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1

The sexually dimorphic on the Y-chromosome gene (sdY) is a conserved male-specific Y-chromosome sequence in many salmonids  

PubMed Central

All salmonid species investigated to date have been characterized with a male heterogametic sex-determination system. However, as these species do not share any Y-chromosome conserved synteny, there remains a debate on whether they share a common master sex-determining gene. In this study, we investigated the extent of conservation and evolution of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) master sex-determining gene, sdY (sexually dimorphic on the Y-chromosome), in 15 different species of salmonids. We found that the sdY sequence is highly conserved in all salmonids and that sdY is a male-specific Y-chromosome gene in the majority of these species. These findings demonstrate that most salmonids share a conserved sex-determining locus and also strongly suggest that sdY may be this conserved master sex-determining gene. However, in two whitefish species (subfamily Coregoninae), sdY was found both in males and females, suggesting that alternative sex-determination systems may have also evolved in this family. Based on the wide conservation of sdY as a male-specific Y-chromosome gene, efficient and easy molecular sexing techniques can now be developed that will be of great interest for studying these economically and environmentally important species.

Yano, Ayaka; Nicol, Barbara; Jouanno, Elodie; Quillet, Edwige; Fostier, Alexis; Guyomard, Rene; Guiguen, Yann

2013-01-01

2

Development and Corroboration of a Bioenergetics Model for Northern Pikeminnow Feeding on Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia River  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bioenergetics model was developed and corroborated for northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis, an important predator on juvenile salmonids in the Pacific Northwest. Predictions of modeled predation rate on salmonids were compared with field data from three areas of John Day Reservoir (Columbia River). To make bioenergetics model estimates of predation rate, three methods were used to approximate the change in

James H. Petersen; David L. Ward

1999-01-01

3

Conceptualizing positive adolescent sexuality development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is it possible to conceptualize adolescent sexuality in positive terms? Social control characterizes the cultural strategies\\u000a for managing both adolescence and sexuality, yet social movements have emerged in recent decades that have challenged historical\\u000a social norms and boundaries for both sexuality and adolescence. In this article, developing trends in adolescent sexual experience\\u000a (behavior, attitudes, and knowledge) are examined, as are

Stephen T. Russell

2005-01-01

4

Sexual Identity Development Among Ethnic Sexual-Minority Male Youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current research explores how ethnicity influences sexual identity development. Among 139 sexual-minority male youths, measures of sexual identity development assessed the timing and sequencing of developmental milestones, disclosure of sexual identity to others, internalized homophobia, and same- and opposite-sex relationship histories. Findings demonstrated that participants, regardless of ethnicity, experienced most identity milestones at developmentally appropriate ages, had moderately low

Eric M. Dubé; Ritch C. Savin-Williams

1999-01-01

5

DEVELOPMENT OF FIELD-BASED EMPIRICAL MODELS OF SUITABLE TEMPERATURE REGIMES FOR INTERIOR SALMONIDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Interior salmonids are species of growing interest and concern in the Pacific Northwest. Evidence of population declines associated with habitat loss and fragmentation have culminate in every species being listed, or proposed or petitioned for listing under he Endangered Species...

6

Development of an Index to Bird Predation of Juvenile Salmonids within the Yakima River, 2001 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Avian predation of fish is suspected to contribute to the loss of out-migrating juvenile salmonids in the Yakima Basin, potentially constraining natural and artificial production. In 1997 and 1998, the Yakima\\/ Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP)--whose goal is increasing natural production within the Yakima River--initiated investigations to assess the feasibility of developing an index to avian predation of juvenile salmon within

Christian E. Grue; Kristen E. Ryding

2002-01-01

7

Clock genes and their genomic distributions in three species of salmonid fishes: Associations with genes regulating sexual maturation and cell cycling  

PubMed Central

Background Clock family genes encode transcription factors that regulate clock-controlled genes and thus regulate many physiological mechanisms/processes in a circadian fashion. Clock1 duplicates and copies of Clock3 and NPAS2-like genes were partially characterized (genomic sequencing) and mapped using family-based indels/SNPs in rainbow trout (RT)(Oncorhynchus mykiss), Arctic charr (AC)(Salvelinus alpinus), and Atlantic salmon (AS)(Salmo salar) mapping panels. Results Clock1 duplicates mapped to linkage groups RT-8/-24, AC-16/-13 and AS-2/-18. Clock3/NPAS2-like genes mapped to RT-9/-20, AC-20/-43, and AS-5. Most of these linkage group regions containing the Clock gene duplicates were derived from the most recent 4R whole genome duplication event specific to the salmonids. These linkage groups contain quantitative trait loci (QTL) for life history and growth traits (i.e., reproduction and cell cycling). Comparative synteny analyses with other model teleost species reveal a high degree of conservation for genes in these chromosomal regions suggesting that functionally related or co-regulated genes are clustered in syntenic blocks. For example, anti-müllerian hormone (amh), regulating sexual maturation, and ornithine decarboxylase antizymes (oaz1 and oaz2), regulating cell cycling, are contained within these syntenic blocks. Conclusions Synteny analyses indicate that regions homologous to major life-history QTL regions in salmonids contain many candidate genes that are likely to influence reproduction and cell cycling. The order of these genes is highly conserved across the vertebrate species examined, and as such, these genes may make up a functional cluster of genes that are likely co-regulated. CLOCK, as a transcription factor, is found within this block and therefore has the potential to cis-regulate the processes influenced by these genes. Additionally, clock-controlled genes (CCGs) are located in other life-history QTL regions within salmonids suggesting that at least in part, trans-regulation of these QTL regions may also occur via Clock expression.

2010-01-01

8

The Development of Sexual Identity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines traditional sexual orientation theories, cultural understandings of sexuality, and the emergence of queer theory. Discusses how sexual identity can open new learning pathways for adults. (SK)|

Edwards, Kathleen; Brooks, Ann K.

1999-01-01

9

Sexual Orientation and Human Development: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

What part does sexual orientation play in human development? Despite the apparent significance of sexual identities in shaping lives, developmental research and theory on sexual orientation have, until recently, been relatively limited. Today, as lesbian women, gay men, and bisexual people become more open about sexual identities, psychological knowledge about the ways in which developmental processes affect and in turn

Charlotte J. Patterson

1995-01-01

10

Growth and development of Argulus coregoni (Crustacea: Branchiura) on salmonid and cyprinid hosts.  

PubMed

The obligate fish ectoparasite Argulus coregoni is strictly specific to salmonids and is very rarely found on other fish species. The ability of the parasite to grow and complete its life cycle on a cyprinid host, Rutilus rutilus, was compared with that on a typical salmonid host, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Rearing experiments were run for 42 d with newly hatched metanauplii in flow-through tanks. Body length and sex of the parasites were recorded every 5 d. Growth rates on O. mykiss exceeded those on R. rutilus from the age of 2 wk, at which time the parasites reached a length of about 3.5 mm. Males grew faster than females at the beginning of the experiment up to a length of 2.5 to 3.0 mm; thereafter, a faster growth rate was observed in females. In another experiment, association of parasites with the hosts was monitored and residence time defined as the period between attachment and first detachment from the host. Longer residence time was observed on O. mykiss than on R. rutilus; female parasites stayed on both fish species longer than did males. Faster growth of parasites could be associated with longer uninterrupted periods of attachment to hosts, since frequent detachment means higher energy losses and less time available for feeding. Despite its slower growth on R. rutilus, A. coregoni matured and laid egg clutches, but took 5 d longer than on O. mykiss. The potential of A. coregoni to complete its life cycle on cyprinids could have important ecological consequences, creating an infection reservoir when the main salmonid hosts are rare or temporarily missing. PMID:15109143

Pasternak, A; Mikheev, V; Valtonen, E T

2004-03-10

11

Impacts of parental attitude towards sexual identity development on child's sexual identity development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, positive or negative impacts of different parental attitudes on children's sexual identity and character development have been presented. The general object of the research is to determine the impacts of parental attitude towards child's sexual identity development on the sexual identity development of the children during pre-school period. The research, for which the general scanning model is

Müberra Eser; Nadir Çeliköz

2009-01-01

12

Sexual Development and behaviors of adolescents.  

PubMed

Adolescents are faced with many developmental tasks related to sexuality, such as forming romantic relationships and developing their sexual identities. Many adolescents will engage in a variety of sexual behaviors, including perhaps oral and anal sex, during this time period. Almost half will engage in vaginal sexual intercourse by the end of high school. A number of biological, psychosocial, and sociocultural factors can influence adolescents' romantic relationships and sexual behaviors. Some of these factors (eg, exposure to violence in the home, early pubertal development) may increase an adolescent's risk of being in an unhealthy relationship or engaging in sex at an early age. Parents, healthcare providers, and communities can support adolescents through these developmental tasks by forming close, connected relationships with teens and devising age-appropriate messages about the development of healthy sexuality. PMID:16285632

Auslander, Beth A; Rosenthal, Susan L; Blythe, Margaret J

2005-10-01

13

Disorders of sexual development in poultry.  

PubMed

Sex in birds is determined genetically, as in mammals. However, in birds, female is the heterogametic sex (ZW), while the male is homogametic (ZZ). Although the exact mechanism of avian sex determination is still unclear, genes on one or both of the sex chromosomes must control sexual differentiation of the embryonic gonads into testes or ovaries, and eventually all other sexually dimorphic features. In this review of disorders of sexual development in poultry, we focus upon the gonads and external dimorphisms. Abnormalities of sexual development in poultry can be broadly divided into 2 types: those due to disturbances in sex hormone production by the gonads, and those due to abnormal inheritance of sex chromosomes. Recent studies on gynandromorphic chickens (half male, half female) point to the importance of genetic over hormonal factors in controlling sexual development in fowl. PMID:22094263

Lambeth, L S; Smith, C A

2011-11-16

14

Water quality in Salmonid culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the relationship between salmonid aquaculture, both in fresh and saltwater, and water quality, focusing on the effects of bad water quality at the lethal and sublethal level, water quality assessment using physicochemical parameters, and new developments for water quality estimations: from mathematical indices and models for the interpretation and\\/or prediction of analytical results, to the assessment of

Jose V. Tarazona; Maria J. Muñoz

1995-01-01

15

Development and Bicultural Validation of the New Sexual Satisfaction Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and bicultural validation of the New Sexual Satisfaction Scale (NSSS)—a 20 item, multidimensional, composite measure of sexual satisfaction—is presented. The development of the scale was based on a five-dimension, conceptual model that emphasized the importance of multiple domains of sexual behavior including sexual sensations, sexual awareness and focus, sexual exchange, emotional closeness, and sexual activity. Scale construction and

Aleksandar Štulhofer; Vesna Buško; Pamela Brouillard

2010-01-01

16

A Prospective Investigation of the Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on the Development of Sexuality  

PubMed Central

The sexual attitudes and activities of 77 sexually abused and 89 comparison women (mean age = 20.41, SD = 3.38) were assessed 10 years after disclosure in a longitudinal, prospective study of the long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse. Abused participants were more preoccupied with sex, younger at first voluntary intercourse, more likely to have been teen mothers, and endorsed lower birth control efficacy than comparison participants. When psychological functioning earlier in development was examined, sexual preoccupation was predicted by anxiety, sexual aversion was predicted by childhood sexual behavior problems, and sexual ambivalence (simultaneous sexual preoccupation and sexual aversion) was predicted by pathological dissociation. Findings also indicate that biological father abuse may be associated with greater sexual aversion and sexual ambivalence.

Noll, Jennie G.; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.

2010-01-01

17

Development of an Index to Bird Predation of Juvenile Salmonids within the Yakima River, 1999 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Avian predation of fish is suspected to contribute to the loss of juvenile spring chinook salmon in the Yakima Basin, potentially constraining natural production. In 1997 and 1998, the Yakama/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW)--whose goal is to increase natural production historically present within the Yakima River--initiated investigations to assess the feasibility of developing an index to avian predation of juvenile salmon within the river. This research--conducted by Dr. Steve Mathews and David Phinney of the University of Washington--confirmed that Ring-billed Gulls and Common Mergansers were the primary avian predators of juvenile salmon, and that under certain conditions could significantly impact migrating smolt populations. Beginning in 1999, the Washington Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit was asked by the YKFP and the WDFW to continue development of avian consumption indices. Monitoring methods developed by Mathews and Phinney were adopted (with modifications) and monitoring of impacts to juvenile salmon along river reaches and at areas of high predator/prey concentrations (colloquially referred to as ''hotspots'') continued. New efforts initiated in 1999 included piscivorous bird surveys at smolt acclimation sites operated by the Yakama Nation, monitoring of the North Fork Teanaway River for changes in avian piscivore abundance associated with the installation of the Jack Creek acclimation facility, and aerial surveys seeking to identify avian piscivores along the length of the Yakima River. In 1999, piscivorous birds were counted from river banks at hotspots and from a raft or drift boat along river reaches. Consumption by gulls was based on direct observations of foraging success and modeled abundance; consumption by Common Mergansers (which forage underwater) was estimated using published dietary requirements and modeled abundance. A second-order polynomial equation was used to interpolate gull and Common Merganser abundance on days when surveys were not conducted. Seasonal patterns of avian piscivore abundance were identified, diurnal patterns of gull abundance at hotspots were identified, predation indices were calculated for hotspots and summer river reaches, and the efficacy of aerial surveys for estimating bird abundance within river reaches was evaluated. Primary avian predators were California and Ring-billed Gulls at hotspots and Common Mergansers within upper river reaches. Estimated take (presumed to be salmonids) by gulls at hotspots (22 April-30 May) was 4,084 fish at the Chandler Bypass Outfall and 12,636 fish at Horn Rapids Dam. Combined take was 2.65% of the salmonids passing over Chandler Dam or 0.89 % of all smolts estimated passing or being released from the Chandler Dam area during the 1999 smolt migration season. Estimated take by Common Mergansers within upper river reaches in summer was 4,092 kg between 7 May and 18 August 1999.

Gassley, James M.; Grue, Christian E. (University of Washington, School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, Seattle, WA)

2001-10-01

18

Peroxisomes and sexual development in fungi  

PubMed Central

Peroxisomes are versatile and dynamic organelles that are essential for the development of most eukaryotic organisms. In fungi, many developmental processes, such as sexual development, require the activity of peroxisomes. Sexual reproduction in fungi involves the formation of meiotic-derived sexual spores, often takes place inside multicellular fruiting bodies and requires precise coordination between the differentiation of multiple cell types and the progression of karyogamy and meiosis. Different peroxisomal functions contribute to the orchestration of this complex developmental process. Peroxisomes are required to sustain the formation of fruiting bodies and the maturation and germination of sexual spores. They facilitate the mobilization of reserve compounds via fatty acid ?-oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle, allowing the generation of energy and biosynthetic precursors. Additionally, peroxisomes are implicated in the progression of meiotic development. During meiotic development in Podospora anserina, there is a precise modulation of peroxisome assembly and dynamics. This modulation includes changes in peroxisome size, number and localization, and involves a differential activity of the protein-machinery that drives the import of proteins into peroxisomes. Furthermore, karyogamy, entry into meiosis and sorting of meiotic-derived nuclei into sexual spores all require the activity of peroxisomes. These processes rely on different peroxisomal functions and likely depend on different pathways for peroxisome assembly. Indeed, emerging studies support the existence of distinct import channels for peroxisomal proteins that contribute to different developmental stages.

Peraza-Reyes, Leonardo; Berteaux-Lecellier, Veronique

2013-01-01

19

Effects of phytoestrogen on sexual development  

PubMed Central

Phytoestrogen is an estrogenic compound that occurs naturally in plants. The most common sources of phytoestrogen are soybean products, which contain high levels of isoflavones. This compound, which has structural similarity with estrogen, can act as an estrogen receptor agonist or antagonist. Animal studies provide evidence of the significant effects of phytoestrogen on sexual development, including altered pubertal timing, impaired estrous cycling and ovarian function, and altered hypothalamus and pituitary functions. Although human studies examining the effects of phytoestrogen on sexual development are extremely limited, the results of some studies agree with those of the animal studies. In this paper, we review the possible mechanism of phytoestrogen action and the evidence showing the effects of phytoestrogen on sexual development in animal and human studies.

Kim, Shin Hye

2012-01-01

20

Effects of phytoestrogen on sexual development.  

PubMed

Phytoestrogen is an estrogenic compound that occurs naturally in plants. The most common sources of phytoestrogen are soybean products, which contain high levels of isoflavones. This compound, which has structural similarity with estrogen, can act as an estrogen receptor agonist or antagonist. Animal studies provide evidence of the significant effects of phytoestrogen on sexual development, including altered pubertal timing, impaired estrous cycling and ovarian function, and altered hypothalamus and pituitary functions. Although human studies examining the effects of phytoestrogen on sexual development are extremely limited, the results of some studies agree with those of the animal studies. In this paper, we review the possible mechanism of phytoestrogen action and the evidence showing the effects of phytoestrogen on sexual development in animal and human studies. PMID:22977438

Kim, Shin Hye; Park, Mi Jung

2012-08-23

21

Raising Sexually Healthy Children. Sexual Development, Sexual Abuse Prevention & Self Esteem for Children under Seven.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This videotape guide is intended to prepare current and future parents to handle without nervousness important body issues that develop during a child' early years. The early prevention training companion video shows how parents can protect the young from sexual abuse by training children to recognize improper advances, to say no to a perpetrator,…

Schrank, Louise Welsh; Hoke, Susan

22

Development and Application of a Salmonid EST Database and cDNA Microarray: Data Mining and Interspecific Hybridization Characteristics  

PubMed Central

We report 80,388 ESTs from 23 Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) cDNA libraries (61,819 ESTs), 6 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) cDNA libraries (14,544 ESTs), 2 chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) cDNA libraries (1317 ESTs), 2 sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) cDNA libraries (1243 ESTs), and 2 lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) cDNA libraries (1465 ESTs). The majority of these are 3? sequences, allowing discrimination between paralogs arising from a recent genome duplication in the salmonid lineage. Sequence assembly reveals 28,710 different S. salar, 8981 O. mykiss, 1085 O. tshawytscha, 520 O. nerka, and 1176 C. clupeaformis putative transcripts. We annotate the submitted portion of our EST database by molecular function. Higher- and lower-molecular-weight fractions of libraries are shown to contain distinct gene sets, and higher rates of gene discovery are associated with higher-molecular weight libraries. Pyloric caecum library group annotations indicate this organ may function in redox control and as a barrier against systemic uptake of xenobiotics. A microarray is described, containing 7356 salmonid elements representing 3557 different cDNAs. Analyses of cross-species hybridizations to this cDNA microarray indicate that this resource may be used for studies involving all salmonids.

Rise, Matthew L.; von Schalburg, Kristian R.; Brown, Gordon D.; Mawer, Melanie A.; Devlin, Robert H.; Kuipers, Nathanael; Busby, Maura; Beetz-Sargent, Marianne; Alberto, Roberto; Gibbs, A. Ross; Hunt, Peter; Shukin, Robert; Zeznik, Jeffrey A.; Nelson, Colleen; Jones, Simon R.M.; Smailus, Duane E.; Jones, Steven J.M.; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Marra, Marco A.; Butterfield, Yaron S.N.; Stott, Jeff M.; Ng, Siemon H.S.; Davidson, William S.; Koop, Ben F.

2004-01-01

23

Water temperatures within spawning beds in two chalk streams and implications for salmonid egg development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water temperatures within brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) spawning gravels were measured in two Hampshire chalk streams from October 1995 to April 1996 inclusive. During the winter, mean intra-gravel water temperatures were higher than those in the stream, and increased with depth in the gravel bed. The amplitude of diel fluctuations in water temperature decreased with depth in the gravel bed, although diel fluctuations were still evident at a depth of 30 cm. Differences in intra-gravel temperature gradients between the two study sites were attributed to differences in the amplitude of stream water temperature fluctuations and there was no evidence that either of the study sites were located in zones of upwelling groundwater. Published equations are used to predict, from temperature, the timing of important stages in the development of brown trout embryos (eyeing, hatching and emergence) for eggs spawned in the autumn and winter and buried at different depths in the gravel bed.

Acornley, R. M.

1999-02-01

24

From Best to Pest: changing perspectives on the impact of exotic salmonids in the southern hemisphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exotic salmonids were deliberately introduced to the southern hemisphere during the last part of the 20th century, initially to boost sport fishing and later to develop an aquaculture industry. Early introductions were justified by governments on purely utilitarian arguments as it was felt that translocated salmonids would capitalize on otherwise ‘underutilized’ aquatic niches. A century later, exotic salmonids are established

C. GARCIA DE LEANIZ; G. GAJARDO; S. CONSUEGRA

2010-01-01

25

Developing sexual competence? Exploring strategies for the provision of effective sexualities and relationships education  

Microsoft Academic Search

School?based sexualities and relationships education (SRE) offers one of the most promising means of improving young people's sexual health through developingsexual competence’. In the absence of evidence on whether the term holds the same meanings for young people and adults (e.g. teachers, researchers, policy?makers), the paper explores ‘adult’ notions of sexual competence as construed in research data and alluded

Julia Hirst

2008-01-01

26

Development of an Index to Bird Predation of Juvenile Salmonids within the Yakima River, 2001 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Avian predation of fish is suspected to contribute to the loss of out-migrating juvenile salmonids in the Yakima Basin, potentially constraining natural and artificial production. In 1997 and 1998, the Yakima/ Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP)--whose goal is increasing natural production within the Yakima River--initiated investigations to assess the feasibility of developing an index to avian predation of juvenile salmon within the river. This research confirmed that Ring-billed Gulls and Common Mergansers were the primary avian predators of juvenile salmon (Phinney et al. 1998), and that under certain conditions could significantly impact migrating smolt populations. Beginning in 1999, the Washington Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (WACFWRU) was asked by the YKFP to continue development of avian consumption indices. Monitoring methods developed by Phinney et al. (1998) were adopted (with modifications) and monitoring of impacts to juvenile salmon along river reaches and at areas of high predator/prey concentrations (colloquially referred to as ''hotspots'') has continued each year through 2001. In 2001, piscivorous birds were counted from river banks at hotspots and from a raft or drift boat along river reaches. Consumption by gulls at hotspots was based on direct observations of foraging success and modeled abundance; consumption by all other piscivorous birds was estimated using published dietary requirements and modeled abundance. Seasonal patterns of avian piscivore abundance were identified, diurnal patterns of gull abundance at hotspots were identified, and predation indices were calculated for hotspots and river reaches (for both spring and summer). Changes in survey methods in 2001 included the addition of surveys in the ''Canyon'' reach during spring and altering the method of directly measuring gull feeding rates at hotspots. Primary avian predators in 2001 were ''gulls'' (California and Ring-billed) at hotspots and Common Mergansers within upper river reaches. Consumption on the lower reaches was distributed among a number of species, with slightly more then half of all fish consumption being attributed to American White Pelicans. Estimated consumption by gulls at both hotspots combined (8 Apr-30 Jun) was 169,883 fish. Assuming a worst case scenario (all fish taken were smolts) this represented approximately 4.9% of all smolts estimated passing or being released from the Prosser Dam area during the 2001 smolt migration season. Total gull abundances and estimates of consumption between the two hotspot sites were opposite that seen in 2000. Foraging gulls at Horn Rapids Dam were regressed against flow for the 3 years and found to be significant (alpha = 0.1, P=0.081, r{sup 2} = .2589). A similar 3-year regression vs fish passage through the Chandler Juvenile Fish Facility, however, did not show a significant relationship (alpha = 0.1, P = 0.396, r{sup 2} = .3708). Total estimated take by Common Mergansers across all strata surveyed was 14,777 kg between 8 Apr and 31 Aug, 2001. Approximately 66 percent of that consumption was within the upper river reaches (Stratum 1) where there is a known breeding population of mergansers. Graphical comparisons of merganser abundances over the three years (1999-2001) in the upper reaches of the Yakima River suggest an increase in 2001 from the previous 2 years in both the spring and summer survey periods, but overlapping confidence intervals prevent assumptions regarding upward or downward trends in abundance.

Major, III, Walter; Grue, Christian E.; Ryding, Kristen E. (University of Washington, School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, Seattle, WA)

2002-08-01

27

Adolescent Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Recent Developments.  

PubMed

Adolescents and young adults continue to have the highest rates of sexually transmitted diseases. New chlamydia and gonorrhea diagnostic tests are being used in innovative ways to increase the number of infections that are detected. Nevertheless, challenges such as gonorrhea resistance and partner notification and treatment continue to hinder efforts to reduce the prevalence of these two bacterial infections. Although recent surveillance data suggest a decreasing trend of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) incidence among adolescents and young adults, the incidence of sexually transmitted human papillomavirus (HPV) in adolescent and young adult females remains high. Progress has been made toward the development of vaccines that may become available in the future to prevent infection with and sequelae from HSV-2 and HPV. PMID:15023277

Blake, Diane R.

2004-04-01

28

Sealice on salmonids: their biology and control.  

PubMed

Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus are the two common species of sealice responsible for serious disease problems in salmonid aquaculture. L. salmonis in particular is the most serious parasitic infection on Atlantic salmon farms in the Northern Hemisphere and is the best-known species. This review examines the voluminous literature on the biology and control of sealice and brings together ideas for developing our knowledge of these organisms. Research on the distribution, host range, structure, life cycle, epidemiology, laboratory maintenance, reproductive biology, physiology and pathogenesis is reviewed in depth. The control strategy and economic cost to the industry is discussed. The interactions between wild and cultured salmonids are examined. PMID:10563397

Pike, A W; Wadsworth, S L

1999-01-01

29

Tetraploid production in salmonids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tetraploid induction is of interest to aquaculture and fisheries as part of a more efficient means of producing triploid fish by mating a tetraploid parent with a diploid parent (tetraploid-derived triploids). Tetraploid induction has previously been reported in salmonids including rainbow trout a...

30

Kin discrimination in salmonids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The data presented here suggest that significant selection pressures towards kin discrimination behaviour patterns result from kin-biased territorial defence behaviour patterns. Salmonids employ a phenotype matching recognition mechanism allowing individuals to discriminate unfamiliar kin. Kin discrimination abilities allow individuals to reduce the levels of aggression associated with territorial defence towards related conspecifics and to defend smaller territories near kin

Grant E. Brown; Joseph A. Brown

1996-01-01

31

Identity Development Among Sexual-Minority Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Sexual identity is the name and meaning individuals assign to themselves based on the most salient sexual aspects of their life – such as\\u000a sexual attractions, fantasies, desires, and behaviors. Sexual identities usually fall within existing social categories, such\\u000a as straight, bisexual, or lesbian\\/gay, and are historically and culturally specific. Youth in today’s cohort have expanded\\u000a the list of sexual

Ritch C. Savin-Williams

32

The Internet, Sex, and Youths: Implications for Sexual Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes the research to date on youths' online sexual activities pertaining to socialization, education, and entertainment. It presents how these activities relate to the overall sexuality and mental health of adolescents and young adults, while situating the findings within a perspective of psychosocial and sexual development. It also provides information relevant to the prevention and treatment of problematic

SYLVAIN C. BOIES; GAIL KNUDSON; JULIAN YOUNG

2004-01-01

33

The experimental analysis of human sexual arousal: Some recent developments  

PubMed Central

Experimental analyses of human sexual arousal have been decidedly sparse. Recent developments in the analysis of derived relational responding, however, have opened the way for a modern behavior-analytic treatment of complex or “novel” human behavior, including specific instances of human sexual arousal. The current article examines some of these developments and their relevance to the analysis of emotional behavior, with a focus on sexual arousal. Recent research that has examined the acquisition of sexual stimulus functions within a relational frame paradigm is then outlined. Finally, a series of relational frame interpretations of a variety of human sexual arousal phenomena is offered.

Roche, Bryan; Barnes, Dermot

1998-01-01

34

Transcriptional evolution underlying vertebrate sexual development.  

PubMed

Explaining the diversity of vertebrate sex-determining mechanisms ranging from genotypic (GSD) to temperature-dependent (TSD) remains a developmental and evolutionary conundrum. Using a phylogenetic framework, we explore the transcriptional evolution during gonadogenesis of several genes involved in sexual development, combining novel data from Chrysemys picta turtles (TSD) and published data from other TSD and GSD vertebrates. Our novel C. picta dataset underscores Sf1 and Wt1 as potential activators of the thermosensitive period and uncovered the first evidence of Dax1 involvement in male development in a TSD vertebrate. Contrasting transcriptional profiles revealed male-biased Wt1 expression in fish while monomorphic expression is found in tetrapods but absent in turtles. Sf1 expression appears highly labile with transitions among testicular, ovarian, and non-sex-specific gonadal formation patterns among and within lineages. Dax1's dual role in ovarian and testicular formation is found in fish and mammals but is dosage-sensitive exclusively in eutherian mammals due to its X-linkage in this group. Contrastingly, Sox9 male-biased and Aromatase female-biased expression appear ancestral and virtually conserved throughout vertebrates despite significant heterochronic changes in expression as other elements likely replaced their function in early gonadogenesis. Finally, research avenues are highlighted to further study the evolution of the regulatory network of sexual development. PMID:23108853

Valenzuela, Nicole; Neuwald, Jennifer L; Literman, Robert

2012-11-28

35

Development and Validation of the Sexual Agreement Investment Scale  

PubMed Central

Introduction Sexual agreements are ubiquitous among gay men. Lower levels of investment in these agreements may be associated with breaking them or engaging in risky sexual behavior. We developed a scale to measure agreement investment levels among gay men. Methods We analyzed qualitative data from 78 gay men in committed relationships to inform item development, followed by quantitative analyses of two larger samples (n=380; n=1001) to assess construct, convergent, and discriminant validity. Results The Sexual Agreement Investment Scale (SAIS) is a psychometrically sound measure of level of the investment in sexual agreements among gay men in relationships. Men with higher agreement investment were less likely to break agreements and to engage in unprotected intercourse with outside partners. Discussion The SAIS can be used to measure investment in sexual agreements and its impact on sexual behavior in a wide variety of settings, including research on relationships, sexuality, couples therapy, and HIV-prevention.

Neilands, Torsten B.; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Darbes, Lynae A.; Beougher, Sean C.; Hoff, Colleen C.

2009-01-01

36

New developments in education and training in sexual medicine.  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION.: The past 12 months have been historic ones for the field of Sexual Medicine in that we have seen the creation of the European Board examination in Sexual Medicine with the title of "Fellow of the European Committee on Sexual Medicine" (FECSM) offered to successful candidates. AIM.: The study aims to promote a high standard of care in Sexual Medicine. METHODS.: An important way of promoting high standards of care is by the development of training, regulation, and assessment framework. The background to these developments and the recent educational activities of the European Society for Sexual Medicine (ESSM) are described in this article. RESULTS.: The creation of the Multidisciplinary Joint Committee on Sexual Medicine (MJCSM) under the auspices of the European Union of Medical Specialists, with the primary purpose to develop the highest possible standards of training in Sexual Medicine in Europe, made it possible to create a process for qualification in Sexual Medicine. The ESSM educational activities created opportunities to support trainees in Sexual Medicine and the first MJCSM exam was held in Amsterdam with a high overall success rate. CONCLUSION.: These activities are intended to improve quality. The FECSM examination is the first of its type and provides a real opportunity for Sexual Medicine physicians to demonstrate and document their knowledge. PMID:23551541

Reisman, Yacov; Eardley, Ian; Porst, Hartmut

2013-04-01

37

An ethnographic analysis of adolescent sexual minority website usage: Exploring notions of information seeking and sexual identity development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation explores the website usage of adolescent sexual minorities, examining notions of information seeking and sexual identity development. Sexual information seeking is an important element within human information behavior and is uniquely problematic for young sexual minorities. Utilizing a contemporary gay teen website, this five-year virtual ethnography of GLBT (Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender) youth demonstrates an understanding of the

Rocky M Sulfridge

2012-01-01

38

An ethnographic analysis of adolescent sexual minority website usage: exploring notions of information seeking and sexual identity development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation explores the website usage of adolescent sexual minorities, examining notions of information seeking and sexual identity development. Sexual information seeking is an important element within human information behavior and is uniquely problematic for young sexual minorities. Utilizing a contemporary gay teen website, this five-year virtual ethnography of GLBT (Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender) youth demonstrates an understanding of the

Rocky M. Sulfridge

2012-01-01

39

Sexual Minorities, Earnings, and Career Development: Insights From Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem and the solution. The purpose of this article is to (a) present insights from economics on earnings of sexual minorities and (b) discuss the implications for human resource development in terms of career development. In economic research, the focus has been on finding earnings differentials between sexual minorities and heterosexuals. One issue with this approach is whether the

Jasper B. van Loo; Tonette S. Rocco

2009-01-01

40

Alcohol and Sexual Consent Scale: Development and Validation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To establish a short measure of attitudes toward sexual consent in the context of alcohol consumption. Methods: Using a multistage and systematic measurement development process, the investigators developed the Alcohol and Sexual Consent Scale using a sample of college students. Results: The resulting 12-item scale, the Alcohol and…

Ward, Rose Marie; Matthews, Molly R.; Weiner, Judith; Hogan, Kathryn M.; Popson, Halle C.

2012-01-01

41

Development and Validation of the Sexual Agreement Investment Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual agreements are ubiquitous among gay men. Lower levels of investment in these agreements may be associated with breaking them or engaging in risky sexual behavior. A scale was developed to measure agreement investment levels among gay men. Qualitative data from 78 gay men in committed relationships were analyzed to inform item development, followed by quantitative analyses of two larger

Torsten B. Neilands; Deepalika Chakravarty; Lynae A. Darbes; Sean C. Beougher; Colleen C. Hoff

2010-01-01

42

Sexual development and life of psychiatric female patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a structured interview and four questionnaires we examined the sexual development and life in the following groups of psychiatric female patients: 51 with schizophrenia, 50 with manic-depressive psychoses, 50 with neuroses, 30 with hysterical psychopathic personality, and 20 with anorexia nervosa. The results were compared with a control group of 101 gynecological spa patients. The sexual development of the

Ji?í Raboch

1986-01-01

43

Development and familiality of sexual orientation in females  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and familial clustering of sexual orientation were studied in 358 heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexual women.\\u000a Sexual orientation, as measured by the Kinsey scales, was diverse yet showed statistical congruity and stability over a 1-\\u000a to 1.5-year time span. Developmental patterns, as measured by retrospective reports on the ages of first sexual or romantic\\u000a attraction and of self-acknowledgment of

Angela M. L. Pattatucci; Dean H. Hamer

1995-01-01

44

Dialogues on Sexuality In Development and Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of a relational perspective has done much to change psychoanalytic thinking about the processes of mutual influence in human relating, including that between parent and child, patient and analyst. Beginning with excerpts from Oxenhandler's recent book, The Eros of Parenthood, this panel explores the dynamics of sexual experiencing and sexual influence between parents and children and, in parallel

Jonathan H. Slavin; Noelle Oxenhandler; Stephen Seligman; Ruth Stein; Jody Messler Davies

2004-01-01

45

THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SEXUAL SELF-CONCEPT INVENTORY FOR EARLY ADOLESCENT GIRLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sexual Self-Concept Inventory (SSCI) was developed to assess sexual self-concept in an ethnically diverse sample of urban early adolescent girls. Three scales (Sexual Arousability, Sexual Agency, and Negative Sexual Affect) were shown to be distinct and reliable dimensions of girls' sexual self-concepts. Validity was established through comparisons with established instruments. Sexual Arousability and Sexual Agency were associated with positive

Lucia F. O'Sullivan; Heino F. L. Meyer-Bahlburg; Ian W. McKeague

2006-01-01

46

Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Interpersonal Sexual Objectification Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study reports on the development and psychometric evaluation of the Interpersonal Sexual Objectification Scale (ISOS). Data from 576 college women were collected in three studies. Exploratory factor analysis uncovered two factors: Body Evaluation and Unwanted Explicit Sexual Advances; confirmatory factor analysis supported this factor…

Kozee, Holly B.; Tylka, Tracy L.; Augustus-Horvath, Casey L.; Denchik, Angela

2007-01-01

47

Controlling the Sex of Salmonids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are major economic advantages to controlling sexual development in fish. Modern technologies allow for the production of monosex or sterile stocks that have several advantages. Female fish generally are more valuable than males because of the high v...

G. Feist C. B. Schreck A. J. Gharrett

1996-01-01

48

Sexual and apomictic development in Hieracium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most members of the genus Hieracium are apomictic and set seed without fertilization, but sexual forms also exist. A cytological study was conducted on an apomictic\\u000a accession of H. aurantiacum (A3.4) and also H. piloselloides (D3) to precisely define the cellular basis for apomixis. The apomictic events were compared with the sexual events in a\\u000a self-incompatible isolate of H. pilosella

A. M. Koltunow; Susan D. Johnson; Ross A. Bicknell

1998-01-01

49

Sexual dimorphism of the developing human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.1. Sexual dimorphism of human brain anatomy has not been well-studied between 4 and 18 years of age, a time of emerging sex differences in behavior and the sexually specific hormonal changes of adrenarche (the predominantly androgenic augmentation of adrenal cortex function occurring at approximately age 8) and puberty.2.2. To assess sex differences in brain structures during this developmental period

Jay N. Giedd; F. Xavier Castellanos; Jagath C. Rajapakse; A. Catherine Vaituzis; Judith L. Rapoport

1997-01-01

50

From behavior to development: genes for sexual behavior define the neuronal sexual switch in Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isolation and analysis of Drosophila mutants with altered sexual orientation lead to the identification of novel branches in the sex-determination cascade which govern the sexually dimorphic development of the nervous system. One such example is the fruitless (fru) gene, the mutation of which induces male-to-male courtship and malformation of a male-specific muscle, the muscle of Lawrence (MOL). Since the

Daisuke Yamamoto; Kazuko Fujitani; Kazue Usui; Hiroki Ito; Yoshiro Nakano

1998-01-01

51

Examining the Development and Sexual Behavior of Adolescent Males  

PubMed Central

A careful examination of young men's sexuality by health professionals in pediatrics, primary care and reproductive health is foundational to adolescent male sexual health and healthy development. Through a review of existing literature, this article provides background and a developmental framework for sexual health services for adolescent boys. The article first defines and provides an overview of adolescent boys’ sexual health, and then discusses developmentally focused research on the following topics: (1) early romantic relationships and the evolution of power and influence within these relationships; (2) developmental “readiness” for sex and curiosity; (3) boys’ need for closeness and intimacy; (4) adopting codes of masculinity; (5) boys’ communicating about sex; and (6) contextual influences from peers, families, and providers. This article concludes by examining the implications of these data for sexual health promotion efforts for adolescent males, including HPV vaccination.

Ott, Mary A.

2010-01-01

52

Complications in the development of a female sexual identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the struggle to develop a female sexual identity and the importance of the roles of the father and mother in this struggle. The clinical illustration is taken from the psychotherapy of an anorectic adolescent.

Jeanne Magagna; Tara Pepper Goldsmith

2009-01-01

53

Complications in the Development of a Female Sexual Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes the struggle to develop a female sexual identity and the importance of the roles of the father and mother in this struggle. The clinical illustration is taken from the psychotherapy of an anorectic adolescent.|

Magagna, Jeanne; Pepper Goldsmith, Tara

2009-01-01

54

A Cytogenetic Study of Abnormal Sexual Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nineteen patients associated with sexual anomalies were studied for chromosome abnormalities. Five cases (26.3 per cent) were found to be chromosomally abnormal. They were one case of mixed gonadal dysgenesis with an XY/XO mosaicism, two cases of Klinefel...

C. C. Lin K. S. W. Kim P. Y. Wei

1969-01-01

55

Sexual Deception as a Social-Exchange Process: Development of a Behavior-Based Sexual Deception Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of deception in association with sexual encounters may take many forms, ranging from outright lies to more subtle, evasive manipulations. To address such deceptions, a behavior-based sexual deception scale was developed utilizing social exchange theory. Participants were 267 individuals associated with two large universities who were surveyed regarding different aspects of their sexual deceptive behaviors. In addition, items

William D. Marelich; Jessica Lundquist; Kimberly Painter; Mindy B. Mechanic

2008-01-01

56

Adolescent sexually transmitted diseases: Recent developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescents and young adults continue to have the highest rates of sexually transmitted diseases. New chlamydia and gonorrhea\\u000a diagnostic tests are being used in innovative ways to increase the number of infections that are detected. Nevertheless, challenges\\u000a such as gonorrhea resistance and partner notification and treatment continue to hinder efforts to reduce the prevalence of\\u000a these two bacterial infections. Although

Diane R. Blake

2004-01-01

57

A Putative Rhamnogalacturonase Required for Sexual Development of Neurospora Crassa  

PubMed Central

In previous work, the asd-1 (ascus development) gene of the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa was identified as a gene expressed preferentially during the sexual cycle and shown to be essential for normal sexual development. The asd-1 gene has been sequenced and further characterized. It contains two introns, the first of which is in-frame and inefficiently or differentially spliced. The predicted ASD-1 protein has extensive homology with rhamnogalacturonase B of Aspergillus aculeatus, which cleaves the backbone within the ramified hairy regions of pectin. In homozygous asd-1 crosses, sexual development is initiated and large numbers of normal-sized asci are formed. Ascospore delineation does not occur, however, and no sexual progeny are produced. As most asd-1 asci contain eight nuclei, the two meiotic divisions and subsequent mitotic division typical of normal crosses seem to occur, but the haploid nuclei are not partitioned into ascospores. In wild-type crosses, the ASD-1 protein is present in large amounts in croziers and young asci, but it is only faintly detectable in more mature asci containing developing ascospores. Models to explain the possible role of a rhamnogalacturonase in sexual development are presented.

Nelson, M. A.; Merino, S. T.; Metzenberg, R. L.

1997-01-01

58

Evolutionary consequences of habitat loss for Pacific anadromous salmonids  

PubMed Central

Large portions of anadromous salmonid habitat in the western United States has been lost because of dams and other blockages. This loss has the potential to affect salmonid evolution through natural selection if the loss is biased, affecting certain types of habitat differentially, and if phenotypic traits correlated with those habitat types are heritable. Habitat loss can also affect salmonid evolution indirectly, by reducing genetic variation and changing its distribution within and among populations. In this paper, we compare the characteristics of lost habitats with currently accessible habitats and review the heritability of traits which show correlations with habitat/environmental gradients. We find that although there is some regional variation, inaccessible habitats tend to be higher in elevation, wetter and both warmer in the summer and colder in the winter than habitats currently available to anadromous salmonids. We present several case studies that demonstrate either a change in phenotypic or life history expression or an apparent reduction in genetic variation associated with habitat blockages. These results suggest that loss of habitat will alter evolutionary trajectories in salmonid populations and Evolutionarily Significant Units. Changes in both selective regime and standing genetic diversity might affect the ability of these taxa to respond to subsequent environmental perturbations. Both natural and anthropogenic and should be considered seriously in developing management and conservation strategies.

McClure, Michelle M; Carlson, Stephanie M; Beechie, Timothy J; Pess, George R; Jorgensen, Jeffrey C; Sogard, Susan M; Sultan, Sonia E; Holzer, Damon M; Travis, Joseph; Sanderson, Beth L; Power, Mary E; Carmichael, Richard W

2008-01-01

59

Ethylene as a potent inducer of sexual development.  

PubMed

A novel and critical function of ethylene, a potent plant hormone, has been well documented in Dictyostelium, because it leads cells to the sexual development (macrocyst formation) by inducing zygote formation. Zygote formation (sexual cell fusion) and the subsequent nuclear fusion are the characteristic events occurring during macrocyst formation. A novel gene, zyg1 was found to be predominantly expressed during the sexual development, and its enforced expression actually induces zygote formation. As expected, the zygote inducer, ethylene enhances the expression of zyg1. Thus the function of ethylene has been verified at all of individual (macrocyst formation), cellular (zygote formation), and molecular levels (zyg1 expression). Based on our recent studies concerning the behavior and function of the zyg1 product (ZYG1 protein), the signal transduction pathways involved in zygote formation are proposed in this review. PMID:21585363

Amagai, Aiko

2011-05-01

60

Does positive youth development predict adolescent attitudes about sexuality?  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among individual factors, parental factors, involvement in activities, and adolescent attitudes regarding sex (the outcome variable). We suggest that Positive Youth Development (PYD) research and programming should include promoting healthy sexuality as an important developmental outcome for youth. PYD philosophy and theory, bioecological theory (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 1998), and identity development theory (Erikson, 1983, 1968; Marcia, 1980, 1993) provided the foundation for this study and were used to make the connections between PYD, adolescent sexuality (including attitudes and behavior), and aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship. Both self-esteem and sexual experience were significant predictors of attitudes regarding sex, but overall, parents contributed the most influence on the outcome variable. (It should be noted, however, that parental influence was the only factor that was a significant predictor.) Only one of the two involvements in activities variables was a significant predictor of attitudes regarding sex. PMID:19086667

Chapman, Erin N; Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay

2008-01-01

61

Non-coding RNAs in mammalian sexual development.  

PubMed

The present decade is witnessing a paradigm shift in our understanding of gene regulation. RNA, once relegated to an intermediary between DNA and protein, has emerged as a key contributor in the coordination of complex developmental pathways. For sexually reproducing organisms, propagation of the species is accomplished via an elaborate sexual phenotype. In mammals this consists of a highly complex cell lineage that has the capacity for intricate self-differentiation whilst maintaining the potential to generate all cell types upon fertilization. In addition, mammals possess a diverse range of somatic reproductive tissues and organs that often undergo dynamic morphological changes in response to a variety of external and internal cues. Although the protein component required to mediate these processes continues to be vigorously investigated, it is becoming increasingly apparent that an understanding of the non-coding RNA (ncRNA) component is required to develop a comprehensive picture of mammalian sexual development. PMID:20197714

McFarlane, L; Wilhelm, D

2010-02-23

62

New Insights into Placozoan Sexual Reproduction and Development  

PubMed Central

Unraveling animal life cycles and embryonic development is basic to understanding animal biology and often sheds light on phylogenetic relationships. A key group for understanding the evolution of the Metazoa is the early branching phylum Placozoa, which has attracted rapidly increasing attention. Despite over a hundred years of placozoan research the life cycle of this enigmatic phylum remains unknown. Placozoa are a unique model system for which the nuclear genome was published before the basic biology (i.e. life cycle and development) has been unraveled. Four organismal studies have reported the development of oocytes and one genetic study has nourished the hypothesis of sexual reproduction in natural populations at least in the past. Here we report new observations on sexual reproduction and embryonic development in the Placozoa and support the hypothesis of current sexual reproduction. The regular observation of oocytes and expressed sperm markers provide support that placozoans reproduce sexually in the field. Using whole genome and EST sequences and additional cDNA cloning we identified five conserved sperm markers, characteristic for different stages in spermatogenesis. We also report details on the embryonic development up to a 128-cell stage and new ultrastructural features occurring during early development. These results suggest that sperm and oocyte generation and maturation occur in different placozoans and that clonal lineages reproduce bisexually in addition to the standard mode of vegetative reproduction. The sum of observations is best congruent with the hypothesis of a simple life cycle with an alternation of reproductive modes between bisexual and vegetative reproduction.

Eitel, Michael; Guidi, Loretta; Hadrys, Heike; Balsamo, Maria; Schierwater, Bernd

2011-01-01

63

Development of an Index to Bird Predation of Juvenile Salmonids within the Yakima River, 2000 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Avian predation of fish is suspected to contribute to the loss of juvenile spring chinook salmon in the Yakima Basin, potentially constraining natural production. In 1997 and 1998, the Yakama/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW)--whose goal is to increase natural production historically present within the Yakima River--initiated investigations to assess the feasibility of developing an index to avian predation of juvenile salmon within the river. This research--conducted by Dr. Steve Mathews and David Phinney of the University of Washington--confirmed that Ring-billed Gulls and Common Mergansers were the primary avian predators of juvenile salmon, and that under certain conditions could impact migrating smolt populations. Beginning in 1999, the Washington Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (WACFWRU) was asked by the YKFP and the WDFW to continue development of avian consumption indices. Monitoring methods developed by Phinney et al. (1998) were adopted (with modifications) and monitoring of impacts to juvenile salmon along river reaches and at areas of high predator/prey concentrations (colloquially referred to as ''hotspots'') continued through 2000. In 2000, piscivorous birds were counted from river banks at hotspots and from a raft or drift boat along river reaches. Consumption by gulls at Hotspots was based on direct observations of foraging success and modeled abundance; consumption by all other piscivorous birds was estimated using published dietary requirements and modeled abundance. Further development of the avian consumption index model provided an estimation of smolt consumption for the 2000 survey season. Seasonal patterns of avian piscivore abundance were identified, diurnal patterns of gull abundance at hotspots were identified, predation indices were calculated for hotspots and spring and summer river reaches, and the efficacy of aerial surveys for estimating bird abundance within river reaches was evaluated. The only change in survey methods in 2000 was the shortening (in river miles) of surveys on the North Fork of the Teanaway River and the shifting of start and stop dates for river drifts and hotspot surveys. Primary avian predators in 2000 were ''gulls'' (California and Ring-billed) at hotspots and Common Mergansers within upper river reaches. Estimated consumption by gulls at both hotspots combined (10 April-30 June) was 163,475 fish. Assuming a worst case scenario (all fish taken were smolts) this represented 6.0% of all smolts estimated passing or being released from the Chandler Dam area during the 2000 smolt migration season. Total estimated take by Common Mergansers across all strata surveyed was 7,654 kg between 10 Apr and 30 Aug, 2000. Seventy-three percent of that consumption was within the upper river reaches (Stratum 1) where there is a known breeding population of mergansers.

Grassley, James M.; Grue, Christian E.; Major, III, Walter (University of Washington, School of Aquatic and Fishery Science, Seattle, WA)

2002-01-01

64

Developing Respondent-Based MultiMedia Measures of Exposure to Sexual Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite interest in media effects on sexual behavior, there is no single method for assessing exposure to sexual content in media. This paper discusses the development of sexual content exposure measures based on adolescent respondents' sexual content ratings of titles in television, music, magazines, and video games. We assessed the construct and criterion validity of these exposure measures by examining

Amy Bleakley; Martin Fishbein; Michal Hennessy; Amy Jordan; Ariel Chernin; Robin Stevens

2008-01-01

65

Does Positive Youth Development Predict Adolescent Attitudes about Sexuality?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among individual factors, parental factors, involvement in activities, and adolescent attitudes regarding sex (the outcome variable). We suggest that Positive Youth Development (PYD) research and programming should include promoting healthy sexuality as an important developmental outcome…

Chapman, Erin N.; Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay

2008-01-01

66

Sexually dimorphic neurocalcin expression in the developing zebra finch telencephalon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential display RT-PCR was used on RNA isolated from the zebra finch telencepha- lon to identify gene products potentially involved in its development, including the sexually dimorphic nuclei responsible for song learning and production. A cDNA identified only in juvenile females was cloned and se- quenced. It shares homology with neurocalcin, a calcium binding protein. Northern blots indicated three neuro-

Sean L. Veney; Camilla Peabody; George W. Smith; Juli Wade

2003-01-01

67

Transfer of knowledge within the Lake Ontario salmonid sport fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new method which facilitates more focused and effective transfer of information among people using or influencing management of marine resources. A recently developed construct, Concept Mapping, is used to analyze primary scientific reports on Salmonid distribution and to assess the knowledge of charter boat captains' operations on Lake Ontario. This analysis revealed key concepts and important

M. Brody

1985-01-01

68

Taming of the Shrewd Meyeli Chhele: A political economy of development’s sexual subject  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on ethnographic fieldwork carried out in West Bengal, India, Akshay Khanna examines the conditions under which epidemiological knowledge about ‘men who have sex with men’ is produced and brought to circulate. He looks at conditions under which particular idioms of gender and sexuality are transformed into epidemiologically over-determined identity categories. The Sexual Subject that circulates in development praxis as

Akshay Khanna

2009-01-01

69

Girls' Sexual Development in the Inner City: From Compelled Childhood Sexual Contact to Sex-for-Things Exchanges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) has been linked to a wide variety of adverse psychological and behavioral outcomes. This paper describes girls' sexual development in the inner city based on qualitative material from a long-term ethnographic (observational) study. For many inner-city girls, early and then continued experiences of being compelled to have…

Dunlap, Eloise; Golub, Andrew; Johnson, Bruce D.

2003-01-01

70

Girls' Sexual Development in the Inner City: From Compelled Childhood Sexual Contact to Sex-for-Things Exchanges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) has been linked to a wide variety of adverse psychological and behavioral outcomes. This paper describes girls' sexual development in the inner city based on qualitative material from a long-term ethnographic (observational) study. For many inner-city girls, early and then continued experiences of being compelled to have sex were found to be part of a pathway

Eloise Dunlap; Andrew Golub; Bruce D. Johnson

2004-01-01

71

Girls' Sexual Development in the Inner City: From Compelled Childhood Sexual Contact to Sex-for-Things Exchanges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) has been linked to a wide variety of adverse psychological and behavioral outcomes. This paper describes girls' sexual development in the inner city based on qualitative material from a long-term ethnographic (observational) study. For many inner-city girls, early and then continued experiences of being compelled to have…

Dunlap, Eloise; Golub, Andrew; Johnson, Bruce D.

2003-01-01

72

Microenterprise development interventions for sexual risk reduction: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Comprehensive interventions that address both individual and structural determinants associated with HIV/STI risk are gaining increasing attention over the past decade. Microenterprise development offers an appealing model for HIV prevention by addressing poverty and gender equality. This study systematically reviewed the effects of microenterprise development interventions on HIV/STI incidence and sexual risk behaviors. Microenterprise development was defined as developing small business capacity among individuals to alleviate poverty. Seven eligible research studies representing five interventions were identified and included in this review. All of the studies targeted women, and three focused on sex workers. None measured biomarker outcomes. All three sex worker studies showed significant reduction in sexual risk behaviors when compared to the control group. Non-sex worker studies showed limited changes in sexual risk behavior. This review indicates the potential utility of microenterprise development in HIV risk reduction programs. More research is needed to determine how microenterprise development can be effectively incorporated in comprehensive HIV control strategies. PMID:23963497

Cui, Rosa R; Lee, Ramon; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Muessig, Kathryn E; Tucker, Joseph D

2013-11-01

73

The Marsupial Male: A Role Model for Sexual Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual differentiation in male marsupials has many similarities with that of eutherians. Marsupials have an XX-XY sex determining mechanism, and have a homologue of the testis-determining SRY gene on their Y-chromosome. However, the development pattern of SRY gene expression is different from the mouse in that it is expressed for a much longer period. SRY is expressed in a range

Marilyn B. Renfree; Jenny L. Harry; Geoffrey Shaw

1995-01-01

74

Latino Sexual Styles: Developing a Nuanced Understanding of Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoreticians in adolescent sexuality have called for research that is contextual, health-focused, balanced between males and females, and from the perspective of adolescents, noting that scales developed by Buzwell and Rosenthal (1996) are promising. Cross-cultural validation of the measures in the United States. should include Latino adolescents, as they are the fastest-growing ethnic group. Contextual issues for this population include

Beth Bourdeau; Volker K. Thomas; Janie K. Long

2008-01-01

75

Sexually distinct development of vocal pathways in Xenopus laevis  

PubMed Central

Deterministic rules, rather than experience, are thought to regulate the development of simple behaviors in vertebrates and invertebrates. We revisited this issue through examination of the sexually distinct vocalizations of African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis), a reproductive behavior used by sexually mature males and females. We discovered that, as expected for simple behavior, female vocalizations develop through deterministic rules r. The rare calls of juvenile females are indistinguishable from those of adult females. The vocal pathways of juvenile females, as measured by the contractile properties of the laryngeal muscles (the vocal muscles) and the laryngeal motoneuron somata (vocal motoneurons) size, are the developmental default and do not differentiate as they mature. Male Xenopus, in contrast, produce extensive vocalizations with rudimentary acoustic structure before reaching sexual maturity. Moreover, the functional properties of the vocal central pattern generator mature before muscle fibers and motoneuron size are fully masculinized. The results suggest that neuronal activity during development may be important in organizing the contractile properties of the muscle fibers in male, but not in female Xenopus.

Yamaguchi, Ayako; Munoz, Martha M.; Bose, Tina O.; Oberlander, Joseph G.; Smith, Shane

2010-01-01

76

Body condition indices as a rapid assessment of the abundance of introduced salmonids in oligotrophic lakes of southern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

In South America, salmonids have been widely introduced to lakes, yet there are still many oligotrophic lakes without current abundance estimates. Catch per unit effort is a good estimator of fish abundance, but its correct implementation requires an expensive and long-term effort. Thus, there is a need to develop a rapid assessment to estimate the relative abundance of salmonids. Under

Iván Arismendi; Brooke Penaluna; Doris Soto

2011-01-01

77

Assessing sexual harassment among Latinas: development of an instrument.  

PubMed

This study draws from multiple data sources and analytic approaches to offer preliminary evidence on how to assess sexual harassment among Latinas working in the United States, particularly working-class Mexican American women with moderately low acculturation. First, focus group data were collected from 45 Latinas to identify culture-specific manifestations of sexually harassing behavior. These data informed the development of new items for the Sexual Experiences Questionnaire (SEQ: L. F. Fitzgerald et al., 1988), making it more appropriate for administration to Latinas with limited education. A 2nd Latina sample (N = 476) then completed this and other scales in a paper-and-pencil survey. Complete-link hierarchical cluster analyses of the SEQ data, based on a random half-sample of these women, revealed an underlying 3-factor structure. Confirmatory factor analyses on the 2nd half-sample confirmed that this factor model fit the data well, and both the individual factors and the larger scale appear highly reliable. Implications of both new and discarded SEQ-Latina items, the 3-factor structure, and relationships among the factors were discussed. PMID:11381818

Cortina, L M

2001-05-01

78

Sexual Values Among Latino Youth: Measurement Development Using a Culturally Based Approach  

PubMed Central

Latino youth in the United States are at higher risk for negative sexual outcomes compared to their European American counterparts. Adherence to traditional sexual values may protect against or increase their risk. Past studies have generally utilized proxy measures, such as acculturation, to assess sexual values. The objective of the current study was to develop and test culturally based sexual values measures among Latino youth. Focus groups and qualitative interviews were conducted to generate themes related to sexual values. Six measures were developed: three related to gender role norms (Sexual Talk as Disrespectful, Satisfaction of Sexual Needs as Important, Female Virginity as Important) and three related to comfort regarding sexuality (Comfort with Sexual Communication, Sexual Comfort, and Sexual Self-Acceptance). The scales’ psychometric properties were assessed in a sample of 694 sexually active young Latinos. Results indicate that these measures conformed to single-factor scales and displayed acceptable reliabilities. Correlations with conceptually related measures were in hypothesized directions. Findings suggest it is feasible to directly assess sexual values in a valid and reliable manner. The measures presented in the current article represent tools for such assessment.

Deardorff, Julianna; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Flores, Elena

2010-01-01

79

Sexual values among Latino youth: measurement development using a culturally based approach.  

PubMed

Latino youth in the United States are at higher risk for negative sexual outcomes compared to their European American counterparts. Adherence to traditional sexual values may protect against or increase their risk. Past studies have generally utilized proxy measures, such as acculturation, to assess sexual values. The objective of the current study was to develop and test culturally based sexual values measures among Latino youth. Focus groups and qualitative interviews were conducted to generate themes related to sexual values. Six measures were developed: three related to gender role norms (Sexual Talk as Disrespectful, Satisfaction of Sexual Needs as Important, Female Virginity as Important) and three related to comfort regarding sexuality (Comfort with Sexual Communication, Sexual Comfort, and Sexual Self-Acceptance). The scales' psychometric properties were assessed in a sample of 694 sexually active young Latinos. Results indicate that these measures conformed to single-factor scales and displayed acceptable reliabilities. Correlations with conceptually related measures were in hypothesized directions. Findings suggest it is feasible to directly assess sexual values in a valid and reliable manner. The measures presented in the current article represent tools for such assessment. PMID:18426286

Deardorff, Julianna; Tschann, Jeanne M; Flores, Elena

2008-04-01

80

Gender, sexuality and HIV: Making a difference in the lives of young women in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most new HIV infections are occurring in young people, with young women hit particularly hard in parts of the developing world. This paper explores the impact of gender and sexual norms on young women's sexual experiences, expectations and vulnerability to HIV\\/AIDS. It argues that the power imbalance characteristic of sexual relations among men and women has many of its roots

Ellen Weiss; Daniel Whelan; Geeta Rao Gupta

2000-01-01

81

Retrospective Recall of Sexual Orientation Identity Development among Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although recent attention has focused on the likelihood that contemporary sexual minority youth (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual [GLB]) are "coming out" at younger ages, few studies have examined whether early sexual orientation identity development is also present in older GLB cohorts. We analyzed retrospective data on the timing of sexual

Calzo, Jerel P.; Antonucci, Toni C.; Mays, Vickie M.; Cochran, Susan D.

2011-01-01

82

Identity Development and Exploration Among Sexual Minority Adolescents: Examination of a Multidimensional Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a multidimensional model of sexual identity development, the current study examined self-labeling, romantic, and sexual experiences among middle and late adolescent sexual minorities. Eighty-two youths between the ages of 14 and 21 were recruited from gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) community centers and associated Internet groups. Differences between males and females and between middle and late adolescents

Jenna A. Glover; Renee V. Galliher; Trenton G. Lamere

2009-01-01

83

Normative Sexuality Development in Adolescence: A Decade in Review, 2000-2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This review details a key innovation across the field of adolescent sexuality research over the last decade--conceptualizing sexuality as a normative aspect of adolescent development. Anchored in a growing articulation of adolescent sexuality as having positive qualities and consequences, we provide an organizing framework for understanding…

Tolman, Deborah L.; McClelland, Sara I.

2011-01-01

84

The Impact of Clergy-Perpetrated Sexual Abuse: The Role of Gender, Development, and Posttraumatic Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse suggests that there are two modal populations of survivors: boys and adult women. We review what is known about trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder following sexual abuse and explore the different treatment needs for these two survivor groups. For children, clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse can catastrophically alter the trajectory of psychosocial, sexual, and spiritual development.

Jason M. Fogler; Jillian C. Shipherd; Stephanie Clarke; Jennifer Jensen; Erin Rowe

2008-01-01

85

Psychological Adjustment and Sexual Development of Adolescents With Disorders of Sex Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeDisorders of sex development (DSD) are a heterogeneous group of congenital conditions characterized by an atypical development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex. Particularly at the time of expected puberty, adolescents with DSD may become aware of being different from peers. This study explores the effect of DSD on psychosocial well-being and sexual development.

Eva Kleinemeier; Martina Jürgensen; Anke Lux; Pia-Marie Widenka; Ute Thyen

2010-01-01

86

Development of Sexual Orientation Among Adolescent and Young Adult Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although some research suggests that sexual orientation is a stable, early appearing trait, interviews with 89 young sexual-minority women revealed that a majority of women failed to report at least one of the following: childhood indicators of sexual orientation, stability in same-sex attractions, or awareness of same-sex attractions prior to the conscious process of sexual questioning. Lesbians were not more

Lisa M. Diamond

1998-01-01

87

Embryological Perspective of Sexual Somatic Development in Ciliated Protozoa: Implications on Immortality, Sexual Reproduction and Inheritance of Acquired Characters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay addresses somatic development during sexual reproduction of ciliated protozoa, which is interpreted as an embryological phenomenon resembling embryogenesis of multicellular organisms. The uniqueness of this somatic development, as distinct from asexual development, resides in its dependence on new information associated with the germ nucleus, and on its involvement of both maternal and postzygotic informational inputs. This understanding derives

F. Ng Stephen

1990-01-01

88

The development and usability of Malaysian sexuality education (MSE) courseware  

Microsoft Academic Search

An initial study related to the perception of teachers and students toward the sexuality education was carried out in 2008. The study showed that there are big gaps between the perception of the teachers and students towards Malaysia sexuality education today. As a result Malaysia Sexuality Education (MSE) courseware was designed based on learning, instructional design and human computer interaction

S. L. Chan; A. Jaafar

2010-01-01

89

Developing countries use music videos to promote teen sexual restraint.  

PubMed

The Center for Communications Programs of the Johns Hopkins University has successfully produced and aired songs and music videos promoting teenage sexual restraint in developing countries. Entertaining music videos convey accurate messages to target audiences more effectively than teachers and doctors are able. In addition to successes in the Philippines and Nigeria, overwhelming success has been met with Wait, a video with Latin American pop start Tatiana and Johnny. A hit in 11 Latin American countries reaching 1 in Mexico, the video received 1 million hour s free air time. Passionate, powerful, and persuasive, these videos have prompted increased contraceptive use in countries where they have been aired. The Center's videos and songs have proved popular and profitable in a competitive market of ideas, earning 3-4 times their production costs. Accordingly, health experts from Johns Hopkins University recognize the potential role of these productions in preventing AIDS and unwanted pregnancies in other settings. Where Baltimore leads the U.S. in teen pregnancies, the Center would like to air soap opera on sexual responsibility. Production costs in the U.S. are, however, 10 times higher than in developing countries. With the collaboration of media executives, significant financial and social rewards could result from such a production. PMID:12343465

Pemberton, M

1991-12-15

90

Developing Respondent Based Multi-Media Measures of Exposure to Sexual Content.  

PubMed

Despite the interest in the effects of the media on sexual behavior, there is no single method for assessing exposure to a particular type of media content (e.g., sex). This paper discusses the development of six sexual content exposure measures based on adolescents' own subjective ratings of the sexual content in titles in 4 media (i.e., television, music, magazines, videogames). We assessed the construct and criterion validity of these measures by examining the associations among each of these measures of exposure to sexual content as well as their associations with adolescents' sexual activity. Data were collected in summer 2005 through a web-based survey using a quota sample of 547 youth aged 14-16 from the Philadelphia area. Adolescents rated how often they were exposed to specific television shows, magazine titles, etc. on 4-point never to often scales. They also rated the sexual content of those titles on 4-point no sexual content to a lot of sexual content scales. Sexual behavior was measured using an ordered index of lifetime pre-coital and coital sexual activity. The strength of association between exposure to sexual content and sexual activity varied by medium and measure. Based on our findings, we recommend the use of a multiple media weighted sum measure. This measure produces findings that are consistent with those of similar studies. PMID:20411048

Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Hennessy, Michal; Jordan, Amy; Chernin, Ariel; Stevens, Robin

2008-01-01

91

A Mutant Defective in Sexual Development Produces Aseptate Ascogonia ? †  

PubMed Central

The transition from the vegetative to the sexual cycle in filamentous ascomycetes is initiated with the formation of ascogonia. Here, we describe a novel type of sterile mutant from Sordaria macrospora with a defect in ascogonial septum formation. This mutant, named pro22, produces only small, defective protoperithecia and carries a point mutation in a gene encoding a protein that is highly conserved throughout eukaryotes. Sequence analyses revealed three putative transmembrane domains and a C-terminal domain of unknown function. Live-cell imaging showed that PRO22 is predominantly localized in the dynamic tubular and vesicular vacuolar network of the peripheral colony region close to growing hyphal tips and in ascogonia; it is absent from the large spherical vacuoles in the vegetative hyphae of the subperipheral region of the colony. This points to a specific role of PRO22 in the tubular and vesicular vacuolar network, and the loss of intercalary septation in ascogonia suggests that PRO22 functions during the initiation of sexual development.

Bloemendal, Sandra; Lord, Kathryn M.; Rech, Christine; Hoff, Birgit; Engh, Ines; Read, Nick D.; Kuck, Ulrich

2010-01-01

92

Mating types and sexual development in filamentous ascomycetes.  

PubMed Central

The progress made in the molecular characterization of the mating types in several filamentous ascomycetes has allowed us to better understand their role in sexual development and has brought to light interesting biological problems. The mating types of Neurospora crassa, Podospora anserina, and Cochliobolus heterostrophus consist of unrelated and unique sequences containing one or several genes with multiple functions, related to sexuality or not, such as vegetative incompatibility in N. crassa. The presence of putative DNA binding domains in the proteins encoded by the mating-type (mat) genes suggests that they may be transcriptional factors. The mat genes play a role in cell-cell recognition at fertilization, probably by activating the genes responsible for the hormonal signal whose occurrence was previously demonstrated by physiological experiments. They also control recognition between nuclei at a later stage, when reproductive nuclei of each mating type which have divided in the common cytoplasm pair within the ascogenous hyphae. How self is distinguished from nonself at the nuclear level is not known. The finding that homothallic species, able to mate in the absence of a partner, contain both mating types in the same haploid genome has raised more issues than it has resolved. The instability of the mating type, in particular in Sclerotinia trifolorium and Botrytinia fuckeliana, is also unexplained. This diversity of mating systems, still more apparent if the yeasts and the basidiomycetes are taken into account, clearly shows that no single species can serve as a universal mating-type model.

Coppin, E; Debuchy, R; Arnaise, S; Picard, M

1997-01-01

93

Development of Sexual Expectancies among Adolescents: Contributions by Parents, Peers and the Media.  

PubMed

To expand the scant research on sexual expectancies development among non-sexually active adolescents, we examined the relationship between adolescents' exposure to four socializing agents-mother/female guardian, father/male guardian, peers, and television programs with high sexual content-and their endorsement of four sexual expectancies: social benefit, pleasure, social risk, and health risk. Data are from Waves 2 and 3 of a three-wave annual longitudinal study conducted among California adolescents, the majority of whom were not sexually active (N = 914, 84%). Structural equation models were conducted to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the socializing agents and the sexual expectancies. Cross-sectional results indicate associations between peer sexual communication and social benefit, pleasure, and social risk expectancies. A positive association was found between exposure to music videos and social benefit expectancies, and a negative association was found between exposure to music videos and health risk expectancies. Longitudinal results suggest that communication with peers positively predicted pleasure expectancies and negatively predicted social risk expectancies. No other socializing agents were associated with any sexual expectancies. An invariance test found that significant correlations were similar across the different age groups. Results suggest that efforts to support positive sexual decision making among non-sexually active adolescents should target peer sexual communication. PMID:23631710

Ragsdale, Kathleen; Bersamin, Melina M; Schwartz, Seth J; Zamboanga, Byron L; Kerrick, Madeleine R; Grube, Joel W

2013-04-30

94

Sexual development and fertility of Loxl1-/- male mice.  

PubMed

Our objective was to investigate the genitourinary defects and fertility of the male lysyl oxidase-like 1 gene (Loxl1) knockout (Loxl1(-/-)) mouse, with particular attention to fecundity and testicular, epididymal, gubernacular, and penile histopathology, which may lead us to a better understanding of the role of the elastin-homeostasis gene, LOXL1, in male sexual development. Genital morphometric evaluation of 6- to 9-month-old male Loxl1(-/-) mice (n = 26) was compared with C57Bl/6 controls (n = 24). Measurements included: body weight, scrotal development, evidence of feminization (nipples or vaginal pouch), penile malformations, anogenital distance, and absence/presence and size of perineal bulge. Sperm production was estimated using a standardized technique. A breeding program was conducted to determine how much of the infertility observed in Loxl1(-/-) pairs was due to the male factor. Finally, we performed histopathologic comparison of the genitourinary organs of Loxl1(-/-) and control mice. Loxl1(-/-) mice weighed less than their age-matched C57Bl/6 counterparts (P < .001). Size-adjusted perineal bulge was larger (P < .001), and resting location of the gonads was higher intra-abdominally (P = .048) in the Loxl1(-/-) mice. Estimates of daily sperm counts revealed that the Loxl1(-/-) mice had lower sperm production (P = .048). Loxl1(-/-) males bred with control females demonstrated relative fecundity values intermediate between Loxl1(-/-) pairs (lowest fecundity) and control pairs (highest fecundity), suggesting a component of male-factor infertility. No histologic differences were noted using hematoxylin-eosin or specialized elastin staining of the gonads, gubernaculum, and penis. Although further studies are warranted, these findings suggest a subtle and likely multifactorial role of the LOXL1 protein in male sexual development and fertility. PMID:19201700

Wood, Hadley M; Lee, Una J; Vurbic, Drina; Sabanegh, Edmund; Ross, Jonathan H; Li, Tiansen; Damaser, Margot S

2009-02-05

95

The Consequences of Child Sexual Abuse for Female Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only in about the last two decades have people realized that the sexual abuse of children in America occurs frequently. Prior\\u000a to that time sexual abuse, and especially familial sexual abuse or incest, was viewed as very rare. The National Center of\\u000a Child Abuse and Neglect (NCCAN) sponsored three national incidence studies that were published in 1980 (Burgdorf, 1980), 1988

Penelope K. Trickett; Dawn A. Kurtz; Jennie G. Noll

96

Age of Minority Sexual Orientation Development and Risk of Childhood Maltreatment and Suicide Attempts in Women  

PubMed Central

Women with minority sexual orientations (e.g., lesbian, bisexual) are more likely than heterosexual women to report histories of childhood maltreatment and attempted suicide; however, the importance of the timing of minority sexual orientation development in contributing to this increased risk is uncertain. This study investigated relationships between self-reported ages of achieving minority sexual orientation development milestones (first awareness of same-gender attractions, disclosure of a minority sexual orientation to another person, and same-gender sexual contact), and childhood maltreatment and suicide attempt experiences in a sample of 2,001 women recruited from multiple-community sources. Younger age of minority sexual orientation development milestones was positively linked to self-reported recall of childhood maltreatment experiences, and to a childhood suicide attempt. After adjusting for differences in maltreatment, the odds of suicide attempt attributable to younger age of sexual orientation development milestones was reduced by 50 to 65%, suggesting that maltreatment may account for about half of the elevated risk for childhood suicide attempts among women with early minority sexual orientation development. Implications for services, interventions, and further research to address maltreatment disparities for sexual minorities are discussed.

Corliss, Heather L.; Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.; Greenland, Sander; Seeman, Teresa E.

2011-01-01

97

Healthy Sexuality Development: A Guide for Early Childhood Educators and Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although families are children's primary teachers about sexuality development, early childhood teachers and administrators also support children's healthy sexuality development as they interact with children, work with families, and plan programs. This book provides key information to educators and families about what is typical in young children…

Chrisman, Kent; Couchenour, Donna

98

Sexual and Ethnic Identity Development Among Gay–Bisexual–Questioning (GBQ) Male Ethnic Minority Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identity development is a critical task of adolescence and occurs across multiple areas of self-identification. Although research on the identity development process among individuals who are ethnic and sexual minorities has been conducted for individuals who have 1 minority status or the other, few studies have examined these processes in people who are both ethnic and sexual minorities. In this

Omar B. Jamil; Gary W. Harper; M. Isabel Fernandez

2009-01-01

99

Early Childhood Sexual Development and Sex Education: A Survey of Attitudes of Nursery School Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Administered a questionnaire with closed and open questions on sexual development and sex education to 284 experienced preschool teachers in Greece. Findings indicated that the teachers feel that sexual development constitutes an important aspect of children's personality, and that sex education should start at an early age. (EV)

Kakavoulis, Alexandros

1998-01-01

100

Effects of the fungicide prochloraz on the sexual development of zebrafish ( Danio rerio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some chemicals have the potential to adversely affect sexual development through multiple endocrine actions. Prochloraz is an imidazole fungicide that displays diverse mechanisms of action, including inhibition of aromatase activity, inhibition of androgen synthesis, and antagonism of the androgen receptor. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of prochloraz on the sexual development of zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Karin Kinnberg; Henrik Holbech; Gitte I. Petersen; Poul Bjerregaard

2007-01-01

101

Healthy Sexuality Development: A Guide for Early Childhood Educators and Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although families are children's primary teachers about sexuality development, early childhood teachers and administrators also support children's healthy sexuality development as they interact with children, work with families, and plan programs. This book provides key information to educators and families about what is typical in young children…

Chrisman, Kent; Couchenour, Donna

102

Ontogeny of sexual development in the roach (Rutilus rutilus) and its interrelationships with growth and age.  

PubMed

The roach (Rutilus rutilus) has become a sentinel species for the study of sexual disruption in wild fish populations as a consequence of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Little is known, however, about the normal ontogeny of sexual development in this species. Here, we analyzed the ontogeny of sexual development in captive-bred roach and assessed how growth rate and fish size affected the timing of both sexual differentiation and sexual development over a 2-year period. Ovarian differentiation was first recorded at 68 days post-fertilization (dpf) and this preceded testicular differentiation (first recorded at 98 dpf). In contrast, sexual maturation occurred at an earlier age in males (300 dpf) compared with females (728 dpf). No differences in body size (length or weight) were recorded between male and female roach until the fish were 415 dpf. Studies on three populations of roach which grew at different rates showed that the timing of sexual differentiation was highly variable and more related to fish size than to fish age. Time to sexual maturation was also variable among populations but, subsequent to their first year of life, gonadal status was less well associated with fish size. Interestingly, the sex ratio of the population was biased towards females in populations that grew more rapidly during early life. The findings presented here provide a valuable foundation of work to support both field- and laboratory-based assessments on the effects of EDCs, and other stressors, on sexual differentiation and development in the roach. PMID:18496855

Paull, G C; Lange, A; Henshaw, A C; Tyler, C R

2008-07-01

103

Physical Development and Sexual Orientation in Men and Women: An Analysis of NATSAL-2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, three physical development characteristics—weight, height, and age of menarche—were examined for their\\u000a relation to sexual orientation. Participants were men and women comprising the National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles-2000\\u000a (N > 11,000). Participants completed self-report measures of sexual orientation, height, weight, and, for women, age of menarche.\\u000a Results indicated that gay\\/bisexual men were significantly shorter and lighter

Anthony F. Bogaert

2010-01-01

104

Working with Parents to Promote Healthy Adolescent Sexual Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although parents play a vital role in fostering healthy sexuality-related attitudes and behaviors among adolescents, many parents struggle with how to address sexuality-related topics with their adolescent child. This article provides practitioners with evidence-based frameworks and guidelines on how to work with parents in order to improve their…

Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Bouris, Alida

2009-01-01

105

Sexual Harassment: Development of a University's Policy and Educational Programming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In late 1988 the University of Florida began the process of revising and updating its policy and educational programs on sexual harassment. At that time a task force was formed which reviewed the current policy and procedures and drafted a revised brochure on sexual harassment. This brochure was reviewed and redrafted and distributed to every…

Longstreth, Catherine; And Others

106

Development of the acceptability of sexual media scale: Preliminary analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production and sales of sexually explicit media are at an all-time high, with over 200 adult entertainment companies expected to have generated a combined income of $10 billion from American consumers this past year (Kroft, 2003). ^ Men scored higher than women on the general acceptability scale, suggesting that men were more accepting of sexual media than women. Additionally, men

Christopher Saenz

2004-01-01

107

The physiology and toxicology of salmonid eggs and larvae in relation to water quality criteria.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review is to collate physiological knowledge on salmonid eggs and larvae in relation to water quality criteria. Salmonid genera reviewed include Coregonus, Thymallus, Salvelinus, Salmo, and Oncorhynchus spp. When physiological data for salmonids are lacking, the zebrafish and medaka models are included. The primary focus is on the underlying mechanisms involved in the hydro-mineral, thermal, and respiratory biology with an extended section on the xenobiotic toxicology of the early stages. Past and present data reveal that the eggs of salmonids are among the largest shed by any broadcast spawning teleost. Once ovulated, the physicochemical properties of the ovarian fluid provide temporary protection from external perturbations and maintain the eggs in good physiological condition until spawning. Following fertilisation and during early development the major structures protecting the embryo from poor water quality are the vitelline membrane, the enveloping layer and the chorion. The vitelline membrane is one of the least permeable membranes known, while the semi-permeable chorion provides both physical and chemical defense against metals, pathogens, and xenobiotic chemicals. In part these structures explain the lower sensitivity of the eggs to chemical imbalance compared to the larvae, however the lower metabolic rate and the chronology of gene expression and translational control suggest that developmental competence also plays a decisive role. In addition, maternal effect genes provide a defense potential until the mid-blastula transition. The transition between maternal effect genes and zygotic genes is a critical period for the embryo. The perivitelline fluids are an important trap for cations, but are also the major barrier to diffusion of gases and solutes. Acidic environmental pH interferes with acid-base and hydromineral balance but also increases the risk of aluminium and heavy metal intoxication. These risks are ameliorated somewhat by the presence of ambient humic acid. High temperatures during development may be teratogenic, cause sexual bias, or long-term effects on muscle cellularity. Xenobiotics cause inhibition of neural acetylcholine esterase and carboxylases and disrupt the normal signalling pathways of hormones by binding to relevant receptors and mimicking their actions. A complex suite of genes is activated in response to environmental or parentally transmitted xenobiotics. The primary defense mechanism in embryos involves resistance to uptake but later biotransformation via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-mediated activation of members of the cytochrome mixed-function mono-oxygenase superfamily (CYP1A, CYP2B, and CYP3A) and subsequent glucuronidation or glutathionation. Due to the number of duplicate or triplicate genes coding for intermediates in the signalling pathways, and cross-talk between nuclear orphan receptors and steroid hormone receptors, a large number of complications arise in response to xenobiotic intoxicaton. One such syndrome, known as blue-sac disease causes an anaphylactoid response in hatched larvae due to increased permeability in the vascular endothelium that coincides with AHR-mediated CYP induction. Early embryos also respond to such xenobiotic insults, but apparently have an immature translational control for expression of CYP proteins, which coincides with a lack of excretory organs necessary for the end-point of biotransformation. Other syndromes (M74 and Cayuga) are now associated with thiamine deficiency. Where possible guidelines for water quality criteria are suggested. PMID:17316838

Finn, Roderick Nigel

2007-01-23

108

A Systemic Approach to the Development of a Sexual Abuse Protocol in a Rural Community: An Examination of Social Work Leadership Theory and Practice. Issues in Clinical Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper presents the multi-factorial problem of sexual abuse of children within their families, provides definitions of relevant terms (incest, sexual abuse, sexual misuse, molestation, sexual assault, rape), reviews the epidemiology of sexual abuse and its effects, and traces development of a Sexual Abuse Resource Team in a rural/resort New…

Catalano, Stephen

109

Development of a nested polymerase chain reaction for amplification of a sequence of the p57 gene of Renibacterium salmoninarum that provides a highly sensitive method for detection of the bacterium in salmonid kidney  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nucleic acid-based assays have shown promise for diagnosing Renibacterium salmoninarum in tissues and body fluids of salmonids. DeVelopment of a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to detect a 320 bp DNA segment of the gene encoding the p57 protein of R. salmoninarum is described. Whereas a conventional PCR for a 383 bp segment of the p57 gene reliably detected 1000 R. salmoninarum cells per reaction in kidney tissue, the nested PCR detected as few as 10 R. salmoninarum per reaction in kidney tissue. Two DNA extraction methods for the nested PCR were compared and the correlation between replicate samples was generally higher in samples extracted by the QIAamp system compared with those extracted by the phenol/chloroform method. The specificity of the nested PCR was confirmed by testing DNA extracts of common bacterial fish pathogens and a panel of bacterial species reported to cause false-positive reactions in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the fluorescent antibody test (FAT) for R. salmoninarum. Kidney samples from 74 naturally infected chinook Salmon were examined by the nested PCR, the ELISA, and the FAT, and the detected prevalences of R. salmoninarum were 61, 47, and 43%, respectively.

Chase, D. M.; Pascho, R. J.

1998-01-01

110

Sea lice infections of salmonids farmed in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea lice cause significant issues in the mariculture of salmonids. However, there have been no reports about sea lice from salmonid farming in Australia. Here, we investigated the presence of sea lice on salmonids in Australian mariculture. Caligus longirostris was present on Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout (archival samples only) farmed in Tasmania. C. longirostris was found on salmon only

B. F. Nowak; C. J. Hayward; L. González; N. J. Bott; R. J. G. Lester

2011-01-01

111

The Life Course Development of Human Sexual Orientation: An Integrative Paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through the application of life course theory to the study of sexual orienta- tion, this paper specifies a new paradigm for research on human sexual orienta- tion that seeks to reconcile divisions among biological, social science, and hu- manistic paradigms. Recognizing the historical, social, and cultural relativity of human development, this paradigm argues for a moderate stance between es- sentialism

Phillip L. Hammack

2005-01-01

112

Measuring Sexual Function in Community Surveys: Development of a Conceptual Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the many psychometric measures of sexual (dys)function, none is entirely suited to use in community surveys. Faced with the need to include a brief and non-intrusive measure of sexual function in a general population survey, a new measure was developed. Findings from qualitative research with men and women in the community designed to inform the conceptual framework for this

Kirstin R. Mitchell; Kaye Wellings

2011-01-01

113

Gender differences in the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse and in the development of pediatric PTSD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Despite an extensive literature on the links between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), our knowledge on the effects of gender in relation to the risks for sexual victimization and subsequent PTSD is limited. We review current knowledge of gender differences in prevalence of CSA and the role of gender in subsequent development of child and

J. L. Walker; P. D. Carey; N. Mohr; D. J. Stein; S. Seedat

2004-01-01

114

Developing and Establishing School-Based Sexual Health Services: Issues for School Nursing Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School-based sexual health clinics are emerging as one of the key ways to promote sexual health among young people, and school nurses play an important role in developing and delivering these services. This study used a qualitative design to explore the experiences of health professionals and policy makers involved in setting up such services in…

Hayter, Mark; Owen, Jenny; Cooke, Jo

2012-01-01

115

Gender, Pubertal Development, and Peer Sexual Harassment Predict Objectified Body Consciousness in Early Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectified body consciousness (OBC)—the tendency to view one's body as an object for others to look at and evaluate—is theorized to emerge during sexual maturation as adolescents, particularly adolescent girls, experience sexual objectification. Although OBC generally is discussed in develop- mental terms, research so far has examined primarily the experiences of undergraduates and adults. Our goal in this study was

Sara M. Lindberg; Shelly Grabe; Janet Shibley Hyde

116

Development of Standardized Clinical Training Cases for Diagnosis of Sexual Abuse using a Secure Telehealth Application  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objectives: The training of physicians, nurse examiners, social workers and other health professional on the evidentiary findings of sexual abuse in children is challenging. Our objective was to develop peer reviewed training cases for medical examiners of child sexual abuse, using a secure web based telehealth application (TeleCAM). Methods:…

Frasier, Lori D.; Thraen, Ioana; Kaplan, Rich; Goede, Patricia

2012-01-01

117

Childhood Sexual Abuse, Stigmatization, Internalizing Symptoms, and the Development of Sexual Difficulties and Dating Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Potential pathways from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to subsequent romantic intimacy problems were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 160 ethnically diverse youth with confirmed CSA histories. Participants were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery, when they were 8-15 years of age, and again 1-6 years later. Stigmatization…

Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A.; Cleland, Charles M.

2009-01-01

118

The development of sexuality and eroticism in humankind.  

PubMed

Sexuality includes eroticism. Though its determinants are multivariate and developmentally sequential, most current biological theories arbitrarily exclude social determinants, and vice versa. Developmentally, masculinization is not necessarily synonymous with defeminization, nor feminization with demasculinization. In the development of brain and behavior, behavior that appears to be either male or female may actually be sex-shared but sex-different in the threshold for its expression. Parent-child bonding is a precursor of subsequent erotosexual pair-bonding. Suppression of erotosexual rehearsal play in childhood is a precursor of postpubertal and adult erotosexual pathology. The criterion defining the heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexual conditions is the sex of the partner with whom a limerent (falling-in-love) pairbond is possible; and there is no evidence that pubertal sex steroids, per se, are responsible for which of the three it will be. The phases of an erotosexual encounter are proception, acception, and conception. The disorders of proception, manifested in both imagery and practice, are the paraphilic syndromes (formerly known as perversions). The disorders of acception may be either hypophilic deficiencies, or hyperphilic increases. The disorders of conception are those of infertility. There is a nonsystematic relationship of erotosexualism to the hormonal cycle of the menses and to gerontological hormonal changes. PMID:7031748

Money, J

1981-12-01

119

Effects of endocrine disrupters on sexual, gonadal development in fish.  

PubMed

Steroid sex hormones play an important role in the sexual differentiation of fish. Thus, it is not surprising that chemical contaminants with steroid-like activities were considered as responsible for the unusual occurrence of gonadal intersex conditions and other gonadal aberrations in feral fish. In this review, we give an overview about field data and summarise and categorise experimental evidence that links disruption of gonadal development in gonochoristic fish to contaminations by endocrine disrupting chemicals. A comprehensive overview on laboratory studies using water-borne exposures and histopathological analysis is given. Parameters ranging from simple quantitative characteristics such as sex ratio, number of sex reversed fish, and gonadosomatic index (GSI) to detailed morphometric analyses have been considered. Categorisation of the data indicates 2 major groups of chemicals with apparently conserved effects across species, i.e. estrogenic/anti-androgenic or androgenic/anti-estrogenic compounds. Since gross morphological parameters and histological analysis are often the first parameters measured in field campaigns for sampling of feral fish, the review supports the critical evaluation of present and future field studies and the confirmation or rejection of causative links to exposure with endocrine disrupting chemicals. Furthermore, in combination with the analysis of molecular endpoints the processed data will be useful to deduce mechanistic information on potential endocrine disrupting compounds. PMID:19684458

Scholz, S; Klüver, N

2009-08-10

120

Reduced Treatment-Emergent Sexual Dysfunction as a Potential Target in the Development of New Antidepressants  

PubMed Central

Pleasurable sexual activity is an essential component of many human relationships, providing a sense of physical, psychological, and social well-being. Epidemiological and clinical studies show that depressive symptoms and depressive illness are associated with impairments in sexual function and satisfaction, both in untreated and treated patients. The findings of randomized placebo-controlled trials demonstrate that most of the currently available antidepressant drugs are associated with the development or worsening of sexual dysfunction, in a substantial proportion of patients. Sexual difficulties during antidepressant treatment often resolve as depression lifts but can endure over long periods and may reduce self-esteem and affect mood and relationships adversely. Sexual dysfunction during antidepressant treatment is typically associated with many possible causes, but the risk and type of dysfunction vary with differing compounds and should be considered when making decisions about the relative merits and drawbacks of differing antidepressants. A range of interventions can be considered when managing patients with sexual dysfunction associated with antidepressants, including the prescription of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, but none of these approaches can be considered “ideal.” As treatment-emergent sexual dysfunction is less frequent with certain drugs, presumably related to differences in their pharmacological properties, and because current management approaches are less than ideal, a reduced burden of treatment-emergent sexual dysfunction represents a tolerability target in the development of novel antidepressants.

Baldwin, David S.; Palazzo, M. Carlotta; Masdrakis, Vasilios G.

2013-01-01

121

Sexual and Ethnic Identity Development among Gay/Bisexual/Questioning (GBQ) Male Ethnic Minority Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Identity development is a critical task of adolescence and occurs across multiple areas of self identification. Though research on the identity development process among individuals who are ethnic and sexual minorities has been conducted for individuals who have one minority status or the other, few studies have examined these processes in persons who are both ethnic and sexual minorities. This qualitative study examined the dual identity development processes related to ethnic and sexual identity among gay/bisexual/questioning (GBQ) Latino and African American male adolescents. Results indicated that the processes associated with the development of sexual orientation and ethnic identity occur concurrently. However, the actual processes involved with the development of each identity not only differed, but seemed to be independent of each other since neither process was referenced in the development of the other. Overall, the process of ethnic identity development involved the process of becoming aware of one’s ethnic and cultural heritage, while sexual identity development involved finding one’s own personally relevant sexual orientation label and connecting to that community. The implications of these findings for the development of interventions to assist in the healthy development of GBQ adolescents are discussed.

Jamil, Omar B.; Harper, Gary W.; Fernandez, M. Isabel

2010-01-01

122

Attenuation of cortisol across development for victims of sexual abuse  

PubMed Central

Inconsistencies exist in literature examining hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity in children and adults who have experienced childhood abuse. Hence, the extent and manner to which childhood abuse may disrupt HPA axis development is largely unknown. To address these inconsistencies, the developmental course of nonstress cortisol in a long-term longitudinal study was assessed at six time points from childhood through adolescence and into young adulthood to determine whether childhood abuse results in disrupted cortisol activity. Nonstress, morning cortisol was measured in 84 females with confirmed familial sexual abuse and 89 nonabused, comparison females. Although dynamically controlling for co-occurring depression and anxiety, hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) showed that relative to comparison females, the linear trend for abused females was significantly less steep when cortisol was examined across development from age 6 to age 30, t (1, 180)= ?22.55, p < .01, indicating attenuation in cortisol activity starting in adolescence with significantly lower levels of cortisol by early adulthood, F (1, 162) =4.78, p < .01. As a more direct test of the attenuation hypothesis, supplemental HLM analyses of data arrayed by time since the disclosure of abuse indicated that cortisol activity was initially significantly higher, t (1, 425) = 2.18, p < .05, and slopes were significantly less steep t (1, 205) = ?22.66, p < .01, for abused females. These findings demonstrate how the experience of childhood abuse might disrupt the neurobiology of stress, providing some support for the attenuation hypothesis that victims of abuse may experience cortisol hyposecretion subsequent to a period of heightened secretion.

TRICKETT, PENELOPE K.; NOLL, JENNIE G.; SUSMAN, ELIZABETH J.; SHENK, CHAD E.; PUTNAM, FRANK W.

2011-01-01

123

Temperature-driven proliferation of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae in bryozoan hosts portends salmonid declines.  

PubMed

Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) is an emerging disease of salmonid fishes. It is provoked by temperature and caused by infective spores of the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, which develops in freshwater bryozoans. We investigated the link between PKD and temperature by determining whether temperature influences the proliferation of T. bryosalmonae in the bryozoan host Fredericella sultana. Herein we show that increased temperatures drive the proliferation of T. bryosalmonae in bryozoans by provoking, accelerating and prolonging the production of infective spores from cryptic stages. Based on these results we predict that PKD outbreaks will increase further in magnitude and severity in wild and farmed salmonids as a result of climate-driven enhanced proliferation in invertebrate hosts, and urge for early implementation of management strategies to reduce future salmonid declines. PMID:16903234

Tops, S; Lockwood, W; Okamura, B

2006-06-23

124

Anticipation of the sexual and gender development of children adopted by same-sex couples.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to characterize beliefs surrounding the sexual and gender development of children adopted by lesbian and gay couples. Participants were 768 Portuguese university students. Using a quasiexperimental design, participants were presented with identical descriptions of a couple interested in adopting a child, manipulating couple sexual orientation and child gender. Participants were then asked to anticipate three aspects of the sexual and gender development of the adopted child: sexual orientation, gender role behavior, and gender identity. MANOVAs and follow-up ANOVAs were conducted in order to analyze the data. Results indicated that participants, particularly males, considered children adopted by either lesbian or gay couples to have a lower probability of developing a normative sexual and gender identity than children adopted by heterosexual couples. Both men and women considered that children would emulate the sexual orientation of their same-sex parents, and that a boy's gender role behavior was more at risk if he was adopted by a lesbian couple. Moreover, men were apprehensive about the gender role behavior of a boy adopted by a gay male couple. Overall, these results indicate persistence of biased evaluations of the sexual and gender development of children adopted by lesbian and gay parents. Furthermore, both gender of the participant and gender of the child play an important role in these evaluations. Results are discussed and interpreted as a way of "doing gender" in the context of hegemonic masculinity. PMID:23837556

Gato, Jorge; Fontaine, Anne Marie

2012-04-24

125

The development of reproductive strategy in females: early maternal harshness --> earlier menarche --> increased sexual risk taking.  

PubMed

To test a proposition central to J. Belsky, L. Steinberg, and P. Draper's (1991) evolutionary theory of socialization-that pubertal maturation plays a role in linking early rearing experience with adolescent sexual risk taking (i.e., frequency of sexual behavior) and, perhaps, other risk taking (e.g., alcohol, drugs, delinquency)-the authors subjected longitudinal data on 433 White, 62 Black, and 31 Hispanic females to path analysis. Results showed (a) that greater maternal harshness at 54 months predicted earlier age of menarche; (b) that earlier age of menarche predicted greater sexual (but not other) risk taking; and (c) that maternal harshness exerted a significant indirect effect, via earlier menarche, on sexual risk taking (i.e., greater harshness --> earlier menarche --> greater sexual risk taking) but only a direct effect on other risk taking. Results are discussed in terms of evolutionary perspectives on human development and reproductive strategy, and future directions for research are outlined. PMID:20053011

Belsky, Jay; Steinberg, Laurence; Houts, Renate M; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L

2010-01-01

126

Empowering or oppressing? Development and exploration of the Enjoyment of Sexualization Scale.  

PubMed

Sexualization of girls and women in America is rampant and has many negative consequences. Women, however, often report enjoying being sexually admired by men. Given this paradox, it is unclear whether such enjoyment represents an authentic empowerment of women's sexuality or is related to traditional feminine norms and sexist beliefs. In Studies 1 and 2, the authors developed and tested the eight-item Enjoyment of Sexualization Scale (ESS). It had good reliability and was differentiated from related constructs including body surveillance, body shame, self-sexualizing behaviors, and appearance-contingent self-esteem. In Study 3, endorsement of traditional gender norms, endorsement of benevolent sexism, and endorsement of hostile sexism were all positively related to the ESS. Moreover, women who both enjoyed sexualization and engaged in self-objectification reported more negative eating attitudes. Overall, there was little support for positive effects of enjoying sexualization. The extent to which enjoying sexualization actually empowers women or contributes to their oppression is discussed. PMID:20947776

Liss, Miriam; Erchull, Mindy J; Ramsey, Laura R

2010-10-14

127

Predicting Salmonid Habitat–Flow Relationships for Streams from Western North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most widely applied methodologies for developing instream flow recommendations is the instream flow incremental methodology (IFIM) and its component microhabitat model, physical habitat simulation (PHABSIM). In this paper we reviewed over 1,500 habitat–flow curves obtained from 127 PHABSIM studies from western North America to develop predictions for flow needs for salmonids in this region and to test

Todd Hatfield; James Bruce

2000-01-01

128

COMPARATIVE MAPS OF SALMONID GENOMES: AN UPDATE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The construction of detailed comparative maps for salmonid fishes is an important goal that will help transfer genetic information between species, study chromosome evolution, and compare the genetic architecture of complex traits across taxa. In this poster, we report on consolidating comparative m...

129

Counting the Costs of Farmed Salmonids Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the assumptions and calculations underlying best estimates of the direct and indirect costs of three salmonid diseases in the United Kingdom: infectious salmon anaemia (ISA), viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS), and infectious haemorrhagic necrosis (IHN) using a standardized spreadsheet-based model. The data input for the model was derived from the literature and from a small survey specifically conducted

A. Fofana; C. Baulcomb

2012-01-01

130

A Social-Ecological Perspective on Vulnerable Youth: Toward an Understanding of Sexual Development Among Urban African American Adolescents  

PubMed Central

The authors employ a social-ecological framework to aid our understanding of the complex array of factors in the immediate and broader environment that influence adolescent sexual development. Further, sexual development is viewed as normative and critical to positive growth. The authors provide an overview of the Two-Cities Study, a multi-stage qualitative investigation that aims to contribute to an understanding of sexual development and to illuminate gender differences in sexuality. The current studies focus on urban African American youth living in low-income neighborhoods, offering new data on sexual development among these youth.

Catania, Joseph A.; Dolcini, M. Margaret

2012-01-01

131

A Social-Ecological Perspective on Vulnerable Youth: Toward an Understanding of Sexual Development Among Urban African American Adolescents.  

PubMed

The authors employ a social-ecological framework to aid our understanding of the complex array of factors in the immediate and broader environment that influence adolescent sexual development. Further, sexual development is viewed as normative and critical to positive growth. The authors provide an overview of the Two-Cities Study, a multi-stage qualitative investigation that aims to contribute to an understanding of sexual development and to illuminate gender differences in sexuality. The current studies focus on urban African American youth living in low-income neighborhoods, offering new data on sexual development among these youth. PMID:22523480

Catania, Joseph A; Dolcini, M Margaret

2012-03-01

132

Enhanced Testicular Development and Fertilizing Capacity of Boars Following Sexual Stimulation at Different Ages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Umesiobi, D.O. 2010. Enhanced testicular development and fertilizing capacity of boars following sexual stimulation at different ages. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 37: 105–108.Thirty six Large White boars were used to determine whether testicular development and fertilizing capacity of boars could be evaluated by sexual stimulation tests. Twelve boars were assigned to each of the three treatment groups involving 0, 5

D. O. Umesiobi

2010-01-01

133

Context-dependent sexual advertisement: plasticity in development of sexual ornamentation throughout the lifetime of a passerine bird  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male investment into sexual ornamentation is a reproductive decision that depends on the context of breeding and life history state. In turn, selection for state- and context-specific expression of sexual ornamentation should favour the evolution of developmental pathways that enable the flexible allocation of resources into sexual ornamentation. We studied lifelong variation in the expression and condition-dependence of a sexual

A. V. Badyaev; R. A. Duckworth

2003-01-01

134

Structure, Agency, and Sexual Development of Latino Gay Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a high prevalence of childhood sexual abuse and HIV among Latino gay men, with limited proven HIV prevention interventions. This study used qualitative methods to explicate earlier findings showing differential health outcomes among Latino gay men who had no sex, voluntary, or forced sex before age 16. Analyses of in-depth interviews with 27 Latino gay men revealed that

Sonya G. Arreola; George Ayala; Rafael M. Díaz; Alex H. Kral

2012-01-01

135

Sexual development in the industrial workhorse Trichoderma reesei.  

PubMed

Filamentous fungi are indispensable biotechnological tools for the production of organic chemicals, enzymes, and antibiotics. Most of the strains used for industrial applications have been--and still are--screened and improved by classical mutagenesis. Sexual crossing approaches would yield considerable advantages for research and industrial strain improvement, but interestingly, industrially applied filamentous fungal species have so far been considered to be largely asexual. This is also true for the ascomycete Trichoderma reesei (anamorph of Hypocrea jecorina), which is used for production of cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes. In this study, we report that T. reesei QM6a has a MAT1-2 mating type locus, and the identification of its respective mating type counterpart, MAT1-1, in natural isolates of H. jecorina, thus proving that this is a heterothallic species. After being considered asexual since its discovery more than 50 years ago, we were now able to induce sexual reproduction of T. reesei QM6a and obtained fertilized stromata and mature ascospores. This sexual crossing approach therefore opens up perspectives for biotechnologically important fungi. Our findings provide a tool for fast and efficient industrial strain improvement in T. reesei, thus boosting research toward economically feasible biofuel production. In addition, knowledge of MAT-loci and sexual crossing techniques will facilitate research with other Trichoderma spp. relevant for agriculture and human health. PMID:19667182

Seidl, Verena; Seibel, Christian; Kubicek, Christian P; Schmoll, Monika

2009-08-10

136

Sexual development in Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) grown in aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

the russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) has been introduced into aquaculture in recent years, following the decline of natural populations and the resultant increases in the price of caviar. in nature, males and females of this species mature sexually after 8 to 13 and 10 to 16 years, respectively. Fertilized russian sturgeon eggs were bred up to 7 years of age

Avshalom Hurvitz; Berta Lev

2008-01-01

137

Sexual development in the industrial workhorse Trichoderma reesei  

PubMed Central

Filamentous fungi are indispensable biotechnological tools for the production of organic chemicals, enzymes, and antibiotics. Most of the strains used for industrial applications have been—and still are—screened and improved by classical mutagenesis. Sexual crossing approaches would yield considerable advantages for research and industrial strain improvement, but interestingly, industrially applied filamentous fungal species have so far been considered to be largely asexual. This is also true for the ascomycete Trichoderma reesei (anamorph of Hypocrea jecorina), which is used for production of cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes. In this study, we report that T. reesei QM6a has a MAT1-2 mating type locus, and the identification of its respective mating type counterpart, MAT1-1, in natural isolates of H. jecorina, thus proving that this is a heterothallic species. After being considered asexual since its discovery more than 50 years ago, we were now able to induce sexual reproduction of T. reesei QM6a and obtained fertilized stromata and mature ascospores. This sexual crossing approach therefore opens up perspectives for biotechnologically important fungi. Our findings provide a tool for fast and efficient industrial strain improvement in T. reesei, thus boosting research toward economically feasible biofuel production. In addition, knowledge of MAT-loci and sexual crossing techniques will facilitate research with other Trichoderma spp. relevant for agriculture and human health.

Seidl, Verena; Seibel, Christian; Kubicek, Christian P.; Schmoll, Monika

2009-01-01

138

Sexually Transmitted Diseases Among Adolescents in Developed Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are responsible for a variety of health problems, and can have especially serious consequences for adolescents and young adults. An interna- tional comparison of levels and trends in STDs would be useful to identify countries that are rel- atively successful in controlling the incidence of STDs, as a first step toward improving policies and programs

Christine Panchaud; Susheela Singh; Dina Feivelson; Jacqueline E. Darroch

139

Effects of Endocrine Disrupters on Sexual, Gonadal Development in Fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steroid sex hormones play an important role in the sexual differentiation of fish. Thus, it is not surprising that chemical contaminants with steroid-like activities were considered as responsible for the unusual occurrence of gonadal intersex conditions and other gonadal aberrations in feral fish. In this review, we give an overview about field data and summarise and categorise experimental evidence that

S. Scholz; N. Klüver

2009-01-01

140

What Young People Want From a Sexual Health Website: Design and Development of Sexunzipped  

PubMed Central

Background Sexual health education in the United Kingdom is of variable quality, typically focusing on the biological aspects of sex rather than on communication, relationships, and sexual pleasure. The Internet offers a unique opportunity to provide sexual health education to young people, since they can be difficult to engage but frequently use the Internet as a health information resource. Objectives To explore through qualitative research young people’s views on what elements of a sexual health website would be appealing and engaging, and their views on the content, design, and interactive features of the Sexunzipped intervention website. Methods We recruited 67 young people aged 16–22 years in London, UK. We held 21 focus groups and 6 one-to-one interviews to establish sexual health priorities, views on website look and feel, and what features of a sexual heath website would attract and engage them. Two researchers facilitated the focus groups, using a semistructured topic guide to lead the discussions and asking open questions to elicit a range of views. The discussions and interviews were audio recorded and detailed notes were made on key topics from the audio recording. Young people’s views influenced design templates for the content and interactive features of Sexunzipped. Results Young people particularly wanted straightforward information on sexual pleasure, sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy, how to communicate with partners, how to develop skills in giving pleasure, and emotions involved in sex and relationships. Focus group participants wanted social interaction with other young people online and wanted to see themselves reflected in some way such as through images or videos. Conclusions While it is challenging to meet all of young people’s technological and design requirements, consultation with the target audience is valuable and necessary in developing an online sexual health intervention. Young people are willing to talk about sensitive issues, enjoy the discussions, and can offer key insights that influence intervention development.

Carswell, Kenneth; Murray, Elizabeth; Free, Caroline; Stevenson, Fiona; Bailey, Julia V

2012-01-01

141

Retrospective Recall of Sexual Orientation Identity Development Among Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Adults  

PubMed Central

Although recent attention has focused on the likelihood that contemporary sexual minority youth (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual [GLB]) are “coming out” at younger ages, few studies have examined if early sexual orientation identity development is also present in older GLB cohorts. We analyze retrospective data on the timing of sexual orientation milestones in a sample of sexual minorities drawn from the California Quality of Life Surveys. Latent profile analysis of 1,260 GLB adults, ages 18-84 years identified three trajectories of development: Early (n = 951, milestones spanning ages 12 to 20), Middle (n = 239, milestones spanning ages 18 to 31), and Late (n = 70, milestones spanning ages 32 to 43). Motivated by previous research on variability in adolescent developmental trajectories, post-hoc analyses of the Early Profile group identified two sub-groups: Child-Onset (n = 284, milestones spanning ages 8 to 18), and Teen-Onset (n = 667, milestones spanning ages 14 to 22). Nearly all patterns of development were identity-centered, with average age of self-identification as GLB preceding average age of first same-sex sexual activity. Overall, younger participants and the majority of older participants were classified to the Early Profile, suggesting that early development is common regardless of age cohort. The additional gender differences observed in the onset and pace of sexual orientation identity development warrant future research.

Calzo, Jerel P.; Antonucci, Toni C.; Mays, Vickie M.; Cochran, Susan D.

2011-01-01

142

Expanding our Reach: The Potential for Youth Development Professionals in Community-Based Organizations to Provide Sexuality Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescents in the United States continue to face sexual health issues. While community-based organizations (CBOs) have a long history of addressing the sexual health needs of those they serve, little attention has been given to CBOs focused on adolescent populations and the role youth development professionals (YDPs) might play in the advancement of sexual health.The purpose of this study was

Christopher M. Fisher; Michael Reece; Brian Dodge; Eric Wright; Catherine Sherwood-Laughlin; Kathleen Baldwin

2010-01-01

143

PROCESSES LEADING SELF-IDENTIFIED HETEROSEXUALS TO DEVELOP INTO SEXUAL MINORITY SOCIAL JUSTICE ALLIES: A QUALITATIVE EXPLORATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of homonegativity on both sexual minorities and heterosexuals is profoundly debilitating. Due to the implicit power of their privileged status, heterosexually-identified individuals can serve a crucial role as allies in eliminating sexual minority oppression. Because minimal research exists around heterosexual identity issues, broadly, and sexual minority ally development, specifically, it is difficult to promote such ally work without

Julie Marie Duhigg

2007-01-01

144

The Adolescent Sexual Development of African American Gay Men with AIDS: Implications for Community-Based Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study describes the adolescent sexual development of ten African American gay men living with AIDS. The informants retrospectively describe the challenges of being a gay adolescent in a mostly heterosexist and homophobic environment. They report unsupportive homophobic and heterosexist family members, community members and school officials. They also describe their burgeoning sexual orientation, sexual initiation as well as

Robert L. Miller Jr

2008-01-01

145

Perceived “Out of Control” Sexual Behavior in a Cohort of Young Adults from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Out of control sexual behavior, also known as compulsive sexual behavior or sexual addiction, has not been studied in a representative\\u000a sample of the general population. At age 32 years, 940 (93%) of 1,015 members of the birth cohort of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary\\u000a Health and Development Study responded to a series of questions about sexual behavior, administered by computer. We enquired

Keren Skegg; Shyamala Nada-Raja; Nigel Dickson; Charlotte Paul

2010-01-01

146

Perceptions of childhood sexual abuse survivors: development and initial validation of a new scale to measure stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse.  

PubMed

The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale was developed to assess stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Scale items were derived from two studies that elicited cultural and personal beliefs about, and emotions experienced towards adult childhood sexual abuse survivors among university undergraduates. Two scales, Emotions and Characteristics, were developed and administered online to 182 participants. Exploratory factor analysis produced 7 factors, 4 for the Emotions Scale and 3 for the Characteristics Scale. Study 2 replicated this factor structure using confirmatory factor analysis (N?=?457). Reliability and validity analyses suggest that the Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale has satisfactory psychometric properties. The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale can be used to examine stereotypes of legal and health care professionals likely to work with survivors as well as in stereotyping research. PMID:23590355

Zafar, Sadia; Ross, Erin C

2013-01-01

147

Development, reliability, and validity of the Measure of Sexual Identity Exploration and Commitment (MOSIEC).  

PubMed

Four studies were conducted on the development and validation of the Measure of Sexual Identity Exploration and Commitment (MoSIEC). Exploratory factor analysis of an initial item pool yielded a 22-item measure with 4 distinct factors assessing commitment, exploration, sexual orientation identity uncertainty, and synthesis/integration. Exploratory factor analysis findings support the argument that sexual identity is a broad, multidimensional construct and that the MoSIEC assesses the construct of sexual identity in a manner consistent with J. E. Marcia's (1966) model of identity development. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated the stability of the MoSIEC factor structure, providing evidence of construct validity. Test-retest stability, internal consistency, and validity coefficients supported the use and continued development of the MoSIEC. Significant differences in levels of exploration and sexual orientation identity uncertainty were found among different sexual orientation identity groups, establishing the criterion-related validity of the MoSIEC. Implications for further development and use of the MoSIEC are discussed. PMID:18194002

Worthington, Roger L; Navarro, Rachel L; Savoy, Holly Bielstein; Hampton, Dustin

2008-01-01

148

Microscopic studies of the link between salmonid proliferative kidney disease (PKD) & bryozoans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proliferative kidney disease is a significant financial burden to freshwater salmonid culture in the UK. This paper describes studies of the development of the causative agent, Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae and another related malacosporean parasite within their invertebrate freshwater bryozoan hosts and discusses possible control methods. Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) is an economically important parasitic condition which costs the UK trout industry

Charles McGurk; David J. Morris; Alexandra Adams

149

Incorporating Geomorphological and Biological Processes Into Recovery Planning Strategies for Listed Salmonids in the Pacific Northwest  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of species of Pacific salmonids are listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act due to a combination of habitat loss and degradation, hatchery programs, and harvest practices. Efforts are underway throughout the geographic ranges of the listed salmon to develop recovery plans describing the necessary conditions for delisting. Habitat restoration strategies in some watershed recovery plans address the

M. Ruckelshaus; T. Beechie; K. Lagueux; A. Haas

2005-01-01

150

Effect of the Gene doublesex of Anastrepha on the Somatic Sexual Development of Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The gene doublesex (dsx) is at the bottom of the sex determination genetic cascade and is transcribed in both sexes, but gives rise to two different proteins, DsxF and DsxM, which impose female and male sexual development respectively via the sex-specific regulation of the so-called sexual cyto-differentiation genes. The present manuscript addressed the question about the functional conservation of

Mercedes Alvarez; María Fernanda Ruiz; Lucas Sánchez; Vincent Laudet

2009-01-01

151

Salmon lice--impact on wild salmonids and salmon aquaculture.  

PubMed

Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, are naturally occurring parasites of salmon in sea water. Intensive salmon farming provides better conditions for parasite growth and transmission compared with natural conditions, creating problems for both the salmon farming industry and, under certain conditions, wild salmonids. Salmon lice originating from farms negatively impact wild stocks of salmonids, although the extent of the impact is a matter of debate. Estimates from Ireland and Norway indicate an odds ratio of 1.1:1-1.2:1 for sea lice treated Atlantic salmon smolt to survive sea migration compared to untreated smolts. This is considered to have a moderate population regulatory effect. The development of resistance against drugs most commonly used to treat salmon lice is a serious concern for both wild and farmed fish. Several large initiatives have been taken to encourage the development of new strategies, such as vaccines and novel drugs, for the treatment or removal of salmon lice from farmed fish. The newly sequenced salmon louse genome will be an important tool in this work. The use of cleaner fish has emerged as a robust method for controlling salmon lice, and aquaculture production of wrasse is important towards this aim. Salmon lice have large economic consequences for the salmon industry, both as direct costs for the prevention and treatment, but also indirectly through negative public opinion. PMID:23311858

Torrissen, O; Jones, S; Asche, F; Guttormsen, A; Skilbrei, O T; Nilsen, F; Horsberg, T E; Jackson, D

2013-01-13

152

Salmon lice - impact on wild salmonids and salmon aquaculture  

PubMed Central

Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, are naturally occurring parasites of salmon in sea water. Intensive salmon farming provides better conditions for parasite growth and transmission compared with natural conditions, creating problems for both the salmon farming industry and, under certain conditions, wild salmonids. Salmon lice originating from farms negatively impact wild stocks of salmonids, although the extent of the impact is a matter of debate. Estimates from Ireland and Norway indicate an odds ratio of 1.1:1-1.2:1 for sea lice treated Atlantic salmon smolt to survive sea migration compared to untreated smolts. This is considered to have a moderate population regulatory effect. The development of resistance against drugs most commonly used to treat salmon lice is a serious concern for both wild and farmed fish. Several large initiatives have been taken to encourage the development of new strategies, such as vaccines and novel drugs, for the treatment or removal of salmon lice from farmed fish. The newly sequenced salmon louse genome will be an important tool in this work. The use of cleaner fish has emerged as a robust method for controlling salmon lice, and aquaculture production of wrasse is important towards this aim. Salmon lice have large economic consequences for the salmon industry, both as direct costs for the prevention and treatment, but also indirectly through negative public opinion.

Torrissen, O; Jones, S; Asche, F; Guttormsen, A; Skilbrei, O T; Nilsen, F; Horsberg, T E; Jackson, D

2013-01-01

153

Fish and chips: Various methodologies demonstrate utility of a 16,006-gene salmonid microarray  

PubMed Central

Background We have developed and fabricated a salmonid microarray containing cDNAs representing 16,006 genes. The genes spotted on the array have been stringently selected from Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout expressed sequence tag (EST) databases. The EST databases presently contain over 300,000 sequences from over 175 salmonid cDNA libraries derived from a wide variety of tissues and different developmental stages. In order to evaluate the utility of the microarray, a number of hybridization techniques and screening methods have been developed and tested. Results We have analyzed and evaluated the utility of a microarray containing 16,006 (16K) salmonid cDNAs in a variety of potential experimental settings. We quantified the amount of transcriptome binding that occurred in cross-species, organ complexity and intraspecific variation hybridization studies. We also developed a methodology to rapidly identify and confirm the contents of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library containing Atlantic salmon genomic DNA. Conclusion We validate and demonstrate the usefulness of the 16K microarray over a wide range of teleosts, even for transcriptome targets from species distantly related to salmonids. We show the potential of the use of the microarray in a variety of experimental settings through hybridization studies that examine the binding of targets derived from different organs and tissues. Intraspecific variation in transcriptome expression is evaluated and discussed. Finally, BAC hybridizations are demonstrated as a rapid and accurate means to identify gene content.

von Schalburg, Kristian R; Rise, Matthew L; Cooper, Glenn A; Brown, Gordon D; Gibbs, A Ross; Nelson, Colleen C; Davidson, William S; Koop, Ben F

2005-01-01

154

Old wine in new bottles: reaction norms in salmonid fishes  

PubMed Central

Genetic variability in reaction norms reflects differences in the ability of individuals, populations and ultimately species to respond to environmental change. By increasing our understanding of how genotype × environment interactions influence evolution, studies of genetic variation in phenotypic plasticity serve to refine our capacity to predict how populations will respond to natural and anthropogenic environmental variability, including climate change. Given the extraordinary variability in morphology, behaviour and life history in salmonids, one might anticipate the research milieu on reaction norms in these fishes to be empirically rich and intellectually engaging. Here, I undertake a review of genetic variability in continuous and discontinuous (threshold) norms of reaction in salmonid fishes, as determined primarily (but not exclusively) by common-garden experiments. Although in its infancy from a numerical publication perspective, there is taxonomically broad evidence of genetic differentiation in continuous, threshold and bivariate reaction norms among individuals, families and populations (including inter-population hybrids and backcrosses) for traits as divergent as embryonic development, age and size at maturity, and gene expression. There is compelling inferential evidence that plasticity is heritable and that population differences in reaction norms can reflect adaptive responses, by natural selection, to local environments. As a stimulus for future work, a series of 20 research questions are identified that focus on reaction-norm variability, selection, costs and constraints, demographic and conservation consequences, and genetic markers and correlates of phenotypic plasticity.

Hutchings, J A

2011-01-01

155

The Genome of Salmonid Herpesvirus 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salmonid herpesvirus 1 (SalHV-1) is a pathogen of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Restriction endonuclease mapping, cosmid cloning, DNA hybridization, and targeted DNA sequencing experiments showed that the genome is 174.4 kbp in size, consisting of a long unique region (UL; 133.4 kbp) linked to a short unique region (US; 25.6 kbp) which is flanked by an inverted repeat (RS;

ANDREW J. DAVISON

1998-01-01

156

Teachers' Attitudes toward Reporting Child Sexual Abuse: Problems with Existing Research Leading to New Scale Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper details a systematic literature review identifying problems in extant research relating to teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse and offers a model for new attitude scale development and testing. Scale development comprised a five-phase process grounded in contemporary attitude theories, including (a) developing the…

Walsh, Kerryann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Mathews, Ben; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des

2010-01-01

157

A conserved haplotype controls parallel adaptation in geographically distant salmonid populations  

PubMed Central

Salmonid fishes exhibit extensive local adaptations owing to abundant environmental variation and precise natal homing. This extensive local adaptation makes conservation and restoration of salmonids a challenge. For example, defining unambiguous units of conservation is difficult, and restoration attempts often fail owing to inadequate adaptive matching of translocated populations. A better understanding of the genetic architecture of local adaptation in salmonids could provide valuable information to assist in conserving and restoring natural populations of these important species. Here, we use a combination of laboratory crosses and next-generation sequencing to investigate the genetic architecture of the parallel adaptation of rapid development rate in two geographically and genetically distant populations of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Strikingly, we find that not only is a parallel genetic mechanism used but that a conserved haplotype is responsible for this intriguing adaptation. The repeated use of adaptive genetic variation across distant geographical areas could be a general theme in salmonids and have important implications for conservation and restoration.

MILLER, MICHAEL R; BRUNELLI, JOSEPH P; WHEELER, PAUL A; LIU, SIXIN; REXROAD, CAIRD E; PALTI, YNIV; DOE, CHRIS Q; THORGAARD, GARY H

2012-01-01

158

A conserved haplotype controls parallel adaptation in geographically distant salmonid populations.  

PubMed

Salmonid fishes exhibit extensive local adaptations owing to abundant environmental variation and precise natal homing. This extensive local adaptation makes conservation and restoration of salmonids a challenge. For example, defining unambiguous units of conservation is difficult, and restoration attempts often fail owing to inadequate adaptive matching of translocated populations. A better understanding of the genetic architecture of local adaptation in salmonids could provide valuable information to assist in conserving and restoring natural populations of these important species. Here, we use a combination of laboratory crosses and next-generation sequencing to investigate the genetic architecture of the parallel adaptation of rapid development rate in two geographically and genetically distant populations of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Strikingly, we find that not only is a parallel genetic mechanism used but that a conserved haplotype is responsible for this intriguing adaptation. The repeated use of adaptive genetic variation across distant geographical areas could be a general theme in salmonids and have important implications for conservation and restoration. PMID:21988725

Miller, Michael R; Brunelli, Joseph P; Wheeler, Paul A; Liu, Sixin; Rexroad, Caird E; Palti, Yniv; Doe, Chris Q; Thorgaard, Gary H

2011-10-11

159

Avian Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River: 1998 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The authors initiated a field study in 1997 to assess the impacts of fish-eating colonial waterbirds (i.e., terns, cormorants, and gulls) on the survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River. Here the authors present results from the 1998 breeding season, the second field season of work on this project. The research objectives in 1998 were to: (1) determine the location, size, nesting chronology, nesting success, and population trajectories of breeding colonies of fish-eating birds in the lower Columbia River; (2) determine diet composition of fish-eating birds, including taxonomic composition and energy content of various prey types; (3) estimate forage fish consumption rates, with special emphasis on juvenile salmonids, by breeding adults and their young; (4) determine the relative vulnerability of different groups of juvenile salmonids to bird predation; (5) identify foraging range, foraging strategies, and habitat utilization by piscivorous waterbirds; and (6) test the feasibility of various alternative methods for managing avian predation on juvenile salmonids and develop recommendations to reduce avian predation, if warranted by the results.

Collis, Ken; Adamany, Stephanie; Roby, Daniel D.; Craig, David P.; Lyons, Donald E.

2000-04-01

160

Laboratory selection for an accelerated mosquito sexual development rate  

PubMed Central

Background Separating males and females at the early adult stage did not ensure the virginity of females of Anopheles arabiensis (Dongola laboratory strain), whereas two years earlier this method had been successful. In most mosquito species, newly emerged males and females are not able to mate successfully. For anopheline species, a period of 24 h post-emergence is generally required for the completion of sexual maturation, which in males includes a 180° rotation of the genitalia. In this study, the possibility of an unusually shortened sexual maturity period in the laboratory-reared colony was investigated. Methods The effect of two different sex-separation methods on the virginity of females was tested: females separated as pupae or less than 16 h post-emergence were mated with males subjected to various doses of radiation. T-tests were performed to compare the two sex-separation methods. The rate of genitalia rotation was compared for laboratory-reared and wild males collected as pupae in Dongola, Sudan, and analysed by Z-tests. Spermatheca dissections were performed on females mated with laboratory-reared males to determine their insemination status. Results When the sex-separation was performed when adults were less than 16 h post-emergence, expected sterility was never reached for females mated with radio-sterilized males. Expected sterility was accomplished only when sexes were separated at the pupal stage. Observation of genitalia rotation showed that some males from the laboratory strain Dongola were able to successfully mate only 11 h after emergence and 42% of the males had already completed rotation. A small proportion of the same age females were inseminated. Wild males showed a much slower genitalia rotation rate. At 17 h post-emergence, 96% of the laboratory-reared males had completed genitalia rotation whereas none of the wild males had. Conclusion This colony has been cultured in the laboratory for over one hundred generations, and now has accelerated sexual maturation when compared with the wild strain. This outcome demonstrates the kinds of selection that can be expected during insect colonization and maintenance, particularly when generations are non-overlapping and similar-age males must compete for mates.

2011-01-01

161

Testing for sexually transmitted infections in a population-based sexual health survey: development of an acceptable ethical approach.  

PubMed

Population-based research is enhanced by biological measures, but biological sampling raises complex ethical issues. The third British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) will estimate the population prevalence of five sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, human papillomavirus (HPV), HIV and Mycoplasma genitalium) in a probability sample aged 16-44 years. The present work describes the development of an ethical approach to urine testing for STIs, including the process of reaching consensus on whether to return results. The following issues were considered: (1) testing for some STIs that are treatable and for which appropriate settings to obtain free testing and advice are widely available (Natsal-3 provides all respondents with STI and healthcare access information), (2) limits on test accuracy and timeliness imposed by survey conditions and sample type, (3) testing for some STIs with unknown clinical and public health implications, (4) how a uniform approach is easier to explain and understand, (5) practical difficulties in returning results and cost efficiency, such as enabling wider STI testing by not returning results. The agreed approach, to perform voluntary anonymous testing with specific consent for five STIs without returning results, was approved by stakeholders and a research ethics committee. Overall, this was acceptable to respondents in developmental piloting; 61% (68 of 111) of respondents agreed to provide a sample. The experiences reported here may inform the ethical decision making of researchers, research ethics committees and funders considering population-based biological sampling. PMID:22252417

Field, Nigel; Tanton, Clare; Mercer, Catherine H; Nicholson, Soazig; Soldan, Kate; Beddows, Simon; Ison, Catherine; Johnson, Anne M; Sonnenberg, Pam

2012-01-17

162

Testing for sexually transmitted infections in a population-based sexual health survey: development of an acceptable ethical approach  

PubMed Central

Population-based research is enhanced by biological measures, but biological sampling raises complex ethical issues. The third British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) will estimate the population prevalence of five sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, human papillomavirus (HPV), HIV and Mycoplasma genitalium) in a probability sample aged 16–44?years. The present work describes the development of an ethical approach to urine testing for STIs, including the process of reaching consensus on whether to return results. The following issues were considered: (1) testing for some STIs that are treatable and for which appropriate settings to obtain free testing and advice are widely available (Natsal-3 provides all respondents with STI and healthcare access information), (2) limits on test accuracy and timeliness imposed by survey conditions and sample type, (3) testing for some STIs with unknown clinical and public health implications, (4) how a uniform approach is easier to explain and understand, (5) practical difficulties in returning results and cost efficiency, such as enabling wider STI testing by not returning results. The agreed approach, to perform voluntary anonymous testing with specific consent for five STIs without returning results, was approved by stakeholders and a research ethics committee. Overall, this was acceptable to respondents in developmental piloting; 61% (68 of 111) of respondents agreed to provide a sample. The experiences reported here may inform the ethical decision making of researchers, research ethics committees and funders considering population-based biological sampling.

Tanton, Clare; Mercer, Catherine H; Nicholson, Soazig; Soldan, Kate; Beddows, Simon; Ison, Catherine; Johnson, Anne M; Sonnenberg, Pam

2012-01-01

163

SEXUAL SOCIALIZATION: A CONCEPTUAL REVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a critical review of the concept of sexual socialization. A reformulation of conceptions of sexual socialization identifies five components of the developmental process (development of sex-object preference; development of gender roles; development of a gender identity; acquisition of sexual skills, knowledge, and values; and development of sexual attitudes). Sexual socialization, also referred to as sexualization, is defined

GRAHAM B. SPANIER

1977-01-01

164

A comparative study of pregnant teenagers' parenting attitudes and knowledge of sexuality and child development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was taken to determine pregnant teenagers' knowledge of sexuality and child development and their parenting attitudes relative to comparison groups. The results indicate that the knowledge and attitude base of pregnant teenagers is almost identical to that of never-pregnant teenagers. However, adult mothers scored slightly but significantly higher than the teenagers on a measure of child development knowledge

Mark W. Roosa

1983-01-01

165

Identification of De Novo Copy Number Variants Associated with Human Disorders of Sexual Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disorders of sexual development (DSD), ranging in severity from genital abnormalities to complete sex reversal, are among the most common human birth defects with incidence rates reaching almost 3%. Although causative alterations in key genes controlling gonad development have been identified, the majority of DSD cases remain unexplained. To improve the diagnosis, we screened 116 children born with idiopathic DSD

Mounia Tannour-Louet; Shuo Han; Sean T. Corbett; Jean-Francois Louet; Svetlana Yatsenko; Lindsay Meyers; Chad A. Shaw; Sung-Hae L. Kang; Sau Wai Cheung; Dolores J. Lamb; Syed A. Aziz

2010-01-01

166

Factors protecting against the development of adjustment difficulties in young adults exposed to childhood sexual abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aims of this study were to identify the factors which discriminated young people exposed to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) who developed psychiatric disorder or adjustment difficulties in young adulthood from those young people exposed to CSA who did not develop psychiatric disorder or adjustment difficulties by age 18.Method: Data were gathered on a birth cohort of 1,025 New

Michael T. Lynskey; David M. Fergusson

1997-01-01

167

Sexually transmitted diseases in Ethiopia. Social factors contributing to their spread and implications for developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexually transmitted diseases in developing countries are causing concern to those responsible for their control and eradication. To gain a better understanding of the problems involved in a country struggling with development, the economic and psychosocial factors influencing the spread of STD in Ethiopia have been studied. Increased migration and urbanisation and the changing role of women have led to

D S Plorde

1981-01-01

168

Partner notification for sexually transmitted infections in developing countries: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The feasibility and acceptability of partner notification (PN) for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in developing countries was assessed through a comprehensive literature review, to help identify future intervention needs. METHODS: The Medline, Embase, and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify studies published between January 1995 and December 2007 on STI PN in developing countries. A systematic review of

Nazmul Alam; Eric Chamot; Sten H Vermund; Kim Streatfield; Sibylle Kristensen

2010-01-01

169

Sexual predators, energy development, and conservation in greater Yellowstone.  

PubMed

In the United States, as elsewhere, a growing debate pits national energy policy and homeland security against biological conservation. In rural communities the extraction of fossil fuels is often encouraged because of the employment opportunities it offers, although the concomitant itinerant workforce is often associated with increased wildlife poaching. We explored possible positive and negative factors associated with energy extraction in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), an area known for its national parks, intact biological diversity, and some of the New World's longest terrestrial migrations. Specifically, we asked whether counties with different economies-recreation (ski), agrarian (ranching or farming), and energy extractive (petroleum)-differed in healthcare (gauged by the abundance of hospital beds) and in the frequency of sexual predators. The absolute and relative frequency of registered sex offenders grew approximately two to three times faster in areas reliant on energy extraction. Healthcare among counties did not differ. The strong conflation of community dishevel, as reflected by in-migrant sexual predators, and ecological decay in Greater Yellowstone is consistent with patterns seen in similar systems from Ecuador to northern Canada, where social and environmental disarray exist around energy boomtowns. In our case, that groups (albeit with different aims) mobilized campaigns to help maintain the quality of rural livelihoods by protecting open space is a positive sign that conservation can matter, especially in the face of rampant and poorly executed energy extraction projects. Our findings further suggest that the public and industry need stronger regulatory action to instill greater vigilance when and where social factors and land conversion impact biological systems. PMID:20184654

Berger, Joel; Beckmann, Jon P

2010-02-19

170

Mom, dad, I'm straight: the coming out of gender ideologies in adolescent sexual-identity development.  

PubMed

Little attention has been given to how femininity and masculinity ideologies impact sexual-identity development. Differentiating violations of conventional femininity and masculinity ideologies as part of an overt process of sexual-identity development in sexual-minority adolescents suggested the possibility of a parallel process among heterosexual adolescents. Based on feminist theory and analysis of heterosexual adolescents narratives about relationships, the importance of negotiating femininity and masculinity ideologies as part of sexual-identity development for all adolescents is described. PMID:14710460

Striepe, Meg I; Tolman, Deborah L

2003-12-01

171

Invasion versus isolation: trade-offs in managing native salmonids with barriers to upstream movement.  

PubMed

Conservation biologists often face the trade-off that increasing connectivity in fragmented landscapes to reduce extinction risk of native species can foster invasion by non-native species that enter via the corridors created, which can then increase extinction risk. This dilemma is acute for stream fishes, especially native salmonids, because their populations are frequently relegated to fragments of headwater habitat threatened by invasion from downstream by 3 cosmopolitan non-native salmonids. Managers often block these upstream invasions with movement barriers, but isolation of native salmonids in small headwater streams can increase the threat of local extinction. We propose a conceptual framework to address this worldwide problem that focuses on 4 main questions. First, are populations of conservation value present (considering evolutionary legacies, ecological functions, and socioeconomic benefits as distinct values)? Second, are populations vulnerable to invasion and displacement by non-native salmonids? Third, would these populations be threatened with local extinction if isolated with barriers? And, fourth, how should management be prioritized among multiple populations? We also developed a conceptual model of the joint trade-off of invasion and isolation threats that considers the opportunities for managers to make strategic decisions. We illustrated use of this framework in an analysis of the invasion-isolation trade-off for native cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) in 2 contrasting basins in western North America where invasion and isolation are either present and strong or farther away and apparently weak. These cases demonstrate that decisions to install or remove barriers to conserve native salmonids are often complex and depend on conservation values, environmental context (which influences the threat of invasion and isolation), and additional socioeconomic factors. Explicit analysis with tools such as those we propose can help managers make sound decisions in such complex circumstances. PMID:19210302

Fausch, Kurt D; Rieman, Bruce E; Dunham, Jason B; Young, Michael K; Peterson, Douglas P

2009-02-06

172

Heterospecific exposure affects the development of secondary sexual traits in male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).  

PubMed

In many animal species, social signals can affect the reproductive physiology and behaviour of conspecifics. In a few species that exhibit vocal learning, exposure to conspecific and sometimes heterospecific sounds can also influence their vocal development. Here we show that heterospecific exposure can affect the development of secondary sexual traits of male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). In a first experiment, we trained young males with a passive playback of domesticated canary (Serinus canaria) song. Song playback enhanced the sexual development of the birds: they started to sing during the presentation of a video clip of a female earlier during development and exhibited secondary sexual plumage ornaments faster than males of the control group kept in silence. Two out of five birds exhibited clear evidence of imitation of canary song. In a second experiment, we raised young male finches with young male canaries in pairs until adulthood. Again, the live contact with a heterospecific companion affected the development of plumage ornaments in finches. We also observed some evidences of vocal convergence, both for calls and song. Moreover, young males of both species could recognize the call of their heterospecific companion when adults. These results suggest that heterospecific exposure can affect both the sexual and the vocal development of the zebra finch and can have long lasting effects. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title. PMID:23298888

Gehrold, Andrea; Leitner, Stefan; Laucht, Silke; Derégnaucourt, Sébastien

2013-01-06

173

Intracellular Siderophores Are Essential for Ascomycete Sexual Development in Heterothallic Cochliobolus heterostrophus and Homothallic Gibberella zeae? †  

PubMed Central

Connections between fungal development and secondary metabolism have been reported previously, but as yet, no comprehensive analysis of a family of secondary metabolites and their possible role in fungal development has been reported. In the present study, mutant strains of the heterothallic ascomycete Cochliobolus heterostrophus, each lacking one of 12 genes (NPS1 to NPS12) encoding a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS), were examined for a role in sexual development. One type of strain (?nps2) was defective in ascus/ascospore development in homozygous ?nps2 crosses. Homozygous crosses of the remaining 11 ?nps strains showed wild-type (WT) fertility. Phylogenetic, expression, and biochemical analyses demonstrated that the NRPS encoded by NPS2 is responsible for the biosynthesis of ferricrocin, the intracellular siderophore of C. heterostrophus. Functional conservation of NPS2 in both heterothallic C. heterostrophus and the unrelated homothallic ascomycete Gibberella zeae was demonstrated. G. zeae ?nps2 strains are concomitantly defective in intracellular siderophore (ferricrocin) biosynthesis and sexual development. Exogenous application of iron partially restored fertility to C. heterostrophus and G. zeae ?nps2 strains, demonstrating that abnormal sexual development of ?nps2 strains is at least partly due to their iron deficiency. Exogenous application of the natural siderophore ferricrocin to C. heterostrophus and G. zeae ?nps2 strains restored WT fertility. NPS1, a G. zeae NPS gene that groups phylogenetically with NPS2, does not play a role in sexual development. Overall, these data demonstrate that iron and intracellular siderophores are essential for successful sexual development of the heterothallic ascomycete C. heterostrophus and the homothallic ascomycete G. zeae.

Oide, Shinichi; Krasnoff, Stuart B.; Gibson, Donna M.; Turgeon, B. Gillian

2007-01-01

174

Suzie's Mommy Is Having a Baby: Don't Freak out! Healthy Sexuality Development in Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Is it the teacher's job to assist children in developing a healthy sexual identity in early childhood? A healthy sexual identity is developed over the course of a lifetime through the "process of acquiring information and forming attitudes, beliefs, and values about such important topics as identity, relationships, and intimacy." Teachers may…

Sciaraffa, Mary

2012-01-01

175

The influence of brain abnormalities on psychosocial development, criminal history and paraphilias in sexual murderers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the number and type of brain abnormalities and their influence on psychosocial development, criminal history and paraphilias in sexual murderers. We analyzed psychiatric court reports of 166 sexual murderers and compared a group with notable signs of brain abnormalities (N = 50) with those without any signs (N = 116). Sexual murderers with brain abnormalities suffered more from early behavior problems. They were less likely to cohabitate with the victim at the time of the homicide and had more victims at the age of six years or younger. Psychiatric diagnoses revealed a higher total number of paraphilias: Transvestic fetishism and paraphilias not otherwise specified were more frequent in offenders with brain abnormalities. A binary logistic regression identified five predictors that accounted for 46.8% of the variance explaining the presence of brain abnormalities. Our results suggest the importance of a comprehensive neurological and psychological examination of this special offender group. PMID:16225232

Briken, Peer; Habermann, Niels; Berner, Wolfgang; Hill, Andreas

2005-09-01

176

A Transformative Learning Perspective of Continuing Sexual Identity Development in the Workplace  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This chapter provides a framework to facilitate self-awareness, self-knowledge, diversity training, and cultural awareness and appreciation for all adults, based on understanding the development of sexual identity and workplace issues for LGBTQ adults. (Contains 1 table and 1 figure.)|

King, Kathleen P.; Biro, Susan C.

2006-01-01

177

Childhood sexual abuse and the course of alcohol dependence development: Findings from a female twin sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with increased risk for alcohol dependence (AD), but the extent to which CSA history may impact transitions in the course of AD development remains unclear. The current study examined the role of CSA in initiation of alcohol use and rate of progression from first drink to AD using a sample of 3536 female

Carolyn E. Sartor; Michael T. Lynskey; Kathleen K. Bucholz; Vivia V. McCutcheon; Elliot C. Nelson; Mary Waldron; Andrew C. Heath

2007-01-01

178

Improving the Fit: Adolescents' Needs and Future Programs for Sexual and Reproductive Health in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demand is growing in developing countries for sexual and reproductive health programs for young people. However, little scientifically based evidence exists about which program approaches are most effective in shaping healthy behaviors. Careful evaluation and research must be increased, but meanwhile, planners need guidance as they expand programming. Research indicates that current programs often do not match the needs and

Jane Hughes; Ann P. McCauley

1998-01-01

179

Development of topical microbicides to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women comprise almost 50% of the population of people living with HIV and the majority of these women contracted the virus through sexual transmission in monogamous relationships in the developing world. In these environments, where women are not empowered to protect themselves through the negotiation of condom use, effective means of preventing HIV transmission are urgently needed. In the absence

Robert W. Buckheit Jr.; Karen M. Watson; Kathleen M. Morrow; Anthony S. Ham

2010-01-01

180

Influence of cadmium, copper, and pentachlorophenol on growth and sexual development of Eisenia andrei (Oligochaeta; Annelida)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the existing guidelines for earthworm toxicity testing, mortality is the only test criterion. Mortality is, however, not a very sensitive parameter, and from an ecological point of view growth and reproduction are more important for a proper risk assessment of chemicals in soil. In this study the growth and sexual development of juvenile earthworms were considered as test criteria

C. A. M. Gestel; W. A. Dis; E. M. Dirven-van Breemen; P. M. Sparenburg; R. Baerselman

1991-01-01

181

Early childhood sexual development and sex education: A survey of attitudes of nursery school teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a research study which aimed to investigate preschool teachers' attitudes and beliefs on certain matters of sexual development and sex education in early years. A questionnaire with closed and open questions was answered by 284 experienced nursery school teachers in Greece, working with children 3+ to 5+ years of age. Answers to closed questions were elaborated by

Alexandros Kakavoulis

1998-01-01

182

Sexual Development of the Croaker, Micropogon Undulatus, and Distribution of the Early Stages in Chesapeake Bay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Croakers of varying ages and with approximately an equal distribution of the sexes were studied to determine gonad development. Data gathered indicate that males mature earlier than females. The smallest male to reach sexual maturity was 24 centimeters long, whereas smallest ripe female was 27.5 centimeters long, total length. The ages of these fish, as indicated by scale examinations, were

David H. Wallace

1941-01-01

183

Cell Differentiation during Sexual Development of the Fungus Sordaria macrospora Requires ATP Citrate Lyase Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

During sexual development, mycelial cells from most filamentous fungi differentiate into typical fruiting bodies. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of the Sordaria macrospora developmental mutant per5, which exhibits a sterile phenotype with defects in fruiting body maturation. Cytological investigations revealed that the mutant strain forms only ascus precursors without any mature spores. Using an indexed cosmid library, we

MINOU NOWROUSIAN; SANDRA MASLOFF; STEFANIE POGGELER; ULRICH KUCK; Lehrstuhl fur Allgemeine Botanik

1999-01-01

184

Gay and Bisexual Identity Development Among Female-to-Male Transsexuals in North America: Emergence of a Transgender Sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied a North American sample of female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals sexually attracted to men, aiming to understand their\\u000a identity and sexuality in the context of a culture of transgender empowerment. Sex-reassigned FtM transsexuals, 18 years or\\u000a older and attracted to men, were recruited via an FtM community conference and listserv. Participants (N = 25) responded to open-ended questions about identity development, sexual behavior,

Walter Bockting; Autumn Benner; Eli Coleman

2009-01-01

185

Pilot study in the development of an interactive multimedia learning environment for sexual health interventions: a focus group approach.  

PubMed

In the UK there are high rates of sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies amongst young people. There is limited and contradictory evidence that current sexual health education interventions are effective or that they improve access to appropriate sexual health services. This paper describes the outcome of focus group work with young people that was undertaken to inform the design of an Interactive Multimedia Learning Environment that incorporates message framing, intended for use in sexual health promotion. The focus group work addressed sexual attitudes, behaviour, risk perception, and knowledge of sexual health and sexual health services in Nottingham. The results provided new insights into young peoples' sexual behaviour, and their diversity of knowledge and beliefs. Common themes expressed regarding sexual health services included concerns about confidentiality, lack of confidence to access services and fear of the unknown. The results showed that while the adolescents are reasonably knowledgeable about infection, they do not know as much about the relevant services to treat it. This work emphasizes the need for user involvement throughout the design and development of a sexual health intervention, and will form the basis of the next part of the project. PMID:15972303

Goold, P C; Bustard, S; Ferguson, E; Carlin, E M; Neal, K; Bowman, C A

2005-06-21

186

Individual Differences in Gender Development: Associations with Parental Sexual Orientation, Attitudes, and Division of Labor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on children of lesbian parents has suggested that such children are developing well, but questions have been raised\\u000a about their gender development. In this study, we explored associations among parental sexual orientation, parental gender-related\\u000a attitudes, parental division of labor, and children’s gender development. Participants were 66 preschool children and their\\u000a 132 parents from the East Coast of the United

Megan Fulcher; Erin L. Sutfin; Charlotte J. Patterson

2008-01-01

187

Effect of temperature on pupa development and sexual maturity of laboratory Anastrepha obliqua adults.  

PubMed

The effect of four temperatures (18, 20, 25 and 30°C) on pupa development and sexual maturity of Anastrepha obliqua adults was investigated under laboratory conditions. The results showed that the duration of the pupal stage decreased with an increase in temperature (29, 25, 13 and 12 days, respectively), and maintaining the pupae at 18°C and 20°C results in a low percentage of pupation, pupa weight loss and lesser flying ability. However, it significantly favored sexual behavior, a higher proportion of sexual calls and matings. While enhanced pupa development was observed at a temperature of 30°C, adults had low sexual efficiency, as well as a lower proportion of calls and matings. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of male volatiles showed that the amount of (Z,E)-?-farnesene did not vary among males from pupae reared at different temperatures; however, less (E,E)-?-farnesene was emitted by males obtain from pupa reared at 30°C. Male flies kept at 30°C during their larval stage had more (Z)-3-nonenol and, also, an unknown compound was detected. The fecundity of the females was higher at low temperatures. Regarding fertility, no significant differences were found between temperatures. The optimal temperature on pupa development was 25°C when males displayed ideal attributes for rearing purposes. PMID:21473797

Telles-Romero, R; Toledo, J; Hernández, E; Quintero-Fong, J L; Cruz-López, L

2011-04-08

188

The impact of sexual abuse on female development: Lessons from a multigenerational, longitudinal research study  

PubMed Central

This is a report on the research design and findings of a 23-year longitudinal study of the impact of intrafamilial sexual abuse on female development. The conceptual framework integrated concepts of psychological adjustment with theory regarding how psychobiological factors might impact development. Participants included 6- to 16-year-old females with substantiated sexual abuse and a demographically similar comparison group. A cross-sequential design was used and six assessments have taken place, with participants at median age 11 at the first assessment and median age 25 at the sixth assessment. Mothers of participants took part in the early assessments and offspring took part at the sixth assessment. Results of many analyses, both within circumscribed developmental stages and across development, indicated that sexually abused females (on average) showed deleterious sequelae across a host of biopsychosocial domains including: earlier onsets of puberty, cognitive deficits, depression, dissociative symptoms, maladaptive sexual development, hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal attenuation, asymmetrical stress responses, high rates of obesity, more major illnesses and healthcare utilization, dropping out of high school, persistent psottraumatic stress disorder, self-mutilation, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnoses, physical and sexual revictimization, premature deliveries, teen motherhood, drug and alcohol abuse, and domestic violence. Offspring born to abused mothers were at increased risk for child maltreatment and overall maldevelopment. There was also a pattern of considerable within group variability. Based on this complex network of findings, implications for optimal treatments are elucidated. Translational aspects of extending observational research into clinical practice are discussed in terms that will likely have a sustained impact on several major public health initiatives.

Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.

2013-01-01

189

Predicting Different Patterns of Sexual Identity Development Over Time Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youths: A Cluster Analytic Approach  

PubMed Central

Recent research has suggested that the sexual identity development of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths may not follow a single pattern, but may follow variety of pathways. Although some research documenting variability in identity development exists, unclear are the potential individual and social contexts that predict these different patterns, as well as the contexts that predict changes in identity integration over time. This report longitudinally examined these issues in an ethnically diverse sample of 156 LGB youths (ages 14–21) in New York City. Cluster analytic techniques identified two patterns of sexual identity formation (i.e., early and more recent), and three patterns of sexual identity integration (i.e., high, middling, and low). Gender, age, and sexual abuse were found to predict identity formation, and gay-related stress, social support, negative social relationships, sexual orientation, sexual identity, and gender were found to predict patterns of sexual identity integration and changes in integration over one year. These findings document different patterns of sexual identity development and identify potential contextual barriers and facilitating factors that may be used to develop interventions to promote healthy LGB identity development.

Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce

2011-01-01

190

Puberty and adolescent sexuality.  

PubMed

This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Sexuality emerges as a major developmental element of puberty and the adolescent years that follow. However, connecting the sexuality that emerges with puberty and elements of adult sexuality is difficult because much adolescent sexuality research addresses the transition to partnered sexual behaviors (primarily coitus) and consequences such as unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This review proposes a framework of an expanded understanding of puberty and adolescent sexuality from the perspective of four hallmarks of adult sexuality: sexual desire; sexual arousal; sexual behaviors; and, sexual function. This approach thus addresses important gaps in understanding of the ontogeny of sex and the continuum of sexuality development from adolescence through the adult lifespan. PMID:23998672

Fortenberry, J Dennis

2013-07-01

191

Identity development and exploration among sexual minority adolescents: examination of a multidimensional model.  

PubMed

Based on a multidimensional model of sexual identity development, the current study examined self-labeling, romantic, and sexual experiences among middle and late adolescent sexual minorities. Eighty-two youths between the ages of 14 and 21 were recruited from gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) community centers and associated Internet groups. Differences between males and females and between middle and late adolescents were first examined. Males reported markedly different patterns of self-labeling and romantic experiences, relative to females, but few age differences emerged. Additionally, patterns of association between self-labeling and sexual or romantic experiences provided support for the multidimensional model of identity development and exploration. Finally, significant associations emerged between relationship experiences and relational competency, such that adolescents who described themselves as isolated from intimate interpersonal relationships reported less relational esteem and more relational depression than those who reported predominantly engaging in same-sex romantic relationships. In addition, alternative styles of engaging in interpersonal relationships (e.g., same-sex intimate friendships, heterosexual dating) also were also associated with increased relational competency. PMID:19197644

Glover, Jenna A; Galliher, Renee V; Lamere, Trenton G

2009-01-01

192

Homosexuality via canalized sexual development: a testing protocol for a new epigenetic model.  

PubMed

We recently synthesized and reinterpreted published studies to advance an epigenetic model for the development of homosexuality (HS). The model is based on epigenetic marks laid down in response to the XX vs. XY karyotype in embryonic stem cells. These marks boost sensitivity to testosterone in XY fetuses and lower it in XX fetuses, thereby canalizing sexual development. Our model predicts that a subset of these canalizing epigenetic marks stochastically carry over across generations and lead to mosaicism for sexual development in opposite-sex offspring--the homosexual phenotype being one such outcome. Here, we begin by outlining why HS has been under-appreciated as a commonplace phenomenon in nature, and how this trend is currently being reversed in the field of neurobiology. We next briefly describe our epigenetic model of HS, develop a set of predictions, and describe how epigenetic profiles of human stem cells can provide for a strong test of the model. PMID:23868698

Rice, William R; Friberg, Urban; Gavrilets, Sergey

2013-07-19

193

Development of an educational intervention focused on sexuality for women with gynecological cancer.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to report on the development of an educational intervention that focuses on providing women with gynecological cancer information on sexuality. Intervention development was guided by the Medical Research Council framework for complex intervention development. A phased approach was taken to the design and evaluation of this complex intervention which included (1) an in-depth literature review, (2) selection of a theoretical framework, (3) a qualitative study, (4) development of intervention content and process, and (5) pilot testing of the intervention. The educational intervention consists of an information booklet combined with a verbal education session. Content of the intervention is guided by a conceptual framework of sexuality, whereas the intervention process is guided by andragogical principles and the PLISSIT model. Content validity was established by patient and expert review. PMID:22963182

Cleary, Vicki; McCarthy, Geraldine; Hegarty, Josephine

2012-09-01

194

In ovo exposure to o,p -DDE affects sexual development but not sexual differentiation in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Despite being banned in many countries, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) continue to be found in fish tissues at concentrations of concern. Like o,p -DDT, o,p -DDE is estrogenic and is believed to exert its effects through binding to the estrogen receptor. The limited toxicologic data for o,p -DDE suggest that it decreases fecundity and fertility of fishes. We conducted an egg injection study using the d-rR strain of medaka and environmentally relevant concentrations of o,p -DDE to examine its effects on sexual differentiation and development. The gonads of exposed fish showed no evidence of sex reversal or intersex. However, other gonad abnormalities occurred in exposed individuals. Females exhibited few vitellogenic oocytes and increased atresia. Male testes appeared morphologically normal but were very small. Gonadosomatic index values for both sexes were lower for exposed fish. Our observations of abnormal female and very small male gonads after in ovo o,p -DDE exposure may be indicative of effects on early endocrine processes important for normal ovarian and testicular development.

Papoulias, D. M.; Villalobos, S. A.; Meadows, J.; Noltie, D. B.; Giesy, J. P.; Tillitt, D. E.

2003-01-01

195

In ovo exposure to o,p -DDE affects sexual development but not sexual differentiation in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).  

PubMed

Despite being banned in many countries, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) continue to be found in fish tissues at concentrations of concern. Like o,p -DDT, o,p -DDE is estrogenic and is believed to exert its effects through binding to the estrogen receptor. The limited toxicologic data for o,p -DDE suggest that it decreases fecundity and fertility of fishes. We conducted an egg injection study using the d-rR strain of medaka and environmentally relevant concentrations of o,p -DDE to examine its effects on sexual differentiation and development. The gonads of exposed fish showed no evidence of sex reversal or intersex. However, other gonad abnormalities occurred in exposed individuals. Females exhibited few vitellogenic oocytes and increased atresia. Male testes appeared morphologically normal but were very small. Gonadosomatic index values for both sexes were lower for exposed fish. Our observations of abnormal female and very small male gonads after in ovo o,p -DDE exposure may be indicative of effects on early endocrine processes important for normal ovarian and testicular development. PMID:12515675

Papoulias, Diana M; Villalobos, Sergio A; Meadows, John; Noltie, Douglas B; Giesy, John P; Tillitt, Donald E

2003-01-01

196

Development and Initial Validation of the Perceived Heterosexism Scale and the Preoccupation with Disclosure of Parents’ Sexual Orientation Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we develop and validate scales that capture experiences unique to children raised by gay or lesbian parents. The Perceived Heterosexism Scale (PHS) measures children's perception of their peers’ heterosexist biases towards gay- or lesbian-headed families, and the Preoccupation with Disclosure of Parents’ Sexual Orientation Scale (PDPSOS) measures children's preoccupation with disclosure of parents’ sexual orientation in a

Johanna D. Vyncke; Danielle Julien; Emilie Jodoin; Emilie Jouvin

2011-01-01

197

"You Want Me to Talk to Children about What?" Responding to the Subject of Sexuality Development in Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many people think it is taboo to talk about sex with children. Adults reinforce this belief when, for example, they use substitute words rather than "vagina" or "penis". They may be embarrassed to learn about children's sexual development or ask others for assistance. Although most people in US society are open about sexuality now, the topic of…

Sciaraffa, Mary; Randolph, Theresa

2011-01-01

198

Development of Sexual Dimorphism in Human Urogenital Sinus Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The histological differentiation of the human fetal prostatic urethra and the corresponding part of human fetal female urethra was studied during the 10th through 14th weeks of ovulation age.The development of all the prostatic glands started as epithelial outgrowths from the urethral wall of the urogenital sinus during the time covered in this study. These outgrowths grew rapidly in number

P. Kellokumpu-Lehtinen

1985-01-01

199

Physiological Assessment of Wild and Hatchery Juvenile Salmonids : Final Report, 2003.  

SciTech Connect

It is generally held that hatchery-reared salmonids are of inferior quality and have lower smolt-to-adult survival compared to naturally-reared salmon. The overall objectives of the work performed under this contract were the following: (1) Characterize the physiology and development of naturally rearing juvenile salmonids to: (2) Allow for the design of effective rearing programs for producing wild-like smolts in supplementation and production hatchery programs. (3) Examine the relationship between growth rate and size on the physiology and migratory performance of fish reared in hatchery programs. (4) Examine the interaction of rearing temperature and feed rate on the growth and smoltification of salmon for use in producing a more wild-like smolt in hatchery programs.

Larsen, Donald A.; Beckman, Brian R.; Dickhoff, Walton W.

2003-08-01

200

Juvenile and Resident Salmonid Movement and Passage through Culverts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An outcome of the Washington State Department of Transportation's Juvenile Fish Passage Workshop on September 24, 1997, was agreement that a literature review was necessary to determine the state of knowledge about juvenile salmonid movement and passage t...

T. H. Kahler T. P. Quinn

1998-01-01

201

Evaluating the need for sex education in developing countries: sexual behaviour, knowledge of preventing sexually transmitted infections\\/HIV and unplanned pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young people's need for sex education is evidenced by their typically early initiation of sexual activity, the often involuntary context within which they have sexual intercourse, high?risk sexual behaviours and the inadequate levels of knowledge of means of protecting their sexual health. The earliness of initiation of sexual intercourse has implications for the age by which sexuality education should be

Susheela Singh; Akinrinola Bankole; Vanessa Woog

2005-01-01

202

Gas Bubble Trauma Monitoring and Research of Juvenile Salmonids, 1994-1995 Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes laboratory and field monitoring studies of gas bubble trauma (GBT) in migrating juvenile salmonids in the Snake and Columbia rivers. The first chapter describes laboratory studies of the progression of GBT signs leading to mortality and the use of the signs for GBT assessment. The progression and severity of GBT signs in juvenile salmonids exposed to different levels of total dissolved gas (TDG) and temperatures was assessed and quantified. Next, the prevalence, severity, and individual variation of GBT signs was evaluated to attempt to relate them to mortality. Finally, methods for gill examination in fish exposed to high TDG were developed and evaluated. Primary findings were: (1) no single sign of GBT was clearly correlated with mortality, but many GBT signs progressively worsened; (2) both prevalence and severity of GBT signs in several tissues is necessary; (3) bubbles in the lateral line were the earliest sign of GBT, showed progressive worsening, and had low individual variation but may develop poorly during chronic exposures; (4) fin bubbles had high prevalence, progressively worsened, and may be a persistent sign of GBT; and (5) gill bubbles appear to be the proximate cause of death but may only be relevant at high TDG levels and are difficult to examine. Chapter Two describes monitoring results of juvenile salmonids for signs of GBT. Emigrating fish were collected and examined for bubbles in fins and lateral lines. Preliminary findings were: (1) few fish had signs of GBT, but prevalence and severity appeared to increase as fish migrated downstream; (2) there was no apparent correlation between GBT signs in the fins, lateral line, or gills; (3) prevalence and severity of GBT was suggestive of long-term, non-lethal exposure to relatively low level gas supersaturated water; and (4) it appeared that GBT was not a threat to migrating juvenile salmonids. 24 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

Hans, Karen M.

1997-07-01

203

Polycomb group gene function in sexual and asexual seed development in angiosperms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In sexually reproducing angiosperms, double fertilization initiates seed development, giving rise to two fertilization products,\\u000a the embryo and the endosperm. In the endosperm, a terminal nutritive tissue that supports embryo growth, certain genes are\\u000a expressed differentially depending on their parental origin, and this genomic imbalance is required for proper seed formation.\\u000a This parent-of-origin effect on gene expression, called genomic imprinting,

Julio C. M. Rodrigues; Ming Luo; Frédéric Berger; Anna M. G. Koltunow

2010-01-01

204

Genetic and molecular insights into the development and evolution of sexual dimorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual dimorphism is common throughout the animal kingdom. However, a molecular understanding of how sex-specific traits develop and evolve has been elusive. Recently, substantial progress has been made in elucidating how diverse sex-determination systems are integrated into developmental gene networks. One common theme from these studies is that sex-limited traits and gene expression are produced by the combined action of

Thomas M. Williams; Sean B. Carroll

2009-01-01

205

Sexual development of Guzerat (Bos taurus indicus) bulls raised in a tropical region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-hundred and seven healthy males, 7 to 31 months of age and raised on pasture in a tropical region, were used to evaluate sexual development in the Guzerat breed (Bos taurus indicus). Body weight, body condition, testicular measurements and semen quality were recorded. Semen collection attempts were performed by electro-ejaculation at 3-months intervals, starting at 14 months of age. Thirty-eight

M. Henry

206

A Model Fish System to Test Chemical Effects on Sexual Differentiation and Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model system was characterized which may be used as an in vivo screen for effects of chemicals or environmental mixtures on sexual differentiation and development of reproductive organs and gametes. We evaluated the effects of a model environmental estrogen, ethinyl estradiol (EE2), on the d-rR strain of medaka, Oryzias latipes, using a nano-injection exposure. Gonad histopathology indicated that a

Diana M. Papoulias; Douglas B. Noltie; Donald E. Tillitt

207

Development and characterization of microsatellite markers in the sexual-apomictic complex Taraxacum officinale (dandelion)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellite markers were developed in Taraxacum officinale to study gene flow between sexual and apomictic plants and to identify clones. Twenty five thousand genomic DNA clones were\\u000a hybridized with a (CT)12D probe. The density of (GA\\/CT)\\u000a n\\u000a repeats was estimated at one every 61?kb in the T. officinale genome, which translates to 13?500 repeats per haploid genome. Ninety two percent

M. Falque; J. J. B. Keurentjes; J. M. T. Bakx-Schotman; P. J. van Dijk

1998-01-01

208

Visual method for evaluating the state of sexual development in male grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis).  

PubMed

Stages of sexual development in grey squirrels were classified by scoring the presence of periscrotal hair and staining, as well as the position, size and colour of testes, to develop a visual breeding score (VBS). The VBS was a highly significant predictor of the presence and concentration of epididymal spermatozoa, which were produced from 12 months of age. Two classes of producers were identified: 'high' with spermatozoa levels > 10 x 10(6) mL(-1) and 'low' with spermatozoa levels < 10 x 10(6) mL(-1). Sperm motility was variable across all levels of productive males but was generally higher in the 'high' group, indicating that these were 'functional' males. Sexual regression was observed in two autumn periods. The VBS was less effective in determining states of regression and redevelopment; the confidence of classification improved when age class (adult or prepubertal) and date of capture was known. The use of the VBS to classify stages of sexual development in grey squirrels will improve selection of animals for studies of population biology and fertility control, and has potential application in captive breeding studies of rare Sciuridae species. PMID:16554014

Ferryman, Mark; Mayle, Brenda A; Morgan, Geoff W

2006-01-01

209

Pod1 is involved in the sexual differentiation and gonadal development of the Nile tilapia.  

PubMed

Pod1 is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors that have been implicated in the regulation of sexual differentiation and gonadal development in mammals. However, to date, little is known about the role of Pod1 in nonmammalian vertebrate gonadogenesis. We cloned and characterized the Pod1 gene from tilapia. The tilapia Pod1 gene contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 525 nucleotides which potentially codes for a protein with 174 amino acids. Sequence alignment revealed that the deduced tilapia protein sequence shared high homology (79.5% to 90.5%) with the Pod1 sequences of other vertebrates. The tissue distribution of Pod1 revealed by RT-PCR showed that it had varied expression patterns in adult tilapia. In situ hybridization was performed to examine the temporal and spatial expression patterns of Pod1 during tilapia sexual differentiation and gonadal development. In the undifferentiated gonad, Pod1 was expressed in the somatic cells of both sexes. Subsequently, Pod1 expression in tilapia persisted in differentiated juvenile and adult ovary and testis. Our data indicate for the first time that Pod1 is not only necessary for the onset of sexual differentiation, but also plays an important role in gonadal development in the teleost. PMID:22173306

Li, JianZhong; Liu, ShaoJun; Nagahama, Yoshitaka

2011-12-16

210

[Histological observations of Medaka(Oryzias latipes)gonad sexual differentiation and development].  

PubMed

Over the past few decades, Medaka (Oryzias latipes) has become a model animal in teleost species research due both to its short reproductive cycle and efficient proliferate capacity. Unfortunately, however, systematic data of its sexual differentiation and development have yet to be obtained. In the present study, we observed Medaka gonad development from the earliest recognizable stages through differentiation to maturation under a light microscope, after paraffin sectioning and hematoxylin-eosin staining. The results showed that among juveniles aged 5 to 10 days, the gonad located on the right side of the dorsal abdominal cavity and the germ cells was significantly larger than the surrounding somatic cells. Ten days after hatching, sexual differences between females and males became obvious, and germline cysts derived from oogonium division were present in the gonad. At 50 days after hatching, ovarian cavities and mature sperm were observed. Moreover, during the study we also observed the coexistence of two sexual characteristics during a male's development. Together, these observations fill current gaps in developmental and genetic biology that will allow a more efficient use of Medaka as an experimental model. PMID:24115657

Zhang, Jing; Huang, Jin-Qiang; Li, Ya-Ya; Wang, Na; Sun, Jian; Wang, Tian-Zi; Chen, Song-Lin

2013-10-01

211

Effects of the fungicide prochloraz on the sexual development of zebrafish (Danio rerio).  

PubMed

Some chemicals have the potential to adversely affect sexual development through multiple endocrine actions. Prochloraz is an imidazole fungicide that displays diverse mechanisms of action, including inhibition of aromatase activity, inhibition of androgen synthesis, and antagonism of the androgen receptor. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of prochloraz on the sexual development of zebrafish (Danio rerio) in the Fish Sexual Development Test (FSDT) proposed as an OECD test guideline for detection of endocrine disruptors. Zebrafish were exposed to prochloraz (0, 16, 64 or 202 microg/L) for 60 days from 24 h post fertilization. Fish exposed to 202 microg/L prochloraz showed an increased proportion of males. Furthermore, the incidence of intersex and the stages of the gonads were altered in the treated fish compared to the control fish. A significant vitellogenin decrease was observed in both female and male zebrafish at an exposure concentration of 202 microg/L prochloraz. However, in the male fish, significantly increased vitellogenin concentrations were observed in the groups exposed to 16 or 64 microg/L prochloraz. This study serves as a part of the validation of the FSDT and indicates that the FSDT is suitable in detecting compounds with multiple endocrine actions. This is of importance in the assessment of the potential risk of existing and new chemicals. PMID:17229592

Kinnberg, Karin; Holbech, Henrik; Petersen, Gitte I; Bjerregaard, Poul

2006-11-17

212

Development of an attachment-informed measure of sexual behavior in late adolescence.  

PubMed

There is considerable interest in relations between sexual behavior and romantic attachment styles in adolescence as attachment needs are increasingly met through intimate partners rather than parents. The objectives of this research were to organize a measure of sexual behavior within an attachment theory framework, and then show that this new measure uniquely predicted sexual approach styles and invasive sexual experiences. 190 18- and 19-year-old university students in late adolescence completed sexual behavior items that were provided ambivalent (anxious) and avoidant dimensions. These were systematically related to the romantic attachment dimensions of the Experiences in Close Relationships - Revised. However, even after romantic relationship style, gender, and social desirability were controlled, avoidance in sexual relationships predicted lifetime sexual partner number and negatively predicted positive sexual strategies, and ambivalence in sexual relationships predicted invasive and coercive sexual behaviors. A measure specific to sexual relationships informs the attachment and romantic context of sex in late adolescence. PMID:23414943

Szielasko, Alicia L; Symons, Douglas K; Lisa Price, E

2013-02-12

213

Seasonal Juvenile Salmonid Presence and Migratory Behavior in the Lower Columbia River  

SciTech Connect

To facilitate preparing Biological Assessments of proposed channel maintenance projects, the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers contracted the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to consolidate and synthesize available information about the use of the lower Columbia River and estuary by juvenile anadromous salmonids. The information to be synthesized included existing published documents as well as data from five years (2004-2008) of acoustic telemetry studies conducted in the Columbia River estuary using the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System. For this synthesis, the Columbia River estuary includes the section of the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam at river kilometer (Rkm) 235 downstream to the mouth where it enters the Pacific Ocean. In this report, we summarize the seasonal salmonid presence and migration patterns in the Columbia River estuary based on information from published studies as well as relevant data from acoustic telemetry studies conducted by NOAA Fisheries and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) between 2004 and 2008. Recent acoustic telemetry studies, conducted using the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS; developed by the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers), provided information on the migratory behavior of juvenile steelhead (O. mykiss) and Chinook salmon in the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam to the Pacific Ocean. In this report, Section 2 provides a summary of information from published literature on the seasonal presence and migratory behavior of juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River estuary and plume. Section 3 presents a detailed synthesis of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead migratory behavior based on use of the JSATS between 2004 and 2008. Section 4 provides a discussion of the information summarized in the report as well as information drawn from literature reviews on potential effects of channel maintenance activities to juvenile salmonids rearing in or migrating through the Columbia River estuary and plume.

Carter, Jessica A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Welch, Ian D.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.

2009-04-30

214

Efficacy and safety of an inactivated vaccine against Salmonid alphavirus (family Togaviridae).  

PubMed

Pancreas disease (PD) in salmonid fish is caused by an infection with Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) and remains as one of the major health problems in the European fish farming industry. Sequence studies have revealed a genetic diversity among viral strains. A subtype of SAV (SAV3) is causing an epizootic in farmed salmonids in Norway. Here we evaluate efficacy and safety of an inactivated virus vaccine based on ALV405, a strain of SAV3 that was isolated from Norwegian salmon. The vaccine provided an average relative percent survival (RPS) of 98.5 in an intraperitoneal challenge model, and induced nearly total protection against PD in a cohabitant challenge model. It provided significant protection against SAV-induced mortality also in a field trial under industrial conditions. Local reactions seen as melanization and adhesions in the visceral cavity were less severe than those induced by two commercial vaccines. Finally, we demonstrated that the protection is not impaired when the ALV405 antigen is combined with other viral or bacterial antigens in a polyvalent vaccine. The results confirm that efficient and safe protection against SAV infection and development of PD is possible using an inactivated virus vaccine, both alone and as a component in a polyvalent vaccine. PMID:22691434

Karlsen, Marius; Tingbø, Terje; Solbakk, Inge-Tom; Evensen, Øystein; Furevik, Anette; Aas-Eng, Anne

2012-06-09

215

ATP citrate lyase is required for normal sexual and asexual development in Gibberella zeae.  

PubMed

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) citrate lyase (ACL) is a key enzyme in the production of cytosolic acetyl-CoA, which is crucial for de novo lipid synthesis and histone acetylation in mammalian cells. In this study, we characterized the mechanistic roles of ACL in the homothallic ascomycete fungus Gibberella zeae, which causes Fusarium head blight in major cereal crops. Deletion of ACL in the fungus resulted in a complete loss of self and female fertility as well as a reduction in asexual reproduction, virulence, and trichothecene production. When the wild-type strain was spermatized with the ACL deletion mutants, they produced viable ascospores, however ascospore delimitation was not properly regulated. Although lipid synthesis was not affected by ACL deletion, histone acetylation was dramatically reduced in the ACL deletion mutants during sexual development, suggesting that the defects in sexual reproduction were caused by the reduction in histone acetylation. This study is the first report demonstrating a link between sexual development and ACL-mediated histone acetylation in fungi. PMID:21237280

Son, Hokyoung; Lee, Jungkwan; Park, Ae Ran; Lee, Yin-Won

2011-01-13

216

[Effect of certain aspects of female sexual behavior on the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia].  

PubMed

The paper presents results of investigation of certain parameters of female sexual activity and their effect on the appearance of squamous intraepithelial cervical lesions (SIL). This correlation was investigated in the context of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection, in view of the role attributed to certain types of these viruses in the appearance and development of cervical SIL. Research was done on 1000 patients suffering from low histological grade (LSIL) or high histological grade (HSIL) intraepithelial cervical neoplasms. It transpired that such lesions were most frequent in women in the second, third and fourth decade of life, and that one third of pathological lesions was a function of age. Human Papilloma Virus infection was detected in 65% of patients. The frequency of HPV negative results or presence of non-oncogenic types of viruses (6 and 11) was significantly higher in LSIL type lesions, while the frequency of detection of oncogenous HPV types (16, 18, 31 and 33) was significantly higher in more severe stadiums of the disease. Of the investigated parameters of sexual activity, early onset of such activity and several sexual partners proved to be significant. The number of parturitions and abortions did not appear to be significant risk factors for the onset and development of these diseases. PMID:11337916

Stanimirovi?, B; Anti?, N; Kulji?-Kapulica, N; Vasiljevi?, M; Markovi?, A; Stanimirovi?, V

217

Development of topical microbicides to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV.  

PubMed

Women comprise almost 50% of the population of people living with HIV and the majority of these women contracted the virus through sexual transmission in monogamous relationships in the developing world. In these environments, where women are not empowered to protect themselves through the negotiation of condom use, effective means of preventing HIV transmission are urgently needed. In the absence of an approved and effective vaccine, microbicides have become the strategy of choice to provide women with the ability to prevent HIV transmission from their infected partners. Topical microbicides are agents specifically developed and formulated for use in either the vaginal or rectal environment that prevent infection by sexually transmitted infectious organisms, including pathogenic viruses, bacteria and fungi. Although a microbicidal product will have many of the same properties as other anti-infective agents and would be similarly developed through human clinical trials, microbicide development bears its own challenges related to formulation and delivery and the unique environment in which the product must act, as well as the requirement to develop a product that is acceptable to the user. Herein, perspectives based on preclinical and clinical microbicide development experience, which have led to an evolving microbicide development algorithm, will be discussed. This article forms part of a special issue of Antiviral Research marking the 25th anniversary of anti-retroviral drug discovery and development, Vol 85, issue 1, 2010. PMID:19874851

Buckheit, Robert W; Watson, Karen M; Morrow, Kathleen M; Ham, Anthony S

2009-10-27

218

Problematic Sexual Behaviour in a Secure Psychiatric Setting: Challenges and Developing Solutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexually abusive behaviours are common in a forensic psychiatric population, both before admission and while hospitalized. A survey of our medium security facility found that 41% of patients had a history of sexually abusive behaviours, ranging from convictions for sexual assault through to current episodes of sexual harassment. Most forensic…

Hughes, Gareth V.; Hebb, Jo

2005-01-01

219

A sexual health care attitude scale for nurses: Development and psychometric evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundOncology nurses should possess a high level of sensitivity while dealing with patients’ sexual health needs. However, sexual health care is still inadequately addressed because of barriers such as conservative beliefs and incorrect assumptions regarding sexual issues. Most scales for measuring attitude toward sexual health care were insufficient to establish the instrument's validity and did not focus on oncology nurses.

Sue Kim; Hee Sun Kang; Jung-Hee Kim

220

REPORT OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONSENSUS DEVELOPMENT CONFERENCE ON FEMALE SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION: DEFINITIONS AND CLASSIFICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Female sexual dysfunction is highly prevalent but not well defined or understood. We evaluated and revised existing definitions and classifications of female sexual dysfunction. Materials and Methods: An interdisciplinary consensus conference panel consisting of 19 experts in female sexual dysfunction selected from 5 countries was convened by the Sexual Function Health Council of the American Foundation for Urologic Disease.

ROSEMARY BASSON; JENNIFER BERMAN; ARTHUR BURNETT; LEONARD DEROGATIS; DAVID FERGUSON; JEAN FOURCROY; IRWIN GOLDSTEIN; ALESSANDRA GRAZIOTTIN; JULIA HEIMAN; ELLEN LAAN; SANDRA LEIBLUM; HARIN PADMA-NATHAN; RAYMOND ROSEN; KATHLEEN SEGRAVES; R. TAYLOR SEGRAVES; RIDWAN SHABSIGH; MARCALEE SIPSKI; GORM WAGNER; BEVERLY WHIPPLE

2000-01-01

221

Perceived "out of control" sexual behavior in a cohort of young adults from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study.  

PubMed

Out of control sexual behavior, also known as compulsive sexual behavior or sexual addiction, has not been studied in a representative sample of the general population. At age 32 years, 940 (93%) of 1,015 members of the birth cohort of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study responded to a series of questions about sexual behavior, administered by computer. We enquired about sexual fantasies, urges or behavior that participants regarded as out of control during the previous year, and defined such experiences as out of control sexual experiences (OCSE). Nearly 13% of men and 7% of women reported OCSE in the past year. Women who reported such experiences were more likely than other women to have reported (elsewhere in the interview) having had high numbers of opposite sex partners, concurrent sexual relationships, or sex with a partner met on the internet, as well as a higher likelihood of same-sex attraction or behavior. Among men reporting OCSE, there was an association with having paid for heterosexual sex and with same-sex attraction and behavior. Few believed that OCSE had interfered with their lives (3.8% of all men and 1.7% of all women in the cohort). Only 0.8% of men and 0.6% of women reported that their actual sexual behavior had interfered with their lives. OCSE were also analyzed in relation to certain personality traits and to childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Some evidence of a link with impulsivity (women only) and negative affectivity was found. CSA was associated with OCSE among men. In conclusion, this population-based study has provided the first empirical estimations of the occurrence of OCSE and its relationship to a range of sexual behaviors in a representative sample. PMID:19421850

Skegg, Keren; Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Dickson, Nigel; Paul, Charlotte

2009-05-07

222

Gay and bisexual identity development among female-to-male transsexuals in North America: emergence of a transgender sexuality.  

PubMed

We studied a North American sample of female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals sexually attracted to men, aiming to understand their identity and sexuality in the context of a culture of transgender empowerment. Sex-reassigned FtM transsexuals, 18 years or older and attracted to men, were recruited via an FtM community conference and listserv. Participants (N = 25) responded to open-ended questions about identity development, sexual behavior, and social support. Data were analyzed by content analysis. Scores for sexual identity, self esteem, sexual functioning, and psychological adjustment were compared to those of a comparison group (N = 76 nontransgender gay and bisexual men). Of the 25 FtMs, 15 (60%) identified as gay, 8 (32%) as bisexual, and 2 (8%) as queer. All were comfortable with their gender identity and sexual orientation. The FtM group was more bisexual than the nontransgender gay and bisexual controls. No significant group differences were found in self esteem, sexual satisfaction, or psychological adjustment. For some FtMs, sexual attractions and experiences with men affirmed their gender identity; for others, self-acceptance of a transgender identity facilitated actualization of their attractions toward men. Most were "out" as transgender among friends and family, but not on the job or within the gay community. Disclosure and acceptance of their homosexuality was limited. The sexual identity of gay and bisexual FtMs appears to mirror the developmental process for nontransgender homosexual men and women in several ways; however, participants also had experiences unique to being both transgender and gay/bisexual. This signals the emergence of a transgender sexuality. PMID:19330439

Bockting, Walter; Benner, Autumn; Coleman, Eli

2009-03-28

223

Adolescents’ sexual media diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of how adolescents choose, interpret, and interact with the mass media is discussed in the context of sexual development. The Media Practice Model suggests that adolescents select and react to sexual media diets that speak to an emerging sense of themselves as sexual human beings. Relatively little is known about how the sexual content adolescents attend to in

Jane D Brown

2000-01-01

224

Sexual Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Exams Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Sexual Attraction and Orientation Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying Talking to Your Partner About ... Normal? Male Reproductive System Sexual Attraction and Orientation Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying Talking to Your Partner About ...

225

Signification of the sexualizing substance produced by the sexualized planarians.  

PubMed

Asexual worms of an exclusively fissiparous strain (the OH strain) of the planarian Dugesia ryukyuensis keep developing hermaphroditic reproductive organs and eventually undergo sexual reproduction instead of asexual reproduction, namely fission, if they are fed with sexually mature worms of an exclusively oviparous planarian, Bdellocephala brunnea, suggesting that the sexually mature worms has a sexualizing substance(s). The fully sexualized worms no longer need the feeding on sexual worms to maintain the sexuality. Here, we demonstrate that the sexualized worms produce enough of their own sexualizing substance similar to that contained in B. brunnea. In case of surgical ablation of the sexualized worms, the fragments with sexual organs regenerate to become sexual, while those without sexual organs, namely head fragments, regenerate to return to the asexual state. The asexual regenerants from the sexualized worms are also fully sexualized by being fed with B. brunnea. Additionally, it was reported that head region in sexually mature worms lacks the putative sexualizing substance necessary for complete sexualization (Sakurai, 1981). These results suggest that the fragments without sexual organ lack enough of an amount of the putative sexualizing substance and the sexuality is maintained by the sexualizing substance contained in the sexualized worms. PMID:12130794

Kobayashi, Kazuya; Arioka, Sachiko; Hase, Sumitaka; Hoshi, Motonori

2002-06-01

226

Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Yakima River Tributaries, 2001-2002 Technical Report.  

SciTech Connect

The benefits that marine derived nutrients from adult salmon carcasses provide to juvenile salmonids are increasingly being recognized. Current estimates suggest that only 6-7% of marine-derived nitrogen and phosphorus that were historically available to salmonids in the Pacific Northwest are currently available. Food limitation may be a major constraint limiting the restoration of salmonids. A variety of methods have been proposed to offset this nutrient deficit including: allowing greater salmon spawning escapement, stocking hatchery salmon carcasses, and stocking inorganic nutrients. Unfortunately, each of these methods has some ecological or socio-economic shortcoming. We intend to overcome many of these shortcomings by making and evaluating a pathogen free product that simulates a salmon carcass (analog). Abundant sources of marine derived nutrients are available such as fish offal from commercial fishing and salmon carcasses from hatcheries. However, a method for recycling these nutrients into a pathogen free analog that degrades at a similar rate as a natural salmon carcass has never been developed. We endeavored to (1) develop a salmon carcass analog that will increase the food available to salmonids, (2) determine the pathways that salmonids use to acquire food from analogs, and (3) determine the benefits to salmonids and the potential for application to salmonid restoration. We used a before-after-control-impact-paired design in six tributaries of the upper Yakima basin to determine the utility of stocking carcass analogs. Our preliminary results suggest that the introduction of carcass analogs into food-limited streams can be used to restore food pathways previously provided by anadromous salmon. The analogs probably reproduced both of the major food pathways that salmon carcasses produce: direct consumption and food chain enhancement. Trout and salmon fed directly on the carcass analogs during the late summer and presumably benefited from the increased invertebrate biomass later in the year. Future reports will analyze whether any benefits are statistically detectable. The risks of using carcass analogs also appear to be low. Pathogens appear to be killed in the manufacturing process of the analogs. In addition, preliminary results suggest that fish exposed to the analogs did not have higher incidences of pathogens. The water quality was also not degraded by the analog additions with the exception of a temporary surface film. Finally, our anecdotal observations, suggested that there was not an increase in the number of predators during the first year of analog distribution. In summary, the risks of analog placement appear to be low but the benefits appear to be high. All results should be considered preliminary until further analyses and field work are conducted.

Pearsons, Todd N.; Johnson, Christopher L. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

2003-04-01

227

Ultrastructural morphogenesis of salmonid alphavirus 1.  

PubMed

Studies on the ultrastructural morphogenesis of viruses give an insight into how the host cell mechanisms are utilized for new virion synthesis. A time course examining salmonid alphavirus 1 (SAV 1) assembly was performed by culturing the virus on Chinook salmon embryo cells (CHSE-214). Different stages of viral replication were observed under electron microscopy. Virus-like particles were observed inside membrane-bound vesicles as early as 1 h following contact of the virus with the cells. Membrane-dependent replication complexes were observed in the cytoplasm of the cells, with spherules found at the periphery of late endosome-like vacuoles. The use of intracellular membranes for RNA replication is similar to other positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses. The number of Golgi apparatus and associated vacuoles characterized by 'fuzzy'-coated membranes was greater in virus-infected cells. The mature enveloped virions started to bud out from the cells at approximately 24 h post-infection. These observations suggest that the pathway used by SAV 1 for the generation of new virus particles in vitro is comparable to viral replication observed with mammalian alphaviruses but with some interesting differences. PMID:22913764

Herath, T K; Ferguson, H W; Thompson, K D; Adams, A; Richards, R H

2012-08-23

228

The morphological plastic response to water current velocity varies with age and sexual state in juvenile Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. Salmonids, like many other fish species, exhibit morphological plasticity to variations in water current velocity. However, little is known about how this response varies with age and alternative sexual tactics that usually coexist in the same area. We therefore sampled immature 1- and 2-year-old and sexually mature Salmo salar parr to determine how the morphological response to slow

DAVID J AMES; P AEZ; R ICHARD H EDGER; L OUIS B ERNATCHEZ; J ULIAN; J. D ODSON

2008-01-01

229

Regulation of sexual development in the basal termite Cryptotermes secundus: mutilation, pheromonal manipulation or honest signal?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social insect colonies are not the harmonious entities they were once considered. Considerable conflicts exist between colony members, as has been shown for Hymenoptera. For termites, similar studies are lacking, but aggressive manipulations have been claimed to regulate sexual development, and even to account for the evolution of workers. This study on a basal termite, Cryptotermes secundus (Kalotermitidae), suggests that the importance of aggressive manipulations in termites has been overemphasized. Wing-bud mutilations, a means proposed to regulate the development of dispersing sexuals (alates), seem to be artifacts of handling conditions that cause disturbance. Aggressive behaviors never occurred unless colonies were disturbed. Theoretical considerations further showed that the potential for intense conflict among termite nestmates is low compared to hymenopteran societies. Strong conflicts are only expected to occur over the replacement of natal reproductives that died, while less intense conflicts should exist over the development into alates when food in the colony becomes limiting. Accordingly, intracolonial aggressive interactions over replacement are common, whereas nestmates seem to manipulate alate development via proctodeal feeding when food resources decline. However, the latter is rather an honest signal than a manipulation because only the most competent prospective dispersers can impede the development of nestmates.

Korb, Judith

2005-01-01

230

The Interplay of Sexual and Religious Identity Development in LGBTQ Adolescents and Young Adults: A Qualitative Inquiry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight sexual-minority adolescents (15–18 years old) and 11 young adults (19–24 years old) participated in individual interviews, journal writing, and focus groups to provide greater insight into the interplay of religious and sexual identity development in lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer youth. The majority of the sample identified as being raised in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day

Angie Dahl; Renee V. Galliher

2012-01-01

231

Expression of Dmrt1 in the Genital Ridge of Mouse and Chicken Embryos Suggests a Role in Vertebrate Sexual Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex-determining mechanisms are highly variable between phyla. Only one example has been found in which structurally and functionally related genes control sex determination in different phyla: the sexual regulators mab-3 of Caenorhabditis elegans and doublesex of Drosophila both encode proteins containing the DM domain, a novel DNA-binding motif. These two genes control similar aspects of sexual development, and the male

Christopher S. Raymond; Jae R. Kettlewell; Betsy Hirsch; Vivian J. Bardwell; David Zarkower

1999-01-01

232

Sexual function, sexual abuse and sexually transmitted diseases in adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

As adolescents progress through puberty, many biological changes occur and, for young women, this includes the onset of menses and the capability for reproduction. During this time, sexual identity is developed and expressions of sexuality become more frequent. Adolescent women engage in a variety of sexual behaviours, both non-coital and coital. As teens begin dating relationships, they are at risk

Margaret J. Blythe

2003-01-01

233

The physiology and toxicology of salmonid eggs and larvae in relation to water quality criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this review is to collate physiological knowledge on salmonid eggs and larvae in relation to water quality criteria. Salmonid genera reviewed include Coregonus, Thymallus, Salvelinus, Salmo, and Oncorhynchus spp. When physiological data for salmonids are lacking, the zebrafish and medaka models are included. The primary focus is on the underlying mechanisms involved in the hydro-mineral, thermal, and

Roderick Nigel Finn

2007-01-01

234

An efficacious recombinant subunit vaccine against the salmonid rickettsial pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piscirickettsia salmonis is the aetiological agent of salmonid rickettsial septicaemia, an economically devastating rickettsial disease of farmed salmonids. Infected salmonids respond poorly to antibiotic treatment and no effective vaccine is available for the control of P. salmonis. Bacterin preparations of P. salmonis were found to elicit a dose-dependent response in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), which varied from inadequate protection to

Michael A. Kuzyk; Ján Burian; Dave Machander; Daphne Dolhaine; Stephen Cameron; Julian C. Thornton; William W. Kay

2001-01-01

235

The Content of Sexual Fantasies for Sexual Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the phenomenon of sexual fantasy has been extensively researched, little contemporary inquiry has investigated the content of sexual fantasy within the context of sexual offending. In this study, a qualitative analysis was used to develop a descriptive model of the phenomena of sexual fantasy during the offence process. Twenty-four adult males convicted of sexual offences provided detailed retrospective descriptions

Dion G. Gee; Grant J. Devilly; Tony Ward

2004-01-01

236

Special Issue: Evolutionary perspectives on salmonid conservation and management  

PubMed Central

This special issue of Evolutionary Applications comprises 15 papers that illustrate how evolutionary principles can inform the conservation and management of salmonid fishes. Several papers address the past evolutionary history of salmonids to gain insights into their likely plastic and genetic responses to future environmental change. The remaining papers consider potential evolutionary responses to climate warming, biological invasions, artificial propagation, habitat alteration, and harvesting. All of these papers consider how such influences might alter selective regimes, which should then favour plastic or genetic responses. Some of the papers then go on to document such responses, at least some of which are genetically based and adaptive. Despite the different approaches and target species, all of the papers argue for the importance of evolutionary considerations in the conservation and management of salmonids.

Waples, Robin S; Hendry, Andrew P

2008-01-01

237

An organizer controls the development of the "sword," a sexually selected trait in swordtail fish.  

PubMed

Male swordtail fish of the genus Xiphophorus (Poeciliidae) possess a "sword" that is composed of several colored elongated ventral fin rays of the caudal fin. The sword is a secondary sexual trait that evolved through sexual selection by female preference. To uncover the developmental mechanisms underlying the metamorphosis from a juvenile caudal fin to the sword, we have devised a transplantation protocol to assay the fate of single transplanted fin rays and their interactions with flanking rays. These experiments provide evidence for the existence of a previously unrecognized inductive signal that originates in those rays that develop into the two longest sword rays. This "sword organizer" causes adjacent fin rays to grow and become integrated into the sword and induces the development of an additional, typically pigmented sword in grafts to the dorsal part of the caudal fin. We show that the potential to develop a sword is restricted to certain parts of the caudal fin. Our findings suggest that the evolution of swords in swordtails required the acquisition of two developmental mechanisms: the establishment of signaling competence in prospective sword rays in the embryo or early larva, and its activation through androgen signaling in adult male fish. PMID:18638317

Eibner, Cornelius; Pittlik, Silke; Meyer, Axel; Begemann, Gerrit

238

Peripheral administration of Kiss1 pentadecapeptide induces gonadal development in sexually immature adult scombroid fish.  

PubMed

Kisspeptins have emerged as potent regulators of the reproductive brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis. Our previous study demonstrated that the brain of the chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus), a scombroid fish, expresses two kisspeptin-encoding genes, kiss1 and kiss2, and exhibits sexually dimorphic expression profiles. Recent studies strongly suggest that teleost Kiss1 and Kiss2 precursors produce mature Kiss1-pentadecapeptides (Kiss1-15) and Kiss2-dodecapeptides (Kiss2-12), respectively. In light of the above, the present study evaluated the potency of synthetic peptides of Kiss1-15, Kiss2-12, and a GnRH analog (GnRHa) on inducing gonadal development in sexually immature adult chub mackerel. Synthetic peptides were administered subcutaneously through mini-osmotic pumps. On day 45 post-administration, gonadosomatic index (GSI) values (%) of male fish treated with Kiss1-15 (1.82) significantly increased in comparison to initial control (0.33), final control (0.49), Kiss2-12 (0.24), and GnRHa (1.13)-treated fish. Interestingly, the testis of all Kiss1-15 treated fish revealed spermiation, and were full of spermatozoa. These fish showed significantly higher levels of pituitary fsh? and Ih? mRNAs and circulating 11-ketotestosterone. GnRHa treated fish also revealed the presence of few spermatozoa in the testis. In females, no significant changes in GSI values were found between treatments; however, Kiss1-15- and GnRHa-treated fish showed prominent signs of vitellogenic onset, with many early yolk oocytes in their ovaries. Interestingly, Kiss1-15-treated fish exhibited higher levels of pituitary fsh? and circulating estradiol-17?. These results indicate that peripheral administration of Kiss1-15 and GnRHa can induce gonadal development in sexually immature chub mackerel. PMID:23721468

Selvaraj, Sethu; Ohga, Hirofumi; Kitano, Hajime; Nyuji, Mitsuo; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

2013-06-01

239

The Evolution of Sexual Pleasure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual pleasure is an innate component of human sexuality. Although disdained throughout history by religious groups and variably explained by theories, philosophers, and societies, sexual pleasure permeates human experience. Traditional evolutionists explain this preoccupation via the development of sexual mating strategies and the human desire to propagate one's genes; however, here I will argue that the saturation of sexual pleasure

Felicia De la Garza-Mercer

2007-01-01

240

A salmonid EST genomic study: genes, duplications, phylogeny and microarrays  

PubMed Central

Background Salmonids are of interest because of their relatively recent genome duplication, and their extensive use in wild fisheries and aquaculture. A comprehensive gene list and a comparison of genes in some of the different species provide valuable genomic information for one of the most widely studied groups of fish. Results 298,304 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from Atlantic salmon (69% of the total), 11,664 chinook, 10,813 sockeye, 10,051 brook trout, 10,975 grayling, 8,630 lake whitefish, and 3,624 northern pike ESTs were obtained in this study and have been deposited into the public databases. Contigs were built and putative full-length Atlantic salmon clones have been identified. A database containing ESTs, assemblies, consensus sequences, open reading frames, gene predictions and putative annotation is available. The overall similarity between Atlantic salmon ESTs and those of rainbow trout, chinook, sockeye, brook trout, grayling, lake whitefish, northern pike and rainbow smelt is 93.4, 94.2, 94.6, 94.4, 92.5, 91.7, 89.6, and 86.2% respectively. An analysis of 78 transcript sets show Salmo as a sister group to Oncorhynchus and Salvelinus within Salmoninae, and Thymallinae as a sister group to Salmoninae and Coregoninae within Salmonidae. Extensive gene duplication is consistent with a genome duplication in the common ancestor of salmonids. Using all of the available EST data, a new expanded salmonid cDNA microarray of 32,000 features was created. Cross-species hybridizations to this cDNA microarray indicate that this resource will be useful for studies of all 68 salmonid species. Conclusion An extensive collection and analysis of salmonid RNA putative transcripts indicate that Pacific salmon, Atlantic salmon and charr are 94–96% similar while the more distant whitefish, grayling, pike and smelt are 93, 92, 89 and 86% similar to salmon. The salmonid transcriptome reveals a complex history of gene duplication that is consistent with an ancestral salmonid genome duplication hypothesis. Genome resources, including a new 32 K microarray, provide valuable new tools to study salmonids.

Koop, Ben F; von Schalburg, Kristian R; Leong, Jong; Walker, Neil; Lieph, Ryan; Cooper, Glenn A; Robb, Adrienne; Beetz-Sargent, Marianne; Holt, Robert A; Moore, Richard; Brahmbhatt, Sonal; Rosner, Jamie; Rexroad, Caird E; McGowan, Colin R; Davidson, William S

2008-01-01

241

The Impact of Clergy-Perpetrated Sexual Abuse: The Role of Gender, Development, and Posttraumatic Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The literature on clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse suggests that there are two modal populations of survivors: boys and adult women. We review what is known about trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder following sexual abuse and explore the different treatment needs for these two survivor groups. For children, clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse…

Fogler, Jason M.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Clarke, Stephanie; Jensen, Jennifer; Rowe, Erin

2008-01-01

242

The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI): Cross-Validation and Development of Clinical Cutoff Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) is a brief, multidimensional scale for assessing sexual function in women. The scale has received initial psychometric evaluation, including studies of reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity (Meston, 2003; Rosen et al., 2000). The present study was designed to cross-validate the FSFI in several samples of women with mixed sexual dysfunctions (N = 568)

MARKUS WIEGEL; CINDY MESTON; RAYMOND ROSEN

2005-01-01

243

Development and growth of the feather star Oxycomanthus japonicus to sexual maturity.  

PubMed

Crinoids, including feather stars, are the most basal group among extant echinoderm classes and share a basic body plan. In spite of their importance for evolutionary developmental study, information on the development of crinoids has been limited, because there are not many species whose spawning season is known, and artificial spawning is impossible. Therefore, it is not easy to obtain fertilized eggs of crinoids. We have observed the spawning and development of the feather star Oxycomanthus japonicus for 7 years. We have established a cultivation system that has enabled us to culture large numbers of O. japonicus from eggs through to sexually mature adults. In the present study, we show that (1) individuals take 2 years to reach sexual maturity; (2) the skeleton of the theca of a stalked juvenile consists of five orals, five basals, five radials, five infrabasals, and an anal plate; and (3) the onset of spawning has shifted by about two weeks since 60 years ago. Our cultivation system can provide enough embryos, larvae, juveniles, and adults for further experiments, extending the possibilities for crinoid research. PMID:19267619

Shibata, Tomoko F; Sato, Atsuko; Oji, Tatsuo; Akasaka, Koji

2008-11-01

244

A Cytosine Methyltransferase Homologue Is Essential for Sexual Development in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

Background The genome defense processes RIP (repeat-induced point mutation) in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, and MIP (methylation induced premeiotically) in the fungus Ascobolus immersus depend on proteins with DNA methyltransferase (DMT) domains. Nevertheless, these proteins, RID and Masc1, respectively, have not been demonstrated to have DMT activity. We discovered a close homologue in Aspergillus nidulans, a fungus thought to have no methylation and no genome defense system comparable to RIP or MIP. Principal Findings We report the cloning and characterization of the DNA methyltransferase homologue A (dmtA) gene from Aspergillus nidulans. We found that the dmtA locus encodes both a sense (dmtA) and an anti-sense transcript (tmdA). Both transcripts are expressed in vegetative, conidial and sexual tissues. We determined that dmtA, but not tmdA, is required for early sexual development and formation of viable ascospores. We also tested if DNA methylation accumulated in any of the dmtA/tmdA mutants we constructed, and found that in both asexual and sexual tissues, these mutants, just like wild-type strains, appear devoid of DNA methylation. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that a DMT homologue closely related to proteins implicated in RIP and MIP has an essential developmental function in a fungus that appears to lack both DNA methylation and RIP or MIP. It remains formally possible that DmtA is a bona fide DMT, responsible for trace, undetected DNA methylation that is restricted to a few cells or transient but our work supports the idea that the DMT domain present in the RID/Masc1/DmtA family has a previously undescribed function.

Lee, Dong W.; Freitag, Michael; Selker, Eric U.; Aramayo, Rodolfo

2008-01-01

245

Language choice and sexual communication among Xhosa speakers in Cape Town, South Africa: implications for HIV prevention message development  

PubMed Central

Communicating about sex is a vital component of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and influences how HIV educators convey messages to communities and how couples negotiate safer sex practices. However, sexual communication inevitably confronts culturally based behavioral guidelines and linguistic taboos unique to diverse social contexts. The HIV interventionist needs to identify the appropriate language for sexual communication given the participants and the message. Ethnographic research can help facilitate the exploration of how sex terminology is chosen. A theoretical framework, developed to guide HIV interventionists, suggests that an individual's language choice for sexual communication is influenced by gender roles and power differentials. In-depth interviews, free listing and triadic comparisons were conducted with Xhosa men and women in Cape Town, South Africa, to determine the terms for male genitalia, female genitalia and sexual intercourse that are most appropriate for sexual communication. Results showed that sexual terms express cultural norms and role expectations where men should be powerful and resilient and women should be passive and virginal. For HIV prevention education, non-mother tongue (English and Zulu) terms were recommended as most appropriate because they are descriptive, but allow the speaker to communicate outside the restrictive limits of their mother tongue by reducing emotive cultural connotations.

Cain, Demetria; Schensul, Stephen; Mlobeli, Regina

2011-01-01

246

Language choice and sexual communication among Xhosa speakers in Cape Town, South Africa: implications for HIV prevention message development.  

PubMed

Communicating about sex is a vital component of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and influences how HIV educators convey messages to communities and how couples negotiate safer sex practices. However, sexual communication inevitably confronts culturally based behavioral guidelines and linguistic taboos unique to diverse social contexts. The HIV interventionist needs to identify the appropriate language for sexual communication given the participants and the message. Ethnographic research can help facilitate the exploration of how sex terminology is chosen. A theoretical framework, developed to guide HIV interventionists, suggests that an individual's language choice for sexual communication is influenced by gender roles and power differentials. In-depth interviews, free listing and triadic comparisons were conducted with Xhosa men and women in Cape Town, South Africa, to determine the terms for male genitalia, female genitalia and sexual intercourse that are most appropriate for sexual communication. Results showed that sexual terms express cultural norms and role expectations where men should be powerful and resilient and women should be passive and virginal. For HIV prevention education, non-mother tongue (English and Zulu) terms were recommended as most appropriate because they are descriptive, but allow the speaker to communicate outside the restrictive limits of their mother tongue by reducing emotive cultural connotations. PMID:21059802

Cain, Demetria; Schensul, Stephen; Mlobeli, Regina

2010-11-08

247

Reproductive and sexual health and safe motherhood in the developing world.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to discuss the main hurdles and possible solutions concerning reproductive and sexual health and safe motherhood in the developing countries. In response to the changing global situation, a broader new concept of reproductive health has emerged. The Programme of Action of The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) emphasizes and highlights various aspects of reproductive health. No population in the world has met the goals of the ICPD. The problems are particularly acute in developing countries: between 20 and 40% of births are unwanted or wrongly timed, posing hardships for families and jeopardizing the health of a million women and children. An estimated 50 million induced abortions are performed each year, with some 20 million of these performed under unsafe conditions or by untrained providers. Almost 600,000 women die every year due to pregnancy-related causes, 99% of them in developing countries. Approximately 7.6 million infant deaths occur during the perinatal period each year. There are more than 333 million new cases of curable sexually transmitted diseases world-wide each year. Nearly 22 million people are estimated to be infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, of whom 14 million are in sub-Saharan Africa, with rapidly increasing numbers of infected persons in South and South-East Asia. When compared to the developed world, these figures are staggering because of barriers operating at different levels and preventing women from receiving care that is timely and of good quality. United efforts of obstetricians, pediatricians, sociologists, and different governmental and non-governmental organizations are required to achieve our targets. PMID:10817092

Shah, D; Shroff, S; Sheth, S

1999-12-01

248

In humans, early cortisol biosynthesis provides a mechanism to safeguard female sexual development  

PubMed Central

In humans, sexual differentiation of the external genitalia is established at 7–12 weeks post conception (wpc). During this period, maintaining the appropriate intrauterine hormone environment is critical. In contrast to other species, this regulation extends to the human fetal adrenal cortex, as evidenced by the virilization that is associated with various forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The mechanism underlying these clinical findings has remained elusive. Here we show that the human fetal adrenal cortex synthesized cortisol much earlier than previously documented, an effect associated with transient expression of the orphan nuclear receptor nerve growth factor IB-like (NGFI-B) and its regulatory target, the steroidogenic enzyme type 2 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B2). This cortisol biosynthesis was maximal at 8–9 wpc under the regulation of ACTH. Negative feedback was apparent at the anterior pituitary corticotrophs. ACTH also stimulated the adrenal gland to secrete androstenedione and testosterone. In concert, these data promote a distinctive mechanism for normal human development whereby cortisol production, determined by transient NGFI-B and HSD3B2 expression, provides feedback at the anterior pituitary to modulate androgen biosynthesis and safeguard normal female sexual differentiation.

Goto, Masahiro; Piper Hanley, Karen; Marcos, Josep; Wood, Peter J.; Wright, Sarah; Postle, Anthony D.; Cameron, Iain T.; Mason, J. Ian; Wilson, David I.; Hanley, Neil A.

2006-01-01

249

Analysis of Historic Data for Juvenile and Adult Salmonid Production. Phase 1, Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

Survival of hatchery reared Columbia River chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) salmon from release to return is highly variable and thought to be related to river flow during juvenile outmigration in the spring. The purpose of this project is to examine the relationship between survival of coded-wire-tagged (CWT) Columbia River salmonids and in-river flow and other freshwater factors. This report covers Phase 1, in which two methods to estimate survival were developed and evaluated, and criteria for data selection were established.

Hilborn, Ray; Pascual, Miguel; Donnelly, Robert; Coronado-Hernadez, Claribel

1993-11-01

250

Sexual Identity Development and Self-Esteem as Predictors of Body Image in a Racially Diverse Sample of Gay Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined the relationship between sexual identity development and body image, as well as the potential mediating effect of self-esteem, in a community sample of gay men. A diverse group of participants (N = 172), recruited through listservs and flyers, completed an online survey. Regression analyses were conducted to assess the relationships between identity development and self-esteem, identity

Dana Udall-Weiner

2009-01-01

251

How Effective Is Peer Education in Addressing Young People's Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs in Developing Countries?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review article questions the assumptions at the core of peer education interventions adopted in young people's sexual and reproductive health programmes in developing countries. Peer education is a more complex and problematic approach than its popularity with development agencies and practitioners implies. Its rise to prominence is more…

Price, Neil; Knibbs, Sarah

2009-01-01

252

Sexually dimorphic expression of steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) in developing gonads of the American bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic sex determination leads to gonadal differentiation and ultimately the differences between the sexes in steroid hormone secretion. Gonadal steroidogenesis is critical for the development of a sexually dimorphic phenotype and adult reproductive function. Control of gonadal development and steroidogenesis is under the regulation, at least in part, of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1). We have begun to characterize SF-1 expression in

Loretta P. Mayer; Stefanie L. Overstreet; Cheryl A. Dyer; Catherine R. Propper

2002-01-01

253

How Effective Is Peer Education in Addressing Young People's Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs in Developing Countries?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This review article questions the assumptions at the core of peer education interventions adopted in young people's sexual and reproductive health programmes in developing countries. Peer education is a more complex and problematic approach than its popularity with development agencies and practitioners implies. Its rise to prominence is more…

Price, Neil; Knibbs, Sarah

2009-01-01

254

Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae and PKD in juvenile wild salmonids in Denmark.  

PubMed

The myxozoan Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae is the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease (PKD), a widespread and serious condition in salmonid fishes in Europe and North America. In Europe, PKD is primarily reported affecting farmed rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, but limited information exists on the occurrence and effects of T. bryosalmonae in wild salmonids. We investigated the presence of T. bryosalmonae in salmonids in Denmark and found that the parasite is common in the dominant wild Danish salmonid, brown trout Salmo trutta, and that it also appears in wild Atlantic salmon S. salar. Clinical signs of PKD were present in some brown trout, but in most cases the parasite was found through histology and/or PCR investigations of kidney tissue in fish that showed no signs of infection. Even though there was high similarity between internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences of T. bryosalmonae from wild brown trout, Atlantic salmon and farmed rainbow trout, a geographic pattern was indicated among T. bryosalmonae ITS1 phylotypes. None of the investigated streams were found free of T. bryosalmonae, but prevalence of the parasite was highly variable. PMID:23047189

Skovgaard, Alf; Buchmann, Kurt

2012-10-10

255

A Global Assessment of Salmon Aquaculture Impacts on Wild Salmonids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the late 1980s, wild salmon catch and abundance have declined dramatically in the North Atlantic and in much of the northeastern Pacific south of Alaska. In these areas, there has been a concomitant increase in the production of farmed salmon. Previous studies have shown negative impacts on wild salmonids, but these results have been difficult to translate into predictions

Jennifer S Ford; Ransom A Myers

2008-01-01

256

Global climate change and potential effects on pacific salmonids in ...  

Treesearch

Title: Global climate change and potential effects on pacific salmonids in freshwater ecosystems of southeast Alaska ... and incubation may result in earlier entry into the ocean when food resources are low. ... Survival of sustainable populations will depend on the existing genetic diversity within ... Last Modified: July 21, 2013.

257

Rainmap Database: Mapping the Salmonids (Rainbow Trout) Genome  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Institut National de Recherche Agronomique (France) provides online databases of genomes for several organisms, including Salmonids (Rainbow Trout). The database is updated as more data becomes available, and provide records on loci, genes, microsatellites, polymorphisms, probes, enzymes, homologue loci, alleles, primers, references, and links to external databases. Instructions for submitting data to the databases are provided on-site.

258

From chronic feed-induced intestinal inflammation to adenocarcinoma with metastases in salmonid fish.  

PubMed

Neoplasms in fish normally show poor abilities for metastasis, and there are no reports on intestinal cancer with metastasis to other organs. In aquaculture production, carnivorous salmonids in Northern Europe receive commercial feeds with plant ingredients. Such contents have been shown to cause chronic intestinal inflammation. Inflammation provokes carcinogenesis in the human gut, and here, we report a similar pathologic progression in salmonids. Nine commercially farmed groups of Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout (n = 39,160) and one experimental positive group (n = 789) fed the same commercial feed and two negative control groups (n = 3009) were investigated for the occurrence of intestinal tumors and metastases. Exposure period, gender, and sexual maturation were registered. Autopsy revealed an overall intestinal tumor occurrence of 10.62%, of which liver metastasis varied from 0% to 11.35% between the groups. Intestinal cancer prevalence increased from 0.50% to 14.81% during 4 months of feeding in the experimental group. A significant gender effect was registered in the commercially farmed groups but not in the experimental group. Histologic examination showed adenocarcinomas evolving through progressive epithelial dysplasia associated with severe chronic inflammation. One intestinal tumor was registered in one individual in the negative control groups. This is the first report on feed-induced intestinal carcinogenesis and metastasizing adenocarcinomas in fish fed an approved commercial diet. The pathogenesis was associated with a certain commercial diet provoking the inflammation-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence. The histologic progression was analogous to that of human colorectal cancer associated with inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:19417130

Dale, Ole B; Tørud, Brit; Kvellestad, Agnar; Koppang, Hanna S; Koppang, Erling O

2009-05-05

259

Identification of de novo copy number variants associated with human disorders of sexual development.  

PubMed

Disorders of sexual development (DSD), ranging in severity from genital abnormalities to complete sex reversal, are among the most common human birth defects with incidence rates reaching almost 3%. Although causative alterations in key genes controlling gonad development have been identified, the majority of DSD cases remain unexplained. To improve the diagnosis, we screened 116 children born with idiopathic DSD using a clinically validated array-based comparative genomic hybridization platform. 8951 controls without urogenital defects were used to compare with our cohort of affected patients. Clinically relevant imbalances were found in 21.5% of the analyzed patients. Most anomalies (74.2%) evaded detection by the routinely ordered karyotype and were scattered across the genome in gene-enriched subtelomeric loci. Among these defects, confirmed de novo duplication and deletion events were noted on 1p36.33, 9p24.3 and 19q12-q13.11 for ambiguous genitalia, 10p14 and Xq28 for cryptorchidism and 12p13 and 16p11.2 for hypospadias. These variants were significantly associated with genitourinary defects (P?=?6.08×10(-12)). The causality of defects observed in 5p15.3, 9p24.3, 22q12.1 and Xq28 was supported by the presence of overlapping chromosomal rearrangements in several unrelated patients. In addition to known gonad determining genes including SRY and DMRT1, novel candidate genes such as FGFR2, KANK1, ADCY2 and ZEB2 were encompassed. The identification of risk germline rearrangements for urogenital birth defects may impact diagnosis and genetic counseling and contribute to the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of human sexual development. PMID:21048976

Tannour-Louet, Mounia; Han, Shuo; Corbett, Sean T; Louet, Jean-Francois; Yatsenko, Svetlana; Meyers, Lindsay; Shaw, Chad A; Kang, Sung-Hae L; Cheung, Sau Wai; Lamb, Dolores J

2010-10-26

260

Identification of De Novo Copy Number Variants Associated with Human Disorders of Sexual Development  

PubMed Central

Disorders of sexual development (DSD), ranging in severity from genital abnormalities to complete sex reversal, are among the most common human birth defects with incidence rates reaching almost 3%. Although causative alterations in key genes controlling gonad development have been identified, the majority of DSD cases remain unexplained. To improve the diagnosis, we screened 116 children born with idiopathic DSD using a clinically validated array-based comparative genomic hybridization platform. 8951 controls without urogenital defects were used to compare with our cohort of affected patients. Clinically relevant imbalances were found in 21.5% of the analyzed patients. Most anomalies (74.2%) evaded detection by the routinely ordered karyotype and were scattered across the genome in gene-enriched subtelomeric loci. Among these defects, confirmed de novo duplication and deletion events were noted on 1p36.33, 9p24.3 and 19q12-q13.11 for ambiguous genitalia, 10p14 and Xq28 for cryptorchidism and 12p13 and 16p11.2 for hypospadias. These variants were significantly associated with genitourinary defects (P?=?6.08×10?12). The causality of defects observed in 5p15.3, 9p24.3, 22q12.1 and Xq28 was supported by the presence of overlapping chromosomal rearrangements in several unrelated patients. In addition to known gonad determining genes including SRY and DMRT1, novel candidate genes such as FGFR2, KANK1, ADCY2 and ZEB2 were encompassed. The identification of risk germline rearrangements for urogenital birth defects may impact diagnosis and genetic counseling and contribute to the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of human sexual development.

Tannour-Louet, Mounia; Han, Shuo; Corbett, Sean T.; Louet, Jean-Francois; Yatsenko, Svetlana; Meyers, Lindsay; Shaw, Chad A.; Kang, Sung-Hae L.; Cheung, Sau Wai; Lamb, Dolores J.

2010-01-01

261

Preliminary development of a scale to measure stigma relating to sexually transmitted infections among women in a high risk neighbourhood  

PubMed Central

Background As stigma is a socially constructed concept, it would follow that stigma related to sexual behaviours and sexually transmitted infections would carry with it many of the gender-based morals that are entrenched in social constructs of sexuality. In many societies, women tend to be judged more harshly with respect to sexual morals, and would therefore have a different experience of stigma related to sexual behaviours as compared to men. While a variety of stigma scales exist for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in general; none incorporate these female-specific aspects. The objective of this study was to develop a scale to measure the unique experience of STI-related stigma among women. Methods A pool of items was identified from qualitative and quantitative literature on sexual behaviour and STIs among women. Women attending a social evening program at a local community health clinic in a low-income neighbourhood with high prevalence of substance use were passively recruited to take part in a cross-sectional structured interview, including questions on sexual behaviour, sexual health and STI-related stigma. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify stigma scales, and descriptive statistics were used to assess the associations of demographics, sexual and drug-related risk behaviours with the emerging scales. Results Three scales emerged from exploratory factor analysis – female-specific moral stigma, social stigma (judgement by others) and internal stigma (self-judgement) – with alpha co-efficients of 0.737, 0.705 and 0.729, respectively. In this population of women, internal stigma and social stigma carried higher scores than female-specific moral stigma. Aboriginal ethnicity was associated with higher internal and female-specific moral stigma scores, while older age (>30 years) was associated with higher female-specific moral stigma scores. Conclusion Descriptive statistics indicated an important influence of culture and age on specific types of stigma. Quantitative researchers examining STI-stigma should consider incorporating these female-specific factors in order to tailor scales for women.

Rusch, Melanie LA; Shoveller, Jean A; Burgess, Susan; Stancer, Karen; Patrick, David M; Tyndall, Mark W

2008-01-01

262

Adolescents' Exposure to Sexually Explicit Internet Material, Sexual Uncertainty, and Attitudes Toward Uncommitted Sexual ExplorationIs There a Link?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The link between adolescents' exposure to sexual media content and their sexual socialization has hardly been approached from an identity development framework. Moreover, existing research has largely ignored the role of adolescents' exposure to sexually explicit Internet material in that association. This study introduces two characteristics of adolescents' sexual self—sexual uncertainty and attitudes toward sexual exploration—and investigates these characteristics as

Jochen Peter; Patti M. Valkenburg

2008-01-01

263

Blue Light Acts as a Double-Edged Sword in Regulating Sexual Development of Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei)  

PubMed Central

The industrially important cellulolytic filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is the anamorph of the pantropical ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina. H. jecorina CBS999.97 strain undergoes a heterothallic reproductive cycle, and the mating yields fertilized perithecia imbedded in stromata. Asci in the perithecia contain 16 linearly arranged ascospores. Here, we investigated H. jecorina sexual development under different light regimes, and found that visible light was dispensable for sexual development (stroma formation and ascospore discharge). By contrast, constant illumination inhibited stroma formation, and an interruption of the darkness facilitated timely stroma formation in a 12 h/12 h light-dark photoperiod. The results of genetic analyses further revealed that H. jecorina blue-light photoreceptors (BLR1, BLR2) and the photoadaptation protein ENV1 were not essential for sexual development in general. BLR1, BLR2 and ENV1 are orthologues of the conserved Neurospora crassa WC-1, WC-2 and VVD, respectively. Moreover, BLR1 and BLR2 mediate both positive and negative light-dependent regulation on sexual development, whereas ENV1 is required for dampening the light-dependent inhibitory effect in response to changes in illumination. Comparative genome-wide microarray analysis demonstrated an overview of light-dependent gene expression versus sexual potency in CBS999.97 (MAT1–2) haploid cells. Constant illumination promotes abundant asexual conidiation and high levels of hpp1 transcripts. hpp1 encodes a h (hybrid)-type propheromone that exhibits features of both yeast a and a pheromone precursors. Deletion of hpp1 could rescue stroma formation but not ascospore generation under constant illumination. We inferred that the HPP1-dependent pheromone signaling system might directly prevent stroma formation or simply disallow the haploid cells to acquire sexual potency due to abundant asexual conidiation upon constant illumination.

Chen, Chia-Ling; Kuo, Hsiao-Che; Tung, Shu-Yu; Hsu, Paul Wei-Che; Wang, Chih-Li; Seibel, Christian; Schmoll, Monika; Chen, Ruey-Shyang; Wang, Ting-Fang

2012-01-01

264

Detection of salmonid thermal refugia from airborne thermal infrared (TIR) imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During elevated summer temperatures, salmonid species seek out areas of cool, well-oxygenated river water to alleviate thermal stress. Collectively known as ‘thermal refugia’, these are of great significance to the ability of salmonids to survive increased water temperatures, and a better understanding of their spatial and temporal characteristics may aid mitigation strategies against the possible effects of climate change on rivers. However, thermal refugia are traditionally hard to detect, and their in-river abundance and spatial patterns are largely unknown. Although previous research has examined TIR imaging as a means to sense river temperatures, few have achieved a resolution amenable to the detection of small thermal anomalies typically used by salmonids, with the majority of literature focusing on the general application of thermal imaging to river temperature detection and analysis. From preliminary research, we note that riverine thermal anomalies (as viewed from TIR imagery) can comprise a number of different forms resulting from a diverse range of sources. Given that the structural, spatial and temporal dynamics of thermal refugia in gravel bed rivers are a presumably a function of the complex geomorphological processes within a catchment, the ability to discriminate multi-scale thermal refugia may aid our comprehension not only of the behaviour of salmonids during high temperature events, but also of the geomorphological phenomena that are fundamental in governing river temperature heterogeneity. Initial thermal infrared imagery acquired in August 2009 suggested that while it is possible to manually detect riverine temperature anomalies, the creation of a dedicated remote sensing platform capable of obtaining both TIR and RGB photography easily and with a resolution amenable to refugia detection would greatly aid our ability to discriminate true refugia from other thermal anomalies (false positives). To this end, we have developed a system able to simultaneously acquire high resolution thermal (c. 20cm GSD) and optical (c. 3cm GSD) imagery with a view towards automatically detecting and classifying refugia. This paper presents the preliminary results of several thermal image acquisition flights undertaken in Quebec, Canada, both before and after the development of the new photography system (Summer 2009 and 2010 respectively), with the intention of exploring the various types of different refugia visible to thermal images. Early indications (both from imagery and ground validation) suggest that while the streamwise location of thermal refugias appears to be temporally stable, their form, extent and temperature are highly dynamic.

Dugdale, S. J.; Bergeron, N.; Rousseau, M.

2010-12-01

265

Cell Differentiation during Sexual Development of the Fungus Sordaria macrospora Requires ATP Citrate Lyase Activity  

PubMed Central

During sexual development, mycelial cells from most filamentous fungi differentiate into typical fruiting bodies. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of the Sordaria macrospora developmental mutant per5, which exhibits a sterile phenotype with defects in fruiting body maturation. Cytological investigations revealed that the mutant strain forms only ascus precursors without any mature spores. Using an indexed cosmid library, we were able to complement the mutant to fertility by DNA-mediated transformation. A single cosmid clone, carrying a 3.5-kb region able to complement the mutant phenotype, has been identified. Sequencing of the 3.5-kb region revealed an open reading frame of 2.1 kb interrupted by a 66-bp intron. The predicted polypeptide (674 amino acids) shows significant homology to eukaryotic ATP citrate lyases (ACLs), with 62 to 65% amino acid identity, and the gene was named acl1. The molecular mass of the S. macrospora ACL1 polypeptide is 73 kDa, as was verified by Western blot analysis with a hemagglutinin (HA) epitope-tagged ACL1 polypeptide. Immunological in situ detection of the HA-tagged polypeptide demonstrated that ACL is located within the cytosol. Sequencing of the mutant acl1 gene revealed a 1-nucleotide transition within the coding region, resulting in an amino acid substitution within the predicted polypeptide. Further evidence that ACL1 is essential for fruiting body maturation comes from experiments in which truncated and mutated versions of the acl1 gene were used for transformation. None of these copies was able to reconstitute the fertile phenotype in transformed per5 recipient strains. ACLs are usually involved in the formation of cytosolic acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), which is used for the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols. Protein extracts from the mutant strain showed a drastic reduction in enzymatic activity compared to values obtained from the wild-type strain. Investigation of the time course of ACL expression suggests that ACL is specifically induced at the beginning of the sexual cycle and produces acetyl-CoA, which most probably is a prerequisite for fruiting body formation during later stages of sexual development. We discuss the contribution of ACL activity to the life cycle of S. macrospora.

Nowrousian, Minou; Masloff, Sandra; Poggeler, Stefanie; Kuck, Ulrich

1999-01-01

266

Gas Bubble Disease Monitoring and Research of Juvenile Salmonids : Annual Report 1996.  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the project activities 1996--1997 contract year. This report is composed of three chapters which contain data and analyses of the three main elements of the project: field research to determine the vertical distribution of migrating juvenile salmonids, monitoring of juvenile migrants at dams on the Snake and Columbia rivers, and laboratory experiments to describe the progression of gas bubble disease signs leading to mortality. The major findings described in this report are: A miniature pressure-sensitive radio transmitter was found to be accurate and precise and, after compensation for water temperature, can be used to determine the depth of tagged-fish to within 0.32 m of the true depth (Chapter 1). Preliminary data from very few fish suggest that depth protects migrating juvenile steelhead from total dissolved gas supersaturation (Chapter 1). As in 1995, few fish had any signs of gas bubble disease, but it appeared that prevalence and severity increased as fish migrated downstream and in response to changing gas supersaturation (Chapter 2). It appeared to gas bubble disease was not a threat to migrating juvenile salmonids when total dissolved gas supersaturation was < 120% (Chapter 2). Laboratory studies suggest that external examinations are appropriate for determining the severity of gas bubble disease in juvenile salmonids (Chapter 3). The authors developed a new method for examining gill arches for intravascular bubbles by clamping the ventral aorta to reduce bleeding when arches were removed (Chapter 3). Despite an outbreak of bacterial kidney disease in the experimental fish, the data indicate that gas bubble disease is a progressive trauma that can be monitored (Chapter 3).

Maule, Alec G.; Beeman, John W.; Hans, Karen M.; Mesa, M.G.; Haner, P.; Warren, J.J. [Geological Survey, Cook, WA (United States). Columbia River Research Lab.

1997-10-01

267

Sexual development and reproductive demography of the green humphead parrotfish ( Bolbometopon muricatum) in the Solomon Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation of the reproductive biology of the green humphead parrotfish ( Bolbometopon muricatum) from three areas in the Western Province of the Solomon Islands revealed that B. muricatum exhibits several features that differ from the pattern of reproductive development observed in most parrotfishes. Unlike most parrotfishes, histological evidence suggests that the sexual pattern of B. muricatum is essentially gonochoristic with high incidences of anatomical but non-functional hermaphroditism. B. muricatum also differs from other parrotfishes in that all males pass through an immature female (or bisexual) phase as demonstrated by all adult testis retaining the ex-ovarian lumen and peripheral sperm sinuses in the gonad wall. However, a protogynous diandric reproductive strategy cannot be excluded given that sampling may have missed transitional individuals. Marked variation in the demography of male B. muricatum between the three locations examined is considered to reflect variation in historical fishing effort.

Hamilton, R. J.; Adams, S.; Choat, J. H.

2008-03-01

268

[Legal developments--from taboo to sexual self-determination for handicapped patients?].  

PubMed

The author describes the development in German law regarding the protection of sexual self-determination of disabled persons. Her analysis encompasses the last twenty years, starting from the "cripple-tribunal 1981", where disabled women first raised the subject in German public. As the main legal reforms for disabled persons in Germany, the author analysis the Thirty-First-Criminal-Law-Change-Act and the Sixth-Act-To-Reform-Criminal-Law of 1997/98 as well as the Ninth-Social-Law-Code of 2001. The author welcomes these legislative reforms but points to the fact that the judiciary has yet failed to implement particularly the criminal law reform. In addition she shows that the new criminal law does not fill all former protection gaps. She demands further reforms in other areas of law. Finally she emphasizes that comprehensive information and education for all those who are concerned by the subject are necessary. PMID:12425229

Degener, Theresia

2002-10-01

269

Effect of the transformer-2 gene of Anastrepha on the somatic sexual development of Drosophila.  

PubMed

The transformer-2 gene is involved in sex determination in tephritid flies (Tephritidae). It is required for the auto-regulation of the transformer gene (the memory device for sex determination in these insects) and for the female-specific splicing of doublesex pre-mRNA, the last gene in the sex determination gene cascade. The present manuscript addressed the question of the functional conservation of the tephritid Anastrepha Tra2 protein to direct sexual development in Drosophila (Drosophilidae). To express this protein in Drosophila, the GAL4-UAS system was used. The Anastrepha Tra2 protein supplies tra-2 function in Drosophila: this protein would form a complex with the endogenous Drosophila Tra protein to promote the female-specific splicing of the Drosophila doublesex pre-mRNA. The feminisation produced by the Anastrepha Tra2 protein was, however, partial. PMID:22252495

Sarno, Francesca; Ruiz, María-Fernanda; Sánchez, Lucas

2011-01-01

270

Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Klickitat River Tributaries, 2001-2005 Completion Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the work completed by the Yakama Nation Fisheries Program (YNFP) in the Klickitat subbasin in south-central Washington under BPA innovative project No.200105500--Influences of stocking salmon carcass analogs on salmonids in Columbia River Tributaries. Salmon carcasses historically provided a significant source of marine-derived nutrients to many stream systems in the Columbia basin, and decreased run sizes have led to a loss of this nutrient source in many streams. Partners in this project developed a pathogen-free carcass analog and stocked the analogs in streams with the following objectives: restoring food availability to streams with reduced anadromous salmon returns; mimicking the natural pathways and timing of food acquisition by salmonids; minimizing unintended negative ecological effects; and increasing the growth and survival of salmonids. In the Klickitat subbasin, carcass analogs were stocked in two streams in 2002 and 2003; a third stream was used as a control. Salmonid fish abundance, growth, and stomach contents were monitored in all three streams before and after carcass analog placement. Fish, invertebrate, and periphyton samples were also collected for stable isotope analysis (to determine if nutrients from carcass analogs were incorporated into the stream food web). Water quality samples were also collected to determine if nutrient overloading occurred in streams. Significant differences in growth were found between fish in treated and untreated stream reaches. Fish in treatment reaches exhibited higher instantaneous growth rates approximately one month after the first carcass analog stocking. Stomach contents sampling indicated that salmonid fish routinely consumed the carcass analog material directly, and that stomach fullness of fish in treatment reaches was higher than in untreated reaches in the first few weeks following carcass analog stockings. No significant differences were detected in fish abundance between treatment and control streams after carcass analog stocking. Stable isotope analysis provided some evidence that nutrients (primarily nitrogen) were incorporated into periphyton and invertebrates, although this evidence is not strong. No significant differences in water quality were observed between treatment and control streams after analog stocking. Although no significant changes were observed in fish abundance, this study does provide evidence that carcass analogs provide a viable and potentially useful alternative to stocking salmon carcasses. The analogs provide a direct food source to salmonids, and show some potential for providing nutrients for stream food webs. They can also increase stomach fullness and growth rates of individual fish. This nutrient source may very well improve individual fish condition sufficiently to improve overwintering or smolt survival. Further refinement of stocking densities and timing, treatment duration, and tailoring analog placement to individual stream characteristics (such as channel confinement and flow) will further improve the usefulness of carcass analogs.

Zendt, Joe; Sharp, Bill (Yakama Nation Fisheries, Toppenish, WA)

2006-09-01

271

The Coming-Out Process of Young Lesbian and Bisexual Women: Are There Butch/Femme Differences in Sexual Identity Development?  

PubMed Central

Research on lesbian and bisexual women has documented various biological and behavioral differences between butch and femme women. However, little research has examined whether differences exist in sexual identity development (i.e., the coming-out process). The present study examined longitudinally potential butch/femme differences in sexual identity formation and integration among an ethnically diverse sample of 76 self-identified lesbian and bisexual young women (ages 14–21 years). A composite measure of butch/femme identity classified 43% as butch and 51% as femme. Initial comparisons found butch/femme differences in sexual identity (i.e., nearly all butches identified as lesbian, but about half of femmes identified as bisexual), suggesting the need to examine this confound. Comparisons of lesbian butches, lesbian femmes, and bisexual femmes found that lesbian butches and femmes generally did not differ on sexual identity formation, but they differed from bisexual femmes. Lesbian butches and femmes had sexual behaviors and a cognitive sexual orientation that were more centered on women than those of bisexual femmes. With respect to sexual identity integration, lesbian butches were involved in more gay social activities, were more comfortable with others knowing about their homosexuality, and were more certain, comfortable, and accepting of their sexual identity than were bisexual femmes. Fewer differences were found between lesbian femmes and bisexual femmes or between lesbian butches and lesbian femmes. The findings suggest that sexual identity formation does not differ between butch or femme women, but differences are linked to sexual identity as lesbian or bisexual. Further, the findings that lesbian femmes sometimes differed from lesbian butches and at other times from bisexual femmes on sexual identity integration suggest that neither sexual identity nor butch/femme alone may explain sexual identity integration. Research examining the intersection between sexual identity and butch/femme is needed.

Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce; Levy-Warren, Anna

2011-01-01

272

How to Improve the Validity of Sexual Behaviour Reporting: Systematic Review of Questionnaire Delivery Modes in Developing Countries  

PubMed Central

Summary Objectives To systematically review comparative research from developing countries on the effects of questionnaire delivery mode. Methods We searched Medline, EMbase and PsychINFO and ISSTDR conference proceedings. Randomized-controlled trials and quasi-experimental studies were included if they compared two or more questionnaire delivery modes, were conducted in a developing country, reported on sexual behaviours, and occurred after 1980. Results 28 articles reporting on 26 studies met the inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity of reported trial outcomes between studies made it inappropriate to combine trial outcomes. 18 studies compared audio computer-assisted survey instruments (ACASI) or its derivatives (PDA or CAPI) against another self-administered questionnaires, face-to-face interviews, or random response technique. Despite wide variation in geography and populations sampled, there was strong evidence that computer-assisted interviews lowered item-response rates and raised rates of reporting sensitive behaviours. ACASI also improved data entry quality. A wide range of sexual behaviours were reported including vaginal, oral, anal and/or forced sex, age of sexual debut, condom use at first and/or last sex. Validation of self-reports using biomarkers was rare. Conclusions These data reaffirm that questionnaire delivery modes do affect self-reported sexual ehaviours and that use of ACASI can significantly reduce reporting bias. Its acceptability and feasibility in developing country settings should encourage researchers to consider its use when conduct ing sexual health research. Triangulation of self-reported data using biomarkers is recommended. Standardising sexual behaviour measures would allow for meta-analysis.

Langhaug, Lisa F.; Sherr, Lorraine; Cowan, Frances M

2012-01-01

273

Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary in 2009  

SciTech Connect

The study reported herein was funded as part of the Anadromous Fish Evaluation Program, which is managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The Anadromous Fish Evaluation Program study code is EST P 02 01: A Study of Salmonid Survival and Behavior through the Columbia River Estuary Using Acoustic Tags. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Fisheries for the USACE Portland District. Estimated survival of acoustic-tagged juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead through the lower Columbia River and estuary in 2009 was lowest in the final 50 km of the estuary. Probability of survival was relatively high (>0.90) for yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon from the Bonneville Dam forebay (rkm 236) to Three-tree Point (rkm 49.6). Survival of juvenile Chinook salmon declined sharply through the lower 50 km of the estuary. Acoustic-tagged steelhead smolts did not survive as well as juvenile Chinook salmon between Bonneville Dam and the mouth of the Columbia River. Steelhead survival began to decline farther upstream (at rkm 86) relative to that of the Chinook salmon stocks. Subyearling Chinook salmon survival decreased markedly as the season progressed. It remains to be determined whether later migrating subyearling Chinook salmon are suffering increasing mortality as the season progresses or whether some portion of the apparent loss is due to fish extending their freshwater residence. This study provided the first glimpse into what promises to be a very informative way to learn more about how juvenile salmonid passage experiences through the FCRPS may influence their subsequent survival after passing Bonneville Dam. New information regarding the influence of migration pathway through the lower 50 km of the Columbia River estuary on probability of survival of juvenile salmonids, combined with increased understanding regarding the foraging distances and time periods of avian predators should prove useful in developing or assessing management actions to reduce losses of juvenile salmonid smolts that attempt to pass through the estuary on their seaward migration.

McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Carter, Jessica A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Titzler, P. Scott; Hughes, Michael S.

2010-08-01

274

Prevalence of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) in wild salmonids in western Norway.  

PubMed

Studies of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV), an important pathogen of farmed salmon in Norway, Scotland, the Faeroe Islands, Ireland, Canada, the USA and Chile, suggest that natural reservoirs for this virus can be found on both sides of the North Atlantic. Based on existing information about ISAV it is believed to be maintained in wild populations of trout and salmon in Europe. It has further been suggested that ISAV is transmitted between wild hosts, mainly during their freshwater spawning phase in rivers, and that wild salmonids, mainly trout, are possible carriers of benign wild-type variants of ISAV. Change in virulence is probably a result of deletions of amino acid segments from the highly polymorphic region (HPR) of benign wild-type isolates after transmission to farmed salmon. Hence, it has been suggested that the frequency of new outbreaks of ISA in farmed salmon could partly reflect natural variation in the prevalence of ISAV in wild populations of salmonids. The aims of the present study were to screen for ISAV in wild salmonids during spawning in rivers and to determine the pathogenicity of resultant isolates from wild fish. Tissues from wild salmonids were screened by RT-PCR and real-time PCR. The prevalence of ISAV in wild trout Salmo trutta varied from 62 to 100% between tested rivers in 2001. The prevalence dropped in 2002, ranging from 13 to 36% in the same rivers and to only 6% in 2003. All ISAV were nonpathogenic when injected into disease-free Atlantic salmon, but were capable of propagation, as indicated by subsequent viral recovery. However, non-pathogenic ISAV has also been found in farmed salmon, where a prevalence as high as 60% has been registered, but with no mortalities occurring. Based on the results of the present and other studies, it must be concluded that vital information about the importance of wild and man-made reservoirs for the emergence of ISA in salmon farming is still lacking. This information can only be gained by further screening of possible reservoirs, combined with the development of a molecular tool for typing virulence and the geographical origin of the virus isolates. PMID:16175969

Plarre, H; Devold, M; Snow, M; Nylund, A

2005-08-01

275

Human Sexuality: Responsible Life Choices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book provides a complete course in human sexuality. It can also be used to supplement a family living course. Text content provides current information for teaching high school students about sexuality issues. The text offers basic information on growth and development, sexual development, pregnancy, and birth. It explains the sexual

Ryder, Verdene; Smith, Peggy B.

276

Different Patterns of Sexual Identity Development over Time: Implications for the Psychological Adjustment of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite research documenting variability in the sexual identity development of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths, it remains unclear whether different developmental patterns have implications for the psychological adjustment of LGB youths. This report longitudinally examines whether different patterns of LGB identity formation and integration are associated with indicators of psychological adjustment among an ethnically diverse sample of 156 LGB

Margaret Rosario; Eric W. Schrimshaw; Joyce Hunter

2010-01-01

277

Proximate causes of Rensch's rule: does sexual size dimorphism in arthropods result from sex differences in development time?  

PubMed

A prominent interspecific pattern of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is Rensch's rule, according to which male body size is more variable or evolutionarily divergent than female body size. Assuming equal growth rates of males and females, SSD would be entirely mediated, and Rensch's rule proximately caused, by sexual differences in development times, or sexual bimaturism (SBM), with the larger sex developing for a proportionately longer time. Only a subset of the seven arthropod groups investigated in this study exhibits Rensch's rule. Furthermore, we found only a weak positive relationship between SSD and SBM overall, suggesting that growth rate differences between the sexes are more important than development time differences in proximately mediating SSD in a wide but by no means comprehensive range of arthropod taxa. Except when protandry is of selective advantage (as in many butterflies, Hymenoptera, and spiders), male development time was equal to (in water striders and beetles) or even longer than (in drosophilid and sepsid flies) that of females. Because all taxa show female-biased SSD, this implies faster growth of females in general, a pattern markedly different from that of primates and birds (analyzed here for comparison). We discuss three potential explanations for this pattern based on life-history trade-offs and sexual selection. PMID:17211807

Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Dixon, Anthony F G; Fairbairn, Daphne J; Foellmer, Matthias W; Gibert, Patricia; van der Linde, Kim; Meier, Rudolf; Nylin, Sören; Pitnick, Scott; Schoff, Christopher; Signorelli, Martino; Teder, Tiit; Wiklund, Christer

2006-12-20

278

Uncommonly Good: Exploring How Mass Media May Be a Positive Influence on Young Women's Sexual Health and Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This chapter discusses several ways in which the media may serve as a positive force in young women's sexual health and development through the information and models they provide and the opportunities they offer for validation and self-expression. (Contains 1 table.)|

Ward, L. Monique; Day, Kyla M.; Epstein, Marina

2006-01-01

279

Relationships of Pubertal Development among Early Adolescents to Sexual and Nonsexual Risk Behaviors and Caregivers' Parenting Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using a school-based sample of fifth graders (mean age = 10.38, SD = 0.66) and their parents (N = 408) from Washington, D.C., the authors examine associations of pubertal development with early adolescents' sexual and nonsexual risk behaviors and their caregivers' parenting behaviors and of these risk behaviors with parenting behaviors. Results…

Koo, Helen P.; Rose, Allison; Bhaskar, Brinda; Walker, Leslie R.

2012-01-01

280

Impact of the Potholes Reservoir Caspian Tern Breeding Colony on Out-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids in the Mid-Columbia River  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the foraging behavior and diet of Caspian terns Hydroprogne caspia breeding at Potholes Reservoir, Washington, in 2003, 2005, and 2006, and we developed a bioenergetics model to estimate impacts on juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. from Columbia River stocks. Potholes Reservoir Caspian terns mostly foraged on local fish (68–97% of tern bill loads) rather than traveling to the Columbia

Christina J. Maranto; Thomas P. Good; Francis K. Wiese; Julia K. Parrish

2010-01-01

281

Sexual orientation and boyhood gender conformity: development of the Boyhood Gender Conformity Scale (BGCS)  

PubMed

Two hundred twenty-five [corrected] respondents (109 [corrected] heterosexuals and 116 [corrected] homosexuals) completed a survey containing a 20-item Boyhood Gender Conformity Scale (BGCS). This scale was largely composed of edited and abridged gender items from Part A of Freund et al.'s Feminine Gender Identity Scale (FGIS-A) and Whitam's "childhood indicators." The combined scale was developed in an attempt to obtain a reliable, valid, and potent discriminating instrument for accurately classifying adult male respondents for sexual orientation on the basis of their reported boyhood gender conformity or nonconforming behavior and identity. In addition, 33% of these respondents were administered the original FGIS-A and Whitam inventory during a 2-week test-retest analysis conducted to determine the validity and reliability of the new instrument. All the original items significantly discriminated between heterosexual and homosexual respondents. From these a 13-item function and a 5-item function proved to be the most powerful discriminators between the two groups. Significant correlations between each of the three scales and a very high test-retest correlation coefficient supported the reliability and validity assumption for the BGCS. The conclusion was made that the five-item function (playing with boys, preferring [corrected] boys' games, imagining self as sports figure, reading adventure and sports stories, considered a "sissy") was the most potent and parsimonious discriminator among adult males for sexual orientation. It was similarly noted that the absence of masculine behaviors and traits appeared to be a more powerful predictor of later homosexual orientation than the traditionally feminine or cross-sexed traits and behaviors. PMID:3484335

Hockenberry, S L; Billingham, R E

1987-12-01

282

Development of a rapid, 96-well alkaline based differential DNA extraction method for sexual assault evidence.  

PubMed

We present a rapid alkaline lysis procedure for the extraction of DNA from sexual assault evidence that generates purified sperm fraction extracts that yield STR typing results similar to those obtained from the traditional organic/dithiothreitol differential extraction. Specifically, a sodium hydroxide based differential extraction method has been developed in a single-tube format and further optimized in a 96-well format. The method yields purified extracts from a small sample set (? 2-6 swabs) in approximately 2h and from a larger sample set (up to 96 swabs) in approximately 4h. While conventional differential extraction methods require vigorous sample manipulation to remove the spermatozoa from the substrate, the method described here exploits the propensity of sperm to adhere to a substrate and does not require any manipulation of the substrate after it is sampled. For swabs, sample handling is minimized by employing a process where the tip of the swab, including the shaft, is transferred to the appropriate vessel eliminating the need for potentially hazardous scalpels to separate the swab material from the shaft. The absence of multiple handling steps allows the process to be semi-automated, however the procedure as described here does not require use of a robotic system. This method may provide forensic laboratories a cost-effective tool for the eradication of backlogs of sexual assault evidence, and more timely service to their client agencies. In addition, we have demonstrated that a modification of the procedure can be used to retrieve residual sperm-cell DNA from previously extracted swabs. PMID:21288791

Hudlow, William R; Buoncristiani, Martin R

2011-02-01

283

INVOLVEMENT OF STAT3 IN MOUSE BRAIN DEVELOPMENT AND SEXUAL DIMORPHISM: A PROTEOMICS APPROACH  

PubMed Central

Although the role of STAT3 in cell physiology and tissue development has been largely investigated, its involvement in the development and maintenance of nervous tissue and in the mechanisms of neuroprotection is not yet known. The potentially wide range of STAT3 activities raise the question of tissue- and gender-specificity as putative mechanisms of regulation. To explore the function of STAT3 in the brain and the hypothesis of a gender-linked modulation of STAT3, we analyzed a neuron-specific STAT3 knockout mouse model investigating the influence of STAT3 activity in brain protein expression pattern in both males and females in the absence of neurological insult. We performed a proteomic study aimed to reveal the molecular pathways directly or indirectly controlled by STAT3 underscoring its role in brain development and maintenance. We identified several proteins, belonging to different neuronal pathways such as energy metabolism or synaptic transmission, controlled by STAT3 that confirm its crucial role in brain development and maintenance. Moreover, we investigated the different processes that could contribute to the sexual dimorphic behavior observed in the incidence of neurological and mental disease. Interestingly both STAT3 KO and gender factors influence the expression of several mitochondrial proteins conferring to mitochondrial activity high importance in the regulation of brain physiology and conceivable relevance as therapeutic target.

Di Domenico, Fabio; Casalena, Gabriella; Sultana, Rukhsana; Cai, Jian; Pierce, William M.; Perluigi, Marzia; Cini, Chiara; Baracca, Alessandra; Solaini, Giancarlo; Lenaz, Giorgio; Jia, Jia; Dziennis, Suzan; Murphy, Stephanie J.; Alkayed, Nabil J.; Butterfield, D. Allan

2010-01-01

284

An organizer controls the development of the sword, a sexually selected trait in swordtail fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Male swordtail fish of the genus Xiphophorus (Poeciliidae) possess a ''sword'' that is composed of several colored elongated ventral fin rays of the caudal fin. The sword is a secondary sexual trait that evolved through sexual selection by female preference. To uncover the developmental mechanisms underlying the metamorphosis from a juvenile caudal fin to the sword, we have devised

Cornelius Eibner; Silke Pittlik; Axel Meyer; Gerrit Begemann

2008-01-01

285

Toward a Sexual Ethics Curriculum: Bringing Philosophy and Society to Bear on Individual Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For over a decade, battles have raged between conservative Abstinence Only Until Marriage (AOUM) sexuality education advocates and liberal Comprehensive Sexuality Education (CSE) advocates. While these battles have focused on the inclusion of health information about contraception and whether or not a curriculum must advocate abstinence as the…

Lamb, Sharon

2010-01-01

286

Development of a sexual assault evidence collection kit – The need for standardization in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual offences are recognized to be one of the most critical of crimes throughout the world. In Turkey, forcible rapes show, in the sexual crime rates, an increase of approximately 3% every year. It becomes even more critical, when realizing that less than half of all rapes, which are believed to occur, are reported to law enforcement, and of those

M. R. Gökdo?an; J. Bafra

2010-01-01

287

SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT AND BEHAVIOUR ISSUES IN POLISH TEENAGE MAGAzINES  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaRy Introduction: Adolescents often look to mass media for information regarding issues of sexuality. As one form of media, teenage magazines have long constituted a pervasive and effective element of adolescent media exposure. Teenage magazines discuss a number of aspects concerning adolescent sexuality. Considering their potential impact on health related behaviors, the information they provide and the message(s) they send

S. Kopacz

288

A Human Sexuality Workshop for Community Professionals: Its Development and Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A 2-day workshop in human sexuality was planned, implemented, and evaluated by the Genesee Region Family Planning Program, Inc., Rochester, New York. The goal of the workshop was to increase participant tolerance to a variety of patterns of sexual behavior. To measure attitudinal change, the Minnesota Sex Attitude Survey was administered one…

Braverman, Barbara B.; Levine, Steven G.

289

A behavioral?ecological model of adolescent sexual development: A template for aids prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical and health educational services are insufficient to control AIDS risk behavior. A new conceptual model that can guide more effective behavioral change strategies for whole communities is required to modify sexual practices and control the AIDS epidemic. We integrated learning theories with an ecological model to create a behavioral?ecological conceptual model of sexual risk behavior. We assumed a developmental

Melbourne F. Hovell; Eva R. Hillman; Elaine Blumberg; Carol Sipan; Cathie Atkins; C. Richard Hofstetter; C. Arthur Myers

1994-01-01

290

Development of an Attachment-Informed Measure of Sexual Behavior in Late Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is considerable interest in relations between sexual behavior and romantic attachment styles in adolescence as attachment needs are increasingly met through intimate partners rather than parents. The objectives of this research were to organize a measure of sexual behavior within an attachment theory framework, and then show that this new…

Szielasko, Alicia L.; Symons, Douglas K.; Price, E. Lisa

2013-01-01

291

Gender, Pubertal Development, and Peer Sexual Harassment Predict Objectified Body Consciousness in Early Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objectified body consciousness (OBC)--the tendency to view one's body as an object for others to look at and evaluate--is theorized to emerge during sexual maturation as adolescents, particularly adolescent girls, experience sexual objectification. Although OBC generally is discussed in developmental terms, research so far has examined primarily…

Lindberg, Sara M.; Grabe, Shelly; Hyde, Janet Shibley

2007-01-01

292

Sexual Harassment and the Developing Sense of Self among Adolescent Girls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents findings from a national action study focusing on sexual harassment as it is experienced and understood by girls. Findings reveal that sexual harassment occurs in a highly public manner; is supported and condoned in subtle and explicit ways; and through its enactment, girls' sense of selves diminished. Discusses implications for…

Berman, Helene; Izumi, Janet; Arnold, Carrie Traher

2002-01-01

293

Developing a realistic sexual network model of chlamydia transmission in Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A national chlamydia screening programme is currently being rolled out in the UK and other countries. However, much of the epidemiology remains poorly understood. In this paper we present a stochastic, individual based, dynamic sexual network model of chlamydia transmission and its parameterisation. Mathematical models provide a theoretical framework for understanding the key epidemiological features of chlamydia: sexual behaviour,

Katherine ME Turner; Elisabeth J Adams; Nigel Gay; Azra C Ghani; Catherine Mercer; W John Edmunds

2006-01-01

294

Development of a Clinical Instrument to Record Sexual Aggression in an Inpatient Psychiatric Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While there are a number of instruments that assess historical factors related to sexual aggression for the purposes of risk assessment, there is a notable absence of measures that assess change in ongoing, sexually aggressive behaviours engaged in by people who reside in psychiatric hospitals. The purpose of this report is to describe the…

Jones, Nicole Tuomi; Sheitman, Brian; Hazelrigg, Mark; Carmel, Harold; Williams, Jim; Paesler, Betty

2007-01-01

295

Nonautonomous Sex Determination Controls Sexually Dimorphic Development of the Drosophila Gonad  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Sex determination in Drosophila is commonly thought to be a cell-autonomous process, where each cell decides its own sexual fate based on its sex chromosome constitution (XX versus XY). This is in contrast to sex determination in mammals, which largely acts nonautonomously through cell- cell signaling. Here we examine how sexual dimor- phism is created in the Drosophila gonad

Tony DeFalco; Nicole Camara; Stéphanie Le Bras; Mark Van Doren

2008-01-01

296

Editorial: Subaltern sexualities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anyone who is passionate about women, gender and development in African contexts needs to interrogate discourses about African sexuality. These dis- courses have long histories of academic authority that have assisted in ensuring that hegemonic discourses about sexuality were at the heart of the continent's underdevelopment during colonialism. And as contributors to Feminist Africa 5 (on Sexual Cultures) point out,

Elaine Salo; Pumla Dineo Gqola

297

Discovering Sexuality in Dostoevsky  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most discussions of sexuality in the work of Dostoevsky have been framed in Freudian terms. But Dostoevsky himself wrote about sexuality from a decidedly pre-Freudian perspective. By looking at the views of human sexual development that were available in Dostoevsky's time and that he, an avid reader and observer of his own social context, absorbed and reacted to, Susanne Fusso

Susanne Fusso

2006-01-01

298

Polyphasic characterization of Aeromonas salmonicida isolates recovered from salmonid and non-salmonid fish.  

PubMed

Michigan's fisheries rely primarily upon the hatchery propagation of salmonid fish for release in public waters. One limitation on the success of these efforts is the presence of bacterial pathogens, including Aeromonas salmonicida, the causative agent of furunculosis. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of A. salmonicida in Michigan fish, as well as to determine whether biochemical or gene sequence variability exists among Michigan isolates. A total of 2202 wild, feral and hatchery-propagated fish from Michigan were examined for the presence of A. salmonicida. The examined fish included Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), coho salmon, O. kisutcha (Walbaum), steelhead trout, O. mykiss (Walbaum), Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill), and yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill). Among these, 234 fish yielded a brown pigment-producing bacterium that was presumptively identified as A. salmonicida. Further phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses identified representative isolates as Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and revealed some genetic and biochemical variability. Logistic regression analyses showed that infection prevalence varied according to fish species/strain, year and gender, whereby Chinook salmon and females had the highest infection prevalence. Moreover, this pathogen was found in six fish species from eight sites, demonstrating its widespread nature within Michigan. PMID:23444966

Diamanka, A; Loch, T P; Cipriano, R C; Faisal, M

2013-02-27

299

Sexual Health  

MedlinePLUS

... experiences, free of coercion, discrimination and violence. [1] Sexual Health News & Information HHS Statement on LGBT Health Awareness ... infectious diseases, reproductive health and sexual violence prevention. Sexual Health Topics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Up-to-date information ...

300

Salmonid influences on rivers: A geomorphic fish tail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of the effects of salmonids on the environment have focused primarily on the biological linkages between salmon runs and stream ecology. Less effort has focused on geomorphic effects. A review of the literature indicates potential (i) direct effects in response to mass spawning of salmonids, including changes in streambed and bank morphology and annual volumes of bedload transported; and (ii) indirect effects including supply of nutrients to the riparian zone, which may influence the in-channel dynamics of large woody debris and bank stability, and effects on population density of net-spinning caddisfly larvae which may influence streambed stability in finer gravel substrates. More research is needed over long time frames, however, to ascertain whether such effects are geomorphically significant at larger spatial and longer temporal scales, and to estimate the sizes of populations required to cause geomorphically significant responses. Some possible studies are suggested.

DeVries, Paul

2012-07-01

301

The Sexual Activity Questionnaire: A measure of women's sexual functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual activity is an important dimension of quality of life. Therefore it is important to assess the impact that any treatment may have on sexual functioning so that patients can be warned of possible side effects and interventions offered to help ameliorate these. The Sexual Activity Questionnaire (SAQ) was developed to investigate the impact of long-term tamoxifen on the sexual

K. Thirlaway; L. Fallowfield; J. Cuzick

1996-01-01

302

Formative research for the development of an interactive web-based sexually transmitted disease management intervention for young women.  

PubMed

Sexually transmitted diseases are common among young women and effective self-management is foundational to improving health outcomes and preventing negative sequelae. Advances in technology create the opportunity for innovative delivery methods of self-management interventions. However, it is essential to conduct formative research with the target population to identify both the needs and the preferences for the content and delivery method of a sexually transmitted disease self-management intervention prior to intervention development. Eight focus groups were conducted with 35 young women between 18 and 24 years of age. We found that young women strongly support the use of a Web-based intervention to provide sexually transmitted disease self-management guidance. Women were interested in receiving comprehensive management information from the perspective of both clinicians and other women who have experienced a sexually transmitted disease. There was a clear interest in incorporating new media into the Web-based intervention to allow for communication with providers as well as to create opportunities for social networking between women. This formative research provides critical information about the content and delivery method of a self-management intervention and gives direction for intervention development that is inclusive of varying types of new media to allow for connectivity among users, their peers, and clinicians. PMID:24080752

Royer, Heather R; Fernandez-Lambert, Katherin M; Moreno, Megan A

2013-09-01

303

Linking Forests and Fish: The Relationship Between Productivities of Salmonids and Forest Stands in Northern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Productivities of resident salmonid populations, upland, and riparian areas in 25 small watersheds of coastal northern California were estimated and compared to determine if: 1) upland site productivity predicted riparian site productivity; 2) either upland or riparian site productivity predicted salmonid productivity; and 3) other parameters explained more of the variance in salmonid productivity than upland or riparian site productivity. Salmonid productivity was indexed by total salmonid biomass, length of age 1 fish, and percent habitat saturation. Upland and riparian site productivities were estimated using site indices for redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and red alder (Alnus rubra), respectively. Upland and riparian site indices were correlated, but neither factor contributed to the best approximating models of salmonid biomass or fish length at age one. Salmonid biomass was best described by a positive relationship with drainage area, and length at age was best described by a positive relationship with percent of riparian hardwoods. Percent habitat saturation was not well described by any of the models constructed. Lack of a relationship between upland conifer and salmonid productivity suggests that management of land for timber productivity and component streams for salmonid production in these sites will require separate, albeit integrated, strategies.

Wilzbach, P.; Frazey, S.

2005-05-01

304

The biology of sexual development of Plasmodium: the design and implementation of transmission-blocking strategies  

PubMed Central

A meeting to discuss the latest developments in the biology of sexual development of Plasmodium and transmission-control was held April 5-6, 2011, in Bethesda, MD. The meeting was sponsored by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIH/NIAID) in response to the challenge issued at the Malaria Forum in October 2007 that the malaria community should re-engage with the objective of global eradication. The consequent rebalancing of research priorities has brought to the forefront of the research agenda the essential need to reduce parasite transmission. A key component of any transmission reduction strategy must be methods to attack the parasite as it passes from man to the mosquito (and vice versa). Such methods must be rationally based on a secure understanding of transmission from the molecular-, cellular-, population- to the evolutionary-levels. The meeting represented a first attempt to draw together scientists with expertise in these multiple layers of understanding to discuss the scientific foundations and resources that will be required to provide secure progress toward the design and successful implementation of effective interventions.

2012-01-01

305

Sexual dimorphism in parental imprint ontogeny and contribution to embryonic development.  

PubMed

Genomic imprinting refers to the functional non-equivalence of parental genomes in mammals that results from the parent-of-origin allelic expression of a subset of genes. Parent-specific expression is dependent on the germ line acquisition of DNA methylation marks at imprinting control regions (ICRs), coordinated by the DNA-methyltransferase homolog DNMT3L. We discuss here how the gender-specific stages of DNMT3L expression may have influenced the various sexually dimorphic aspects of genomic imprinting: (1) the differential developmental timing of methylation establishment at paternally and maternally imprinted genes in each parental germ line, (2) the differential dependence on DNMT3L of parental methylation imprint establishment, (3) the unequal duration of paternal versus maternal methylation imprints during germ cell development, (4) the biased distribution of methylation-dependent ICRs towards the maternal genome, (5) the different genomic organization of paternal versus maternal ICRs, and finally (6) the overwhelming contribution of maternal germ line imprints to development compared to their paternal counterparts. PMID:18178305

Bourc'his, Déborah; Proudhon, Charlotte

2007-11-29

306

Basigin expression and regulation in mouse ovary during the sexual maturation and development of corpus luteum.  

PubMed

Basigin is a highly glycosylated transmembrane protein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily. Basigin-deficient male mice are azoospermic. The majority of basigin null embryos die around the time of implantation. However, basigin expression and regulation in mouse ovary is still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate basigin expression in mouse ovary during sexual maturation, gonadotropin treatment, and luteal development by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Both basigin mRNA and immunostaining were not detected in the granulosa cells of preantral follicles until day 20 after birth. On day 30 after birth, basigin immunostaining dropped to a basal level, while basigin mRNA was still at a high level. Basigin expression was strongly induced by equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) treatment at 4 and 8 hr post-eCG injection. Both basigin immunostaining and mRNA signals were strongly observed in the corpus luteum on days 2 and 3 post-hCG injection. However, no basigin expression was detected from days 6 to 15 post-hCG injection. In conclusion, our data suggest that basigin may play a role during the mouse follicle development and corpus luteum formation. PMID:15095333

Chang, Hong; Ni, Hua; Ma, Xing-Hong; Xu, Li-Bin; Kadomatsu, Kenji; Muramatsu, Takashi; Yang, Zeng-Ming

2004-06-01

307

Ceratomyxa shasta genotypes cause differential mortality in their salmonid hosts.  

PubMed

Ceratomyxa shasta is a myxozoan parasite of salmonid fish. In natural communities, distinct genotypes of the parasite are associated with different salmonid hosts. To test the hypothesis that genotypes of C. shasta cause differential mortality, the polychaete host was experimentally infected with different parasite genotypes. Genotype I was obtained from Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and genotype II from either coho salmon, O. kisutch, or rainbow trout, O. mykiss, We then challenged four salmonid strains: Chinook and coho salmon that occur in sympatry with the parasite and allopatric Chinook salmon and rainbow trout. Parasite genotype I caused mortality only in Chinook strains, although mortality in the allopatric strain also occurred from exposure to genotype II. A second experiment demonstrated that genotype II could be separated into two biotypes based on differential mortality in rainbow trout and coho salmon. These differential patterns of mortality as a result of infection by certain genotypes of C. shasta support field observations and suggest a co-evolutionary relationship between these parasites and their hosts. PMID:22808922

Hurst, C N; Bartholomew, J L

2012-07-19

308

Predicting Different Patterns of Sexual Identity Development Over Time Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youths: A Cluster Analytic Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has suggested that the sexual identity development of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths may not follow\\u000a a single pattern, but may follow a variety of pathways. Although some research documenting variability in identity development\\u000a exists, unclear are the potential individual and social contexts that predict these different patterns, as well as the contexts\\u000a that predict changes in

Margaret Rosario; Eric W. Schrimshaw; Joyce Hunter

2008-01-01

309

Stirring it up or stirring it in? Perspectives on the development of sexualities equality in a faith?based primary school  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines what happened within one Church of England primary school during an action research project concerning sexualities. No Outsiders aimed at exploring how teachers developed classroom practices that promoted greater inclusion of sexual minorities, at the same time as working to eradicate homophobic bullying and heterosexism. This examination engages current research methodologies, including post?structural analytics and narrative ethnography,

David Nixon; Sue East

2010-01-01

310

Disorders of sexual development and associated changes in the pituitary-gonadal axis in dogs.  

PubMed

Normal sexual differentiation depends on completion of chromosomal sex determination, gonadal differentiation, and development of the phenotypic sex. An irregularity in any of these three steps can lead to a disorder in sexual development (DSD). We examined nine dogs with DSD by abdominal ultrasonography, laparotomy, histologic examination of the gonads, and reproductive tract, cytogenetic analysis, and mRNA expression of the SRY gene. We also determined the plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol-17?, and testosterone before and after administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and compared these results with those obtained in anestrous bitches and male control dogs. The gonads of three dogs with DSD contained both testicular and ovarian tissue, while in the other six only testicular tissue was found. Each of the dogs had a uterus. Based on gynecologic examination, cytogenetic analysis, and the histology of the gonads, seven of the nine dogs appeared to be XX sex reversals. Three of these were XX true hermaphrodites and four were XX males; the other two dogs had incomplete XY gonadal dysgenesis. All seven XX sex-reversed dogs were found to be negative for the SRY gene by polymerase chain reaction. The basal plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) concentration was significantly higher in dogs with DSD than in anestrous bitches but not significantly different from that in male dogs. The basal plasma LH concentration increased significantly after GnRH administration in all dogs with DSD. The basal plasma estradiol concentration was significantly higher in dogs with DSD than in anestrous bitches but not significantly different from that in male dogs. The basal plasma testosterone concentration was lower in dogs with DSD than in male dogs. In all dogs with DSD both the basal and GnRH-induced plasma testosterone concentrations were above the upper limit of their respective ranges in the anestrous bitches. In conclusion, the secretion of LH and estradiol in these dogs with DSD, all of which had testicular tissue in their gonads, was similar to that in male control dogs. These results indicate that the basal and/or GnRH-stimulated plasma testosterone concentration might be used to detect the presence of testicular tissue in dogs with DSD. PMID:22980090

Buijtels, J J C W M; de Gier, J; Kooistra, H S; Grinwis, G C M; Naan, E C; Zijlstra, C; Okkens, A C

2012-10-15

311

Sexual harassment proclivities in men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three studies were conducted to develop and validate a measure of sexual harassment proclivities in males. Previous studies of sexual harassment were reviewed and a gap in the current knowledge of the psychological characteristics of sexual harassers was revealed. A possible technique for studying sexual harassment proclivities was suggested by recent research on rape proclivities. Two initial studies using this

John B. Pryor

1987-01-01

312

The Development of Reproductive Strategy in Females: Early Maternal Harshness ? Earlier Menarche ? Increased Sexual Risk Taking  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test a proposition central to J. Belsky, L. Steinberg, and P. Draper’s (1991) evolutionary theory of socialization—that pubertal maturation plays a role in linking early rearing experience with adolescent sexual risk taking (i.e., frequency of sexual behavior) and, perhaps, other risk taking (e.g., alcohol, drugs, delinquency)—the authors subjected longitudinal data on 433 White, 62 Black, and 31 Hispanic females

Jay Belsky; Laurence Steinberg; Renate M. Houts; Bonnie L. Halpern-Felsher

2010-01-01

313

Assessing Success of Instream Structures for Salmonid Stream Restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stream restoration is a billion dollar industry in North America; despite this expenditure there remain questions regarding the effectiveness of current techniques such as the installation of instream structures. Assessing the effect that such structures have on physical habitat and on salmonid density are key ways of determining project success. The objectives of this research were to assess the impact of instream structures on physical habitat in the Nicolet River (Quebec) and to analyze physical habitat and fish density data from many stream restoration projects in North America. Results of intensive surveys of the Nicolet River show that the installation of weirs and deflectors results in a greater frequency of pools. These pools have significantly greater depths, lower velocities, larger sediment size and higher percent cover than those without structures. Meta analysis of data from 187 stream restoration projects in North America also show significant increases in percent pool area, average depth, and percent cover as well as decreases in channel width following the installation of structures. The physical changes observed in the Nicolet River resulted in improved trout habitat, as measured by applying habitat preference curves, but uneven stocking practices and fishing pressure confounded attempts to verify differences in trout density based on presence or absence of structures. The meta analysis, however, shows significant increases in salmonid density, measured as fish/m2, following the installation of structures. On average, density increased by 161%. Different structure types result in significantly different changes in physical habitat, with weir structures providing the largest density increase. Multiple linear regression analysis reveals that the combination of change in relative pool area and in width is the best predictor of change in salmonid density (r2=0.511). Instream structures are significantly more successful at increasing brook trout density than cutthroat and steelhead trout or coho salmon. Furthermore, salmonids over 15cm in length show significantly higher increases in density than smaller fish. These results highlight that restoration structures can play an important role in creating better habitat for salmonids and increasing their densities, but much work is needed to determine the best way to rehabilitate disturbed streams for various species.

Whiteway, S.; Biron, P.

2009-05-01

314

THE ROLE OF ANDROGENS AND ESTROGENS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF BRAIN AND PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: APPROACHES TO DEVELOPING ANIMAL MODELS FOR SEXUALLY DIMORPHIC BEHAVIORS  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation provides an overview of research on the effects of hormonally active chemicals on sexual differentiation of the brain including (a) research on the role of androgens and estrogens in the development of the brain and peripheral nervous system, (b) approaches to d...

315

Plasmodium falciparum Gametocyte Development 1 (Pfgdv1) and Gametocytogenesis Early Gene Identification and Commitment to Sexual Development  

PubMed Central

Malaria transmission requires the production of male and female gametocytes in the human host followed by fertilization and sporogonic development in the mosquito midgut. Although essential for the spread of malaria through the population, little is known about the initiation of gametocytogenesis in vitro or in vivo. Using a gametocyte-defective parasite line and genetic complementation, we show that Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte development 1 gene (Pfgdv1), encoding a peri-nuclear protein, is critical for early sexual differentiation. Transcriptional analysis of Pfgdv1 negative and positive parasite lines identified a set of gametocytogenesis early genes (Pfge) that were significantly down-regulated (>10 fold) in the absence of Pfgdv1 and expression was restored after Pfgdv1 complementation. Progressive accumulation of Pfge transcripts during successive rounds of asexual replication in synchronized cultures suggests that gametocytes are induced continuously during asexual growth. Comparison of Pfge gene transcriptional profiles in patient samples divided the genes into two groups differing in their expression in mature circulating gametocytes and providing candidates to evaluate gametocyte induction and maturation separately in vivo. The expression profile of one of the early gametocyte specific genes, Pfge1, correlated significantly with asexual parasitemia, which is consistent with the ongoing induction of gametocytogenesis during asexual growth observed in vitro and reinforces the need for sustained transmission-blocking strategies to eliminate malaria.

Eksi, Saliha; Morahan, Belinda J.; Haile, Yoseph; Furuya, Tetsuya; Jiang, Hongying; Ali, Omar; Xu, Huichun; Kiattibutr, Kirakorn; Suri, Amreena; Czesny, Beata; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Myers, Timothy G.; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Su, Xin-zhuan; Williamson, Kim C.

2012-01-01

316

Childhood sexual abuse and the course of alcohol dependence development: Findings from a female twin sample  

PubMed Central

Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with increased risk for alcohol dependence (AD), but the extent to which CSA history may impact transitions in the course of AD development remains unclear. The current study examined the role of CSA in initiation of alcohol use and rate of progression from first drink to AD using a sample of 3,536 female twins (mean age = 21.6 years). Psychiatric diagnoses and alcohol use histories were obtained via telephone interviews using an adaptation of the SSAGA. The contribution of CSA to alcohol outcomes independent of familial influences was estimated by using co-twin AD status to adjust for familial liability to AD. CSA was associated with higher rates of both lifetime alcohol use and AD, but CSA-associated risk for consumption of first alcoholic drink was evident only at ages 12 and 13. Rate of transition from first alcohol use to AD did not differ by CSA status. Findings indicate that CSA and elevated risk for AD may be linked via early age at first drink and that progression from first drink to AD follows a similar course among women with and without histories of CSA.

Sartor, Carolyn E.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; McCutcheon, Vivia V.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Waldron, Mary; Heath, Andrew C.

2007-01-01

317

Sexual development in prepubertal obese boys: a 4-year longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Abstract The objective of the study was to evaluate whether or not sexual development differs between boys with prepubertal obesity and boys of normal weight. We enrolled healthy obese and normoweight schoolboys from Shenyang City, Liaoning, China. Eligible boys were at Tanner stage 1 and 8 years of age at baseline. We measured testosterone and estradiol concentrations in the saliva and assessed auxology annually for 4 years. In all 56 obese and 56 normoweight boys, the height, weight, body composition, and sex organ volume increased with age. The percentages of body fat, fat mass, and lean mass were all higher in obese than in normoweight boys. The mean testicular volume was smaller in obese boys than in normoweight boys. The sex hormone concentrations increased with age, except for testosterone in obese boys in year 3 of follow-up. In year 4, estradiol concentrations were significantly higher in obese boys than in normoweight boys. Excessive adiposity in prepubertal boys might affect testicular volume, possibly because of high estradiol and low testosterone concentrations. PMID:23729608

Zhai, Lingling; Zhao, Jian; Bai, Yinglong; Liu, Li; Zheng, Linlin; Jia, Lihong; Yao, Xingjia

2013-05-24

318

Hormonally-mediated Epigenetic Changes to Steroid Receptors in the Developing Brain: Implications for Sexual Differentiation  

PubMed Central

The establishment of sex-specific neural morphology, which underlies sex-specific behaviors, occurs during a perinatal sensitive window in which brief exposure to gonadal steroid hormones produces permanent masculinization of the brain. In the rodent, estradiol derived from testicular androgens is a principle organizational hormone. The mechanism by which transient estradiol exposure induces permanent differences in neuronal anatomy has been widely investigated, but remains elusive. Epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, allow environmental influences to alter long-term gene expression patterns and therefore may be a potential mediator of estradiol-induced organization of the neonatal brain. Here we review data that demonstrate sex and estradiol-induced differences in DNA methylation on the estrogen receptor ? (ER?), estrogen receptor ? (ER?), and progesterone receptor (PR) promoters in sexually dimorphic brain regions across development. Contrary to the overarching view of DNA methylation as a permanent modification directly tied to gene expression, these data demonstrate that methylation patterns on steroid hormone receptors change across the life span and do not necessarily predict expression. Although further exploration into the mechanism and significance of estradiol-induced alterations in DNA methylation patterns in the neonatal brain is necessary, these results provide preliminary evidence that epigenetic alterations can occur in response to early hormone exposure and may mediate estradiol-induced organization of sex differences in the neonatal brain.

Nugent, Bridget M.; Schwarz, Jaclyn M.; McCarthy, Margaret M.

2010-01-01

319

In utero and lactational exposure to fluoxetine in wistar rats: pregnancy outcomes and sexual development.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the reproductive effects of fluoxetine exposure in utero and during lactation on pregnancy outcomes and the sexual development of offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats were treated daily with fluoxetine (0.4, 1.7 and 17 mg/kg/day) or distilled water by gavage from gestation day (GD) 7 to lactation day (LD) 21. A significant reduction in maternal body weight was observed during pregnancy and lactation in dams exposed to 17 mg/kg fluoxetine. Hormone analysis revealed an increase in progestagen and glucocorticoid metabolites on GD 15 and oestrogen and progestagen metabolites on LD 7 in dams treated with 17 mg/kg fluoxetine. Oestrogen metabolites also were increased on LD 7 in dams treated with 0.4 mg/kg fluoxetine. Besides that, an increase in the weight of the adrenal glands and a reduction in uterine weight in dams exposed to highest dose of fluoxetine were observed. Finally, pup birthweight and the viability and weaning indices also were reduced in animals exposed to 17 mg/kg fluoxetine. Overall, maternal hormonal changes were only observed at the highest dose tested, which also induced maternal and foetal toxicity. No significant changes were seen in dams or offspring exposed to therapeutic-like doses. PMID:23527813

Müller, Juliane C; Boareto, Ana C; Lourenço, Emerson L B; Zaia, Renata M; Kienast, Mariana F; Spercoski, Katherinne M; Morais, Rosana N; Martino-Andrade, Anderson J; Dalsenter, Paulo R

2013-05-07

320

Does Atrazine Influence Larval Development and Sexual Differentiation in Xenopus laevis?  

PubMed Central

Debate and controversy exists concerning the potential for the herbicide atrazine to cause gonadal malformations in developing Xenopus laevis. Following review of the existing literature the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency required a rigorous investigation conducted under standardized procedures. X. laevis tadpoles were exposed to atrazine at concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, 1, 25, or 100 ?g/l from day 8 postfertilization (dpf) until completion of metamorphosis or dpf 83, whichever came first. Nearly identical experiments were performed in two independent laboratories: experiment 1 at Wildlife International, Ltd. and experiment 2 at the Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB). Both experiments employed optimized animal husbandry procedures and environmental conditions in validated flow-through exposure systems. The two experiments demonstrated consistent survival, growth, and development of X. laevis tadpoles, and all measured parameters were within the expected ranges and were comparable in negative control and atrazine-treated groups. Atrazine, at concentrations up to 100 ?g/l, had no effect in either experiment on the percentage of males or the incidence of mixed sex as determined by histological evaluation. In contrast, exposure of larval X. laevis to 0.2 ?g 17?-estradiol/l as the positive control resulted in gonadal feminization. Instead of an even distribution of male and female phenotypes, percentages of males:females:mixed sex were 19:75:6 and 22:60:18 in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. These studies demonstrate that long-term exposure of larval X. laevis to atrazine at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 100 ?g/l does not affect growth, larval development, or sexual differentiation.

Kloas, Werner; Lutz, Ilka; Springer, Timothy; Krueger, Henry; Wolf, Jeff; Holden, Larry; Hosmer, Alan

2009-01-01

321

Land Use Planning for Salmon, Steehead and Trout: A Land Use Planner's Guide to Salmonid Habitat Protection and Recovery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) is providing this guidance on planning for salmon, steelhead and trout (also known as salmonids) to help integrate local land use planning programs and state salmonid recovery efforts. This planners gu...

2009-01-01

322

Sexual Identity Trajectories Among Sexual-Minority Youths: Gender Comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation explored gender differences in sexual identity development—first same-sex attractions, self-labeling, same-sex sexual contact, and disclosure—among 164 sexual-minority young adults. Based on interviews, results indicated the value of assessing gender differences in the context, timing, spacing, and sequencing of sexual identity milestones. Adolescent males had an earlier onset of all milestones except disclosure. The context for sexual identity

Ritch C. Savin-Williams; Lisa M. Diamond

2000-01-01

323

Sexuality on the Internet: Sexual Exploration, Cybersex, and Pornography  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sexuality as a developmental issue is present throughout the life cycle, but becomes especially salient during adolescence.\\u000a Adolescents have to adjust to their developing sexuality, in particular their increased sexual drive and interest in sex and\\u000a have the task of constructing their sexual selves. Sexual content and topics feature prominently in adolescents’ online lives\\u000a from chat rooms, to bulletin boards,

Kaveri Subrahmanyam; David Šmahel

324

A fungal mating type protein that regulates sexual and asexual development contains a POU-related domain.  

PubMed Central

The A mating type factor of the fungus Coprinus cinereus regulates essential steps in sexual development. Here we describe features of one of the four specificity genes of the A42 factor. By transformation we show that the gene regulates not only sexual development but also asexual sporulation. DNA sequence analysis shows that the gene beta 1-1, encodes a protein with a DNA binding motif and is thus likely to be a transcription factor. The DNA binding domain is an unusual homeodomain with D replacing the normally invariant N in the recognition helix and apparent absence of helix II. The homeodomain is linked to a helical region related to the POUs domain, which is part of a bipartite DNA binding domain of certain animal transcription factors. Like POU factors, the beta 1-1 protein has regions rich in serine, threonine and proline which are possible transactivation domains. Putative dimerization domains and sites for post-translational modification are described. Images

Tymon, A M; Kues, U; Richardson, W V; Casselton, L A

1992-01-01

325

Contribution of shame and attribution style in developing PTSD among Japanese University women with negative sexual experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The roles of shame and attribution style in developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were examined among 172 Japanese\\u000a university women with negative sexual experiences (NSEs) using a structural equation model. “Shame” directly predicted PTSD,\\u000a whereas “Internal Attribution” and “External Attribution” did not. The effect of Internal Attribution on PTSD was mediated\\u000a by Shame. In a simultaneous analysis of multi-groups, only

M. Uji; N. Shikai; M. Shono; T. Kitamura

2007-01-01

326

Differential expression and regulation of prostaglandin E synthases in the mouse ovary during sexual maturation and luteal development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prostaglandin (PGE) 2 is the most common prostanoid and plays an important role in female reproduction. The aim of this study was to examine the expression and regulation of microsomal (m) PGE synthase (PGES)-1 and cytosolic (c) PGES in the mouse ovary during sexual maturation, gonadotropin treatment and luteal develop- ment by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Both mPGES-1 mRNA

Tong Sun; Wen-Bo Deng; Hong-Lu Diao; Hua Ni; Yu-Yan Bai; Xing-Hong Ma; Li-Bin Xu; Zeng-Ming Yang

2006-01-01

327

Breeding biology, sexually dimorphic development and nestling testosterone concentrations of the classically polyandrous African black coucal, Centropus grillii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many internal and environmental factors influence the growth of birds. Here we ask whether the reversed sexual dimorphism\\u000a in the classically polyandrous black coucal is reflected in differential growth and fledging parameters of females and males.\\u000a We also investigate whether androgen concentrations were higher in females than males during the nestling development, thus,\\u000a providing a potential mechanism for the ‘behavioural

Wolfgang Goymann; Bart Kempenaers; John Wingfield

2005-01-01

328

An in vivo model fish system to test chemical effects on sexual differentiation and development: exposure to ethinyl estradiol  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model system was characterized which may be used as an in vivo screen for effects of chemicals or environmental mixtures on sexual differentiation and development of reproductive organs and gametes. We evaluated the effects of a model environmental estrogen, ethinyl estradiol (EE2), on the d-rR strain of medaka, Oryzias latipes, using a nano-injection exposure. Gonad histopathology indicated that a

Diana M Papoulias; Douglas B Noltie; Donald E Tillitt

2000-01-01

329

Technical Notes: An Incubation System Allowing Multiple Dissolved Oxygen and Temperature Combinations for Salmonid Emergence Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The system described here provides a means to concurrently study the effects of multiple combinations of temperature and dissolved oxygen on salmonid emergence. The incubation chambers were filled with a gravel substrate to simulate natural conditions within a salmonid redd. The system operated for more than 2 months at three concurrent temperatures and four dissolved oxygen levels at each temperature.

William J. Miller

1992-01-01

330

Modeling Food Delivery Dynamics For Juvenile Salmonids Under Variable Flow Regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional approaches for assessing instream flow needs for salmonids have typically focused on the importance of physical habitat in determining fish habitat selection. This somewhat simplistic approach does not account for differences in food delivery rates to salmonids that arise due to spatial variability in river morphology, hydraulics and temporal variations in the flow regime. Explicitly linking how changes in

L. Harrison; R. Utz; K. Anderson; R. Nisbet

2010-01-01

331

Caspian Tern Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in the Mid-Columbia River  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used a bioenergetics approach to determine the magnitude of predation by Caspian terns Sterna caspia on juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. in the mid-Columbia River during 2000 and 2001. Caspian terns nesting on Crescent Island, Washington, located below the confluence of the Snake and Columbia rivers, consumed several hundred thousand juvenile salmonids each year of the study. Tern consumption of

Michelle Antolos; Daniel D. Roby; Donald E. Lyons; Ken Collis; Allen F. Evans; Mike Hawbecker; Brad A. Ryan

2005-01-01

332

Habitat Use by Juvenile Salmonids in the Smith River Estuary, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estuaries are highly productive areas that serve as important nursery habitat for many species of fish. Estuaries provide juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. with foraging habitats, refuge from predators, and areas in which smoltification and orientation for return migrations can occur. Our primary goal was to describe how juvenile salmonids use the Smith River estuary in northern California, a system that

Rebecca M. Quiñones; Timothy J. Mulligan

2005-01-01

333

Rock Type and Channel Gradient Structure Salmonid Populations in the Oregon Coast Range  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study objective was to investigate the response of salmonid populations to disturbance in Oregon Coast Range streams in two rock types, basalt and sandstone. Salmonid abundance was estimated in a total of 30 km of channel in 10 Oregon Coast Range streams with similar basin areas (14–20 km). These basins had a range of disturbance caused by timber harvest,

Brendan J. Hicks; James D. Hall

2003-01-01

334

Assessment of Native Salmonids Above Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho; 1998 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Native resident salmonids in the western United States are in decline throughout much of their range. The purpose of the multi-phased project is to restore native salmonids in the upper Snake River basin to self-sustaining, harvestable levels.

Meyer, Kevin A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

1999-03-01

335

Expression and Sequence Evolution of Aromatase cyp19a1 and Other Sexual Development Genes in East African Cichlid Fishes.  

PubMed

Sex determination mechanisms are highly variable across teleost fishes and sexual development is often plastic. Nevertheless, downstream factors establishing the two sexes are presumably conserved. Here, we study sequence evolution and gene expression of core genes of sexual development in a prime model system in evolutionary biology, the East African cichlid fishes. Using the available five cichlid genomes, we test for signs of positive selection in 28 genes including duplicates from the teleost whole-genome duplication, and examine the expression of these candidate genes in three cichlid species. We then focus on a particularly striking case, the A- and B-copies of the aromatase cyp19a1, and detect different evolutionary trajectories: cyp19a1A evolved under strong positive selection, whereas cyp19a1B remained conserved at the protein level, yet is subject to regulatory changes at its transcription start sites. Importantly, we find shifts in gene expression in both copies. Cyp19a1 is considered the most conserved ovary-factor in vertebrates, and in all teleosts investigated so far, cyp19a1A and cyp19a1B are expressed in ovaries and the brain, respectively. This is not the case in cichlids, where we find new expression patterns in two derived lineages: the A-copy gained a novel testis-function in the Ectodine lineage, whereas the B-copy is overexpressed in the testis of the speciest-richest cichlid group, the Haplochromini. This suggests that even key factors of sexual development, including the sex steroid pathway, are not conserved in fish, supporting the idea that flexibility in sexual determination and differentiation may be a driving force of speciation. PMID:23883521

Böhne, Astrid; Heule, Corina; Boileau, Nicolas; Salzburger, Walter

2013-07-24

336

Expression and Sequence Evolution of Aromatase cyp19a1 and Other Sexual Development Genes in East African Cichlid Fishes  

PubMed Central

Sex determination mechanisms are highly variable across teleost fishes and sexual development is often plastic. Nevertheless, downstream factors establishing the two sexes are presumably conserved. Here, we study sequence evolution and gene expression of core genes of sexual development in a prime model system in evolutionary biology, the East African cichlid fishes. Using the available five cichlid genomes, we test for signs of positive selection in 28 genes including duplicates from the teleost whole-genome duplication, and examine the expression of these candidate genes in three cichlid species. We then focus on a particularly striking case, the A- and B-copies of the aromatase cyp19a1, and detect different evolutionary trajectories: cyp19a1A evolved under strong positive selection, whereas cyp19a1B remained conserved at the protein level, yet is subject to regulatory changes at its transcription start sites. Importantly, we find shifts in gene expression in both copies. Cyp19a1 is considered the most conserved ovary-factor in vertebrates, and in all teleosts investigated so far, cyp19a1A and cyp19a1B are expressed in ovaries and the brain, respectively. This is not the case in cichlids, where we find new expression patterns in two derived lineages: the A-copy gained a novel testis-function in the Ectodine lineage, whereas the B-copy is overexpressed in the testis of the speciest-richest cichlid group, the Haplochromini. This suggests that even key factors of sexual development, including the sex steroid pathway, are not conserved in fish, supporting the idea that flexibility in sexual determination and differentiation may be a driving force of speciation.

Bohne, Astrid; Heule, Corina; Boileau, Nicolas; Salzburger, Walter

2013-01-01

337

Sexual Experiences in Childhood: Young Adults' Recollections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood sexuality and children's sexual experiences have become increasingly important to study because our knowledge on the impact of sexually abusive experiences on children's developing sexuality has increased. The main aim of this paper was to study aspects of young adults' recollections of their sexual experiences before the age of 13, solitary and shared, mutual as well as coercive. Anonymous

IngBeth Larsson; Carl-Göran Svedin

2002-01-01

338

Development, standardization and refinement of procedures for evaluating effects of endocrine active compounds on development and sexual differentiation of Xenopus laevis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xenopus laevis has been introduced as a model to study effects of endocrine-active compounds (EAC) on development and sexual differentiation.\\u000a However, variable and inconsistent data have raised questions about the reliability of the test methods applied. The current\\u000a study was conducted in two laboratories to develop, refine, and standardize procedures and protocols. Larvae were exposed\\u000a in flow-through systems to 17?-estradiol

Ilka Lutz; Werner Kloas; Timothy A. Springer; Larry R. Holden; Jeff C. Wolf; Henry O. Krueger; Alan J. Hosmer

2008-01-01

339

Sexual Assault Among Adolescents: A National Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The major objectives of the study were to develop a predictive model of adolescent sexual assault, explore the area of adolescent vulnerability to sexual assault, and measure both initial and long-range responses to sexual assault. The situational factors...

S. S. Ageton

1983-01-01

340

The Predicted G-Protein-Coupled Receptor GPR1 Is Required for Female Sexual Development in the Multicellular Fungus Neurospora crassa  

Microsoft Academic Search

G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) control important aspects of asexual and sexual development in eukaryotic organisms. We have identified a predicted GPCR in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa with similarity to cyclic AMP-receptor like GPCRs from Dictyostelium discoideum and GCR1 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression of gpr-1 is highest in female reproductive structures, and deletion of gpr-1 leads to defects during sexual development.

Svetlana Krystofova; Katherine A. Borkovich

2006-01-01

341

The contribution of molecular epidemiology to the understanding and control of viral diseases of salmonid aquaculture  

PubMed Central

Molecular epidemiology is a science which utilizes molecular biology to define the distribution of disease in a population (descriptive epidemiology) and relies heavily on integration of traditional (or analytical) epidemiological approaches to identify the etiological determinants of this distribution. The study of viral pathogens of aquaculture has provided many exciting opportunities to apply such tools. This review considers the extent to which molecular epidemiological studies have contributed to better understanding and control of disease in aquaculture, drawing on examples of viral diseases of salmonid fish of commercial significance including viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), salmonid alphavirus (SAV) and infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV). Significant outcomes of molecular epidemiological studies include: Improved taxonomic classification of viruses A better understanding of the natural distribution of viruses An improved understanding of the origins of viral pathogens in aquaculture An improved understanding of the risks of translocation of pathogens outwith their natural host range An increased ability to trace the source of new disease outbreaks Development of a basis for ensuring development of appropriate diagnostic tools An ability to classify isolates and thus target future research aimed at better understanding biological function While molecular epidemiological studies have no doubt already made a significant contribution in these areas, the advent of new technologies such as pyrosequencing heralds a quantum leap in the ability to generate descriptive molecular sequence data. The ability of molecular epidemiology to fulfil its potential to translate complex disease pathways into relevant fish health policy is thus unlikely to be limited by the generation of descriptive molecular markers. More likely, full realisation of the potential to better explain viral transmission pathways will be dependent on the ability to assimilate and analyse knowledge from a range of more traditional information sources. The development of methods to systematically record and share such epidemiologically important information thus represents a major challenge for fish health professionals in making the best future use of molecular data in supporting fish health policy and disease control.

2011-01-01

342

Molecular complexity of sexual development and gene regulation in Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, has a complex life cycle which alternates between the vertebrate host and the invertebrate vector. Various morphological changes as well as stage-specific transcripts and gene expression profiles that accompany parasite's asexual and sexual life cycle suggest that gene regulation is crucial for the parasite's continual adaptations to survive the changing environments as well as for

Nirbhay Kumar; Gloria Cha; Fernando Pineda; Jorge Maciel; Diana Haddad; Mrinal Bhattacharyya; Eiji Nagayasu

2004-01-01

343

Reported adolescent sexual norms and the development of a social marketing campaign to correct youth misperceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescents are powerfully influenced by their peers and tend to match their behaviors to what they perceive to be the social norm among other youth. Sexual behavior is one area where common misperceptions exist. Social marketing techniques to achieve positive behavioral change may correct these misperceptions. Here we describe an innovative approach to altering teen pregnancy prevention norms – the

Lynne C. Messer; Erin Shoe; Megan Canady; Barbara K. Sheppard; Amy Vincus

2011-01-01

344

Fungal metabolic plasticity and sexual development mediate induced resistance to arthropod fungivory.  

PubMed

Prey organisms do not tolerate predator attack passively but react with a multitude of inducible defensive strategies. Although inducible defence strategies are well known in plants attacked by herbivorous insects, induced resistance of fungi against fungivorous animals is largely unknown. Resistance to fungivory is thought to be mediated by chemical properties of fungal tissue, i.e. by production of toxic secondary metabolites. However, whether fungi change their secondary metabolite composition to increase resistance against arthropod fungivory is unknown. We demonstrate that grazing by a soil arthropod, Folsomia candida, on the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans induces a phenotype that repels future fungivores and retards fungivore growth. Arthropod-exposed colonies produced significantly higher amounts of toxic secondary metabolites and invested more in sexual reproduction relative to unchallenged fungi. Compared with vegetative tissue and asexual conidiospores, sexual fruiting bodies turned out to be highly resistant against fungivory in facultative sexual A. nidulans. This indicates that fungivore grazing triggers co-regulated allocation of resources to sexual reproduction and chemical defence in A. nidulans. Plastic investment in facultative sex and chemical defence may have evolved as a fungal strategy to escape from predation. PMID:24068353

Döll, Katharina; Chatterjee, Subhankar; Scheu, Stefan; Karlovsky, Petr; Rohlfs, Marko

2013-09-25

345

Developing Guidelines for HIV Antibody Testing among Victims of Pediatric Sexual Abuse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An interim set of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing guidelines for victims of pediatric sexual abuse (PSA) is proposed. Guidelines are based on responses of 63 practitioners of PSA assessment to 7 hypothetical clinical profiles with 12 testing criteria. (Author/DB)|

Gellert, George A.; And Others

1990-01-01

346

Sexually Harassing Behavior against Adolescent Girls in Rural Bangladesh: Implications for Achieving Millennium Development Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines the extent and type of sexually harassing behavior or intimidations unmarried adolescent girls experienced on their way to school, college or social visits and type of perpetrators in victims' view in rural Bangladesh using data of the 2004 National Nutrition Programme baseline survey. The survey collected self-reported data…

Alam, Nurul; Roy, Swapan K.; Ahmed, Tahmeed

2010-01-01

347

Diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections in developing nations using syndromic management: Is it working?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a major public health problem, and controlling their spread is a priority. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there are 340 million new cases of treatable STIs among 15–49 year olds that occur yearly around the world (1). Infection with STIs can lead to several complications such as pelvic inflammatory disorder (PID), cervical cancer,

Betiel K Fesseha

2008-01-01

348

Non-autonomous sex determination controls sexually dimorphic development of the Drosophila gonad  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Sex determination in Drosophila is commonly thought to be a cell-autonomous process, where each cell decides its own sexual fate based on its sex chromosome constitution (XX vs. XY). This is in contrast to sex determination in mammals, which largely acts non-autonomously through cell-cell signaling. Here we examine how sexual dimorphism is created in the Drosophila gonad. We have identified a novel male-specific cell type in the embryonic gonad, the pigment cell precursors. Surprisingly, using sexually mosaic embryos, we find that sex determination in both the pigment cell precursors and the male-specific somatic gonadal precursors is non-cell autonomous. Male-specific expression of Wnt2 in the embryonic gonad is necessary and sufficient for pigment cell precursor formation. Our results indicate that non-autonomous sex determination is important for creating sexual dimorphism in the Drosophila gonad, similar to the manner in which sex-specific gonad formation is controlled in mammals.

DeFalco, Tony; Camara, Nicole; Le Bras, Stephanie; Van Doren, Mark

2008-01-01

349

Sterilization and Training for Normal Sexual Development: Human Rights and Obligations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper notes the lack of attention given to the sexuality of people with intellectual disabilities in both the literature and service delivery (in Australia). It discusses sterilization issues (such as authority to give consent and the "best interest" concept) and recommends approaches less intrusive on individual rights than sterilization.…

Ashman, Adrian F.

1990-01-01

350

Global climate change and effects on Pacific Northwest salmonids: An exploratory case study  

SciTech Connect

Recently, a number of papers have addressed global warming and freshwater fisheries. The recent report to Congress by the US Environmental Protection Agency included an analysis of potential effects of global warming on fisheries of the Great Lakes, California, and the Southeast. In California, the report stated that salinity increases in the San Francisco Bay could enhance the abundance of marine fish species, while anadromous species could be adversely affected. This paper discusses global climate changes and the effects on Pacific Northwest Salmonids. The impacts of climate change or Spring Chinook production in the Yakima Sub-basin was simulated using a computer modeling system developed for the Northwest Power planning council. 35 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Shankle, S.A.

1990-09-01

351

Sexually dimorphic expression of steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) in developing gonads of the American bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana.  

PubMed

Genetic sex determination leads to gonadal differentiation and ultimately the differences between the sexes in steroid hormone secretion. Gonadal steroidogenesis is critical for the development of a sexually dimorphic phenotype and adult reproductive function. Control of gonadal development and steroidogenesis is under the regulation, at least in part, of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1). We have begun to characterize SF-1 expression in an amphibian to determine the role of this protein in development and reproduction. We have detected a putative SF-1 protein from several tissues in the American bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, that co-migrates with mouse SF-1 on a Western blot. Our results show that bullfrog SF-1 protein is expressed in steroidogenic and other reproductive tissues in a manner similar to that reported for other species, with high expression in the brain, pituitary, gonad, liver, and interrenal, but little or no expression in non-reproductive tissues such as skin and intestine. Using a quantitative Western blot analysis system, we documented changes in SF-1 protein in the gonads of developing tadpoles. Our results indicate that there is sexually dimorphic expression of SF-1 protein that becomes evident at the time of sexual differentiation of the gonads. In males, the expression of SF-1 decreases following testicular formation and in females the expression increases with the formation of ovaries. This is the first study to investigate changes in SF-1 during development at the protein level. The expression is similar to that reported for changes in SF-1 mRNA expression in chickens and alligators, however, opposite to that seen in mammals and turtles. These results indicate that SF-1 may play a pivotal role in development of the reproductive system in amphibians as it does in other vertebrate groups. PMID:12161200

Mayer, Loretta P; Overstreet, Stefanie L; Dyer, Cheryl A; Propper, Catherine R

2002-06-01

352

Female Sexual Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this book is men and their sexual function and dysfunction, however, many women will also develop some degree\\u000a of sexual health problems concerned with sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and\\/or pain. The goal is to make relevant evidence-based\\u000a clinical information to help identify and treat specific biologically based pathophysiologies available to the motivated health\\u000a care professional. The prevalence

Irwin Goldstein

353

Changes in salmonid communities associated with pesticide runoff events.  

PubMed

Two agricultural runoff events involving the pesticide azinphos-methyl occurred in July 2002 on the Wilmot River, Prince Edward Island, Canada, resulting in the death of thousands of fish. The fish communities from three sites on this river had been sampled in 2001, permitting comparisons of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations before and after the events. Samples taken immediately after the runoff events suggested that brook trout suffered higher mortality than rainbow trout. Young-of-the-year fish were more affected than older age classes for both species. Sampling in 2003, a year after the pesticide runoff events, revealed salmonid communities that were still skewed towards rainbow trout, and a decrease in the 1+ age class density (2002's young of the year) at affected sites. These results suggest a differential effect of the pesticide azinphos-methyl on salmonid species and age classes under natural conditions, and a subsequent change in population and community structure. The possibility of these pesticide runoff events selecting for rainbow trout, an exotic species, is a consideration in management of agriculturally impacted rivers. PMID:16151612

Gormley, Karen L; Teather, Kevin L; Guignion, Daryl L

2005-09-28

354

Efficient strategy for enhancing aspergiolide A production by citrate feedings and its effects on sexual development and growth of marine-derived fungus Aspergillus glaucus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergiolide A production enhancement by citrate and its effects on growth and sexual development of marine-derived fungus Aspergillus glaucus HB1-19 were investigated. In agar plate culture, 15mM citric acid decreased colony radial growth and aspergiolide A production by 31.5% and 23.0%, respectively. It also improved sexual cleistothecium formation by 360% but depressed asexual conidiospore generation by 84.8%. In submerged culture,

Menghao Cai; Xiangshan Zhou; Jiushun Zhou; Chuanpeng Niu; Li Kang; Xueqian Sun; Yuanxing Zhang

2010-01-01

355

Sexual Quality of Life of Individuals With Disorders of Sex Development and a 46,XY Karyotype: A Review of International Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes the current state of research on Sexual Quality of Life (SexQoL) of adults with 46,XY Disorders of Sex Development (DSD)\\/Intersexuality. An extensive literature search yield 21 studies published between 1974–2007, examining sexual aspects in individuals with 46,XY DSD. However, many of them lack methodological quality. The results are inconsistent but overall indicate that SexQoL of individuals with

Verena Schönbucher; Katinka Schweizer; Hertha Richter-Appelt

2010-01-01

356

The Coming-Out Process of Young Lesbian and Bisexual Women: Are There Butch\\/Femme Differences in Sexual Identity Development?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on lesbian and bisexual women has documented various biological and behavioral differences between butch and femme\\u000a women. However, little research has examined whether differences exist in sexual identity development (i.e., the coming-out\\u000a process). The present study examined longitudinally potential butch\\/femme differences in sexual identity formation and integration\\u000a among an ethnically diverse sample of 76 self-identified lesbian and bisexual young

Margaret Rosario; Eric W. Schrimshaw; Joyce Hunter; Anna Levy-Warren

2009-01-01

357

Sexual Health  

MedlinePLUS

Sexual health Basics In-Depth Multimedia Expert Answers Resources What's New Sexual health By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www. ... not share your e-mail address Sign up Sexual health basics Sexuality is part of being human. Love, ...

358

Sexual Harassment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper sets out the legal grounds for sexual harassment claims in education settings, and notes a number of pertinent cases that are illustrative of common legal and factual issues. Sexual harassment, including sexual abuse, is prohibited by federal and state statutes. Sexual harassment in the context of employment constitutes employment…

Uerling, Donald F.

359

Developing Empathy in Sexual Offenders: The Value of Offence Re-Enactments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an evaluation of different uses of roleplay to enhance victim-specific empathy in sexual offenders. Thirty-three men participated in a treatment program involving offence re-enactment as described by Pithers (1994) and Mann, Daniels, and Marshall (2002). A matched group of 33 men participated in a treatment program that was identical in all respects except that they did not

Stephen D. Webster; Louise E. Bowers; Ruth E. Mann; William L. Marshall

2005-01-01

360

Three putative oxylipin biosynthetic genes integrate sexual and asexual development in Aspergillus nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxylipins called psi factors have been shown to alter the ratio of asexual to sexual sporulation in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Analysis of the A. nidulans genome has led to the identification of three fatty acid oxygenases (PpoA, PpoB and PpoC) predicted to produce psi factors. Here, it is reported that deletion of ppoB (DppoB) reduced production of the

Dimitrios I. Tsitsigiannis; Terri M. Kowieski; Robert Zarnowski; Nancy P. Keller

2005-01-01

361

Adolescent Sexual Activity and the Development of Delinquent Behavior: The Role of Relationship Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the well-established association between adolescent sexual activity and delinquent behavior, little research has examined\\u000a the potential importance of relationship contexts in moderating this association. The current study used longitudinal, behavioral\\u000a genetic data on 519 same-sex twin pairs (48.6% female) divided into two age cohorts (13–15 and 16–18 years olds) drawn from\\u000a the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Analyses tested

K. Paige Harden; Jane Mendle

2011-01-01

362

Male circumcision and common sexually transmissible diseases in a developed nation setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To determine whether the circumcision status of men affected their likelihood of acquiring sexually transmissible diseases (STDs). DESIGN--A cross-sectional study employing an anonymous questionnaire, clinical examination and type specific serology for herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). SETTING--A public STD clinic in Sydney, Australia. SUBJECTS--300 consecutive heterosexual male patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Associations between circumcision status and past or present diagnoses

B Donovan; I Bassett; N J Bodsworth

1994-01-01

363

Stigmatization and the Development of Friendship and Romantic Relationships in Adolescent Victims of Sexual Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines same- and other-sex friendship networks and perceptions of peer competence as functions of stigmatization, defined as shame and a self-blame attributional style. Fifty-six sexually abused adolescents were seen at the time of abuse discovery and 1 year later. Higher self-blame attributional style for the abuse was related to more satisfaction with other-sex friends and less satisfaction with

Candice Feiring; Saul Rosenthal; Lynn Taska

2000-01-01

364

The novel putative transporter NPT1 plays a critical role in early stages of Plasmodium berghei sexual development.  

PubMed

Transmission of Plasmodium species from a mammalian host to the mosquito vector requires the uptake, during an infected blood meal, of gametocytes, the precursor cells of the gametes. Relatively little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the developmental switch from asexual development to sexual differentiation or the maturation and survival of gametocytes. Here, we show that a gene coding for a novel putative transporter, NPT1, plays a crucial role in the development of Plasmodium berghei gametocytes. Parasites lacking NPT1 are severely compromised in the production of gametocytes and the rare gametocytes produced are unable to differentiate into fertile gametes. This is the earliest block in gametocytogenesis obtained by reverse genetics and the first to demonstrate the role of a protein with a putative transport function in sexual development. These results and the high degree of conservation of NPT1 in Plasmodium species suggest that this protein could be an attractive target for the development of novel drugs to block the spread of malaria. PMID:21752110

Boisson, Bertrand; Lacroix, Céline; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Gueirard, Pascale; Bargieri, Daniel Y; Franke-Fayard, Blandine; Janse, Chris J; Ménard, Robert; Baldacci, Patricia

2011-08-04

365

Sexual health and contraception.  

PubMed

Sexual health encompasses 'sexual development and reproductive health, as well as the ability to develop and maintain meaningful interpersonal relationships; appreciate one's own body; interact with both genders in respectful and appropriate ways; express affection, love and intimacy in ways consistent with one's own values'. The 2008 WHO Consensus Statement additionally noted that 'responsible adolescent intimate relationships' should be 'consensual, non-exploitative, honest, pleasurable and protected against unintended pregnancy and STDs if any type of intercourse occurs'. Young people (YP) must, therefore, be able to access sexual health information and services that meet their needs.For most YP, interest in sexual activity begins with puberty, and this is associated with increasingly sexualised behaviour, including exploration of themselves and others.Most YP find this a confusing time, and so it is important that health professionals are able to offer advice regarding the wide range of sexual health issues, including sexuality, choice of partner, contraception, risk and management of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in a confident and approachable manner. YP have never had so much choice or information available to them, and this can be confusing for them. There is good evidence that YP who get information from their parents are likely to initiate sexual activity later than their peers who access information from their friends. However, there is also evidence that some YP would prefer to get sexual health information from health professionals. It is therefore imperative that all health professionals who see YP have an awareness of sexual health issues, and know where to signpost YP should they need more specialist sexual health advice and/or treatment.Where appropriate, one-to-one sexual health advice should be provided to YP on how to prevent and get tested for STIs, and how to prevent unwanted pregnancies. Advice should also be given on all methods of reversible contraception, including long-acting reversible contraception, emergency contraception and other reproductive issues. PMID:22843336

Straw, Fiona; Porter, Charlotte

2012-07-27

366

Sexual health and contraception.  

PubMed

Sexual health encompasses 'sexual development and reproductive health, as well as the ability to develop and maintain meaningful interpersonal relationships; appreciate one's own body; interact with both genders in respectful and appropriate ways; express affection, love and intimacy in ways consistent with one's own values'. The 2008 WHO Consensus Statement additionally noted that 'responsible adolescent intimate relationships' should be 'consensual, non-exploitative, honest, pleasurable and protected against unintended pregnancy and STDs if any type of intercourse occurs'. Young people (YP) must, therefore, be able to access sexual health information and services that meet their needs. For most YP, interest in sexual activity begins with puberty, and this is associated with increasingly sexualised behaviour, including exploration of themselves and others. Most YP find this a confusing time, and so it is important that health professionals are able to offer advice regarding the wide range of sexual health issues, including sexuality, choice of partner, contraception, risk and management of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in a confident and approachable manner. YP have never had so much choice or information available to them, and this can be confusing for them. There is good evidence that YP who get information from their parents are likely to initiate sexual activity later than their peers who access information from their friends. However, there is also evidence that some YP would prefer to get sexual health information from health professionals. It is therefore imperative that all health professionals who see YP have an awareness of sexual health issues, and know where to signpost YP should they need more specialist sexual health advice and/or treatment. Where appropriate, one-to-one sexual health advice should be provided to YP on how to prevent and get tested for STIs, and how to prevent unwanted pregnancies. Advice should also be given on all methods of reversible contraception, including long-acting reversible contraception, emergency contraception and other reproductive issues. PMID:22983512

Straw, Fiona; Porter, Charlotte

2012-10-01

367

The Developmental Association of Sexual Self-Concept with Sexual Behavior among Adolescent Women  

PubMed Central

Developing a sexual self-concept is an important developmental task of adolescence; however, little empirical evidence describes this development, nor how these changes are related to development in sexual behavior. Using longitudinal cohort data from adolescent women, we invoked latent growth curve analysis to: (1) examine reciprocal development in sexual self-concept (sexual openness, sexual esteem and sexual anxiety) over a four year time frame; (2) describe the relationship of these trajectories with changes in sexual behavior. We found significant transactional effects between these dimensions and behavior: sexual self-concept evolved during adolescence in a manner consistent with less reserve, less anxiety and greater personal comfort with sexuality and sexual behavior. Moreover, we found that sexual self-concept results from sexual behavior, as well as regulates future behavior.

Hensel, Devon J.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; O'Sullivan, Lucia F.; Orr, Donald P.

2013-01-01

368

In situ hybridisation identifies the gill as a portal of entry for PKX (Phylum Myxozoa), the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease in salmonids  

Microsoft Academic Search

PKX (Phylum Myxozoa) is an important pathogen affecting salmonid culture in Western Europe and North America. All of the\\u000a available oligonucleotide probes developed for the PCR amplification of PKX DNA were examined for their ability to detect\\u000a PKX in fixed tissue sections using in situ hybridisation. Out of the 12 probes examined, only four stained PKX in tissue sections.\\u000a The

D. J. Morris; A. Adams; R. H. Richards

2000-01-01

369

Determine the Influence of Time Held in “Knockdown” Anesthesia on Survival and Stress of Surgically Implanted Juvenile Salmonids  

SciTech Connect

The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) was developed for the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers Portland District (USACE) to address questions related to survival and performance measures of juvenile salmonids as they pass through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). Researchers using JSATS acoustic transmitters (ATs) were tasked with standardizing the surgical implantation procedure to ensure that the stressors of handling and surgery on salmonids were consistent and less likely to cause effects of tagging in survival studies. Researchers questioned whether the exposure time in 'knockdown' anesthesia (or induction) to prepare fish for surgery could influence the survival of study fish (CBSPSC 2011). Currently, fish are held in knockdown anesthesia after they reach Stage 4 anesthesia until the completion of the surgical implantation of a transmitter, varies from 5 to 15 minutes for studies conducted in the Columbia Basin. The Columbia Basin Surgical Protocol Steering Committee (CBSPSC ) expressed concern that its currently recommended 10-minute maximum time limit during which fish are held in anesthetic - tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222, 80 mg L-1 water) - could increase behavioral and physiological costs, and/or decrease survival of outmigrating juvenile salmonids. In addition, the variability in the time fish are held at Stage 4 could affect the data intended for direct comparison of fish within or among survival studies. Under the current recommended protocol, if fish exceed the 10-minute time limit, they are to be released without surgical implantation, thereby increasing the number of fish handled and endangered species 'take' at the bypass systems for FCRPS survival studies.

Woodley, Christa M.; Wagner, Katie A.; Knox, Kasey M.

2012-01-31

370

An in vivo model fish system to test chemical effects on sexual differentiation and development: exposure to ethinyl estradiol  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A model system was characterized which may be used as an in vivo screen for effects of chemicals or environmental mixtures on sexual differentiation and development of reproductive organs and gametes. We evaluated the effects of a model environmental estrogen, ethinyl estradiol (EE2), on the d-rR strain of medaka, Oryzias latipes, using a nano-injection exposure. Gonad histopathology indicated that a single injection of 0.5-2.5 ng EE2/egg can cause phenotypic sex-reversal of genetic males to females. Sex-reversals could be detected as early as 7 days post-hatch. Sex-reversed males had female-typical duct development and the secondary sex characteristics we measured were generally consistent with phenotype, with the exception of a few EE2-exposed XX and XY females which possessed ambiguous anal fins. Using discriminant analysis, we determined that the presence or absence of the secondary sex characteristic, a dorsal fin notch, was a very reliable indicator of gonadal sex. No instances of gonadal intersexes were observed. Ethinyl estradiol also appeared to reduce growth but not condition (weight-at-length) and exposed XX females appeared to have a higher incidence of atretic follicles relative to controls. Our results suggest that estrogenic chemicals may influence sexual differentiation and development and that the medaka model is well suited to assessing these effects. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

Papoulias, D. M.; Noltie, D. B.; Tillitt, D. E.

2000-01-01

371

Literacy and Sexual Identity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Calls for more attention to literacy teaching practices and teacher education that acknowledge sexual identity and orientation as key aspects of youth identity development. Discusses experience-based pedagogy and classroom interactions around sexual identities and texts. Notes the need for research and scholarship in the field of literacy and…

Moje, Elizabeth Birr; MuQaribu, Mudhillun

2003-01-01

372

Taking Sexual Harassment Seriously.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous "School Law" columns discussed developments under Title IX (Educational Amendments of 1970), noting a trend among federal courts to apply Title IX's prohibition against sexual harassment to peer and employee-to-student sexual harassment. A recent Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals decision against the Santa Rosa City School District…

Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

1998-01-01

373

Influence of feeding intensity on corporeal development, body composition and sexual maturity in female rabbits.  

PubMed

Twenty-six 6-week old female New Zealand White rabbits were divided into two groups: ad libitum (AL) and 70% restricted (RS) feeding. At the beginning of the experiment the liveweights were practically the same: 0.99 +/- 0.08 vs. 1.01 +/- 0.08 kg in group AL and RS, respectively. At 18 weeks of age the body weight of Group RS rabbits was 84.7% (3.14 +/- 0.24 kg) of the group AL (3.71 +/- 0.31 kg). The apparent digestibility of crude protein was significantly (p < 0.001) higher in Group RS than in Group AL (76.5 +/- 1.4 vs. 73.0 +/- 2.7%). The daily water consumption was significantly (p < 0.05) higher (3.5 ml/g DM intake) in Group RS as compared to Group AL (1.9 ml/g DM). Since the average body weight in Group RS at 18 weeks was the same as that of Group AL at 14 weeks of age (3.14 kg), the comparison of the live body measures and indices was based on these ages. Animals fed ad libitum or restricted show no differences at the defined age in most live body measurements except in heart girth and rump width, which were significantly (p < 0.05) shorter in Group AL than in Group RS (29.3 +/- 0.8, 5.7 +/- 0.5 and 30.7 +/- 1.0, 6.2 +/- 0.3 cm, respectively). Body capacity was significantly (p < 0.05) smaller in Group AL, as the head capacity-body capacity proportion was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in Group AL than in Group RS (1653.1 +/- 134.5, 22.0 +/- 2.5 and 1913.7 +/- 168.7, 17.7 +/- 1.9, respectively). Due to restricted feeding the growth of the head proved to be less intensive than that of the body at the same body weight. The body in these does tended to be wider. Since the head in comparison to length or capacity of the body was smaller in does fed 70% of ad libitum, it could be concluded that the development of body parts of restricted-fed does was unequal (allometric growth). The effect of feed restriction reflected in lower dry matter and fat, and a higher ash and protein content both in total body and in dry matter composition of rabbits at 18 weeks of age. Restricted feeding delayed sexual maturity (69 vs. 92% of rabbits) with later starting ovarian activity, weaker ovarian responsiveness, and a smaller number of tertiary follicles on the ovarian surface. PMID:11942119

Fodor, K; Fekete, S G; Zöldág, L; Bersényi, A; Gáspárdy, A; Andrásofszky, E; Kulcsár, M; Eszes, F

2001-01-01

374

Aspects of Sexual Life in Patients After Burn: The Most Neglected Part of Postburn Rehabilitation in the Developing World.  

PubMed

Burn patients are rendered with physical as well as mental scars; the latter usually are more protean in their manifestations. Rehabilitation after burn can be a grueling experience and the associated stress can blemish the patient's sexuality and intimacy. There is dearth of literature regarding the quality of sexual life after burn as well as sexual rehabilitation; it is fully known that a healthy sexual life is intricately related to a person's mental well being and a sexually compromised person can never be totally happy. The objective of this study was to ascertain the degree of satisfaction in postburn patients regarding their sexual lives, parameters associated with sexual dissatisfaction, if present, and ways to address the same. Quality of sexual life was investigated by making burn patients answer the Maudsley Marital Questionnaire (the sexual scale only) 6 months after burn. A control group of nonburn patients matched with the cases was made to answer the same and values were compared for significance. Results of the Maudsley Marital Questionnaire sexual scale were obtained for both groups and compared by means of a ? test (Pearson). The results were found to be highly significant, and there was a marked difference in the values of the two groups (? = 117.8945, two-tailed P < .0001). A readily palpable deterioration in the sexual lives of burn patients is the most significant finding of this study. Also highlighted were the sociodemographic characteristics of this sexually suffering group and various other relevant parameters. PMID:23528435

Ahmad, Imran; Masoodi, Zulqarnain; Akhter, Sohaib; Khurram, Fahad

2013-03-22

375

Development of a Group Educational Intervention for Sexual Functioning and Intimacy Concerns in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual functioning problems are disproportionately frequent among individuals with multiple sclero- sis (MS) and are associated with reduced sexual activity and satisfaction. Although effective treatments are available, patients often do not communicate with physicians or partners as openly and frequently as needed to optimize sexual functioning. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a group-level educational

Dustin E. Wright; Lara M. Stepleman; Kimberly N. Davis; Mary D. Hughes

376

Genetic variation for tolerance to acidic water in salmonids.  

PubMed

Water pH is an important factor affecting the general water quality as well as quality traits in fishes, and the magnitude of the effect varies among species. The massive and negative effect of acidification of rivers and lakes became evident during the 1960s and 1970s and caused the depletion of fish stocks in several countries in the northern hemisphere. Significant variation in tolerance to acidic water has been documented among salmonid species, and large genetic variation has been identified among strains of brown trout Salmo trutta, brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. For S. trutta, S. fontinalis and S. salar, there is considerable additive genetic variation in tolerance to acidic water, with heritabilities (h(2)) ranging from 0·09 to 0·27 for dead eyed-eggs (the period most sensitive to low pH). The main reasons for depletion of freshwater fish stocks are discussed. PMID:22220886

Gjedrem, T; Rosseland, B O

2011-11-29

377

The "Right" Sexuality for Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Feminist researchers in psychology and education have been theorizing about the kind of sexuality girls ought to have. They are not afraid to investigate morality and what makes a good life. While they explore the meaning and cultural context of girls' sexual development, the good sexual life they describe may be an elusive ideal that, in the end,…

Lamb, Sharon

2008-01-01

378

The "Right" Sexuality for Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Feminist researchers in psychology and education have been theorizing about the kind of sexuality girls ought to have. They are not afraid to investigate morality and what makes a good life. While they explore the meaning and cultural context of girls' sexual development, the good sexual life they describe may be an elusive ideal that, in the…

Lamb, Sharon

2008-01-01

379

Discovering Sexuality in Dostoevsky (paperback)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most discussions of sexuality in the work of Dostoevsky have been framed in Freudian terms. But Dostoevsky himself wrote about sexuality from a decidedly pre-Freudian perspective. By looking at the views of human sexual development that were available in Dostoevsky's time and that he, an avid reader and observer of his own social context, absorbed and reacted to, Susanne Fusso

Susanne Fusso

2008-01-01

380

Self-Labeling Sexual Harassment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to examine personal, stimulus, and organizational factors that predict the self-labeling of sexual harassment. Hypotheses were developed based on the social cognitive schema framework, which suggests that the activation of a victim's schema of sexual harassment influences self-labeling incidents as sexual harassment. Results of a secondary analysis of the 1995 Department of Defense Gender Issues dataset

Vicki J. Magley; Ellen I. Shupe

2005-01-01

381

Sexuality Education as a Ministry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author describes her development from being her religious congregation's sexuality educator to completing doctoral studies and finding her place in the professional sexuality education community. She equates sexuality education to a ministry that reaches out to those in need of knowledge.|

Davis, Melanie J.

2011-01-01

382

Sexually dimorphic expression of protease nexin-1 and vanin-1 in the developing mouse gonad prior to overt differentiation suggests a role in mammalian sexual development  

Microsoft Academic Search

DDBJ\\/EMBL\\/GenBank accession nos AI115537, AI115468 The mammalian sex-determining pathway is controlled by the presence or absence of SRY expres- sion in the embryonic gonad .E xpression of SRY in males is believed to initiate a pathway of gene expres- sion resulting in testis development .I n the absence of SRY, ovary development ensues. Several genes have now been placed in

Sean Grimmond; ick Van Hateren; Pam Siggers; Ruth Arkell; Rachel Larder; Marcelo Bento Soares; Maria de Fatima Bonaldo; L ee Smith; Zuzanna Tymowska-Lalanne; Christine Wells; Andy Greenfield

2000-01-01

383

An Improved Incubator for Salmonids and Results of Preliminary Tests of Its Use.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The environmental requirements of salmonid eggs and alevins are not fully met in conventional hatchery practices, and the resulting fry are physically and behaviorally different from those produced in nature. The report describes an incubator that simulat...

J. E. Bailey W. R. Heard

1973-01-01

384

Use of benthic prey by salmonids under turbid conditions in a ...  

Treesearch

Description: The negative effect of turbidity on the reactive distance of ... and field observations suggest that benthic feeding by salmonids in flowing water affects the ... Two experiments were conducted in a laboratory stream to quantify benthic  ...

385

Salmonid Reproduction. An International Symposium Held at Bellevue, Washington on October 31-November 2, 1983.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The symposium report will provide an international forum for examining the critical factors in five major areas that influence salmonid reproduction--genetics, endocrinology, nutrition, environmental factors, broodstock management and husbandry.

1983-01-01

386

Effects of Suspended Volcanic Ash and Thermal Shock on Susceptibility of Juvenile Salmonids to Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Susceptibility of salmonids to the fish pathogen Flexibacter columnaris was used to assess sublethal stress following exposures to two environmental stressors, thermal shock and suspended volcanic ash. Juvenile rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were more su...

T. M. Poston D. A. Neitzel C. S. Abernethy D. W. Carlile

1984-01-01

387

Role of Neural Stem Cell Activity in Postweaning Development of the Sexually Dimorphic Nucleus of the Preoptic Area in Rats  

PubMed Central

The sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) has received increased attention due to its apparent sensitivity to estrogen-like compounds found in food and food containers. The mechanisms that regulate SDN-POA volume remain unclear as is the extent of postweaning development of the SDN-POA. Here we demonstrate that the female Sprague-Dawley SDN-POA volume increased from weaning to adulthood, although this increase was not statistically significant as it was in males. The number of cells positive for Ki67, a marker of cell proliferation, in both the SDN-POA and the hypothalamus was significantly higher at weaning than at adulthood in male rats. In contrast, the number of Ki67-positive cells was significantly higher in the hypothalamus but not in the SDN-POA (p>0.05) at weaning than at adulthood in female rats. A subset of the Ki67-positive cells in the SDN-POA displayed the morphology of dividing cells. Nestin-immunoreactivity delineated a potential macroscopic neural stem cell niche in the rostral end of the 3rd ventricle. In conclusion, stem cells may partially account for the sexually dimorphic postweaning development of the SDN-POA.

He, Zhen; Ferguson, Sherry A.; Cui, Li; Greenfield, L. John; Paule, Merle G.

2013-01-01

388

More than a repair enzyme: Aspergillus nidulans photolyase-like CryA is a regulator of sexual development.  

PubMed

Cryptochromes are blue-light receptors that have presumably evolved from the DNA photolyase protein family, and the genomes of many organisms contain genes for both types of molecules. Both protein structures resemble each other, which suggests that light control and light protection share a common ancient origin. In the genome of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, however, only one cryptochrome/photolyase-encoding gene, termed cryA, was identified. Deletion of the cryA gene triggers sexual differentiation under inappropriate culture conditions and results in up-regulation of transcripts encoding regulators of fruiting body formation. CryA is a protein whose N- and C-terminal synthetic green fluorescent protein fusions localize to the nucleus. CryA represses sexual development under UVA (350-370 nm) light both on plates and in submerged culture. Strikingly, CryA exhibits photorepair activity as demonstrated by heterologous complementation of a DNA repair-deficient Escherichia coli strain as well as overexpression in an A. nidulans uvsBDelta genetic background. This is in contrast to the single deletion cryADelta strain, which does not show increased sensitivity toward UV-induced damage. In A. nidulans, cryA encodes a novel type of cryptochrome/photolyase that exhibits a regulatory function during light-dependent development and DNA repair activity. This represents a paradigm for the evolutionary transition between photolyases and cryptochromes. PMID:18495868

Bayram, Ozgür; Biesemann, Christoph; Krappmann, Sven; Galland, Paul; Braus, Gerhard H

2008-05-21

389

Internet Sexualities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The term “internet sexuality” (or OSA, online sexual activities) refers to sexual-related content and activities observable on the internet (cf. Adams, Oye, & Parker, 2003; Cooper, McLoughlin, & Campbell, 2000; Leiblum & Döring, 2002). It designates a variety of sexual phenomena (e.g., pornography, sex education, sexual contacts) related to a wide spectrum of online services and applications (e.g., websites, online chat rooms, peer-to-peer networks). If an even broader range of computer networks - such as the Usenet or bulletin board systems - is included in this extensional definition, one speaks of “online sexuality” or “cybersexuality.”

Döring, Nicola

390

Patterns of Historical Balancing Selection on the Salmonid Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II ? Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allelic variation in the major histocompatibility class (MHC) IIB gene of salmonids is analyzed for patterns indicative of\\u000a natural selection acting at the molecular level. Sequence data for the second exon of this MHC gene were generated for 11\\u000a species in three salmonid genera: Oncorhynchus, Salmo, and Salvelinus. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences revealed: (1) monophyletic grouping of alleles from

Andres Aguilar; John Carlos Garza

2007-01-01

391

The role of density-dependent individual growth in the persistence of freshwater salmonid populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical and empirical models of populations dynamics have paid little attention to the implications of density-dependent\\u000a individual growth on the persistence and regulation of small freshwater salmonid populations. We have therefore designed a\\u000a study aimed at testing our hypothesis that density-dependent individual growth is a process that enhances population recovery\\u000a and reduces extinction risk in salmonid populations in a variable

Simone Vincenzi; Alain J. Crivelli; Dusan Jesensek; Giulio A. De Leo

2008-01-01

392

Sexual Health  

MedlinePLUS

... can affect the ability to have or enjoy sex in both men and women. Concerns about infertility ... addition, a number of diseases and disorders affect sexual health. These include sexually transmitted diseases and cancer. In ...

393

REDUCING SEXUAL RISK AMONG FILIPINA FEMALE BAR WORKERS: EFFECTS OF A CBPR-DEVELOPED STRUCTURAL AND NETWORK INTERVENTION  

PubMed Central

The effects of three interventions designed to reduce sexual risk among Filipina female bar workers (FBWs) were compared with each other and with usual care (nonintervention). The interventions were developed iteratively by a community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership comprising lay community members, organizational representatives (including nongovernmental organizations), and academic researchers from the United States and the Philippines. Peer educators and bar managers from 110 different establishments in three southern regions were recruited and trained to increase knowledge of HIV and of condom use rules and regulations within establishments, as well as to change attitudes about risk reduction, provide HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing referrals, and build condom use skills among FBWs. Compared with the control community, all three interventions increased HIV and STI testing; however, only FBWs in the combination peer-educator and manager-training intervention significantly increased condom use from baseline to 2-year follow-up. Condom use was significantly associated with higher HIV knowledge, attendance of a prevention class, and being taught how to use condoms properly. Given these findings, research is warranted to further explore and understand various forms of commercial sex work and to test adapted peer-educator and manger-training interventions within HIV epicenters.

Morisky, Donald E.; Malow, Robert M.; Tiglao, Teodora V.; Lyu, Shu-Yu; Vissman, Aaron T.; Rhodes, Scott D.

2011-01-01

394

The relentless past: The effect of chronic sexual abuse in childhood on fifty years of adolescent and adult development.  

PubMed

Four sisters, now in their late fifties and early sixties, were sexually abused during childhood over a four-year span by the same priest. Until recently they told no one about their experience and never received any psychological diagnostic evaluations or treatment. The author conducted detailed psychiatric evaluations of each of the four women while serving as the plaintiffs' expert witness during their lawsuits against the Catholic Church. The suits have been settled, and the women have given written permission to tell their stories. This unique clinical material provides a rare opportunity to describe and understand the ongoing, pervasive effects of untreated, chronic childhood sexual abuse on developmental processes over half a century. In each instance the women were describing the details of the abuse and the effects on their development for the first time. The severity of the pathology and the intense shame and anxiety associated with discussing their experiences after so many years raises questions about the choice of treatment and technique, particularly in regard to transference and countertransference issues. PMID:20578446

Colarusso, Calvin A

2009-01-01

395

Reducing sexual risk among Filipina female bar workers: effects of a CBPR-developed structural and network intervention.  

PubMed

The effects of three interventions designed to reduce sexual risk among Filipina female bar workers (FBWs) were compared with each other and with usual care (nonintervention). The interventions were developed iteratively by a community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership comprising lay community members, organizational representatives (including nongovernmental organizations), and academic researchers from the United States and the Philippines. Peer educators and bar managers from 110 different establishments in three southern regions were recruited and trained to increase knowledge of HIV and of condom use rules and regulations within establishments, as well as to change attitudes about risk reduction, provide HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing referrals, and build condom use skills among FBWs. Compared with the control community, all three interventions increased HIV and STI testing; however, only FBWs in the combination peer-educator and manager-training intervention significantly increased condom use from baseline to 2-year follow-up. Condom use was significantly associated with higher HIV knowledge, attendance of a prevention class, and being taught how to use condoms properly. Given these findings, research is warranted to further explore and understand various forms of commercial sex work and to test adapted peer-educator and manger-training interventions within HIV epicenters. PMID:20707696

Morisky, Donald E; Malow, Robert M; Tiglao, Teodora V; Lyu, Shu-Yu; Vissman, Aaron T; Rhodes, Scott D

2010-08-01

396

LEAFY COTYLEDON1, a Key Regulator of Seed Development, Is Expressed in Vegetative and Sexual Propagules of Selaginella moellendorffii  

PubMed Central

LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) is a central regulator of seed development that plays a key role in controlling the maturation phase during which storage macromolecules accumulate and the embryo becomes tolerant of desiccation. We queried the genomes of seedless plants and identified a LEC1 homolog in the lycophyte, Selaginellamoellendorffii, but not in the bryophyte, Physcomitrellapatens. Genetic suppression experiments indicated that Selaginella LEC1 is the functional ortholog of Arabidopsis LEC1. Together, these results suggest that LEC1 originated at least 30 million years before the first seed plants appeared in the fossil record. The accumulation of Selaginella LEC1 RNA primarily in sexual and asexual reproductive structures suggests its involvement in cellular processes similar to those that occur during the maturation phase of seed development.

Kirkbride, Ryan C.; Fischer, Robert L.; Harada, John J.

2013-01-01

397

[Classic and emerging sexually transmitted diseases in industrialized countries and in developing countries].  

PubMed

In industrialised countries, there has been a drastic decrease in the number of reported cases of syphilis, gonorrhoea, and tropical sexually transmitted diseases (STD) since the introduction of antibiotics in the 1950s, whereas among the general population of non-industrialised countries, the number of cases of these diseases has remained extremely high. The World Health Organization has estimated that, worldwide, 333,000,000 new cases of curable STD occur every year and that 90% of these cases come from non-industrialised countries. Moreover, viral STD, such as genital herpes, condyloma, hepatitis B infection, and HIV-1 infection, represent an even greater problem in that they are not curable. STD are also a cause of serious complications in the genital and reproductive tracts of both genders, and curing these complications requires substantial economic resources. PMID:11367915

Carosi, G; Matteelli, A; Beltrame, A; Pizzocolo, C

2000-01-01

398

Chitinases Are Essential for Sexual Development but Not Vegetative Growth in Cryptococcus neoformans? †  

PubMed Central

Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pathogen that mainly infects immunocompromised individuals. The fungal cell wall of C. neoformans is an excellent target for antifungal therapies since it is an essential organelle that provides cell structure and integrity. Importantly, it is needed for localization or attachment of known virulence factors, including melanin, phospholipase, and the polysaccharide capsule. The polysaccharide fraction of the cryptococcal cell wall is a complex structure composed of chitin, chitosan, and glucans. Chitin is an indispensable component of many fungal cell walls that contributes significantly to cell wall strength and integrity. Fungal cell walls are very dynamic, constantly changing during cell division and morphogenesis. Hydrolytic enzymes, such as chitinases, have been implicated in the maintenance of cell wall plasticity and separation of the mother and daughter cells at the bud neck during vegetative growth in yeast. In C. neoformans we identified four predicted endochitinases, CHI2, CHI21, CHI22, and CHI4, and a predicted exochitinase, hexosaminidase, HEX1. Enzymatic analysis indicated that Chi2, Chi22, and Hex1 actively degraded chitinoligomeric substrates. Chi2 and Hex1 activity was associated mostly with the cellular fraction, and Chi22 activity was more prominent in the supernatant. The enzymatic activity of Hex1 increased when grown in media containing only N-acetylglucosamine as a carbon source, suggesting that its activity may be inducible by chitin degradation products. Using a quadruple endochitinase deletion strain, we determined that the endochitinases do not affect the growth or morphology of C. neoformans during asexual reproduction. However, mating assays indicated that Chi2, Chi21, and Chi4 are each involved in sexual reproduction. In summary, the endochitinases were found to be dispensable for routine vegetative growth but not sexual reproduction.

Baker, Lorina G.; Specht, Charles A.; Lodge, Jennifer K.

2009-01-01

399

Sexual conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual conflict occurs when the genetic interests of males and females diverge. Recent evidence supporting the view that male and female genomes are in conflict has now revolutionized the way in which we interpret interactions between the sexes, and suggests that sexual conflict is a potent force in male–female coevolution. Here, we consider the nature of sexual conflict and what

Tracey Chapman; Göran Arnqvist; Jenny Bangham; Locke Rowe

2003-01-01

400

Factors Affecting the Survival of Upstream Migrant Adult Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 9 of 11.  

SciTech Connect

The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is developing conservation planning documentation to support the National Marine Fisheries Service`s (NMFS) recovery plan for Columbia Basin salmonid stocks that are currently listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Information from the conservation planning documentation will be used as a partial scientific basis for identifying alternative conservation strategies and to make recommendations toward conserving, rebuilding, and ultimately removing these salmon stocks from the list of endangered species. This report describes the adult upstream survival study, a synthesis of biological analyses related to conditions affecting the survival of adult upstream migrant salmonids in the Columbia River system. The objective of the adult upstream survival study was to analyze existing data related to increasing the survival of adult migrant salmonids returning to the Snake River system. The fate and accountability of each stock during its upstream migration period and the uncertainties associated with measurements of escapement and survival were evaluated. Operational measures that affected the survival of adult salmon were evaluated including existing conditions, augmented flows from upstream storage release, and drawdown of mainstem reservoirs. The potential impacts and benefits of these measures to each ESA stock were, also described based on considerations of species behavior and run timing.

Dauble, Dennis D.; Mueller, Robert P.

1993-06-01

401

Thyroid hormone accelerates opsin expression during early photoreceptor differentiation and induces opsin switching in differentiated TR?-expressing cones of the salmonid retina.  

PubMed

Thyroid hormone and its receptors (TRs) regulate photoreceptor differentiation and visual pigment protein (opsin) expression in the retinas of several vertebrates, including rodents and fish. In some of these animals, opsin expression can arise through switches within differentiated cone photoreceptors. In salmonid fishes, single cones express ultraviolet (SWS1) opsin during embryonic development and switch to blue (SWS2) opsin as the fishes grow. It is unknown whether thyroid hormone regulates opsin expression during early cone differentiation and acts through TRs to induce opsin switches in differentiated cones of the salmonid retina. Using in situ hybridization, we characterized the spatiotemporal dynamics of opsin expression and switching in embryos treated with exogenous thyroid hormone or propylthiouracil (PTU), a pharmacological inhibitor of thyroid hormone synthesis. We combined immunohistochemistry with in situ hybridization to map TR? expression with respect to cones undergoing the opsin switch in older juvenile fish. Thyroid hormone accelerated opsin expression in differentiating cones and induced the opsin switch in differentiated single cones, whereas PTU repressed the opsin switch. TR? was not detected in differentiating photoreceptors as opsin expression initiated, but was later expressed in differentiated single cones before the onset of the opsin switch. TR? expression exhibited a dynamic dorsoventral distribution that paralleled the progression of the opsin switch. Together, our results show that thyroid hormone is required for opsin switching in the retina of salmonid fishes and suggest that TR? may be involved in regulating this phenomenon. PMID:20730870

Gan, Kathlyn J; Novales Flamarique, Iñigo

2010-10-01

402

How can sexual selection promote population divergence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual selection is a competition between conspecific individuals to acquire mates and maximize their reproductive success. This can lead to the development of conspicuous secondary sexual traits under several possible mechanisms. Since these sexual characters can be used as potential discriminant features in species recognition, it seems legitimate to think of a potential role of sexual selection in population divergence.

Sophie Questiau

1999-01-01

403

Detection and quantification of Renibacterium salmoninarum DNA in salmonid tissues by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Renibacterium salmoninarum is an important salmonid pathogen that is difficult to culture. We developed and assessed a real-time, quantitative, polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for the detection and enumeration of R. salmoninarum. The qPCR is based on TaqMan technology and amplifies a 69-base pair (bp) region of the gene encoding the major soluble antigen (MSA) of R. salmoninarum. The qPCR assay consistently detected as few as 5 R. salmoninarum cells per reaction in kidney tissue. The specificity of the qPCR was confirmed by testing the DNA extracts from a panel of microorganisms that were either common fish pathogens or reported to cause false-positive reactions in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Kidney samples from 38 juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in a naturally infected population were examined by real-time qPCR, a nested PCR, and ELISA, and prevalences of R. salmoninarum detected were 71, 66, and 71%, respectively. The qPCR should be a valuable tool for evaluating the R. salmoninarum infection status of salmonids.

Chase, D. M.; Elliott, D. G.; Pascho, R. J.

2006-01-01

404

Development, standardization and refinement of procedures for evaluating effects of endocrine active compounds on development and sexual differentiation of Xenopus laevis  

PubMed Central

Xenopus laevis has been introduced as a model to study effects of endocrine-active compounds (EAC) on development and sexual differentiation. However, variable and inconsistent data have raised questions about the reliability of the test methods applied. The current study was conducted in two laboratories to develop, refine, and standardize procedures and protocols. Larvae were exposed in flow-through systems to 17?-estradiol (E2), at concentrations from 0.2 to 6.0 ?g E2 L?1 in Experiment 1A, and 0.015 to 2.0 ?g E2 L?1 in Experiment 1B. In both studies survival (92%, 99%) and percentage of animals that completed metamorphosis (97%, 99%) indicated reproducible biological performance. Furthermore, minor variations in husbandry led to significant differences in snout-to-vent length, weight, and gonad size. In Experiment 1A, almost complete feminization occurred in all E2 treatment groups whereas a concentration response was observed in Experiment 1B resulting in an EC50 of 0.12 ?g E2 L?1. The final verified protocol is suitable for determining effects of EAC on development and sexual differentiation in X. laevis.

Kloas, Werner; Springer, Timothy A.; Holden, Larry R.; Wolf, Jeff C.; Krueger, Henry O.; Hosmer, Alan J.

2008-01-01

405

Understanding Sexual Violence  

MedlinePLUS

... and behaviors in their kids. • Creating policies at work, at school, and in other places that address sexual harassment. • Developing mass media (e.g., radio, TV, magazines, newspapers) messages that promote norms, or ...

406

Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Lookout Point Dam, 2010  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Lookout Point Dam (LOP) on the Middle Fork Willamette River. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). The goal of the study was to provide fish passage and distribution data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at LOP and others dams in USACE’s Willamette Valley Project in response to the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. During the year-long study period - February 1, 2010 to January 31, 2011the objectives of the hydroacoustic evaluation of fish passage and distribution at LOP were to: 1. Estimate passage rates, run timing, horizontal distribution, and diel distribution at turbine penstock intakes for smolt-size fish. 2. Estimate passage rates, run timing and diel distribution at turbine penstock intakes for small-size fish. 3. Estimate passage rates and run timing at the regulating outlets for smolt-size fish. 4. Estimate vertical distribution of smolt-size fish in the forebay near the upstream face of the dam. The fixed-location hydroacoustic technique was used to accomplish the objectives of this study. Transducers (420 kHz) were deployed in each penstock intake, above each RO entrance, and on the dam face; a total of nine transducers (2 single-beam and 7 split-beam) were used. We summarize the findings from the hydroacoustic evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at LOP during February 2010 through January 2011 as follows. • Fish passage rates for smolt-size fish (> ~90 mm) were highest during December-January and lowest in mid-summer through early fall. • During the entire study period, an estimated total of 142,463 fish ± 4,444 (95% confidence interval) smolt-size fish passed through turbine penstock intakes. • Diel periodicity of smolt-size fish showing crepuscular peaks was evident in fish passage into turbine penstock intakes. • Run timing for small-size fish (~65-90 mm) peaked (702 fish) on December 18. Downstream passage of small-size juvenile fish was variable, occurring on two days in the spring, eight days in the summer, and at times throughout late fall and winter. A total of 7,017 ± 690 small-size fish passed through the turbine penstock intakes during the study period. • Relatively few fish passed into the ROs when they were open in summer (2 fish/d) and winter (8 fish/d). • Fish were surface-oriented with 62-80% above 10 m deep. The highest percentage of fish (30-60%) was in the 5-10 m depth bin. We draw the following conclusions from the study. • The non-obtrusive hydroacoustic data from this study are reliable because passage estimates and patterns were similar with those observed in the direct capture data from the tailrace screw trap and were consistent with distribution patterns observed in other studies of juvenile salmonid passage at dams. • Fish passage at LOP was apparently affected but not dominated by dam operations and reservoir elevation. • The surface-oriented vertical distribution of fish we observed supports development of surface passage or collector devices. In summary, the high-resolution spatially and temporally data reported herein provide detailed estimates of vertical, horizontal, diel, daily, and seasonal passage and distributions at LOP during March 2010 through January 2011. This information is applicable to management decisions on design and development of surface passage and collections devices to help restore Chinook salmon populations in the Middle Fork Willamette River watershed above Lookout Point Dam.

Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Trott, Donna M.; Ploskey, Gene R.

2011-07-01

407

[Possibilities of surgical treatment of lesions of the organs of the reproductive system and disorders of sexual development].  

PubMed

The authors describe the data on clinico-laboratory and instrumental examinations and surgical treatment of about 5,000 children with different reproductive organ injuries including complex patterns of abnormal sexual differentiation. The designed diagnostic programs made it possible to distribute patients into groups and according to the disease entities in conformity with the classification suggested. It is emphasized that in the developing science concerned with sex, it is necessary to distinguish an area pertaining to childhood, namely pediatric andrology, and to delineate its subject matter and tasks. Skilled assistance can be rendered by a specialized center. A broad spectrum of improved masculinizing (including the design of an artificial phallus) and feminizing (including the design of an artificial vagina from the rectosigmoid segment of the colon) is provided. The catamnestic data are evaluated. PMID:2395620

Okulov, A B; Negmadzhanov, B B; Bogdanova, E A; Iusim, E M; Glybina, T M; Godlevski?, D N; Urinov, M Ia; Matveev, Iu K

1990-01-01

408

Schizosaccharomyces pombe taf1+ is required for nitrogen starvation-induced sexual development and for entering the dormant GO state.  

PubMed

Environmental change, such as nutritional starvation, induces physiological and morphological alterations that enable fission yeast cells to survive. We isolated a novel gene, taf1+, required for the response to nitrogen starvation in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. taf1 disruptants could not mate upon nitrogen starvation, but could upon carbon starvation. taf1 disruptants had a defect in inducing stell+ expression under nitrogen starvation conditions. Furthermore, they lost viability quickly in nitrogen-depleted medium. Unlike wild-type cells, starved taf1-cells had nuclear chromatin that were flat and adhered to the cell periphery. These results indicate that tqf1+ is required for nitrogen starvation-induced sexual development and entering the dormant G0 state. PMID:11270572

Ueno, M; Kurokawa, R; Renauld, H; Watanabe, K; Ushimaru, T; Uritani, M; Yoshinaga, K; Hiraoka, Y

2001-01-01

409

Existence of two sexual races in the planarian species switching between asexual and sexual reproduction.  

PubMed

In certain planarian species that are able to switch between asexual and sexual reproduction, determining whether a sexual has the ability to switch to the asexual state is problematic, which renders the definition of sexuals controversial. We experimentally show the existence of two sexual races, acquired and innate, in the planarian Dugesia ryukyuensis. Acquired sexuals used in this study were experimentally switched from asexuals. Inbreeding of acquired sexuals produced both innate sexuals and asexuals, but inbreeding of innate sexuals produced innate sexuals only and no asexuals. Acquired sexuals, but not innate sexuals, were forced to become asexuals by ablation and regeneration (asexual induction). This suggests that acquired sexuals somehow retain asexual potential, while innate sexuals do not. We also found that acquired sexuals have the potential to develop hyperplastic and supernumerary ovaries, while innate sexuals do not. In this regard, acquired sexuals were more prolific than innate sexuals. The differences between acquired and innate sexuals will provide a structure for examining the mechanism underlying asexual and sexual reproduction in planarians. PMID:22468837

Kobayashi, Kazuya; Maezawa, Takanobu; Nakagawa, Haruka; Hoshi, Motonori

2012-04-01

410

Modeling Food Delivery Dynamics For Juvenile Salmonids Under Variable Flow Regimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional approaches for assessing instream flow needs for salmonids have typically focused on the importance of physical habitat in determining fish habitat selection. This somewhat simplistic approach does not account for differences in food delivery rates to salmonids that arise due to spatial variability in river morphology, hydraulics and temporal variations in the flow regime. Explicitly linking how changes in the flow regime influences food delivery dynamics is an important step in advancing process-based bioenergetic models that seek to predict growth rates of salmonids across various life-stages. Here we investigate how food delivery rates for juvenile salmonids vary both spatially and with flow magnitude in a meandering reach of the Merced River, CA. We utilize a two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic model and discrete particle tracking algorithm to simulate invertebrate drift transport rates at baseflow and a near-bankfull discharge. Modeling results indicate that at baseflow, the maximum drift density occurs in the channel thalweg, while drift densities decrease towards the channel margins due to the process of organisms settling out of the drift. During high-flow events, typical of spring dam-releases, the invertebrate drift transport pathway follows a similar trajectory along the high velocity core and the drift concentrations are greatest in the channel centerline, though the zone of invertebrate transport occupies a greater fraction of the channel width. Based on invertebrate supply rates alone, feeding juvenile salmonids would be expected to be distributed down the channel centerline where the maximum predicted food delivery rates are located in this reach. However, flow velocities in these channel sections are beyond maximum sustainable swimming speeds for most juvenile salmonids. Our preliminary findings suggest that a lack of low velocity refuge may prevent juvenile salmonids from deriving energy from the areas with maximum drift density in this reach. Future efforts will focus on integration of food delivery and bioenergetic models to account for conflicting demands of maximizing food intake while minimizing the energetic costs of swimming.

Harrison, L.; Utz, R.; Anderson, K.; Nisbet, R.

2010-12-01

411

GzSNF1 Is Required for Normal Sexual and Asexual Development in the Ascomycete Gibberella zeae? †  

PubMed Central

The sucrose nonfermenting 1 (SNF1) protein kinase of yeast plays a central role in the transcription of glucose-repressible genes in response to glucose starvation. In this study, we deleted an ortholog of SNF1 from Gibberella zeae to characterize its functions by using a gene replacement strategy. The mycelial growth of deletion mutants (?GzSNF1) was reduced by 21 to 74% on diverse carbon sources. The virulence of ?GzSNF1 mutants on barley decreased, and the expression of genes encoding cell-wall-degrading enzymes was reduced. The most distinct phenotypic changes were in sexual and asexual development. ?GzSNF1 mutants produced 30% fewer perithecia, which matured more slowly, and asci that contained one to eight abnormally shaped ascospores. Mutants in which only the GzSNF1 catalytic domain was deleted had the same phenotype changes as the ?GzSNF1 strains, but the phenotype was less extreme in the mutants with the regulatory domain deleted. In outcrosses between the ?GzSNF1 mutants, each perithecium contained ?70% of the abnormal ascospores, and ?50% of the asci showed unexpected segregation patterns in a single locus tested. The asexual spores of the ?GzSNF1 mutants were shorter and had fewer septa than those of the wild-type strain. The germination and nucleation of both ascospores and conidia were delayed in ?GzSNF1 mutants in comparison with those of the wild-type strain. GzSNF1 expression and localization depended on the developmental stage of the fungus. These results suggest that GzSNF1 is critical for normal sexual and asexual development in addition to virulence and the utilization of alternative carbon sources.

Lee, Seung-Ho; Lee, Jungkwan; Lee, Seunghoon; Park, Eun-Hee; Kim, Ki-Woo; Kim, Myoung-Dong; Yun, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Yin-Won

2009-01-01

412

Sexual behavior and attitude towards HIV testing among non-HIV testers in a developing nation: A public health concern  

PubMed Central

Background: HIV/AIDS is a problem in developing countries including Jamaica. There are several studies dealing with HIV/AIDS in Jamaica but given the increasing rate of the infection, ongoing studies are necessary. Aims: This study examines the sexual behavior and attitude of non-HIV testers in Jamaica in order to provide research evidence that will direct public health policies and interventions. Materials and Methods: This study extracts a sample of 1,192 participants who indicated not having done a HIV test from 1,800 respondents from a 2004 HIV/AIDS/STD National KABP Survey. A detailed questionnaire was developed and used to collect data from people ages 15-49 years old. Results: Some 20.3 % of the variances, which is self reported positive HIV test results, are a function of relationship status, using protection against HIV, having sex with a commercial sex worker, having STIs, the age at which the participant first had sex and age at last birthday. These findings hold across gender, occupational status and education. The majority (87.9%) of the participants said they had little or no chance of getting HIV, and 59.7% did not want to know their HIV status. However, 46.6% did not wear a condom the first time they had sex with current partner, 32% do not wear a condom with their current partner and 16.3% reported having had STIs. Conclusion: The existing HIV prevention programs need to be expanded and fortified to target young Jamaicans, particularly those who do not engage in safe sexual practices.

Bourne, Paul A.; Charles, Christopher A. D.

2010-01-01

413

Assessment of Salmonids and Their Habitat Conditions in the Walla Walla River Basin within Washington, Annual Report 2002-2003.  

SciTech Connect

This study began in 1998 to assess salmonid distribution, relative abundance, genetics, and the condition of salmonid habitats in the Walla Walla River basin. Stream flows in the Walla Walla Basin continue to show a general trend that begins with a sharp decline in discharge in late June, followed by low summer flows and then an increase in discharge in fall and winter. Manual stream flow measurements at Pepper bridge showed an increase in 2002 of 110-185% from July-September, over flows from 2001. This increase is apparently associated with a 2000 settlement agreement between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the irrigation districts to leave minimum flows in the river. Stream temperatures in the Walla Walla basin were similar to those in 2001. Upper montane tributaries maintained maximum summer temperatures below 65 F, while sites in mid and lower Touchet and Walla Walla rivers frequently had daily maximum temperatures well above 68 F (high enough to inhibit migration in adult and juvenile salmonids, and to sharply reduce survival of their embryos and fry). These high temperatures are possibly the most critical physiological barrier to salmonids in the Walla Walla basin, but other factors (available water, turbidity or sediment deposition, cover, lack of pools, etc.) also play a part in salmonid survival, migration, and breeding success. The increased flows in the Walla Walla, due to the 2000 settlement agreement, have not shown consistent improvements to stream temperatures. Rainbow/steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) trout represent the most common salmonid in the basin. Densities of Rainbow/steelhead in the Walla Walla River from the Washington/Oregon stateline to Mojonnier Rd. dropped slightly from 2001, but are still considerably higher than before the 2000 settlement agreement. Other salmonids including; bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), and brown trout (Salmo trutta) had low densities, and limited distribution throughout the basin. A large return of adult spring chinook to the Touchet River drainage in 2001 produced higher densities of juvenile chinook in 2002 than have been seen in recent years, especially in the Wolf Fork. The adult return in 2002 was substantially less than what was seen in 2001. Due to poor water conditions and trouble getting personnel hired, spawning surveys were limited in 2002. Surveyors found only one redd in four Walla Walla River tributaries (Cottonwood Ck., East Little Walla Walla, West Little Walla Walla, and Mill Ck.), and 59 redds in Touchet River tributaries (10 in the North Fork Touchet, 30 in the South Fork Touchet, and 19 in the Wolf Fork). Bull trout spawning surveys in the upper Touchet River tributaries found a total of 125 redds and 150 live fish (92 redds and 75 fish in the Wolf Fork, 2 redds and 1 fish in the Burnt Fork, 0 redds and 1 fish in the South Fork Touchet, 29 redds and 71 fish in the North Fork Touchet, and 2 redds and 2 fish in Lewis Ck.). A preliminary steelhead genetics analysis was completed as part of this project. Results indicate differences between naturally produced steelhead and those produced in the hatchery. There were also apparent genetic differences among the naturally produced fish from different areas of the basin. Detailed results are reported in Bumgarner et al. 2003. Recommendations for assessment activities in 2003 included: (1) continue to monitor the Walla Walla River (focusing from the stateline to McDonald Rd.), the Mill Ck system, and the Little Walla Walla System. (2) reevaluate Whiskey Ck. for abundance and distribution of salmonids, and Lewis Ck. for bull trout density and distribution. (3) select or develop a habitat survey protocol and begin to conduct habitat inventory and assessment surveys. (4) summarize bull trout data for Mill Ck, South Fork Touchet, and Lewis Ck. (5) begin to evaluate temperature and flow data to assess if the habitat conditions exist for spring chinook in the Touchet River.

Mendel, Glen; Trump, Jeremy; Gembala, Mike

2003-09-01

414

Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage at The Dalles Dam Sluiceway, 2005  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District engaged the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate fish passage at The Dalles Dam powerhouse in 2005. The goal of the study was to provide information on smolt passage that will inform decisions on long-term measures and operations to enhance sluiceway passage and reduce turbine passage to improve smolt survival at the dam. The study addressed one of the main programs dedicated to improving juvenile salmonid survival at The Dalles Dam: Surface Flow Bypass. The study objectives (see below) were met using a combination of hydroacoustic and hydraulic data. The study incorporated fixed-location hydroacoustic methods across the entire powerhouse, with especially intense sampling using multiple split-beam transducers at all sluiceway portals. We did not sample fish passage at the spillway in 2005. In the sluiceway nearfield, we used an acoustic camera to track fish movements. The fish data were interpreted with hydraulic data from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Fish passage data were collected in the framework of an “experiment” using a randomized block design (3-day treatments; two treatments) to compare two sluiceway operational configurations: Sluice 2+5 and Sluice 2+19 (six gates open for each configuration). Total project outflow was 76% of the 10-year average for spring and 71% of the 10-year average for summer. Based on these findings, we make the following recommendations: 1) The sluice should be operated 24 h/d from April until November. 2) Open six rather than three sluice gates to take advantage of the maximum hydraulic capacity of the sluiceway. 3) Open the three gates above the western-most operating main turbine unit and the three gates at MU 8 where turbine passage rates are relatively high. 4) Operate the turbine units below open sluice gates as a standard fish operations procedure. 5) Develop hydraulic and entrance enhancements to the sluiceway to tap the potential of The Dalles Dam sluiceway to be highly efficient and effective at passing juvenile salmonids. 6) Consider the following elements for surface flow bypasses during design of any sluiceway enhancements at The Dalles Dam: Form an extensive surface flow bypass flow net (surface bypass discharge greater than ~7% of total project discharge) at both west and east ends of the dam; Create a gradual increase in water velocity approaching the surface flow bypass (ideally, acceleration < 1 m/s per meter); Make water velocities at an entrance high enough (> 3 m/s) to entrain the subject juvenile fishes, e.g., 10,000 cfs or so; Adapt the shape and orientation of the surface entrance(s) to fit site-specific features, i.e., test a Removable Sluiceway Weir. 7)The Dalles Dam sluiceway has potential to be highly efficient and effective at passing juvenile salmonids. We recommend tapping this potential with enhancements to the sluiceway.

Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Hedgepeth, J; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.; Skalski, John R.

2006-06-01

415

Sexual assessment and counseling in primary care.  

PubMed

This article describes the role of the nurse practitioner in sexual health assessment and sexual counseling. Topics of potential sexual health concerns of primary care clients are identified. The essential components of sexual counseling consist of establishing a trusting relationship with the client, developing a systematic repertoire of questions to screen for sexual health concerns, and one-on-one counseling with the permission, limited information, specific suggestions, and intensive therapy (PLISSIT) model. References for further information on sexual education and sexual health are identified. PMID:9481310

Longworth, J C

1997-12-01

416

Surface Flow Outlets to Protect Juvenile Salmonids Passing through Hydropower Dams  

SciTech Connect

We reviewed results of research conducted by engineers and biologists over the past 50 years related to development of surface flow outlets (SFOs) for juvenile salmonids that migrate downstream past hydropower dams. An SFO is a non-turbine, water-efficient passage route with an overflow structure through which flow and fish pass over a dam. Our review covered 69 SFOs in Europe and North America. We identified five main types of SFOs ? low-flow bypass/sluices, high-flow sluices, forebay collectors, powerhouse retrofits, and surface spills. Most low-flow bypass/sluices are sited in Europe and on the east coast of North America, where mean annual project discharge and hydropower production for the dams we reviewed were 95 m3/s and 15 MW, respectively. The other four SFO types are found at dams on the west coast of North America with 2184 m3/s mean annual discharge and 788 MW mean output. A conceptual framework based on fish behavior and hydraulics for different regions of a hydropower project was developed to evaluate SFO performance. For all SFO types, fish collection efficiency averaged 54%, with an average effectiveness ratio of 17:1 (fish to inflow). Surface flow outlet technology can meet the goal of concurrent anadromous fish protection and hydropower generation.

Johnson, Gary E.; Dauble, Dennis D.

2006-10-27

417

Comparative Performance of Acoustic-tagged and PIT-tagged Juvenile Salmonids  

SciTech Connect

Numerous research tools and technologies are currently being used to evaluate fish passage and survival to determine the impacts of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) on endangered and threatened juvenile salmonids, including PIT tags, balloon tags, hydroacoustic evaluations, radio telemetry, and acoustic telemetry. Each has advantages and disadvantages, but options are restricted in some situations because of limited capabilities of a specific technology, lack of detection capability downstream, or availability of adequate numbers of fish. However, there remains concern about the comparative effects of the tag or the tagging procedure on fish performance. The recently developed Juvenile Salmonid Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) acoustic transmitter is the smallest active acoustic tag currently available. The goal of this study was to determine whether fish tagged with the JSATS acoustic-telemetry tag can provide unbiased estimates of passage behavior and survival within the performance life of the tag. We conducted both field and laboratory studies to assess tag effects. For the field evaluation we released a total of 996 acoustic-tagged fish in conjunction with 21,026 PIT-tagged fish into the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam on 6 and 13 May. Travel times between release and downstream dams were not significantly different for the majority of the reaches between acoustic-tagged and PIT-tagged fish. In addition to the field evaluation, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted to determine if growth and survival of juvenile Chinook salmon surgically implanted with acoustic transmitters is different than untagged or PIT tagged juvenile Chinook salmon. Only yearling fish with integrated and non-integrated transmitters experienced mortalities, and these were low (<4.5%). Mortality among sub-yearling control and PIT-tag treatments ranged up to 7.7% while integrated and non-integrated treatments had slightly higher rates (up to 8.3% and 7.9% respectively). No acoustic transmitters were shed by yearling fish during the course of the 90 day study. Up to 7.8% of subyearling fish expelled transmitters. Tags were expelled from 5 to 63 days post-surgery. The average time to expulsion was 27 days; few fish expelled transmitters within 14 days of implantation or less. Histological results suggest that inflammation associated with implantation of an acoustic transmitter can produce fibrous tissue which can invade and possibly damage internal organs soon after implantation. Reactions severe enough to damage organs however, were limited to only ~20% of subyearling Chinook salmon, all of which were under 101mm and 12g at tagging. The infiltration of the fibrous tissue into organs was observed most often in fish held for 21 days and appeared to decrease in subsequent holding times.

Hockersmith, Eric E.; Brown, Richard S.; Liedtke, Theresa L.

2008-02-01

418

Removal of small dams and its influence on physical habitat for salmonids in a Norwegian river  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While research and implementation of upstream migration solutions is extensive, and indeed often successful, full scale restoration projects and investigations of their influence on fish biology are rare in Norway. Acid deposition in Norwegian catchments peaked in the 1980's and resulted in both chronically and episodically acidified rivers and Salmonids in River Nidelva, one of the largest cathments in southern Norway, where extinct for decades. During this period hydropower development in the river paid limited attention to aquatic ecology. Weirs were constructed for esthetic purposes in the late 1970's and turned a 3 km stretch into a lake habitat, well suited for lake dwelling fish species, but unsuited for migration, spawning and juvenile habitat for salmonids. Since 2005, continuous liming to mitigate acidification has improved the water quality and a program for reintroduction of Atlantic salmon has been implemented. We used hydraulic modeling to plan the removal of two weirs on a bypass reach of the river. The 50 meters wide concrete weirs were blasted and removed in 2007, and ecological monitoring has been carried out in the river to assess the effect of weir removal. Topographic mapping, hydraulic measurements and modeling, in combination with biological surveys before and after the removal of the weirs, has proved to represent a powerful method for design of physical habitat adjustments and assessing their influence on fish biology. The model results also supported a rapid progress of planning and executing of the works. While telemetry studies before weir removal suggested that adult migration past the weirs was delayed with several weeks the fish can now pass the reach with minor obstacles. Spawning sites were discovered in the old bed substrate and were occupied already the first season after water velocities increased to suitable levels for spawning. Accordingly, the densities of Atlantic salmon juveniles have shown a marked increased after the conclusion of the project. Catches of pike and cyprinids on the reach is reduced, indicating that their habitat is no longer suitable, while salmon anglers have found new favorite spots in the restored pools and runs.

Fjeldstad, Hans-Petter; Barlaup, Bjørn; Stickler, Morten; Alfredsen, Knut; Gabrielsen, Sven-Erik

2010-05-01

419

Antigen-sampling cells in the salmonid intestinal epithelium.  

PubMed

Antigen uptake has been shown to occur in the teleost intestine, but so far, limited information is available on the distribution and nature of cells involved in the process, and M cells, known for their antigen-sampling abilities in mammals, have not been identified. Here, different intestinal segments from salmonid fish were exposed to gold-BSA to identify antigen-sampling cells. Sections from exposed intestine were examined by light and electron microscopy. Uptake of gold-BSA was restricted to very few dendritic-like cells and to a limited number of epithelial cells located in the mucosal folds in the second segment of the mid-intestine. Gold-positive epithelial cells displayed diverging and electron-dense microvilli with channels intruding into the cytoplasm. A lectin binding experiment demonstrated the presence of cells with mammalian M-cell characteristics in the identical regions. As the identified epithelial cells shared some morphological similarities with immature mammalian M cells, this phenotype may represent evolutionary early antigen-sampling enterocytes. PMID:20178814

Fuglem, Bjørn; Jirillo, Emilio; Bjerkås, Inge; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Nochi, Tomonori; Yuki, Yoshikazu; Raida, Martin; Fischer, Uwe; Koppang, Erling Olaf

2010-03-01

420

Tributyltin and the obesogen metabolic syndrome in a salmonid.  

PubMed

We conducted a dietary feeding study with juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to assess the potential for tributyltin (TBT) to elicit the obesogen response that has been described for mammals. The results show increases in whole-body lipid content, which is consistent with the obesogen response; however, we also observed associated parameters that were dissimilar. We found increases in body mass and alterations to several physiological parameters at doses between 0.4 and 3.5 ng/g fish/day (1.4-12 pmol/g fish/day) and reduced body mass at the highest dose after 55 days of exposure. Lipid related plasma parameters (plasma triacylglycerols, cholesterol, and lipase) exhibited monotonic increases over all doses while other values (glucose and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)) exhibited increases only for the low-dose treatments. The increases noted for several parameters in fish were opposite to those reported for the obesogen metabolic syndrome, which is characterized by a reduction in serum glucose, free fatty acids, and triglycerides. This is the first report of growth stimulation resulting from low-dose exposure to this pesticide, which is an unusual response for any animal exposed to an organic or organometallic xenobiotic. Because a number of environmental contaminants act as metabolic disruptors at very low doses, these results are noteworthy for a variety of species. Intuitively, enhanced growth and lipid storage may appear beneficial; however, for salmonids there are numerous potentially negative consequences for populations. PMID:21167482

Meador, James P; Sommers, Frank C; Cooper, Kathleen A; Yanagida, Gladys

2010-12-16

421

A Comparison of Self-Reported Puberty Using the Pubertal Development Scale and the Sexual Maturation Scale in a School-Based Epidemiologic Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: To examine concordance between two self-reported measures of puberty: Sexual Maturation Scale (SMS) and Pubertal Development Scale (PDS) and their acceptability to adolescents. Methods: Participants of a school-based study in grades 5, 7 and 9 were classified into one of 5 pubertal stages using each method. Results: 2864 students (age…

Bond, Lyndal; Clements, Jackie; Bertalli, Nadine; Evans-Whipp, Tracy; McMorris, Barbara J.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

2006-01-01

422

The Use of Sexually Explicit Material in Clinical, Educational and Research Settings in the United Kingdom and Its Relation to the Development of Psychosexual Therapy and Sex Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present review describes the development and use of sexually explicit material in sex education within UK psychosexual therapy clinics, medical schools and also in state-maintained secondary schools with reference to interests that have shaped the provision of sex education since the early twentieth century. A short summary of published books…

Brewster, Marnie; Wylie, Kevan R.

2008-01-01

423

EFFECTS OF MIXTURES OF PHTHALATES, PESTICIDES AND TCDD ON SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATON IN RATS: A RISK FRAMEWORK BASED UPON DISRUPTION OF COMMON DEVELOPING SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Since humans are exposed to more than one chemical at a time, concern has arisen about the effects of mixtures of chemicals on human reproduction and development. We are conducting studies to determine the 1) classes of chemicals that disrupt sexual differentiation via different ...

424

Rape Myth Acceptance, Hypermasculinity, and SAT Scores as Correlates of Moral Development: Understanding Sexually Aggressive Attitudes in First-Year College Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Male perpetrated sexual aggression has long been recognized as a serious problem on college campuses. The purpose of this multiple regression correlation study was to assess the relationship between levels of moral development (measured by the Defining Issues Test) and the degree to which first-year college men (N = 161) ascribed to rape…

Tatum, Jerry L.; Foubert, John D.

2009-01-01

425

The Use of Sexually Explicit Material in Clinical, Educational and Research Settings in the United Kingdom and Its Relation to the Development of Psychosexual Therapy and Sex Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present review describes the development and use of sexually explicit material in sex education within UK psychosexual therapy clinics, medical schools and also in state-maintained secondary schools with reference to interests that have shaped the provision of sex education since the early twentieth century. A short summary of published books…

Brewster, Marnie; Wylie, Kevan R.

2008-01-01

426

"Saving Sex for Later": Developing a Parent-Child Communication Intervention to Delay Sexual Initiation among Young Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young adolescents in communities with high rates of early sexual initiation are at risk of multiple negative health outcomes. Although sex education programs for this age group are often controversial, surveys document that many mothers and fathers would appreciate guidance about how to discuss sexuality with their children. This paper presents an…

O'Donnell, Lydia; Wilson-Simmons, Renee; Dash, Kim; Jeanbaptiste, Varzi; Myint-U, Athi; Moss, Jesse; Stueve, Ann

2007-01-01

427

"Saving Sex for Later": Developing a Parent-Child Communication Intervention to Delay Sexual Initiation among Young Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Young adolescents in communities with high rates of early sexual initiation are at risk of multiple negative health outcomes. Although sex education programs for this age group are often controversial, surveys document that many mothers and fathers would appreciate guidance about how to discuss sexuality with their children. This paper presents…

O'Donnell, Lydia; Wilson-Simmons, Renee; Dash, Kim; Jeanbaptiste, Varzi; Myint-U, Athi; Moss, Jesse; Stueve, Ann

2007-01-01

428

Isolation and characterization of a new subspecies of Mycobacterium chelonei infectious for salmonid fish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapidly growing, nonchromogenic mycobacteria were isolated from salmonid fish at five locations in the states of Oregon and Montana, USA. The isolates were characterized by biochemical, physiological, genetic and mycolic acid properties, then subjected to taxonomic analysis. Detection of mycobacterial mycolic acids and a percent guanine plus cytosine value of 63 ± 1.7 mol% confirmed that the isolates belong to the genus Mycobacterium. The internal similarity of the isolates was 94.2 ± 3.4 %. None of the isolates grew at 37 °C. A comparison of their properties with those of other rapidly growing, nonchromogenic and photochromogenic mycobacteria was made. The salmonid isolates showed a relationship to M. chelonei subspecies chelonei and M. chelonei subspecies abscessus, but had biochemical properties which were intermediate to these two subspecies. Acid methanolysates of the salmonid isolates, analyzed by two dimensional thin-layer chromatography, produced lipid patterns identical to those of both subspecies of M. chelonei. Sufficient differences in biochemical properties and the inability to grow at 37 °C suggest these isolates be regarded as a new subspecies of M. chelonei. We propose the name M. chelonei subspecies piscarium subsp. nov. (L. adj. piscarius of fish). The isolates were not infectious for mice. Experimental infections were produced in juvenile salmonid fish. The occurrence of mycobacterial infections in selected salmonid populations from Oregon hatcheries and the Pacific Ocean ranged from 0 to 26 %.

Arakawa, C. K.; Fryer, J. L.

1984-03-01

429

Can testosterone and corticosterone predict the rate of display of male sexual behaviour, development of secondary sexual characters and fertility potential in primary broiler breeders?  

PubMed

1. Genetic selection for growth to enhance production may be associated with stress and with modified physiological and behavioural phenotypes which depress male primary broiler breeder fertility. 2. We hypothesised that male serum testosterone (T) and corticosterone (C) concentrations might correlate with fertility, sexual behaviour, and testicular, comb and wattle size. 3. Cockerels from two genetic strains (A and B) of primary broiler breeder were penned individually with an average of 10 females across 5 age periods (30 to 51 weeks) to evaluate male fertility, behaviour, serum T and C, and comb, wattle and testicular dimensions. 4. Strain A males had higher T at age periods 2, 4 and 5 than Strain B. Both strains had basal concentrations of C, apart from an elevated concentration for Strain B in period 5. 5. Strain B had a weak but significant, positive correlation between sexual behaviour and T and C, while Strain A males with higher C had larger combs and wattles. 6. Neither T nor C correlated with fertility. We conclude that evaluation of these endocrine factors (quantifiable measurements with the potential to correlate with fertility) alone seems insufficient to predict male fertility potential in these strains of primary broiler breeder. PMID:16359118

McGary Brougher, S; Estevez, I; Ottinger, M A

2005-10-01

430

Typing, doing, and being: Sexuality and the internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing salience of sexuality on the internet, whether cybersex or use of the internet to make sexual contacts, has focused interest on how internet?mediated sexuality informs social theory. This article reviews social theory and sexuality in relation to the internet, with specific reference to the development of intimacy, the association of texts with sexual scripts, the emergence of cybersexuality

Michael W. Ross

2005-01-01

431

Sexuality in nursing homes: practice and policy.  

PubMed

Older adults' sexuality and sexual expression are often overlooked in nursing home and residential care settings. Despite cultural beliefs that this population is asexual, sexual activity occurs frequently among residents in long-term care. This study, using written survey instrumentation, examines the scope of resident sexuality, staff reactions to sexual behavior, and the policies and guidelines used in 91 nursing homes to address residents' sexual activity. Eighty-five percent of respondents reported that sexual activity had occurred in their homes, and staff reactions to sexual activity were based on general guidelines. Many responses indicated that sexual expression of residents was considered non-normative. Issues of consent, especially concerning residents with dementia, and residents' right to privacy were addressed using existing general policies. Survey results demonstrate a need for specific policies and staff training regarding sexual expression to be developed with the input of nurses, family members, and residents. PMID:23614386

Doll, Gayle M

2013-04-26

432

Population genetic differentiation of sea lice ( Lepeophtheirus salmonis ) parasitic on Atlantic and Pacific salmonids: analyses of microsatellite DNA variation among wild and farmed hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis is ectoparasitic on Atlantic and Pacific wild salmonids. It is a major pest to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture and may be implicated in recent declines of certain European wild salmonid stocks. Variation at six microsatellite loci was assessed among L. salmonis from wild and farmed salmonids in Scotland, wild sea-run brown trout (Salmo trutta) in

C. D. Todd; A. M. Walker; M. G. Ritchie; J. A. Graves; A. F. Walker

2004-01-01

433

Understanding Sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Chapter 3 provides readers with an explanation of the issues related to sexuality in schools. The first section defines sexual\\u000a orientation, behavior, and identity and several related terms that are important for education professionals to understand.\\u000a The second section explores contemporary youth sexualities and some of the various identities embraced by youth today. The\\u000a third section gives a brief history

Elizabeth J. Meyer

434

The St Andrew's Sexual Behaviour Assessment (SASBA): development of a standardised recording instrument for the measurement and assessment of challenging sexual behaviour in people with progressive and acquired neurological impairment.  

PubMed

Inappropriate sexual behaviour (ISB) as a sequela of neurological impairment is often overlooked in comparison to other challenging behaviours such as agitation and aggression, yet the impact on patients and carers can be equally significant and pervasive. Inconsistencies in terminology and lack of standardised measurement tools for ISB limit the degree to which such beh