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1

Influence of Waterway Development on Migrational Characteristics of Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Willamette River, Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of Portland Harbor development in the lower Willamette River on the migration and behavior of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.), the habitat occupied by juvenile salmonids, and predation on juvenile salmonids by northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis. Juvenile salmonids were abundant in the lower Willamette River during spring; radio-tagged juvenile steelhead O. mykiss and yearling chinook salmon O.

David L. Ward; Anthony A. Nigro; Ruth A. Farr; Christopher J. Knutsen

1994-01-01

2

The sexually dimorphic on the Y-chromosome gene (sdY) is a conserved male-specific Y-chromosome sequence in many salmonids  

PubMed Central

All salmonid species investigated to date have been characterized with a male heterogametic sex-determination system. However, as these species do not share any Y-chromosome conserved synteny, there remains a debate on whether they share a common master sex-determining gene. In this study, we investigated the extent of conservation and evolution of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) master sex-determining gene, sdY (sexually dimorphic on the Y-chromosome), in 15 different species of salmonids. We found that the sdY sequence is highly conserved in all salmonids and that sdY is a male-specific Y-chromosome gene in the majority of these species. These findings demonstrate that most salmonids share a conserved sex-determining locus and also strongly suggest that sdY may be this conserved master sex-determining gene. However, in two whitefish species (subfamily Coregoninae), sdY was found both in males and females, suggesting that alternative sex-determination systems may have also evolved in this family. Based on the wide conservation of sdY as a male-specific Y-chromosome gene, efficient and easy molecular sexing techniques can now be developed that will be of great interest for studying these economically and environmentally important species. PMID:23745140

Yano, Ayaka; Nicol, Barbara; Jouanno, Elodie; Quillet, Edwige; Fostier, Alexis; Guyomard, Rene; Guiguen, Yann

2013-01-01

3

Impact of Child Sexual Abuse on Developing Sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews theoretical and empirical literature on sexual abuse and focuses on the effects of child sexual abuse on developing sexuality. The issues addressed include (a) prominent family qualities associated with sexual socialization, (b) theoretical formulations that account for the effects of sexual abuse on developing sexuality, and (c) research findings on the impact of child sexual abuse on

Deborah Tharinger

1990-01-01

4

Development and Corroboration of a Bioenergetics Model for Northern Pikeminnow Feeding on Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia River  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bioenergetics model was developed and corroborated for northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis, an important predator on juvenile salmonids in the Pacific Northwest. Predictions of modeled predation rate on salmonids were compared with field data from three areas of John Day Reservoir (Columbia River). To make bioenergetics model estimates of predation rate, three methods were used to approximate the change in

James H. Petersen; David L. Ward

1999-01-01

5

Developing a Predation Index and Evaluating Ways to Reduce Salmonid Losses to Predation in the Columbia River Basin, Final Report August 1988September 1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report our results of studies to develop a predation index and evaluate ways to reduce juvenile salmonid losses to predation in the Columbia River Basin. Study objectives of each were: develop an index to estimate predation losses of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp) in reservoirs throughout the Columbia River Basin, describe the relationships among predator-caused mortality of juvenile salmonids and

Nigro; Anthony A

1990-01-01

6

Conceptualizing positive adolescent sexuality development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is it possible to conceptualize adolescent sexuality in positive terms? Social control characterizes the cultural strategies\\u000a for managing both adolescence and sexuality, yet social movements have emerged in recent decades that have challenged historical\\u000a social norms and boundaries for both sexuality and adolescence. In this article, developing trends in adolescent sexual experience\\u000a (behavior, attitudes, and knowledge) are examined, as are

Stephen T. Russell

2005-01-01

7

Sexual Identity Development Among Ethnic Sexual-Minority Male Youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current research explores how ethnicity influences sexual identity development. Among 139 sexual-minority male youths, measures of sexual identity development assessed the timing and sequencing of developmental milestones, disclosure of sexual identity to others, internalized homophobia, and same- and opposite-sex relationship histories. Findings demonstrated that participants, regardless of ethnicity, experienced most identity milestones at developmentally appropriate ages, had moderately low

Eric M. Dubé; Ritch C. Savin-Williams

1999-01-01

8

New developments concerning defending sexual harassment claims  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suggests that sexual harassment is very common. Analyses the defences to sexual harassment under three categories: general employer defences to claims of sexual harassment, unique defences to hostile environment harassment and new developments to sexual harassment defending sexual harassment claims. Provides cases as examples. Concludes that there is still a great deal of manoeuvring room within the language of the

Vincent Chan; Brian H. Kleiner

2001-01-01

9

Sexual Identity Development among Ethnic Sexual-Minority Male Youths.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored how ethnicity influenced sexual identity development in 139 sexual-minority males. Findings demonstrated that participants, regardless of ethnicity, experienced most identity milestones at developmentally appropriate ages, had moderately low internalized homophobia, and became romantically and sexually involved with other males…

Dube, Eric M.; Savin-Williams, Ritch C.

1999-01-01

10

DEVELOPMENT OF FIELD-BASED EMPIRICAL MODELS OF SUITABLE TEMPERATURE REGIMES FOR INTERIOR SALMONIDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Interior salmonids are species of growing interest and concern in the Pacific Northwest. Evidence of population declines associated with habitat loss and fragmentation have culminate in every species being listed, or proposed or petitioned for listing under he Endangered Species...

11

Clock genes and their genomic distributions in three species of salmonid fishes: Associations with genes regulating sexual maturation and cell cycling  

PubMed Central

Background Clock family genes encode transcription factors that regulate clock-controlled genes and thus regulate many physiological mechanisms/processes in a circadian fashion. Clock1 duplicates and copies of Clock3 and NPAS2-like genes were partially characterized (genomic sequencing) and mapped using family-based indels/SNPs in rainbow trout (RT)(Oncorhynchus mykiss), Arctic charr (AC)(Salvelinus alpinus), and Atlantic salmon (AS)(Salmo salar) mapping panels. Results Clock1 duplicates mapped to linkage groups RT-8/-24, AC-16/-13 and AS-2/-18. Clock3/NPAS2-like genes mapped to RT-9/-20, AC-20/-43, and AS-5. Most of these linkage group regions containing the Clock gene duplicates were derived from the most recent 4R whole genome duplication event specific to the salmonids. These linkage groups contain quantitative trait loci (QTL) for life history and growth traits (i.e., reproduction and cell cycling). Comparative synteny analyses with other model teleost species reveal a high degree of conservation for genes in these chromosomal regions suggesting that functionally related or co-regulated genes are clustered in syntenic blocks. For example, anti-müllerian hormone (amh), regulating sexual maturation, and ornithine decarboxylase antizymes (oaz1 and oaz2), regulating cell cycling, are contained within these syntenic blocks. Conclusions Synteny analyses indicate that regions homologous to major life-history QTL regions in salmonids contain many candidate genes that are likely to influence reproduction and cell cycling. The order of these genes is highly conserved across the vertebrate species examined, and as such, these genes may make up a functional cluster of genes that are likely co-regulated. CLOCK, as a transcription factor, is found within this block and therefore has the potential to cis-regulate the processes influenced by these genes. Additionally, clock-controlled genes (CCGs) are located in other life-history QTL regions within salmonids suggesting that at least in part, trans-regulation of these QTL regions may also occur via Clock expression. PMID:20670436

2010-01-01

12

Cognitive development and aspects of adolescent sexuality.  

PubMed

Difficulty with adjustment to sexuality by adolescents has been of increasing concern to both educators and human service professionals in recent years. The cognitive development and behavior of adolescents as it pertains to sexuality and the implications for helping them overcome maladaptive sexual behavior is discussed. PMID:4083149

Pestrak, V A; Martin, D

1985-01-01

13

Sexual Development and behaviors of adolescents.  

PubMed

Adolescents are faced with many developmental tasks related to sexuality, such as forming romantic relationships and developing their sexual identities. Many adolescents will engage in a variety of sexual behaviors, including perhaps oral and anal sex, during this time period. Almost half will engage in vaginal sexual intercourse by the end of high school. A number of biological, psychosocial, and sociocultural factors can influence adolescents' romantic relationships and sexual behaviors. Some of these factors (eg, exposure to violence in the home, early pubertal development) may increase an adolescent's risk of being in an unhealthy relationship or engaging in sex at an early age. Parents, healthcare providers, and communities can support adolescents through these developmental tasks by forming close, connected relationships with teens and devising age-appropriate messages about the development of healthy sexuality. PMID:16285632

Auslander, Beth A; Rosenthal, Susan L; Blythe, Margaret J

2005-10-01

14

Impacts of parental attitude towards sexual identity development on child's sexual identity development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, positive or negative impacts of different parental attitudes on children's sexual identity and character development have been presented. The general object of the research is to determine the impacts of parental attitude towards child's sexual identity development on the sexual identity development of the children during pre-school period. The research, for which the general scanning model is

Müberra Eser; Nadir Çeliköz

2009-01-01

15

Development and corroboration of a bioenergetics model for northern pikeminnow feeding on juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A bioenergetics model was developed and corroborated for northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis, an important predator on juvenile salmonids in the Pacific Northwest. Predictions of modeled predation rate on salmonids were compared with field data from three areas of John Day Reservoir (Columbia River). To make bioenergetics model estimates of predation rate, three methods were used to approximate the change in mass of average predators during 30-d growth periods: observed change in mass between the first and the second month, predicted change in mass calculated with seasonal growth rates, and predicted change in mass based on an annual growth model. For all reservoir areas combined, bioenergetics model predictions of predation on salmon were 19% lower than field estimates based on observed masses, 45% lower than estimates based on seasonal growth rates, and 15% lower than estimates based on the annual growth model. For each growth approach, the largest differences in field-versus-model predation occurred at the midreservoir area (-84% to -67% difference). Model predictions of the rate of predation on salmonids were examined for sensitivity to parameter variation, swimming speed, sampling bias caused by gear selectivity, and asymmetric size distributions of predators. The specific daily growth rate of northern pikeminnow predicted by the model was highest in July and October and decreased during August. The bioenergetics model for northern pikeminnow performed well compared with models for other fish species that have been tested with field data. This model should be a useful tool for evaluating management actions such as predator removal, examining the influence of temperature on predation rates, and exploring interactions between predators in the Columbia River basin.

Petersen, J. H.; Ward, D. L.

1999-01-01

16

Healthy Sexuality Development in Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses sexuality as encompassing all areas of children's development. Suggests ways to use contextual situations to discuss body functions, body parts, and reproduction to foster healthy understandings of sexuality as children develop. Includes descriptions of best practices in early childhood education matched with developmental expectations…

Couchenour, Donna; Chrisman, Kent

1996-01-01

17

Childhood Sexual Abuse and Female Spiritual Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spiritual development in religiously involved lay women was studied. Differences were found between those who had or had not experienced sexual abuse in childhood, suggesting that the sexually abused may turn to their faith and spirituality for support. Additional findings and implications for spiritual development and counseling are discussed.…

Reinert, Duane F.; Smith, Caroline E.

1997-01-01

18

Growth and development of Argulus coregoni (Crustacea: Branchiura) on salmonid and cyprinid hosts.  

PubMed

The obligate fish ectoparasite Argulus coregoni is strictly specific to salmonids and is very rarely found on other fish species. The ability of the parasite to grow and complete its life cycle on a cyprinid host, Rutilus rutilus, was compared with that on a typical salmonid host, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Rearing experiments were run for 42 d with newly hatched metanauplii in flow-through tanks. Body length and sex of the parasites were recorded every 5 d. Growth rates on O. mykiss exceeded those on R. rutilus from the age of 2 wk, at which time the parasites reached a length of about 3.5 mm. Males grew faster than females at the beginning of the experiment up to a length of 2.5 to 3.0 mm; thereafter, a faster growth rate was observed in females. In another experiment, association of parasites with the hosts was monitored and residence time defined as the period between attachment and first detachment from the host. Longer residence time was observed on O. mykiss than on R. rutilus; female parasites stayed on both fish species longer than did males. Faster growth of parasites could be associated with longer uninterrupted periods of attachment to hosts, since frequent detachment means higher energy losses and less time available for feeding. Despite its slower growth on R. rutilus, A. coregoni matured and laid egg clutches, but took 5 d longer than on O. mykiss. The potential of A. coregoni to complete its life cycle on cyprinids could have important ecological consequences, creating an infection reservoir when the main salmonid hosts are rare or temporarily missing. PMID:15109143

Pasternak, A; Mikheev, V; Valtonen, E T

2004-03-10

19

Recent Legal Developments in Sexual Harassment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Changes in sexual harassment theory, including those in the Supreme Court decision of Meritor Savings Bank v. Vinson, are discussed. The use of the equal protection clause, Title IX, and tort law are described. Policies and complaint procedures that colleges should develop to encourage the reporting of sexual harassment are outlined. (Author/MLW)

Cole, Elsa Kircher

1986-01-01

20

Assessing Juvenile Salmonid Passage Through Culverts: Field Research in Support of Protocol Development  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of our research this spring/ summer was to refine techniques and examine scenarios under which a standardized protocol could be applied to assess juvenile coho salmon (O. kisutch) passage through road culverts. Field evaluations focused on capture-mark- recapture methods that allowed analysis of fish movement patterns, estimates of culvert passability, and potential identification of cues inducing these movements. At this stage, 0+ age coho salmon fry 30 mm to 65 mm long (fork length) were the species and age class of interest. Ultimately, the protocol will provide rapid, statistically rigorous methods for trained personnel to perform standardized biological assessments of culvert passability to a number of juvenile salmon species. Questions to be addressed by the research include the following: ? Do hydraulic structures such as culverts restrict habitat for juvenile salmonids? ? How do existing culverts and retrofits perform relative to juvenile salmonid passage? ? Do some culvert characteristics and hydraulic conditions provide better passage than others? ? Does the culvert represent a barrier to certain size classes of fish? Recommendations addressed issues of study site selection, initial capture, marking, recapture/observations, and estimating movement.

Williams, Greg D.; Evans, Nathan R.; Pearson, Walter H.; Southard, John A.

2001-10-30

21

Celibacy and male psycho-sexual development.  

PubMed

Counselors and psychologists would benefit from a nuanced appreciation of Catholic sexual morality when working with human development issues among those who adhere to Church teaching. This focus is especially so among those preparing for a life of stable celibate chastity. Appreciation of the differences between boys and men and girls and women in the processes of psycho-sexual maturation is important. This article addresses these issues with a focus on celibacy and male psycho-sexual development in young men of Catholic commitment. PMID:22452150

McGavin, Paul Anthony

2011-01-01

22

Peroxisomes and sexual development in fungi  

PubMed Central

Peroxisomes are versatile and dynamic organelles that are essential for the development of most eukaryotic organisms. In fungi, many developmental processes, such as sexual development, require the activity of peroxisomes. Sexual reproduction in fungi involves the formation of meiotic-derived sexual spores, often takes place inside multicellular fruiting bodies and requires precise coordination between the differentiation of multiple cell types and the progression of karyogamy and meiosis. Different peroxisomal functions contribute to the orchestration of this complex developmental process. Peroxisomes are required to sustain the formation of fruiting bodies and the maturation and germination of sexual spores. They facilitate the mobilization of reserve compounds via fatty acid ?-oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle, allowing the generation of energy and biosynthetic precursors. Additionally, peroxisomes are implicated in the progression of meiotic development. During meiotic development in Podospora anserina, there is a precise modulation of peroxisome assembly and dynamics. This modulation includes changes in peroxisome size, number and localization, and involves a differential activity of the protein-machinery that drives the import of proteins into peroxisomes. Furthermore, karyogamy, entry into meiosis and sorting of meiotic-derived nuclei into sexual spores all require the activity of peroxisomes. These processes rely on different peroxisomal functions and likely depend on different pathways for peroxisome assembly. Indeed, emerging studies support the existence of distinct import channels for peroxisomal proteins that contribute to different developmental stages. PMID:24046747

Peraza-Reyes, Leonardo; Berteaux-Lecellier, Veronique

2013-01-01

23

Effects of phytoestrogen on sexual development  

PubMed Central

Phytoestrogen is an estrogenic compound that occurs naturally in plants. The most common sources of phytoestrogen are soybean products, which contain high levels of isoflavones. This compound, which has structural similarity with estrogen, can act as an estrogen receptor agonist or antagonist. Animal studies provide evidence of the significant effects of phytoestrogen on sexual development, including altered pubertal timing, impaired estrous cycling and ovarian function, and altered hypothalamus and pituitary functions. Although human studies examining the effects of phytoestrogen on sexual development are extremely limited, the results of some studies agree with those of the animal studies. In this paper, we review the possible mechanism of phytoestrogen action and the evidence showing the effects of phytoestrogen on sexual development in animal and human studies. PMID:22977438

Kim, Shin Hye

2012-01-01

24

Water quality in Salmonid culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the relationship between salmonid aquaculture, both in fresh and saltwater, and water quality, focusing on the effects of bad water quality at the lethal and sublethal level, water quality assessment using physicochemical parameters, and new developments for water quality estimations: from mathematical indices and models for the interpretation and\\/or prediction of analytical results, to the assessment of

Jose V. Tarazona; Maria J. Muñoz

1995-01-01

25

[Male infertility in delay of sexual development].  

PubMed

The examination of 260 infertile males revealed that delay of sexual development (DSD) predisposes to male infertility. DSD is often characterized by autoimmune reactions pointing to DSD as one of the causes of autoimmune infertility. Spermatozoa in DSD have low viability. Hormonal changes in DSD in adult males did not significantly change from the group with normal sexual development. LH/testosterone and testosteron/estradiol differed significantly in DSD and hypogonadism. Calculation of these proportions may serve differential criteria of DSD and secondary hypogonadism. PMID:17915450

Kirpatovski?, I D; Kir'ianov, A V

2007-01-01

26

Developing a Predation Index and Evaluating Ways to Reduce Salmonid Losses to Predation in the Columbia River Basin, Final Report August 1988-September 1990.  

SciTech Connect

We report our results of studies to develop a predation index and evaluate ways to reduce juvenile salmonid losses to predation in the Columbia River Basin. Study objectives of each were: develop an index to estimate predation losses of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp) in reservoirs throughout the Columbia River Basin, describe the relationships among predator-caused mortality of juvenile salmonids and physical and biological variables, examine the feasibility of developing bounty, commercial or recreational fisheries on northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) and develop a plan to evaluate the efficacy of predator control fisheries; determine the economic feasibility of developing bounty and commercial fisheries for northern squawfish, assist ODFW with evaluating the economic feasibility of recreational fisheries for northern squawfish and assess the economic feasibility of utilizing northern squawfish, carp (Cyprinus carpio) and suckers (Castostomus spp) in multispecies fisheries; evaluate commercial technology of various fishing methods for harvesting northern squawfish in Columbia River reservoirs and field test the effectiveness of selected harvesting systems, holding facilities and transportation systems; and modify the existing Columbia River Ecosystem Model (CREM) to include processes necessary to evaluate effects of removing northern squawfish on their population size structure and abundance, document the ecological processes, mathematical equations and computer (FORTRAN) programming of the revised version of CREM and conduct systematic analyses of various predator removal scenarios, using revised CREM to generate the simulations. Individual reports are indexed separately.

Nigro, Anthony A.

1990-12-01

27

MICROBIOLOGY: Timing the Sexual Development of Parasites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Mair et al. report the mechanism underlying the regulation of gene expression during the sexual cycle of this parasite. Like other eukaryotes, the malaria parasite stores maternal RNA in the female gamete for later use in directing early development. An RNA helicase is a key regulator of this process.

Stephen L. Hajduk (Josephine Bay Paul Center;)

2006-08-04

28

Developing Sexual Competence? Exploring Strategies for the Provision of Effective Sexualities and Relationships Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School-based sexualities and relationships education (SRE) offers one of the most promising means of improving young people's sexual health through developing "sexual competence". In the absence of evidence on whether the term holds the same meanings for young people and adults (e.g. teachers, researchers, policy-makers), the paper explores…

Hirst, Julia

2008-01-01

29

Identity Development Among Sexual-Minority Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Sexual identity is the name and meaning individuals assign to themselves based on the most salient sexual aspects of their life – such as\\u000a sexual attractions, fantasies, desires, and behaviors. Sexual identities usually fall within existing social categories, such\\u000a as straight, bisexual, or lesbian\\/gay, and are historically and culturally specific. Youth in today’s cohort have expanded\\u000a the list of sexual

Ritch C. Savin-Williams

30

The Internet, Sex, and Youths: Implications for Sexual Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes the research to date on youths' online sexual activities pertaining to socialization, education, and entertainment. It presents how these activities relate to the overall sexuality and mental health of adolescents and young adults, while situating the findings within a perspective of psychosocial and sexual development. It also provides information relevant to the prevention and treatment of problematic

SYLVAIN C. BOIES; GAIL KNUDSON; JULIAN YOUNG

2004-01-01

31

Development and Application of a Salmonid EST Database and cDNA Microarray: Data Mining and Interspecific Hybridization Characteristics  

PubMed Central

We report 80,388 ESTs from 23 Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) cDNA libraries (61,819 ESTs), 6 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) cDNA libraries (14,544 ESTs), 2 chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) cDNA libraries (1317 ESTs), 2 sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) cDNA libraries (1243 ESTs), and 2 lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) cDNA libraries (1465 ESTs). The majority of these are 3? sequences, allowing discrimination between paralogs arising from a recent genome duplication in the salmonid lineage. Sequence assembly reveals 28,710 different S. salar, 8981 O. mykiss, 1085 O. tshawytscha, 520 O. nerka, and 1176 C. clupeaformis putative transcripts. We annotate the submitted portion of our EST database by molecular function. Higher- and lower-molecular-weight fractions of libraries are shown to contain distinct gene sets, and higher rates of gene discovery are associated with higher-molecular weight libraries. Pyloric caecum library group annotations indicate this organ may function in redox control and as a barrier against systemic uptake of xenobiotics. A microarray is described, containing 7356 salmonid elements representing 3557 different cDNAs. Analyses of cross-species hybridizations to this cDNA microarray indicate that this resource may be used for studies involving all salmonids. PMID:14962987

Rise, Matthew L.; von Schalburg, Kristian R.; Brown, Gordon D.; Mawer, Melanie A.; Devlin, Robert H.; Kuipers, Nathanael; Busby, Maura; Beetz-Sargent, Marianne; Alberto, Roberto; Gibbs, A. Ross; Hunt, Peter; Shukin, Robert; Zeznik, Jeffrey A.; Nelson, Colleen; Jones, Simon R.M.; Smailus, Duane E.; Jones, Steven J.M.; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Marra, Marco A.; Butterfield, Yaron S.N.; Stott, Jeff M.; Ng, Siemon H.S.; Davidson, William S.; Koop, Ben F.

2004-01-01

32

Transcriptional evolution underlying vertebrate sexual development.  

PubMed

Explaining the diversity of vertebrate sex-determining mechanisms ranging from genotypic (GSD) to temperature-dependent (TSD) remains a developmental and evolutionary conundrum. Using a phylogenetic framework, we explore the transcriptional evolution during gonadogenesis of several genes involved in sexual development, combining novel data from Chrysemys picta turtles (TSD) and published data from other TSD and GSD vertebrates. Our novel C. picta dataset underscores Sf1 and Wt1 as potential activators of the thermosensitive period and uncovered the first evidence of Dax1 involvement in male development in a TSD vertebrate. Contrasting transcriptional profiles revealed male-biased Wt1 expression in fish while monomorphic expression is found in tetrapods but absent in turtles. Sf1 expression appears highly labile with transitions among testicular, ovarian, and non-sex-specific gonadal formation patterns among and within lineages. Dax1's dual role in ovarian and testicular formation is found in fish and mammals but is dosage-sensitive exclusively in eutherian mammals due to its X-linkage in this group. Contrastingly, Sox9 male-biased and Aromatase female-biased expression appear ancestral and virtually conserved throughout vertebrates despite significant heterochronic changes in expression as other elements likely replaced their function in early gonadogenesis. Finally, research avenues are highlighted to further study the evolution of the regulatory network of sexual development. PMID:23108853

Valenzuela, Nicole; Neuwald, Jennifer L; Literman, Robert

2013-04-01

33

Water temperatures within spawning beds in two chalk streams and implications for salmonid egg development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water temperatures within brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) spawning gravels were measured in two Hampshire chalk streams from October 1995 to April 1996 inclusive. During the winter, mean intra-gravel water temperatures were higher than those in the stream, and increased with depth in the gravel bed. The amplitude of diel fluctuations in water temperature decreased with depth in the gravel bed, although diel fluctuations were still evident at a depth of 30 cm. Differences in intra-gravel temperature gradients between the two study sites were attributed to differences in the amplitude of stream water temperature fluctuations and there was no evidence that either of the study sites were located in zones of upwelling groundwater. Published equations are used to predict, from temperature, the timing of important stages in the development of brown trout embryos (eyeing, hatching and emergence) for eggs spawned in the autumn and winter and buried at different depths in the gravel bed.

Acornley, R. M.

1999-02-01

34

Development and Validation of the Sexual Agreement Investment Scale  

PubMed Central

Introduction Sexual agreements are ubiquitous among gay men. Lower levels of investment in these agreements may be associated with breaking them or engaging in risky sexual behavior. We developed a scale to measure agreement investment levels among gay men. Methods We analyzed qualitative data from 78 gay men in committed relationships to inform item development, followed by quantitative analyses of two larger samples (n=380; n=1001) to assess construct, convergent, and discriminant validity. Results The Sexual Agreement Investment Scale (SAIS) is a psychometrically sound measure of level of the investment in sexual agreements among gay men in relationships. Men with higher agreement investment were less likely to break agreements and to engage in unprotected intercourse with outside partners. Discussion The SAIS can be used to measure investment in sexual agreements and its impact on sexual behavior in a wide variety of settings, including research on relationships, sexuality, couples therapy, and HIV-prevention. PMID:19396645

Neilands, Torsten B.; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Darbes, Lynae A.; Beougher, Sean C.; Hoff, Colleen C.

2009-01-01

35

From Best to Pest: changing perspectives on the impact of exotic salmonids in the southern hemisphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exotic salmonids were deliberately introduced to the southern hemisphere during the last part of the 20th century, initially to boost sport fishing and later to develop an aquaculture industry. Early introductions were justified by governments on purely utilitarian arguments as it was felt that translocated salmonids would capitalize on otherwise ‘underutilized’ aquatic niches. A century later, exotic salmonids are established

C. GARCIA DE LEANIZ; G. GAJARDO; S. CONSUEGRA

2010-01-01

36

The experimental rearing of large salmonid eggs in Petri dishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Studies on the genetics or the ecology of fish eggs are typically based on inferential statistics, which require the separate rearing of many batches. 2. Salmonid eggs are believed to require a constant water flow to develop safely. Therefore, the technical requirements that have been used to rear individual batches of salmonid eggs significantly limit experimental studies. 3.

C. Wedekind; R. Muller

2004-01-01

37

Motivations for Sexual Intimacy: Development of a Needs-Based Sexual Intimacy Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess motivations associated with sexual intimacy, a need for sexual intimacy scale (NSIS) was developed within a needs-based framework, focusing on needs for sex, affiliation, and dominance. Participants were 347 individuals associated with two large Southern California universities. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA) were utilized, as were multiple attitudinal and behavioral measures for validation purposes.

William D. Marelich; Jessica Lundquist

2008-01-01

38

Development of an Index to Bird Predation of Juvenile Salmonids within the Yakima River, 2001 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Avian predation of fish is suspected to contribute to the loss of out-migrating juvenile salmonids in the Yakima Basin, potentially constraining natural and artificial production. In 1997 and 1998, the Yakima/ Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP)--whose goal is increasing natural production within the Yakima River--initiated investigations to assess the feasibility of developing an index to avian predation of juvenile salmon within the river. This research confirmed that Ring-billed Gulls and Common Mergansers were the primary avian predators of juvenile salmon (Phinney et al. 1998), and that under certain conditions could significantly impact migrating smolt populations. Beginning in 1999, the Washington Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (WACFWRU) was asked by the YKFP to continue development of avian consumption indices. Monitoring methods developed by Phinney et al. (1998) were adopted (with modifications) and monitoring of impacts to juvenile salmon along river reaches and at areas of high predator/prey concentrations (colloquially referred to as ''hotspots'') has continued each year through 2001. In 2001, piscivorous birds were counted from river banks at hotspots and from a raft or drift boat along river reaches. Consumption by gulls at hotspots was based on direct observations of foraging success and modeled abundance; consumption by all other piscivorous birds was estimated using published dietary requirements and modeled abundance. Seasonal patterns of avian piscivore abundance were identified, diurnal patterns of gull abundance at hotspots were identified, and predation indices were calculated for hotspots and river reaches (for both spring and summer). Changes in survey methods in 2001 included the addition of surveys in the ''Canyon'' reach during spring and altering the method of directly measuring gull feeding rates at hotspots. Primary avian predators in 2001 were ''gulls'' (California and Ring-billed) at hotspots and Common Mergansers within upper river reaches. Consumption on the lower reaches was distributed among a number of species, with slightly more then half of all fish consumption being attributed to American White Pelicans. Estimated consumption by gulls at both hotspots combined (8 Apr-30 Jun) was 169,883 fish. Assuming a worst case scenario (all fish taken were smolts) this represented approximately 4.9% of all smolts estimated passing or being released from the Prosser Dam area during the 2001 smolt migration season. Total gull abundances and estimates of consumption between the two hotspot sites were opposite that seen in 2000. Foraging gulls at Horn Rapids Dam were regressed against flow for the 3 years and found to be significant (alpha = 0.1, P=0.081, r{sup 2} = .2589). A similar 3-year regression vs fish passage through the Chandler Juvenile Fish Facility, however, did not show a significant relationship (alpha = 0.1, P = 0.396, r{sup 2} = .3708). Total estimated take by Common Mergansers across all strata surveyed was 14,777 kg between 8 Apr and 31 Aug, 2001. Approximately 66 percent of that consumption was within the upper river reaches (Stratum 1) where there is a known breeding population of mergansers. Graphical comparisons of merganser abundances over the three years (1999-2001) in the upper reaches of the Yakima River suggest an increase in 2001 from the previous 2 years in both the spring and summer survey periods, but overlapping confidence intervals prevent assumptions regarding upward or downward trends in abundance.

Major, III, Walter; Grue, Christian E.; Ryding, Kristen E. (University of Washington, School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, Seattle, WA)

2002-08-01

39

An ethnographic analysis of adolescent sexual minority website usage: Exploring notions of information seeking and sexual identity development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation explores the website usage of adolescent sexual minorities, examining notions of information seeking and sexual identity development. Sexual information seeking is an important element within human information behavior and is uniquely problematic for young sexual minorities. Utilizing a contemporary gay teen website, this five-year virtual ethnography of GLBT (Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender) youth demonstrates an understanding of the

Rocky M Sulfridge

2012-01-01

40

An ethnographic analysis of adolescent sexual minority website usage: exploring notions of information seeking and sexual identity development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation explores the website usage of adolescent sexual minorities, examining notions of information seeking and sexual identity development. Sexual information seeking is an important element within human information behavior and is uniquely problematic for young sexual minorities. Utilizing a contemporary gay teen website, this five-year virtual ethnography of GLBT (Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender) youth demonstrates an understanding of the

Rocky M. Sulfridge

2012-01-01

41

Alcohol and Sexual Consent Scale: Development and Validation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To establish a short measure of attitudes toward sexual consent in the context of alcohol consumption. Methods: Using a multistage and systematic measurement development process, the investigators developed the Alcohol and Sexual Consent Scale using a sample of college students. Results: The resulting 12-item scale, the Alcohol and…

Ward, Rose Marie; Matthews, Molly R.; Weiner, Judith; Hogan, Kathryn M.; Popson, Halle C.

2012-01-01

42

The Development of the Sexual Self-Concept Inventory for Early Adolescent Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Sexual Self-Concept Inventory (SSCI) was developed to assess sexual self-concept in an ethnically diverse sample of urban early adolescent girls. Three scales (Sexual Arousability, Sexual Agency, and Negative Sexual Affect) were shown to be distinct and reliable dimensions of girls' sexual self-concepts. Validity was established through…

O'Sullivan, Lucia F.; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F. L.; McKeague, Ian W.

2006-01-01

43

THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SEXUAL SELF-CONCEPT INVENTORY FOR EARLY ADOLESCENT GIRLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sexual Self-Concept Inventory (SSCI) was developed to assess sexual self-concept in an ethnically diverse sample of urban early adolescent girls. Three scales (Sexual Arousability, Sexual Agency, and Negative Sexual Affect) were shown to be distinct and reliable dimensions of girls' sexual self-concepts. Validity was established through comparisons with established instruments. Sexual Arousability and Sexual Agency were associated with positive

Lucia F. O'Sullivan; Heino F. L. Meyer-Bahlburg; Ian W. McKeague

2006-01-01

44

Reproductive strategy, sexual development and attraction to facial characteristics.  

PubMed

Sexual reproduction strategies vary both between and within species in the level of investment in offspring. Life-history theories suggest that the rate of sexual maturation is critically linked to reproductive strategy, with high investment being associated with few offspring and delayed maturation. For humans, age of puberty and age of first sex are two developmental milestones that have been associated with reproductive strategies. Stress during early development can retard or accelerate sexual maturation and reproduction. Early age of menarche is associated with absence of younger siblings, absence of a father figure during early life and increased weight. Father absence during early life is also associated with early marriage, pregnancy and divorce. Choice of partner characteristics is critical to successful implementation of sexual strategies. It has been suggested that sexually dimorphic traits (including those evident in the face) signal high-quality immune function and reproductive status. Masculinity in males has also been associated with low investment in mate and offspring. Thus, women's reproductive strategy should be matched to the probability of male investment, hence to male masculinity. Our review leads us to predict associations between the rate of sexual maturation and adult preferences for facial characteristics (enhanced sexual dimorphism and attractiveness). We find for men, engaging in sex at an early age is related to an increased preference for feminized female faces. Similarly, for women, the earlier the age of first sex the greater the preference for masculinity in opposite-sex faces. When we controlled sexual dimorphism in male faces, the speed of sexual development in women was not associated with differences in preference for male facial attractiveness. These developmental influences on partner choice were not mediated by self-rated attractiveness or parental relationships. We conclude that individuals assort in preferences based on the rapidity of their sexual development. Fast developing individuals prefer opposite-sex partners with an increased level of sexually dimorphic facial characteristics. PMID:17118929

Cornwell, R Elisabeth; Law Smith, Miriam J; Boothroyd, Lynda G; Moore, Fhionna R; Davis, Hasker P; Stirrat, Michael; Tiddeman, Bernard; Perrett, David I

2006-12-29

45

Reproductive strategy, sexual development and attraction to facial characteristics  

PubMed Central

Sexual reproduction strategies vary both between and within species in the level of investment in offspring. Life-history theories suggest that the rate of sexual maturation is critically linked to reproductive strategy, with high investment being associated with few offspring and delayed maturation. For humans, age of puberty and age of first sex are two developmental milestones that have been associated with reproductive strategies. Stress during early development can retard or accelerate sexual maturation and reproduction. Early age of menarche is associated with absence of younger siblings, absence of a father figure during early life and increased weight. Father absence during early life is also associated with early marriage, pregnancy and divorce. Choice of partner characteristics is critical to successful implementation of sexual strategies. It has been suggested that sexually dimorphic traits (including those evident in the face) signal high-quality immune function and reproductive status. Masculinity in males has also been associated with low investment in mate and offspring. Thus, women's reproductive strategy should be matched to the probability of male investment, hence to male masculinity. Our review leads us to predict associations between the rate of sexual maturation and adult preferences for facial characteristics (enhanced sexual dimorphism and attractiveness). We find for men, engaging in sex at an early age is related to an increased preference for feminized female faces. Similarly, for women, the earlier the age of first sex the greater the preference for masculinity in opposite-sex faces. When we controlled sexual dimorphism in male faces, the speed of sexual development in women was not associated with differences in preference for male facial attractiveness. These developmental influences on partner choice were not mediated by self-rated attractiveness or parental relationships. We conclude that individuals assort in preferences based on the rapidity of their sexual development. Fast developing individuals prefer opposite-sex partners with an increased level of sexually dimorphic facial characteristics. PMID:17118929

Cornwell, R. Elisabeth; Law Smith, Miriam J; Boothroyd, Lynda G; Moore, Fhionna R; Davis, Hasker P; Stirrat, Michael; Tiddeman, Bernard; Perrett, David I

2006-01-01

46

Popular Weed Killer Disrupts Frogs' Sexual Development  

NSF Publications Database

... The herbicide also lowers levels of the male hormone testosterone in sexually mature male frogs by a ... atrazine has significant endocrinological effects on frogs at very low doses." As Hayes discovered ...

47

Development and validation of the response to sexual difficulties scale.  

PubMed

Leading models of sexual dysfunction, such as those proposed by Masters and Johnson (1970), Barlow (1986), and Janssen, Everaerd, Spiering, and Janssen (2000), emphasize the role of anxiety and self-monitoring in the development and persistence of sexual difficulties. These models have considerable explanatory power, but focus on the intrapersonal factors that yield anxiety and self-monitoring. Accounting for the interpersonal context in which sexual activity occurs is also likely to be important. For example, anxiety and self-monitoring may arise from negative, yet accurate, predictions about how one's partner will respond to one's own sexual functioning difficulties. The current studies describe the development and validation of the Response to Sexual Difficulties Scale (RSDS), which was designed to assess how one expects one's partner to respond to one's own sexual difficulties (RSDS-Own Difficulties) and how one expects oneself to respond to one's partner's sexual difficulties (RSDS-Partner Difficulties). Study 1 established the initial reliability and construct validity of the RSDS-Own Difficulties in a sample of adults in committed relationships (N = 59). Study 2 further examined the construct and discriminant validity of the RSDS Own Difficulties and Partner Difficulties in a sample of heterosexual couples (N = 87). Results indicated that both measures had strong internal consistency and were not redundant with measures of mood or personality. Scores on the RSDS-Own Difficulties and Partner Difficulties were strongly associated, indicating that reports of one's own response to one's partner's difficulty matched the partner's assessment of the reaction. RSDS scores predicted sexual functioning, relationship satisfaction, sexual satisfaction, and sexual communication. The RSDS may, then, provide a useful means of assessing the role of interpersonal factors in the development and persistence of sexual difficulties. PMID:22782144

Fallis, Erin E; Purdon, Christine; Rehman, Uzma S

2013-01-01

48

Sexual dimorphism of the developing human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.1. Sexual dimorphism of human brain anatomy has not been well-studied between 4 and 18 years of age, a time of emerging sex differences in behavior and the sexually specific hormonal changes of adrenarche (the predominantly androgenic augmentation of adrenal cortex function occurring at approximately age 8) and puberty.2.2. To assess sex differences in brain structures during this developmental period

Jay N. Giedd; F. Xavier Castellanos; Jagath C. Rajapakse; A. Catherine Vaituzis; Judith L. Rapoport

1997-01-01

49

[Development of sexuality and motivational aspects of sexual behavior in men with obsessive-compulsive disorders].  

PubMed

Sexual behavior and formation of sexuality in men with obsessive-compulsive disorder is one of the pressing issues in contemporary medicine. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by the development of intrusive thoughts, memories, movements and actions, as well as a variety of pathological fears (phobias). Increase in the number of patients with this pathology in modern clinical practice of neurotic disorders, the young age of the patients and as a result violation of interpersonal, communicational and sexual nature is quite apparent. The study involved 35 men aged 23 to 47 years with clinical signs of OCD. We determined the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms using the Yale-Brown scale. We established the presence of a mild degree of disorder in 34,3% of cases; in 48,6% of cases disorder of moderate severity was diagnosed; remaining 17.1% were assessed subclinical condition of OCD at the applicable scale. The system of motivational maintenance of sexual behavior in men with obsessive-compulsive disorders is investigated. Motives of sexual behavior of the investigated men with the pathology are determined. The presented research in men with OCD have established multidimensionality and complexity of motivational ensuring of sexual behavior. PMID:25341245

Gerasimenko, L

2014-09-01

50

Sexual Deception as a Social-Exchange Process: Development of a Behavior-Based Sexual Deception Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of deception in association with sexual encounters may take many forms, ranging from outright lies to more subtle, evasive manipulations. To address such deceptions, a behavior-based sexual deception scale was developed utilizing social exchange theory. Participants were 267 individuals associated with two large universities who were surveyed regarding different aspects of their sexual deceptive behaviors. In addition, items

William D. Marelich; Jessica Lundquist; Kimberly Painter; Mindy B. Mechanic

2008-01-01

51

Biotechnology: surrogate broodstock produces salmonids.  

PubMed

A worldwide decline in the number of wild salmonids calls for strategies to restore endangered populations. Here we show that germ cells can be transplanted between two different salmonid species, with the subsequent production of xenogenic, donor-derived offspring. This pioneering xenotransplantation technology may eventually find applications in facilitating the production of commercially valuable fish, as well as in species conservation. PMID:15295587

Takeuchi, Yutaka; Yoshizaki, Goro; Takeuchi, Toshio

2004-08-01

52

Adolescent sexually transmitted diseases: Recent developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescents and young adults continue to have the highest rates of sexually transmitted diseases. New chlamydia and gonorrhea\\u000a diagnostic tests are being used in innovative ways to increase the number of infections that are detected. Nevertheless, challenges\\u000a such as gonorrhea resistance and partner notification and treatment continue to hinder efforts to reduce the prevalence of\\u000a these two bacterial infections. Although

Diane R. Blake

2004-01-01

53

Development and application of a real-time quantitative PCR assay for determining CYP1A transcripts in three genera of salmonids.  

PubMed

The expression of CYP1A (cytochrome P4501A) can be induced by a large array of aromatic and organic compounds in teleost fishes. We developed a real-time quantitative PCR assay useful for measuring beta-naphthoflavone (BNF) induction of liver CYP1A mRNA in four salmonid species. First, to obtain necessary information for the design of a cRNA standard, full-length CYP1A cDNA sequences were determined for two Salvelinus species, lake trout (S. namaycush) and brook trout (S. fontinalis). Each cDNA was found to share the same characteristics with known CYP1A sequences of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): a start codon, conserved heme-binding region, putative poly-adenylation signal, stop codon, relatively long 3'-untranslated region (UTR; >1 kb), and a protein length of 523 amino acid residues. The brook trout and lake trout CYP1A cDNA's were 2636 and 2672 base pairs (bp) in length and shared greater than 97% coding region sequence identity with Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout CYP1A's. Next, using the generated sequence information, we developed a CYP1A-specific real-time quantitative PCR assay. Primers and a fluorescent-labeled probe were designed from a 68 bp region that was found to be conserved among salmonid CYP1A genes. The assay was designed to allow for simultaneous comparison of CYP1A expression among each experimental group. Finally, groups (n = 4-8) of hatchery-raised Atlantic salmon, brook trout, lake trout, and rainbow trout were given an intraperitoneal injection of a corn oil control, 25 mg kg(-1) BNF, or 50 mg kg(-1) BNF and sacrificed after 48 h. Liver tissue was collected and CYP1A mRNA levels were estimated. In all species, BNF treated fish showed 1.8-3.0 orders of magnitude higher CYP1A than control fish. The CYP1A induction levels were not different in fish treated with both dosages. Mean base levels of CYP1A expression ranged from 7.24 x 10(6) (rainbow trout) to 1.05 x 10(7) (brook trout) transcripts microg(-1) total RNA. Mean induced levels of CYP1A expression ranged from 1.07 x 10(8) (lake trout) to 1.05 x 10(9) (brook trout) trancripts microg(-1) total RNA. PMID:15168944

Rees, Christopher B; Li, Weiming

2004-03-10

54

A Putative Rhamnogalacturonase Required for Sexual Development of Neurospora Crassa  

PubMed Central

In previous work, the asd-1 (ascus development) gene of the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa was identified as a gene expressed preferentially during the sexual cycle and shown to be essential for normal sexual development. The asd-1 gene has been sequenced and further characterized. It contains two introns, the first of which is in-frame and inefficiently or differentially spliced. The predicted ASD-1 protein has extensive homology with rhamnogalacturonase B of Aspergillus aculeatus, which cleaves the backbone within the ramified hairy regions of pectin. In homozygous asd-1 crosses, sexual development is initiated and large numbers of normal-sized asci are formed. Ascospore delineation does not occur, however, and no sexual progeny are produced. As most asd-1 asci contain eight nuclei, the two meiotic divisions and subsequent mitotic division typical of normal crosses seem to occur, but the haploid nuclei are not partitioned into ascospores. In wild-type crosses, the ASD-1 protein is present in large amounts in croziers and young asci, but it is only faintly detectable in more mature asci containing developing ascospores. Models to explain the possible role of a rhamnogalacturonase in sexual development are presented. PMID:9178004

Nelson, M. A.; Merino, S. T.; Metzenberg, R. L.

1997-01-01

55

Sexually transmitted diseases control in developing countries.  

PubMed Central

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a major public health problem now compounded by the advent of AIDS and HIV infection. The size of the problem represented by STDs and HIV is unknown however it is estimated that there are 333 million new cases of STD per annum and currently 15-20 million people infected worldwide with HIV. Control programmes for STDs must prevent the acquisition of STDs, their complications and sequelae and interrupt and reduce transmission. They can also reduce the incidence of HIV infection. Such programmes must place emphasis on health education, condom usage, altering health seeking behaviour and providing case management. The syndromic approach currently offers the most realistic, and cost effective, way in which to treat patients. Images PMID:8698372

Adler, M W

1996-01-01

56

Developing Respondent-Based MultiMedia Measures of Exposure to Sexual Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite interest in media effects on sexual behavior, there is no single method for assessing exposure to sexual content in media. This paper discusses the development of sexual content exposure measures based on adolescent respondents' sexual content ratings of titles in television, music, magazines, and video games. We assessed the construct and criterion validity of these exposure measures by examining

Amy Bleakley; Martin Fishbein; Michal Hennessy; Amy Jordan; Ariel Chernin; Robin Stevens

2008-01-01

57

Mostly Straight Young Women: Variations in Sexual Behavior and Identity Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have begun to explore and identify various gradations in sexual orientation identity, paying attention to alternative sexual identity categories and attempting to clarify potential subtypes of same-sex sexuality, particularly among women. This study utilizes both quantitative and qualitative data to explore the behavioral experiences and identity development processes among women of a particular sexual identity subtype, \\

Elisabeth Morgan Thompson; Elizabeth M. Morgan

2008-01-01

58

Sexual reproduction, development and larval biology in scleractinian corals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper brings together widely scattered information on sexual reproduction in scleractinian corals. It includes a review of information and ideas on sex determination, gametogenesis, gametogenic cycles, fertilization and embryonic development, spawning and planula release, larval behavior, settlement and metamorphosis. The review deals with corals from different habitats and organismic assemblages, including tropical reef corals, temperate water corals, solitary and

Yusef H. Fadlallah

1983-01-01

59

Does Positive Youth Development Predict Adolescent Attitudes about Sexuality?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among individual factors, parental factors, involvement in activities, and adolescent attitudes regarding sex (the outcome variable). We suggest that Positive Youth Development (PYD) research and programming should include promoting healthy sexuality as an important developmental outcome…

Chapman, Erin N.; Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay

2008-01-01

60

Preliminary Estimates of Loss of Juvenile Anadromous Salmonids to Predators in John Day Reservoir and Development of a Predation Model : Interim Report, 1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

We made preliminary estimates of the loss of juvenile salmonids to predation by walleye, Stizostedion v. vitreum, and northern squawfish, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, in John Day Reservoir in 1984 and 1985 using estimates of predator abundance and daily prey consumption rates. Preliminary estimates may be biased and may be adjusted as much as 30%, but indications are that predation could account

Rieman; Bruce E

1986-01-01

61

Housing sexuality: domestic space and the development of female sexuality in the fiction of Angela Carter and Jeanette Winterson  

E-print Network

of psychoanalytic theories of female sexuality (most notably the theories of Sigmund Freud) that are grounded in the idea that normal femininity is characterized by passivity and that penis envy plays a central role in the development of female sexuality. Freud... context limits his understanding of female sexuality: Sade, the eighteenth-century lecher, knew that manipulation of the clitoris was the unique key to the female orgasm, but a hundred years later, Sigmund Freud, a Viennese intellectual, did not wish...

Cantrell, Samantha E.

2005-08-29

62

Physiological levels of testosterone kill salmonid leukocytes in vitro  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Adult spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) elaborate high plasma concentrations of testosterone during sexual maturation, and these levels of testosterone have been shown to reduce the salmonid immune response in vitro. Our search for the mechanism of testosterone's immunosuppressive action has led to the characterization of an androgen receptor in salmonid leukocytes. In the present study we examined the specific effects that testosterone had on salmonid leukocytes. Direct counts of viable leukocytes after incubation with and without physiological levels of testosterone demonstrate a significant loss of leukocytes in cultures exposed to testosterone. At least 5 days of contact with testosterone was required to produce significant immunosuppression and addition of a 'conditioned media' (supernatant from proliferating lymphocytes not exposed to testosterone) did not reverse the immunosuppressive effects of testosterone. These data lead us to conclude that testosterone may exert its immunosuppressive effects by direct action on salmonid leukocytes, through the androgen receptor described, and that this action leads to the death of a significant number of these leukocytes.

Slater, C.H.; Schreck, C.B.

1997-01-01

63

Association between nonylphenol exposure and development of secondary sexual characteristics.  

PubMed

Previous studies have reported that p-nonylphenol (NP) can advance the age at vaginal opening in prepubertal rats. A significant exposure levels of NP was found in Taiwanese population even from the prenatal stage. The purposes of this study are to examine the urinary NP concentration of pubertal students in Taiwan and to explore its association with the development of secondary sexual characteristics. 786 pubertal students were recruited. The NP was determined using solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescent detection. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data on occurrence of secondary sexual characteristics in the subjects. About 30% of the urine samples were positively detected. The NP concentrations ranged from ND to 178.25 microg g(-1) cr. Fifteen percent of the Taiwanese girls between 10.5 and 10.9 years old reported having undergone menarche, which was higher than the white girls (4.6%) and the black girls (8%). There was no significant difference of urinary NP levels between groups of having and not having secondary sexual characteristics because body mass index (BMI) had significant effects on sexual development. After adjusting the effect of age and BMI, the menarcheal age remained inversely correlated with the increase of urinary NP levels. Nonylphenol exposure could disturb pubertal development and the pubertal girls seem more sensitive than pubertal boys to the exposure of endocrine disruption chemicals (EDCs). The effects of early maturation as well as the health implications need further study. PMID:19476970

Chen, Mei-Lien; Lee, Han-Yun; Chuang, Hsin-Yi; Guo, Bey-Rong; Mao, I-Fang

2009-08-01

64

Development of a Curriculum on Sexual Exploitation and Self-Protection for Handicapped Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assist handicapped persons in preventing sexual exploitation, the Curriculum for Developing an Awareness of Sexual Exploitation and Teaching Self Protection Techniques was developed and pilot tested with 13 special education teachers in Seattle, Washington. (SB)

Ryerson, Ellen; Sundem, Jennifer McGilvray

1981-01-01

65

Disorders of sexual development in the domestic horse, Equus caballus.  

PubMed

Abnormalities of sexual development causing infertility in horses have been investigated since the early 1970's. Conventional cytogenetic analysis by karyotyping has been the primary tool used to investigate these horses. Abnormalities have a broad range, from a phenotypically normal mare with gonadal dysgenesis to a horse with ambiguous external genitalia and internal male and female organs. Cytogenetic analysis can determine genetic sex but cannot identify mutations or deletions of genes involved in the sex determination pathway. Molecular technologies have been developed to confirm cytogenetic results and to aid in identifying the genetic causes of abnormal sex determination in horses. In this paper, we review the historical development of methods used to understand abnormal sexual development in the horse as well as summarize cases reported over the last 40-50 years. PMID:22095202

Lear, T L; McGee, R B

2012-01-01

66

Girls' Sexual Development in the Inner City: From Compelled Childhood Sexual Contact to Sex-for-Things Exchanges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) has been linked to a wide variety of adverse psychological and behavioral outcomes. This paper describes girls' sexual development in the inner city based on qualitative material from a long-term ethnographic (observational) study. For many inner-city girls, early and then continued experiences of being compelled to have…

Dunlap, Eloise; Golub, Andrew; Johnson, Bruce D.

2003-01-01

67

Microenterprise development interventions for sexual risk reduction: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Comprehensive interventions that address both individual and structural determinants associated with HIV/STI risk are gaining increasing attention over the past decade. Microenterprise development offers an appealing model for HIV prevention by addressing poverty and gender equality. This study systematically reviewed the effects of microenterprise development interventions on HIV/STI incidence and sexual risk behaviors. Microenterprise development was defined as developing small business capacity among individuals to alleviate poverty. Seven eligible research studies representing five interventions were identified and included in this review. All of the studies targeted women, and three focused on sex workers. None measured biomarker outcomes. All three sex worker studies showed significant reduction in sexual risk behaviors when compared to the control group. Non-sex worker studies showed limited changes in sexual risk behavior. This review indicates the potential utility of microenterprise development in HIV risk reduction programs. More research is needed to determine how microenterprise development can be effectively incorporated in comprehensive HIV control strategies. PMID:23963497

Cui, Rosa R; Lee, Ramon; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Muessig, Kathryn E; Tucker, Joseph D

2013-11-01

68

Microenterprise Development Interventions for Sexual Risk Reduction: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Comprehensive interventions that address both individual and structural determinants associated with HIV/STI risk are gaining increasing attention over the past decade. Microenterprise development offers an appealing model for HIV prevention by addressing poverty and gender equality. This study systematically reviewed the effects of microenterprise development interventions on HIV/STI incidence and sexual risk behaviors. Microenterprise development was defined as developing small business capacity among individuals to alleviate poverty. Seven eligible research studies representing five interventions were identified and included in this review. All of the studies targeted women, and three focused on sex workers. None measured biomarker outcomes. All three sex worker studies showed significant reduction in sexual risk behaviors when compared to the control group. Non-sex worker studies showed limited changes in sexual risk behavior. This review indicates the potential utility of microenterprise development in HIV risk reduction programs. More research is needed to determine how microenterprise development can be effectively incorporated in comprehensive HIV control strategies. PMID:23963497

Lee, Ramon; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Muessig, Kathryn E.; Tucker, Joseph D.

2013-01-01

69

New insights into placozoan sexual reproduction and development.  

PubMed

Unraveling animal life cycles and embryonic development is basic to understanding animal biology and often sheds light on phylogenetic relationships. A key group for understanding the evolution of the Metazoa is the early branching phylum Placozoa, which has attracted rapidly increasing attention. Despite over a hundred years of placozoan research the life cycle of this enigmatic phylum remains unknown. Placozoa are a unique model system for which the nuclear genome was published before the basic biology (i.e. life cycle and development) has been unraveled. Four organismal studies have reported the development of oocytes and one genetic study has nourished the hypothesis of sexual reproduction in natural populations at least in the past. Here we report new observations on sexual reproduction and embryonic development in the Placozoa and support the hypothesis of current sexual reproduction. The regular observation of oocytes and expressed sperm markers provide support that placozoans reproduce sexually in the field. Using whole genome and EST sequences and additional cDNA cloning we identified five conserved sperm markers, characteristic for different stages in spermatogenesis. We also report details on the embryonic development up to a 128-cell stage and new ultrastructural features occurring during early development. These results suggest that sperm and oocyte generation and maturation occur in different placozoans and that clonal lineages reproduce bisexually in addition to the standard mode of vegetative reproduction. The sum of observations is best congruent with the hypothesis of a simple life cycle with an alternation of reproductive modes between bisexual and vegetative reproduction. PMID:21625556

Eitel, Michael; Guidi, Loretta; Hadrys, Heike; Balsamo, Maria; Schierwater, Bernd

2011-01-01

70

New Insights into Placozoan Sexual Reproduction and Development  

PubMed Central

Unraveling animal life cycles and embryonic development is basic to understanding animal biology and often sheds light on phylogenetic relationships. A key group for understanding the evolution of the Metazoa is the early branching phylum Placozoa, which has attracted rapidly increasing attention. Despite over a hundred years of placozoan research the life cycle of this enigmatic phylum remains unknown. Placozoa are a unique model system for which the nuclear genome was published before the basic biology (i.e. life cycle and development) has been unraveled. Four organismal studies have reported the development of oocytes and one genetic study has nourished the hypothesis of sexual reproduction in natural populations at least in the past. Here we report new observations on sexual reproduction and embryonic development in the Placozoa and support the hypothesis of current sexual reproduction. The regular observation of oocytes and expressed sperm markers provide support that placozoans reproduce sexually in the field. Using whole genome and EST sequences and additional cDNA cloning we identified five conserved sperm markers, characteristic for different stages in spermatogenesis. We also report details on the embryonic development up to a 128-cell stage and new ultrastructural features occurring during early development. These results suggest that sperm and oocyte generation and maturation occur in different placozoans and that clonal lineages reproduce bisexually in addition to the standard mode of vegetative reproduction. The sum of observations is best congruent with the hypothesis of a simple life cycle with an alternation of reproductive modes between bisexual and vegetative reproduction. PMID:21625556

Eitel, Michael; Guidi, Loretta; Hadrys, Heike; Balsamo, Maria; Schierwater, Bernd

2011-01-01

71

The importance of smolt development to salmon conservation, culture, and management: perspectives from the 6th International Workshop on Salmonid Smoltification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 6th International Workshop on Salmonid Smoltification was held in Westport, Ireland, during September 3–7, 2001. Perhaps more so than at past workshops, this meeting took a ‘salmon life cycle’ approach to smoltification. Results presented at the workshop illustrated the variation in the smoltification process among species, populations and individuals, suggesting that within-species variation can be of adaptive significance. Workshop

Sigurd O. Stefansson; Philip McGinnity; Björn Thrandur Björnsson; Carl B. Schreck; Stephen D. McCormick

2003-01-01

72

Evolutionary consequences of habitat loss for Pacific anadromous salmonids  

PubMed Central

Large portions of anadromous salmonid habitat in the western United States has been lost because of dams and other blockages. This loss has the potential to affect salmonid evolution through natural selection if the loss is biased, affecting certain types of habitat differentially, and if phenotypic traits correlated with those habitat types are heritable. Habitat loss can also affect salmonid evolution indirectly, by reducing genetic variation and changing its distribution within and among populations. In this paper, we compare the characteristics of lost habitats with currently accessible habitats and review the heritability of traits which show correlations with habitat/environmental gradients. We find that although there is some regional variation, inaccessible habitats tend to be higher in elevation, wetter and both warmer in the summer and colder in the winter than habitats currently available to anadromous salmonids. We present several case studies that demonstrate either a change in phenotypic or life history expression or an apparent reduction in genetic variation associated with habitat blockages. These results suggest that loss of habitat will alter evolutionary trajectories in salmonid populations and Evolutionarily Significant Units. Changes in both selective regime and standing genetic diversity might affect the ability of these taxa to respond to subsequent environmental perturbations. Both natural and anthropogenic and should be considered seriously in developing management and conservation strategies.

McClure, Michelle M; Carlson, Stephanie M; Beechie, Timothy J; Pess, George R; Jorgensen, Jeffrey C; Sogard, Susan M; Sultan, Sonia E; Holzer, Damon M; Travis, Joseph; Sanderson, Beth L; Power, Mary E; Carmichael, Richard W

2008-01-01

73

The masculinized female and investigation of abnormal sexual development.  

PubMed

The congenital adrenal hyperplasias are the commonest cause of ambiguity of the external genitalia at birth, although sexual differentiation in these disorders is strictly normal. The masculinized genetic female is invariably the result of 21-hydroxylase deficiency. The molecular features are well characterized and the phenotypic correlates are generally concordant. Prenatal treatment by maternal dexamethasone administration can successfully prevent virilization of the external genitalia in an affected female fetus. Placental aromatase is a rare and recently characterized alternative cause of a masculinized female which should be considered in the absence of fetal adrenal hyperplasia and maternal androgen-secreting tumours. The investigation of abnormal sexual development requires an initial karyotype analysis and serum 17OH progesterone measurement to determine whether 21-hydroxylase deficiency is the likeliest cause. Thereafter, the presence of a 46,XY karyotype determines the mode of investigation according to androgen production and action. Obtaining appropriate samples for DNA, biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses is essential if the diagnostic yield for the investigation of abnormal sexual development is to be improved. PMID:9890067

Hughes, I A

1998-04-01

74

Cyber-Sexual Harassment: The Development of the Cyber-Sexual Experiences Questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on sexual harassment has shown that although half of all women experience unwanted sex-related behaviors in work and school, only 4% to 20% label those experiences as sexual harassment (Magley, Hulin, Fitzgerald, & DeNardo, 1999; Stockdale, Vaux, & Cashin, 1995). Moreover, while research and literature on face-to-face sexual harassment continues to grow, little research has examined sexual harassment in

Samantha Schenk

2008-01-01

75

Sexual Values Among Latino Youth: Measurement Development Using a Culturally Based Approach  

PubMed Central

Latino youth in the United States are at higher risk for negative sexual outcomes compared to their European American counterparts. Adherence to traditional sexual values may protect against or increase their risk. Past studies have generally utilized proxy measures, such as acculturation, to assess sexual values. The objective of the current study was to develop and test culturally based sexual values measures among Latino youth. Focus groups and qualitative interviews were conducted to generate themes related to sexual values. Six measures were developed: three related to gender role norms (Sexual Talk as Disrespectful, Satisfaction of Sexual Needs as Important, Female Virginity as Important) and three related to comfort regarding sexuality (Comfort with Sexual Communication, Sexual Comfort, and Sexual Self-Acceptance). The scales’ psychometric properties were assessed in a sample of 694 sexually active young Latinos. Results indicate that these measures conformed to single-factor scales and displayed acceptable reliabilities. Correlations with conceptually related measures were in hypothesized directions. Findings suggest it is feasible to directly assess sexual values in a valid and reliable manner. The measures presented in the current article represent tools for such assessment. PMID:18426286

Deardorff, Julianna; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Flores, Elena

2010-01-01

76

Normative Sexuality Development in Adolescence: A Decade in Review, 2000-2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review details a key innovation across the field of adolescent sexuality research over the last decade--conceptualizing sexuality as a normative aspect of adolescent development. Anchored in a growing articulation of adolescent sexuality as having positive qualities and consequences, we provide an organizing framework for understanding…

Tolman, Deborah L.; McClelland, Sara I.

2011-01-01

77

Identity Development and Exploration Among Sexual Minority Adolescents: Examination of a Multidimensional Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a multidimensional model of sexual identity development, the current study examined self-labeling, romantic, and sexual experiences among middle and late adolescent sexual minorities. Eighty-two youths between the ages of 14 and 21 were recruited from gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) community centers and associated Internet groups. Differences between males and females and between middle and late adolescents

Jenna A. Glover; Renee V. Galliher; Trenton G. Lamere

2009-01-01

78

Developing a Practical Parenting Workshop: A Case Study in Family Sexual Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation discusses the development and assessment of a parent intervention and training program. Out of concern for the sexual health of adolescents in the United States, both parents and researchers have called for programs assisting parents in the sexual education of their children. Encouraging sexual communication and increasing the…

Croatt, Heidi S.

2012-01-01

79

The Impact of Clergy-Perpetrated Sexual Abuse: The Role of Gender, Development, and Posttraumatic Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse suggests that there are two modal populations of survivors: boys and adult women. We review what is known about trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder following sexual abuse and explore the different treatment needs for these two survivor groups. For children, clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse can catastrophically alter the trajectory of psychosocial, sexual, and spiritual development.

Jason M. Fogler; Jillian C. Shipherd; Stephanie Clarke; Jennifer Jensen; Erin Rowe

2008-01-01

80

Measuring rates of sexual development in female Mongolian gerbils.  

PubMed

In previous experiments, we have shown that age at vaginal introitus predicts adult patterns of reproductive, maternal, and aggressive behavior of female Mongolian gerbils. In the present series of studies, we explored the relationship in gerbils between age at vaginal patency and three other indices of rate of female sexual development: ovarian weight, occurrence of vaginal estrus, and onset of attractiveness to males. We found that female gerbils, classified on the basis of their ages at vaginal introitus as early-maturing: (a) exhibited greater ovarian weights throughout development than did their late-maturing, female sibs; (b) exhibited estrus and Diestrus I stage vaginal smears and, by inference, ovulation at an earlier age than did late-maturing females; and (c) elicited mounting by males at an earlier mean age than did late-maturing females. The data were consistent with the hypothesis that age at vaginal introitus is a reliable indicator of rate of sexual development in female Mongolian gerbils. PMID:2925004

Clark, M M; Galef, B G

1989-03-01

81

Developing Respondent Based Multi-Media Measures of Exposure to Sexual Content  

PubMed Central

Despite the interest in the effects of the media on sexual behavior, there is no single method for assessing exposure to a particular type of media content (e.g., sex). This paper discusses the development of six sexual content exposure measures based on adolescents’ own subjective ratings of the sexual content in titles in 4 media (i.e., television, music, magazines, videogames). We assessed the construct and criterion validity of these measures by examining the associations among each of these measures of exposure to sexual content as well as their associations with adolescents’ sexual activity. Data were collected in summer 2005 through a web-based survey using a quota sample of 547 youth aged 14–16 from the Philadelphia area. Adolescents rated how often they were exposed to specific television shows, magazine titles, etc. on 4-point never to often scales. They also rated the sexual content of those titles on 4-point no sexual content to a lot of sexual content scales. Sexual behavior was measured using an ordered index of lifetime pre-coital and coital sexual activity. The strength of association between exposure to sexual content and sexual activity varied by medium and measure. Based on our findings, we recommend the use of a multiple media weighted sum measure. This measure produces findings that are consistent with those of similar studies. PMID:20411048

Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Hennessy, Michal; Jordan, Amy; Chernin, Ariel; Stevens, Robin

2010-01-01

82

Immunological and therapeutic strategies against salmonid cryptobiosis.  

PubMed

Salmonid cryptobiosis is caused by the haemoflagellate, Cryptobia salmositica. Clinical signs of the disease in salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) include exophthalmia, general oedema, abdominal distension with ascites, anaemia, and anorexia. The disease-causing factor is a metalloprotease and the monoclonal antibody (mAb-001) against it is therapeutic. MAb-001 does not fix complement but agglutinates the parasite. Some brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis cannot be infected (Cryptobia-resistant); this resistance is controlled by a dominant Mendelian locus and is inherited. In Cryptobia-resistant charr the pathogen is lysed via the Alternative Pathway of Complement Activation. However, some charr can be infected and they have high parasitaemias with no disease (Cryptobia-tolerant). In infected Cryptobia-tolerant charr the metalloprotease is neutralized by a natural antiprotease, alpha2 macroglobulin. Two vaccines have been developed. A single dose of the attenuated vaccine protects 100% of salmonids (juveniles and adults) for at least 24 months. Complement fixing antibody production and cell-mediated response in vaccinated fish rise significantly after challenge. Fish injected with the DNA vaccine initially have slight anaemias but they recover and have agglutinating antibodies. On challenge, DNA-vaccinated fish have lower parasitaemias, delayed peak parasitaemias and faster recoveries. Isometamidium chloride is therapeutic against the pathogen and its effectiveness is increased after conjugation to antibodies. PMID:20052385

Woo, Patrick T K

2010-01-01

83

Immunological and Therapeutic Strategies against Salmonid Cryptobiosis  

PubMed Central

Salmonid cryptobiosis is caused by the haemoflagellate, Cryptobia salmositica. Clinical signs of the disease in salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) include exophthalmia, general oedema, abdominal distension with ascites, anaemia, and anorexia. The disease-causing factor is a metalloprotease and the monoclonal antibody (mAb-001) against it is therapeutic. MAb-001 does not fix complement but agglutinates the parasite. Some brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis cannot be infected (Cryptobia-resistant); this resistance is controlled by a dominant Mendelian locus and is inherited. In Cryptobia-resistant charr the pathogen is lysed via the Alternative Pathway of Complement Activation. However, some charr can be infected and they have high parasitaemias with no disease (Cryptobia-tolerant). In infected Cryptobia-tolerant charr the metalloprotease is neutralized by a natural antiprotease, ?2 macroglobulin. Two vaccines have been developed. A single dose of the attenuated vaccine protects 100% of salmonids (juveniles and adults) for at least 24 months. Complement fixing antibody production and cell-mediated response in vaccinated fish rise significantly after challenge. Fish injected with the DNA vaccine initially have slight anaemias but they recover and have agglutinating antibodies. On challenge, DNA-vaccinated fish have lower parasitaemias, delayed peak parasitaemias and faster recoveries. Isometamidium chloride is therapeutic against the pathogen and its effectiveness is increased after conjugation to antibodies. PMID:20052385

Woo, Patrick T. K.

2010-01-01

84

On early starters and late bloomers: the development of sexual behavior in adolescence across personality types.  

PubMed

Little is known about the relationship between personality and sexual development among mid-adolescents. In the current study, we used a person-centered approach to investigate the relation between personality types and the development of sexual behavior. We hypothesized that undercontrolling adolescents would engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior compared to their resilient and overcontrolling peers. Data were used from 407 mid-adolescents (Mage = 14.5) followed across four measurement waves spanning 18 months. Results from latent class analyses (LCA) identified the three classical personality types: resilients, undercontrollers, and overcontrollers. Controlling for perceived pubertal timing and biological sex, latent growth curve analyses in Mplus showed that, at baseline, undercontrollers were more sexually experienced and engaged in more casual and risky sexual behavior than resilients and overcontrollers. Although initial levels of sexual behavior differed by personality types, over time increases in sexual behavior occurred at a similar rate across the types. Overall, the current study showed that undercontrolling adolescents are early sexual developers who engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior than other adolescents. The implications of these findings for longer-term differences in sexual behavior between personality types in later adolescence are discussed. PMID:24007372

Baams, Laura; Overbeek, Geertjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; van Aken, Marcel A G

2014-01-01

85

On Early Starters and Late Bloomers: The Development of Sexual Behavior in Adolescence Across Personality Types  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the relationship between personality and sexual development among mid-adolescents. In the current study, we used a person-centered approach to investigate the relation between personality types and the development of sexual behavior. We hypothesized that undercontrolling adolescents would engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior compared to their resilient and overcontrolling peers. Data were used from 407 mid-adolescents (Mage = 14.5) followed across four measurement waves spanning 18 months. Results from latent class analyses (LCA) identified the three classical personality types: resilients, undercontrollers, and overcontrollers. Controlling for perceived pubertal timing and biological sex, latent growth curve analyses in Mplus showed that, at baseline, undercontrollers were more sexually experienced and engaged in more casual and risky sexual behavior than resilients and overcontrollers. Although initial levels of sexual behavior differed by personality types, over time increases in sexual behavior occurred at a similar rate across the types. Overall, the current study showed that undercontrolling adolescents are early sexual developers who engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior than other adolescents. The implications of these findings for longer-term differences in sexual behavior between personality types in later adolescence are discussed. PMID:24007372

Overbeek, Geertjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

2013-01-01

86

Genetic variation and fitness in salmonids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last quarter century, many studieshave attempted to clarify the relationshipbetween genetic variability and fitness, butfew of these have involved salmonid fishes. Examination of studies of salmonids revealsthat such a relationship varies both among andwithin species. A correlation between geneticvariability and fitness can be affected bygenetic background, environment, and age, andit also depends upon the genetic markers andphenotypes evaluated.

Shizhen Wang; Jeffrey J. Hard; Fred Utter

2002-01-01

87

Sexually harassing behavior against adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh: implications for achieving millennium development goals.  

PubMed

This study examines the extent and type of sexually harassing behavior or intimidations unmarried adolescent girls experienced on their way to school, college or social visits and type of perpetrators in victims' view in rural Bangladesh using data of the 2004 National Nutrition Programme baseline survey. The survey collected self-reported data on sexual harassments of 5,106 girls aged 13-19 years selected randomly. Results reveal that gendered harassments were experienced by 35% of the girls, unwanted sexual attentions by 34%, and sexual intimidations by 14%, yielding prevalence of sexual harassments of any type 43%. Higher girls' education and household economic status heightened their risks of being harassed. Perpetrators were male young spoilt bullies (64%), neighborhood youths (30%), students (22%) and hoodlums (6%). High prevalence of sexual harassments mirrors vulnerability of adolescent girls in the community and deserves to be tackled to achieve millennium development goals (MDGs) in gender equality in health and social development. PMID:19458081

Alam, Nurul; Roy, Swapan K; Ahmed, Tahmeed

2010-03-01

88

Development of sexual behaviour in commercially-housed broiler breeders after mixing  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. It has been reported that broiler breeder males behave aggressively towards females during mating. However, the cause of this aggressive sexual behaviour is not yet clear. In this experiment we studied the development of the sexual behaviour in male and female broiler breeders from mixing (20 weeks of age) until complete development of the behaviour (28 weeks of age)

Jong de I. C; M. Wolthuis; Emous van R. A

2009-01-01

89

Development of sexual behaviour in commercially-housed broiler breeders after mixing  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?It has been reported that broiler breeder males behave aggressively towards females during mating. However, the cause of this aggressive sexual behaviour is not yet clear. In this experiment we studied the development of the sexual behaviour in male and female broiler breeders from mixing (20 weeks of age) until complete development of the behaviour (28 weeks of age) to

I. C. De Jong; M. Wolthuis-Fillerup; R. A. Van Emous

2009-01-01

90

Healthy Sexuality Development: A Guide for Early Childhood Educators and Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although families are children's primary teachers about sexuality development, early childhood teachers and administrators also support children's healthy sexuality development as they interact with children, work with families, and plan programs. This book provides key information to educators and families about what is typical in young children…

Chrisman, Kent; Couchenour, Donna

91

Sexual and Ethnic Identity Development Among Gay–Bisexual–Questioning (GBQ) Male Ethnic Minority Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identity development is a critical task of adolescence and occurs across multiple areas of self-identification. Although research on the identity development process among individuals who are ethnic and sexual minorities has been conducted for individuals who have 1 minority status or the other, few studies have examined these processes in people who are both ethnic and sexual minorities. In this

Omar B. Jamil; Gary W. Harper; M. Isabel Fernandez

2009-01-01

92

SEXUAL IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT: THE INFLUENCE OF VALUATIVE FRAMEWORKS ON IDENTITY SYNTHESIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many models of sexual identity development have emerged amidst a growing interest in gay and lesbian studies. There has also been an increased interest in understanding religion and related valuative frameworks and the impact that these have on all facets of life. The purpose of this article is to examine the influence of valuative frameworks on sexual identity development and

Mark A. Yarhouse

2001-01-01

93

The Role of Beliefs in Sexual Behavior of Adolescents: Development and Validation of an Adolescent Sexual Expectancies Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on the development and psychometric properties of the Adolescent Sexual Expectancies Scale (ASEXS). Data were obtained from three annual longitudinal surveys of youth aged 10-17 at the first administration (N = 932 at Wave 3). Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that 4 correlated factors corresponding to Social Risk, Social…

Bourdeau, Beth; Grube, Joel W.; Bersamin, Melina M.; Fisher, Deborah A.

2011-01-01

94

Physical Development and Sexual Orientation in Men and Women: An Analysis of NATSAL-2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, three physical development characteristics—weight, height, and age of menarche—were examined for their\\u000a relation to sexual orientation. Participants were men and women comprising the National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles-2000\\u000a (N > 11,000). Participants completed self-report measures of sexual orientation, height, weight, and, for women, age of menarche.\\u000a Results indicated that gay\\/bisexual men were significantly shorter and lighter

Anthony F. Bogaert

2010-01-01

95

Consultation: An Effective Dimension of Childhood Sexual Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At all school levels, counselors and teachers are increasingly encountering problems that are sexually oriented. Recognizing that attitudes and values toward sexuality are formed at an early age, it seems important to review incidents involving elementary school children. Implications for counselor involvement can then be drawn. (Author)

Pietrofesa, John J.; Splete, Howard

1973-01-01

96

Development of the acceptability of sexual media scale: Preliminary analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production and sales of sexually explicit media are at an all-time high, with over 200 adult entertainment companies expected to have generated a combined income of $10 billion from American consumers this past year (Kroft, 2003). ^ Men scored higher than women on the general acceptability scale, suggesting that men were more accepting of sexual media than women. Additionally, men

Christopher Saenz

2004-01-01

97

Development of non-lethal sampling of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in salmonids: effects of lipid and inorganic components of fins.  

PubMed

The preferred tissue for analyses of fish stable isotope ratios for most researchers is muscle, the sampling of which typically requires the specimen to be sacrificed. The use of non-destructive methods in fish isotopic research has been increasing recently, but as yet is not a standard procedure. Previous studies have reported varying levels of success regarding the utility of non-lethally obtained stable isotope materials, e.g. fins, but none have accounted for the potential compounding effects of inorganic components of fin rays or lipids. Comparisons of carbon (?(13)C) and nitrogen (?(15)N) stable isotope ratios of muscle with adipose and caudal fin of two salmonids, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and brown trout (Salmo trutta L.), revealed that caudal fin can be used as a non-destructive surrogate for muscle in stable isotope analysis, but that adipose fin, where available, is a better proxy. The use of a published model to inexpensively counteract the confounding effect of lipids, which are depleted in (13)C, greatly improved the relationship between fish muscle and fins. However, efforts to account for the inorganic components of fin rays were counterproductive and required twice the biomass of fins clipped from each fish. As this experiment was conducted on wild fish, controlled laboratory studies are required to confirm these field observations. PMID:23937861

Graham, Conor T; Harrison, Simon S C; Harrod, Chris

2013-01-01

98

Homosexuality as a Consequence of Epigenetically Canalized Sexual Development Author(s): William R. Rice, Urban Friberg and Sergey Gavrilets  

E-print Network

Homosexuality as a Consequence of Epigenetically Canalized Sexual Development Author(s): William R;HOMOSEXUALITY AS A CONSEQUENCE OF EPIGENETICALLY CANALIZED SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT William R. Rice Department homosexuality, androgen signaling, canalization, epigenetic, gonad-trait-discordance, Jost paradigm abstract

Gavrilets, Sergey

99

HCG stimulation test in children with abnormal sexual development.  

PubMed Central

Plasma testosterone was estimated by radioimmunoassay in 60 children with disorders of sexual development before and after stimulation with human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG). In 21 children the testosterone levels after 3 and 5 daily injections of 1000 units HCG were compared and good correlation was found between the paired results (r =0-93), suggesting that the 5-day HCG test has no advantage over the 3-day test. In 7 boys with apparently normal genital development the increments in plasma testosterone ranged from 2-0 to 8-5 nmol/1 after 3 injections of HCG. 10 boys with anorchia showed little response to HCG stimulation, but in patients with other disorders, such as micropenis (10), cryptorchidism (8), hermaphroditism (3), male pseudohermaphroditism (13), hypospadias (3), and sex chromosome anomalies (6), there was considerable variation in the plasma testosterone level after HCG. In 2 boys with suspected anorchia the results suggested that testes were present and this was confirmed at operation. PMID:9030

Grant, D B; Laurance, B M; Atherden, S M; Ryness, J

1976-01-01

100

Developing a Scale of Perception of Sexual Abuse in Youth Sports (SPSAYS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A scale was developed to measure perceptions of sexual abuse in youth sports by assessing (a) the perceived prevalence of sexual abuse committed by pedophilic youth sport coaches, (b) the perceived likelihood that a coach is a pedophile, (c) perceptions on how youth sport organizations should manage the risk of pedophilia, and (d) media influence…

Baker, Thomas A., III.; Byon, Kevin K.

2014-01-01

101

Anticipation of the sexual and gender development of children adopted by same-sex couples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aimed to characterize beliefs surrounding the sexual and gender development of children adopted by lesbian and gay couples. Participants were 768 Portuguese university students. Using a quasiexperimental design, participants were presented with identical descriptions of a couple interested in adopting a child, manipulating couple sexual orientation and child gender. Participants were then asked to anticipate three aspects

Jorge Gato; Anne Marie Fontaine

2012-01-01

102

What happened to Eric? The derailment of sexual development.  

PubMed

A variety of theoretical approaches, from the individual to ecological levels, was applied to the following clinical case in order to understand why a five-year-old boy demonstrated sexual behavior. Inappropriate sexual behavior in children is presented as symptomatic of problems in intrapersonal and interpersonal boundaries, relationship capabilities, and superego consolidation. The case material emphasizes that only when the child is helped to stop his sexual acting out can he access the sources of his emotional distress. The theoretical underpinnings that are relevant to this case will be shown as instrumental in the therapy of this child and his family. By integrating theory with practice, we hope to highlight this sensitive and prevalent issue as well as aid in the early identification and treatment of sexually problematic behavior. PMID:24393092

Waisbrod, Nirit; Reicher, Barbara

2014-01-01

103

Planarian D-amino acid oxidase is involved in ovarian development during sexual induction.  

PubMed

To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying switching from asexual to sexual reproduction, namely sexual induction, we developed an assay system for sexual induction in the hermaphroditic planarian species Dugesia ryukyuensis. Ovarian development is the initial and essential step in sexual induction, and it is followed by the formation of other reproductive organs, including the testes. Here, we report a function of a planarian D-amino acid oxidase, Dr-DAO, in the control of ovarian development in planarians. Asexual worms showed significantly more widespread expression of Dr-DAO in the parenchymal space than did sexual worms. Inhibition of Dr-DAO by RNAi caused the formation of immature ovaries. In addition, we found that feeding asexual worms 5 specific D-amino acids could induce the formation of immature ovaries that are similar to those observed in Dr-DAO knockdown worms, suggesting that Dr-DAO inhibits the formation of immature ovaries by degrading these D-amino acids. Following sexual induction, Dr-DAO expression was observed in the ovaries. The knockdown of Dr-DAO during sexual induction delayed the maturation of the other reproductive organs, as well as ovary. These findings suggest that Dr-DAO acts to promote ovarian maturation and that complete sexual induction depends on the production of mature ovaries. We propose that Dr-DAO produced in somatic cells prevents the onset of sexual induction in the asexual state, and then after sexual induction, the female germ cells specifically produce Dr-DAO to induce full maturation. Therefore, Dr-DAO produced in somatic and female germline cells may play different roles in sexual induction. PMID:24434168

Maezawa, Takanobu; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Haruka; Ono, Mizuki; Aoki, Manabu; Matsumoto, Midori; Ishida, Tetsuo; Horiike, Kihachiro; Kobayashi, Kazuya

2014-05-01

104

Reduced Treatment-Emergent Sexual Dysfunction as a Potential Target in the Development of New Antidepressants  

PubMed Central

Pleasurable sexual activity is an essential component of many human relationships, providing a sense of physical, psychological, and social well-being. Epidemiological and clinical studies show that depressive symptoms and depressive illness are associated with impairments in sexual function and satisfaction, both in untreated and treated patients. The findings of randomized placebo-controlled trials demonstrate that most of the currently available antidepressant drugs are associated with the development or worsening of sexual dysfunction, in a substantial proportion of patients. Sexual difficulties during antidepressant treatment often resolve as depression lifts but can endure over long periods and may reduce self-esteem and affect mood and relationships adversely. Sexual dysfunction during antidepressant treatment is typically associated with many possible causes, but the risk and type of dysfunction vary with differing compounds and should be considered when making decisions about the relative merits and drawbacks of differing antidepressants. A range of interventions can be considered when managing patients with sexual dysfunction associated with antidepressants, including the prescription of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, but none of these approaches can be considered “ideal.” As treatment-emergent sexual dysfunction is less frequent with certain drugs, presumably related to differences in their pharmacological properties, and because current management approaches are less than ideal, a reduced burden of treatment-emergent sexual dysfunction represents a tolerability target in the development of novel antidepressants. PMID:23431429

Baldwin, David S.; Palazzo, M. Carlotta; Masdrakis, Vasilios G.

2013-01-01

105

Sexual and Ethnic Identity Development among Gay/Bisexual/Questioning (GBQ) Male Ethnic Minority Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Identity development is a critical task of adolescence and occurs across multiple areas of self identification. Though research on the identity development process among individuals who are ethnic and sexual minorities has been conducted for individuals who have one minority status or the other, few studies have examined these processes in persons who are both ethnic and sexual minorities. This qualitative study examined the dual identity development processes related to ethnic and sexual identity among gay/bisexual/questioning (GBQ) Latino and African American male adolescents. Results indicated that the processes associated with the development of sexual orientation and ethnic identity occur concurrently. However, the actual processes involved with the development of each identity not only differed, but seemed to be independent of each other since neither process was referenced in the development of the other. Overall, the process of ethnic identity development involved the process of becoming aware of one’s ethnic and cultural heritage, while sexual identity development involved finding one’s own personally relevant sexual orientation label and connecting to that community. The implications of these findings for the development of interventions to assist in the healthy development of GBQ adolescents are discussed. PMID:19594249

Jamil, Omar B.; Harper, Gary W.; Fernandez, M. Isabel

2010-01-01

106

Anticipation of the sexual and gender development of children adopted by same-sex couples.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to characterize beliefs surrounding the sexual and gender development of children adopted by lesbian and gay couples. Participants were 768 Portuguese university students. Using a quasiexperimental design, participants were presented with identical descriptions of a couple interested in adopting a child, manipulating couple sexual orientation and child gender. Participants were then asked to anticipate three aspects of the sexual and gender development of the adopted child: sexual orientation, gender role behavior, and gender identity. MANOVAs and follow-up ANOVAs were conducted in order to analyze the data. Results indicated that participants, particularly males, considered children adopted by either lesbian or gay couples to have a lower probability of developing a normative sexual and gender identity than children adopted by heterosexual couples. Both men and women considered that children would emulate the sexual orientation of their same-sex parents, and that a boy's gender role behavior was more at risk if he was adopted by a lesbian couple. Moreover, men were apprehensive about the gender role behavior of a boy adopted by a gay male couple. Overall, these results indicate persistence of biased evaluations of the sexual and gender development of children adopted by lesbian and gay parents. Furthermore, both gender of the participant and gender of the child play an important role in these evaluations. Results are discussed and interpreted as a way of "doing gender" in the context of hegemonic masculinity. PMID:23837556

Gato, Jorge; Fontaine, Anne Marie

2013-01-01

107

Innate immune responses of salmonid fish to viral infections.  

PubMed

Viruses are the most serious pathogenic threat to the production of the main aquacultured salmonid species the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and the Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. The viral diseases Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis (IPN), Pancreatic Disease (PD), Infectious Haemorrhagic Necrosis (IHN), Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (VHS), and Infectious Salmon Anaemia (ISA) cause massive economic losses to the global salmonid aquaculture industry every year. To date, no solution exists to treat livestock affected by a viral disease and only a small number of efficient vaccines are available to prevent infection. As a consequence, understanding the host immune response against viruses in these fish species is critical to develop prophylactic and preventive control measures. The innate immune response represents an important part of the host defence mechanism preventing viral replication after infection. It is a fast acting response designed to inhibit virus propagation immediately within the host, allowing for the adaptive specific immunity to develop. It has cellular and humoral components which act in synergy. This review will cover inflammation responses, the cell types involved, apoptosis, antimicrobial peptides. Particular attention will be given to the type I interferon system as the major player in the innate antiviral defence mechanism of salmonids. Viral evasion strategies will also be discussed. PMID:23981327

Collet, Bertrand

2014-04-01

108

Empowering or oppressing? Development and exploration of the Enjoyment of Sexualization Scale.  

PubMed

Sexualization of girls and women in America is rampant and has many negative consequences. Women, however, often report enjoying being sexually admired by men. Given this paradox, it is unclear whether such enjoyment represents an authentic empowerment of women's sexuality or is related to traditional feminine norms and sexist beliefs. In Studies 1 and 2, the authors developed and tested the eight-item Enjoyment of Sexualization Scale (ESS). It had good reliability and was differentiated from related constructs including body surveillance, body shame, self-sexualizing behaviors, and appearance-contingent self-esteem. In Study 3, endorsement of traditional gender norms, endorsement of benevolent sexism, and endorsement of hostile sexism were all positively related to the ESS. Moreover, women who both enjoyed sexualization and engaged in self-objectification reported more negative eating attitudes. Overall, there was little support for positive effects of enjoying sexualization. The extent to which enjoying sexualization actually empowers women or contributes to their oppression is discussed. PMID:20947776

Liss, Miriam; Erchull, Mindy J; Ramsey, Laura R

2011-01-01

109

Surgical and ethical challenges in disorders of sexual development.  

PubMed

A resolution to the difficulties faced by parents, physicians, and pediatric patients in treating DSDs will only come with better communication and improved research methodologies. Advocacy groups and the Internet have allowed the intersex community to have a larger role in guiding the research and the ethical frameworks that are used in treating these disorders. These disorders are unusual and collaboration across medical centers should be the rule rather than the exception. When possible, treatments that are innovative or experimental should be subjected to rigorous research oversight [29,30]. Defined periods of family crisis in which counseling and education become important are at the time of diagnosis [30,31], at the time of any surgical procedure, and at the beginning of major developmental stages. Historically, children were often left uninformed until someone judged them old and mature enough to comprehend how they were different. These attempts to protect individual children from their condition may have left them vulnerable to a personal crisis at an age when sexual identity and identity with a peer group are important. Both the needs of the child and the adult the child will become should be considered in making treatment decisions for children and adolescents with DSDs. It is best to counsel parents and educate developing children in a way that parallels chronologic and conceptual growth. When possible, the child should be involved in an age-appropriate fashion in the decision-making process and accurate information about the child's history and body should be made available. In addition, parents and families need as much information as possible and support systems that will help them navigate these challenging situations. PMID:22789583

Fallat, Mary E; Hertweck, Paige; Ralston, Steven J

2012-01-01

110

Apomictic and Sexual Germline Development Differ with Respect to Cell Cycle, Transcriptional, Hormonal and Epigenetic Regulation  

PubMed Central

Seeds of flowering plants can be formed sexually or asexually through apomixis. Apomixis occurs in about 400 species and is of great interest for agriculture as it produces clonal offspring. It differs from sexual reproduction in three major aspects: (1) While the sexual megaspore mother cell (MMC) undergoes meiosis, the apomictic initial cell (AIC) omits or aborts meiosis (apomeiosis); (2) the unreduced egg cell of apomicts forms an embryo without fertilization (parthenogenesis); and (3) the formation of functional endosperm requires specific developmental adaptations. Currently, our knowledge about the gene regulatory programs underlying apomixis is scarce. We used the apomict Boechera gunnisoniana, a close relative of Arabidopsis thaliana, to investigate the transcriptional basis underlying apomeiosis and parthenogenesis. Here, we present the first comprehensive reference transcriptome for reproductive development in an apomict. To compare sexual and apomictic development at the cellular level, we used laser-assisted microdissection combined with microarray and RNA-Seq analyses. Conservation of enriched gene ontologies between the AIC and the MMC likely reflects functions of importance to germline initiation, illustrating the close developmental relationship of sexuality and apomixis. However, several regulatory pathways differ between sexual and apomictic germlines, including cell cycle control, hormonal pathways, epigenetic and transcriptional regulation. Enrichment of specific signal transduction pathways are a feature of the apomictic germline, as is spermidine metabolism, which is associated with somatic embryogenesis in various plants. Our study provides a comprehensive reference dataset for apomictic development and yields important new insights into the transcriptional basis underlying apomixis in relation to sexual reproduction. PMID:25010342

Schmidt, Anja; Schmid, Marc W.; Klostermeier, Ulrich C.; Qi, Weihong; Guthörl, Daniela; Sailer, Christian; Waller, Manuel; Rosenstiel, Philip; Grossniklaus, Ueli

2014-01-01

111

Sexual Identity Development of Female-to-Male Transgender Individuals: A Grounded Theory Inquiry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is a grounded theory study of the sexual identity development of 11 female-to-male (FTM) transgender people. Data collection included semistructured interviews with participants. A three-member research team conducted axial and selective coding to identify salient interactions between participants’ gender identity and sexual identity development. A model of these interactions is provided, in addition to thick descriptions of participant

lore m. dickey; Theodore R. Burnes; Anneliese A. Singh

2012-01-01

112

Sexual Orientation as a Factor in Career Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responds to previous article describing homosexual male college student and his need for career counseling. Discusses impressions of the client and his sexual orientation, considers missing information that would be helpful to have, and presents career counseling techniques and issues pertinent to the case. (NB)

Belz, Jeanette Richardson

1993-01-01

113

Sexually Transmitted Diseases Among Adolescents in Developed Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are responsible for a variety of health problems, and can have especially serious consequences for adolescents and young adults. An interna- tional comparison of levels and trends in STDs would be useful to identify countries that are rel- atively successful in controlling the incidence of STDs, as a first step toward improving policies and programs

Christine Panchaud; Susheela Singh; Dina Feivelson; Jacqueline E. Darroch

114

The Development of a Sexual Abuse Severity Score: Characteristics of Childhood Sexual Abuse Associated with Trauma Symptomatology, Somatization, and Alcohol Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and is associated with both mental and physical health problems in adulthood. Using data from an age- and sex-stratified population survey of 600 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents, a Sexual Abuse Severity Score was developed. The abuse characteristics of 156 CSA respondents were associated with…

Zink, Therese; Klesges, Lisa; Stevens, Susanna; Decker, Paul

2009-01-01

115

Retrospective Recall of Sexual Orientation Identity Development Among Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Adults  

PubMed Central

Although recent attention has focused on the likelihood that contemporary sexual minority youth (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual [GLB]) are “coming out” at younger ages, few studies have examined if early sexual orientation identity development is also present in older GLB cohorts. We analyze retrospective data on the timing of sexual orientation milestones in a sample of sexual minorities drawn from the California Quality of Life Surveys. Latent profile analysis of 1,260 GLB adults, ages 18-84 years identified three trajectories of development: Early (n = 951, milestones spanning ages 12 to 20), Middle (n = 239, milestones spanning ages 18 to 31), and Late (n = 70, milestones spanning ages 32 to 43). Motivated by previous research on variability in adolescent developmental trajectories, post-hoc analyses of the Early Profile group identified two sub-groups: Child-Onset (n = 284, milestones spanning ages 8 to 18), and Teen-Onset (n = 667, milestones spanning ages 14 to 22). Nearly all patterns of development were identity-centered, with average age of self-identification as GLB preceding average age of first same-sex sexual activity. Overall, younger participants and the majority of older participants were classified to the Early Profile, suggesting that early development is common regardless of age cohort. The additional gender differences observed in the onset and pace of sexual orientation identity development warrant future research. PMID:21942662

Calzo, Jerel P.; Antonucci, Toni C.; Mays, Vickie M.; Cochran, Susan D.

2011-01-01

116

Perceptions of childhood sexual abuse survivors: development and initial validation of a new scale to measure stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse.  

PubMed

The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale was developed to assess stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Scale items were derived from two studies that elicited cultural and personal beliefs about, and emotions experienced towards adult childhood sexual abuse survivors among university undergraduates. Two scales, Emotions and Characteristics, were developed and administered online to 182 participants. Exploratory factor analysis produced 7 factors, 4 for the Emotions Scale and 3 for the Characteristics Scale. Study 2 replicated this factor structure using confirmatory factor analysis (N?=?457). Reliability and validity analyses suggest that the Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale has satisfactory psychometric properties. The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale can be used to examine stereotypes of legal and health care professionals likely to work with survivors as well as in stereotyping research. PMID:23590355

Zafar, Sadia; Ross, Erin C

2013-01-01

117

Perceived “Out of Control” Sexual Behavior in a Cohort of Young Adults from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Out of control sexual behavior, also known as compulsive sexual behavior or sexual addiction, has not been studied in a representative\\u000a sample of the general population. At age 32 years, 940 (93%) of 1,015 members of the birth cohort of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary\\u000a Health and Development Study responded to a series of questions about sexual behavior, administered by computer. We enquired

Keren Skegg; Shyamala Nada-Raja; Nigel Dickson; Charlotte Paul

2010-01-01

118

Promoting the successful development of sexual and gender minority youths.  

PubMed

Because of societal discomfort with atypical expressions of sexual orientation and gender identity, lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youths have experienced enhanced developmental challenges compared with their heterosexual peers. A recent special issue of the American Journal of Public Health delineated how social stigma affecting LGBT youths has resulted in a wide range of health disparities, ranging from increased prevalence of depression and substance use to downstream effects, such as an increased risk for cancer and cardiovascular disease when older. We review the clinical significance of these findings for health care professionals, who need to become informed about these associations to provide better care for their sexual and gender minority youth patients, and to be able to educate their parents and other caregivers. PMID:24825194

Mayer, Kenneth H; Garofalo, Robert; Makadon, Harvey J

2014-06-01

119

The Role of Masturbation in Healthy Sexual Development: Perceptions of Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite efforts to identify masturbation as a strategy to improve sexual health, promote relational intimacy, and reduce unwanted\\u000a pregnancy, STIs, and HIV transmission, masturbation as a context for healthy sexual development has been met with silence\\u000a or trepidation in the scientific and educational communities. Relegated to the realm of commercial media, rather than rational\\u000a discourse in families, schools, and the

Christine E. KaestleKatherine; Katherine R. Allen

120

Mediating factors in the development of psychopathology in victims of childhood sexual abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of sexual abuse and victim-offender characteristics have been studied extensively in relation to short- and long-term psychological consequences. However, few studies have focused on mediating factors in the development of psychological sequelae associated with sexual abuse. Three hundred seventy-nine students at Washington State University were recruited from psychology courses and administered a battery of assessments. These assessments included

Jennifer L. Steel; Greg Wilson; Herb Cross; James Whipple

1996-01-01

121

Evolution of the salmonid mitochondrial control region.  

PubMed

To explore the evolutionary nature of the salmonid mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (D-loop) and its utility for inferring phylogenies, the entire region was sequenced from all eight species of anadromous Pacific salmon, genus Oncorhynchus; the Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar; and the Arctic grayling, Thymallus arcticus. A comparison of aligned sequences demonstrates that the generally conserved sequence elements that have been previously reported for other vertebrates are maintained in these primitive teleost fishes. Results reveal a significantly nonrandom distribution of nucleotide substitutions, insertions, and deletions that suggests that portions of the salmonid D-loop may be under differential selective constraints and that most of the control region of these fishes may evolve at a rate similar to that of the remainder of their mtDNA genomes. Maximum likelihood and Fitch parsimony analyses of 9 kb of aligned salmonid sequence data give evolutionary trees of identical topology. These results are consistent with previous molecular studies of a limited number of salmonid taxa and with more comprehensive, classical analyses of salmonid evolution. Predictions from these data, based on a molecular clock assumption for the mtDNA control region, are also consistent with fossil evidence that suggests that species of Oncorhynchus could be as old as the Middle Pliocene and would have thus given rise to the extant Pacific salmon prior to about 5 or 6 million years ago. PMID:1342934

Shedlock, A M; Parker, J D; Crispin, D A; Pietsch, T W; Burmer, G C

1992-09-01

122

Changing patterns of adolescent sexual behavior: consequences for health and development.  

PubMed

Sexuality is a fundamental quality of human life, important for health, happiness, individual development, and indeed for the preservation of the human race. During the dynamic period of adolescence in which the passage from childhood to maturity takes place, sexuality takes on new dimensions; feelings become more intense, relationships become more complex, and the consequences of sexual behavior are radically altered. This not only affects the behavior of young people but also of those who interact with them, their families and peers, and those who work in the health, education, youth, social welfare, and other sectors. In the contemporary world the conditions of life for many young people have also changed, and with it patterns of sexual behavior. In general, earlier puberty, later marriage, a decline in the family leading to less control and more autonomy, and intense exposure to sexual stimuli via the mass media and travel across cultural boundaries have made pre-marital adolescent sexual activity more common. This has added to traditional problems of early marriage, newer problems of early pregnancy, childbirth, and induced abortion outside of marriage, sexually transmitted diseases, and human immunodeficiency syndrome infection leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. But the work of the World Health Organization (WHO), along with many others in the field, strongly suggests that given appropriate information and services, trust and equity between the sexes, young people will behave responsibly and well. In this paper some of the findings from methods developed by WHO for research, training, advocacy, and evaluation, and findings in relation to patterns and determinants of sexual and reproductive health and development will be described, and future directions suggested. PMID:1390784

Friedman, H L

1992-07-01

123

Channel type and salmonid spawning distribution and abundance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consideration of fundamental channel processes, together with map-based and field investigations, indicates that stream channel type influences salmonid spawning distributions across entire channel networks and salmonid abundance within channel reaches. Our analysis suggests that salmonid spawning patterns in mountain drainage basins of the Pacific Northwest are adapted to, among other things, the timing and depth of channel bed mobility. We

David R. Montgomery; Eric M. Beamer; George R. Pess; Thomas P. Quinn

1999-01-01

124

Salmonid redd dewatering: What do we know  

SciTech Connect

Dewatering of salmonid spawning areas causes abrupt changes in the intergravel environment that may lead to extensive losses of development phases while intergravel in redds. Information on tolerance to dewatering and the extent of physicochemical changes in the gravel during dewatering can be used to assess potential impacts and to design and implement effective mitigation methods. Studies with fall chinook salmon are summarized, and the comparisons are made with results from available literature. Potentially useful methods of mitigation are mentioned. We found that prehatch phases (cleavage eggs and embryos) can be dewatered for several successive days and survive, but posthatch phases (eleutheroembryos and alevins) usually die within 24 hours. Survival of prehatch phases during extended dewatering requires maintenance of favorable intergravel temperature and moisture levels. Elevated temperatures (up to 22/sup 0/C) can be tolerated for up to 8 hours without direct adverse effects, but freezing temperatures (/sup -/1.0/sup 0/C or below) are lethal. Dewatered gravels must remain sufficient moisture to provide near 100% humidity for egg and embryo survival. In field situations, physicochemical conditions that limit survival in dewatered gravels include residual flow, temperature, gravel size and composition, and dissolved oxygen. Biological variables such as alevin behavior and certain species characteristics also influence survival. 29 refs., 6 figs.

Becker, C D; Neitzel, D A

1983-11-01

125

Culvert Testing Program for Juvenile Salmonid Passage  

SciTech Connect

In partnership with the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT), the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has undertaken a phased program conducted by an interdisciplinary team of experts to address the hydraulic and behavioral issues associated with juvenile salmonid fish passage through culvert systems. Juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) is the initial test subject. This program addresses the testing and assessment of culvert designs, along with associated measurements of hydraulic conditions and fish behavior, occurring in full-scale physical models of culvert systems deployed in an experimental test bed. The proposed approach includes the use of three kinds of models. First, a conceptual model of fish passage is developed to guide the design of hydraulic and behavioral testing and to interpret the results. Second, mathematical models of culvert hydraulics provide information to design the full-scale test facility and to guide design of the hydraulic a nd behavioral testing program. Third, full-scale physical models of culverts in a test bed are used to evaluate fish passage quantitatively. Using the knowledge and data from previous studies, this program will encompass the design, fabrication, installation, and operation of a full-scale, controlled culvert test bed. Experiments in the testing apparatus will measure the hydraulic conditions (mean velocity, turbulence, and water depth) associated with various culvert designs under various slopes and flow regimes and then relate these measures to repeatable, quantitative measures of fish passage success. After construction in late spring, 2001, preliminary trials will be conducted in summer 2001.

Pearson, Walter H. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Richmond, Marshall C. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Schafer, Jim (Washington State Department of Transportation)

2002-01-01

126

Young people in Bogota, Colombia develop their own strategies to prevent risky sexual behavior.  

PubMed

Although the government of Colombia moved in 1993 to mandate sexuality education in primary and secondary schools, nongovernmental organizations have worked in this area for more than two decades. Notable has been the work of one such organization, the Colombian Human and Social Development Foundation, among youth from a marginal, underserved area of Bogota that houses approximately 27,000 adolescents. The project uses a peer approach to relate the values of responsibility, tolerance, and self-determination to the prevention of risky sexual behaviors. At the onset, 15 youth leaders from the local school identified strategies for raising the topic of sexuality to their peers: suggestion boxes, school radio programs, educational materials such as murals and pamphlets, workshops, board games with sexuality-related themes, and community involvement. Suggestion box submissions revealed that sixth and seventh graders wanted to know about puberty-related events, while older students were interested in the effects of masturbation on health and appearance and the association between premarital sexual activity and one's reputation. In an 18-month period, close to 9000 community residents were reached with program materials and 1798 adolescents participated in group meetings. Among the gains observed have been correction of misinformation, a broader view of sexuality, the capacity for independent thought, and self-pride. PMID:12320000

Saavedra, M

1996-01-01

127

Testing for sexually transmitted infections in a population-based sexual health survey: development of an acceptable ethical approach.  

PubMed

Population-based research is enhanced by biological measures, but biological sampling raises complex ethical issues. The third British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) will estimate the population prevalence of five sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, human papillomavirus (HPV), HIV and Mycoplasma genitalium) in a probability sample aged 16-44 years. The present work describes the development of an ethical approach to urine testing for STIs, including the process of reaching consensus on whether to return results. The following issues were considered: (1) testing for some STIs that are treatable and for which appropriate settings to obtain free testing and advice are widely available (Natsal-3 provides all respondents with STI and healthcare access information), (2) limits on test accuracy and timeliness imposed by survey conditions and sample type, (3) testing for some STIs with unknown clinical and public health implications, (4) how a uniform approach is easier to explain and understand, (5) practical difficulties in returning results and cost efficiency, such as enabling wider STI testing by not returning results. The agreed approach, to perform voluntary anonymous testing with specific consent for five STIs without returning results, was approved by stakeholders and a research ethics committee. Overall, this was acceptable to respondents in developmental piloting; 61% (68 of 111) of respondents agreed to provide a sample. The experiences reported here may inform the ethical decision making of researchers, research ethics committees and funders considering population-based biological sampling. PMID:22252417

Field, Nigel; Tanton, Clare; Mercer, Catherine H; Nicholson, Soazig; Soldan, Kate; Beddows, Simon; Ison, Catherine; Johnson, Anne M; Sonnenberg, Pam

2012-06-01

128

The pharmaceuticalization of sexual risk: vaccine development and the new politics of cancer prevention.  

PubMed

Vaccine development is a core component of pharmaceutical industry activity and a key site for studying pharmaceuticalization processes. In recent decades, two so-called cancer vaccines have entered the U.S. medical marketplace: a vaccine targeting hepatitis B virus (HBV) to prevent liver cancers and a vaccine targeting human papillomavirus (HPV) to prevent cervical and other cancers. These viruses are two of six sexually transmissible infectious agents (STIs) that are causally linked to the development of cancers; collectively they reference an expanding approach to apprehending cancer that focuses attention simultaneously "inward" toward biomolecular processes and "outward" toward risk behaviors, sexual practices, and lifestyles. This paper juxtaposes the cases of HBV and HPV and their vaccine trajectories to analyze how vaccines, like pharmaceuticals more generally, are emblematic of contemporary pharmaceuticalization processes. We argue that individualized risk, in this case sexual risk, is produced and treated by scientific claims of links between STIs and cancers and through pharmaceutical company and biomedical practices. Simultaneous processes of sexualization and pharmaceuticalization mark these cases. Our comparison demonstrates that these processes are not uniform, and that the production of risks, subjects, and bodies depends not only on the specificities of vaccine development but also on the broader political and cultural frames within which sexuality is understood. PMID:24560236

Mamo, Laura; Epstein, Steven

2014-01-01

129

Sexually transmitted diseases in Ethiopia. Social factors contributing to their spread and implications for developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexually transmitted diseases in developing countries are causing concern to those responsible for their control and eradication. To gain a better understanding of the problems involved in a country struggling with development, the economic and psychosocial factors influencing the spread of STD in Ethiopia have been studied. Increased migration and urbanisation and the changing role of women have led to

D S Plorde

1981-01-01

130

The makings of maleness: towards an integrated view of male sexual development  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the mammalian embryo develops, it must engage one of the two distinct programmes of gene activity, morphogenesis and organogenesis that characterize males and females. In males, sexual development hinges on testis determination and differentiation, but also involves many coordinated transcriptional, signalling and endocrine networks that underpin the masculinization of other organs and tissues, including the brain. Here we bring

Dagmar Wilhelm; Peter Koopman

2006-01-01

131

A comparative study of pregnant teenagers' parenting attitudes and knowledge of sexuality and child development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was taken to determine pregnant teenagers' knowledge of sexuality and child development and their parenting attitudes relative to comparison groups. The results indicate that the knowledge and attitude base of pregnant teenagers is almost identical to that of never-pregnant teenagers. However, adult mothers scored slightly but significantly higher than the teenagers on a measure of child development knowledge

Mark W. Roosa

1983-01-01

132

The Development of a Sexual Abuse Severity Score: Characteristics of Childhood Sexual Abuse Associated with Trauma Symptomatology, Somatization and Alcohol Abuse  

PubMed Central

Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and is associated with both mental and physical health problems in adulthood. Using data from an age and sex-stratified population survey of Olmsted County, MN residents (n=610), we developed a sexual abuse severity score (SASS). The abuse characteristics of 156 CSA respondents were associated with self-reported trauma, somatization, and alcohol use. Characteristics included: age of first sexual abuse, more than one perpetrator, degree of coercion, severity of abuse (i.e. attempted intercourse is more severe than fondling), and the number of occurrences. This is one of the few reports to develop a risk summary that quantifies the severity of childhood sexual abuse. PMID:18451098

Klesges, Lisa M.; Stevens, Susanna; Decker, Paul

2009-01-01

133

Natural born killers?: the development of the sexually sadistic serial killer.  

PubMed

Today's society seems enthralled with serial killers in the news and the media. Forensic psychiatrists often interview serial killers after they have been caught. There are retrospective studies and case reports of individuals who have committed sexually sadistic serial murders. However, there exists a dearth of case reports on adolescents who have expressed serious fantasies about becoming serial killer prior to actualizing their fantasy. This article presents nine clinical cases of 14- to 18-year-olds who have clinically significant fantasies of becoming a serial killer. Similarities exist in these adolescent cases when compared with retrospective studies and case reports of serial killers on the role of sexually sadistic fantasies and actual killings. Since it has been established that sexual paraphilias may develop at a young age, one can surmise that sadistic paraphilias may also develop in some adolescents. The question is posed, can we predict which of these adolescents may go on to actually become serial killers? This article focuses on how the sexually sadistic fantasy can eventually be acted out and possible motives for the act to be repeated multiple times. Finally, recommendations are made about assessing and treating a youngster who expresses violent sexually sadistic killing fantasies so that attempts can be made to interrupt the progression to actual killing. PMID:9323659

Johnson, B R; Becker, J V

1997-01-01

134

[Sexual orientations].  

PubMed

In this paper we study the concept of sexual orientation and its components by comparing the common orientations of hetero-, homo-, and bisexuality with alternative concepts suitable for describing persons with psychosexual and somatosexual divergencies (e.g., transgender or intersex developments). An assessment of these divergencies as well as their prevalence and societal influences are presented. Empirical findings on the relationship between sexual orientation and mental health are examined against the background of the sexual minority stress model, looking especially at the risks and the opportunities associated with belonging to a sexual minority. The paper also focuses on the normative power of a monosexual model. Finally, sexual orientation is conceptualized as an umbrella term encompassing both conscious and unconscious elements, including the aspects of sexual behavior, sexual identity, fantasies, and attraction. PMID:23361208

Schweizer, K; Brunner, F

2013-02-01

135

On the Road to Well-Being: The Development of a Communication Framework for Sexual Health  

PubMed Central

Objectives Recognizing the need to work with all partners who have an interest in addressing sexual health issues, we explored values held by diverse stakeholders in the United States. Based on these findings, we developed a framework for use in communicating about sexual health issues and potential solutions. Methods Our methods included an environmental scan, small-group metaphor elicitation and message framing assessments, interviews, and online surveys with diverse members of the public and health professionals. Results Of four overarching value-based themes, two were best accepted across audiences: the first theme emphasized the importance of protecting health along the road of life through enabling good choices, and the second called for adding health promotion approaches to traditional disease prevention control. Nearly all supporting statements evaluated were effective and can be used to support either of the two best accepted overarching themes. Conclusions Although there is a great diversity of opinion regarding how to address sexual health issues in the U.S., among diverse stakeholders we found some common values in our exploratory work. These common values were translated into message frameworks. In particular, the idea of broadening sexual health programs to include wellness-related approaches to help expand disease control and prevention efforts resonated with stakeholders across the political spectrum. These findings show promise for improved sexual health communication and a foundation on which to build support across various audiences, key opinion leaders, and stakeholders. PMID:23450884

Robinson, Susan J.; Stellato, Adam; Stephens, Jennifer; Kirby, Susan; Forsythe, Ann; Ivankovich, Megan B.

2013-01-01

136

Suzie's Mommy Is Having a Baby: Don't Freak out! Healthy Sexuality Development in Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Is it the teacher's job to assist children in developing a healthy sexual identity in early childhood? A healthy sexual identity is developed over the course of a lifetime through the "process of acquiring information and forming attitudes, beliefs, and values about such important topics as identity, relationships, and intimacy." Teachers may feel…

Sciaraffa, Mary

2012-01-01

137

A Transformative Learning Perspective of Continuing Sexual Identity Development in the Workplace  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter provides a framework to facilitate self-awareness, self-knowledge, diversity training, and cultural awareness and appreciation for all adults, based on understanding the development of sexual identity and workplace issues for LGBTQ adults. (Contains 1 table and 1 figure.)

King, Kathleen P.; Biro, Susan C.

2006-01-01

138

MAXIMIZING GROWTH AND SEXUAL MATURATION OF SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS IN SUPPORT OF MULTI-GENERATION TEST DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Hemmer, R.L., G.M. Cripe and L.R. Goodman. In press. Maximizing Growth and Sexual Maturation of Sheepshead Minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) in Support of Multi-Generation Test Development (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November 2004, Portland...

139

Sexual Bipotentiality of Developing Ovaries in the Terrestrial Isopod Armadillidium vulgare(Malacostraca, Crustacea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The androgenic glands (AG) of crustaceans are responsible for differentiation of male sexual characters. The process of gonadal differentiation in females was studied morphologically inArmadillidium vulgaregiven a masculinizing AG implant. Gonadal masculinization was induced by implantation of an AG into females at various stages of postembryonic development. Functional sex reversal always occurred when an AG was implanted into females that

Sachiko Suzuki; Kenji Yamasaki

1997-01-01

140

Population, sexual and reproductive health, rights and sustainable development: forging a common agenda.  

PubMed

This article suggests that sexual and reproductive health and rights activists seeking to influence the post-2015 international development paradigm must work with sustainable development advocates concerned with a range of issues, including climate change, environmental issues, and food and water security, and that a way of building bridges with these communities is to demonstrate how sexual and reproductive health and rights are relevant for these issues. An understanding of population dynamics, including urbanization and migration, as well as population growth, can help to clarify these links. This article therefore suggests that whether or not sexual and reproductive health and rights activists can overcome resistance to discussing "population", become more knowledgeable about other sustainable development issues, and work with others in those fields to advance the global sustainable development agenda are crucial questions for the coming months. The article also contends that it is possible to care about population dynamics (including ageing and problems faced by countries with a high proportion of young people) and care about human rights at the same time. It expresses concern that, if sexual and reproductive health and rights advocates do not participate in the population dynamics discourse, the field will be left free for those for whom respecting and protecting rights may be less of a priority. PMID:24908456

Newman, Karen; Fisher, Sarah; Mayhew, Susannah; Stephenson, Judith

2014-05-01

141

Let's Talk about Sex: Development of a Sexual Health Program for Nepali Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop and test the feasibility of conducting a sexual health intervention for women in Nepal, a country with high political and economic instability and strong patriarchal systems. Of the 88 women enrolled, 100% retention was obtained over three sessions, and 85% completed a 1-month follow-up. Recruitment was so…

Kaufman, Michelle R.; Harman, Jennifer J.; Shrestha, Deepti Khati

2012-01-01

142

Early childhood sexual development and sex education: A survey of attitudes of nursery school teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a research study which aimed to investigate preschool teachers' attitudes and beliefs on certain matters of sexual development and sex education in early years. A questionnaire with closed and open questions was answered by 284 experienced nursery school teachers in Greece, working with children 3+ to 5+ years of age. Answers to closed questions were elaborated by

Alexandros Kakavoulis

1998-01-01

143

Late-stage clinical development in lower urogenital targets: sexual dysfunction  

PubMed Central

In recent years, late-stage clinical drug development that primarily focuses on urogenital targets has centered around four areas of medical need (both unmet need and aiming to improve on existing therapies). These include male sexual dysfunction (MSD), female sexual dysfunction (FSD), prostatic pathology (neoplastic, pre-neoplasitic, and non-neoplastic), and improvement in lower urinary tract symptoms. Despite the regulatory approval of compounds to treat erectile dysfunction (ED), benign prostatic hyperplasia, a number of treatments for overactive bladder, and stress urinary incontinence, there remains a deficiency in addressing a number of conditions that arise out of pathophysiological dysfunction resulting in lower urogenital tract sexual conditions. In terms of late-stage clinical development, significant progress has most recently been made in MSD development, especially in understanding further a common and complex sexual dysfunction – that of premature ejaculation. The search also continues for compounds that improve ED in terms of better efficacy and superior safety profile compared to the currently marketed phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitors. Whilst there are no approved medications to treat the subtypes of FSD, there has been significant progress in attempting to better understand how to appropriately assess treatment benefit in clinical trial settings for this difficult to diagnose and treat condition. This review will focus on late-stage human clinical development pertaining to MSD and FSD. PMID:16465180

Azam, Usman

2006-01-01

144

Sexual harassment.  

PubMed

We review the current state of sexual harassment theory, research, treatment, and prevention. Definitional problems and implications are discussed. An examination of the epidemiology of sexual harassment is presented, highlighting correlates that include characteristics of the organizational environment, the perpetrator, and the recipient of unwanted sexual behavior. Normative responses to sexual harassment and consequences are discussed. Descriptions of the most prevalent models of sexual harassment are offered and the empirical evidence for them is briefly reviewed. From there, the effect of model development and evaluation on the prevention and treatment of sexual harassment is considered. We comment on the steps that would need to be taken to develop viable prevention and treatment programs. Suggestions for fruitful avenues of research and theory development are offered. PMID:11351834

Sbraga, T P; O'Donohue, W

2000-01-01

145

Gay and Bisexual Identity Development Among Female-to-Male Transsexuals in North America: Emergence of a Transgender Sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied a North American sample of female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals sexually attracted to men, aiming to understand their\\u000a identity and sexuality in the context of a culture of transgender empowerment. Sex-reassigned FtM transsexuals, 18 years or\\u000a older and attracted to men, were recruited via an FtM community conference and listserv. Participants (N = 25) responded to open-ended questions about identity development, sexual behavior,

Walter Bockting; Autumn Benner; Eli Coleman

2009-01-01

146

A New Method of Relating Size of Spawning Gravel to Salmonid Embryo Survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for describing the size composition of salmonid spawning gravel was developed. For gravel samples from Idaho and Washington streams, cumulative distributions of particle sizes for gravel smaller than 25.4 mm were consistently plotted as straight lines on log-probability paper. Because of the lognormal distribution of the particle sizes in this range, the size composition of material smaller

PAUL D. TAPPEL; TED C. BJORNN

1983-01-01

147

Salmon lice - impact on wild salmonids and salmon aquaculture  

PubMed Central

Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, are naturally occurring parasites of salmon in sea water. Intensive salmon farming provides better conditions for parasite growth and transmission compared with natural conditions, creating problems for both the salmon farming industry and, under certain conditions, wild salmonids. Salmon lice originating from farms negatively impact wild stocks of salmonids, although the extent of the impact is a matter of debate. Estimates from Ireland and Norway indicate an odds ratio of 1.1:1-1.2:1 for sea lice treated Atlantic salmon smolt to survive sea migration compared to untreated smolts. This is considered to have a moderate population regulatory effect. The development of resistance against drugs most commonly used to treat salmon lice is a serious concern for both wild and farmed fish. Several large initiatives have been taken to encourage the development of new strategies, such as vaccines and novel drugs, for the treatment or removal of salmon lice from farmed fish. The newly sequenced salmon louse genome will be an important tool in this work. The use of cleaner fish has emerged as a robust method for controlling salmon lice, and aquaculture production of wrasse is important towards this aim. Salmon lice have large economic consequences for the salmon industry, both as direct costs for the prevention and treatment, but also indirectly through negative public opinion. PMID:23311858

Torrissen, O; Jones, S; Asche, F; Guttormsen, A; Skilbrei, O T; Nilsen, F; Horsberg, T E; Jackson, D

2013-01-01

148

Puberty and adolescent sexuality.  

PubMed

This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Sexuality emerges as a major developmental element of puberty and the adolescent years that follow. However, connecting the sexuality that emerges with puberty and elements of adult sexuality is difficult because much adolescent sexuality research addresses the transition to partnered sexual behaviors (primarily coitus) and consequences such as unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This review proposes a framework of an expanded understanding of puberty and adolescent sexuality from the perspective of four hallmarks of adult sexuality: sexual desire; sexual arousal; sexual behaviors; and, sexual function. This approach thus addresses important gaps in understanding of the ontogeny of sex and the continuum of sexuality development from adolescence through the adult lifespan. PMID:23998672

Fortenberry, J Dennis

2013-07-01

149

Identity development and exploration among sexual minority adolescents: examination of a multidimensional model.  

PubMed

Based on a multidimensional model of sexual identity development, the current study examined self-labeling, romantic, and sexual experiences among middle and late adolescent sexual minorities. Eighty-two youths between the ages of 14 and 21 were recruited from gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) community centers and associated Internet groups. Differences between males and females and between middle and late adolescents were first examined. Males reported markedly different patterns of self-labeling and romantic experiences, relative to females, but few age differences emerged. Additionally, patterns of association between self-labeling and sexual or romantic experiences provided support for the multidimensional model of identity development and exploration. Finally, significant associations emerged between relationship experiences and relational competency, such that adolescents who described themselves as isolated from intimate interpersonal relationships reported less relational esteem and more relational depression than those who reported predominantly engaging in same-sex romantic relationships. In addition, alternative styles of engaging in interpersonal relationships (e.g., same-sex intimate friendships, heterosexual dating) also were also associated with increased relational competency. PMID:19197644

Glover, Jenna A; Galliher, Renee V; Lamere, Trenton G

2009-01-01

150

Homosexuality via canalized sexual development: A testing protocol for a new epigenetic model  

PubMed Central

We recently synthesized and reinterpreted published studies to advance an epigenetic model for the development of homosexuality (HS). The model is based on epigenetic marks laid down in response to the XX vs. XY karyotype in embryonic stem cells. These marks boost sensitivity to testosterone in XY fetuses and lower it in XX fetuses, thereby canalizing sexual development. Our model predicts that a subset of these canalizing epigenetic marks stochastically carry over across generations and lead to mosaicism for sexual development in opposite-sex offspring – the homosexual phenotype being one such outcome. Here, we begin by outlining why HS has been under-appreciated as a commonplace phenomenon in nature, and how this trend is currently being reversed in the field of neurobiology. We next briefly describe our epigenetic model of HS, develop a set of predictions, and describe how epigenetic profiles of human stem cells can provide for a strong test of the model. PMID:23868698

Rice, William R; Friberg, Urban; Gavrilets, Sergey

2013-01-01

151

The Role of Sexual Orientation in Youth Development Theory  

E-print Network

people assets such as supportive adults or a space to develop a peer social group that are important to successful development. Further, LBGTQ youth experience a higher prevalence of depression, suicidal ideation, use of illicit substances... those things to the table and talk about them.? Younger interviewees likewise described a committed relationship as a key developmental goal. Some adult interviewees indicated that development was largely a function of learning from mistakes...

Theriault, Daniel

2013-05-08

152

In ovo exposure to o,p -DDE affects sexual development but not sexual differentiation in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).  

PubMed Central

Despite being banned in many countries, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) continue to be found in fish tissues at concentrations of concern. Like o,p -DDT, o,p -DDE is estrogenic and is believed to exert its effects through binding to the estrogen receptor. The limited toxicologic data for o,p -DDE suggest that it decreases fecundity and fertility of fishes. We conducted an egg injection study using the d-rR strain of medaka and environmentally relevant concentrations of o,p -DDE to examine its effects on sexual differentiation and development. The gonads of exposed fish showed no evidence of sex reversal or intersex. However, other gonad abnormalities occurred in exposed individuals. Females exhibited few vitellogenic oocytes and increased atresia. Male testes appeared morphologically normal but were very small. Gonadosomatic index values for both sexes were lower for exposed fish. Our observations of abnormal female and very small male gonads after in ovo o,p -DDE exposure may be indicative of effects on early endocrine processes important for normal ovarian and testicular development. PMID:12515675

Papoulias, Diana M; Villalobos, Sergio A; Meadows, John; Noltie, Douglas B; Giesy, John P; Tillitt, Donald E

2003-01-01

153

Implications of Our Developing Understanding of Risk and Protective Factors in the Treatment of Adult Male Sexual Offenders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarizes our developing knowledge of factors that contribute added risk of sexual recidivism (risk factors) and factors that are associated with a reduced risk of sexual recidivism (protective factors). Specific implications for the design of future treatment programs are drawn. This information is contrasted with the common foci of…

Thornton, David

2013-01-01

154

Development and Initial Validation of the Perceived Heterosexism Scale and the Preoccupation with Disclosure of Parents’ Sexual Orientation Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we develop and validate scales that capture experiences unique to children raised by gay or lesbian parents. The Perceived Heterosexism Scale (PHS) measures children's perception of their peers’ heterosexist biases towards gay- or lesbian-headed families, and the Preoccupation with Disclosure of Parents’ Sexual Orientation Scale (PDPSOS) measures children's preoccupation with disclosure of parents’ sexual orientation in a

Johanna D. Vyncke; Danielle Julien; Emilie Jodoin; Emilie Jouvin

2011-01-01

155

Expanding Our Reach: The Potential for Youth Development Professionals in Community-Based Organizations to Provide Sexuality Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents in the United States continue to face sexual health issues. While community-based organizations (CBOs) have a long history of addressing the sexual health needs of those they serve, little attention has been given to CBOs focused on adolescent populations and the role youth development professionals (YDPs) might play in the advancement…

Fisher, Christopher M.; Reece, Michael; Dodge, Brian; Wright, Eric; Sherwood-Laughlin, Catherine; Baldwin, Kathleen

2010-01-01

156

"You Want Me to Talk to Children about What?" Responding to the Subject of Sexuality Development in Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many people think it is taboo to talk about sex with children. Adults reinforce this belief when, for example, they use substitute words rather than "vagina" or "penis". They may be embarrassed to learn about children's sexual development or ask others for assistance. Although most people in US society are open about sexuality now, the topic of…

Sciaraffa, Mary; Randolph, Theresa

2011-01-01

157

The sedimentation of salmonid spawning gravels in the Hampshire Avon catchment, UK: implications for the dissolved oxygen content of intragravel water and embryo survival  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accumulation of sediment within salmonid redd gravels can have a detrimental impact on the development of salmonid embryos; therefore, redd sedimentation represents a potential limiting factor for salmonid reproduction. The links between redd sedimentation, the dissolved oxygen content of intragravel water and salmonid embryo survival within the upper and middle parts of the Hampshire Avon catchment in southern England are explored. Measurements of surface and intragravel water quality and redd properties were undertaken for artificial redds constructed at known spawning sites. Salmonid embryos were also planted into artificial redds adjacent to the monitoring equipment. The rate of sedimentation of the newly cleaned redd gravels demonstrated a non-linear decrease over time, which is attributed to a particle-size-selective depositional process. The results of the study confirm that low embryo survival and low dissolved oxygen concentrations in intragravel water can be attributed to the accumulation of sediment within the redd gravels. This was found to produce a reduction in redd permeability, which limited the interchange of surface and intragravel water and, therefore, the supply of dissolved oxygen to the intragravel environment. In view of the diminished status of salmonids within many of the UK's chalk rivers and streams, the results highlight the need for management initiatives aimed at reducing redd sedimentation and thereby optimizing salmonid embryo incubation success. Copyright

Heywood, M. J. T.; Walling, D. E.

2007-03-01

158

Apilarnil reduces fear and advances sexual development in male broilers but has no effect on growth.  

PubMed

1. An experiment was conducted to determine the possibility of stimulating sexual development at an early age in male and female broiler chickens by administration of apilarnil, a natural bee product, in the pre-pubertal period. 2. From 28 to 55 d of age, birds were given apilarnil orally. The effects of low (2.5 g/bird) and high (7.5 g/bird) doses of apilarnil on growth performance, testicular weight, secondary sexual characteristics, blood lipids, testosterone and fearful behaviour were evaluated. 3. Apilarnil administration did not cause a positive effect on growth performance of male and female broilers suggesting that apilarnil did not have an anabolic effect. 4. Apilarnil administration suppressed blood glucose and cholesterol. 5. Birds receiving apilarnil remained immobile for a shorter period in a tonic imobiliy test and showed less home-cage avoidance responses suggesting a lower level of fearfulness. 6. Increases in testicular weight, testosterone concentration and comb growth in males receiving apilarnil implied that it stimulates the sexual maturation at an early age. However, a similar stimulation of secondary sexual characteristics was not observed in females. PMID:23796118

Altan, O; Yücel, B; Açikgöz, Z; Seremet, C; Köso?lu, M; Turgan, N; Ozgönül, A M

2013-06-01

159

Aminotransferases in early development of salmonid fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activities of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases were assessed in the embryos and juveniles of the rainbow trout Parasalmo mykiss L. and chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta W. Changes in subcellular localization of these enzymes and their activities were found at different pH optima in each subcellular fraction of the rainbow trout during ontogenesis.

M. V. Samsonova; T. I. Lapteva; Yu. B. Filippovich

2005-01-01

160

Low summer water temperatures influence occurrence of naturalized salmonids across a mountain watershed  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We investigated relationships between the absence of salmonids and low summer water temperatures across a 150-km2 Rocky Mountain watershed. A model predicting maximum July water temperature (MJT) from measurements of perennial stream length, wetted width, and midrange basin elevation was developed from temperature data obtained at 20 sites across the watershed. The model was used to predict MJT in 75 reaches across the watershed where salmonids were sampled. The lowest predicted MJT in reaches where age-0 and juvenile-adult brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis were observed was 9??C. The lowest predicted MJT in reaches where age-0 progeny of the genus Oncorhynchus spp. (i.e., rainbow trout O. mykiss or cutthroat trout O. clarkii) were observed was 13??C and where Oncorhynchus spp. adults where observed was 12??C. The probability of occurrence of both age-0 and adult brook trout and Oncorhynchus spp. increased as MJT increased above these thresholds. Our results indicate that low MJT in some portions of a mountain watershed can be related to the absence of salmonids. Consequently, data on MJT may provide managers with a means of assessing where summer water temperatures are not suitable for establishment of naturalized salmonid populations. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

Mullner, S.A.; Hubert, W.A.

2005-01-01

161

A conserved haplotype controls parallel adaptation in geographically distant salmonid populations  

PubMed Central

Salmonid fishes exhibit extensive local adaptations owing to abundant environmental variation and precise natal homing. This extensive local adaptation makes conservation and restoration of salmonids a challenge. For example, defining unambiguous units of conservation is difficult, and restoration attempts often fail owing to inadequate adaptive matching of translocated populations. A better understanding of the genetic architecture of local adaptation in salmonids could provide valuable information to assist in conserving and restoring natural populations of these important species. Here, we use a combination of laboratory crosses and next-generation sequencing to investigate the genetic architecture of the parallel adaptation of rapid development rate in two geographically and genetically distant populations of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Strikingly, we find that not only is a parallel genetic mechanism used but that a conserved haplotype is responsible for this intriguing adaptation. The repeated use of adaptive genetic variation across distant geographical areas could be a general theme in salmonids and have important implications for conservation and restoration. PMID:21988725

MILLER, MICHAEL R; BRUNELLI, JOSEPH P; WHEELER, PAUL A; LIU, SIXIN; REXROAD, CAIRD E; PALTI, YNIV; DOE, CHRIS Q; THORGAARD, GARY H

2012-01-01

162

Evaluating the need for sex education in developing countries: sexual behaviour, knowledge of preventing sexually transmitted infections\\/HIV and unplanned pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young people's need for sex education is evidenced by their typically early initiation of sexual activity, the often involuntary context within which they have sexual intercourse, high?risk sexual behaviours and the inadequate levels of knowledge of means of protecting their sexual health. The earliness of initiation of sexual intercourse has implications for the age by which sexuality education should be

Susheela Singh; Akinrinola Bankole; Vanessa Woog

2005-01-01

163

Fetal programming of sexual development and reproductive function.  

PubMed

The recent growth of interest in developmental programming of physiological systems has generally focused on the cardiovascular system (especially hypertension) and predisposition to metabolic dysfunction (mainly obesity and diabetes). However, it is now clear that the full range of altered offspring phenotypes includes impaired reproductive function. In rats, sheep and nonhuman primates, reproductive capacity is altered by challenges experienced during critical periods of development. This review will examine available experimental evidence across commonly studied experimental species for developmental programming of female and male reproductive function throughout an individual's life-course. It is necessary to consider events that occur during fetal development, early neonatal life and prior to and during puberty, during active reproductive life and aging as reproductive performance declines. PMID:24045010

Zambrano, Elena; Guzmán, Carolina; Rodríguez-González, Guadalupe L; Durand-Carbajal, Marta; Nathanielsz, Peter W

2014-01-25

164

[The psychosocial/-sexual development of boys with hypospadias].  

PubMed

Boys with hypospadias can suffer from specific psychological stress as a result of genital surgery and a cosmetically and/or functionally impaired penis. During recent decades intensive efforts have been made to improve the surgical techniques; yet the psychosocial and psychosexual development of children and adolescents after hypospadias surgery has only rarely been investigated. While the results of the few studies are altogether very contradictory, they also indicate that hypospadias patients suffer from specific problems like a negative perception of genital appearance. Therefore, they should be offered long-term follow-ups and psychosocial support until they reach young adulthood. For future research, it is necessary to systematically investigate the boys' quality of life and development in methodologically sound studies. PMID:18071773

Schönbucher, V; Landolt, M A; Gobet, R; Weber, D M

2007-12-01

165

Development of Heterosexuals into Sexual-Minority Allies: A Qualitative Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterosexually identified individuals can serve a crucial role as allies in eliminating sexual prejudice and the resulting\\u000a policies that discriminate against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. However, few studies have systematically\\u000a examined the development of heterosexual allies. Consensual qualitative research methods (Hill et al., The Counseling Psychologist,\\u000a 25, 517–572, 1997) were used to analyze individual interviews conducted with

Julie M. Duhigg; Sharon S. Rostosky; Barry E. Gray; Mary K. Wimsatt

2010-01-01

166

Cannabis Use Disorders Predispose to the Development of Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Youth  

PubMed Central

Background Previous cross-sectional studies involving adults suggest that sexually transmitted diseases (STD) such as cocaine use disorders and opioid use disorders are associated with the development of sexually transmitted diseases (STD). However, it is less clear whether cannabis use disorders (CUD) are associated with the development of STDs, or whether those associations extend to adolescent populations. Longitudinal studies examining those associations are particularly scarce. The current report provides findings from a longitudinal study that examined the relationship between STD and CUD among youth transitioning to young adulthood. Method The subjects in this longitudinal study were initially recruited when the index sons of these fathers were 10-12 years of age, and subsequent assessments were conducted at age 12-14, 16, 19, and 22. Multivariate logistic regression and path analyses were conducted. Results At age 22, of the 345 subjects, 30 subjects were diagnosed with one or more STD, and 105 were diagnosed with a CUD. STDs were almost four times as common among those with a CUD as among those without a CUD, which was a significant difference. Path analyses demonstrated that peer deviance mediated the association between a measure of risk for SUD knows as the TLI and CUD, and that peer deviance mediated the association between TLI and STD. Risky sexual behaviors were common. Conclusions These finding suggest that cannabis use disorders (CUD) predispose to the development of sexually transmitted disorders (STD) among youth. These findings also suggest that peer deviance mediates the development of STD and of CUD among teenagers making the transition to young adulthood.

Cornelius, Jack R.; Kirisci, Levent; Clark, Duncan B.

2013-01-01

167

Age, Growth, and Sexual Development in the Self-fertilizing Hermaphroditic Fish Rivulus marmoratus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied age, growth, and sexual development in the early life intervals of the self-fertilizing mangrove killi-fish, Rivulus marmoratus. Newly hatched (day 0) individuals had sagittal otoliths of 60?µm radius, with about 30 increments. Sequential sampling until about day 60 after hatching yielded otoliths with the number of increments outside the 60?µm radius equal to the daily age of the

Yoshitaka Sakakura; David L. G. Noakes

2000-01-01

168

Adolescent sexuality.  

PubMed

The consequences of adolescent sexual behavior are an enormous burden both for the adolescent and society. The problem is not that teens are sexually active but rather that they have little preparation and guidance in developing responsible sexual behavior. Developmentally, adolescents reach physical maturity before they are cognitively able to appreciate the consequences of their behavior. A teenager's primary source of information regarding sexuality is his or her peer group, all of whom are experiencing and reinforcing the same behaviors. The family, the major socializer of other behaviors, is not as powerful a force in shaping responsible sexual behavior because of parental discomfort with sex education and sexual discussions. This is the result of a social milieu in which sex is frequently portrayed but rarely linked with responsible behavior or accurate, nonjudgmental information. The pediatric practitioner is in an ideal position to intervene in these dynamics. In the office, the practitioner can provide accurate sexual information to both parents and adolescents, support parental-child communication on sexual issues, and provide appropriate services or referral. In the community, the practitioner can advocate for school-based sex education as well as act as an information resource. Finally, the practitioner can advocate for the health care needs for adolescents on a national level, supporting legislation that provides adolescents with information and access to services necessary to make responsible sexual decisions. PMID:3059299

Grant, L M; Demetriou, E

1988-12-01

169

A cascade of DNA binding proteins for sexual commitment and development in Plasmodium  

PubMed Central

Commitment to and completion of sexual development are essential for malaria parasites (protists of the genus Plasmodium) to be transmitted through mosquitoes1. The molecular mechanism(s) responsible for commitment have been hitherto unknown. Here we show that PBAP2-G, a conserved member of the ApiAP2 family of transcription factors, is essential for the commitment of asexually replicating forms to sexual development in P. berghei, a malaria parasite of rodents. PBAP2-G was identified from mutations in its encoding gene, PBANKA_143750, which account for the loss of sexual development frequently observed in parasites transmitted artificially by blood passage. Systematic gene deletion of conserved ApiAP2 genes in Plasmodium confirmed the role of PBAP2-G and revealed a second ApiAP2 member (PBANKA_103430, termed PBAP2-G2) that significantly modulates but does not abolish gametocytogenesis indicating that a cascade of ApiAP2 proteins are involved in commitment to the production and maturation of gametocytes. The data suggest a mechanism of commitment to gametocytogenesis in Plasmodium consistent with a positive feedback loop involving PBAP2G which might be exploited to prevent the transmission of this pernicious parasite. PMID:24572359

Otto, Thomas D.; Pfander, Claudia; Dickens, Nicholas J.; Religa, Agnieszka A.; Bushell, Ellen; Graham, Anne L.; Cameron, Rachael; Kafsack, Bjorn F.C.; Williams, April E.; Llinas, Manuel; Berriman, Matthew; Billker, Oliver; Waters, Andrew P.

2014-01-01

170

Sexual and reproductive health and rights in the post-2015 development agenda.  

PubMed

Women's health is currently shaped by the confluence of two important policy trends - the evolution of health system reform policies and from the early 1990s onwards, a strong articulation of a human rights-based approach to health that has emphasised laws and policies to advance gender equality and sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR). The drive for sexual and reproductive rights represents an inclusive trend towards human rights to health that goes beyond the right to health services, directing attention to girls' and women's rights to bodily autonomy, integrity and choice in relation to sexuality and reproduction. Such an expanded concept of the right to health is essential if laws, policies and programmes are to respect, protect and fulfil the health of girls and women. However, this expanded understanding has been ghettoised from the more mainstream debates on the right to health and was only partially included in the Millennium Development Goals. The paper argues in favour of a twofold approach in placing SRHR effectively in the context of the post-2015 development agenda: first, firmly ground it in an inclusive approach to the right to health; and second, drawing on two decades of national-level implementation, propose a forward-looking agenda focusing on quality, equality and accountability in policies and in programmes. This can build on good practice while addressing critical challenges central to the development framework itself. PMID:25010845

Sen, Gita

2014-01-01

171

Visual method for evaluating the state of sexual development in male grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis).  

PubMed

Stages of sexual development in grey squirrels were classified by scoring the presence of periscrotal hair and staining, as well as the position, size and colour of testes, to develop a visual breeding score (VBS). The VBS was a highly significant predictor of the presence and concentration of epididymal spermatozoa, which were produced from 12 months of age. Two classes of producers were identified: 'high' with spermatozoa levels > 10 x 10(6) mL(-1) and 'low' with spermatozoa levels < 10 x 10(6) mL(-1). Sperm motility was variable across all levels of productive males but was generally higher in the 'high' group, indicating that these were 'functional' males. Sexual regression was observed in two autumn periods. The VBS was less effective in determining states of regression and redevelopment; the confidence of classification improved when age class (adult or prepubertal) and date of capture was known. The use of the VBS to classify stages of sexual development in grey squirrels will improve selection of animals for studies of population biology and fertility control, and has potential application in captive breeding studies of rare Sciuridae species. PMID:16554014

Ferryman, Mark; Mayle, Brenda A; Morgan, Geoff W

2006-01-01

172

DNA synthesis in Plasmodium berghei during asexual and sexual development.  

PubMed

DNA contents of individual stages of Plasmodium berghei were measured by direct microfluorometry after Feulgen-pararosaniline (SO2) staining. Sporozoites, intra-erythrocytic ringforms and trophozoites (until at least 15 h after invasion) are haploid and non-synthesizing DNA. DNA is synthesized just before and during schizogony, which takes 4-6 h. Genome duplication and segregation are alternating events throughout this process. Mature micro- and macrogametocytes have DNA contents between the haploid and diploid value; most, if not all of the DNA in excess of the haploid value is synthesized during the last 5-10 h of maturation. During gametogenesis microgametocytes within 8-10 min synthesize DNA steadily and at a very high rate to more than the octoploid value while the DNA content of macrogametocytes remains constant. Fertilization in vitro takes place within 1 h after gamete formation. Within 2 h and coinciding with the onset of meiosis the zygote then synthesizes DNA up to almost the tetraploid value, after which synthesis stops during ookinete development. All the above mentioned processes of DNA synthesis are reversibly inhibited by aphidicolin (C50 from 3-13 microM). From the rate of DNA synthesis during microgametogenesis we calculated a minimum of 1300 origins of replication in the haploid genome of P. berghei. PMID:3092048

Janse, C J; van der Klooster, P F; van der Kaay, H J; van der Ploeg, M; Overdulve, J P

1986-08-01

173

Salmonid Abundance and Distribution in the middle Green River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salmonid abundance and distribution in the Green River between Flaming Gorge Dam the Split Mountain Boat Ramp (middle Green River, Figure 1) are governed by recruitment, habitat requirements and interspecific competition, played out on the framework of the Green river hydrology and geomorphology. Although salmonids historically did not inhabit the middle Green River after the end of the last glaciation,

Karrigan S. Börk

174

A Global Assessment of Salmon Aquaculture Impacts on Wild Salmonids  

E-print Network

A Global Assessment of Salmon Aquaculture Impacts on Wild Salmonids Jennifer S. Ford* , Ransom A, wild salmon catch and abundance have declined dramatically in the North Atlantic and in much of farmed salmon. Previous studies have shown negative impacts on wild salmonids, but these results have

Myers, Ransom A.

175

Development of an attachment-informed measure of sexual behavior in late adolescence.  

PubMed

There is considerable interest in relations between sexual behavior and romantic attachment styles in adolescence as attachment needs are increasingly met through intimate partners rather than parents. The objectives of this research were to organize a measure of sexual behavior within an attachment theory framework, and then show that this new measure uniquely predicted sexual approach styles and invasive sexual experiences. 190 18- and 19-year-old university students in late adolescence completed sexual behavior items that were provided ambivalent (anxious) and avoidant dimensions. These were systematically related to the romantic attachment dimensions of the Experiences in Close Relationships - Revised. However, even after romantic relationship style, gender, and social desirability were controlled, avoidance in sexual relationships predicted lifetime sexual partner number and negatively predicted positive sexual strategies, and ambivalence in sexual relationships predicted invasive and coercive sexual behaviors. A measure specific to sexual relationships informs the attachment and romantic context of sex in late adolescence. PMID:23414943

Szielasko, Alicia L; Symons, Douglas K; Lisa Price, E

2013-04-01

176

Effects of Adolescent Depressive Symptoms, Pubertal Development, and Interpersonal Relationship Satisfaction on Sexual Risk Behaviors in Adolescent Romantic Couples.  

E-print Network

??This study examined links between adolescent depressive symptoms, actual pubertal development, perceived pubertal timing relative to one’s peers, adolescent-maternal relationship satisfaction, and couple sexual behavior.… (more)

Carter, Rona

2009-01-01

177

The footprint of salmonids on river morphology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Female salmonids dig a pit in the streambed where they lay their eggs, which then cover with sediment from a second pit forming an egg nest call redd. This formation results in a shape resembling a dune with an amplitude, which is the vertical difference between bottom of the pit and crest of the hump, varying from few centimetres (for small fish, chum or sockeye salmon) to tenths of a meter (for large fish, Chinook salmon). During redd construction, salmonids alter streambed topography, winnow away fine sediment and mix streambed material within a layer as thick as 50 cm, for the large chinook salmon. The spawning activities may result in additional roughness at the local scale due to redds. However, redd construction may smooth large-scale topography reducing roughness due the macro-bedform. These topographical changes vary streambed roughness, which in turn may affect shear stress distribution. Redds have been suggested to increase the overall flow resistance due to form drag resulting in lower grain shear stress and less particle mobility. However, the mixing of the sediment could prevent armouring of the streambed surface allowing higher than with armouring sediment transport. Here, we use detailed pre- and post-spawning bathymetries coupled with accurate 2-dimensional hydraulic numerical modelling to test which of these two effects has potentially more impact on sediment transport. Our results show that topographical roughness added by sockeye salmons, which build small redds with 15cm amplitude and 1 meter wavelength (longitudinal length of a redd), has negligible effect on shear stress at the reach-scale and limited at the local scale. Conversely, sediment mixing has an important effect on reducing armouring, increasing sediment mobility, which results in potentially more sediment transport in reaches with than without redds. Consequently, salmonid bioturbation due to mass-spawning fish can be a dominant element for sediment transport in mountain drainage basins

Hassan, M. A.; Tonina, D.

2012-12-01

178

Development of Topical Microbicides to Prevent the Sexual Transmission of HIV  

PubMed Central

Women comprise almost 50% of the population of people living with HIV and the majority of these women contracted the virus through sexual transmission in monogamous relationships in the developing world. In these environments, where women are not empowered to protect themselves through the negotiation of condom use, effective means of preventing HIV transmission are urgently needed. In the absence of an approved and effective vaccine, microbicides have become the strategy of choice to provide women with the ability to prevent HIV transmission from their infected partners. Topical microbicides are agents specifically developed and formulated for use in either the vaginal or rectal environment that prevent infection by sexually transmitted infectious organisms, including pathogenic viruses, bacteria and fungi. Although a microbicidal product will have many of the same properties as other anti-infective agents and would be similarly developed through human clinical trials, microbicide development bears its own challenges related to formulation and delivery and the unique environment in which the product must act, as well as the requirement to develop a product that is acceptable to the user. Herein, perspectives based on preclinical and clinical microbicide development experience, which have led to an evolving microbicide development algorithm, will be discussed. This article forms part of a special issue of Antiviral Research marking the 25th anniversary of antiretroviral drug discovery and development, Vol 85, issue 1, 2010”. PMID:19874851

Buckheit, Robert W.; Watson, Karen M.; Morrow, Kathleen M.; Ham, Anthony S.

2009-01-01

179

Introduced northern pike predation on salmonids in southcentral Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Northern pike (Esox lucius) are opportunistic predators that can switch to alternative prey species after preferred prey have declined. This trophic adaptability allows invasive pike to have negative effects on aquatic food webs. In Southcentral Alaska, invasive pike are a substantial concern because they have spread to important spawning and rearing habitat for salmonids and are hypothesised to be responsible for recent salmonid declines. We described the relative importance of salmonids and other prey species to pike diets in the Deshka River and Alexander Creek in Southcentral Alaska. Salmonids were once abundant in both rivers, but they are now rare in Alexander Creek. In the Deshka River, we found that juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) dominated pike diets and that small pike consumed more of these salmonids than large pike. In Alexander Creek, pike diets reflected the distribution of spawning salmonids, which decrease with distance upstream. Although salmonids dominated pike diets in the lowest reach of the stream, Arctic lamprey (Lampetra camtschatica) and slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) dominated pike diets in the middle and upper reaches. In both rivers, pike density did not influence diet and pike consumed smaller prey items than predicted by their gape-width. Our data suggest that (1) juvenile salmonids are a dominant prey item for pike, (2) small pike are the primary consumers of juvenile salmonids and (3) pike consume other native fish species when juvenile salmonids are less abundant. Implications of this trophic adaptability are that invasive pike can continue to increase while driving multiple species to low abundance.

Sepulveda, Adam J.; Rutz, David S.; Ivey, Sam S.; Dunker, Kristine J.; Gross, Jackson A.

2013-01-01

180

Gill diseases of cultured salmonids in Ontario.  

PubMed Central

Between 1977 and 1981, the Fish Pathology Laboratory of the Ontario Veterinary College received 239 cases from trout farms of southern Ontario, 51 (21.3%) of which had diseased gills. Branchial lesions in 86.3% of these 51 cases were characterized by marked lamellar epithelial hyperplasia with epithelial hypertrophy and lamellar fusion. Filamentous bacteria were seen on the surface of the branchial filaments and lamellae in 68.6% of the cases. Our observations highlight the importance of gill diseases as a production problem of farmed salmonids in southern Ontario. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:6416657

Daoust, P Y; Ferguson, H W

1983-01-01

181

Perceived "out of control" sexual behavior in a cohort of young adults from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study.  

PubMed

Out of control sexual behavior, also known as compulsive sexual behavior or sexual addiction, has not been studied in a representative sample of the general population. At age 32 years, 940 (93%) of 1,015 members of the birth cohort of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study responded to a series of questions about sexual behavior, administered by computer. We enquired about sexual fantasies, urges or behavior that participants regarded as out of control during the previous year, and defined such experiences as out of control sexual experiences (OCSE). Nearly 13% of men and 7% of women reported OCSE in the past year. Women who reported such experiences were more likely than other women to have reported (elsewhere in the interview) having had high numbers of opposite sex partners, concurrent sexual relationships, or sex with a partner met on the internet, as well as a higher likelihood of same-sex attraction or behavior. Among men reporting OCSE, there was an association with having paid for heterosexual sex and with same-sex attraction and behavior. Few believed that OCSE had interfered with their lives (3.8% of all men and 1.7% of all women in the cohort). Only 0.8% of men and 0.6% of women reported that their actual sexual behavior had interfered with their lives. OCSE were also analyzed in relation to certain personality traits and to childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Some evidence of a link with impulsivity (women only) and negative affectivity was found. CSA was associated with OCSE among men. In conclusion, this population-based study has provided the first empirical estimations of the occurrence of OCSE and its relationship to a range of sexual behaviors in a representative sample. PMID:19421850

Skegg, Keren; Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Dickson, Nigel; Paul, Charlotte

2010-08-01

182

Gay and bisexual identity development among female-to-male transsexuals in North America: emergence of a transgender sexuality.  

PubMed

We studied a North American sample of female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals sexually attracted to men, aiming to understand their identity and sexuality in the context of a culture of transgender empowerment. Sex-reassigned FtM transsexuals, 18 years or older and attracted to men, were recruited via an FtM community conference and listserv. Participants (N = 25) responded to open-ended questions about identity development, sexual behavior, and social support. Data were analyzed by content analysis. Scores for sexual identity, self esteem, sexual functioning, and psychological adjustment were compared to those of a comparison group (N = 76 nontransgender gay and bisexual men). Of the 25 FtMs, 15 (60%) identified as gay, 8 (32%) as bisexual, and 2 (8%) as queer. All were comfortable with their gender identity and sexual orientation. The FtM group was more bisexual than the nontransgender gay and bisexual controls. No significant group differences were found in self esteem, sexual satisfaction, or psychological adjustment. For some FtMs, sexual attractions and experiences with men affirmed their gender identity; for others, self-acceptance of a transgender identity facilitated actualization of their attractions toward men. Most were "out" as transgender among friends and family, but not on the job or within the gay community. Disclosure and acceptance of their homosexuality was limited. The sexual identity of gay and bisexual FtMs appears to mirror the developmental process for nontransgender homosexual men and women in several ways; however, participants also had experiences unique to being both transgender and gay/bisexual. This signals the emergence of a transgender sexuality. PMID:19330439

Bockting, Walter; Benner, Autumn; Coleman, Eli

2009-10-01

183

Sexual Assault  

MedlinePLUS

... assault fact sheet Sexual assault fact sheet ePublications Sexual assault fact sheet Print this fact sheet Sexual assault ... assaulted? More information on sexual assault What is sexual assault? Sexual assault and abuse is any type of ...

184

Evaluating the Need for Sex Education in Developing Countries: Sexual Behaviour, Knowledge of Preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections/HIV and Unplanned Pregnancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young people's need for sex education is evidenced by their typically early initiation of sexual activity, the often involuntary context within which they have sexual intercourse, high-risk sexual behaviours and the inadequate levels of knowledge of means of protecting their sexual health. The earliness of initiation of sexual intercourse has…

Singh, Susheela; Bankole, Akinrinola; Woog, Vanessa

2005-01-01

185

Sexually transmitted diseases in Ethiopia. Social factors contributing to their spread and implications for developing countries.  

PubMed Central

Sexually transmitted diseases in developing countries are causing concern to those responsible for their control and eradication. To gain a better understanding of the problems involved in a country struggling with development, the economic and psychosocial factors influencing the spread of STD in Ethiopia have been studied. Increased migration and urbanisation and the changing role of women have led to a rise in prostitution. Thus changes in the social structure--particularly in relation to the education and employment of women--and improved medical services are essential for the long-term control of STD. PMID:6895708

Plorde, D S

1981-01-01

186

Sexual function, sexual abuse and sexually transmitted diseases in adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

As adolescents progress through puberty, many biological changes occur and, for young women, this includes the onset of menses and the capability for reproduction. During this time, sexual identity is developed and expressions of sexuality become more frequent. Adolescent women engage in a variety of sexual behaviours, both non-coital and coital. As teens begin dating relationships, they are at risk

Margaret J. Blythe

2003-01-01

187

Determination of erythromycin in medicated salmonid fish feed by liquid chromatography and UV spectroscopy.  

PubMed

A simple, robust LC-UV method was developed to assay erythromycin in medicated salmonid feed. In this method, erythromycin was extracted from feed with acetonitrile and water, cleaned up by SPE, evaporated to dryness, reconstituted, and analyzed by LC-UV. The resulting method produced high accuracy, 82-90%, for both salmon and trout feed that represented varied pellet sizes and ingredient amounts. The intraday and interday precisions, at < or = 6 and 5%, respectively, indicated the method's good repeatability. Calibration was linear over the range of drug concentrations typically used in medicated feed. An independent analyst validation further demonstrated the repeatability of the method. The developed method could support the drug approval process for erythromycin in medicated salmonid fish feed. PMID:24645499

De Alwis, Hemakanthi G; Girard, Lauren; Kijak, Philip J; Rummel, Nathan

2013-01-01

188

Ontogenetic development and sexual dimorphism of franciscana dolphin skull: A 3D geometric morphometric approach.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study the postnatal ontogenetic development of Pontoporia blainvillei skull, identifying major changes on shape, and relating them to relevant factors in the life history of the species. We analyzed a complete ontogenetic series (73?, 83?) with three-dimensional geometric morphometric techniques. Immature dolphins showed a very well-developed braincase and a poorly developed rostrum, and the principal postnatal changes affected the rostrum and the temporal fossa, both structures implied functionally to the feeding apparatus, thus suggesting a specialized mode for catch fast prey in P. blainvillei. Osseous elements associated with sound production were already well developed on immature dolphins, suggesting the importance of this apparatus since the beginning of postnatal life. Sexual dimorphism was detected on both shape and size variables. Females were bigger than males, in accordance with previous studies. Shape differences between sexes were found on the posterior part of premaxillaries and external bony nares (P?sexual dimorphism is related to differences on vocalization capabilities. J. Morphol. 275:1366-1375, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25052760

Del Castillo, Daniela L; Flores, David A; Cappozzo, Humberto L

2014-12-01

189

The Content of Sexual Fantasies for Sexual Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the phenomenon of sexual fantasy has been extensively researched, little contemporary inquiry has investigated the content of sexual fantasy within the context of sexual offending. In this study, a qualitative analysis was used to develop a descriptive model of the phenomena of sexual fantasy during the offence process. Twenty-four adult males convicted of sexual offences provided detailed retrospective descriptions

Dion G. Gee; Grant J. Devilly; Tony Ward

2004-01-01

190

Using multistate mark-recapture methods to model adult salmonid migration in an industrialized river  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multistate mark-recapture (MSMR) model of the adult salmonid migration through the lower Columbia River and into the Snake River was developed, designed for radiotelemetry detections at dams and tributary mouths. The model focuses on upstream-directed travel, with states determined from observed fish movement patterns indicating directed upstream travel, downstream travel (fallback), and use of non-natal tributaries. The model was

Rebecca A. Buchanan; John R. Skalski

2010-01-01

191

Peripheral administration of Kiss1 pentadecapeptide induces gonadal development in sexually immature adult scombroid fish.  

PubMed

Kisspeptins have emerged as potent regulators of the reproductive brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis. Our previous study demonstrated that the brain of the chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus), a scombroid fish, expresses two kisspeptin-encoding genes, kiss1 and kiss2, and exhibits sexually dimorphic expression profiles. Recent studies strongly suggest that teleost Kiss1 and Kiss2 precursors produce mature Kiss1-pentadecapeptides (Kiss1-15) and Kiss2-dodecapeptides (Kiss2-12), respectively. In light of the above, the present study evaluated the potency of synthetic peptides of Kiss1-15, Kiss2-12, and a GnRH analog (GnRHa) on inducing gonadal development in sexually immature adult chub mackerel. Synthetic peptides were administered subcutaneously through mini-osmotic pumps. On day 45 post-administration, gonadosomatic index (GSI) values (%) of male fish treated with Kiss1-15 (1.82) significantly increased in comparison to initial control (0.33), final control (0.49), Kiss2-12 (0.24), and GnRHa (1.13)-treated fish. Interestingly, the testis of all Kiss1-15 treated fish revealed spermiation, and were full of spermatozoa. These fish showed significantly higher levels of pituitary fsh? and Ih? mRNAs and circulating 11-ketotestosterone. GnRHa treated fish also revealed the presence of few spermatozoa in the testis. In females, no significant changes in GSI values were found between treatments; however, Kiss1-15- and GnRHa-treated fish showed prominent signs of vitellogenic onset, with many early yolk oocytes in their ovaries. Interestingly, Kiss1-15-treated fish exhibited higher levels of pituitary fsh? and circulating estradiol-17?. These results indicate that peripheral administration of Kiss1-15 and GnRHa can induce gonadal development in sexually immature chub mackerel. PMID:23721468

Selvaraj, Sethu; Ohga, Hirofumi; Kitano, Hajime; Nyuji, Mitsuo; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

2013-06-01

192

Relationships of Pubertal Development Among Early Adolescents to Sexual and Nonsexual Risk Behaviors and Caregivers' Parenting Behaviors  

PubMed Central

Using a school-based sample of Washington, DC, fifth graders (mean age 10.38, SD = 0.66) and their parents (N = 408), we examined associations of pubertal development with early adolescents' sexual and nonsexual risk behaviors and their caregivers' parenting behaviors; and of these risk behaviors with parenting behaviors. Youths reporting signs of pubertal development were more likely to engage in these risk behaviors than students reporting no signs. Pubertal development was not related to parenting behaviors; however, parents of youths who reported multiple nonsexual risk behaviors reported more parent-child communication about sexual topics. These results highlight the need to begin risk prevention efforts early, prior to pubertal development. Research is needed to understand how parents can help youths better cope with pubertal development to avoid involvement in sexual and nonsexual risk behaviors. PMID:21808444

Koo, Helen P.; Rose, Allison; Bhaskar, Brinda; Walker, Leslie R.

2011-01-01

193

The Evolution of Sexual Pleasure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual pleasure is an innate component of human sexuality. Although disdained throughout history by religious groups and variably explained by theories, philosophers, and societies, sexual pleasure permeates human experience. Traditional evolutionists explain this preoccupation via the development of sexual mating strategies and the human desire to propagate one's genes; however, here I will argue that the saturation of sexual pleasure

Felicia De la Garza-Mercer

2007-01-01

194

sexual Assault sexual Assault  

E-print Network

sexual Assault sexual Assault if You Are a Victim of a sexual Assault 1. Get to a safe place. 2. Call out for help. 3. DiAl 6111 or ask someone to ring for you and state "sEXUAl AssAUlT" giving exact. if You Witness a sexual Assault 1. Everyone is asked to assist in making the campus a safe place by being

Hickman, Mark

195

Why harassment happens at work: Theoretical developments of the antecedents of sexual harassment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to examine the antecedents of sexual harassment in the workplace. Two prominent theories, the Illinois model (Fitzgerald, Hulin, & Drasgow, 1996) and Pryor's (1987) Person by Situation Theory, were incorporated into a general model of why sexual harassment happens. Men's perceptions of organizational climate for harassment, men's perceptions of the sexual behavior of other

Jennifer L Hurt

2000-01-01

196

Ethical parenting of sexually active youth: ensuring safety while enabling development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protection of children from harm is commonly accepted as the cardinal duty of parents. In the USA, where young people's sexuality is often regarded with anxiety, attempts to restrict adolescent sexual behaviour are seen as ethically justified and even required of ‘good’ parents. Running counter to popular anxiety surrounding young people's sexuality is a mounting argument that a degree

Laina Y. Bay-Cheng

2012-01-01

197

The morphological plastic response to water current velocity varies with age and sexual state in juvenile Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. Salmonids, like many other fish species, exhibit morphological plasticity to variations in water current velocity. However, little is known about how this response varies with age and alternative sexual tactics that usually coexist in the same area. We therefore sampled immature 1- and 2-year-old and sexually mature Salmo salar parr to determine how the morphological response to slow

DAVID J AMES; P AEZ; R ICHARD H EDGER; L OUIS B ERNATCHEZ; J ULIAN; J. D ODSON

2008-01-01

198

Language choice and sexual communication among Xhosa speakers in Cape Town, South Africa: implications for HIV prevention message development.  

PubMed

Communicating about sex is a vital component of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and influences how HIV educators convey messages to communities and how couples negotiate safer sex practices. However, sexual communication inevitably confronts culturally based behavioral guidelines and linguistic taboos unique to diverse social contexts. The HIV interventionist needs to identify the appropriate language for sexual communication given the participants and the message. Ethnographic research can help facilitate the exploration of how sex terminology is chosen. A theoretical framework, developed to guide HIV interventionists, suggests that an individual's language choice for sexual communication is influenced by gender roles and power differentials. In-depth interviews, free listing and triadic comparisons were conducted with Xhosa men and women in Cape Town, South Africa, to determine the terms for male genitalia, female genitalia and sexual intercourse that are most appropriate for sexual communication. Results showed that sexual terms express cultural norms and role expectations where men should be powerful and resilient and women should be passive and virginal. For HIV prevention education, non-mother tongue (English and Zulu) terms were recommended as most appropriate because they are descriptive, but allow the speaker to communicate outside the restrictive limits of their mother tongue by reducing emotive cultural connotations. PMID:21059802

Cain, Demetria; Schensul, Stephen; Mlobeli, Regina

2011-06-01

199

Language choice and sexual communication among Xhosa speakers in Cape Town, South Africa: implications for HIV prevention message development  

PubMed Central

Communicating about sex is a vital component of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and influences how HIV educators convey messages to communities and how couples negotiate safer sex practices. However, sexual communication inevitably confronts culturally based behavioral guidelines and linguistic taboos unique to diverse social contexts. The HIV interventionist needs to identify the appropriate language for sexual communication given the participants and the message. Ethnographic research can help facilitate the exploration of how sex terminology is chosen. A theoretical framework, developed to guide HIV interventionists, suggests that an individual's language choice for sexual communication is influenced by gender roles and power differentials. In-depth interviews, free listing and triadic comparisons were conducted with Xhosa men and women in Cape Town, South Africa, to determine the terms for male genitalia, female genitalia and sexual intercourse that are most appropriate for sexual communication. Results showed that sexual terms express cultural norms and role expectations where men should be powerful and resilient and women should be passive and virginal. For HIV prevention education, non-mother tongue (English and Zulu) terms were recommended as most appropriate because they are descriptive, but allow the speaker to communicate outside the restrictive limits of their mother tongue by reducing emotive cultural connotations. PMID:21059802

Cain, Demetria; Schensul, Stephen; Mlobeli, Regina

2011-01-01

200

Sexual Dimorphism in the Andromonoecious Euphorbia nicaeensis: Effects of Gender and Inflorescence Development  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims In andromonoecious taxa with separate floral types along the inflorescence, architectural or plastic effects can simulate floral sexual dimorphism. Both the primary and secondary sexual characteristics of the cyathia of the protogynous andromonoecious species Euphorbia nicaeensis were analysed according to their sex and arrangement on the inflorescence. Methods The production of male and hermaphrodite cyathia at each inflorescence level was surveyed in two natural populations. The longevity, size, pollen production and viability, and nectar secretion of both types of cyathia were checked between inflorescence levels and between sexes at the only level at which they occur together. This sampling method makes it possible to know whether differences between cyathia types are based on sex or are attributable to inflorescence development. Key Results Male cyathia were produced predominantly at the first and second inflorescence levels, whereas at levels 3–5, the cyathia were almost exclusively hermaphrodite. Viable pollen production by male cyathia at the second inflorescence level was higher than that of hermaphrodite cyathia at the third level but, when males and hermaphrodites at the same level were compared, their pollen production was similar. Male and hermaphrodite cyathia were similar in size, irrespective of the inflorescence level, although the exclusively hermaphrodite cyathia of the last level were smaller. Both cyathium types produced similar amounts of sugar. However, male cyathia produced nectar during their whole lifespans, whereas hermaphrodites produced it exclusively during their male phase. Moreover, the nectary activity of male cyathia started earlier in the day than that of hermaphrodites. Conclusions An apparent floral dimorphism exists in the primary sexual characteristics of Euphorbia nicaeensis because differences in pollen production between cyathium types are due to theirs positions. Similarly, differences affecting most secondary sexual characteristics are only apparent between the two cyathium types. However, E. nicaeensis shows a true but slight floral dimorphism in some of the secondary sex characters related to nectar secretion. The lack of nectar production by the female phase of the hermaphrodite cyathia of E. nicaeensis indicates that this is a deceit-pollinated species. PMID:18250109

Narbona, Eduardo; Ortiz, Pedro Luis; Arista, Montserrat

2008-01-01

201

'Popping the clutch': novel mechanisms regulating sexual development in Cryptococcus neoformans.  

PubMed

Sexual reproduction in fungal pathogens such as Cryptococcus provides natural selection and adaptation of the organisms to environmental conditions by allowing beneficial mutations to spread. However, successful mating in these fungi requires a time-critical induction of signaling pheromones when appropriate partners become available. Recently, it has been shown that the fungus uses the transcriptional equivalent of the racing technique: 'popping the clutch'-pushing in the clutch pedal, putting the car in gear, revving with the gas pedal, and then dropping the clutch pedal to accelerate rapidly. In the same way, Cryptococcus during vegetative growth constitutively matches a high rate of pheromone synthesis with a high rate of degradation to produce repressed levels of transcript. Then, when mating is required, the fungus drops the degradative machinery, resulting in a rapid induction of the pheromone. Pairing with this novel regulatory cycle is a host of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades, cyclic AMP-dependent, and calcium-calcineurin signaling pathways that maintain these high rates of pheromone synthesis and prime downstream pathways for an effective mating response. The intersection of a number of virulence-associated traits with sexual development such as the synthesis of an immune-disruptive laccase as well as a protective polysaccharide capsule makes these rapid regulatory strategies a formidable foe in the battle against human disease. PMID:21912854

Park, Yoon-Dong; Williamson, Peter R

2012-06-01

202

‘Popping the Clutch’: Novel Mechanisms Regulating Sexual Development in Cryptococcus neoformans  

PubMed Central

Sexual reproduction in fungal pathogens such as Cryptococcus provides natural selection and adaptation of the organisms to environmental conditions by allowing beneficial mutations to spread. However, successful mating in these fungi requires a time-critical induction of signaling pheromones when appropriate partners become available. Recently, it has been shown that the fungus uses the transcriptional equivalent of the racing technique: ‘popping the clutch’-- pushing in the clutch pedal, putting the car in gear, revving with the gas pedal and then dropping the clutch pedal to accelerate rapidly. In the same way, Cryptococcus during vegetative growth constitutively matches a high rate of pheromone synthesis with a high rate of degradation to produce repressed levels of transcript. Then, when mating is required, the fungus drops the degradative machinery, resulting in a rapid induction of the pheromone. Pairing with this novel regulatory cycle are a host of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades, cyclic AMP (cAMP) dependent, and calcium-calcineurin signaling pathways that maintain these high rates of pheromone synthesis and prime downstream pathways for an effective mating response. The intersection of a number of virulence-associated traits with sexual development such as the synthesis of an immune-disruptive laccase as well as a protective polysaccharide capsule makes these rapid regulatory strategies a formidable foe in the battle against human disease. PMID:21912854

Park, Yoon-Dong; Williamson, Peter R.

2014-01-01

203

How queer!--the development of gender identity and sexual orientation in LGBTQ-headed families.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on the impact of heteronormativity on research and clinical theory, utilizing the case of a lesbian couple with a young gender dysphoric child as a backdrop to discuss the contextual unfolding of gender development within a lesbian parented family. The extant research on LGBTQ-headed families has minimized the complexity of children's developing gender identity and sexual orientation living in queer families, and has been guided by heteronormative assumptions that presume a less optimal outcome if the children of LGBTQ parents are gay or transgender themselves. This article challenges family therapists to recognize the enormous societal pressure on LGBTQ parents to produce heterosexual, gender-normative children, and the expectations on their children, especially those questioning their own sex or gender identities. PMID:20831761

Istar Lev, Arlene

2010-09-01

204

Seasonal Juvenile Salmonid Presence and Migratory Behavior in the Lower Columbia River  

SciTech Connect

To facilitate preparing Biological Assessments of proposed channel maintenance projects, the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers contracted the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to consolidate and synthesize available information about the use of the lower Columbia River and estuary by juvenile anadromous salmonids. The information to be synthesized included existing published documents as well as data from five years (2004-2008) of acoustic telemetry studies conducted in the Columbia River estuary using the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System. For this synthesis, the Columbia River estuary includes the section of the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam at river kilometer (Rkm) 235 downstream to the mouth where it enters the Pacific Ocean. In this report, we summarize the seasonal salmonid presence and migration patterns in the Columbia River estuary based on information from published studies as well as relevant data from acoustic telemetry studies conducted by NOAA Fisheries and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) between 2004 and 2008. Recent acoustic telemetry studies, conducted using the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS; developed by the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers), provided information on the migratory behavior of juvenile steelhead (O. mykiss) and Chinook salmon in the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam to the Pacific Ocean. In this report, Section 2 provides a summary of information from published literature on the seasonal presence and migratory behavior of juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River estuary and plume. Section 3 presents a detailed synthesis of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead migratory behavior based on use of the JSATS between 2004 and 2008. Section 4 provides a discussion of the information summarized in the report as well as information drawn from literature reviews on potential effects of channel maintenance activities to juvenile salmonids rearing in or migrating through the Columbia River estuary and plume.

Carter, Jessica A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Welch, Ian D.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.

2009-04-30

205

Sexual Identity Development and Self-Esteem as Predictors of Body Image in a Racially Diverse Sample of Gay Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined the relationship between sexual identity development and body image, as well as the potential mediating effect of self-esteem, in a community sample of gay men. A diverse group of participants (N = 172), recruited through listservs and flyers, completed an online survey. Regression analyses were conducted to assess the relationships between identity development and self-esteem, identity

Dana Udall-Weiner

2009-01-01

206

Efficacy and safety of an inactivated vaccine against Salmonid alphavirus (family Togaviridae).  

PubMed

Pancreas disease (PD) in salmonid fish is caused by an infection with Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) and remains as one of the major health problems in the European fish farming industry. Sequence studies have revealed a genetic diversity among viral strains. A subtype of SAV (SAV3) is causing an epizootic in farmed salmonids in Norway. Here we evaluate efficacy and safety of an inactivated virus vaccine based on ALV405, a strain of SAV3 that was isolated from Norwegian salmon. The vaccine provided an average relative percent survival (RPS) of 98.5 in an intraperitoneal challenge model, and induced nearly total protection against PD in a cohabitant challenge model. It provided significant protection against SAV-induced mortality also in a field trial under industrial conditions. Local reactions seen as melanization and adhesions in the visceral cavity were less severe than those induced by two commercial vaccines. Finally, we demonstrated that the protection is not impaired when the ALV405 antigen is combined with other viral or bacterial antigens in a polyvalent vaccine. The results confirm that efficient and safe protection against SAV infection and development of PD is possible using an inactivated virus vaccine, both alone and as a component in a polyvalent vaccine. PMID:22691434

Karlsen, Marius; Tingbø, Terje; Solbakk, Inge-Tom; Evensen, Øystein; Furevik, Anette; Aas-Eng, Anne

2012-08-17

207

Expert initial review of Columbia River Basin salmonid management models: Summary report  

SciTech Connect

Over the past years, several fish passage models have been developed to examine the downstream survival of salmon during their annual migration through the Columbia River reservoir system to below Bonneville Dam. More recently, models have been created to simulate the survival of salmon throughout the entire life cycle. The models are used by various regional agencies and native American tribes to assess impacts of dam operation, harvesting, and predation on salmonid abundance. These models are now also being used to assess extinction probabilities and evaluate restoration alternatives for threatened and endangered salmonid stocks. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) coordinated an initial evaluation of the principal models by a panel of outside, expert reviewers. None of the models were unequivocally endorsed by any reviewer. Significant strengths and weaknesses were noted for each with respect to reasonability of assumptions and equations, adequacy of documentation, adequacy of supporting data, and calibration procedures. Although the models reviewed differ in some important respects, all reflect a common conceptual basis in classical population dynamic theory and a common empirical basis consisting of the available time series of salmonid stock data, hydrographic records, experimental studies of dam passage parameters, and measurements of reservoir mortality. The results of this initial review are not to be construed as a comprehensive scientific peer review of existing Columbia River Basin (CRB) salmon population models and data. The peer review process can be enhanced further by a dynamic exchange regional modelers and scientific panel experts involving interaction and feedback.

Barnthouse, L.W.

1993-10-01

208

Abnormalities of Sexual Development in Male Rats with in Utero and Lactational Exposure to the Antiandrogenic Plasticizer Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several members of the phthalate ester family have antiandrogenic properties, yet little is known about how exposure to these ubiquitous environmental contaminants early in development may affect sexual development. We conducted experiments to determine effects of in utero and lacta- tional exposure to the most prevalent phthalate ester, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), on male reproductive system development and sexual behavior. Sprague-Dawley

Robert W. Moore; Thomas A. Rudy; Tien-Min Lin; Kinarm Ko; Richard E. Peterson

209

Sexuality in subjects with intellectual disability: an educational intervention proposal for parents and counselors in developing countries.  

PubMed

In developing countries, the study of intellectual disability has enormous knowledge gaps, especially in the areas of intervention, utilization of services and legislation. This article provides information not only for aiding in the potential development of sexuality in individuals with intellectual disability, but also for fostering their social integration. In Mexico and the region, in order to develop educational interventions for promoting sexual health, it is necessary to consider the following priorities: a) mental health professionals should have the knowledge or receive training for carrying out a sexual education and counseling program; b) educational interventions for subjects with intellectual disability should be adapted for the different stages of life (childhood, adolescence and adulthood); c) during childhood, educational intervention should emphasize the concept of public and private conducts; d) in adolescence, intervention should consider the actual mental age and not the chronological age of the subjects receiving intervention; e) the expression of sexuality in the adult with intellectual disability depends on the early incorporation of factors for promoting social inclusion; f) for educational interventions to be successful, it is fundamental that sexual educators and counselors, in addition to working with the clients, also work with their parents and other close family members; g) intervention programs should establish development objectives for developing in persons with intellectual disability a positive attitude towards sexuality and the improvement in self-esteem; h) in subjects with intellectual disability, their linguistic comprehension level should be taken into consideration and techniques for open discussion and non-inductive education should be used; i) social integration programs should address the needs of developing countries and their individuals, since it is not feasible to import external programs due to differences in infrastructure and the absence of public policies for promoting development; j) full sexuality in subjects with intellectual disability should be fostered in a comprehensive manner within an independent living program; k) in Mexico and the region, public policies should be instituted for administering independent living programs for people with intellectual disability and should lead to social, familial and economic power for the purpose of being productive. Thus, people with mental deficiency in developing countries can aspire to being integrated into social and work life and to appropriately expressing their sexuality. PMID:18470353

Katz, Gregorio; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

2008-01-01

210

Low-dose effects of bisphenol A on early sexual development in male and female rats.  

PubMed

Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely detected in human urine and blood. BPA has been reported to impair many endpoints for reproductive and neurological development; however, it is controversial whether BPA has effects in the microgram per kilogram dose range. The aim of the current study was to examine the influence of BPA on early sexual development in male and female rats at dose levels covering both regulatory no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) (5 and 50?mg/kg bw per day) as well as doses in the microgram per kilogram dose range (0.025 and 0.25?mg/kg bw per day). Time-mated Wistar rats (n=22) were gavaged during pregnancy and lactation from gestation day 7 to pup day 22 with 0, 0.025, 0.25, 5 or 50?mg/kg bw per day BPA. From 0.250?mg/kg and above, male anogenital distance (AGD) was significantly decreased, whereas decreased female AGD was seen from 0.025?mg/kg bw per day and above. Moreover, the incidence of nipple retention in males appeared to increase dose relatedly and the increase was statistically significant at 50?mg/kg per day. No significant changes in reproductive organ weights in the 16-day-old males and females and no signs of maternal toxicity were seen. The decreased AGD at birth in both sexes indicates effects on prenatal sexual development and provides new evidence of low-dose adverse effects of BPA in rats in the microgram per kilogram dose range. The NOAEL in this study is clearly below 5?mg/kg for BPA, which is used as the basis for establishment of the current tolerable daily intake (TDI) by EFSA; thus a reconsideration of the current TDI of BPA appears warranted. PMID:24298045

Christiansen, Sofie; Axelstad, Marta; Boberg, Julie; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Pedersen, Gitte Alsing; Hass, Ulla

2014-01-01

211

Preliminary development of a scale to measure stigma relating to sexually transmitted infections among women in a high risk neighbourhood  

PubMed Central

Background As stigma is a socially constructed concept, it would follow that stigma related to sexual behaviours and sexually transmitted infections would carry with it many of the gender-based morals that are entrenched in social constructs of sexuality. In many societies, women tend to be judged more harshly with respect to sexual morals, and would therefore have a different experience of stigma related to sexual behaviours as compared to men. While a variety of stigma scales exist for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in general; none incorporate these female-specific aspects. The objective of this study was to develop a scale to measure the unique experience of STI-related stigma among women. Methods A pool of items was identified from qualitative and quantitative literature on sexual behaviour and STIs among women. Women attending a social evening program at a local community health clinic in a low-income neighbourhood with high prevalence of substance use were passively recruited to take part in a cross-sectional structured interview, including questions on sexual behaviour, sexual health and STI-related stigma. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify stigma scales, and descriptive statistics were used to assess the associations of demographics, sexual and drug-related risk behaviours with the emerging scales. Results Three scales emerged from exploratory factor analysis – female-specific moral stigma, social stigma (judgement by others) and internal stigma (self-judgement) – with alpha co-efficients of 0.737, 0.705 and 0.729, respectively. In this population of women, internal stigma and social stigma carried higher scores than female-specific moral stigma. Aboriginal ethnicity was associated with higher internal and female-specific moral stigma scores, while older age (>30 years) was associated with higher female-specific moral stigma scores. Conclusion Descriptive statistics indicated an important influence of culture and age on specific types of stigma. Quantitative researchers examining STI-stigma should consider incorporating these female-specific factors in order to tailor scales for women. PMID:19021915

Rusch, Melanie LA; Shoveller, Jean A; Burgess, Susan; Stancer, Karen; Patrick, David M; Tyndall, Mark W

2008-01-01

212

Sexual development and reproductive demography of the green humphead parrotfish ( Bolbometopon muricatum) in the Solomon Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation of the reproductive biology of the green humphead parrotfish ( Bolbometopon muricatum) from three areas in the Western Province of the Solomon Islands revealed that B. muricatum exhibits several features that differ from the pattern of reproductive development observed in most parrotfishes. Unlike most parrotfishes, histological evidence suggests that the sexual pattern of B. muricatum is essentially gonochoristic with high incidences of anatomical but non-functional hermaphroditism. B. muricatum also differs from other parrotfishes in that all males pass through an immature female (or bisexual) phase as demonstrated by all adult testis retaining the ex-ovarian lumen and peripheral sperm sinuses in the gonad wall. However, a protogynous diandric reproductive strategy cannot be excluded given that sampling may have missed transitional individuals. Marked variation in the demography of male B. muricatum between the three locations examined is considered to reflect variation in historical fishing effort.

Hamilton, R. J.; Adams, S.; Choat, J. H.

2008-03-01

213

Partial urorectal septum malformation sequence in a kitten with disorder of sexual development.  

PubMed

A 2-month-old kitten exhibited simultaneously an imperforate anus, hypospadias, rectourethral fistula and genital dysgenesis (penis restricted to the glans, absence of prepuce and bifid scrotum). Surgical correction consisted of separation of the urinary and digestive tracts, perineal urethrostomy and connection of the rectum to the newly made anal opening. Pathological examination of the testes, conventionally removed at 9 months of age, showed no mature spermatozoa and underdevelopment of germ and Leydig cells. In humans, the absence of an anal opening in association with abnormal sexual development defines the urorectal septum malformation sequence. Here, we describe the first case of this syndrome in a kitten with a normal male karyotype (38,XY) and a normal coding sequence for the SRY gene. Both the rectourethral fistula and observed genital abnormalities might have been induced by a disturbance in the hedgehog signalling pathway. However, although four polymorphic sites were identified by DHH gene sequencing, none cosegregated with the malformation. PMID:24718294

Reynolds, Brice S; Pain, Amélie; Meynaud-Collard, Patricia; Nowacka-Woszuk, Joanna; Szczerbal, Izabela; Switonski, Marek; Chastant-Maillard, Sylvie

2014-12-01

214

Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Yakima River Tributaries, 2001-2002 Technical Report.  

SciTech Connect

The benefits that marine derived nutrients from adult salmon carcasses provide to juvenile salmonids are increasingly being recognized. Current estimates suggest that only 6-7% of marine-derived nitrogen and phosphorus that were historically available to salmonids in the Pacific Northwest are currently available. Food limitation may be a major constraint limiting the restoration of salmonids. A variety of methods have been proposed to offset this nutrient deficit including: allowing greater salmon spawning escapement, stocking hatchery salmon carcasses, and stocking inorganic nutrients. Unfortunately, each of these methods has some ecological or socio-economic shortcoming. We intend to overcome many of these shortcomings by making and evaluating a pathogen free product that simulates a salmon carcass (analog). Abundant sources of marine derived nutrients are available such as fish offal from commercial fishing and salmon carcasses from hatcheries. However, a method for recycling these nutrients into a pathogen free analog that degrades at a similar rate as a natural salmon carcass has never been developed. We endeavored to (1) develop a salmon carcass analog that will increase the food available to salmonids, (2) determine the pathways that salmonids use to acquire food from analogs, and (3) determine the benefits to salmonids and the potential for application to salmonid restoration. We used a before-after-control-impact-paired design in six tributaries of the upper Yakima basin to determine the utility of stocking carcass analogs. Our preliminary results suggest that the introduction of carcass analogs into food-limited streams can be used to restore food pathways previously provided by anadromous salmon. The analogs probably reproduced both of the major food pathways that salmon carcasses produce: direct consumption and food chain enhancement. Trout and salmon fed directly on the carcass analogs during the late summer and presumably benefited from the increased invertebrate biomass later in the year. Future reports will analyze whether any benefits are statistically detectable. The risks of using carcass analogs also appear to be low. Pathogens appear to be killed in the manufacturing process of the analogs. In addition, preliminary results suggest that fish exposed to the analogs did not have higher incidences of pathogens. The water quality was also not degraded by the analog additions with the exception of a temporary surface film. Finally, our anecdotal observations, suggested that there was not an increase in the number of predators during the first year of analog distribution. In summary, the risks of analog placement appear to be low but the benefits appear to be high. All results should be considered preliminary until further analyses and field work are conducted.

Pearsons, Todd N.; Johnson, Christopher L. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

2003-04-01

215

Human Sexuality: Responsible Life Choices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides a complete course in human sexuality. It can also be used to supplement a family living course. Text content provides current information for teaching high school students about sexuality issues. The text offers basic information on growth and development, sexual development, pregnancy, and birth. It explains the sexual decision…

Ryder, Verdene; Smith, Peggy B.

216

Ultrastructural morphogenesis of salmonid alphavirus 1.  

PubMed

Studies on the ultrastructural morphogenesis of viruses give an insight into how the host cell mechanisms are utilized for new virion synthesis. A time course examining salmonid alphavirus 1 (SAV 1) assembly was performed by culturing the virus on Chinook salmon embryo cells (CHSE-214). Different stages of viral replication were observed under electron microscopy. Virus-like particles were observed inside membrane-bound vesicles as early as 1 h following contact of the virus with the cells. Membrane-dependent replication complexes were observed in the cytoplasm of the cells, with spherules found at the periphery of late endosome-like vacuoles. The use of intracellular membranes for RNA replication is similar to other positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses. The number of Golgi apparatus and associated vacuoles characterized by 'fuzzy'-coated membranes was greater in virus-infected cells. The mature enveloped virions started to bud out from the cells at approximately 24 h post-infection. These observations suggest that the pathway used by SAV 1 for the generation of new virus particles in vitro is comparable to viral replication observed with mammalian alphaviruses but with some interesting differences. PMID:22913764

Herath, T K; Ferguson, H W; Thompson, K D; Adams, A; Richards, R H

2012-11-01

217

Responding to Sexual Abuse: Developing a Community-Based Sexual Abuse Response Team in Aboriginal Communities. Aboriginal Peoples Collection, Technical Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual addresses the issue of sexual abuse in Canadian aboriginal communities, and advocates a community sexual abuse response team approach in building a viable solution to the problem. The manual introduces the main issues and problems relevant to a community sexual response team. Chapter 1 looks at the cultural and historical past of…

Ministry of the Solicitor General, Ottawa (Ontario).

218

Different Patterns of Sexual Identity Development over Time: Implications for the Psychological Adjustment of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite research documenting variability in the sexual identity development of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths, it remains unclear whether different developmental patterns have implications for the psychological adjustment of LGB youths. This report longitudinally examines whether different patterns of LGB identity formation and integration are associated with indicators of psychological adjustment among an ethnically diverse sample of 156 LGB

Margaret Rosario; Eric W. Schrimshaw; Joyce Hunter

2010-01-01

219

Power through Choices: The Development of a Sexuality Education Curriculum for Youths in Out-of-Home Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Profiles the development and characteristics of the Power Through Choices curriculum designed to prevent adolescent pregnancy, HIV infection, and sexually transmitted diseases among out-of-home care adolescents. Highlights a 1997 evaluation of the curriculum's implementation, which found that students in the program responded positively to the…

Becker, Marla G.; Barth, Richard P.

2000-01-01

220

A Clinic-Based Youth Development Program to Reduce Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Adolescent Girls: Prime Time Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multifaceted, sustained efforts are needed to reduce early pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases among high-risk adolescents. An important area for research is testing youth development interventions offered through clinic settings, where access to high-risk adolescents is plentiful and few efforts have rigorously evaluated a dual approach of building protective factors while addressing risk. This article presents findings from a pilot

Renee E. Sieving; Debra H. Bernat; Michael D. Resnick; Jennifer Oliphant; Sandra Pettingell; Shari Plowman; Carol Skay

2012-01-01

221

Uncommonly Good: Exploring How Mass Media May Be a Positive Influence on Young Women's Sexual Health and Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter discusses several ways in which the media may serve as a positive force in young women's sexual health and development through the information and models they provide and the opportunities they offer for validation and self-expression. (Contains 1 table.)

Ward, L. Monique; Day, Kyla M.; Epstein, Marina

2006-01-01

222

Relationships of Pubertal Development among Early Adolescents to Sexual and Nonsexual Risk Behaviors and Caregivers' Parenting Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a school-based sample of fifth graders (mean age = 10.38, SD = 0.66) and their parents (N = 408) from Washington, D.C., the authors examine associations of pubertal development with early adolescents' sexual and nonsexual risk behaviors and their caregivers' parenting behaviors and of these risk behaviors with parenting behaviors. Results…

Koo, Helen P.; Rose, Allison; Bhaskar, Brinda; Walker, Leslie R.

2012-01-01

223

Sexual Harassment in Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the legal principles and precedents that frame current sexual harassment laws as they relate to schools. Discusses school district liability and responsibility for providing school environments safe from sexual harassment. Includes guidelines for developing and implementing school policies regarding sexual harassment. (CFR)

Mawdsley, Ralph D.

1994-01-01

224

A transcriptional switch underlies commitment to sexual development in human malaria parasites  

PubMed Central

The life cycles of many parasites involve transitions between disparate host species, requiring these parasites to go through multiple developmental stages adapted to each of these specialized niches. Transmission of malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) from humans to the mosquito vector requires differentiation from asexual stages replicating within red blood cells into non-dividing male and female gametocytes. Although gametocytes were first described in 1880, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in commitment to gametocyte formation is extremely limited and disrupting this critical developmental transition remains a long-standing goal1. We show here that expression levels of the DNA-binding protein PfAP2-G correlate strongly with levels of gametocyte formation. Using independent forward and reverse genetics approaches, we demonstrate that PfAP2-G function is essential for parasite sexual differentiation. By combining genome-wide PfAP2-G cognate motif occurrence with global transcriptional changes resulting from PfAP2-G ablation, we identify early gametocyte genes as likely targets of PfAP2-G and show that their regulation by PfAP2-G is critical for their wild-type level expression. In the asexual blood-stage parasites pfap2-g appears to be among a set of epigenetically silenced loci2,3 prone to spontaneous activation4. Stochastic activation presents a simple mechanism for a low baseline of gametocyte production. Overall, these findings identify PfAP2-G as a master regulator of sexual-stage development in malaria parasites and mark the first identification of a transcriptional switch controlling a differentiation decision in protozoan parasites. PMID:24572369

Kafsack, Bjorn F.C.; Rovira-Graells, Nuria; Clark, Taane G.; Bancells, Cristina; Crowley, Valerie M.; Campino, Susana G.; Williams, April E.; Drought, Laura G.; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P.; Baker, David A.; Cortes, Alfred; Llinas, Manuel

2014-01-01

225

Ethical Parenting of Sexually Active Youth: Ensuring Safety While Enabling Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The protection of children from harm is commonly accepted as the cardinal duty of parents. In the USA, where young people's sexuality is often regarded with anxiety, attempts to restrict adolescent sexual behaviour are seen as ethically justified and even required of "good" parents. Running counter to popular anxiety surrounding…

Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.

2013-01-01

226

Development of an Attachment-Informed Measure of Sexual Behavior in Late Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is considerable interest in relations between sexual behavior and romantic attachment styles in adolescence as attachment needs are increasingly met through intimate partners rather than parents. The objectives of this research were to organize a measure of sexual behavior within an attachment theory framework, and then show that this new…

Szielasko, Alicia L.; Symons, Douglas K.; Price, E. Lisa

2013-01-01

227

The Development of Conventional Sexual Partner Trajectories among African American Male Adolescents  

PubMed Central

African American male youth disproportionately report involvement with multiple sexual partners, which increases their risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and initiation of unplanned pregnancies. Little is known about the developmental precursors of sexual partner trajectories among African American male youth. Moreover, few studies focus on the many African American youth who evince highly conventional sexual partner trajectories, i.e., youth who have only one partner or abstain from sexual activity across time. Using four waves of data from a longitudinal study, we hypothesized that an accumulation of social and economic disadvantages in early adolescence would negatively influence youths’ conventional sexual partner trajectories in late adolescence. We expected these disadvantages to affect youths’ receipt of protective family processes and their reports of a set of intrapersonal processes (self-regulation, hope, and low levels of anger) linked to generally conventional behavior. Hypotheses were tested with data from 315 African American male youth from 11 to 18.5 years of age and their primary caregivers. Our results supported the hypotheses. Socioeconomic disadvantages during preadolescence predicted less involvement in conventional sexual partner trajectories from ages 16 to 18.5 years. This association was mediated by protective family processes and a set of interrelated intrapersonal protective processes. Preventive interventions designed to promote protective parenting and intrapersonal processes can be expected to promote sexual behavior trajectories characterized by abstinence or relations with very few partners. PMID:23150103

Kogan, Steven M.; Yu, Tianyi; Brody, Gene H.; Allen, Kimberly A.

2012-01-01

228

SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT AND BEHAVIOUR ISSUES IN POLISH TEENAGE MAGAzINES  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaRy Introduction: Adolescents often look to mass media for information regarding issues of sexuality. As one form of media, teenage magazines have long constituted a pervasive and effective element of adolescent media exposure. Teenage magazines discuss a number of aspects concerning adolescent sexuality. Considering their potential impact on health related behaviors, the information they provide and the message(s) they send

S. Kopacz

229

Gender, Pubertal Development, and Peer Sexual Harassment Predict Objectified Body Consciousness in Early Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectified body consciousness (OBC)--the tendency to view one's body as an object for others to look at and evaluate--is theorized to emerge during sexual maturation as adolescents, particularly adolescent girls, experience sexual objectification. Although OBC generally is discussed in developmental terms, research so far has examined primarily…

Lindberg, Sara M.; Grabe, Shelly; Hyde, Janet Shibley

2007-01-01

230

Is It Bullying or Sexual Harassment? Knowledge, Attitudes, and Professional Development Experiences of Middle School Staff  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study fills a gap in the literature by examining how school staff members view bullying and sexual harassment and their role in preventing both. Given recent legislation, increasingly more attention is paid to bully prevention; however, student-on-student sexual harassment is less addressed. Methods: Four focus groups were…

Charmaraman, Linda; Jones, Ashleigh E.; Stein, Nan; Espelage, Dorothy L.

2013-01-01

231

Development of the renal sexual segment in immature snakes: effect of sex steroid hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The renal sexual segment (RSS) of immature Northern and Diamondback Water Snakes and Red-Sided Garter Snakes exhibited varying responses to testosterone or 17?-estradiol. In both male and female water snakes, kidney mass was not a reliable indicator of hormone treatment, whereas tubule diameter, epithelial height and number of sexual granules responded to hormone treatment. In male water snakes, either hormone

Randolph W. Krohmer; Dora Martinez; Robert T. Mason

2004-01-01

232

Sexual identity development among gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths: consistency and change over time.  

PubMed

A longitudinal report of 156 gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths examined changes in sexual identity over time. Fifty-seven percent of the youths remained consistently self-identified as gay/lesbian, 18% transited from bisexual to gay/lesbian, and 15% consistently identified as bisexual over time. Although youths who consistently identified as gay/lesbian did not differ from other youths on time since experiencing sexual developmental milestones, they reported current sexual orientation and sexual behaviors that were more same-sex centered and they scored higher on aspects of the identity integration process (e.g., more certain, comfortable, and accepting of their same-sex sexuality, more involved in gay-related social activities, more possessing of positive attitudes toward homosexuality, and more comfortable with others knowing about their sexuality) than youths who transited to a gay/lesbian identity and youths who consistently identified as bisexual. Contrary to the hypothesis that females are more sexually fluid than males, female youths were less likely to change identities than male youths. The finding that youths who transited to a gay/lesbian identity differed from consistently gay/lesbian youths suggests that identity integration continues after the adoption of a gay/lesbian sexual identity. PMID:16817067

Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Hunter, Joyce; Braun, Lisa

2006-02-01

233

Toward a Sexual Ethics Curriculum: Bringing Philosophy and Society to Bear on Individual Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For over a decade, battles have raged between conservative Abstinence Only Until Marriage (AOUM) sexuality education advocates and liberal Comprehensive Sexuality Education (CSE) advocates. While these battles have focused on the inclusion of health information about contraception and whether or not a curriculum must advocate abstinence as the…

Lamb, Sharon

2010-01-01

234

Sexual Assault  

MedlinePLUS

... for Patients Share This Page: Sexual Assault Resources Sexual Assault Sexual assault is a significant problem affecting American ... National Network at 1-800-656-HOPE (4673). Sexual Assault Examinations It is important to know that a ...

235

Interspecies Synchrony in Salmonid Densities Associated with Large-Scale Bioclimatic Conditions in Central Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundance of lotic salmonids varies substantially through time, but the extent to which several sympatric species respond coherently to large-scale bioclimatic conditions has rarely been investigated for freshwater fishes. We compared correlations in salmonid density in central Idaho and examined the relationships between changes in salmonid density and the variation in large-scale bioclimatic conditions as indexed by stream flow,

Timothy Copeland; Kevin A. Meyer

2011-01-01

236

Natural Recruitment of Salmonids in the Muskegon River, Michigan Primary Investigator: Doran Mason -NOAA GLERL  

E-print Network

Sustainable harvest and management of the Great Lakes salmonid fisheries depends on accurate estimates mandated changes in hydropower operations that have improved salmonid nursery habitat below hydropower dams record numbers of adult salmonids, which during the 1980s depleted alewife forage and experienced high

237

In utero exposure to chloroquine alters sexual development in the male fetal rat  

SciTech Connect

Chloroquine (CQ), a drug that has been used extensively for the prevention and treatment of malaria, is currently considered safe for use during pregnancy. However, CQ has been shown to disrupt steroid homeostasis in adult rats and similar compounds, such as quinacrine, inhibit steroid production in the Leydig cell in vitro. To explore the effect of in utero CQ exposure on fetal male sexual development, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given a daily dose of either water or chloroquine diphosphate from GD 16-18 by oral gavage. Chloroquine was administered as 200 mg/kg CQ base on GD 16, followed by two maintenance doses of 100 mg/kg CQ base on GD 16 and 18. Three days of CQ treatment resulted in reduced maternal and fetal weight on GD 19 and increased necrosis and steatosis in the maternal liver. Fetal livers also displayed mild lipid accumulation. Maternal serum progesterone was increased after CQ administration. Fetal testes testosterone, however, was significantly decreased. Examination of the fetal testes revealed significant alterations in vascularization and seminiferous tubule development after short-term CQ treatment. Anogenital distance was not altered. Microarray and RT-PCR showed down-regulation of several genes associated with cholesterol transport and steroid synthesis in the fetal testes. This study indicates that CQ inhibits testosterone synthesis and normal testis development in the rat fetus at human relevant doses.

Clewell, Rebecca A. [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)], E-mail: rclewell@thehamner.org; Pluta, Linda; Thomas, Russell S.; Andersen, Melvin E. [Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

2009-06-15

238

Nonmyocytic androgen receptor regulates the sexually dimorphic development of the embryonic bulbocavernosus muscle.  

PubMed

The bulbocavernosus (BC) is a sexually dimorphic muscle observed only in males. Androgen receptor knockout mouse studies show the loss of BC formation. This suggests that androgen signaling plays a vital role in its development. Androgen has been known to induce muscle hypertrophy through satellite cell activation and myonuclei accretion during muscle regeneration and growth. Whether the same mechanism is present during embryonic development is not yet elucidated. To identify the mechanism of sexual dimorphism during BC development, the timing of morphological differences was first established. It was revealed that the BC was morphologically different between male and female mice at embryonic day (E) 16.5. Differences in the myogenic process were detected at E15.5. The male BC possesses a higher number of proliferating undifferentiated myoblasts. To identify the role of androgen signaling in this process, muscle-specific androgen receptor (AR) mutation was introduced, which resulted in no observable phenotypes. Hence, the expression of AR in the BC was examined and found that the AR did not colocalize with any muscle markers such as Myogenic differentiation 1, Myogenin, and paired box transcription factor 7. It was revealed that the mesenchyme surrounding the BC expressed AR and the BC started to express AR at E15.5. AR mutation on the nonmyocytic cells using spalt-like transcription factor 1 (Sall1) Cre driver mouse was performed, which resulted in defective BC formation. It was revealed that the number of proliferating undifferentiated myoblasts was reduced in the Sall1 Cre:AR(L-/Y) mutant embryos, and the adult mutants were devoid of BC. The transition of myoblasts from proliferation to differentiation is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. An increased expression of p21 was observed in the BC myoblast of the Sall1 Cre:AR(L-/Y) mutant and wild-type female. Altogether this study suggests that the nonmyocytic AR may paracrinely regulate the proliferation of myoblast possibly through inhibiting p21 expression in myoblasts of the BC. PMID:24742196

Ipulan, Lerrie Ann; Suzuki, Kentaro; Sakamoto, Yuki; Murashima, Aki; Imai, Yuuki; Omori, Akiko; Nakagata, Naomi; Nishinakamura, Ryuichi; Valasek, Petr; Yamada, Gen

2014-07-01

239

A review of infectious gill disease in marine salmonid fish.  

PubMed

Infectious gill diseases of marine salmonid fish present a significant challenge in salmon-farming regions. Infectious syndromes or disease conditions affecting marine-farmed salmonids include amoebic gill disease (AGD), proliferative gill inflammation (PGI) and tenacibaculosis. Pathogens involved include parasites, such as Neoparamoeba perurans, bacteria, such as Piscichlamydia salmonis and Tenacibaculum maritimum, and viruses, such as the Atlantic salmon paramyxovirus (ASPV). The present level of understanding of these is reviewed with regard to risk factors, potential impacting factors, methods of best practice to mitigate infectious gill disease, as well as knowledge gaps and avenues for future research. PMID:21401646

Mitchell, S O; Rodger, H D

2011-06-01

240

A salmonid EST genomic study: genes, duplications, phylogeny and microarrays  

PubMed Central

Background Salmonids are of interest because of their relatively recent genome duplication, and their extensive use in wild fisheries and aquaculture. A comprehensive gene list and a comparison of genes in some of the different species provide valuable genomic information for one of the most widely studied groups of fish. Results 298,304 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from Atlantic salmon (69% of the total), 11,664 chinook, 10,813 sockeye, 10,051 brook trout, 10,975 grayling, 8,630 lake whitefish, and 3,624 northern pike ESTs were obtained in this study and have been deposited into the public databases. Contigs were built and putative full-length Atlantic salmon clones have been identified. A database containing ESTs, assemblies, consensus sequences, open reading frames, gene predictions and putative annotation is available. The overall similarity between Atlantic salmon ESTs and those of rainbow trout, chinook, sockeye, brook trout, grayling, lake whitefish, northern pike and rainbow smelt is 93.4, 94.2, 94.6, 94.4, 92.5, 91.7, 89.6, and 86.2% respectively. An analysis of 78 transcript sets show Salmo as a sister group to Oncorhynchus and Salvelinus within Salmoninae, and Thymallinae as a sister group to Salmoninae and Coregoninae within Salmonidae. Extensive gene duplication is consistent with a genome duplication in the common ancestor of salmonids. Using all of the available EST data, a new expanded salmonid cDNA microarray of 32,000 features was created. Cross-species hybridizations to this cDNA microarray indicate that this resource will be useful for studies of all 68 salmonid species. Conclusion An extensive collection and analysis of salmonid RNA putative transcripts indicate that Pacific salmon, Atlantic salmon and charr are 94–96% similar while the more distant whitefish, grayling, pike and smelt are 93, 92, 89 and 86% similar to salmon. The salmonid transcriptome reveals a complex history of gene duplication that is consistent with an ancestral salmonid genome duplication hypothesis. Genome resources, including a new 32 K microarray, provide valuable new tools to study salmonids. PMID:19014685

Koop, Ben F; von Schalburg, Kristian R; Leong, Jong; Walker, Neil; Lieph, Ryan; Cooper, Glenn A; Robb, Adrienne; Beetz-Sargent, Marianne; Holt, Robert A; Moore, Richard; Brahmbhatt, Sonal; Rosner, Jamie; Rexroad, Caird E; McGowan, Colin R; Davidson, William S

2008-01-01

241

Management Implications of a Model of Predation by a Resident Fish on Juvenile Salmonids Migrating through a Columbia River Reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

We constructed a model ofpredation by northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis on juvenile salmonids migrating through John Day Reservoir. The model predicts salmonid survival as a function of number and distribution of northern squawfish, number and timing of juvenile salmonids entering the reservoir, salmonid residence time, water temperature, and flow. The model predicted survival similar to independent estimates for 1983–1986 and

Raymond C. Beamesderfer; Bruce E. Rieman; Lewis J. Bledsoe; Steven Vigg

1990-01-01

242

Predicting Different Patterns of Sexual Identity Development Over Time Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youths: A Cluster Analytic Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has suggested that the sexual identity development of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths may not follow\\u000a a single pattern, but may follow a variety of pathways. Although some research documenting variability in identity development\\u000a exists, unclear are the potential individual and social contexts that predict these different patterns, as well as the contexts\\u000a that predict changes in

Margaret Rosario; Eric W. Schrimshaw; Joyce Hunter

2008-01-01

243

Sexual Rights: Striking a Balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual rights, the first of the eight Montreal Declarations adopted by the World Association for Sexual Health (WAS), are grounded within existing international human rights treaties, covenants and conventions and contribute to achieving the Millennium Development Goals (United Nations, 2005). Despite their apparent contribution to sexual health, sexual rights are particularly contentious, challenged both by nations that do not share

Eleanor Maticka-Tyndale; Lisa Smylie

2008-01-01

244

The use of sexually explicit material in clinical, educational and research settings in the United Kingdom and its relation to the development of psychosexual therapy and sex education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present review describes the development and use of sexually explicit material in sex education within UK psychosexual therapy clinics, medical schools and also in state?maintained secondary schools with reference to interests that have shaped the provision of sex education since the early twentieth century. A short summary of published books on sex education and sexually explicit publications is included.

Marnie Brewster; Kevan R. Wylie

2008-01-01

245

Stirring It up or Stirring It in? Perspectives on the Development of Sexualities Equality in a Faith-Based Primary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines what happened within one Church of England primary school during an action research project concerning sexualities. "No Outsiders" aimed at exploring how teachers developed classroom practices that promoted greater inclusion of sexual minorities, at the same time as working to eradicate homophobic bullying and heterosexism.…

Nixon, David; East, Sue

2010-01-01

246

Stirring it up or stirring it in? Perspectives on the development of sexualities equality in a faith?based primary school  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines what happened within one Church of England primary school during an action research project concerning sexualities. No Outsiders aimed at exploring how teachers developed classroom practices that promoted greater inclusion of sexual minorities, at the same time as working to eradicate homophobic bullying and heterosexism. This examination engages current research methodologies, including post?structural analytics and narrative ethnography,

David Nixon; Sue East

2010-01-01

247

Influence of adult males, dietary phytoestrogens, and an index of in utero androgen exposure on sexual development in the female mouse (Mus musculus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The age at which a juvenile female reaches sexual maturity can be modulated by a variety of environmental and social factors. Experiments described in this thesis were designed to enhance the current understanding of the relationships among three variables that influence the onset of sexual maturation in female mice (Mus musculus), including: [1] exposure to dietary phytoestrogens during development, [2

Ayesha Khan

2009-01-01

248

In a Different Position: Conceptualizing Female Adolescent Sexuality Development within Compulsory Heterosexuality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter challenges forthcoming research on adolescent female sexuality to take more seriously the role of dominant cultural ideologies regarding heterosexuality and to consider its theoretical and methodological implications.

Tolman, Deborah L.

2006-01-01

249

Analytical developments in toxicological investigation of drug-facilitated sexual assault  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a general overview of the drug-facilitated sexual assault phenomenon. Sexual assault perpetrated on both women and men, while incapacitated by so-called date-rape drugs, recently became the focus of many investigations conducted by law enforcement agencies in the US throughout the 1990s; an alarming increase in reports of this crime as well as in the number of scientific

Adam Negrusz; R. E. Gaensslen

2003-01-01

250

Sexual identity development among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths: Consistency and change over time  

Microsoft Academic Search

A longitudinal report of 156 lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths examined changes in sexual identity over time. Fifty?seven percent of the youths consistently self?identified as gay\\/lesbian, 18% transitioned from bisexual to gay\\/lesbian, and 15% consistently identified as bisexual over time. Although youths who consistently identified as gay\\/lesbian did not differ from other youths on time since experiencing sexual developmental milestones,

Margaret Rosario; Eric W. Schrimshaw; Joyce Hunter; Lisa Braun

2006-01-01

251

Childhood violence exposure and the development of sexual risk in low-income African American girls.  

PubMed

Low-income, urban African American (AA) girls are at heightened risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and violence exposure may be an important risk factor. AA girls (N = 177) from low-income communities in Chicago completed a 2-year longitudinal study of HIV-risk behavior involving five waves of data collection (ages 12-16 at baseline) and a sixth wave (ages 14-22) assessing lifetime trauma and victimization history. Childhood exposure to violence (CEV) represented reports of physical, sexual, or witnessed violence before age 12. Latent growth curve analysis examined CEV as a covariate of sexual experience, number of sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use trajectories. CEV was associated with greater sexual risk, although the pattern differed across the three outcomes. Overall, findings emphasize the need for early interventions to reduce sexual risk among low-income urban girls who have experienced violence. Efforts to address or prevent violence exposure may also reduce rates of STIs in this population. PMID:24557448

Wilson, Helen W; Donenberg, Geri R; Emerson, Erin

2014-12-01

252

Proteomic approaches to sexual development mediated by antheridiogen in the fern Blechnum spicant L.  

PubMed

This report is intended to compare proteomic profiles between female and male gametophytes of Blechnum spicant L. For this purpose, female gametophytes were obtained from spores germinated on Murashige and Skoog medium (1962), and the male ones by culturing 30-day-old gametophytes on the same medium supplemented with extract derived from mature gametophytes, which exhibits anteridiogen effect. Proteins were extracted using the phenolic method, and after two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, 581 spots were detected in Coomassie stained gels within the 3-11 pH range and 10-100 kDa Mr ranges. Quantitative and qualitative differences in spot intensity between both types of gametophytes were found. The induction of male gametophytes by antheridiogens was correlated to a global increase in stress and defence-related pathways, which affect flavonoid signaling and cell division, while reducing protein biosynthesis, photosynthesis, and other energy-related pathways, reflecting how stressed are the gametophytes during the induction process. This is the first proteomic study that examines proteins associated to sexual development in the gametophyte of the fern B. spìcant. PMID:25044718

Valledor, Luis; Menéndez, Virginia; Canal, María Jesús; Revilla, Angeles; Fernández, Helena

2014-09-01

253

In utero and lactational exposure to fluoxetine in Wistar rats: pregnancy outcomes and sexual development.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the reproductive effects of fluoxetine exposure in utero and during lactation on pregnancy outcomes and the sexual development of offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats were treated daily with fluoxetine (0.4, 1.7 and 17 mg/kg/day) or distilled water by gavage from gestation day (GD) 7 to lactation day (LD) 21. A significant reduction in maternal body weight was observed during pregnancy and lactation in dams exposed to 17 mg/kg fluoxetine. Hormone analysis revealed an increase in progestagen and glucocorticoid metabolites on GD 15 and oestrogen and progestagen metabolites on LD 7 in dams treated with 17 mg/kg fluoxetine. Oestrogen metabolites also were increased on LD 7 in dams treated with 0.4 mg/kg fluoxetine. Besides that, an increase in the weight of the adrenal glands and a reduction in uterine weight in dams exposed to highest dose of fluoxetine were observed. Finally, pup birthweight and the viability and weaning indices also were reduced in animals exposed to 17 mg/kg fluoxetine. Overall, maternal hormonal changes were only observed at the highest dose tested, which also induced maternal and foetal toxicity. No significant changes were seen in dams or offspring exposed to therapeutic-like doses. PMID:23527813

Müller, Juliane C; Boareto, Ana C; Lourenço, Emerson L B; Zaia, Renata M; Kienast, Mariana F; Spercoski, Katherinne M; Morais, Rosana N; Martino-Andrade, Anderson J; Dalsenter, Paulo R

2013-08-01

254

Analysis of Historic Data for Juvenile and Adult Salmonid Production. Phase 1, Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

Survival of hatchery reared Columbia River chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) salmon from release to return is highly variable and thought to be related to river flow during juvenile outmigration in the spring. The purpose of this project is to examine the relationship between survival of coded-wire-tagged (CWT) Columbia River salmonids and in-river flow and other freshwater factors. This report covers Phase 1, in which two methods to estimate survival were developed and evaluated, and criteria for data selection were established.

Hilborn, Ray; Pascual, Miguel; Donnelly, Robert; Coronado-Hernadez, Claribel

1993-11-01

255

[Sexual dysfunction in men after surgery of colorectal carcinoma. New developments in prevention and therapy].  

PubMed

Current procedures in the treatment of rectal carcinoma respect preservation quality of life. Development of sexual dysfunction (SD) in men after iatrogenic damage to neurovascular structures has been reported in 21-38% and significantly decreases quality of life. The author summarizes new developments in the area of surgical anatomy of Denonvilliers' fascia, occurrence of accessory pudendal arteries (APA), and neural anatomy. Introduction of robotic nerve-sparing surgery along with application of new diagnostic perioperative methods such as Doppler diagnostics and Optical Coherence Tomography will allow precise perioperative identification of neurovascular structures. New approaches in the treatment of erectile dysfunction prevent cavernosal hypoxia after neurovascular damage. Decrease of pO2 leads to fibrosis of penile structures and development of venous leak. Early administration of phosfodiesterasis-5 (PDE5) inhibitors forms the basis of treatment. Besides inducing erection in spite of decreased pO2, inhibitors PDE5 also have protective effect on the smooth muscles and endothelia of the penis. Combination with intracavernously applied prostaglandin PGE1 or with statins (Atorvastatin) increases efficacy. Currently, there is no standardized procedure in penile rehabilitation. Early start of therapy is recommended. In case of permanent medication support, the dosage for achieving erection is lower than in non-rehabilitated patients. Complex sexologiceal care is essential. It is necessary to initiate educational campaign of sexologists, surgeons, oncologists and patients themselves. Patients must be well informed and referred to a sexologist prior the treatment of carcinoma. Late start of rehabilitation leads to irreversible structural changes that require increased doses of drug therapy. PMID:19642325

Sutorý, M

2009-06-01

256

Original article Composition of the ovarian fluid in 4 salmonid  

E-print Network

(Salmo trutta f lacustris) and Danube salmon (Hucho hucho) was analyzed for its inorganic and organic/Oncorhynchus mykiss /Salmo trutta f lacustris /Salvelinus alpinus /Hucho hucho #12;INTRODUCTION When gametesOriginal article Composition of the ovarian fluid in 4 salmonid species: Oncorhynchus mykiss, Salmo

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

257

FURUNCULOSIS OF SALMONIDS : VACCINATION ATTEMPTS IN RAINBOW TROUT  

E-print Network

FURUNCULOSIS OF SALMONIDS : VACCINATION ATTEMPTS IN RAINBOW TROUT (SALMO GAIRDNERI) BY FORMALIN early days. We give an account of two immunisation assays #12;carried out in 1976 and 1977 on rainbow of the Seine-Maritime with no previous history of Furunculosis, was carried out on 200 g rainbow trout. Six

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

258

Rainmap Database: Mapping the Salmonids (Rainbow Trout) Genome  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Institut National de Recherche Agronomique (France) provides online databases of genomes for several organisms, including Salmonids (Rainbow Trout). The database is updated as more data becomes available, and provide records on loci, genes, microsatellites, polymorphisms, probes, enzymes, homologue loci, alleles, primers, references, and links to external databases. Instructions for submitting data to the databases are provided on-site.

259

Invasive Species: Implications for Habitat Restoration and Effects on Salmonids  

E-print Network

Invasive Species: Implications for Habitat Restoration and Effects on Salmonids Mark Sytsma Center Northwest · Management #12;Invasion Process Native and non-native species pool Colonists Established Invasive Species Source Region Host Region Spread Modified from Olson and Linen 1997 Transport

260

Epizootiology of protozoans in farmed salmonids at northern latitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protozoan ectoparasites were examined in a northern salmonid fish farm over a 10-year period, June 1984–May 1994, by the same researcher, with similar catching and sampling procedures throughout. Husbandry procedures remained constant during the study, e.g., fingerlings were kept in steel tanks and yearlings in both steel tanks and earth ponds. Ichthyobodo necator, Chilodonella hexasticha and Ichthyophthirius multifilürs infections were

Päivi Rintamäki-Kinnunen; E. Tellervo Valtonen

1997-01-01

261

The salmonid MHC class I: more ancient loci uncovered  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unprecedented level of sequence diversity has been maintained in the salmonid major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I UBA gene, with between lineage AA sequence identities as low as 34%. The derivation of deep allelic lineages may have occurred through interlocus exon shuffling or convergence of ancient loci with the UBA locus, but until recently, no such ancient loci were

Kristina M. Miller; Shaorong Li; Tobi J. Ming; Karia H. Kaukinen; Angela D. Schulze

2006-01-01

262

Substance-related expectancies among men who have sex with men : development of psychometric tools to predict unprotected sexual activity.  

E-print Network

??Significant research has demonstrated direct and indirect associations between substance use and sexual behaviour. Substance use is related to sexual risk-taking and HIV seroconversion among… (more)

Mullens, Amy Boedicker

2011-01-01

263

Development of an HIV risk reduction counselling intervention for use in South African sexually transmitted infection clinics  

Microsoft Academic Search

South Africa urgently needs HIV prevention interventions that can be disseminated for use in clinical and community settings. A brief theory-based HIV risk reduction counselling intervention originally developed in the USA has recently been adapted for use in a South African sexually transmitted infection clinic. The 60-minute risk reduction counselling intervention was grounded in the Information-Motivation-Behavioural Skills (IMB) model of

Vuyisile Mathiti; Leickness C. Simbayi; Sean Jooste; Queen Kekana; Xolani P. Nibe; Luvuyo Shasha; Philasande Bidla; Pamela Magubane; Demetria Cain; Charsey Cherry; Seth C. Kalichman

2005-01-01

264

Gas Bubble Disease Monitoring and Research of Juvenile Salmonids : Annual Report 1996.  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the project activities 1996--1997 contract year. This report is composed of three chapters which contain data and analyses of the three main elements of the project: field research to determine the vertical distribution of migrating juvenile salmonids, monitoring of juvenile migrants at dams on the Snake and Columbia rivers, and laboratory experiments to describe the progression of gas bubble disease signs leading to mortality. The major findings described in this report are: A miniature pressure-sensitive radio transmitter was found to be accurate and precise and, after compensation for water temperature, can be used to determine the depth of tagged-fish to within 0.32 m of the true depth (Chapter 1). Preliminary data from very few fish suggest that depth protects migrating juvenile steelhead from total dissolved gas supersaturation (Chapter 1). As in 1995, few fish had any signs of gas bubble disease, but it appeared that prevalence and severity increased as fish migrated downstream and in response to changing gas supersaturation (Chapter 2). It appeared to gas bubble disease was not a threat to migrating juvenile salmonids when total dissolved gas supersaturation was < 120% (Chapter 2). Laboratory studies suggest that external examinations are appropriate for determining the severity of gas bubble disease in juvenile salmonids (Chapter 3). The authors developed a new method for examining gill arches for intravascular bubbles by clamping the ventral aorta to reduce bleeding when arches were removed (Chapter 3). Despite an outbreak of bacterial kidney disease in the experimental fish, the data indicate that gas bubble disease is a progressive trauma that can be monitored (Chapter 3).

Maule, Alec G.; Beeman, John W.; Hans, Karen M.; Mesa, M.G.; Haner, P.; Warren, J.J. [Geological Survey, Cook, WA (United States). Columbia River Research Lab.

1997-10-01

265

Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Klickitat River Tributaries, 2001-2005 Completion Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the work completed by the Yakama Nation Fisheries Program (YNFP) in the Klickitat subbasin in south-central Washington under BPA innovative project No.200105500--Influences of stocking salmon carcass analogs on salmonids in Columbia River Tributaries. Salmon carcasses historically provided a significant source of marine-derived nutrients to many stream systems in the Columbia basin, and decreased run sizes have led to a loss of this nutrient source in many streams. Partners in this project developed a pathogen-free carcass analog and stocked the analogs in streams with the following objectives: restoring food availability to streams with reduced anadromous salmon returns; mimicking the natural pathways and timing of food acquisition by salmonids; minimizing unintended negative ecological effects; and increasing the growth and survival of salmonids. In the Klickitat subbasin, carcass analogs were stocked in two streams in 2002 and 2003; a third stream was used as a control. Salmonid fish abundance, growth, and stomach contents were monitored in all three streams before and after carcass analog placement. Fish, invertebrate, and periphyton samples were also collected for stable isotope analysis (to determine if nutrients from carcass analogs were incorporated into the stream food web). Water quality samples were also collected to determine if nutrient overloading occurred in streams. Significant differences in growth were found between fish in treated and untreated stream reaches. Fish in treatment reaches exhibited higher instantaneous growth rates approximately one month after the first carcass analog stocking. Stomach contents sampling indicated that salmonid fish routinely consumed the carcass analog material directly, and that stomach fullness of fish in treatment reaches was higher than in untreated reaches in the first few weeks following carcass analog stockings. No significant differences were detected in fish abundance between treatment and control streams after carcass analog stocking. Stable isotope analysis provided some evidence that nutrients (primarily nitrogen) were incorporated into periphyton and invertebrates, although this evidence is not strong. No significant differences in water quality were observed between treatment and control streams after analog stocking. Although no significant changes were observed in fish abundance, this study does provide evidence that carcass analogs provide a viable and potentially useful alternative to stocking salmon carcasses. The analogs provide a direct food source to salmonids, and show some potential for providing nutrients for stream food webs. They can also increase stomach fullness and growth rates of individual fish. This nutrient source may very well improve individual fish condition sufficiently to improve overwintering or smolt survival. Further refinement of stocking densities and timing, treatment duration, and tailoring analog placement to individual stream characteristics (such as channel confinement and flow) will further improve the usefulness of carcass analogs.

Zendt, Joe; Sharp, Bill (Yakama Nation Fisheries, Toppenish, WA)

2006-09-01

266

Pathways from parental AIDS to child psychological, educational and sexual risk: developing an empirically-based interactive theoretical model.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence demonstrates negative psychological, health, and developmental outcomes for children associated with parental HIV/AIDS illness and death. However, little is known about how parental AIDS leads to negative child outcomes. This study used a structural equation modelling approach to develop an empirically-based theoretical model of interactive relationships between parental or primary caregiver AIDS-illness, AIDS-orphanhood and predicted intervening factors associated with children's psychological distress, educational access and sexual health. Cross-sectional data were collected in 2009-2011, from 6002 children aged 10-17 years in three provinces of South Africa using stratified random sampling. Comparison groups included children orphaned by AIDS, orphaned by other causes and non-orphans, and children whose parents or primary caregivers were unwell with AIDS, unwell with other causes or healthy. Participants reported on psychological symptoms, educational access, and sexual health risks, as well as hypothesized sociodemographic and intervening factors. In order to build an interactive theoretical model of multiple child outcomes, multivariate regression and structural equation models were developed for each individual outcome, and then combined into an overall model. Neither AIDS-orphanhood nor parental AIDS-illness were directly associated with psychological distress, educational access, or sexual health. Instead, significant indirect effects of AIDS-orphanhood and parental AIDS-illness were obtained on all measured outcomes. Child psychological, educational and sexual health risks share a common set of intervening variables including parental disability, poverty, community violence, stigma, and child abuse that together comprise chain effects. In all models, parental AIDS-illness had stronger effects and more risk pathways than AIDS-orphanhood, especially via poverty and parental disability. AIDS-orphanhood and parental AIDS-illness impact child outcomes through multiple, interlinked pathways. The interactive model developed in this study suggests key areas of focus for interventions with AIDS-affected children. PMID:23631794

Cluver, Lucie; Orkin, Mark; Boyes, Mark E; Sherr, Lorraine; Makasi, Daphne; Nikelo, Joy

2013-06-01

267

Sexual Experiences in Childhood: Young Adults' Recollections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood sexuality and children's sexual experiences have become increasingly important to study because our knowledge on the impact of sexually abusive experiences on children's developing sexuality has increased. The main aim of this paper was to study aspects of young adults' recollections of their sexual experiences before the age of 13, solitary and shared, mutual as well as coercive. Anonymous

IngBeth Larsson; Carl-Göran Svedin

2002-01-01

268

Sexual Problems  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... or constant. Sexual disorders can affect men and women and are classified into four categories: desire disorders, ... the time. Sexual disorders affect both men and women and are classified into 4 main categories: sexual ...

269

Healthy Sexuality  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... or her sexuality. Let’s talk about how a woman’s body responds to sexual stimulation. During sexual arousal, blood flow increases to a woman’s genitals. Her vagina is lubricated by secretions from ...

270

Sexual Assault  

MedlinePLUS

Sexual assault is any sexual activity to which you haven't freely given your consent. This includes completed ... trust, a friend, an acquaintance, or a stranger. Sexual assault can affect your health in many ways. It ...

271

Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary in 2009  

SciTech Connect

The study reported herein was funded as part of the Anadromous Fish Evaluation Program, which is managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The Anadromous Fish Evaluation Program study code is EST P 02 01: A Study of Salmonid Survival and Behavior through the Columbia River Estuary Using Acoustic Tags. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Fisheries for the USACE Portland District. Estimated survival of acoustic-tagged juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead through the lower Columbia River and estuary in 2009 was lowest in the final 50 km of the estuary. Probability of survival was relatively high (>0.90) for yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon from the Bonneville Dam forebay (rkm 236) to Three-tree Point (rkm 49.6). Survival of juvenile Chinook salmon declined sharply through the lower 50 km of the estuary. Acoustic-tagged steelhead smolts did not survive as well as juvenile Chinook salmon between Bonneville Dam and the mouth of the Columbia River. Steelhead survival began to decline farther upstream (at rkm 86) relative to that of the Chinook salmon stocks. Subyearling Chinook salmon survival decreased markedly as the season progressed. It remains to be determined whether later migrating subyearling Chinook salmon are suffering increasing mortality as the season progresses or whether some portion of the apparent loss is due to fish extending their freshwater residence. This study provided the first glimpse into what promises to be a very informative way to learn more about how juvenile salmonid passage experiences through the FCRPS may influence their subsequent survival after passing Bonneville Dam. New information regarding the influence of migration pathway through the lower 50 km of the Columbia River estuary on probability of survival of juvenile salmonids, combined with increased understanding regarding the foraging distances and time periods of avian predators should prove useful in developing or assessing management actions to reduce losses of juvenile salmonid smolts that attempt to pass through the estuary on their seaward migration.

McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Carter, Jessica A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Titzler, P. Scott; Hughes, Michael S.

2010-08-01

272

Environmental pollutants and diseases of sexual development in humans and wildlife in South Africa: harbingers of impact on overall health?  

PubMed

This study deals with disorders of sexual development in humans, wildlife and animals in an urban nature reserve (RNR) and a currently DDT-sprayed malarial area. High levels of oestrogenic chemical residues in water, sediment and tissue; skewed sex ratios; reduced biodiversity; gonadal malformations in sharptooth catfish and freshwater snails; intersex in catfish; and impaired spermatogenesis in catfish and striped mouse are of serious concern in the RNR. Persistent eggshell thinning in African darter eggs, intersex in male Mozambican tilapia, follicular atresia in females and impaired spermatogenesis in males following laboratory exposure of parent fish to environmentally relevant DDT and DDE concentrations, and abnormalities in freshwater snails were found in the DDT-sprayed area. Human studies related to DDT exposure indicated impaired semen quality, a weak association with sperm chromatin defects and higher risks for external urogenital birth defects in those who were born to mothers whose houses were sprayed and those who were homemakers (stay at home mother) instead of being employed. These findings indicate that diseases of sexual development occurred in both human and wildlife populations exposed to environmental endocrine disruptor chemicals in South Africa. The chemical mixtures, possibly related to disorders of sexual differentiation (DSD), were very different between the two. However, DSD occurred concurrently in the malarial area, possibly indicating that humans and wildlife shared exposures. Moreover, it emphasizes the importance of suspecting disease in the other when disease is found in either human or wildlife populations. PMID:22827388

Riana Bornman, M S; Bouwman, Hindrik

2012-08-01

273

Colonial Waterbird Predation on Juvenile Salmonids Tagged with Passive Integrated Transponders in the Columbia River Estuary: Vulnerability of Different Salmonid Species, Stocks, and Rearing Types  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags implanted in Columbia River basin juvenile salmonids Oncorhyncus spp. were recovered from breeding colonies of Caspian terns Sterna caspia and double-crested cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus on Rice Island, a dredge spoil island in the Columbia River estuary. Tags were recovered to assess the relative vulnerability of different salmonid species, stocks, and rearing types to avian predators.

Ken Collis; Daniel D. Roby; David P. Craig; Brad A. Ryan; Richard D. Ledgerwood

2001-01-01

274

Colonial Waterbird Predation on Juvenile Salmonids Tagged with Passive Integrated Transponders in the Columbia River Estuary: Vulnerability of Different Salmonid Species, Stocks, and Rearing Types  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags implanted in Columbia River basin juvenile salmonids Oncorhyncusspp. were recovered from breeding colonies of Caspian terns Sterna caspia and double-crested cormorants Phalacrocorax aurituson Rice Island, a dredge spoil island in the Columbia River estuary. Tags were recovered to assess the relative vulnerability of different salmonid species, stocks, and rearing types to avian predators. We detected

Ken Collis; Daniel D. Roby; David P. Craig; Brad A. Ryan; Richard D. Ledgerwood

2001-01-01

275

Index of Predation on Juvenile Salmonids by Northern Squawfish in the Lower and Middle Columbia River and in the Lower Snake River  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a predation index to describe the relative magnitude of predation on juvenile salmonids by northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis throughout the lower and middle Columbia River and lower Snake River. The predation index was the product of an abundance index and a consumption index. We evaluated various catch indices and found that catch per unit effort best reflected differences

David L. Ward; James H. Petersen; John J. Loch

1995-01-01

276

Impact of the Potholes Reservoir Caspian Tern Breeding Colony on Out-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids in the Mid-Columbia River  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the foraging behavior and diet of Caspian terns Hydroprogne caspia breeding at Potholes Reservoir, Washington, in 2003, 2005, and 2006, and we developed a bioenergetics model to estimate impacts on juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. from Columbia River stocks. Potholes Reservoir Caspian terns mostly foraged on local fish (68–97% of tern bill loads) rather than traveling to the Columbia

Christina J. Maranto; Thomas P. Good; Francis K. Wiese; Julia K. Parrish

2010-01-01

277

Preliminary development of a scale to measure stigma relating to sexually transmitted infections among women in a high risk neighbourhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: As stigma is a socially constructed concept, it would follow that stigma related to sexual behaviours and sexually transmitted infections would carry with it many of the gender-based morals that are entrenched in social constructs of sexuality. In many societies, women tend to be judged more harshly with respect to sexual morals, and would therefore have a different experience

Melanie LA Rusch; Jean A Shoveller; Susan Burgess; Karen Stancer; David M Patrick; Mark W Tyndall

2008-01-01

278

River profile controls on channel morphology, debris flow disturbance, and the spatial extent of salmonids in steep mountain streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the geologically and topographically diverse mountain ranges of the Pacific Northwest, a broad-scale means of prioritizing salmonid habitat conservation areas based on geomorphic process domains is examined. We propose that steepness and concavity indices derived from the relation between drainage area and channel slope provide a means of identifying basins that express different reach-scale morphologies, fish habitat capacity, and risk of episodic disturbance. Strongly concave river profiles that develop in mountainous terrain indicate that almost all of the relief in the drainage network occurs in headwater streams. In these basins a large proportion of the channel network has low-gradient morphologies, which provide favorable habitat for many salmonid species. The severity of pulse disturbances is also reduced because low-gradient main stem channels inhibit debris flow conveyance, and in these networks the distribution of fish can expand into tributaries, allowing for a spatial spreading of risk. In contrast, rivers with poorly concave or steeper profiles have a greater abundance of high gradient reaches that limit the distribution of fish to a small portion of the channel network and facilitate debris flow-passage. The combined influence of a limited spatial distribution of fish and an increased risk of debris flows may cause populations in these basins to be less resilient to pulse disturbances. A case example from the Klamath Mountains, an area with broad variation in the steepness and concavity of river profiles, was used to develop this approach and aid conservation planning for imperiled populations of anadromous salmonids.

May, Christine L.; Lisle, Thomas E.

2012-12-01

279

DEVELOPMENT OF ADULT SCHOOL PROFESSIONALS AND THEIR ATTITUDES TOWARD HOMOSEXUALITY AND THEIR SEXUAL MINORITY COUNTERPARTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess the attitudes of heterosexual educators toward homosexuality and sexual minority educators, and ascertain what factors contributed to the heterosexual educators' attitudes. The study also sought to determine if continuing education was believed to be valuable to

MARILYN MITCHEL MCCLUSKEY

280

Adolescent Sexual Activity and the Development of Delinquent Behavior: The Role of Relationship Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the well-established association between adolescent sexual activity and delinquent behavior, little research has examined the potential importance of relationship contexts in moderating this association. The current study used longitudinal, behavioral genetic data on 519 same-sex twin pairs (48.6% female) divided into two age cohorts…

Harden, K. Paige; Mendle, Jane

2011-01-01

281

Male Adolescents' View on Sexual Activity as Basis for the Development of Aids-Prevention Programmes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The world regards AIDS as the most disastrous health threat in the world. HIV/AIDS- related issues amongst adolescents were initially neglected due to the visible impact of this pandemic on babies and adults. Adolescents' behavior is however regarded as high-risk because of their involvement in sexual activities from a young age. The purpose of…

Steyn, Hester; Myburgh, Chris P.H.; Poggenpoel, Marie

2005-01-01

282

Sexually Harassing Behavior against Adolescent Girls in Rural Bangladesh: Implications for Achieving Millennium Development Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the extent and type of sexually harassing behavior or intimidations unmarried adolescent girls experienced on their way to school, college or social visits and type of perpetrators in victims' view in rural Bangladesh using data of the 2004 National Nutrition Programme baseline survey. The survey collected self-reported data on…

Alam, Nurul; Roy, Swapan K.; Ahmed, Tahmeed

2010-01-01

283

Reported adolescent sexual norms and the development of a social marketing campaign to correct youth misperceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescents are powerfully influenced by their peers and tend to match their behaviors to what they perceive to be the social norm among other youth. Sexual behavior is one area where common misperceptions exist. Social marketing techniques to achieve positive behavioral change may correct these misperceptions. Here we describe an innovative approach to altering teen pregnancy prevention norms – the

Lynne C. Messer; Erin Shoe; Megan Canady; Barbara K. Sheppard; Amy Vincus

2011-01-01

284

Fungal metabolic plasticity and sexual development mediate induced resistance to arthropod fungivory.  

PubMed

Prey organisms do not tolerate predator attack passively but react with a multitude of inducible defensive strategies. Although inducible defence strategies are well known in plants attacked by herbivorous insects, induced resistance of fungi against fungivorous animals is largely unknown. Resistance to fungivory is thought to be mediated by chemical properties of fungal tissue, i.e. by production of toxic secondary metabolites. However, whether fungi change their secondary metabolite composition to increase resistance against arthropod fungivory is unknown. We demonstrate that grazing by a soil arthropod, Folsomia candida, on the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans induces a phenotype that repels future fungivores and retards fungivore growth. Arthropod-exposed colonies produced significantly higher amounts of toxic secondary metabolites and invested more in sexual reproduction relative to unchallenged fungi. Compared with vegetative tissue and asexual conidiospores, sexual fruiting bodies turned out to be highly resistant against fungivory in facultative sexual A. nidulans. This indicates that fungivore grazing triggers co-regulated allocation of resources to sexual reproduction and chemical defence in A. nidulans. Plastic investment in facultative sex and chemical defence may have evolved as a fungal strategy to escape from predation. PMID:24068353

Döll, Katharina; Chatterjee, Subhankar; Scheu, Stefan; Karlovsky, Petr; Rohlfs, Marko

2013-11-22

285

Developing Guidelines for HIV Antibody Testing among Victims of Pediatric Sexual Abuse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interim set of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing guidelines for victims of pediatric sexual abuse (PSA) is proposed. Guidelines are based on responses of 63 practitioners of PSA assessment to 7 hypothetical clinical profiles with 12 testing criteria. (Author/DB)

Gellert, George A.; And Others

1990-01-01

286

Fungal metabolic plasticity and sexual development mediate induced resistance to arthropod fungivory  

PubMed Central

Prey organisms do not tolerate predator attack passively but react with a multitude of inducible defensive strategies. Although inducible defence strategies are well known in plants attacked by herbivorous insects, induced resistance of fungi against fungivorous animals is largely unknown. Resistance to fungivory is thought to be mediated by chemical properties of fungal tissue, i.e. by production of toxic secondary metabolites. However, whether fungi change their secondary metabolite composition to increase resistance against arthropod fungivory is unknown. We demonstrate that grazing by a soil arthropod, Folsomia candida, on the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans induces a phenotype that repels future fungivores and retards fungivore growth. Arthropod-exposed colonies produced significantly higher amounts of toxic secondary metabolites and invested more in sexual reproduction relative to unchallenged fungi. Compared with vegetative tissue and asexual conidiospores, sexual fruiting bodies turned out to be highly resistant against fungivory in facultative sexual A. nidulans. This indicates that fungivore grazing triggers co-regulated allocation of resources to sexual reproduction and chemical defence in A. nidulans. Plastic investment in facultative sex and chemical defence may have evolved as a fungal strategy to escape from predation. PMID:24068353

Döll, Katharina; Chatterjee, Subhankar; Scheu, Stefan; Karlovsky, Petr; Rohlfs, Marko

2013-01-01

287

Gonad morphology, sexual development, and colony composition in the obligate coral-dwelling damselfish Dascyllus aruanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gonad morphology and colony composition support the existing supposition that the obligate coral-dwelling damselfish Dascyllus aruanus has a protogynous hermaphroditic sexual pattern. Adults had either an active ovary containing vitellogenic oocytes, an ovotestis, or a spermiated testis and were classified as adult female, hermaphrodite, or adult male, respectively. Among individuals having male function, the testis (or testis portion of the

K. S. Cole

2002-01-01

288

Polyphasic characterization of Aeromonas salmonicida isolates recovered from salmonid and non-salmonid fish.  

PubMed

Michigan's fisheries rely primarily upon the hatchery propagation of salmonid fish for release in public waters. One limitation on the success of these efforts is the presence of bacterial pathogens, including Aeromonas salmonicida, the causative agent of furunculosis. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of A. salmonicida in Michigan fish, as well as to determine whether biochemical or gene sequence variability exists among Michigan isolates. A total of 2202 wild, feral and hatchery-propagated fish from Michigan were examined for the presence of A. salmonicida. The examined fish included Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), coho salmon, O. kisutcha (Walbaum), steelhead trout, O. mykiss (Walbaum), Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill), and yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill). Among these, 234 fish yielded a brown pigment-producing bacterium that was presumptively identified as A. salmonicida. Further phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses identified representative isolates as Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and revealed some genetic and biochemical variability. Logistic regression analyses showed that infection prevalence varied according to fish species/strain, year and gender, whereby Chinook salmon and females had the highest infection prevalence. Moreover, this pathogen was found in six fish species from eight sites, demonstrating its widespread nature within Michigan. PMID:23444966

Diamanka, A; Loch, T P; Cipriano, R C; Faisal, M

2013-11-01

289

Polyphasic characterization of Aeromonas salmonicida isolates recovered from salmonid and non-salmonid fish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Michigan's fisheries rely primarily upon the hatchery propagation of salmonid fish for release in public waters. One limitation on the success of these efforts is the presence of bacterial pathogens, including Aeromonas salmonicida, the causative agent of furunculosis. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of A. salmonicida in Michigan fish, as well as to determine whether biochemical or gene sequence variability exists among Michigan isolates. A total of 2202 wild, feral and hatchery-propagated fish from Michigan were examined for the presence of A. salmonicida. The examined fish included Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), coho salmon, O. kisutcha (Walbaum), steelhead trout, O. mykiss (Walbaum), Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill), and yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill). Among these, 234 fish yielded a brown pigment-producing bacterium that was presumptively identified as A. salmonicida. Further phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses identified representative isolates as Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and revealed some genetic and biochemical variability. Logistic regression analyses showed that infection prevalence varied according to fish species/strain, year and gender, whereby Chinook salmon and females had the highest infection prevalence. Moreover, this pathogen was found in six fish species from eight sites, demonstrating its widespread nature within Michigan.

Diamanka, A.; Loch, T.P.; Cipriano, R.C.; Faisal, M.

2013-01-01

290

Childhood Sexual Abuse and the Development of Recurrent Major Depression in Chinese Women  

PubMed Central

Background Our prior study in Han Chinese women has shown that women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are at increased risk for developing major depression (MD). Would this relationship be found in our whole data set? Method Three levels of CSA (non-genital, genital, and intercourse) were assessed by self-report in two groups of Han Chinese women: 6017 clinically ascertained with recurrent MD and 5983 matched controls. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression. Results We confirmed earlier results by replicating prior analyses in 3,950 new recurrent MD cases. There were no significant differences between the two data sets. Any form of CSA was significantly associated with recurrent MD (OR 4.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) [3.19–5.24]). This association strengthened with increasing CSA severity: non-genital (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.58–3.15), genital (OR 5.24, 95% CI 3.52–8.15) and intercourse (OR 10.65, 95% CI 5.56–23.71). Among the depressed women, those with CSA had an earlier age of onset, longer depressive episodes. Recurrent MD patients those with CSA had an increased risk for dysthymia (OR 1.60, 95%CI 1.11–2.27) and phobia (OR 1.41, 95%CI 1.09–1.80). Any form of CSA was significantly associated with suicidal ideation or attempt (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.20–1.89) and feelings of worthlessness or guilt (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.02–2.02). Intercourse (OR 3.47, 95%CI 1.66–8.22), use of force and threats (OR 1.95, 95%CI 1.05–3.82) and how strongly the victims were affected at the time (OR 1.39, 95%CI 1.20–1.64) were significantly associated with recurrent MD. Conclusions In Chinese women CSA is strongly associated with recurrent MD and this association increases with greater severity of CSA. Depressed women with CSA have some specific clinical traits. Some features of CSA were associated with greater likelihood of developing recurrent MD. PMID:24489940

Chen, Jing; Cai, Yiyun; Cong, Enzhao; Liu, Ying; Gao, Jingfang; Li, Youhui; Tao, Ming; Zhang, Kerang; Wang, Xumei; Gao, Chengge; Yang, Lijun; Li, Kan; Shi, Jianguo; Wang, Gang; Liu, Lanfen; Zhang, Jinbei; Du, Bo; Jiang, Guoqing; Shen, Jianhua; Zhang, Zhen; Liang, Wei; Sun, Jing; Hu, Jian; Liu, Tiebang; Wang, Xueyi; Miao, Guodong; Meng, Huaqing; Li, Yi; Hu, Chunmei; Li, Yi; Huang, Guoping; Li, Gongying; Ha, Baowei; Deng, Hong; Mei, Qiyi; Zhong, Hui; Gao, Shugui; Sang, Hong; Zhang, Yutang; Fang, Xiang; Yu, Fengyu; Yang, Donglin; Liu, Tieqiao; Chen, Yunchun; Hong, Xiaohong; Wu, Wenyuan; Chen, Guibing; Cai, Min; Song, Yan; Pan, Jiyang; Dong, Jicheng; Pan, Runde; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Zhenming; Liu, Zhengrong; Gu, Danhua; Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Qiwen; Li, Yihan; Chen, Yiping; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Shi, Shenxun; Flint, Jonathan

2014-01-01

291

Salmonid influences on rivers: A geomorphic fish tail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of the effects of salmonids on the environment have focused primarily on the biological linkages between salmon runs and stream ecology. Less effort has focused on geomorphic effects. A review of the literature indicates potential (i) direct effects in response to mass spawning of salmonids, including changes in streambed and bank morphology and annual volumes of bedload transported; and (ii) indirect effects including supply of nutrients to the riparian zone, which may influence the in-channel dynamics of large woody debris and bank stability, and effects on population density of net-spinning caddisfly larvae which may influence streambed stability in finer gravel substrates. More research is needed over long time frames, however, to ascertain whether such effects are geomorphically significant at larger spatial and longer temporal scales, and to estimate the sizes of populations required to cause geomorphically significant responses. Some possible studies are suggested.

DeVries, Paul

2012-07-01

292

Asymmetric competition drives lake use of coexisting salmonids  

Microsoft Academic Search

To what degree are population differences in resource use caused by competition and the occupation of adjacent positions along\\u000a environmental gradients evidence of competition? Habitat use may be the result of a competitive lottery, or restricted by\\u000a competition. We tested to what extent population differences in habitat use of two salmonids, cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) and Dolly Varden charr (Salvelinus

B. Jonsson; N. Jonsson; Kjetil Hindar; T. G. Northcote; S. Engen

2008-01-01

293

Linking Forests and Fish: The Relationship Between Productivities of Salmonids and Forest Stands in Northern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Productivities of resident salmonid populations, upland, and riparian areas in 25 small watersheds of coastal northern California were estimated and compared to determine if: 1) upland site productivity predicted riparian site productivity; 2) either upland or riparian site productivity predicted salmonid productivity; and 3) other parameters explained more of the variance in salmonid productivity than upland or riparian site productivity. Salmonid productivity was indexed by total salmonid biomass, length of age 1 fish, and percent habitat saturation. Upland and riparian site productivities were estimated using site indices for redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and red alder (Alnus rubra), respectively. Upland and riparian site indices were correlated, but neither factor contributed to the best approximating models of salmonid biomass or fish length at age one. Salmonid biomass was best described by a positive relationship with drainage area, and length at age was best described by a positive relationship with percent of riparian hardwoods. Percent habitat saturation was not well described by any of the models constructed. Lack of a relationship between upland conifer and salmonid productivity suggests that management of land for timber productivity and component streams for salmonid production in these sites will require separate, albeit integrated, strategies.

Wilzbach, P.; Frazey, S.

2005-05-01

294

The relationship between productivities of salmonids and forest stands in northern California watersheds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Productivities of resident salmonids and upland and riporian forests in 22 small watersheds of coastal northern California were estimated and compared to determine whether: 1) upland site productivity predicted riparian site productivity; 2) either upland or riparian site productivity predicted salmonid productivity; and 3) other parameters explained more of the variance in salmonid productivity. Upland and riparian site productivities were estimated using Site Index values for redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and red alder (Alnus rubra), respectively. Salmonid productivity was indexed by back-calculated length at age 1 of the largest individuals sampled and by total biomass. Upland and riparian site indices were correlated, but neither factor contributed to the best approximating models of salmonid productivity. Total salmonid biomass was best described by a positive relationship with drainage area. Length of dominant fish was best described by a positive relationship with percentage of hardwoods within riparian areas, which may result from nutrient and/or litter subsidies provided by red older. The inability of forest productivity to predict salmon productivity may reflect insufficient variation in independent variables, limitations of the indices, and the operation of other factors affecting salmonid production. The lack of an apparent relationship between upland conifer and salmonid productivity suggests that management of land for timber productivity and component streams for salmonid production in these sites will require separate, albeit integrated, management strategies.

Frazey, S.L.; Wilzbach, M.A.

2007-01-01

295

Extent and scale of local adaptation in salmonid fishes: review and meta-analysis  

E-print Network

.167 Keywords: local adaptation; salmon; genomics; genetic differentiation; selection; conservation Introduction has a long-standing tradition in well-studied salmonid fishes, which include salmon, trout, charr

Taylor, Eric B. "Rick"

296

The virtual people set: developing computer-generated stimuli for the assessment of pedophilic sexual interest.  

PubMed

The implicit assessment of pedophilic sexual interest through viewing-time methods necessitates visual stimuli. There are grave ethical and legal concerns against using pictures of real children, however. The present report is a summary of findings on a new set of 108 computer-generated stimuli. The images vary in terms of gender (female/male), explicitness (naked/clothed), and physical maturity (prepubescent, pubescent, and adult) of the persons depicted. A series of three studies tested the internal and external validity of the picture set. Studies 1 and 2 yielded good-to-high estimates of observer agreement with regard to stimulus maturity levels by two methods (categorization and paired comparison). Study 3 extended these findings with regard to judgments made by convicted child sexual offenders. PMID:23296092

Dombert, Beate; Mokros, Andreas; Brückner, Eva; Schlegl, Verena; Antfolk, Jan; Bäckström, Anna; Zappalà, Angelo; Osterheider, Michael; Santtila, Pekka

2013-12-01

297

Ceratomyxa shasta genotypes cause differential mortality in their salmonid hosts.  

PubMed

Ceratomyxa shasta is a myxozoan parasite of salmonid fish. In natural communities, distinct genotypes of the parasite are associated with different salmonid hosts. To test the hypothesis that genotypes of C. shasta cause differential mortality, the polychaete host was experimentally infected with different parasite genotypes. Genotype I was obtained from Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and genotype II from either coho salmon, O. kisutch, or rainbow trout, O. mykiss, We then challenged four salmonid strains: Chinook and coho salmon that occur in sympatry with the parasite and allopatric Chinook salmon and rainbow trout. Parasite genotype I caused mortality only in Chinook strains, although mortality in the allopatric strain also occurred from exposure to genotype II. A second experiment demonstrated that genotype II could be separated into two biotypes based on differential mortality in rainbow trout and coho salmon. These differential patterns of mortality as a result of infection by certain genotypes of C. shasta support field observations and suggest a co-evolutionary relationship between these parasites and their hosts. PMID:22808922

Hurst, C N; Bartholomew, J L

2012-10-01

298

Does Knowledge about Sexuality Prevent Adolescents from Developing Rape-Supportive Beliefs?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Believing that rape is acceptable in some situations may account for adolescent boys' perpetration of forced sex on girls. This study was intended to examine two hypothesized cognitive factors of adolescents' rape-supportive beliefs: general knowledge, measured with grade point average (GPA); and specific knowledge about sexuality, measured with a newly devised questionnaire. Fourteen-year-old adolescents (N = 248) participated in a short-term longitudinal

Pascal Mallet; Dominique Herbé

2011-01-01

299

Efficient strategy for enhancing aspergiolide A production by citrate feedings and its effects on sexual development and growth of marine-derived fungus Aspergillus glaucus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergiolide A production enhancement by citrate and its effects on growth and sexual development of marine-derived fungus Aspergillus glaucus HB1-19 were investigated. In agar plate culture, 15mM citric acid decreased colony radial growth and aspergiolide A production by 31.5% and 23.0%, respectively. It also improved sexual cleistothecium formation by 360% but depressed asexual conidiospore generation by 84.8%. In submerged culture,

Menghao Cai; Xiangshan Zhou; Jiushun Zhou; Chuanpeng Niu; Li Kang; Xueqian Sun; Yuanxing Zhang

2010-01-01

300

Internet Sexualities  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The term “internet sexuality” (or OSA, online sexual activities) refers to sexual-related content and activities observable\\u000a on the internet (cf. Adams, Oye, & Parker, 2003; Cooper, McLoughlin, & Campbell, 2000; Leiblum & Döring, 2002). It designates\\u000a a variety of sexual phenomena (e.g., pornography, sex education, sexual contacts) related to a wide spectrum of online services\\u000a and applications (e.g., websites, online

Nicola Döring

2010-01-01

301

Highly recombinant VGII Cryptococcus gattii population develops clonal outbreak clusters through both sexual macroevolution and asexual microevolution.  

PubMed

An outbreak of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus gattii began in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) in the late 1990s. This outbreak consists of three clonal subpopulations: VGIIa/major, VGIIb/minor, and VGIIc/novel. Both VGIIa and VGIIc are unique to the PNW and exhibit increased virulence. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of isolates from these three groups, as well as global isolates, and analyzed a total of 53 isolates. We found that VGIIa/b/c populations show evidence of clonal expansion in the PNW. Whole-genome sequencing provided evidence that VGIIb originated in Australia, while VGIIa may have originated in South America, and these were likely independently introduced. Additionally, the VGIIa outbreak lineage may have arisen from a less virulent clade that contained a mutation in the MSH2 ortholog, but this appears to have reverted in the VGIIa outbreak strains, suggesting that a transient mutator phenotype may have contributed to adaptation and evolution of virulence in the PNW outbreak. PNW outbreak isolates share genomic islands, both between the clonal lineages and with global isolates, indicative of sexual recombination. This suggests that VGII C. gattii has undergone sexual reproduction, either bisexual or unisexual, in multiple locales contributing to the production of novel, virulent subtypes. We also found that the genomes of two basal VGII isolates from HIV(+) patients contain an introgression tract spanning three genes. Introgression substantially contributed to intra-VGII polymorphism and likely occurred through sexual reproduction with VGI. More broadly, these findings illustrate how both microevolution and sexual reproduction play central roles in the development of infectious outbreaks from avirulent or less virulent progenitors. Importance: Cryptococcus gattii is the causative agent responsible for ongoing infections in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and western Canada. The incidence of these infections increased dramatically in the 1990s and remains elevated. These infections are attributable to three clonal lineages of C. gattii, VGIIa, VGIIb, and VGIIc, with only VGIIa identified once previously in the Pacific Northwest prior to the start of the outbreak, albeit in a less virulent form. This study addresses the origin and emergence of this outbreak, using whole-genome sequencing and comparison of both outbreak and global isolates. We show that VGIIa arose mitotically from a less virulent clonal group, possibly via the action of a mutator phenotype, while VGIIb was likely introduced from Australia, and VGIIc appears to have emerged in the United States or in an undersampled locale via sexual reproduction. This work shows that multiple processes can contribute to the emergence of an outbreak. PMID:25073643

Billmyre, R Blake; Croll, Daniel; Li, Wenjun; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Carter, Dee A; Cuomo, Christina A; Kronstad, James W; Heitman, Joseph

2014-01-01

302

Development and implementation of mass media campaigns to delay sexual initiation among African American and White youth.  

PubMed

Reducing new HIV/STD infections among at-risk adolescents requires developing and evaluating evidence-based health communication approaches. Research overwhelmingly supports the conclusion that early sexual initiation is associated with STDs and other negative outcomes in later years (e.g., unintended pregnancy). The authors' research group secured funding from the National Institute of Mental Health to develop, implement, and rigorously evaluate televised mass media campaigns to delay initiation of sexual intercourse among African American and White adolescents in two cities in the Southeastern United States. The focus of the present study is on the development and implementation of the campaigns, including (a) rationale and theoretical underpinnings; (b) collection, screening, and assessment of existing public service announcements; (c) development of new public service announcements; (d) study design and campaign airing plan; and (e) message exposure achieved in the campaigns. Health communication campaigns hold much promise in reaching at-risk adolescent populations with targeted, timely, and relevant risk-reduction messages. PMID:24093220

Noar, Seth M; Zimmerman, Rick S; Palmgreen, Philip; Cupp, Pamela K; Floyd, Brenikki R; Mehrotra, Purnima

2014-01-01

303

Assessing Success of Instream Structures for Salmonid Stream Restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stream restoration is a billion dollar industry in North America; despite this expenditure there remain questions regarding the effectiveness of current techniques such as the installation of instream structures. Assessing the effect that such structures have on physical habitat and on salmonid density are key ways of determining project success. The objectives of this research were to assess the impact of instream structures on physical habitat in the Nicolet River (Quebec) and to analyze physical habitat and fish density data from many stream restoration projects in North America. Results of intensive surveys of the Nicolet River show that the installation of weirs and deflectors results in a greater frequency of pools. These pools have significantly greater depths, lower velocities, larger sediment size and higher percent cover than those without structures. Meta analysis of data from 187 stream restoration projects in North America also show significant increases in percent pool area, average depth, and percent cover as well as decreases in channel width following the installation of structures. The physical changes observed in the Nicolet River resulted in improved trout habitat, as measured by applying habitat preference curves, but uneven stocking practices and fishing pressure confounded attempts to verify differences in trout density based on presence or absence of structures. The meta analysis, however, shows significant increases in salmonid density, measured as fish/m2, following the installation of structures. On average, density increased by 161%. Different structure types result in significantly different changes in physical habitat, with weir structures providing the largest density increase. Multiple linear regression analysis reveals that the combination of change in relative pool area and in width is the best predictor of change in salmonid density (r2=0.511). Instream structures are significantly more successful at increasing brook trout density than cutthroat and steelhead trout or coho salmon. Furthermore, salmonids over 15cm in length show significantly higher increases in density than smaller fish. These results highlight that restoration structures can play an important role in creating better habitat for salmonids and increasing their densities, but much work is needed to determine the best way to rehabilitate disturbed streams for various species.

Whiteway, S.; Biron, P.

2009-05-01

304

Exposure to Mother's Pregnancy and Lactation in Infancy is Associated with Sexual Attraction to Pregnancy and Lactation  

E-print Network

to theories of sexual development and to earlier reports of birth order effects on sexual behavior. We suggest Words. Sexual Imprinting; Sexual Development; Sexual Stimuli; Paraphilia; Fetishism; Birth Order

305

The Developmental Association of Sexual Self-Concept with Sexual Behavior among Adolescent Women  

PubMed Central

Developing a sexual self-concept is an important developmental task of adolescence; however, little empirical evidence describes this development, nor how these changes are related to development in sexual behavior. Using longitudinal cohort data from adolescent women, we invoked latent growth curve analysis to: (1) examine reciprocal development in sexual self-concept (sexual openness, sexual esteem and sexual anxiety) over a four year time frame; (2) describe the relationship of these trajectories with changes in sexual behavior. We found significant transactional effects between these dimensions and behavior: sexual self-concept evolved during adolescence in a manner consistent with less reserve, less anxiety and greater personal comfort with sexuality and sexual behavior. Moreover, we found that sexual self-concept results from sexual behavior, as well as regulates future behavior. PMID:20970178

Hensel, Devon J.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; O'Sullivan, Lucia F.; Orr, Donald P.

2013-01-01

306

Soy isoflavones administered to rats from weaning until sexual maturity affect ovarian follicle development by inducing apoptosis.  

PubMed

Twenty-one-day-old female Wistar rats were treated daily with orally administered soy isoflavones (SIFs) at concentrations of 50, 100, or 200mg/kg body weight from weaning until sexual maturity (3mo.), and ovarian follicle development was evaluated. At the end of the treatment period, the ultrastructure of the ovarian granulosa cells was examined by transmission electron microscopy. The apoptotic cell death of ovarian granulosa cells was detected using TUNEL staining. The mRNA expression levels of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, Bcl2, Bax, and Fas were determined by real-time quantitative PCR. The protein expression levels of caspase-3, Bcl2, Bax, and Fas were determined by western blotting. Our data showed that exposure to SIFs resulted in morphological changes consistent with ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis. The percentage of TUNEL-positive granulosa cells was increased. The mRNA expression levels of the apoptosis-related genes caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, Bax, and Fas increased significantly. The protein levels of Bax, Fas, and cleaved caspase-3 were also increased. These results indicate that the exposure of rats to modest doses of SIFs from weaning until sexual maturity can affect ovarian follicle development by inducing apoptosis. The mechanism of SIF-induced alterations in ovarian follicle development may involve the activation of Fas-mediated and Bcl2/Bax-mediated apoptotic signaling pathways. PMID:25035168

Wang, Wenxiang; Sun, Yan; Liu, Jin; Li, Yuchen; Li, Hong; Xiao, Shihua; Weng, Shaozheng; Zhang, Wenchang

2014-10-01

307

Sexual Orientation (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC A Parent's Guide to Surviving the Teen Years Understanding Early Sexual Development STDs Questions and Answers About Sex Teaching Your Child Tolerance Transgender People Am I in a Healthy Relationship? Transgender People Love and Romance Sexual Attraction and ...

308

Sexual Harassment Protocol.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document spells out policy regarding sexual harassment in the Connecticut vocational-technical school system that was developed by the Connecticut State Department of Education, the Connecticut Division of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education, and the Connecticut Women's Education and Legal Fund, Inc. The introduction calls sexual

Connecticut Women's Education and Legal Fund, Hartford.

309

Taking Sexual Harassment Seriously.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous "School Law" columns discussed developments under Title IX (Educational Amendments of 1970), noting a trend among federal courts to apply Title IX's prohibition against sexual harassment to peer and employee-to-student sexual harassment. A recent Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals decision against the Santa Rosa City School District…

Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

1998-01-01

310

Functional Roles of FgLaeA in Controlling Secondary Metabolism, Sexual Development, and Virulence in Fusarium graminearum  

PubMed Central

Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight in cereal crops, produces mycotoxins such as trichothecenes and zearalenone in infected plants. Here, we focused on the function of FgLaeA in F. graminearum, a homolog of Aspergillus nidulans LaeA encoding the global regulator for both secondary metabolism and sexual development. Prior to gene analysis, we constructed a novel luciferase reporter system consisting of a transgenic F. graminearum strain expressing a firefly luciferase gene under control of the promoter for either TRI6 or ZEB2 controlling the biosynthesis of these mycotoxins. Targeted deletion of FgLaeA led to a dramatic reduction of luminescence in reporter strains, indicating that FgLaeA controls the expression of these transcription factors in F. graminearum; reduced toxin accumulation was further confirmed by GC-MS analysis. Overexpression of FgLaeA caused the increased production of trichothecenes and additional metabolites. RNA seq-analysis revealed that gene member(s) belonging to ?70% of total tentative gene clusters, which were previously proposed, were differentially expressed in the ?FgLaeA strain. In addition, ?FgLaeA strains exhibited an earlier induction of sexual fruiting body (perithecia) formation and drastically reduced disease symptoms in wheat, indicating that FgLaeA seems to negatively control perithecial induction, but positively control virulence toward the host plant. FgLaeA was constitutively expressed under both mycotoxin production and sexual development conditions. Overexpression of a GFP-FgLaeA fusion construct in the ?FgLaeA strain restored all phenotypic changes to wild-type levels and led to constitutive expression of GFP in both nuclei and cytoplasm at different developmental stages. A split luciferase assay demonstrated that FgLaeA was able to interact with FgVeA, a homolog of A. nidulans veA. Taken together, these results demonstrate that FgLaeA, a member of putative FgVeA complex, controls secondary metabolism, sexual development, and virulence in F. graminearum, although the specific regulation pattern differs from that of LaeA in A. nidulans. PMID:23874628

Jo, Seong-Mi; McCormick, Susan P.; Butchko, Robert A. E.; Proctor, Robert H.; Yun, Sung-Hwan

2013-01-01

311

Functional roles of FgLaeA in controlling secondary metabolism, sexual development, and virulence in Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight in cereal crops, produces mycotoxins such as trichothecenes and zearalenone in infected plants. Here, we focused on the function of FgLaeA in F. graminearum, a homolog of Aspergillus nidulans LaeA encoding the global regulator for both secondary metabolism and sexual development. Prior to gene analysis, we constructed a novel luciferase reporter system consisting of a transgenic F. graminearum strain expressing a firefly luciferase gene under control of the promoter for either TRI6 or ZEB2 controlling the biosynthesis of these mycotoxins. Targeted deletion of FgLaeA led to a dramatic reduction of luminescence in reporter strains, indicating that FgLaeA controls the expression of these transcription factors in F. graminearum; reduced toxin accumulation was further confirmed by GC-MS analysis. Overexpression of FgLaeA caused the increased production of trichothecenes and additional metabolites. RNA seq-analysis revealed that gene member(s) belonging to ~70% of total tentative gene clusters, which were previously proposed, were differentially expressed in the ?FgLaeA strain. In addition, ?FgLaeA strains exhibited an earlier induction of sexual fruiting body (perithecia) formation and drastically reduced disease symptoms in wheat, indicating that FgLaeA seems to negatively control perithecial induction, but positively control virulence toward the host plant. FgLaeA was constitutively expressed under both mycotoxin production and sexual development conditions. Overexpression of a GFP-FgLaeA fusion construct in the ?FgLaeA strain restored all phenotypic changes to wild-type levels and led to constitutive expression of GFP in both nuclei and cytoplasm at different developmental stages. A split luciferase assay demonstrated that FgLaeA was able to interact with FgVeA, a homolog of A. nidulans veA. Taken together, these results demonstrate that FgLaeA, a member of putative FgVeA complex, controls secondary metabolism, sexual development, and virulence in F. graminearum, although the specific regulation pattern differs from that of LaeA in A. nidulans. PMID:23874628

Kim, Hee-Kyoung; Lee, Seunghoon; Jo, Seong-Mi; McCormick, Susan P; Butchko, Robert A E; Proctor, Robert H; Yun, Sung-Hwan

2013-01-01

312

Evolution and human sexuality.  

PubMed

The aim of this review is to put core features of human sexuality in an evolutionary light. Toward that end, I address five topics concerning the evolution of human sexuality. First, I address theoretical foundations, including recent critiques and developments. While much traces back to Darwin and his view of sexual selection, more recent work helps refine the theoretical bases to sex differences and life history allocations to mating effort. Second, I consider central models attempting to specify the phylogenetic details regarding how hominin sexuality might have changed, with most of those models honing in on transitions from a possible chimpanzee-like ancestor to the slightly polygynous and long-term bonded sociosexual partnerships observed among most recently studied hunter-gatherers. Third, I address recent genetic and physiological data contributing to a refined understanding of human sexuality. As examples, the availability of rapidly increasing genomic information aids comparative approaches to discern signals of selection in sexuality-related phenotypes, and neuroendocrine studies of human responses to sexual stimuli provide insight into homologous and derived mechanisms. Fourth, I consider some of the most recent, large, and rigorous studies of human sexuality. These provide insights into sexual behavior across other national samples and on the Internet. Fifth, I discuss the relevance of a life course perspective to understanding the evolution of human sexuality. Most research on the evolution of human sexuality focuses on young adults. Yet humans are sexual beings from gestation to death, albeit in different ways across the life course, and in ways that can be theoretically couched within life history theory. PMID:24151100

Gray, Peter B

2013-12-01

313

Pilot study in the development of an Interactive Multimedia Learning Environment for sexual health interventions: a focus group approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the UK there are high rates of sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnan- cies amongst young people. There is limited and contradictory evidence that current sexual health education interventions are effective or that they improve access to appropriate sexual health services. This paper describes the out- come of focus group work with young people that was undertaken to inform

P. C. Goold; S. Bustard; E. Ferguson; E. M. Carlin; K. Neal; C. A. Bowman

2006-01-01

314

Sexual Education for Psychiatric Residents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors seek to promote sexuality curriculum development in departments of psychiatry. Methods: The authors first focus on educational philosophy about what residents can be taught about sexual topics and then provide numerical and narrative resident evaluation data following a 6-month, half day per week rotation in a sexuality

Levine, Stephen B.; Scott, David L.

2010-01-01

315

The "Right" Sexuality for Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Feminist researchers in psychology and education have been theorizing about the kind of sexuality girls ought to have. They are not afraid to investigate morality and what makes a good life. While they explore the meaning and cultural context of girls' sexual development, the good sexual life they describe may be an elusive ideal that, in the end,…

Lamb, Sharon

2008-01-01

316

Internet Sexualities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The term “internet sexuality” (or OSA, online sexual activities) refers to sexual-related content and activities observable on the internet (cf. Adams, Oye, & Parker, 2003; Cooper, McLoughlin, & Campbell, 2000; Leiblum & Döring, 2002). It designates a variety of sexual phenomena (e.g., pornography, sex education, sexual contacts) related to a wide spectrum of online services and applications (e.g., websites, online chat rooms, peer-to-peer networks). If an even broader range of computer networks - such as the Usenet or bulletin board systems - is included in this extensional definition, one speaks of “online sexuality” or “cybersexuality.”

Döring, Nicola

317

Can testosterone and corticosterone predict the rate of display of male sexual behaviour, development of secondary sexual characters and fertility potential in primary broiler breeders?  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Genetic selection for growth to enhance production may be associated with stress and with modified physiological and behavioural phenotypes which depress male primary broiler breeder fertility.2. We hypothesised that male serum testosterone (T) and corticosterone (C) concentrations might correlate with fertility, sexual behaviour, and testicular, comb and wattle size.3. Cockerels from two genetic strains (A and B) of primary

S. Mcgary Brougher; I. Estevez; M. A. Ottinger

2005-01-01

318

APP A_SALMONID VIABILITY CRITERIA.DOC A-1 Interim Viability Criteria Overview of Threatened  

E-print Network

enough to support growth and abundance, and diversity criteria. b. Quality: Habitat underlying spatialAPP A_SALMONID VIABILITY CRITERIA.DOC A-1 APPENDIX A Interim Viability Criteria Overview Report on Viability Criteria for Willamette and Lower Columbia Basin Pacific Salmonids, which

319

Growth and Survival of Columbia River basin juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River  

E-print Network

Growth and Survival of Columbia River basin juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River Plume will affect juvenile salmon growth, survival, and adult returns ­ To inform policy and Columbia Basin of juvenile salmonids with metrics of growth and condition Measure physical and biological conditions (temp

320

Assessment of Native Salmonids Above Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho; 1998 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Native resident salmonids in the western United States are in decline throughout much of their range. The purpose of the multi-phased project is to restore native salmonids in the upper Snake River basin to self-sustaining, harvestable levels.

Meyer, Kevin A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

1999-03-01

321

Dam Effects on Sediment Transport and Channel Form in the Klamath River: Implications for Salmonid Restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

By virtue of the historical importance of its salmonid fishery and recent controversies over agricultural water diversions and fish mortality, the Klamath River (California and Oregon) has attracted significant attention from the public and federal agencies, including reports by two committees of the National Research Council since 2000. One proposal under consideration to restore Klamath River salmonid fisheries is to

M. R. Tompkins; G. M. Kondolf

2009-01-01

322

A LARGE-SCALE, MULTISPECIES STATUS ASSESSMENT: ANADROMOUS SALMONIDS IN THE COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve salmonid evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) throughout the Co­ lumbia River Basin are currently listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act; these ESUs are affected differentially by a variety of human activities. We present a standardized quantitative status and risk assessment for 152 listed salmonid stocks in these ESUs and 24 nonlisted stocks. Using data from 1980-2000,

Michelle M. McClure; Elizabeth E. Holmes; Beth L. Sanderson; Chris E. Jordan

2003-01-01

323

Dynamics of Myxobolus cerebralis in the Lostine River, Oregon: Implications for Resident and Anadromous Salmonids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myxobolus cerebralis, the myxozoan parasite causing whirling disease in salmonids, was first detected in northeastern Oregon in 1986. To better understand the potential impact of M. cerebralis on resident and anadromous salmonids in this region, a series of studies was conducted in the Lostine River, where infected fish were first reported. Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss fry were exposed in sentinel

Todd A. Sandell; Harriet V. Lorz; Donald G. Stevens; Jerri L. Bartholomew

2001-01-01

324

Feeding of Predaceous Fishes on Out-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids in John Day Reservoir, Columbia River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diets of northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, walleye Stizostedion vitreum, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus from John Day Reservoir were examined to determine the extent of predation on juvenile salmonids during seaward migrations of the salmonids during April–August 1983–1986. Juvenile Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss were the most important food group (by weight) of

Thomas P. Poe; Hal C. Hansel; Steven Vigg; Douglas E. Palmer; Linda A. Prendergast

1991-01-01

325

Sexual Health  

MedlinePLUS

... them do, even if interest in sex and sexual activity declines to some extent with increasing age. This ... and a quarter report no pleasure from their sexual activity. About one out of 10 older women have ...

326

Sexual Abuse  

MedlinePLUS

... form of non-consensual physical contact. It includes rape, molestation, or any sexual conduct with a person ... more? "Speaking the unspeakable: An interview about elder sexual assault with Holly Ramsey-Klawsnik, Ph.D" in nexus , ...

327

REDUCING SEXUAL RISK AMONG FILIPINA FEMALE BAR WORKERS: EFFECTS OF A CBPR-DEVELOPED STRUCTURAL AND NETWORK INTERVENTION  

PubMed Central

The effects of three interventions designed to reduce sexual risk among Filipina female bar workers (FBWs) were compared with each other and with usual care (nonintervention). The interventions were developed iteratively by a community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership comprising lay community members, organizational representatives (including nongovernmental organizations), and academic researchers from the United States and the Philippines. Peer educators and bar managers from 110 different establishments in three southern regions were recruited and trained to increase knowledge of HIV and of condom use rules and regulations within establishments, as well as to change attitudes about risk reduction, provide HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing referrals, and build condom use skills among FBWs. Compared with the control community, all three interventions increased HIV and STI testing; however, only FBWs in the combination peer-educator and manager-training intervention significantly increased condom use from baseline to 2-year follow-up. Condom use was significantly associated with higher HIV knowledge, attendance of a prevention class, and being taught how to use condoms properly. Given these findings, research is warranted to further explore and understand various forms of commercial sex work and to test adapted peer-educator and manger-training interventions within HIV epicenters. PMID:20707696

Morisky, Donald E.; Malow, Robert M.; Tiglao, Teodora V.; Lyu, Shu-Yu; Vissman, Aaron T.; Rhodes, Scott D.

2011-01-01

328

LEAFY COTYLEDON1, a key regulator of seed development, is expressed in vegetative and sexual propagules of Selaginella moellendorffii.  

PubMed

LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) is a central regulator of seed development that plays a key role in controlling the maturation phase during which storage macromolecules accumulate and the embryo becomes tolerant of desiccation. We queried the genomes of seedless plants and identified a LEC1 homolog in the lycophyte, Selaginella moellendorffii, but not in the bryophyte, Physcomitrella patens. Genetic suppression experiments indicated that Selaginella LEC1 is the functional ortholog of Arabidopsis LEC1. Together, these results suggest that LEC1 originated at least 30 million years before the first seed plants appeared in the fossil record. The accumulation of Selaginella LEC1 RNA primarily in sexual and asexual reproductive structures suggests its involvement in cellular processes similar to those that occur during the maturation phase of seed development. PMID:23776713

Kirkbride, Ryan C; Fischer, Robert L; Harada, John J

2013-01-01

329

LEAFY COTYLEDON1, a Key Regulator of Seed Development, Is Expressed in Vegetative and Sexual Propagules of Selaginella moellendorffii  

PubMed Central

LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) is a central regulator of seed development that plays a key role in controlling the maturation phase during which storage macromolecules accumulate and the embryo becomes tolerant of desiccation. We queried the genomes of seedless plants and identified a LEC1 homolog in the lycophyte, Selaginellamoellendorffii, but not in the bryophyte, Physcomitrellapatens. Genetic suppression experiments indicated that Selaginella LEC1 is the functional ortholog of Arabidopsis LEC1. Together, these results suggest that LEC1 originated at least 30 million years before the first seed plants appeared in the fossil record. The accumulation of Selaginella LEC1 RNA primarily in sexual and asexual reproductive structures suggests its involvement in cellular processes similar to those that occur during the maturation phase of seed development. PMID:23776713

Kirkbride, Ryan C.; Fischer, Robert L.; Harada, John J.

2013-01-01

330

Sexuality Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the state of sexuality education in the United States. After concerted efforts in the 1960s to stop sex education, interest in sexuality education resurged in the 1980s, largely as a result of AIDS fears. There is now a broad-based consensus on the necessity of sexuality education, but there are still few effective programs. (SLD)

Haffner, Debra W.

1998-01-01

331

Sexual conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual conflict occurs when the genetic interests of males and females diverge. Recent evidence supporting the view that male and female genomes are in conflict has now revolutionized the way in which we interpret interactions between the sexes, and suggests that sexual conflict is a potent force in male–female coevolution. Here, we consider the nature of sexual conflict and what

Tracey Chapman; Göran Arnqvist; Jenny Bangham; Locke Rowe

2003-01-01

332

The contribution of molecular epidemiology to the understanding and control of viral diseases of salmonid aquaculture  

PubMed Central

Molecular epidemiology is a science which utilizes molecular biology to define the distribution of disease in a population (descriptive epidemiology) and relies heavily on integration of traditional (or analytical) epidemiological approaches to identify the etiological determinants of this distribution. The study of viral pathogens of aquaculture has provided many exciting opportunities to apply such tools. This review considers the extent to which molecular epidemiological studies have contributed to better understanding and control of disease in aquaculture, drawing on examples of viral diseases of salmonid fish of commercial significance including viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), salmonid alphavirus (SAV) and infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV). Significant outcomes of molecular epidemiological studies include: Improved taxonomic classification of viruses A better understanding of the natural distribution of viruses An improved understanding of the origins of viral pathogens in aquaculture An improved understanding of the risks of translocation of pathogens outwith their natural host range An increased ability to trace the source of new disease outbreaks Development of a basis for ensuring development of appropriate diagnostic tools An ability to classify isolates and thus target future research aimed at better understanding biological function While molecular epidemiological studies have no doubt already made a significant contribution in these areas, the advent of new technologies such as pyrosequencing heralds a quantum leap in the ability to generate descriptive molecular sequence data. The ability of molecular epidemiology to fulfil its potential to translate complex disease pathways into relevant fish health policy is thus unlikely to be limited by the generation of descriptive molecular markers. More likely, full realisation of the potential to better explain viral transmission pathways will be dependent on the ability to assimilate and analyse knowledge from a range of more traditional information sources. The development of methods to systematically record and share such epidemiologically important information thus represents a major challenge for fish health professionals in making the best future use of molecular data in supporting fish health policy and disease control. PMID:21466673

2011-01-01

333

Examining key design decisions involved in developing a serious game for child sexual abuse prevention  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a case study of the key decisions made in the design of Orbit, a child sexual abuse prevention computer game targeted at school students between 8 and 10 years of age. Key decisions include providing supported delivery for the target age group, featuring adults in the program, not over-sanitizing game content, having a focus on building healthy self-concept of players, making the game engaging and relatable for all players and evaluating the program. This case study has implications for the design of Serious Games more generally, including that research should underpin game design decisions, game designers should consider ways of bridging the game to real life, the learning that arises from the game should go beyond rote-learning, designers should consider how the player can make the game-world their own and comprehensive evaluations of Serious Games should be undertaken. PMID:24550880

Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Jones, Christian M.; Rolfe, Ben; Pozzebon, Kay

2014-01-01

334

The acceptance of modern myths about sexual aggression scale: development and validation in German and English.  

PubMed

Scales of rape myth acceptance (RMA) often yield low means and skewed distributions. This is proposed to be because of a change in rape-related beliefs toward more subtle content. Incorporating insights from racism and sexism research, a 30-item self-report scale measuring the acceptance of modern myths about sexual aggression (AMMSA) is presented. Across four studies (total N=1,279), the reliability and validity of parallel German and English versions of the AMMSA scale were examined. The results show that both language versions are highly reliable; compared with a traditional RMA scale, means of AMMSA scores are higher and their distributions more closely approximate normality. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses provide evidence for the AMMSA scale's concurrent and predictive construct validity. PMID:17683102

Gerger, Heike; Kley, Hanna; Bohner, Gerd; Siebler, Frank

2007-01-01

335

Examining key design decisions involved in developing a serious game for child sexual abuse prevention.  

PubMed

This paper presents a case study of the key decisions made in the design of Orbit, a child sexual abuse prevention computer game targeted at school students between 8 and 10 years of age. Key decisions include providing supported delivery for the target age group, featuring adults in the program, not over-sanitizing game content, having a focus on building healthy self-concept of players, making the game engaging and relatable for all players and evaluating the program. This case study has implications for the design of Serious Games more generally, including that research should underpin game design decisions, game designers should consider ways of bridging the game to real life, the learning that arises from the game should go beyond rote-learning, designers should consider how the player can make the game-world their own and comprehensive evaluations of Serious Games should be undertaken. PMID:24550880

Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Jones, Christian M; Rolfe, Ben; Pozzebon, Kay

2014-01-01

336

Transcribed Tc1-like transposons in salmonid fish  

PubMed Central

Background Mobile genetic elements comprise a substantial fraction of vertebrate genomes. These genes are considered to be deleterious, and in vertebrates they are usually inactive. High throughput sequencing of salmonid fish cDNA libraries has revealed a large number of transposons, which remain transcribed despite inactivation of translation. This article reports on the structure and potential role of these genes. Results A search of EST showed the ratio of transcribed transposons in salmonid fish (i.e., 0.5% of all unique cDNA sequences) to be 2.4–32 times greater than in other vertebrate species, and 68% of these genes belonged to the Tc1-family of DNA transposons. A phylogenetic analysis of reading frames indicate repeated transposition of distantly related genes into the fish genome over protracted intervals of evolutionary time. Several copies of two new DNA transposons were cloned. These copies showed relatively little divergence (11.4% and 1.9%). The latter gene was transcribed at a high level in rainbow trout tissues, and was present in genomes of many phylogenetically remote fish species. A comparison of synonymous and non-synonymous divergence revealed remnants of divergent evolution in the younger gene, while the older gene evolved in a neutral mode. From a 1.2 MB fragment of genomic DNA, the salmonid genome contains approximately 105 Tc1-like sequences, the major fraction of which is not transcribed. Our microarray studies showed that transcription of rainbow trout transposons is activated by external stimuli, such as toxicity, stress and bacterial antigens. The expression profiles of Tc1-like transposons gave a strong correlation (r2 = 0.63–0.88) with a group of genes implicated in defense response, signal transduction and regulation of transcription. Conclusion Salmonid genomes contain a large quantity of transcribed mobile genetic elements. Divergent or neutral evolution within genomes and lateral transmission can account for the diversity and sustained persistence of Tc1-like transposons in lower vertebrates. A small part of transposons remain transcribed and their transcription is enhanced by responses to acute conditions. PMID:16095544

Krasnov, Aleksei; Koskinen, Heikki; Afanasyev, Sergey; Molsa, Hannu

2005-01-01

337

Sexual Harassment in the 90's.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document discusses the developing law of sexual harassment. Sexual harassment is discussed not only in the school environment, but also in the workplace. Two legally recognized forms of sexual harassment are described: (1) quid pro quo, or demanding sexual favors in exchange for grades, raises, promotions; and (2) the hostile environment…

Wasserman, Nora M. Fraser

338

Global climate change and effects on Pacific Northwest salmonids: An exploratory case study  

SciTech Connect

Recently, a number of papers have addressed global warming and freshwater fisheries. The recent report to Congress by the US Environmental Protection Agency included an analysis of potential effects of global warming on fisheries of the Great Lakes, California, and the Southeast. In California, the report stated that salinity increases in the San Francisco Bay could enhance the abundance of marine fish species, while anadromous species could be adversely affected. This paper discusses global climate changes and the effects on Pacific Northwest Salmonids. The impacts of climate change or Spring Chinook production in the Yakima Sub-basin was simulated using a computer modeling system developed for the Northwest Power planning council. 35 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Shankle, S.A.

1990-09-01

339

Histopathology and ultrastructure of ocular lesions associated with gas bubble disease in salmonids.  

PubMed

Ocular lesions associated with natural and experimental outbreaks of gas bubble disease (GBD) in commercial salmonids were assessed histologically and by scanning electron microscopy. Small gas emboli were first detected in the choroid gland of the posterior uvea. In subacute and chronic cases, bubble size increased markedly and localization in retrobulbar and periocular sites was favoured. During the acute phase of GBD, ocular lesions were limited to anatomical displacement of tissue and local degeneration of compressed tissues around the perimeter of bubbles. Subacute sequelae included the formation of anterior synechia, lens cataract, and suppurative panophthalmitis. During chronic stages, when large retrobulbar bubbles had caused severe exophthalmia, there was stretching of the optic nerve and of retinal blood vessels and severe distortion of the posterior aspects of the globe. The sequential development, pathogenesis and persistence of ocular lesions associated with GBD in fish are discussed. PMID:2079557

Speare, D J

1990-11-01

340

Impacts of Columbia River discharge on salmonid habitat: 2. Changes in shallow-water habitat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the second part of an investigation that analyzes human alteration of shallow-water habitat (SWH) available to juvenile salmonids in the tidal Lower Columbia River. Part 2 develops a one-dimensional, subtidal river stage model that explains ˜90% of the stage variance in the tidal river. This model and the tidal model developed in part 1 [, 2003] uncouple the nonlinear interaction of river tides and river stage by referring both to external forcing by river discharge, ocean tides, and atmospheric pressure. Applying the two models, daily high-water levels were predicted for a reach from rkm-50 to rkm-90 during 1974 to 1998, the period of contemporary management. Predicted water levels were related to the bathymetry and topography to determine the changes in shallow-water habitat area (SWHA) caused by flood control dikes and altered flow management. Model results suggest that diking and a >40% reduction of peak flows have reduced SWHA by ˜62% during the crucial spring freshet period during which juvenile salmon use of SWHA is maximal. Taken individually, diking and flow cycle alteration reduced spring freshet SWHA by 52% and 29%, respectively. SWHA has been both displaced to lower elevations and modified in its character because tidal range has increased. Our models of these processes are economical for the very long simulations (seasons to centuries) needed to understand historic changes and climate impacts on SWH. Through analysis of the nonlinear processes controlling surface elevation in a tidal river, we have identified some of the mechanisms that link freshwater discharge to SWH and salmonid survival.

Kukulka, Tobias; Jay, David A.

2003-09-01

341

Sexual dimorphism of AMH, DMRT1 and RSPO1 localization in the developing gonads of six anuran species.  

PubMed

In vertebrates, several genes which are differentially expressed in various species, have been implicated in sex determination and gonadal differentiation. We used immunolocalization to study the expression pattern of three proteins AMH, DMRT1, RSPO1 involved in the sexual differentiation of gonads. The pattern of AMH, DMRT1 and RSPO1 expression was analyzed in X. laevis and in five other divergent anuran species: Bombina bombina, Bufo viridis, Hyla arborea, Rana arvalis and Rana temporaria during gonadal development. The pattern of expression of AMH in the developing testes of six studied anuran species was similar to that described for other vertebrates. AMH was strongly expressed in differentiating Sertoli cells. Interestingly, in B. viridis, R. arvalis and R. temporaria, AMH was also expressed in ovaries. In all studied species, DMRT1 was highly expressed in the developing testes, in both the somatic and germ cells. It was also expressed at low level in ovaries in all studied species, with the exception of H. arborea. RSPO1 was expressed in the developing ovaries, especially in the somatic cells, and was almost undetectable in developing testes in all examined anurans. These developmental expression patterns strongly suggest an involvement of AMH and DMRT1 in the development of male gonads and of RSPO1 in the female gonads. The differences in the expression patterns of these proteins in the gonads of different species might reflect the diversity of gonadal development patterns in anurans resulting from long lasting and diverged paths of their evolution. PMID:24623081

Piprek, Rafal P; Pecio, Anna; Laskowska-Kaszub, Katarzyna; Kubiak, Jacek Z; Szymura, Jacek M

2013-01-01

342

Development, standardization and refinement of procedures for evaluating effects of endocrine active compounds on development and sexual differentiation of Xenopus laevis  

PubMed Central

Xenopus laevis has been introduced as a model to study effects of endocrine-active compounds (EAC) on development and sexual differentiation. However, variable and inconsistent data have raised questions about the reliability of the test methods applied. The current study was conducted in two laboratories to develop, refine, and standardize procedures and protocols. Larvae were exposed in flow-through systems to 17?-estradiol (E2), at concentrations from 0.2 to 6.0 ?g E2 L?1 in Experiment 1A, and 0.015 to 2.0 ?g E2 L?1 in Experiment 1B. In both studies survival (92%, 99%) and percentage of animals that completed metamorphosis (97%, 99%) indicated reproducible biological performance. Furthermore, minor variations in husbandry led to significant differences in snout-to-vent length, weight, and gonad size. In Experiment 1A, almost complete feminization occurred in all E2 treatment groups whereas a concentration response was observed in Experiment 1B resulting in an EC50 of 0.12 ?g E2 L?1. The final verified protocol is suitable for determining effects of EAC on development and sexual differentiation in X. laevis. PMID:18327572

Kloas, Werner; Springer, Timothy A.; Holden, Larry R.; Wolf, Jeff C.; Krueger, Henry O.; Hosmer, Alan J.

2008-01-01

343

Child Sexual Abuse  

MedlinePLUS

... the child will develop serious problems as an adult. For additional information see Facts for Families : #4 The Depressed Child #5 Child Abuse #10 Teen Suicide #28 Responding to Child Sexual Abuse #62 Talking ...

344

Sexual Health and Reproduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity provides questions and Web sites to guide student investigation of birth control methods, fetal development, risks of alcohol and smoking during pregnancy, changes during puberty, and HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases.

Waldron, Ingrid

345

Sexuality and Down Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... to decision-making, cultural norms, peer pressures, relationships, social skills and opportunities. Positioning sexuality within the context of community life requires the development of personal values and adult responsibilities. An ideal curriculum will ensure that individuals with ...

346

Fgfr1 signalling in the development of a sexually selected trait in vertebrates, the sword of swordtail fish  

PubMed Central

Background One of Darwin's chosen examples for his idea of sexual selection through female choice was the "sword", a colourful extension of the caudal fin of male swordtails of the genus Xiphophorus. Platyfish, also members of the genus Xiphophorus, are thought to have arisen from within the swordtails, but have secondarily lost the ability to develop a sword. The sustained increase of testosterone during sexual maturation initiates sword development in male swordtails. Addition of testosterone also induces sword-like fin extensions in some platyfish species, suggesting that the genetic interactions required for sword development may be dormant, rather than lost, within platyfish. Despite considerable interest in the evolution of the sword from a behavioural or evolutionary point of view, little is known about the developmental changes that resulted in the gain and secondary loss of the sword. Up-regulation of msxC had been shown to characterize the development of both swords and the gonopodium, a modified anal fin that serves as an intromittent organ, and prompted investigations of the regulatory mechanisms that control msxC and sword growth. Results By comparing both development and regeneration of caudal fins in swordtails and platyfish, we show that fgfr1 is strongly up-regulated in developing and regenerating sword and gonopodial rays. Characterization of the fin overgrowth mutant brushtail in a platyfish background confirmed that fin regeneration rates are correlated with the expression levels of fgfr1 and msxC. Moreover, brushtail re-awakens the dormant mechanisms of sword development in platyfish and activates fgfr1/msxC-signalling. Although both genes are co-expressed in scleroblasts, expression of msxC in the distal blastema may be independent of fgfr1. Known regulators of Fgf-signalling in teleost fins, fgf20a and fgf24, are transiently expressed only during regeneration and thus not likely to be required in developing swords. Conclusion Our data suggest that Fgf-signalling is involved upstream of msxC in the development of the sword and gonopodium in male swordtails. Activation of a gene regulatory network that includes fgfr1 and msxC is positively correlated with fin ray growth rates and can be re-activated in platyfish to form small sword-like fin extensions. These findings point towards a disruption between the fgfr1/msxC network and its regulation by testosterone as a likely developmental cause for sword-loss in platyfish. PMID:18844994

Offen, Nils; Blum, Nicola; Meyer, Axel; Begemann, Gerrit

2008-01-01

347

SEXUAL ASSAULT AND SEXUAL HARASSMENT QUICK REFERENCE  

E-print Network

SEXUAL ASSAULT AND SEXUAL HARASSMENT QUICK REFERENCE Sexual Assault Definition ­ any form of sexual contact without both parties' voluntary consent. Contrary to what most people think, sexual assault. ­ Zvulony & Company ­ The Law of Sexual Assault in Canada. Sexual Harassment Definition ­ is comment

Thompson, Michael

348

Sexual behavior and attitude towards HIV testing among non-HIV testers in a developing nation: A public health concern  

PubMed Central

Background: HIV/AIDS is a problem in developing countries including Jamaica. There are several studies dealing with HIV/AIDS in Jamaica but given the increasing rate of the infection, ongoing studies are necessary. Aims: This study examines the sexual behavior and attitude of non-HIV testers in Jamaica in order to provide research evidence that will direct public health policies and interventions. Materials and Methods: This study extracts a sample of 1,192 participants who indicated not having done a HIV test from 1,800 respondents from a 2004 HIV/AIDS/STD National KABP Survey. A detailed questionnaire was developed and used to collect data from people ages 15-49 years old. Results: Some 20.3 % of the variances, which is self reported positive HIV test results, are a function of relationship status, using protection against HIV, having sex with a commercial sex worker, having STIs, the age at which the participant first had sex and age at last birthday. These findings hold across gender, occupational status and education. The majority (87.9%) of the participants said they had little or no chance of getting HIV, and 59.7% did not want to know their HIV status. However, 46.6% did not wear a condom the first time they had sex with current partner, 32% do not wear a condom with their current partner and 16.3% reported having had STIs. Conclusion: The existing HIV prevention programs need to be expanded and fortified to target young Jamaicans, particularly those who do not engage in safe sexual practices. PMID:22558590

Bourne, Paul A.; Charles, Christopher A. D.

2010-01-01

349

The role of MADS-box transcription factors in secondary metabolism and sexual development in the maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides.  

PubMed

MADS-box transcription factors (TFs) regulate functionally diverse gene targets in eukaryotes. In select ascomycetes, MADS-box TFs have been shown to play a role in virulence, and vegetative and sexual development. Here, we characterized Fusarium verticillioides MADS-box TFs, Mads1 and Mads2, in terms of their roles in secondary metabolism and sexual mating. Sequence analyses showed that MADS1 and MADS2 encode TFs with a SRF-type dimerization domain and a MEF2-type dimerization domain, respectively. The MADS1 and MADS2 knockout mutants (Fmt1 and Fmt2 strains, respectively) exhibited decreased vegetative growth and FB1 production when compared to the wild-type. Fmt1 showed reduced expression of 14 polyketide synthase (PKS) genes present in the organism, whereas Fmt2 did not display a change in PKS gene expression. Significantly, the deletion of MADS1 and MADS2 in the MAT1-2 genotype (Fmt4 and Fmt5 strains, respectively) led to strains that failed to produce perithecia and ascospores when crossed with the MAT1-1 wild-type strain. Notably, deletion of either gene did not have an effect on the ability of the fungus to colonize maize stalk or kernels. FB1 production and PKS expression data suggest that Mads1 is a broad regulator of secondary metabolism in F. verticillioides, and may target regulons upstream of Mads2 to influence FB1 production. In addition, MADS-box TFs in F. verticillioides play a critical role in the perithecia development. PMID:23985144

Ortiz, Carlos S; Shim, Won-Bo

2013-11-01

350

Stigmatization and the development of friendship and romantic relationships in adolescent victims of sexual abuse.  

PubMed

This study examines same- and other-sex friendship networks and perceptions of peer competence as functions of stigmatization, defined as shame and a self-blame attributional style. Fifty-six sexually abused adolescents were seen at the time of abuse discovery and 1 year later. Higher self-blame attributional style for the abuse was related to more satisfaction with other-sex friends and less satisfaction with same-sex friends. More shame was related to less satisfaction with same-sex friends and to having a larger number of other-sex friends. Higher self-blame attributional style was related to perceptions of poorer peer acceptance and close friendship and to perceptions of poorer romantic appeal. More shame was related to lower perceptions of peer acceptance and close friendship. The results support the idea that abuse victims who experience higher levels of shame and self-blame attributional style feel less capable of forming satisfying relationships with peers, friends, and potential romantic partners. PMID:11232259

Feiring, C; Rosenthal, S; Taska, L

2000-11-01

351

Modeling the Association between Sexual Maturation, Transmissible Risk, and Peer Relationships During Childhood and Adolescence on Development of Substance Use Disorder in Young Adulthood  

PubMed Central

Background This prospective study investigated pubertal timing and transmissible risk in relation to affiliation with deviant peers on the development of substance use disorder (SUD). Methods Participants were boys (N = 500) ascertained through proband fathers with (N = 250) and without (N = 250) DSM-III-R lifetime diagnosis of SUD who were prospectively tracked from age 10–12 to 22. Transmissible liability index (TLI), Tanner stage, peer delinquency, and substance use were measured at ages 10–12 and 16. SUD diagnosis during early adulthood was determined. Results Structural equation modeling revealed two pathways in which transmissible risk and sexual maturation influenced development of SUD. In the first pathway, transmissible risk was correlated with and prospectively predicted affiliation with deviant peers and substance use presaging SUD. In the second pathway, advanced sexual maturation positively predicted affiliation with deviant peers and substance use, which in turn predicted SUD. However, transmissible risk was not associated with pubertal development. Conclusions These findings indicate that advanced sexual maturation and transmissible risk constitute unrelated facets of SUD liability; however, both factors bias development toward SUD via affiliation with deviant peers. Scientific Significance Youth with advanced sexual maturation and/or transmissible risk for SUD are at higher risk for developing SUD. Additional research is needed to determine if addressing these risk factors will contribute to advancements in SUD prevention. PMID:23952893

Horner, Michelle S.; Tarter, Ralph; Kirisci, Levent; Clark, Duncan B.

2013-01-01

352

Sexual behaviour  

PubMed Central

Sexual health is not merely the absence of disease, but the ability to have informed, consensual, safe, respectful, and pleasurable sexual relationships. The majority of the population are sexually active, most with someone of the opposite sex. The frequency and range of sexual practices that people engage in declines with age, but for many, sexual activity continues well into later life. Different aspects of sexual health affect people at different times throughout their lives. As people in the UK tend to first have sex around the age of 16, but do not start living with a partner until much later, the avoidance of sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancy is necessary for many for a number of years. As people get older, their sexual health needs change and they become more concerned with the impact of their general health on their ability to have sex. Some people experience non-volitional sex (sex against their will); although this occurs typically in late teenage it may affect women and men at any age and so requires consideration throughout life. As many people find it difficult to talk about sex and sexual health matters, health professionals should make sexual health enquiry a component of their holistic healthcare. PMID:24966786

Mercer, Catherine H.

2014-01-01

353

Development/Plasticity/Repair Regional Gray Matter Growth, Sexual Dimorphism, and  

E-print Network

brain development, very little is known about normal brain development in the first few months of life are present at birth, others develop after birth. Key words: human; magnetic resonance imaging; brain phase of post- natal brain development, with rapid development of a wide range of cognitive and motor

Prastawa, Marcel

354

Plasmodium sexual development and the role of Plasmepsin X in Plasmodium falciparum transmission to anopheles gambiae  

E-print Network

Reverse genetics screen identifies six proteins important for malaria developmentReverse genetics screen identifies six proteins important for malaria developmentReverse genetics screen identifies six proteins important for malaria development

Bounkeua, Viengngeun

2010-01-01

355

Rape Myth Acceptance, Hypermasculinity, and SAT Scores as Correlates of Moral Development: Understanding Sexually Aggressive Attitudes in First-Year College Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male perpetrated sexual aggression has long been recognized as a serious problem on college campuses. The purpose of this multiple regression correlation study was to assess the relationship between levels of moral development (measured by the Defining Issues Test) and the degree to which first-year college men (N = 161) ascribed to rape supportive attitudes, as measured by the Illinois

Jerry L. Tatum; John D. Foubert

2009-01-01

356

The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis in two sexually dimorphic pinniped species—is there a sex difference in immunity during early development?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ‘immunocompetence handicap hypothesis’ predicts that highly sexually dimorphic and polygynous species will exhibit sex differences in immunity. We tested this hypothesis in southern elephant and grey seals during their early development by measuring the following parameters: leucocyte counts, serum IgG levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and haematocrit. We failed to find any differences due to sex as assessed by the

Ailsa J Hall; Georg H Engelhard; Sophie M. J. M Brasseur; Anna Vecchione; Harry R Burton; Peter J. H Reijnders

2003-01-01

357

Longitudinal hormonal evaluation in a patient with disorder of sexual development, 46,XY karyotype and one NR5A1 mutation.  

PubMed

Steroidogenic factor 1 (encoded by the NR5A1 gene) is a critical regulator of reproduction, controlling transcription of key genes involved in sexual dimorphism. To date, NR5A1 variants have been found in individuals with a 46,XY karyotype and gonadal dysgenesis, as well as with a wide spectrum of genital anomalies and, in some patients, with adrenal insufficiency. We describe evolution of gonadal function, from the neonatal period to puberty, in a patient with a 46,XY karyotype, a disorder of sexual development, and a mutation (c.691_699dupCTGCAGCTG) in the NR5A1 gene. The patient, ascertained at birth due to ambiguous genitalia, showed normal values of plasma testosterone in the late neonatal period. Evaluation of the hormonal profile over time indicated severe tubular testicular hypofunction suggestive for a 46,XY disorder of gonadal development. A comprehensive review of published reports of 46,XY and disordered sexual development related to the NR5A1 gene confirmed the clinical and hormonal variability in patients with NR5A1 mutations. Analysis of multiple data allowed us to define the most common features associated with NR5A1 mutations. We further confirmed the indication to perform NR5A1 screening in patients with 46,XY karyotype and disordered sexual development even when Müllerian structures appear to be absent and plasma testosterone levels are within the normal range for age. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25160005

Pedace, Lucia; Laino, Luigi; Preziosi, Nicoletta; Valentini, Maria Stella; Scommegna, Salvatore; Rapone, Anna Maria; Guarino, Nino; Boscherini, Brunetto; De Bernardo, Carmelilia; Marrocco, Giacinto; Majore, Silvia; Grammatico, Paola

2014-11-01

358

Rape Myth Acceptance, Hypermasculinity, and SAT Scores as Correlates of Moral Development: Understanding Sexually Aggressive Attitudes in First-Year College Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Male perpetrated sexual aggression has long been recognized as a serious problem on college campuses. The purpose of this multiple regression correlation study was to assess the relationship between levels of moral development (measured by the Defining Issues Test) and the degree to which first-year college men (N = 161) ascribed to rape…

Tatum, Jerry L.; Foubert, John D.

2009-01-01

359

The Use of Sexually Explicit Material in Clinical, Educational and Research Settings in the United Kingdom and Its Relation to the Development of Psychosexual Therapy and Sex Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present review describes the development and use of sexually explicit material in sex education within UK psychosexual therapy clinics, medical schools and also in state-maintained secondary schools with reference to interests that have shaped the provision of sex education since the early twentieth century. A short summary of published books…

Brewster, Marnie; Wylie, Kevan R.

2008-01-01

360

Still Off-Limits? Staff Views on Supporting Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual People with Intellectual Disabilities to Develop Sexual and Intimate Relationships?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: In the UK and elsewhere, there is a growing policy and legislative imperative to ensure that people with intellectual disabilities are supported to develop relationships, including sexual ones. However, gay, lesbian and bisexual people with intellectual disabilities may have additional needs or face particular barriers in this area of…

Abbott, David; Howarth, Joyce

2007-01-01

361

The Development of Reproductive Strategy in Females: Early Maternal Harshness [right arrow] Earlier Menarche [right arrow] Increased Sexual Risk Taking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To test a proposition central to J. Belsky, L. Steinberg, and P. Draper's (1991) evolutionary theory of socialization--that pubertal maturation plays a role in linking early rearing experience with adolescent sexual risk taking (i.e., frequency of sexual behavior) and, perhaps, other risk taking (e.g., alcohol, drugs, delinquency)--the authors…

Belsky, Jay; Steinberg, Laurence; Houts, Renate M.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

2010-01-01

362

Morphological and histological differences in the development of dwarf mutants of sexual and somatic origin in diverse woody taxa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphological and histological observations were made on eight dwarf mutants arising either as seedlings from sexual reproduction or from somatic bud mutations (witches'-brooms in the crowns of normal trees). The most predominate morphological trait contributing to the expression of dwarfism in all taxa was the reduction of final internode lengths along the shoot axis. In taxa of sexual origin, with

Claud L. Brown; Harry E. Sommer; Hazel Wetzstein

1994-01-01

363

Determine the Influence of Time Held in “Knockdown” Anesthesia on Survival and Stress of Surgically Implanted Juvenile Salmonids  

SciTech Connect

The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) was developed for the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers Portland District (USACE) to address questions related to survival and performance measures of juvenile salmonids as they pass through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). Researchers using JSATS acoustic transmitters (ATs) were tasked with standardizing the surgical implantation procedure to ensure that the stressors of handling and surgery on salmonids were consistent and less likely to cause effects of tagging in survival studies. Researchers questioned whether the exposure time in 'knockdown' anesthesia (or induction) to prepare fish for surgery could influence the survival of study fish (CBSPSC 2011). Currently, fish are held in knockdown anesthesia after they reach Stage 4 anesthesia until the completion of the surgical implantation of a transmitter, varies from 5 to 15 minutes for studies conducted in the Columbia Basin. The Columbia Basin Surgical Protocol Steering Committee (CBSPSC ) expressed concern that its currently recommended 10-minute maximum time limit during which fish are held in anesthetic - tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222, 80 mg L-1 water) - could increase behavioral and physiological costs, and/or decrease survival of outmigrating juvenile salmonids. In addition, the variability in the time fish are held at Stage 4 could affect the data intended for direct comparison of fish within or among survival studies. Under the current recommended protocol, if fish exceed the 10-minute time limit, they are to be released without surgical implantation, thereby increasing the number of fish handled and endangered species 'take' at the bypass systems for FCRPS survival studies.

Woodley, Christa M.; Wagner, Katie A.; Knox, Kasey M.

2012-01-31

364

Comparative evaluation of molecular diagnostic tests for Nucleospora salmonis and prevalence in migrating juvenile salmonids from the Snake River, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nucleospora salmonis is an intranuclear microsporidian that primarily infects lymphoblast cells and contributes to chronic lymphoblastosis and a leukemia-like condition in a range of salmonid species. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of N. salmonis in out-migrating juvenile hatchery and wild Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss from the Snake River in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. To achieve this goal, we first addressed the following concerns about current molecular diagnostic tests for N. salmonis: (1) nonspecific amplification patterns by the published nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) test, (2) incomplete validation of the published quantitative PCR (qPCR) test, and (3) whether N. salmonis can be detected reliably from nonlethal samples. Here, we present an optimized nPCR protocol that eliminates nonspecific amplification. During validation of the published qPCR test, our laboratory developed a second qPCR test that targeted a different gene sequence and used different probe chemistry for comparison purposes. We simultaneously evaluated the two different qPCR tests for N. salmonis and found that both assays were highly specific, sensitive, and repeatable. The nPCR and qPCR tests had good overall concordance when DNA samples derived from both apparently healthy and clinically diseased hatchery rainbow trout were tested. Finally, we demonstrated that gill snips were a suitable tissue for nonlethal detection of N. salmonis DNA in juvenile salmonids. Monitoring of juvenile salmonid fish in the Snake River over a 3-year period revealed low prevalence of N. salmonis in hatchery and wild Chinook salmon and wild steelhead but significantly higher prevalence in hatchery-derived steelhead. Routine monitoring of N. salmonis is not performed for all hatchery steelhead populations. At present, the possible contribution of this pathogen to delayed mortality of steelhead has not been determined.

Badil, Samantha; Elliott, Diane G.; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Hedrick, Ronald P.; Clemens, Kathy; Blair, Marilyn; Purcell, Maureen K.

2011-01-01

365

Comparative evaluation of molecular diagnostic tests for Nucleospora salmonis and prevalence in migrating juvenile salmonids from the Snake River, USA.  

PubMed

Nucleospora salmonis is an intranuclear microsporidian that primarily infects lymphoblast cells and contributes to chronic lymphoblastosis and a leukemia-like condition in a range of salmonid species. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of N. salmonis in out-migrating juvenile hatchery and wild Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss from the Snake River in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. To achieve this goal, we first addressed the following concerns about current molecular diagnostic tests for N. salmonis: (1) nonspecific amplification patterns by the published nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) test, (2) incomplete validation of the published quantitative PCR (qPCR) test, and (3) whether N. salmonis can be detected reliably from nonlethal samples. Here, we present an optimized nPCR protocol that eliminates nonspecific amplification. During validation of the published qPCR test, our laboratory developed a second qPCR test that targeted a different gene sequence and used different probe chemistry for comparison purposes. We simultaneously evaluated the two different qPCR tests for N. salmonis and foundthat both assays were highly specific, sensitive, and repeatable. The nPCR and qPCR tests had good overall concordance when DNA samples derived from both apparently healthy and clinically diseased hatchery rainbow trout were tested. Finally, we demonstrated that gill snips were a suitable tissue for nonlethal detection of N. salmonis DNA in juvenile salmonids. Monitoring of juvenile salmonid fish in the Snake River over a 3-year period revealed low prevalence of N. salmonis in hatchery and wild Chinook salmon and wild steelhead but significantly higher prevalence in hatchery-derived steelhead. Routine monitoring of N. salmonis is not performed for all hatchery steelhead populations. At present, the possible contribution of this pathogen to delayed mortality of steelhead has not been determined. PMID:21699133

Badil, Samantha; Elliott, Diane G; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Hedrick, Ronald P; Clemens, Kathy; Blair, Marilyn; Purcell, Maureen K

2011-03-01

366

Sexual Risk Behavior Among Youth With Perinatal HIV Infection in the United States: Predictors and Implications for Intervention Development  

PubMed Central

Background.?Factors associated with initiation of sexual activity among perinatally human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected (PHIV+) youth, and the attendant potential for sexual transmission of antiretroviral (ARV) drug-resistant HIV, remain poorly understood. Methods.?We conducted cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of PHIV+ youth aged 10–18 years (mean, 13.5 years) enrolled in the US-based Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study between 2007 and 2009. Audio computer-assisted self-interviews (ACASI) were used to collect sexual behavior information. Results.?Twenty-eight percent (95% confidence interval [CI], 23%–33%) (92/330) of PHIV+ youth reported sexual intercourse (SI) (median initiation age, 14 years). Sixty-two percent (57/92) of sexually active youth reported unprotected SI. Among youth who did not report history of SI at baseline, ARV nonadherence was associated with sexual initiation during follow-up (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.87; 95% CI, 1.32–6.25). Youth living with a relative other than their biological mother had higher odds of engaging in unprotected SI than those living with a nonrelative. Thirty-three percent of youth disclosed their HIV status to their first sexual partner. Thirty-nine of 92 (42%) sexually active youth had HIV RNA ?5000 copies/mL after sexual initiation. Viral drug resistance testing, available for 37 of these 39 youth, identified resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in 62%, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in 57%, protease inhibitors in 38%, and all 3 ARV classes in 22%. Conclusions.?As PHIV+ youth become sexually active, many engage in behaviors that place their partners at risk for HIV infection, including infection with drug-resistant virus. Effective interventions to facilitate youth adherence, safe sex practices, and disclosure are urgently needed. PMID:23139252

Tassiopoulos, Katherine; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Mellins, Claude; Kacanek, Deborah; Malee, Kathleen; Allison, Susannah; Hazra, Rohan; Siberry, George K.; Smith, Renee; Paul, Mary; Van Dyke, Russell B.; Seage, George R.

2013-01-01

367

The Structural Properties of Sexual Fantasies for Sexual Offenders: A Preliminary Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the phenomenon of sexual fantasy has been researched extensively, little contemporary inquiry has investigated the structural properties of sexual fantasy within the context of sexual offending. In this study, a qualitative analysis was used to develop a descriptive model of the phenomena of sexual fantasy during the offence process.…

Gee, Dion; Ward, Tony; Belofastov, Aleksandra; Beech, Anthony

2006-01-01

368

Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes of Men with Intellectual Disability Who Sexually Offend  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Various explanations of sexual offending in men with intellectual disability (ID) have stressed sexual deviance and a lack of developmental socio-sexual knowledge. Method: Using the normative dataset of people with ID from the development of the "Socio-Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Assessment Tool--Revised" (SSKAAT-R: Griffiths &…

Lunsky, Yona; Frijters, Jan; Griffiths, Dorothy M.; Watson, Shelley L.; Williston, Stephanie

2007-01-01

369

Genetic variation for tolerance to acidic water in salmonids.  

PubMed

Water pH is an important factor affecting the general water quality as well as quality traits in fishes, and the magnitude of the effect varies among species. The massive and negative effect of acidification of rivers and lakes became evident during the 1960s and 1970s and caused the depletion of fish stocks in several countries in the northern hemisphere. Significant variation in tolerance to acidic water has been documented among salmonid species, and large genetic variation has been identified among strains of brown trout Salmo trutta, brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. For S. trutta, S. fontinalis and S. salar, there is considerable additive genetic variation in tolerance to acidic water, with heritabilities (h(2)) ranging from 0·09 to 0·27 for dead eyed-eggs (the period most sensitive to low pH). The main reasons for depletion of freshwater fish stocks are discussed. PMID:22220886

Gjedrem, T; Rosseland, B O

2012-01-01

370

In vitro studies on the sexual maturation of the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus during the development of preadult larvae to adult worms.  

PubMed

The bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus is one of the most important parasites in grazing cattle. However, not much is known about morphology and molecular aspects of sexual maturation occurring during development of preadult larvae (L5) to adults. Since studies in the pulmonary compartments are infeasible, an in vitro cultivation method was established. The study was conducted with L5 during in vitro cultivation, assessing longitudinal growth and sexual maturation. Best results were achieved with RPMI-1640 medium with L-glutamine, 50% fetal bovine serum, amphotericin B (0.25 mg/ml), penicillin (10,000 U/ml), and streptomycin (10 mg/ml) at 39°C and 5% atmospheric CO?. During cultivation, individuals grew from an average length of 4.64 to 9.88 mm independent of their density per setup. Regarding sexual maturation, female individuals started to lay eggs, whereas the testes of male individuals were filled with spermatozoa. Consequently, adult female and adult male worms developed. However, no copulation was observable and eggs did not embryonate. Development was further investigated by quantitative real-time PCR transcriptional analysis of major sperm protein (msp) and vitellogenin (vit) representing male and female sexual development, respectively. Male msp transcription peaked after 5 days of cultivation [corresponding to 20 days post infection (dpi)] and decreased gradually afterwards. Female vit transcription showed the highest rate after 15 days of cultivation (30 dpi), however it never reached the transcription rate in female adults isolated from the host. All in all, the present study gives not only insights into morphological differentiation but provides data lightening molecular aspects of sexual maturation in D. viviparus. PMID:21858477

Laabs, Eva-Maria; Schnieder, Thomas; Strube, Christina

2012-03-01

371

Review of the negative influences of non-native salmonids on native fish species  

USGS Publications Warehouse

suggested that non-native salmonids negatively inflfluence species of concern. The objective of this paper is to review known interactions between non-native salmonids and native fifishes, with a focus on native species of concern. After an extensive search of the literature, it appears that in many cases non-native salmonids do negatively inflfl uence species of concern (e.g., reduce abundance and alter behavior) via different mechanisms (e.g., predation and competition). However, there are some instances in which introduced salmonids have had no perceived negative inflfl uence on native fifi shes. Unfortunately, the majority of the literature is circumstantial, and there is a need to experimentally manipulate these interactions.

Turek, Kelly C.; Pegg, Mark A.; Pope, Kevin L.

2013-01-01

372

Conservation court terme des gamtes de Salmonids des tempratures voisines de 0 C  

E-print Network

species of salmonids brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Tests were carried Arc-en-ciel (Saimo gairdneri) et la Truite fario (Saimo truffa). Les géniteurs d'un poids de 300 à 400

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

373

Implications of territory size for the measurement and prediction of salmonid  

E-print Network

at any of the nine orders of magnitude of spatial scale that exist within watersheds (Imhof et al. 1996). Studies of salmonids are most frequently conducted at the site level (~100 m2 , see Imhof et al. 1996

Keeley, Ernest R.

374

Comparative Performance of Acoustic-Tagged and Passive Integrated Transponder-Tagged Juvenile Salmonids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Numerous research tools and technologies are currently being used to evaluate fish passage and survival to determine the impacts of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) on endangered and threatened juvenile salmonids, including PIT tags, balloo...

E. E. Hockersmith, R. S. Brown, T. L. Liedtke

2008-01-01

375

A conserved haplotype controls parallel adaptation in geographically distant salmonid populations  

E-print Network

and restoration. Keywords: adaptation, conservation, genomics, salmon, salmonids, trout Received 5 July 2011 in two geographically and genetically distant populations of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss local adaptation, and modern genomic technologies are mak- ing this more possible than ever before

Doe, Chris

376

Transporting juvenile salmonids around dams impairs adult migration.  

PubMed

Mitigation and ecosystem-restoration efforts may have unintended consequences on both target and nontarget populations. Important effects can be displaced in space and time, making them difficult to detect without monitoring at appropriate scales. Here, we examined the effects of a mitigation program for juvenile salmonids on subsequent adult migration behaviors and survival. Juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) were collected and uniquely tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags at Lower Granite Dam (Washington State, USA) on the Snake River and were then either transported downstream in barges in an effort to reduce out-migration mortality or returned to the river as a control group. Returning adults were collected and radio-tagged at Bonneville Dam (Washington-Oregon, USA) on the Columbia River 1-3 years later and then monitored during approximately 460 km of their homing migrations. The proportion of adults successfully homing was significantly lower, and unaccounted loss and permanent straying into non-natal rivers was higher, for barged fish of both species. On average, barged fish homed to Lower Granite Dam at rates about 10% lower than for in-river migrants. Barged fish were also 1.7-3.4 times more likely than in-river fish to fall back downstream past dams as adults, a behavior strongly associated with lower survival. These results suggest that juvenile transport impaired adult orientation or homing abilities, perhaps by disrupting sequential imprinting processes during juvenile out-migration. While juvenile transportation has clear short-term juvenile-survival benefits, the delayed effects that manifest in adult stages illustrate the need to assess mitigation success throughout the life cycle of target organisms, i.e., the use of fitness-based measures. In the case of Snake River salmonids listed under the Endangered Species Act, the increased straying and potential associated genetic and demographic effects may represent significant risks to successful recovery for both target and nontarget populations. PMID:19263886

Keefer, Matthew L; Caudill, Christopher C; Peery, Christopher A; Lee, Steven R

2008-12-01

377

Sexual Selections: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following selection of papers arose out of a half-year seminar course, The Anthropology of Sex, held at McMaster University in the winter of 1990. The course was originally conceived as a vehicle for scrutinizing the physical anthropological significance of current understandings of human sexuality and reproduction. As such, I imagined we would discuss human sexuality from the point of

Ann Herring

1991-01-01

378

Extent and scale of local adaptation in salmonid fishes: review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is the extent and scale of local adaptation (LA)? How quickly does LA arise? And what is its underlying molecular basis? Our review and meta-analysis on salmonid fishes estimates the frequency of LA to be ?55–70%, with local populations having a 1.2 times average fitness advantage relative to foreign populations or to their performance in new environments. Salmonid LA

D J Fraser; L K Weir; L Bernatchez; M M Hansen; E B Taylor

2011-01-01

379

Alteration of reproductive function but not prenatal sexual development after insertional disruption of the mouse estrogen receptor gene.  

PubMed Central

Estrogen receptor and its ligand, estradiol, have long been thought to be essential for survival, fertility, and female sexual differentiation and development. Consistent with this proposed crucial role, no human estrogen receptor gene mutations are known, unlike the androgen receptor, where many loss of function mutations have been found. We have generated mutant mice lacking responsiveness to estradiol by disrupting the estrogen receptor gene by gene targeting. Both male and female animals survive to adulthood with normal gross external phenotypes. Females are infertile; males have a decreased fertility. Females have hypoplastic uteri and hyperemic ovaries with no detectable corpora lutea. In adult wild-type and heterozygous females, 3-day estradiol treatment at 40 micrograms/kg stimulates a 3- to 4-fold increase in uterine wet weight and alters vaginal cornification, but the uteri and vagina do not respond in the animals with the estrogen receptor gene disruption. Prenatal male and female reproductive tract development can therefore occur in the absence of estradiol receptor-mediated responsiveness. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8248223

Lubahn, D B; Moyer, J S; Golding, T S; Couse, J F; Korach, K S; Smithies, O

1993-01-01

380

Different patterns of sexual identity development over time: implications for the psychological adjustment of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths.  

PubMed

Despite research documenting variability in the sexual identity development of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths, it remains unclear whether different developmental patterns have implications for the psychological adjustment of LGB youths. This report longitudinally examines whether different patterns of LGB identity formation and integration are associated with indicators of psychological adjustment among an ethnically diverse sample of 156 LGB youths (ages 14-21) in New York City. Although differences in the timing of identity formation were not associated with psychological adjustment, greater identity integration was related to less depressive and anxious symptoms, fewer conduct problems, and higher self-esteem both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Individual changes in identity integration over time were associated with all four aspects of psychological adjustment, even after controlling for rival hypotheses concerning family and friend support, gay-related stress, negative social relationships, and other covariates. These findings suggest that difficulties in developing an integrated LGB identity may have negative implications for the psychological adjustment of LGB youths and that efforts to reduce distress among LGB youths should address the youths' identity integration. PMID:19916104

Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Hunter, Joyce

2011-01-01

381

Genomic and transcriptomic analyses of the medicinal fungus Antrodia cinnamomea for its metabolite biosynthesis and sexual development.  

PubMed

Antrodia cinnamomea, a polyporus mushroom of Taiwan, has long been used as a remedy for cancer, hypertension, and hangover, with an annual market of over $100 million (US) in Taiwan. We obtained a 32.15-Mb genome draft containing 9,254 genes. Genome ontology enrichment and pathway analyses shed light on sexual development and the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenoids, triterpenoids, ergostanes, antroquinonol, and antrocamphin. We identified genes differentially expressed between mycelium and fruiting body and 242 proteins in the mevalonate pathway, terpenoid pathways, cytochrome P450s, and polyketide synthases, which may contribute to the production of medicinal secondary metabolites. Genes of secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways showed expression enrichment for tissue-specific compounds, including 14-?-demethylase (CYP51F1) in fruiting body for converting lanostane to ergostane triterpenoids, coenzymes Q (COQ) for antroquinonol biosynthesis in mycelium, and polyketide synthase for antrocamphin biosynthesis in fruiting body. Our data will be useful for developing a strategy to increase the production of useful metabolites. PMID:25336756

Lu, Mei-Yeh Jade; Fan, Wen-Lang; Wang, Woei-Fuh; Chen, Tingchun; Tang, Yi-Ching; Chu, Fang-Hua; Chang, Tun-Tschu; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Li, Meng-Yun; Chen, Yi-Hua; Lin, Ze-Shiang; Yang, Kai-Jung; Chen, Shih-May; Teng, Yu-Chuan; Lin, Yan-Liang; Shaw, Jei-Fu; Wang, Ting-Fang; Li, Wen-Hsiung

2014-11-01

382

The Content of Sexual Fantasies for Sexual Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the phenomenon of sexual fantasy has been extensively researched, lit- tle contemporary inquiry has investigated the content of sexual fantasy within the contextofsexualoffending.Inthisstudy,aqualitativeanalysiswasusedtodevelop adescriptivemodelofthephenomenaofsexualfantasyduringtheoffenceprocess. Twenty-four adult males convicted of sexual offences provided detailed retrospec- tive descriptions of their thoughts, emotions, and behaviors before, during, and after their offences. Using Grounded Theory, a model was developed to elucidate the content

Dion G. Gee; Grant J. Devilly; Tony Ward

2004-01-01

383

Sexual dimorphism in expression of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I receptors in developing rat cerebellum.  

PubMed

The insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are considered to play important roles in brain development; and their cognate receptors -InsR and IGF-1R- localized within distinct brain regions including cerebellum. Using Real-Time PCR and western blot analysis, we compared the expression of InsR and IGF-1R in male and female developing rat cerebellum at P0, P7, and P14. At all time points studied, the cerebellar expression of IGF-1R, both at mRNA and protein levels was higher than that of InsR. The lowest InsR and IGF-1R mRNA and protein levels were measured in the neonate cerebellum, independent of gender. In males, the highest InsR and IGF-1R mRNA and protein expression were found at P7. InsR and IGF-1R expression increased significantly between P0 and P7, followed by a marked downregulation at P14. In contrast, in females, mRNA and protein levels of InsR and IGF-1R remain unchanged between P0 and P7, and are upregulated at P14. Therefore, peaked InsR and IGF-1R expression in female cerebelli occurred at P14. Interestingly, changes in mRNA expression and in protein levels followed the same developmental pattern, indicating that InsR and IGF-1R transcription is not subject to modulatory effects during the first 2 weeks of development. These findings indicate that there are prominent sexual differences in InsR and IGF-1R expression in the developing rat cerebellum, suggesting a probable mechanism for the control of gender differences in development and function of the cerebellum. PMID:23322319

Haghir, Hossein; Rezaee, Abd-Al-Rahim; Nomani, Hossein; Sankian, Mojtaba; Kheradmand, Hamed; Hami, Javad

2013-04-01

384

Conceptualizing lesbian sexual identity development: Narrative accounts of socializing structures and individual decisions and actions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many theories have aimed to chart lesbian, gay and bisexual identity development. These include traditional developmental models as well as newer approaches designed to capture a more fluid, multidimensional trajectory, both of which have tended to neglect the role of intersectional identities, context and individual variation in lesbian identity development. This study used inductive research methods, informed by grounded theory,

Danielle N Shapiro; Desdamona Rios; Abigail J Stewart

2010-01-01

385

Knowledge about Puberty and Sexual Development in 11?16 Year?olds: implications for health and sex education in schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge is an important but largely neglected variable in sex education research. This study aimed to develop a measure to assess young people's knowledge about puberty and sexual development, and to examine knowledge in relation to age, gender and school. The main results of the study were that knowledge increased more between age 11\\/12 and 13\\/14 than between 13\\/14 and

Sandra Winn; Debi Roker; John Coleman

1995-01-01

386

Tonight is an online program to help first-year students understand and address sexual assault and dating violence before, during, and after they happen. This interactive program was developed with extensive input  

E-print Network

Tonight is an online program to help first-year students understand and address sexual assault and dating violence before, during, and after they happen. This interactive program was developed experiencing physical, emotional, and/or sexual abuse by a dating partner in the past 12 months.ii Tonight

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

387

The influence of body condition on sexual development of male Brown long-eared bats (Plecotus auritus) in the wild  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between sexual maturity and body condition was examined in a sample of 57 male Brown long-eared bats (Plecotus auritusi captured in autumn 1984 from nursery roosts in north-east Scotland (57 \\

J. R. Speakman; P. A. Racey

2009-01-01

388

Development and Evaluation of a Sexual Decision-Making and Social Skills Program: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of interactive videodisc programs designed to reduce HIV\\/STD risk behaviors was developed and evaluated. Separate programs were developed for each of three race\\/ethnicities (African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian) at each of two age levels (middle school and high school) using extensive formative procedures. Each program uses scenarios with extensive branching story lines to teach decision-making skills and socially

John Noell; Dennis Ary; Terry Duncan

1997-01-01

389

Functional analysis of hydrophobin genes in sexual development of Botrytis cinerea.  

PubMed

Hydrophobins are small secreted fungal proteins that play roles in growth and development of filamentous fungi, i.e. in the formation of aerial structures and the attachment of hyphae to hydrophobic surfaces. In Botrytis cinerea, three hydrophobin genes have been identified. Studies by Mosbach et al. (2011) showed that hydrophobins are neither involved in conferring surface hydrophobicity to conidia and aerial hyphae of B. cinerea, nor are they required for virulence. The present study investigated the role of hydrophobins in sclerotium and apothecium development. Expression analysis revealed high expression of the Bhp1 gene during different stages of apothecium development. Two Bhp1 splice variants were detected that differ by an internal stretch of 13 amino acid residues. Seven different mutants in which either a single, two or three hydrophobin genes were knocked out, as well as two wild type strains of opposite mating types, were characterized for sclerotium and apothecium development. No aberrant morphology was observed in sclerotium development when single deletion mutants in hydrophobin genes were analyzed. Sclerotia of double knock out mutant ?Bhp1/?Bhp3 and the triple knock out mutant, however, showed easily wettable phenotypes. For analyzing apothecium development, a reciprocal crossing scheme was setup. Morphological aberrations were observed in crosses with two hydrophobin mutants. When the double knock out mutant ?Bhp1/?Bhp2 and the triple knock out mutant were used as the maternal parent (sclerotia), and fertilized with wild type microconidia, the resulting apothecia were swollen, dark brown in color and had a blotched surface. After initially growing upwards toward the light source, the apothecia in many cases collapsed due to loss of structural integrity. Aberrant apothecium development was not observed in the reciprocal cross, when these same mutants were used as the paternal parent (microconidia). These results indicate that the presence of hydrophobins in maternal tissue is important for normal development of apothecia of B. cinerea. PMID:25181040

Terhem, Razak B; van Kan, Jan A L

2014-10-01

390

Systems Theory and the Development of Sexual Identity for Individuals with Intellectual\\/Developmental Disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to examine social systems theory as it relates to the inclusion of disenfranchised populations\\u000a into the larger social system by enabling these populations to receive education and resources which can allow them to develop\\u000a skills needed to achieve inclusion. Specifically this study is concerned with using elements of social systems theory to develop\\u000a a

Amy Swango-Wilson

2010-01-01

391

Men's sexual self-schema  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual self-schemas are cognitive generalizations about sexual aspects of oneself. In Part 1, a measure of men's sexual self-schema is developed. Studies of test—retest and internal consistency reliability and validity studies of factor analysis, internal structure, convergent and discriminant validity, process, group difference, and change are provided. The construct consists of 3 dimensions: passionate—loving, powerful-aggressive, and open-minded-liberal traits. In Part

Barbara L. Andersen; Jill M. Cyranowski; Derek Espindle

1999-01-01

392

Biology and Sexual Minority Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this chapter is to provide clinicians with an overview of current knowledge pertaining to the biology of sexual\\u000a minority status. Under the umbrella of sexual minority are included homosexuals, bisexuals, transgenders and intersexes. The\\u000a most developed biologic theory pertaining to sexual minority status is the prenatal hormonal\\u000a hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, prenatal hormones act (primarily during

William Byne

393

Sexually dimorphic role for vasopressin in the development of social play  

PubMed Central

Despite the well-established role of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in adult social behavior, its role in social development is relatively unexplored. In this paper, we focus on the most prominent social behavior of juvenile rats, social play. Previous pharmacological experiments in our laboratory suggested that AVP regulates play in a sex- and brain region-specific manner in juvenile rats. Here we investigate the role of specific AVP systems in the emergence of social play. We first characterize the development of play in male and female Wistar rats and then ask whether the development of AVP mRNA expression correlates with the emergence of play. Unexpectedly, play emerged more rapidly in weanling-aged females than in males, resulting in a sex difference opposite of that typically reported for older, juvenile rats. AVP mRNA and play were correlated in males only, with a negative correlation in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and a positive correlation in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). These findings support the hypothesis that AVP acts differentially on multiple systems in a sex-specific manner to regulate social play and suggest a role for PVN and BNST AVP systems in the development of play. Differential neuropeptide regulation of male and female social development may underlie well-documented sex differences in incidence, progression, and symptom severity of behavioral disorders during development. PMID:24616675

Paul, Matthew J.; Terranova, Joseph I.; Probst, Clemens K.; Murray, Elaine K.; Ismail, Nafissa I.; de Vries, Geert J.

2014-01-01

394

Abnormalities of sexual development in male rats with in utero and lactational exposure to the antiandrogenic plasticizer Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate.  

PubMed

Several members of the phthalate ester family have antiandrogenic properties, yet little is known about how exposure to these ubiquitous environmental contaminants early in development may affect sexual development. We conducted experiments to determine effects of in utero and lactational exposure to the most prevalent phthalate ester, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), on male reproductive system development and sexual behavior. Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed with corn oil or DEHP (0, 375, 750, or 1,500 mg/kg/day, per os) from gestation day 3 through postnatal day (PND) 21. Dose-related effects on male offspring included reduced anogenital distance, areola and nipple retention, undescended testes, and permanently incomplete preputial separation. Testis, epididymis, glans penis, ventral prostate, dorsolateral prostate, anterior prostate, and seminal vesicle weights were reduced at PND 21, 63, and/or 105-112. Additional dose-related effects included a high incidence of anterior prostate agenesis, a lower incidence of partial or complete ventral prostate agenesis, occasional dorsolateral prostate and seminal vesicle agenesis, reduced sperm counts, and testicular, epididymal, and penile malformations. Many DEHP-exposed males were sexually inactive in the presence of receptive control females, but sexual inactivity did not correlate with abnormal male reproductive organs. These results suggest that in utero and lactational DEHP exposure also inhibited sexually dimorphic central nervous system development. No major abnormalities were found in any of eight control litters, but DEHP caused severe male reproductive system toxicity in five of eight litters at 375 mg/kg/day, seven of eight litters at 750 mg/kg/day, and five of five litters at 1,500 mg/kg/day. These results demonstrate that the male reproductive system is far more sensitive to DEHP early in development than when animals are exposed as juveniles or adults. The effects of DEHP on male reproductive organs and sexual behaviors and the lack of significant effects on time to vaginal opening and first estrus in their littermates demonstrate that DEHP (and/or its metabolites) affects development of the male reproductive system primarily by acting as an antiandrogen. The pattern of effects of in utero and lactational DEHP exposure differed from patterns caused by other phthalate esters, and the preponderance of anterior prostate agenesis appears to be unique among all chemicals. These results suggest that DEHP acts partly by mechanisms distinct from those of other antiandrogens. PMID:11333183

Moore, R W; Rudy, T A; Lin, T M; Ko, K; Peterson, R E

2001-03-01

395

Factors Affecting the Survival of Upstream Migrant Adult Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 9 of 11.  

SciTech Connect

The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is developing conservation planning documentation to support the National Marine Fisheries Service`s (NMFS) recovery plan for Columbia Basin salmonid stocks that are currently listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Information from the conservation planning documentation will be used as a partial scientific basis for identifying alternative conservation strategies and to make recommendations toward conserving, rebuilding, and ultimately removing these salmon stocks from the list of endangered species. This report describes the adult upstream survival study, a synthesis of biological analyses related to conditions affecting the survival of adult upstream migrant salmonids in the Columbia River system. The objective of the adult upstream survival study was to analyze existing data related to increasing the survival of adult migrant salmonids returning to the Snake River system. The fate and accountability of each stock during its upstream migration period and the uncertainties associated with measurements of escapement and survival were evaluated. Operational measures that affected the survival of adult salmon were evaluated including existing conditions, augmented flows from upstream storage release, and drawdown of mainstem reservoirs. The potential impacts and benefits of these measures to each ESA stock were, also described based on considerations of species behavior and run timing.

Dauble, Dennis D.; Mueller, Robert P.

1993-06-01

396

Childhood Sexual Abuse, Adolescent Sexual Behaviors and Sexual Revictimization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An 18-year longitudinal study of 520 New Zealand women found that those reporting childhood sexual abuse, particularly severe abuse involving intercourse, had significantly higher rates of early onset consensual sexual activity, teenage pregnancy, multiple sexual partners, unprotected intercourse, sexually transmitted disease, and sexual assault…

Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Lynskey, Michael T.

1997-01-01

397

[What happens behind bars: prevention strategies developed in civilian police stations against HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases].  

PubMed

Brazilian Preventive Healthcare Policy has implemented important strategies to combat the spread of HIV/AIDS. However, there are some individuals that are theoretically not part of society who are catching and transmitting disease, namely prisoners. This population interacts with the community by means of relatives, visitors, prison wardens and repeat incarceration. The scope of this research is to establish the strategies developed to prevent the transmission and dissemination of STD/AIDS in Civil Police stations. A qualitative study was conducted with interns of the public prisons of four cities of the region of Naviraí in Mato Grosso do Sul State, and analysis was applied using the collective subject discourse technique. Results showed that despite acknowledging the importance of prevention, the male condom is only used in the first sexual encounter, and condoms are not used when intercourse is with a steady partner. The lack of orientation in relation to prevention of STD/AIDS is well-known as is the lack of attention to the healthcare of prisoners, due mainly to prejudice and discrimination by society. It was revealed that a healthcare policy for prisoners also needs to be implemented in public prisons. PMID:21808920

Reis, Cássia Barbosa; Bernardes, Erica Bento

2011-07-01

398

Dmrt1 genes at the crossroads: a widespread and central class of sexual development factors in fish.  

PubMed

A plethora of corroborative genetic studies led to the view that, across the animal kingdom, the gene-regulatory cascades triggering sexual development bear little resemblance to each other. As a result, the common emerging picture is that the genes at the top of the cascade are not conserved, whereas the downstream genes have homologues in a much broader spectrum of species. Among these downstream effectors, a gene family involved in sex differentiation in organisms as phylogenetically divergent as corals, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, frogs, fish, birds and mammals is the dmrt gene family. Despite the attention that Dmrt1 factors have received, to date it has not been elucidated how Dmrt1s mediate their activities and putative downstream targets have yet to be characterized. However, a remarkable amount of descriptive expression data has been gathered in a large variety of fish, particularly with respect to early gonadal differentiation and sex change. This minireview aims at distilling the current knowledge of fish dmrt1s, in terms of expression and regulation. It is shown how gonadal identities correlate with dimorphic dmrt1 expression in gonochoristic and hermaphroditic fish species. It is also described how sex steroid hormones affect gonadal identity and dmrt1 expression. Emphasis is also given to recent findings dealing with transcriptional, post-transcriptional, post-translational and functional regulations of the dmrt1a/dmrt1bY gene pair in medaka. PMID:21281449

Herpin, Amaury; Schartl, Manfred

2011-04-01

399

Detection and quantification of Renibacterium salmoninarum DNA in salmonid tissues by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Renibacterium salmoninarum is an important salmonid pathogen that is difficult to culture. We developed and assessed a real-time, quantitative, polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for the detection and enumeration of R. salmoninarum. The qPCR is based on TaqMan technology and amplifies a 69-base pair (bp) region of the gene encoding the major soluble antigen (MSA) of R. salmoninarum. The qPCR assay consistently detected as few as 5 R. salmoninarum cells per reaction in kidney tissue. The specificity of the qPCR was confirmed by testing the DNA extracts from a panel of microorganisms that were either common fish pathogens or reported to cause false-positive reactions in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Kidney samples from 38 juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in a naturally infected population were examined by real-time qPCR, a nested PCR, and ELISA, and prevalences of R. salmoninarum detected were 71, 66, and 71%, respectively. The qPCR should be a valuable tool for evaluating the R. salmoninarum infection status of salmonids.

Chase, D.M.; Elliott, D.G.; Pascho, R.J.

2006-01-01

400

Student Sexual Misconduct Policy  

E-print Network

. PROHIBITED BEHAVIOR a. Definitions i. Sexual Misconduct ii. Sexual Harassment iii. Sexual Assault iv. Consent resources by reading the Campus Sexual Violence Prevention Program and visiting the Sexual Assault Policy, including but not limited to, sexual harassment, sexual assault, stalking, and relationship violence

Huang, Jianyu

401

Effect of buffered solutions and sulfate on vegetative and sexual development in gametophytes of Pteridium aquilinum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were performed to determine effects of buffered solutions (0.01 M) on vegetative development and fertilization of gametophytes of Pteridium aquilinum. Buffered solutions were used to simulate exposures to acidic precipitation up to 3.5 h. Flagellar movement of sperm was reduced at buffer pH levels below 5.8. Specifically, longevity of motility was reduced so that no movements were observed 8

Lance S. Evans; Donna M. Bozzone

1977-01-01

402

Sexual assertiveness mediates the effect of social interaction anxiety on sexual victimization risk among college women.  

PubMed

Sexual victimization is prevalent among college women and is associated with adverse psychological consequences. Social anxiety, particularly related to interpersonal interaction, may increase risk of sexual victimization among college women by decreasing sexual assertiveness and decreasing the likelihood of using assertive resistance techniques. This study examined social interaction anxiety as a risk factor for sexual victimization. College women (n=672) completed online measures of social interaction anxiety, sexual assertiveness, and sexual victimization experiences. Social interaction anxiety was significantly positively related to likelihood of experiencing coerced sexual intercourse, and significant indirect effects, via decreased sexual refusal assertiveness, were found for both coerced sexual intercourse and rape. Social anxiety may be an important psychological barrier to assertive resistance during risky sexual situations, and developers of risk reduction programs for college women should consider including methods to help women overcome their social anxiety in order to successfully use assertive resistance techniques. PMID:23312432

Schry, Amie R; White, Susan W

2013-03-01

403

Effects of prenatal testosterone propionate on the sexual development of male and female rats: a dose-response study.  

PubMed

Testosterone plays a major role in male sexual development. Exposure of females to testosterone in utero can induce masculine characteristics such as anovulation, increased anogenital distance (AGD), absence of nipples, retention of male-like tissues, and agenesis of the lower vagina. In addition, high levels of androgens during fetal development can lead to toxic effects such as reduced litter size and viability. The study of the effects of testosterone administration during sexual differentiation provides a foundation for understanding the effects of environmental androgens on fetuses, a sensitive subpopulation. In the current study, we investigated the ability of a range of concentrations of testosterone propionate (TP) administered prenatally to masculinize female and alter male offspring, and measured maternal and fetal T levels. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed by sc injection on gestational day (GD) 14-19 (GD 1= day of plug) with either corn oil (vehicle; 0.1 ml/rat) or with 0.1 ml of TP solution at 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, or 10 mg/0.1 ml. Parturition was delayed at 2, 5, and 10 mg TP, litter size was reduced at 5 and 10 mg TP, and pup weight was significantly reduced in both sexes at 0.5 mg TP and higher doses. Viability of offspring was unaffected at any dosage level. Androgenic effects seen at 0.5 mg TP in females included increased AGD at weaning and adulthood, reduced number of areolas and nipples, cleft phallus, small vaginal orifice, and presence of prostate tissue. This dose of TP elevated maternal T levels 10x but had no effect on fetal T levels. At 1 mg TP and above, female AGD on postnatal day (PND) 2 (or postcoital day 24 [gestation length = 22(1/2)]) was increased; areolas and nipples were virtually eliminated; levator ani muscle, bulbourethral glands, and seminal vesicles (2 mg TP and above) were present; none of the females developed a vaginal orifice and many females in the 1 and 2 mg TP dose groups developed a greatly distended, fluid-filled uterus after puberty. Maternal T levels at 1 mg TP were elevated 30x, and female fetal T levels showed an 80% increase. Male offspring displayed a reduced AGD and body weight on PND 2 at 0.5 mg TP and higher doses. These effects were not evident by weaning and male offspring displayed no malformations. We conclude that gestational administration of 0.5 and 1 mg TP masculinizes female offspring without greatly affecting pup viability or pregnancy of the dam. This study provides a useful model for in utero testing of environmental androgens for their potential to induce developmental abnormalities. PMID:11752687

Wolf, Cynthia J; Hotchkiss, Andrew; Ostby, Joseph S; LeBlanc, Gerald A; Gray, L Earl

2002-01-01

404

Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Lookout Point Dam, 2010  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Lookout Point Dam (LOP) on the Middle Fork Willamette River. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). The goal of the study was to provide fish passage and distribution data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at LOP and others dams in USACE’s Willamette Valley Project in response to the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. During the year-long study period - February 1, 2010 to January 31, 2011the objectives of the hydroacoustic evaluation of fish passage and distribution at LOP were to: 1. Estimate passage rates, run timing, horizontal distribution, and diel distribution at turbine penstock intakes for smolt-size fish. 2. Estimate passage rates, run timing and diel distribution at turbine penstock intakes for small-size fish. 3. Estimate passage rates and run timing at the regulating outlets for smolt-size fish. 4. Estimate vertical distribution of smolt-size fish in the forebay near the upstream face of the dam. The fixed-location hydroacoustic technique was used to accomplish the objectives of this study. Transducers (420 kHz) were deployed in each penstock intake, above each RO entrance, and on the dam face; a total of nine transducers (2 single-beam and 7 split-beam) were used. We summarize the findings from the hydroacoustic evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at LOP during February 2010 through January 2011 as follows. • Fish passage rates for smolt-size fish (> ~90 mm) were highest during December-January and lowest in mid-summer through early fall. • During the entire study period, an estimated total of 142,463 fish ± 4,444 (95% confidence interval) smolt-size fish passed through turbine penstock intakes. • Diel periodicity of smolt-size fish showing crepuscular peaks was evident in fish passage into turbine penstock intakes. • Run timing for small-size fish (~65-90 mm) peaked (702 fish) on December 18. Downstream passage of small-size juvenile fish was variable, occurring on two days in the spring, eight days in the summer, and at times throughout late fall and winter. A total of 7,017 ± 690 small-size fish passed through the turbine penstock intakes during the study period. • Relatively few fish passed into the ROs when they were open in summer (2 fish/d) and winter (8 fish/d). • Fish were surface-oriented with 62-80% above 10 m deep. The highest percentage of fish (30-60%) was in the 5-10 m depth bin. We draw the following conclusions from the study. • The non-obtrusive hydroacoustic data from this study are reliable because passage estimates and patterns were similar with those observed in the direct capture data from the tailrace screw trap and were consistent with distribution patterns observed in other studies of juvenile salmonid passage at dams. • Fish passage at LOP was apparently affected but not dominated by dam operations and reservoir elevation. • The surface-oriented vertical distribution of fish we observed supports development of surface passage or collector devices. In summary, the high-resolution spatially and temporally data reported herein provide detailed estimates of vertical, horizontal, diel, daily, and seasonal passage and distributions at LOP during March 2010 through January 2011. This information is applicable to management decisions on design and development of surface passage and collections devices to help restore Chinook salmon populations in the Middle Fork Willamette River watershed above Lookout Point Dam.

Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Trott, Donna M.; Ploskey, Gene R.

2011-07-01

405

Sexual reproduction and early development of the solitary coral Fungia scutaria (Anthozoa: Scleractinia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fungia scutaria spawned vigorously with a lunar beriodicity during the summer months of 1981 and 1982. Spawning activity declined in the fall of both years and was absent in winter and spring (1983). There was only one short spawning event per lunar cycle. Each event occurred in the evening between 1700 and 1900 hours 1 to 4 days following the full moon. Fungia scutaria exhibits gonochorism. Females ejected eggs through their mouths into the seawater above. Many of these negatively buoyant eggs settled onto the oral discs and were moved off the edge by ciliary-mucoid activity. Spermatoza from males were similarly expelled in a jet of gastrovascular fluid. Spawned eggs were small and lacked endosymbiotic zooxanthellae. Rapid development led to ciliated solid planulae by the next morning. Within 24 h a mouth had begun to develop. Planulae may have been able to feed within 39 h. Infection with zooxanthellae occurred 4 5 days following spawning. Planulae may have become competent for settlement by 7 days, but attempts to docment settlement produced ambiguous results.

Krupp, David A.

1983-12-01

406

In vivo localization of antibodies raised against Eimeria maxima wall forming bodies during sexual intracellular development.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Apicomplexan parasites cause devastating diseases in humans and livestock. Previously we demonstrated that antibodies targeting transmissible forms of the apicomplexan parasite, Eimeria, are effective at reducing parasite shedding thus preventing the transmission of the disease. However, the mechanisms responsible have not been fully defined. Moreover, there is no direct evidence that the parasite-specific IgG antibodies can reach the parasite developing in the enterocytes of the infected chicken host. This study summarizes our efforts using host immunity, parasite proteomics and 3D microscopy to provide a step forward in our understanding of how this immune response works. Eimeria maxima is an important pathogen of poultry and used as a surrogate for a number of human pathogens including Toxoplasma and Plasmodium. Our studies demonstrate that immunization with the purified wall forming bodies (WFBs) results in a production of parasite-specific IgG antibodies, which have the ability to reach in situ gametocytes in the intestinal lumen and permeate the enterocyte/parasite membranes in order to bind to the cytoplasmic Type 1 and Type 2 WFBs. This raises the intriguing possibility that via this process antibodies block the development of Eimeria maxima in vivo. PMID:25075563

Frölich, Sonja; Shahparee, Annisha; Wasinger, Valerie C; Wallach, Michael

2014-11-01

407

Choline incorporation by Schistosoma mansoni: distribution of choline metabolites during development and after sexual differentiation  

SciTech Connect

Choline metabolism was investigated in Schistosoma mansoni during the main phases of its development, namely, schistosomula, 11- and 15-day-old worms, and adults. At the physiological choline concentration used in the assay (20 microM), betaine was, along with phosphatidylcholine, one of the most abundant choline metabolites, revealing considerable choline oxidation activity. Very little radioactivity was associated with CDP-choline, whereas a sustained incorporation into phosphocholine occurred. These results provide good evidence that CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase plays a regulatory role in the de novo pathway of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. During development, the incorporation of choline into its various metabolites was maximal in 11-day-old worms. At this stage, the oxidative pathway predominated over the Kennedy pathway, whereas at all other stages the de novo phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis was predominant. Furthermore, choline incorporation into betaine was much more important in the adult female worm than in the male, indicating a major difference in choline incorporation and distribution between the 2 sexes of the adult worms.

Ancelin, M.L.; Torpier, G.; Vial, H.J.; Capron, A.

1987-06-01

408

The sexually active teenager.  

PubMed

This discussion of the sexually active teenager provides a statistical analysis of sexual behaviors and reviews developmental issues, contraceptive usage, adolescent pregnancy and its associated problems, and sex education. Major changes have occurred over the past 2 decades in sexual mores, contraceptive technology, the acceptance of single parent families, and the availability of induced abortion. In the US adolescent pregnancy and epidemic venereal disease have become major child health problems. It is important that the pediatrician, family practitioner, nurse practitioner, and mental health professional are aware of the magnitude of these problems and their potential areas for intervention. Various epidemiological studies of sexual behavior have documented an increase in the number of sexually active adolescents over the last decade. In a survey of metropolitan adolescents, Zelnik and Kantner found that the reported sexual activity among 15-19 years old adolescent girls increased from 30% in 1971 to 50% in 1979. Among never married white teenagers in this age group, statistics from 1971 indicated that 23% were sexually experienced, and this incidence increased to 42% in 1979. Much less is known about the sexual behavior of younger adolesents in the 11-14 year old range. The increased number of adolescents involved in premarital intercourse, coupled with the earlier age of menarche and delayed marriage, has increased the risk of premarital pregnancies. The number of adolescents between ages 15-19 experiencing a premarital pregnancy has increased significantly from 8.5% in 1971 to 16.2% in 1979, the most notable increase occurring among white teenagers. Among sexually experienced 15-19 years olds, 32.5% have experienced a premarital pregnancy. Sexual behavior among young adolescents is influenced by several variables, including maturation, personal values about premarital sex, inclination, and opportunity. There is an increasing tendency for adolescents to view sexual behavior as a matter of personal choice rather than a morality issue. Adolescents in all stages of development may delay obtaining adequate contraception. Denial of fertility is a common theme in early as well as late adolescence. The consistency and responsibility required for effective contraceptive use is not always compatible with the stage of adolescent development in which they have chosen to become sexually active. Use of effective contraception is often related to increasing sexual activity, increasing closeness of a relationship, a pregnancy scare because of a late or missing period, the positive influence of friends and family members or physicians, and/or the actual discovery of a contraceptive program. For adolescents access to contraceptives has been problematic and prescription contraception is frequently discontinued with continued sexual activity. Feelings of despair, worthlessness, and chronic school failure appear to be common factors among adolescents who choose to carry a pregnancy to term. Sex education courses should facilitate decision making about responsible sexual behavior. PMID:6833503

Emans, S J

1983-03-01

409

EFFECT OF ENERGY INTAKE AFTER WEANING ON THE SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT OF BEEF BULLS. II. AGE AT FIRST MATING, AGE AT PUBERTY, TESTOSTERONE AND SCROTAL CIRCUMFERENCE 1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simmental and Hereford bulls were individually fed varying levels of the same diet to determine the effect of energy intake after weaning on rate of sexual development. For 200 d, 29 Simmentals were fed an average of 14.6, 19.2 or 23.8 Mcal and 27 Herefords were fed 13.4, 17.5 or 22.2 Mcal metabolizable energy per bull daily. Higher energy did

R. J. Pruitt; L. R. Corah; J. S. Stevenson; G. H. Kiracofe

410

Information-Seeking Practices during the Sexual Development of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Individuals: The Influence and Effects of Coming Out in a Mediated Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructing a sexual identity is one of the major developmental tasks of adolescence. Applying the Media Practice Model,\\u000a this study retrospectively examines how self-identifying lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals used media during the\\u000a commencement of the coming-out process and the effects of media use during this pivotal time of development. Results indicate\\u000a that the Internet plays a critical role

Bradley J. Bond; Veronica Hefner; Kristin L. Drogos

2009-01-01

411

Developing the interview protocol for video-recorded child sexual abuse investigations: A training experience with police officers, social workers, and clinical psychologists in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of training programs which focused on culturally relevant questioning skills and video-recorded interviews in child sexual abuse cases were designed for social workers, police officers, and clinical psychologists in Hong Kong. An interview protocol was developed with four stages: rapport building, free narrative of account, questioning, and closure. The content analysis of 74 role-played interviews of video-recorded investigation

Kam-fong Monit Cheung

1997-01-01

412

Modeling Food Delivery Dynamics For Juvenile Salmonids Under Variable Flow Regimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional approaches for assessing instream flow needs for salmonids have typically focused on the importance of physical habitat in determining fish habitat selection. This somewhat simplistic approach does not account for differences in food delivery rates to salmonids that arise due to spatial variability in river morphology, hydraulics and temporal variations in the flow regime. Explicitly linking how changes in the flow regime influences food delivery dynamics is an important step in advancing process-based bioenergetic models that seek to predict growth rates of salmonids across various life-stages. Here we investigate how food delivery rates for juvenile salmonids vary both spatially and with flow magnitude in a meandering reach of the Merced River, CA. We utilize a two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic model and discrete particle tracking algorithm to simulate invertebrate drift transport rates at baseflow and a near-bankfull discharge. Modeling results indicate that at baseflow, the maximum drift density occurs in the channel thalweg, while drift densities decrease towards the channel margins due to the process of organisms settling out of the drift. During high-flow events, typical of spring dam-releases, the invertebrate drift transport pathway follows a similar trajectory along the high velocity core and the drift concentrations are greatest in the channel centerline, though the zone of invertebrate transport occupies a greater fraction of the channel width. Based on invertebrate supply rates alone, feeding juvenile salmonids would be expected to be distributed down the channel centerline where the maximum predicted food delivery rates are located in this reach. However, flow velocities in these channel sections are beyond maximum sustainable swimming speeds for most juvenile salmonids. Our preliminary findings suggest that a lack of low velocity refuge may prevent juvenile salmonids from deriving energy from the areas with maximum drift density in this reach. Future efforts will focus on integration of food delivery and bioenergetic models to account for conflicting demands of maximizing food intake while minimizing the energetic costs of swimming.

Harrison, L.; Utz, R.; Anderson, K.; Nisbet, R.

2010-12-01

413

Education for sexuality.  

PubMed

Sex education provides a means to reduce the growing incidence of sexual abuse and of sexually transmitted diseases. Knowledge, which differs from permission, may protect. Sex education needs to provide factual information about anatomy and physiology and sexual development and responses. Further, it must guide young people towards healthy attitudes that develop concern and respect for others. This should enable them to make sound decisions about sexual behavior based on both knowledge and understanding of their own sexual identity and interpersonal relationships. The recent research shows that teenagers exposed to sex education are no more likely to engage in sexual intercourse than are other adolescents, and those who become sexually active are more likely to use a contraceptive method at 1st intercourse and are slightly less likely to experience premarital pregnancies. The nonuse of contraceptives is related to ignorance, lack of awareness of the consequences of sexual activity, and inaccessibility of suitable services. Consequently, young people need help to learn about the risks of pregnancy, how to avoid unwanted pregnancy, and where to go for counseling and services before they become sexually active. The provision of contraceptives must be made to meet the needs of adolescents. Formal sex education should be given in schools only with parental knowledge and cooperation. Youth leaders can influence young people positively by teaching about health and hygiene and promoting responsible attitudes toward sex and religion. Doctors and nurses have a unique opportunity to provide counseling throughout their patients' lives. The Department of Health (Capetown, South Africa) has appointed 445 nurses who oversee the youth program. They give sex education at schools, teaching colleges, youth camps, and at clinics. They also provide individual and group counseling for never pregnant, pregnant, and parent adolescents and their parents and partners at 8 youth health centers and existing family planning clinics. The Family Planning Association provides sex education at schools and teaching colleges and for parent teachers association groups and youth groups as well as church leaders and business executives. It is essential to promote honest communication with regard to sexuality and reproductive health care. PMID:3380143

Sapire, K E

1988-03-01

414

Development of sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 1993. New methods, recommendations, and research priorities. STD Treatment Guidelines Project Team and Consultants.  

PubMed

To develop the 1993 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, experts from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reviewed the literature on sexually transmitted disease treatment, assembled tables of evidence, and listed key questions on therapeutic outcome: microbiologic cure, alleviation of symptoms, and prevention of sequelae and transmission. At a meeting with external experts, evidence was systematically assessed and guidelines developed. Quality of evidence for microbiologic cure was generally good for gonorrhea and chlamydia, poor for syphilis, and fair for most other diseases. Evidence on preventing sequelae and transmission was limited. The Guidelines include new recommendations for single-dose oral therapy of gonorrhea (cefixime, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin), chlamydia (azithromycin), and chancroid (azithromycin); outpatient therapy of pelvic inflammatory disease (ofloxacin and either clindamycin or metronidazole); and patient-applied therapy of genital warts (podofilox). Syphilis therapy did not change substantially. Several global issues that emerged during the development of the World Health Organization Recommendations for the Management of Sexually Transmitted Diseases also are discussed. This evidence-based approach clarified important treatment issues and the rationale for recommendations, and identified research priorities. PMID:8042129

Levine, W C; Berg, A O; Johnson, R E; Rolfs, R T; Stone, K M; Hook, E W; Handsfield, H H; Holmes, K K; Islam, M Q; Piot, P

1994-01-01

415

Assessment of Salmonids and Their Habitat Conditions in the Walla Walla River Basin within Washington, Annual Report 2002-2003.  

SciTech Connect

This study began in 1998 to assess salmonid distribution, relative abundance, genetics, and the condition of salmonid habitats in the Walla Walla River basin. Stream flows in the Walla Walla Basin continue to show a general trend that begins with a sharp decline in discharge in late June, followed by low summer flows and then an increase in discharge in fall and winter. Manual stream flow measurements at Pepper bridge showed an increase in 2002 of 110-185% from July-September, over flows from 2001. This increase is apparently associated with a 2000 settlement agreement between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the irrigation districts to leave minimum flows in the river. Stream temperatures in the Walla Walla basin were similar to those in 2001. Upper montane tributaries maintained maximum summer temperatures below 65 F, while sites in mid and lower Touchet and Walla Walla rivers frequently had daily maximum temperatures well above 68 F (high enough to inhibit migration in adult and juvenile salmonids, and to sharply reduce survival of their embryos and fry). These high temperatures are possibly the most critical physiological barrier to salmonids in the Walla Walla basin, but other factors (available water, turbidity or sediment deposition, cover, lack of pools, etc.) also play a part in salmonid survival, migration, and breeding success. The increased flows in the Walla Walla, due to the 2000 settlement agreement, have not shown consistent improvements to stream temperatures. Rainbow/steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) trout represent the most common salmonid in the basin. Densities of Rainbow/steelhead in the Walla Walla River from the Washington/Oregon stateline to Mojonnier Rd. dropped slightly from 2001, but are still considerably higher than before the 2000 settlement agreement. Other salmonids including; bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), and brown trout (Salmo trutta) had low densities, and limited distribution throughout the basin. A large return of adult spring chinook to the Touchet River drainage in 2001 produced higher densities of juvenile chinook in 2002 than have been seen in recent years, especially in the Wolf Fork. The adult return in 2002 was substantially less than what was seen in 2001. Due to poor water conditions and trouble getting personnel hired, spawning surveys were limited in 2002. Surveyors found only one redd in four Walla Walla River tributaries (Cottonwood Ck., East Little Walla Walla, West Little Walla Walla, and Mill Ck.), and 59 redds in Touchet River tributaries (10 in the North Fork Touchet, 30 in the South Fork Touchet, and 19 in the Wolf Fork). Bull trout spawning surveys in the upper Touchet River tributaries found a total of 125 redds and 150 live fish (92 redds and 75 fish in the Wolf Fork, 2 redds and 1 fish in the Burnt Fork, 0 redds and 1 fish in the South Fork Touchet, 29 redds and 71 fish in the North Fork Touchet, and 2 redds and 2 fish in Lewis Ck.). A preliminary steelhead genetics analysis was completed as part of this project. Results indicate differences between naturally produced steelhead and those produced in the hatchery. There were also apparent genetic differences among the naturally produced fish from different areas of the basin. Detailed results are reported in Bumgarner et al. 2003. Recommendations for assessment activities in 2003 included: (1) continue to monitor the Walla Walla River (focusing from the stateline to McDonald Rd.), the Mill Ck system, and the Little Walla Walla System. (2) reevaluate Whiskey Ck. for abundance and distribution of salmonids, and Lewis Ck. for bull trout density and distribution. (3) select or develop a habitat survey protocol and begin to conduct habitat inventory and assessment surveys. (4) summarize bull trout data for Mill Ck, South Fork Touchet, and Lewis Ck. (5) begin to evaluate temperature and flow data to assess if the habitat conditions exist for spring chinook in the Touchet River.

Mendel, Glen; Trump, Jeremy; Gembala, Mike

2003-09-01

416

A Study on the Effect of a Program Teaching Healthy Sexuality Values on Adolescent Sexual Awareness and Sexual Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to explore the effectiveness of a program teaching healthy sexuality values on adolescent sexual awareness and sexual behavior. For this study, the present researcher, along with two other professors, developed a 4-h program on 4 different subjects, and conducted the full education program through four different 4-h…

Moon, Sang Huy

2013-01-01

417

Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage at The Dalles Dam Sluiceway, 2005  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District engaged the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate fish passage at The Dalles Dam powerhouse in 2005. The goal of the study was to provide information on smolt passage that will inform decisions on long-term measures and operations to enhance sluiceway passage and reduce turbine passage to improve smolt survival at the dam. The study addressed one of the main programs dedicated to improving juvenile salmonid survival at The Dalles Dam: Surface Flow Bypass. The study objectives (see below) were met using a combination of hydroacoustic and hydraulic data. The study incorporated fixed-location hydroacoustic methods across the entire powerhouse, with especially intense sampling using multiple split-beam transducers at all sluiceway portals. We did not sample fish passage at the spillway in 2005. In the sluiceway nearfield, we used an acoustic camera to track fish movements. The fish data were interpreted with hydraulic data from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Fish passage data were collected in the framework of an “experiment” using a randomized block design (3-day treatments; two treatments) to compare two sluiceway operational configurations: Sluice 2+5 and Sluice 2+19 (six gates open for each configuration). Total project outflow was 76% of the 10-year average for spring and 71% of the 10-year average for summer. Based on these findings, we make the following recommendations: 1) The sluice should be operated 24 h/d from April until November. 2) Open six rather than three sluice gates to take advantage of the maximum hydraulic capacity of the sluiceway. 3) Open the three gates above the western-most operating main turbine unit and the three gates at MU 8 where turbine passage rates are relatively high. 4) Operate the turbine units below open sluice gates as a standard fish operations procedure. 5) Develop hydraulic and entrance enhancements to the sluiceway to tap the potential of The Dalles Dam sluiceway to be highly efficient and effective at passing juvenile salmonids. 6) Consider the following elements for surface flow bypasses during design of any sluiceway enhancements at The Dalles Dam: Form an extensive surface flow bypass flow net (surface bypass discharge greater than ~7% of total project discharge) at both west and east ends of the dam; Create a gradual increase in water velocity approaching the surface flow bypass (ideally, acceleration < 1 m/s per meter); Make water velocities at an entrance high enough (> 3 m/s) to entrain the subject juvenile fishes, e.g., 10,000 cfs or so; Adapt the shape and orientation of the surface entrance(s) to fit site-specific features, i.e., test a Removable Sluiceway Weir. 7)The Dalles Dam sluiceway has potential to be highly efficient and effective at passing juvenile salmonids. We recommend tapping this potential with enhancements to the sluiceway.

Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Hedgepeth, J; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.; Skalski, John R.

2006-06-01

418

An online database for IHN virus in Pacific Salmonid fish: MEAP-IHNV  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The MEAP-IHNV database provides access to detailed data for anyone interested in IHNV molecular epidemiology, such as fish health professionals, fish culture facility managers, and academic researchers. The flexible search capabilities enable the user to generate various output formats, including tables and maps, which should assist users in developing and testing hypotheses about how IHNV moves across landscapes and changes over time. The MEAP-IHNV database is available online at http://gis.nacse.org/ihnv/ (fig. 1). The database contains records that provide background information and genetic sequencing data for more than 1,000 individual field isolates of the fish virus Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), and is updated approximately annually. It focuses on IHNV isolates collected throughout western North America from 1966 to the present. The database also includes a small number of IHNV isolates from Eastern Russia. By engaging the expertise of the broader community of colleagues interested in IHNV, our goal is to enhance the overall understanding of IHNV epidemiology, including defining sources of disease outbreaks and viral emergence events, identifying virus traffic patterns and potential reservoirs, and understanding how human management of salmonid fish culture affects disease. Ultimately, this knowledge can be used to develop new strategies to reduce the effect of IHN disease in cultured and wild fish.

Kurath, Gael

2012-01-01

419

Review of recent outcome data of disorders of sex development (DSD): emphasis on surgical and sexual outcomes.  

PubMed

This paper is a review of some of the recent publications regarding outcome of DSD patients, with an emphasis upon surgical and sexual outcomes. Currently available outcome studies of patients with DSDs have limitations because of multiple factors, including lack of representative patient sampling, and lack of adequate information concerning both medical and surgical care, and psychological, social and family support. The most frequent reports involve females with 21-?-hydroxylase deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). This most common form of DSD, if one excludes hypospadias and cryptorchidism, is an excellent example of a form of DSD in which all aspects of outcome, regarding surgery, sexual functionality and sensitivity, psychological input and endocrine hormonal therapy, carry a major role. The goals of therapy include a surgical outcome with a good cosmetic appearance and functionality with potential for sexual intercourse with sufficient sensitivity for satisfactory responsiveness. Endocrine replacement therapy should provide a normal adrenal hormonal milieu, while sex steroid therapy may be indicated. Psychological care should be provided from birth with gradual transition primarily to the patient, including basic counseling with full disclosure, although adjustment depends upon the patient's personality and parents' abilities and acceptance. Among forms of DSD involving gonadal insufficiency, hormonal replacement therapy should provide physiologic levels. Among females, estrogen therapy enhances healing after feminizing surgery and is required from puberty throughout adult life to maintain femininity, sexual organs and bone health, and enhance gender and sexuality. Among males, appropriate testosterone therapy maintains stamina, muscle tone, bone health, libido, sexual potency and general well-being, while benefit for healing after genital surgery is unclear. Further, outcome is clearly related to predominant cultural factors. Outcome studies should include evaluation of all of these factors. PMID:23158651

Lee, Peter; Schober, Justine; Nordenström, Anna; Hoebeke, Piet; Houk, Christopher; Looijenga, Leendert; Manzoni, Gianantonio; Reiner, William; Woodhouse, Christopher

2012-12-01

420

Evolution of the sex chromosomes in salmonid fishes.  

PubMed

Most of the information on sex chromosomes in salmonid fishes is for species in the 3 genera of the subfamily Salmoninae found in North America: Salvelinus, Salmo and Oncorhynchus. All of the species are male heterogametic with XY sex determination. Morphologically distinguishable sex chromosomes are found only in Salvelinus namaycush,S. fontinalis and Oncorhynchus mykiss. Sex chromosomes have been identified in the other species using a combination of chromosome mapping and fluorescence in situ hybridization with probes containing sex-linked markers. Although all species share conserved linkage groups, the major sex-determining locus (SD) is found at the telomere of a different linkage group in almost every species, suggesting that the SD often transposes to a new location at the time of speciation. In a couple of species, intraspecific variation has been found in the chromosomal location of the SD. Recently, sdY has been identified as the major sex-determining gene in rainbow trout, and it maps to the sex linkage group in all of these species. BACs containing sdY have been isolated and sequenced in O.mykiss, and the genetic markers adjacent to sdY are not sex-linked in the other Oncorhynchus species, suggesting that the transposed region is very small. Possible explanations for the frequent occurrence of transposition of the SD are discussed. PMID:24107355

Phillips, R B

2013-01-01

421

Tributyltin and the obesogen metabolic syndrome in a salmonid.  

PubMed

We conducted a dietary feeding study with juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to assess the potential for tributyltin (TBT) to elicit the obesogen response that has been described for mammals. The results show increases in whole-body lipid content, which is consistent with the obesogen response; however, we also observed associated parameters that were dissimilar. We found increases in body mass and alterations to several physiological parameters at doses between 0.4 and 3.5 ng/g fish/day (1.4-12 pmol/g fish/day) and reduced body mass at the highest dose after 55 days of exposure. Lipid related plasma parameters (plasma triacylglycerols, cholesterol, and lipase) exhibited monotonic increases over all doses while other values (glucose and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)) exhibited increases only for the low-dose treatments. The increases noted for several parameters in fish were opposite to those reported for the obesogen metabolic syndrome, which is characterized by a reduction in serum glucose, free fatty acids, and triglycerides. This is the first report of growth stimulation resulting from low-dose exposure to this pesticide, which is an unusual response for any animal exposed to an organic or organometallic xenobiotic. Because a number of environmental contaminants act as metabolic disruptors at very low doses, these results are noteworthy for a variety of species. Intuitively, enhanced growth and lipid storage may appear beneficial; however, for salmonids there are numerous potentially negative consequences for populations. PMID:21167482

Meador, James P; Sommers, Frank C; Cooper, Kathleen A; Yanagida, Gladys

2011-01-01

422

Non-Erotic Thoughts and Sexual Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to replicate and extend investigations of current models of sexual dysfunction (Barlow, 2002; Janssen, Everaerd, Spiering, & Janssen, 2000) which implicate factors such as spectatoring, failure to use ameliorative strategies, and information processing biases\\u000a in the development and persistence of sexual difficulties. A sample of 165 (n = 71 men) undergraduates completed measures of sexual dysfunction and relationship satisfaction,

Christine Purdon; Chris Watson

423

Sexual Attitude Reassessment for Psychiatric Patients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexuality programs are one part of the program at Thresholds, a rehabilitation center for psychiatric patients (17 to 50 years old). A 16 week sexuality group includes seven phases: initial interview; beginning group development (health care, contraception, reproduction, sexuality); masturbation; intercourse; homosexuality; coed group discussion;…

Dincin, Jerry; Wise, Shirley

1979-01-01

424

Adolescent Sexual Education: Designing Curriculum That Works  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this review paper, "Adolescent Sexual Education: Designing Curriculum That Works", is to present some basic curriculum necessities for developing an in-school sexual education program that results in decreasing the number of teenagers initiating sex, thus reducing the number of teen pregnancies and cases of sexually transmitted…

Quincy, Michael L.

2009-01-01

425

Genetic architecture of body weight, condition factor and age of sexual maturation in Icelandic Arctic charr ( Salvelinus alpinus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high commercial value from the aquaculture of salmonid fishes has prompted many studies into the genetic architecture\\u000a of complex traits and the need to identify genomic regions that have repeatable associations with trait variation both within\\u000a and among species. We searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL) for body weight (BW), condition factor (CF) and age of sexual\\u000a maturation (MAT)

Eva Küttner; Hooman K. Moghadam; Skúli Skúlason; Roy G. Danzmann; Moira M. Ferguson

2011-01-01

426

Assessing Risk for Sexual Offenders in New Zealand: Development and Validation of a Computer-Scored Risk Measure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing research base supports the predictive validity of actuarial methods of risk assessment with sexual offenders. These methods use clearly defined variables with demonstrated empirical association with re-offending. The advantages of actuarial measures for screening large numbers of offenders quickly and economically are further enhanced…

Skelton, Alexander; Riley, David; Wales, David; Vess, James

2006-01-01

427

Studies Relying on Passive Retrospective Cohorts Developed From Health Services Data Provide Biased Estimates of Incidence of Sexually Transmitted Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Passive retrospective cohorts composed of persons who have tested 2 or more times for a sexually transmitted infection (STI) of interest during clinical visits have been used to estimate STI inci- dence. We hypothesized that the analytic period of a passive cohort might affect the estimate of STI incidence, with shorter periods yield- ing higher estimates of incidences of

Charlotte K. Kent; Janice K. Chaw; Robert P. Kohn; Ying Q. Chen; Jeffrey D. Klausner

2004-01-01

428

PUBERTY IN BEEF BULLS: HORMONE CONCENTRATIONS, GROWTH, TESTICULAR DEVELOPMENT, SPERM PRODUCTION AND SEXUAL AGGRESSIVENESS IN BULLS OF DIFFERENT BREEDS I  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Postweaning growth and pubertal traits were studied in Hereford, Angus, Red Poll, Brown Swiss, Hereford-Angus crossbred (HXA) and Angus-Hereford crossbred (AX H) bulls from 7 through 13 months of age. Pubertal factors characterized included body weight, testicular size, hormone concentrations, sexual aggressive- ness and sperm production. Puberty was de- fined as the age at which a bull first produced

D. D. Lunstra; J. J. Ford; S. E. Echternkamp

2010-01-01

429

Influence of different food sources on the initial development of sexual recruits of reefbuilding corals in aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In coral aquaculture, sexual reproduction increasingly plays an important role for serving trade and reef restoration purposes. However, until coral juveniles reach a semi-stable size which makes them less vulnerable against algal growth and sedimentation, high mortality rates may occur in the first several weeks to months after settlement. In the present study, the influence of several food sources on

Dirk Petersen; Anne Wietheger; Michaël Laterveer

2008-01-01

430