to the estrogen receptor and mediate estrogenic responses. The exposure of leopard frog embryos and tadpoles to PCB 70 and 101 did not significantly affect hatchability, survival, deformities or growth. There were significant departures from the expected 50:50 sex ratio in tadpoles/froglets exposed to PCB 101 and PCB 70. In all the cases of significant departure, the bias was towards higher number of females. Decrease in the proportion of male gonads and increase in the proportion of intersex gonads were observed with increasing PCB tissue concentrations. The effects of PCB congeners on sexual differentiation occur at concentrations higher than observed in frogs in the Fox River/Green Bay ecosystem. PMID:17870144

  1. Anti-Discrimination/Sexual Harassment Policies and Procedures Review Panel

    E-print Network

    Haykin, Simon

    Anti-Discrimination/Sexual Harassment Policies and Procedures Review Panel `The Terms of Reference policy and procedures related to complaints of discrimination/ harassment and sexual harassment; changes in wider cultural understandings of discrimination and the development of inclusive / respectful

  2. Multivariate expression analysis of the gene network underlying sexual development in turtle embryos with temperature-dependent and genotypic sex determination.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, N

    2010-01-01

    Sexual development has long been the target of study and despite great advances in our understanding of the composition and regulation of the gene network underlying gonadogenesis, our knowledge remains incomplete. Of particular interest is the relative role that the environment and the genome play in directing gonadal formation, especially the effect of environmental temperature in directing this process in vertebrates. Comparative analyses in closely related taxa with contrasting sex-determining mechanisms should help fill this gap. Here I present a multivariate study of the regulation of the gene network underlying sexual development in turtles with temperature-dependent (TSD; Chrysemys picta) and genotypic sex determination (GSD; Apalone mutica). I combine novel data on SOX9 and DMRT1 from these species with contrasting sex-determining mechanisms for the first time with previously reported data on DAX1, SF-1 (NR5A1), WT1, and aromatase (CYP19A1) from these same taxa. Comparative expression analyses of SOX9 and DMRT1 from these and other species indicate additional elements whose expression has diverged among TSD taxa, further supporting the notion that significant evolutionary changes have accrued in the regulation of the TSD gene network in reptiles. A non-parametric MANOVA revealed that temperature had a significant effect in multivariate gene expression in C. picta that varied during embryonic development, whereas the covariation of gene expression in A. mutica was insensitive to temperature. A phenotypic trajectory analysis (PTA) of gene expression comparing both species directly indicated that the relative covariation in gene expression varied between temperatures in C. picta. Furthermore, the 25 degrees C trajectory of C. picta differed from that of A. mutica in the magnitude of gene expression change. Additional analyses revealed a stronger covariation in gene expression and a more interconnected regulatory network in A. mutica, consistent with the hypothesis that sexual development is a more canalized process in A. mutica, as would be expected if GSD evolved in this lineage through directional selection from its TSD ancestor. PMID:20110645

  3. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin; 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Suzanne M.; Kern, J. Chris; Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1997-01-01

    This is the second year report of a multi-year project that monitors the outmigration and survival of hatchery and naturally-produced juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River. This project supplements and complements ongoing or completed fisheries projects in the Umatilla River basin. Knowledge gained on outmigration and survival will assist researchers and managers in adapting hatchery practices, flow enhancement strategies, canal operations, and supplementation and enhancement efforts for natural and restored fish populations. The authors also report on tasks related to evaluating juvenile salmonid passage at Three Mile Falls Dam and West Extension Canal.

  4. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin; 1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Suzanne M.; Cameron, William A.; Shapleigh, Stacey L. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

    1995-12-01

    This is the first year report of a multi-year project that monitors the outmigration and survival of hatchery and naturally produced juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River. This project supplements and complements ongoing or completed fisheries projects in the Umatilla river basin. Knowledge gained on outmigration and survival will assist researchers and managers in adapting hatchery practices, flow enhancement strategies, canal operations, and supplementation and enhancement efforts for natural fish populations. This project also completed tasks related to evaluating juvenile salmonid passage at Three Mile Falls Dam and West Extension Canal.

  5. University of Alberta Sexual Assault Centre Acquaintance Sexual Assault

    E-print Network

    Machel, Hans

    University of Alberta Sexual Assault Centre Acquaintance Sexual Assault Sexual assault is any form of sexual contact without voluntary consent, and acquaintance sexual assault is sexual assault where the survivor knows the person who committed the sexual assault. The offending acquaintance may be someone

  6. Policy on Sexual Harassment Policy on Sexual Harassment

    E-print Network

    Sridhar, Srinivas

    Policy on Sexual Harassment 09/19/2013 Policy on Sexual Harassment I. Purpose and Scope property. Definitions Sexual Harassment: Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature is sexual harassment when: Submission to such conduct

  7. The Sexuality of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Roller, Cynthia; Martsolf, Donna S; Draucker, Claire Burke; Ross, Ratchneewan

    2011-01-01

    In this grounded theory study, a theoretical framework that depicts the process by which childhood sexual abuse (CSA) influences the sexuality of women and men survivors was constructed. Data were drawn from interview transcripts of 95 men and women who experienced CSA. Using constant comparison analysis, the researchers determined that the central phenomenon of the data was a process labeled Determining My Sexual Being, in which survivors moved from grappling with questions related to the nature, cause, and sexual effects of the abuse to laying claim to their own sexuality. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:21785665

  8. Sexual Problems of Counselees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heritage, Jeannette G.; West, W. Beryl

    Approximately 50% of American marriages have some sexual dysfunction. Because sexuality is an important part of a person's life, counselors should be sensitive to sexual concerns of their clients. Taking an adequate sex history and highlighting problem areas may increase counseling efficiency. When counselors teach courses on human sexuality, they…

  9. Sexual Risk Factors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... HIV Translate Text Size Print Lower Your Sexual Risk of HIV How Can I Reduce My Risk Of Getting HIV Through Sexual Contact? In the ... not infected with HIV. Sexual Practices And HIV Risk The risk of getting HIV through sexual contact ...

  10. SEXUALITY AND GENDER IDENTITY

    E-print Network

    Viglas, Anastasios

    LEARN TO UNDERSTAND SEXUALITY AND GENDER IDENTITY COUNSELLING AND PSYCHOLOGICAL SERVICES CAPS #12;CONTENTS 01 Questioning your sexuality or gender identity 02 Coming out 04 Sexual health 05 Harassment and discrimination 06 Types of support and information available 08 Useful resources Sexual orientation is about who

  11. Sexual Harassment in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Nancy A.

    1988-01-01

    Three situations of sexual harassment, typical of the complaints received by various departments and offices on all Indiana University campuses, are presented. According to the National Advisory Council on Women's Educational Programs, "academic sexual harassment is the use of authority to emphasize the sexuality or sexual identity of a student in…

  12. Sexuality and Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanctuary, Gerald

    The author examines specific manifestations of violence in relation to sexuality: (1) forcible rape rate; (2) war atrocities; (3) sexual violence in prisons; and (4) pornography. Drawing much from Hannah Arendt's book on violence, he views sexual violence as symptomatic of a lack of sexual power, not a sign of its possession. The causes are seen…

  13. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  14. Sexuality and the law.

    PubMed

    Portelli, C J

    1998-01-01

    Federal, state, and local laws in the US now govern almost every aspect of sexuality. This includes sexuality at the workplace, sexuality education, adolescent sexuality, access to sexuality information and sexually explicit materials, sexual orientation, and sexually transmitted disease(STD)/HIV transmission. Almost 33% of the US Supreme Court's docket this past term concerned sexuality issues. In contrast to 50 years ago, when sexuality law was confined to the criminal arena, contemporary "sex crimes" primarily relate to nonconsensual and exploitative behaviors. It is time for lawmakers, judges, lawyers, policy analysts, lobbyists, and advocates to realize they cannot legislate or litigate how, when, or why people fall in love. Rather, the role of the law should be to create and preserve models of justice and equality that seek to preserve one's individual rights to privacy and freedom to choose in matters related to one's sexuality. This includes free access to age-appropriate sexuality information, the right to marriage and children regardless of sexual orientation, comprehensive sexuality education that encompasses information about avoiding unwanted pregnancies and HIV/STDs, access to contraception and abortion, protection from sexually abusive or exploitative relationships, and access to sexual health care. PMID:12295182

  15. Sexually transmitted organisms in sexually abused children

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, A; Watkeys, J; Ridgway, G

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To establish the prevalence of sexually transmitted organisms and other genital organisms in potentially sexually abused children.?DESIGN—Prospective study of children attending an inner London department of community paediatrics for evaluation of possible sexual abuse.?SUBJECTS—Children under 16 referred for evaluation of possible sexual abuse.?OUTCOME MEASURES—Prevalence of sexually transmitted organisms in relation to age, symptoms, and type of abuse.?RESULTS—Swabs were taken from 159 of 242 girls evaluated. The overall prevalence of sexually transmitted organisms was 3.7%: three girls were infected with gonorrhoea, four with Trichomonas vaginalis, and two with Chlamydia trachomatis. One girl had all three infections plus mycoplasmas. Mycoplasmas were identified in 22% of girls swabbed. Of 30 boys swabbed, none yielded a sexually transmitted organism.?CONCLUSIONS—There is a low prevalence of definitely sexually transmitted organisms in children who might have been abused. Other organisms possibly associated with sexual activity can be identified in this population. Screening for infection should be mandatory in presumed sexually abused girls with vaginal discharge and ideally should be undertaken in all children attending for evaluation of sexual abuse.?? PMID:9875049

  16. Molecular cloning and genomic characterization of novel leptin-like genes in salmonids provide new insight into the evolution of the Leptin gene family.

    PubMed

    Angotzi, Anna R; Stefansson, Sigurd O; Nilsen, Tom O; Rathore, Raja M; Rønnestad, Ivar

    2013-06-15

    In the current study we describe the identification of novel leptin B homologous gene/s in the four salmonid species Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), brown trout (Salmo trutta) and Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). Homology modeling of Salmo salar (Ss) LepB1/B2 suggests that the protein satisfies parameters as long-chain four helical cytokine family and that the basic structural pattern of the protein follows that of human leptin (Zhang et al., 1997). Importantly, the docking studies suggested the SsLepB has binding affinity to the AA residues that identify the leptin binding and FNIII domains of the SsLep receptor (Rønnestad et al., 2010). Phylogenetic analyses support that LepB paralogs have most probably originated by 4R whole genome duplication (WGD) before speciation of the salmonid lineages. LepB1 and LepB2 genes are both present in the two closest relatives, the Atlantic salmon and the brown trout, while rainbow trout and charr have only preserved the long LepB1 variant in their genome. We have defined the sites of SsLepB mRNA expression at key life stages in Atlantic salmon and found that SsLepB1 and SsLepB2, although to different extent, were expressed in redundant and mostly complementary fashion in brain and gills throughout the lifecycle, suggesting that this pair of paralogs is likely undergoing early stages of subfunctionalization. Furthermore, we have quantified the expression profiles of SsLepB genes and of other two recently duplicated salmon leptins (SsLepA1, SsLepA2) during early development and show evidence that in fish, as in mammals and amphibians, leptin could play important roles in growth and development. This study provides an essential groundwork to further elucidate structural and functional evolution of this important hormone in salmonids as well as in other teleosts. PMID:23583470

  17. Investigating the Geomorphic and Ecologic Functions of Wood in Relationship to Habitat Type and Salmonid Redds on a Regulated California River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senter, A. E.; Pasternack, G. B.

    2006-12-01

    Most river rehabilitation projects incorporate little to no wood in current designs, and those that do have little science to guide them. The overall goal of this research is to investigate the role of wood in a regulated, mid- sized (where river width is greater than most tree heights), Mediterranean-climate (where smaller, softer-wood trees dominate the landscape) river in order to provide a scientific foundation for the potential use of wood in rehabilitation projects within such systems. Wood structures in the active salmonid spawning reach of the Lower Mokelumne River in Central California were measured, mapped, and described during summer and fall 2006. Digital photos and GPS coordinates were used to establish wood location within the stream channel. Structural morphology was determined by measuring physical properties such as individual diameter and length, orientation to stream flow, and jam dimensions. In addition, qualitative attributes were recorded such as decay class and leaf, limb, bark, and root characteristics. A GIS wood layer will be created and added to a database of existing Mokelumne River GIS layers containing salmonid redd (salmon egg nests) densities, hydraulic conditions associated with individual redds, and sub-reach habitat types. An analysis of wood properties, redd locations and conditions, and habitat types will be used to develop a conceptual model of wood dynamics in relation to salmonid habitat on the Lower Mokelumne River. The primary products of this study will be (1) a scientific conceptual model of the role of wood in regulated gravel reaches of mid-size rivers in Mediterranean California and (2) a decision-making framework that will enable river managers to include scientifically based wood structures into rehabilitation designs, thereby enhancing spawning habitat, stream complexity, and biological diversity. These tools will be developed in collaboration with East Bay Municipal Utilities District to aid in the continuing rehabilitation of the Lower Mokelumne River.

  18. Timing matters: species-specific interactions between spawning time, substrate quality, and recruitment success in three salmonid species.

    PubMed

    Sternecker, Katharina; Denic, Marco; Geist, Juergen

    2014-07-01

    Substratum quality and oxygen supply to the interstitial zone are crucial for the reproductive success of salmonid fishes. At present, degradation of spawning grounds due to fine sediment deposition and colmation are recognized as main factors for reproductive failure. In addition, changes in water temperatures due to climate change, damming, and cooling water inlets are predicted to reduce hatching success. We tested the hypothesis that the biological effects of habitat degradation depend strongly on the species-specific spawning seasons and life-history strategies (e.g., fall- vs. spring-spawners, migratory vs. resident species) and assessed temperature as an important species-specific factor for hatching success within river substratum. We studied the species-specific differences in their responses to such disturbances using egg-to-fry survival of Danube Salmon (Hucho hucho), resident brown trout (Salmo trutta fario), and migratory brown trout (Salmo trutta lacustris) as biological endpoint. The egg incubation and hatching success of the salmonids and their dependence on temperature and stream substratum quality were compared. Hatching rates of Danube salmon were lower than of brown trout, probably due to higher oxygen demands and increased interstitial respiration in spring. Increases in maximum water temperature reduced hatching rates of resident and migratory brown trout (both fall-spawners) but were positively correlated with hatching rates of Danube salmon (a spring-spawner). Significantly longer incubation periods of resident and migratory brown trout coincided with relatively low stream substratum quality at the end of the egg incubation. Danube salmon seem to avoid low oxygen concentrations in the hyporheic zone by faster egg development favored by higher water temperatures. Consequently, the prediction of effects of temperature changes and altered stream substratum properties on gravel-spawning fishes and biological communities should consider the observed species-specific variances in life-history strategies to increase conservation success. PMID:25077024

  19. Timing matters: species-specific interactions between spawning time, substrate quality, and recruitment success in three salmonid species

    PubMed Central

    Sternecker, Katharina; Denic, Marco; Geist, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Substratum quality and oxygen supply to the interstitial zone are crucial for the reproductive success of salmonid fishes. At present, degradation of spawning grounds due to fine sediment deposition and colmation are recognized as main factors for reproductive failure. In addition, changes in water temperatures due to climate change, damming, and cooling water inlets are predicted to reduce hatching success. We tested the hypothesis that the biological effects of habitat degradation depend strongly on the species-specific spawning seasons and life-history strategies (e.g., fall- vs. spring-spawners, migratory vs. resident species) and assessed temperature as an important species-specific factor for hatching success within river substratum. We studied the species-specific differences in their responses to such disturbances using egg-to-fry survival of Danube Salmon (Hucho hucho), resident brown trout (Salmo trutta fario), and migratory brown trout (Salmo trutta lacustris) as biological endpoint. The egg incubation and hatching success of the salmonids and their dependence on temperature and stream substratum quality were compared. Hatching rates of Danube salmon were lower than of brown trout, probably due to higher oxygen demands and increased interstitial respiration in spring. Increases in maximum water temperature reduced hatching rates of resident and migratory brown trout (both fall-spawners) but were positively correlated with hatching rates of Danube salmon (a spring-spawner). Significantly longer incubation periods of resident and migratory brown trout coincided with relatively low stream substratum quality at the end of the egg incubation. Danube salmon seem to avoid low oxygen concentrations in the hyporheic zone by faster egg development favored by higher water temperatures. Consequently, the prediction of effects of temperature changes and altered stream substratum properties on gravel-spawning fishes and biological communities should consider the observed species-specific variances in life-history strategies to increase conservation success. PMID:25077024

  20. Influence of Habitat Modifications on Habitat Composition and Anadromous Salmonid Populations in Fish Creek, Oregon, 1983-1988 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, Gordon H.; Everest, Fred H. (Oregon State University, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Corvallis, OR); Hohler, David B. (Mount Hood National Forest, Clackamas River Ranger District, Estacada, OR)

    1990-05-01

    Modification of degraded habitats to increase populations of anadromous salmonids is a major focus of management agencies throughout the Pacific Northwest. Millions of dollars are spent annually on such efforts. Inherent in implementing habitat improvements is the need for quantitative evaluation of the biological and physical effects of such work. Reeves et al. (in press), however, noted that such evaluations are rare, making it difficult to assess the true results of habitat work. While it is not economically possible to thoroughly evaluate every habitat project, it is essential that intensive evaluations be done on selected representative projects. One such evaluation program has been underway since 1982 on Fish Creek, a tributary of the Clackamas River near Estacada, OR. Habitat modification has been done by the USDA Forest Service, Estacada Ranger District, Mt. Hood National Forest with funding provided in part by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The USDA Forest Service, Anadromous Fish Habitat Research Unit, Pacific Northwest Research Station (PNW), Corvallis, OR is charged with: (1) evaluating the biological and physical responses to habitat modifications on a basin scale; and (2) developing a cost-benefit analysis of the program. Preliminary results have been reported in a series of annual publications, Everest and Sedell 1983, 1984 and Everest et al. 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988. The objectives of this paper are to: (1) report 1988 observations of biological and physical changes in habitat, salmonid populations, and smolt production in Fish Creek, and (2) examine preliminary trends in fish habitat and populations related to habitat improvement over the period 1983-1988. We have prefaced the trends in the latter objective as preliminary because we believe it could take a minimum of 10 years before the full biological and physical responses to habitat work are realized. We therefore urge caution in interpreting these preliminary results.