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1

Salmonid sexual development is not consistently altered by embryonic exposure to endocrine-active chemicals.  

PubMed Central

Fish sexual development is sensitive to exogenous hormone manipulation, and salmonids have been used extensively as environmental sentinels and models for biomedical research. We simulated maternal transfer of contaminants by microinjecting rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) embryos. Fish were reared for 6 months and sexed, and gonads were removed for histology and measurement of in vitro steroid production. Analysis of fat samples showed that dichlorodiphenylethylene (DDE) levels, o, p'M-DDE and p,o, p'-DDE isomers, were elevated 6 months after treatment. A preliminary study showed an increased ratio of males to females after treatment with 80 mg/kg and 160 mg/kg of the xenoestrogen o,o, p'-DDE. One fish treated with 160 mg/kg o,o, p'-DDE had gonads with cells typical of both males and females. A follow-up study, using more fish and excluding the highly toxic 160 mg/kg o,o, p'-DDE dose, showed no effect on sex ratio or gonadal histology. Embryonic exposure of monosex male trout, monosex female trout, and mixed sex salmon to o, o, p'-DDE, p,o, p'-DDE, mixtures of DDE isomers, and octylphenol failed to alter sexual development. We observed no treatment-dependent changes in in vitro gonadal steroid production in any experiments. Trout exposed in ovo and reared to maturity spawned successfully. These results suggest that mortality attributable to the xenoestrogens o,o, p'-DDE, chlordecone, and octylphenol, and the antiandrogen p,o, p'-DDE, is likely to occur before the appearance of subtle changes in sexual development. Because trout appeared to be sensitive to endocrine disruption, we cannot dismiss the threat of heavily contaminated sites or complex mixtures to normal sexual development of salmonids or other aquatic organisms. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:10706532

Carlson, D B; Curtis, L R; Williams, D E

2000-01-01

2

The sexually dimorphic on the Y-chromosome gene (sdY) is a conserved male-specific Y-chromosome sequence in many salmonids  

PubMed Central

All salmonid species investigated to date have been characterized with a male heterogametic sex-determination system. However, as these species do not share any Y-chromosome conserved synteny, there remains a debate on whether they share a common master sex-determining gene. In this study, we investigated the extent of conservation and evolution of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) master sex-determining gene, sdY (sexually dimorphic on the Y-chromosome), in 15 different species of salmonids. We found that the sdY sequence is highly conserved in all salmonids and that sdY is a male-specific Y-chromosome gene in the majority of these species. These findings demonstrate that most salmonids share a conserved sex-determining locus and also strongly suggest that sdY may be this conserved master sex-determining gene. However, in two whitefish species (subfamily Coregoninae), sdY was found both in males and females, suggesting that alternative sex-determination systems may have also evolved in this family. Based on the wide conservation of sdY as a male-specific Y-chromosome gene, efficient and easy molecular sexing techniques can now be developed that will be of great interest for studying these economically and environmentally important species. PMID:23745140

Yano, Ayaka; Nicol, Barbara; Jouanno, Elodie; Quillet, Edwige; Fostier, Alexis; Guyomard, René; Guiguen, Yann

2013-01-01

3

Understanding disorders of sexual development.  

PubMed

Studies estimate that the incidence of genital anomalies could be as high as 1 in 300 births. While it is rare for an infant to present with truly ambiguous genitalia, it is plausible that the pediatric nurse will encounter a patient with disorders of sexual development in his or her career. Cases of disorders of sexual development are challenging due to complexities of diagnosis, gender assignment, uncertain outcomes, treatment options, and psychosocial stressors. This article discusses the evaluation and management of children with disorders of sexual development and the nurse's role as child advocate and family educator. PMID:24796516

Rothkopf, Amy C; John, Rita Marie

2014-01-01

4

Sexual anxiety and eroticism predict the development of sexual problems in youth with a history of sexual abuse.  

PubMed

Youth with confirmed histories of sexual abuse (N = 118) were followed longitudinally to examine associations between their initial sexual reactions to abuse and subsequent sexual functioning. Participants were interviewed at abuse discovery (ages 8 through 15) and again 1 and 6 years later. Eroticism and sexual anxiety emerged as distinct indices of abuse-specific sexual reactions and predicted subsequent sexual functioning. Eroticism was associated with indicators of heightened sexuality, including more sexual risk behavior and views of sexual intimacy focused on partners' needs. Sexual anxiety was associated with indicators of diminished sexuality, including few sexual partners and avoidant views of sexual intimacy. Age at abuse discovery moderated some associations, suggesting that the timing of abuse-specific reactions affects trajectories of sexual development. Findings point to the need for a developmental approach to understanding how abuse-specific sexual reactions disrupt sexual development and the need for early interventions promoting healthy sexual development. PMID:18408212

Simon, Valerie A; Feiring, Candice

2008-05-01

5

Development of infectious cDNA clones of Salmonid alphavirus subtype 3  

PubMed Central

Background Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) is a widespread pathogen in European aquaculture of salmonid fish. Distinct viral subtypes have been suggested based on sequence comparisons and some of these have different geographical distributions. In Norway, only SAV subtype 3 have so far been identified. Little is known about viral mechanisms important for pathogenesis and transmission. Tools for detailed exploration of SAV genomes are therefore needed. Results Infectious cDNA clones in which a genome of subtype 3 SAV is under the control of a CMV promoter were constructed. The clones were designed to express proteins that are putatively identical to those previously reported for the SAVH20/03 strain. A polyclonal antiserum was raised against a part of the E2 glycoprotein in order to detect expression of the subgenomic open reading frame (ORF) encoding structural viral proteins. Transfection of the cDNA clone revealed the expression of the E2 protein by IFAT, and in serial passages of the supernatant the presence of infectious recombinant virus was confirmed through RT-PCR, IFAT and the development of a cytopathic effect similar to that seen during infection with wild type SAV. Confirmation that the recovered virus originated from the infectious plasmid was done by sequence identification of an introduced genetic tag. The recombinant virus was infectious also when an additional ORF encoding an EGFP reporter gene under the control of a second subgenomic alphavirus promoter was added. Finally, we used the system to study the effect of selected point mutations on infectivity in Chinook salmon embryo cells. While introduced mutations in nsP2197, nsP3263 and nsP3323 severely reduced infectivity, a serine to proline mutation in E2206 appeared to enhance the virus titer production. Conclusion We have constructed infectious clones for SAV based on a subtype 3 genome. The clones may serve as a platform for further functional studies. PMID:20858233

2010-01-01

6

DEVELOPMENT OF FIELD-BASED EMPIRICAL MODELS OF SUITABLE TEMPERATURE REGIMES FOR INTERIOR SALMONIDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Interior salmonids are species of growing interest and concern in the Pacific Northwest. Evidence of population declines associated with habitat loss and fragmentation have culminate in every species being listed, or proposed or petitioned for listing under he Endangered Species...

7

Clock genes and their genomic distributions in three species of salmonid fishes: Associations with genes regulating sexual maturation and cell cycling  

PubMed Central

Background Clock family genes encode transcription factors that regulate clock-controlled genes and thus regulate many physiological mechanisms/processes in a circadian fashion. Clock1 duplicates and copies of Clock3 and NPAS2-like genes were partially characterized (genomic sequencing) and mapped using family-based indels/SNPs in rainbow trout (RT)(Oncorhynchus mykiss), Arctic charr (AC)(Salvelinus alpinus), and Atlantic salmon (AS)(Salmo salar) mapping panels. Results Clock1 duplicates mapped to linkage groups RT-8/-24, AC-16/-13 and AS-2/-18. Clock3/NPAS2-like genes mapped to RT-9/-20, AC-20/-43, and AS-5. Most of these linkage group regions containing the Clock gene duplicates were derived from the most recent 4R whole genome duplication event specific to the salmonids. These linkage groups contain quantitative trait loci (QTL) for life history and growth traits (i.e., reproduction and cell cycling). Comparative synteny analyses with other model teleost species reveal a high degree of conservation for genes in these chromosomal regions suggesting that functionally related or co-regulated genes are clustered in syntenic blocks. For example, anti-müllerian hormone (amh), regulating sexual maturation, and ornithine decarboxylase antizymes (oaz1 and oaz2), regulating cell cycling, are contained within these syntenic blocks. Conclusions Synteny analyses indicate that regions homologous to major life-history QTL regions in salmonids contain many candidate genes that are likely to influence reproduction and cell cycling. The order of these genes is highly conserved across the vertebrate species examined, and as such, these genes may make up a functional cluster of genes that are likely co-regulated. CLOCK, as a transcription factor, is found within this block and therefore has the potential to cis-regulate the processes influenced by these genes. Additionally, clock-controlled genes (CCGs) are located in other life-history QTL regions within salmonids suggesting that at least in part, trans-regulation of these QTL regions may also occur via Clock expression. PMID:20670436

2010-01-01

8

Recent Legal Developments in Sexual Harassment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Changes in sexual harassment theory, including those in the Supreme Court decision of Meritor Savings Bank v. Vinson, are discussed. The use of the equal protection clause, Title IX, and tort law are described. Policies and complaint procedures that colleges should develop to encourage the reporting of sexual harassment are outlined. (Author/MLW)

Cole, Elsa Kircher

1986-01-01

9

Development and corroboration of a bioenergetics model for northern pikeminnow feeding on juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A bioenergetics model was developed and corroborated for northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis, an important predator on juvenile salmonids in the Pacific Northwest. Predictions of modeled predation rate on salmonids were compared with field data from three areas of John Day Reservoir (Columbia River). To make bioenergetics model estimates of predation rate, three methods were used to approximate the change in mass of average predators during 30-d growth periods: observed change in mass between the first and the second month, predicted change in mass calculated with seasonal growth rates, and predicted change in mass based on an annual growth model. For all reservoir areas combined, bioenergetics model predictions of predation on salmon were 19% lower than field estimates based on observed masses, 45% lower than estimates based on seasonal growth rates, and 15% lower than estimates based on the annual growth model. For each growth approach, the largest differences in field-versus-model predation occurred at the midreservoir area (-84% to -67% difference). Model predictions of the rate of predation on salmonids were examined for sensitivity to parameter variation, swimming speed, sampling bias caused by gear selectivity, and asymmetric size distributions of predators. The specific daily growth rate of northern pikeminnow predicted by the model was highest in July and October and decreased during August. The bioenergetics model for northern pikeminnow performed well compared with models for other fish species that have been tested with field data. This model should be a useful tool for evaluating management actions such as predator removal, examining the influence of temperature on predation rates, and exploring interactions between predators in the Columbia River basin.

Petersen, J.H.; Ward, D.L.

1999-01-01

10

Assessing Juvenile Salmonid Passage Through Culverts: Field Research in Support of Protocol Development  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of our research this spring/ summer was to refine techniques and examine scenarios under which a standardized protocol could be applied to assess juvenile coho salmon (O. kisutch) passage through road culverts. Field evaluations focused on capture-mark- recapture methods that allowed analysis of fish movement patterns, estimates of culvert passability, and potential identification of cues inducing these movements. At this stage, 0+ age coho salmon fry 30 mm to 65 mm long (fork length) were the species and age class of interest. Ultimately, the protocol will provide rapid, statistically rigorous methods for trained personnel to perform standardized biological assessments of culvert passability to a number of juvenile salmon species. Questions to be addressed by the research include the following: ? Do hydraulic structures such as culverts restrict habitat for juvenile salmonids? ? How do existing culverts and retrofits perform relative to juvenile salmonid passage? ? Do some culvert characteristics and hydraulic conditions provide better passage than others? ? Does the culvert represent a barrier to certain size classes of fish? Recommendations addressed issues of study site selection, initial capture, marking, recapture/observations, and estimating movement.

Williams, Greg D.; Evans, Nathan R.; Pearson, Walter H.; Southard, John A.

2001-10-30

11

Improving Sexuality Education: The Development of Teacher-Preparation Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Teaching sexuality education to support young people's sexual development and overall sexual health is both needed and supported. Data continue to highlight the high rates of teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted disease, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, among young people in the United States as well as the…

Barr, Elissa M.; Goldfarb, Eva S.; Russell, Susan; Seabert, Denise; Wallen, Michele; Wilson, Kelly L.

2014-01-01

12

Development of a rapid and efficient microinjection technique for gene insertion into fertilized salmonid eggs  

SciTech Connect

An efficient one-step injection technique for gene insertion into fertilized rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) eggs is described, and basic parameters affecting egg survival are reported. Freshly fertilized rainbow trout eggs were injected in the perivitelline space with a recombinant mouse metallothionein-genomic bovine growth hormone (bGH) DNA construct using a 30-gauge hypodermic needle and a standard microinjection system. Relative to control, site of injection and DNA concentration did not affect the egg survival, but injections later than 3--4 hours post fertilization were detrimental. The injection technique permitted treatment of 100 eggs/hr with survivals up to 100%, resulting in a 4% DNA uptake rate as indicated by DNA dot blot analysis. Positive dot blot results also indicated that the injected DNA is able to cross the vitelline membrane and persist for 50--60 days post hatching, obviating the need for direct injection into the germinal disk. Results are consistent with previous transgenic fish work, underscoring the usefulness of the technique for generating transgenic trout and salmonids. 24 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Chandler, D.P.; Welt, M.; Leung, F.C.

1990-10-01

13

Sexuality among Adolescents with Moderate Disabilities: Promoting Positive Sexual Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents with moderate disabilities are not being given vital information regarding their sexuality and ways to behave responsibly with their peers. This article examines the laws that govern the education of all persons with disabilities, how societal norms and attitudes have contributed to this lack of sexuality knowledge, how these…

Harader, Dana L.; Fullwood, Harry; Hawthorne, Melissa

2009-01-01

14

Inhabiting the sexual landscape: toward an interpretive theory of the development of sexual orientation and identity.  

PubMed

Building on Paula Rust's (1996) concept of a sexual landscape, we propose an interpretive theory of the development of both sexual orientation and sexual identity. We seek to reconcile human agency with active and shifting influences in social context and to recognize the inherent complexity of environmental factors while acknowledging the role that biological potential plays. We ground our model in the insights of three compatible and related theoretical perspectives: social constructionism, symbolic interactionism, and scripting theory. Within this framework, we explain how sexual orientation and sexual identities develop and potentially change. PMID:25397814

Gordon, Liahna E; Silva, Tony J

2015-04-01

15

Vaccination against salmonid bacterial kidney disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) of salmonid fishes, caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, has presented challenges for development of effective vaccines, despite several decades of research. The only vaccine against BKD that is commercially licensed is an injectable preparation containing live cells ...

16

SALMONID PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Pharmacology and toxicology of Salmonids are described. Authors also document territorial behavior of salmonids and their response to effects of drugs, chemicals or pollutants. Current literature is cited as the best source of information regarding the use of drugs and chemicals ...

17

The Internet, Sex, and Youths: Implications for Sexual Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes the research to date on youths' online sexual activities pertaining to socialization, education, and entertainment. It presents how these activities relate to the overall sexuality and mental health of adolescents and young adults, while situating the findings within a perspective of psychosocial and sexual development. It also provides information relevant to the prevention and treatment of problematic

SYLVAIN C. BOIES; GAIL KNUDSON; JULIAN YOUNG

2004-01-01

18

The experimental analysis of human sexual arousal: Some recent developments  

PubMed Central

Experimental analyses of human sexual arousal have been decidedly sparse. Recent developments in the analysis of derived relational responding, however, have opened the way for a modern behavior-analytic treatment of complex or “novel” human behavior, including specific instances of human sexual arousal. The current article examines some of these developments and their relevance to the analysis of emotional behavior, with a focus on sexual arousal. Recent research that has examined the acquisition of sexual stimulus functions within a relational frame paradigm is then outlined. Finally, a series of relational frame interpretations of a variety of human sexual arousal phenomena is offered. PMID:22478296

Roche, Bryan; Barnes, Dermot

1998-01-01

19

Development of an Index to Bird Predation of Juvenile Salmonids within the Yakima River, 1999 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Avian predation of fish is suspected to contribute to the loss of juvenile spring chinook salmon in the Yakima Basin, potentially constraining natural production. In 1997 and 1998, the Yakama/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW)--whose goal is to increase natural production historically present within the Yakima River--initiated investigations to assess the feasibility of developing an index to avian predation of juvenile salmon within the river. This research--conducted by Dr. Steve Mathews and David Phinney of the University of Washington--confirmed that Ring-billed Gulls and Common Mergansers were the primary avian predators of juvenile salmon, and that under certain conditions could significantly impact migrating smolt populations. Beginning in 1999, the Washington Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit was asked by the YKFP and the WDFW to continue development of avian consumption indices. Monitoring methods developed by Mathews and Phinney were adopted (with modifications) and monitoring of impacts to juvenile salmon along river reaches and at areas of high predator/prey concentrations (colloquially referred to as ''hotspots'') continued. New efforts initiated in 1999 included piscivorous bird surveys at smolt acclimation sites operated by the Yakama Nation, monitoring of the North Fork Teanaway River for changes in avian piscivore abundance associated with the installation of the Jack Creek acclimation facility, and aerial surveys seeking to identify avian piscivores along the length of the Yakima River. In 1999, piscivorous birds were counted from river banks at hotspots and from a raft or drift boat along river reaches. Consumption by gulls was based on direct observations of foraging success and modeled abundance; consumption by Common Mergansers (which forage underwater) was estimated using published dietary requirements and modeled abundance. A second-order polynomial equation was used to interpolate gull and Common Merganser abundance on days when surveys were not conducted. Seasonal patterns of avian piscivore abundance were identified, diurnal patterns of gull abundance at hotspots were identified, predation indices were calculated for hotspots and summer river reaches, and the efficacy of aerial surveys for estimating bird abundance within river reaches was evaluated. Primary avian predators were California and Ring-billed Gulls at hotspots and Common Mergansers within upper river reaches. Estimated take (presumed to be salmonids) by gulls at hotspots (22 April-30 May) was 4,084 fish at the Chandler Bypass Outfall and 12,636 fish at Horn Rapids Dam. Combined take was 2.65% of the salmonids passing over Chandler Dam or 0.89 % of all smolts estimated passing or being released from the Chandler Dam area during the 1999 smolt migration season. Estimated take by Common Mergansers within upper river reaches in summer was 4,092 kg between 7 May and 18 August 1999.

Gassley, James M.; Grue, Christian E. (University of Washington, School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, Seattle, WA)

2001-10-01

20

Salmonid follicle-stimulating hormone (GtH I) mediates vitellogenic development of oocytes in the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.  

PubMed

Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were subjected to unilateral ovariectomy (ULO) during early vitellogenesis to examine the endocrine responses mediating the recruitment and growth of oocytes in the secondary (vitellogenic) growth phase. ULO induced recruitment of a second population of primary oocytes into the vitellogenic growth phase that then grew at a faster rate than oocytes in the control fish. Seven days post-ULO, the concentration of plasma salmonid FSH (sFSH = GtH I) was significantly higher than in controls and was elevated for at least 54 days. Maximal concentrations of sFSH in ULO fish (Day 21 post-ULO) were twice (10 ng/ml) those in controls. The data show that sFSH plays a primary role in mediating vitellogenic development. After ULO, plasma concentrations of estradiol-17beta were significantly lower than in controls up until 21 days post-ULO. Thereafter, plasma concentrations of estradiol-17beta did not differ from those in controls. The changes in concentrations of plasma estradiol-17beta and sFSH in the ULO fish demonstrated that the secretion of sFSH is probably not controlled by negative feedback of estradiol-17beta alone; in fish, as in mammals, it is likely that intragonadal autocrine/paracrine factors, such as inhibin and activin, also participate in the regulation of sFSH secretion. Plasma concentrations of testosterone did not appear to differ between the control and ULO fish. The responses in the production of estradiol-17beta and testosterone indicate that the dynamics of sex steroid synthesis in ovarian follicles in ULO fish was different than in the ovaries of control fish. PMID:9369193

Tyler, C R; Pottinger, T G; Coward, K; Prat, F; Beresford, N; Maddix, S

1997-11-01

21

Development and application of a salmonid EST database and cDNA microarray: data mining and interspecific hybridization characteristics.  

PubMed

We report 80,388 ESTs from 23 Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) cDNA libraries (61,819 ESTs), 6 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) cDNA libraries (14,544 ESTs), 2 chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) cDNA libraries (1317 ESTs), 2 sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) cDNA libraries (1243 ESTs), and 2 lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) cDNA libraries (1465 ESTs). The majority of these are 3' sequences, allowing discrimination between paralogs arising from a recent genome duplication in the salmonid lineage. Sequence assembly reveals 28,710 different S. salar, 8981 O. mykiss, 1085 O. tshawytscha, 520 O. nerka, and 1176 C. clupeaformis putative transcripts. We annotate the submitted portion of our EST database by molecular function. Higher- and lower-molecular-weight fractions of libraries are shown to contain distinct gene sets, and higher rates of gene discovery are associated with higher-molecular weight libraries. Pyloric caecum library group annotations indicate this organ may function in redox control and as a barrier against systemic uptake of xenobiotics. A microarray is described, containing 7356 salmonid elements representing 3557 different cDNAs. Analyses of cross-species hybridizations to this cDNA microarray indicate that this resource may be used for studies involving all salmonids. PMID:14962987

Rise, Matthew L; von Schalburg, Kristian R; Brown, Gordon D; Mawer, Melanie A; Devlin, Robert H; Kuipers, Nathanael; Busby, Maura; Beetz-Sargent, Marianne; Alberto, Roberto; Gibbs, A Ross; Hunt, Peter; Shukin, Robert; Zeznik, Jeffrey A; Nelson, Colleen; Jones, Simon R M; Smailus, Duane E; Jones, Steven J M; Schein, Jacqueline E; Marra, Marco A; Butterfield, Yaron S N; Stott, Jeff M; Ng, Siemon H S; Davidson, William S; Koop, Ben F

2004-03-01

22

An Ethnographic Analysis of Adolescent Sexual Minority Website Usage: Exploring Notions of Information Seeking and Sexual Identity Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation explores the website usage of adolescent sexual minorities, examining notions of information seeking and sexual identity development. Sexual information seeking is an important element within human information behavior and is uniquely problematic for young sexual minorities. Utilizing a contemporary gay teen website, this…

Sulfridge, Rocky M.

2012-01-01

23

Alcohol and Sexual Consent Scale: Development and Validation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To establish a short measure of attitudes toward sexual consent in the context of alcohol consumption. Methods: Using a multistage and systematic measurement development process, the investigators developed the Alcohol and Sexual Consent Scale using a sample of college students. Results: The resulting 12-item scale, the Alcohol and…

Ward, Rose Marie; Matthews, Molly R.; Weiner, Judith; Hogan, Kathryn M.; Popson, Halle C.

2012-01-01

24

Development and familiality of sexual orientation in females  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and familial clustering of sexual orientation were studied in 358 heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexual women.\\u000a Sexual orientation, as measured by the Kinsey scales, was diverse yet showed statistical congruity and stability over a 1-\\u000a to 1.5-year time span. Developmental patterns, as measured by retrospective reports on the ages of first sexual or romantic\\u000a attraction and of self-acknowledgment of

Angela M. L. Pattatucci; Dean H. Hamer

1995-01-01

25

Persistence of Salmonid Redds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The construction of redds by spawning salmonids modifies fluvial processes in ways that are beneficial to egg and embryo survival. Redd topography induces hyporheic flow that oxygenates embryos incubating within the streambed and creates form drag that reduces bed mobility and scour of salmonid eggs. Winnowing of fine material during redd construction also coarsens the streambed, increasing bed porosity and hyporheic flow and reducing bed mobility. In addition to the biological benefits, redds may influence channel morphology by altering channel hydraulics and bed load transport rates depending on the size and extent of redds relative to the size of the channel. A key question is how long do the physical and biological effects of redds last? Field observations indicate that in some basins redds are ephemeral, with redd topography rapidly erased by subsequent floods, while in other basins, redds can persist for years. We hypothesize that redd persistence is a function of basin hydrology, sediment supply, and characteristics of the spawning fish. Hydrology controls the frequency and magnitude of bed mobilizing flows following spawning, while bed load supply (volume and caliber) controls the degree of textural fining and consequent bed mobility after spawning, as well as the potential for burial of redd features. The effectiveness of flows in terms of their magnitude and duration depend on hydroclimate (i.e., snowmelt, rainfall, or transitional hydrographs), while bed load supply depends on basin geology, land use, and natural disturbance regimes (e.g., wildfire). Location within the stream network may also influence redd persistence. In particular, lakes effectively trap sediment and regulate downstream flow, which may promote long-lived redds in stream reaches below lakes. These geomorphic controls are modulated by biological factors: fish species (size of fish controls size of redds and magnitude of streambed coarsening); life history (timing of spawning and incubation relative to high flows); and population size (density of redds and extent of streambed alteration within a given reach). Species and life history also control the location of spawning within the basin, dictating the flow and sediment supply regimes. A theoretical framework is developed for predicting redd persistence as a function of the above physical and biological factors. We expect that long-lived redds will indicate either that the river is not competent to re-work the effects of spawning or that spawning occurs after peak flow events that are capable of modifying redd features. The longevity of redds and their associated effects on fluvial processes also provides a measure of the degree of potential ecological conditioning for future generations of fish. Future work will test the framework in field and laboratory settings.

Buffington, J. M.; Buxton, T.; Fremier, A. K.; Hassan, M. A.; Yager, E.

2013-12-01

26

Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Interpersonal Sexual Objectification Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reports on the development and psychometric evaluation of the Interpersonal Sexual Objectification Scale (ISOS). Data from 576 college women were collected in three studies. Exploratory factor analysis uncovered two factors: Body Evaluation and Unwanted Explicit Sexual Advances; confirmatory factor analysis supported this factor…

Kozee, Holly B.; Tylka, Tracy L.; Augustus-Horvath, Casey L.; Denchik, Angela

2007-01-01

27

Examining the Development and Sexual Behavior of Adolescent Males  

PubMed Central

A careful examination of young men's sexuality by health professionals in pediatrics, primary care and reproductive health is foundational to adolescent male sexual health and healthy development. Through a review of existing literature, this article provides background and a developmental framework for sexual health services for adolescent boys. The article first defines and provides an overview of adolescent boys’ sexual health, and then discusses developmentally focused research on the following topics: (1) early romantic relationships and the evolution of power and influence within these relationships; (2) developmental “readiness” for sex and curiosity; (3) boys’ need for closeness and intimacy; (4) adopting codes of masculinity; (5) boys’ communicating about sex; and (6) contextual influences from peers, families, and providers. This article concludes by examining the implications of these data for sexual health promotion efforts for adolescent males, including HPV vaccination. PMID:20307842

Ott, Mary A.

2010-01-01

28

Tetraploid production in salmonids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tetraploid induction is of interest to aquaculture and fisheries as part of a more efficient means of producing triploid fish by mating a tetraploid parent with a diploid parent (tetraploid-derived triploids). Tetraploid induction has previously been reported in salmonids including rainbow trout a...

29

[Development of sexuality and motivational aspects of sexual behavior in men with obsessive-compulsive disorders].  

PubMed

Sexual behavior and formation of sexuality in men with obsessive-compulsive disorder is one of the pressing issues in contemporary medicine. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by the development of intrusive thoughts, memories, movements and actions, as well as a variety of pathological fears (phobias). Increase in the number of patients with this pathology in modern clinical practice of neurotic disorders, the young age of the patients and as a result violation of interpersonal, communicational and sexual nature is quite apparent. The study involved 35 men aged 23 to 47 years with clinical signs of OCD. We determined the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms using the Yale-Brown scale. We established the presence of a mild degree of disorder in 34,3% of cases; in 48,6% of cases disorder of moderate severity was diagnosed; remaining 17.1% were assessed subclinical condition of OCD at the applicable scale. The system of motivational maintenance of sexual behavior in men with obsessive-compulsive disorders is investigated. Motives of sexual behavior of the investigated men with the pathology are determined. The presented research in men with OCD have established multidimensionality and complexity of motivational ensuring of sexual behavior. PMID:25341245

2014-09-01

30

VelC Positively Controls Sexual Development in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

Fungal development and secondary metabolism is intimately associated via activities of the fungi-specific velvet family proteins including VeA, VosA, VelB and VelC. Among these, VelC has not been characterized in Aspergillus nidulans. In this study, we characterize the role of VelC in asexual and sexual development in A. nidulans. The velC mRNA specifically accumulates during the early phase of sexual development. The deletion of velC leads to increased number of conidia and reduced production of sexual fruiting bodies (cleistothecia). In the velC deletion mutant, mRNA levels of the brlA, abaA, wetA and vosA genes that control sequential activation of asexual sporulation increase. Overexpression of velC causes increased formation of cleistothecia. These results suggest that VelC functions as a positive regulator of sexual development. VelC is one of the five proteins that physically interact with VosA in yeast two-hybrid and GST pull down analyses. The ?velC ?vosA double mutant produced fewer cleistothecia and behaved similar to the ?vosA mutant, suggesting that VosA is epistatic to VelC in sexual development, and that VelC might mediate control of sex through interacting with VosA at specific life stages for sexual fruiting. PMID:24587098

Park, Hee-Soo; Nam, Tae-Young; Han, Kap-Hoon; Kim, Sun Chang; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

2014-01-01

31

Dmrt genes in the development and evolution of sexual dimorphism  

PubMed Central

Most animals are sexually dimorphic, yet different taxa have different sex-specific traits. Despite major differences in the genetic control of sexual development among animal lineages, the Dmrt family of transcription factors has been shown to be involved in sex-specific differentiation in all animals studied so far. In recent years, the functions of Dmrt genes have been characterized in many animal groups, opening the way for a broad comparative perspective. In this review, I focus on the similarities and differences in the functions of Dmrt genes across the animal kingdom. I highlight a number of common themes in the sexual development of different taxa, discuss how Dmrt genes have acquired new roles during animal evolution, and show how they contributed to the origin of novel sex-specific traits. PMID:22425532

Kopp, Artyom

2012-01-01

32

Does positive youth development predict adolescent attitudes about sexuality?  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among individual factors, parental factors, involvement in activities, and adolescent attitudes regarding sex (the outcome variable). We suggest that Positive Youth Development (PYD) research and programming should include promoting healthy sexuality as an important developmental outcome for youth. PYD philosophy and theory, bioecological theory (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 1998), and identity development theory (Erikson, 1983, 1968; Marcia, 1980, 1993) provided the foundation for this study and were used to make the connections between PYD, adolescent sexuality (including attitudes and behavior), and aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship. Both self-esteem and sexual experience were significant predictors of attitudes regarding sex, but overall, parents contributed the most influence on the outcome variable. (It should be noted, however, that parental influence was the only factor that was a significant predictor.) Only one of the two involvements in activities variables was a significant predictor of attitudes regarding sex. PMID:19086667

Chapman, Erin N; Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay

2008-01-01

33

Development and application of a real-time quantitative PCR assay for determining CYP1A transcripts in three genera of salmonids.  

PubMed

The expression of CYP1A (cytochrome P4501A) can be induced by a large array of aromatic and organic compounds in teleost fishes. We developed a real-time quantitative PCR assay useful for measuring beta-naphthoflavone (BNF) induction of liver CYP1A mRNA in four salmonid species. First, to obtain necessary information for the design of a cRNA standard, full-length CYP1A cDNA sequences were determined for two Salvelinus species, lake trout (S. namaycush) and brook trout (S. fontinalis). Each cDNA was found to share the same characteristics with known CYP1A sequences of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): a start codon, conserved heme-binding region, putative poly-adenylation signal, stop codon, relatively long 3'-untranslated region (UTR; >1 kb), and a protein length of 523 amino acid residues. The brook trout and lake trout CYP1A cDNA's were 2636 and 2672 base pairs (bp) in length and shared greater than 97% coding region sequence identity with Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout CYP1A's. Next, using the generated sequence information, we developed a CYP1A-specific real-time quantitative PCR assay. Primers and a fluorescent-labeled probe were designed from a 68 bp region that was found to be conserved among salmonid CYP1A genes. The assay was designed to allow for simultaneous comparison of CYP1A expression among each experimental group. Finally, groups (n = 4-8) of hatchery-raised Atlantic salmon, brook trout, lake trout, and rainbow trout were given an intraperitoneal injection of a corn oil control, 25 mg kg(-1) BNF, or 50 mg kg(-1) BNF and sacrificed after 48 h. Liver tissue was collected and CYP1A mRNA levels were estimated. In all species, BNF treated fish showed 1.8-3.0 orders of magnitude higher CYP1A than control fish. The CYP1A induction levels were not different in fish treated with both dosages. Mean base levels of CYP1A expression ranged from 7.24 x 10(6) (rainbow trout) to 1.05 x 10(7) (brook trout) transcripts microg(-1) total RNA. Mean induced levels of CYP1A expression ranged from 1.07 x 10(8) (lake trout) to 1.05 x 10(9) (brook trout) trancripts microg(-1) total RNA. PMID:15168944

Rees, Christopher B; Li, Weiming

2004-03-10

34

College student attitudes concerning the sexuality of persons with mental retardation: Development of the perceptions of sexuality scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

As persons with mental retardation become increasingly integrated into community settings, their right to sexual expression\\u000a is an ever more important focus of education and habilitation. The perceptions of service providers of the sexual behavior\\u000a of persons with mental retardation can have a significant impact on access to these services. Thus, the Perceptions of Sexuality\\u000a Scale (POS) was developed as

Joseph R. Scotti; Brenda S. Slack; Rachel A. Bowman; Tracy L. Morris

1996-01-01

35

Does Positive Youth Development Predict Adolescent Attitudes about Sexuality?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among individual factors, parental factors, involvement in activities, and adolescent attitudes regarding sex (the outcome variable). We suggest that Positive Youth Development (PYD) research and programming should include promoting healthy sexuality as an important developmental outcome…

Chapman, Erin N.; Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay

2008-01-01

36

Sexual reproduction, development and larval biology in scleractinian corals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper brings together widely scattered information on sexual reproduction in scleractinian corals. It includes a review of information and ideas on sex determination, gametogenesis, gametogenic cycles, fertilization and embryonic development, spawning and planula release, larval behavior, settlement and metamorphosis. The review deals with corals from different habitats and organismic assemblages, including tropical reef corals, temperate water corals, solitary and

Yusef H. Fadlallah

1983-01-01

37

Development of a Curriculum on Sexual Exploitation and Self-Protection for Handicapped Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assist handicapped persons in preventing sexual exploitation, the Curriculum for Developing an Awareness of Sexual Exploitation and Teaching Self Protection Techniques was developed and pilot tested with 13 special education teachers in Seattle, Washington. (SB)

Ryerson, Ellen; Sundem, Jennifer McGilvray

1981-01-01

38

Homosexuality as a consequence of epigenetically canalized sexual development.  

PubMed

Male and female homosexuality have substantial prevalence in humans. Pedigree and twin studies indicate that homosexuality has substantial heritability in both sexes, yet concordance between identical twins is low and molecular studies have failed to find associated DNA makers. This paradoxical pattern calls for an explanation. We use published data on fetal androgen signaling and gene regulation via nongenetic changes in DNA packaging (epigenetics) to develop a new model for homosexuality. It is well established that fetal androgen signaling strongly influences sexual development. We show that an unappreciated feature of this process is reduced androgen sensitivity in XX fetuses and enhanced sensitivity in XY fetuses, and that this difference is most feasibly mused by numerous sex-specific epigenetic modifications ("epi-marks") originating in embryonic stem cells. These epi-marks buffer XX fetuses from masculinization due to excess fetal androgen exposure and similarly buffer XY fetuses from androgen underexposure. Extant data indicates that individual epi-marks influence some but not other sexually dimorphic traits, vary in strength across individuals, and are produced during ontogeny and erased between generations. Those that escape erasure will steer development of the sexual phenotypes they influence in a gonad-discordant direction in opposite sex offspring, mosaically feminizing XY offspring and masculinizing XX offspring. Such sex-specific epi-marks are sexually antagonistic (SA-epi-marks) because they canalize sexual development in the parent that produced them, but contribute to gonad-trait discordances in opposite-sex offspring when unerased. In this model, homosexuality occurs when stronger-than-average SA-epi-marks (influencing sexual preference) from an opposite-sex parent escape erasure and are then paired with a weaker-than-average de novo sex-specific epi-marks produced in opposite-sex offspring. Our model predicts that homosexuality is part of a wider phenomenon in which recently evolved androgen-influenced traits commonly display gonad-trait discordances at substantial frequency, and that the molecular feature underlying most homosexuality is not DNA polymorphism(s), but epi-marks that evolved to canalize sexual dimorphic development that sometimes carryover across generations and contribute to gonad-trait discordances in opposite-sex descendants. PMID:23397798

Rice, William R; Friberg, Urban; Gavrilets, Sergey

2012-12-01

39

Effects of feeding level and sexual maturation on fatty acid metabolism gene expression in muscle, liver, and visceral adipose tissue of diploid and triploid rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In many cultured fish species, such as salmonids, gonadal development occurs at the expense of stored energy and nutrients, including lipids. However, mechanisms regulating nutrient repartitioning during sexual maturation are not well understood. This study investigated effects of ration level and s...

40

Microenterprise Development Interventions for Sexual Risk Reduction: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Comprehensive interventions that address both individual and structural determinants associated with HIV/STI risk are gaining increasing attention over the past decade. Microenterprise development offers an appealing model for HIV prevention by addressing poverty and gender equality. This study systematically reviewed the effects of microenterprise development interventions on HIV/STI incidence and sexual risk behaviors. Microenterprise development was defined as developing small business capacity among individuals to alleviate poverty. Seven eligible research studies representing five interventions were identified and included in this review. All of the studies targeted women, and three focused on sex workers. None measured biomarker outcomes. All three sex worker studies showed significant reduction in sexual risk behaviors when compared to the control group. Non-sex worker studies showed limited changes in sexual risk behavior. This review indicates the potential utility of microenterprise development in HIV risk reduction programs. More research is needed to determine how microenterprise development can be effectively incorporated in comprehensive HIV control strategies. PMID:23963497

Lee, Ramon; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Muessig, Kathryn E.; Tucker, Joseph D.

2013-01-01

41

Microenterprise development interventions for sexual risk reduction: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Comprehensive interventions that address both individual and structural determinants associated with HIV/STI risk are gaining increasing attention over the past decade. Microenterprise development offers an appealing model for HIV prevention by addressing poverty and gender equality. This study systematically reviewed the effects of microenterprise development interventions on HIV/STI incidence and sexual risk behaviors. Microenterprise development was defined as developing small business capacity among individuals to alleviate poverty. Seven eligible research studies representing five interventions were identified and included in this review. All of the studies targeted women, and three focused on sex workers. None measured biomarker outcomes. All three sex worker studies showed significant reduction in sexual risk behaviors when compared to the control group. Non-sex worker studies showed limited changes in sexual risk behavior. This review indicates the potential utility of microenterprise development in HIV risk reduction programs. More research is needed to determine how microenterprise development can be effectively incorporated in comprehensive HIV control strategies. PMID:23963497

Cui, Rosa R; Lee, Ramon; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Muessig, Kathryn E; Tucker, Joseph D

2013-11-01

42

Understanding Early Sexual Development (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... this age start to understand the difference between boys and girls, and can identify themselves as one or the ... have developed a strong sense of being a boy or girl, and continue to explore their bodies even more ...

43

Sexually transmitted diseases in children in developing countries.  

PubMed

The populations of developing countries have younger age structures than the populations of more developed, Western countries. That is, children, adolescents, and youth constitute a far greater proportion of the populations of developing countries than in developed countries. These young people experiment with sex and sexual intercourse or have coitus on a regular basis depending upon their individual personalities and circumstances. The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among younger age groups in developing countries is not well documented. It may, however, be inferred on the basis of reported experience of STD in surveys of adolescents and young adults that many children are infected with STDs. Some young people have sex consensually, some are coaxed into it, and others are coerced. On the one hand, young children have been thought to contract STD by sitting on the laps of infected, scantily-clad adults where such limited attire is the norm. Close contact between youngsters such as communal sleeping, for example, could then facilitate the spread of the STD among children. Sex, consensual or otherwise, is not involved in such infection and transmission beyond the index adult. On the other hand, however, many children and adolescents are forced to have sexual relations and/or intercourse either directly against their will or as a result of the primal need to ensure their individual survival. For example, there are an estimated 100-200 million street children worldwide; many have little alternative but to sell sex to survive. When having sex, they may not use condoms because they are unaware of the STD risk they face, they have no access to free condoms, clients/employers/peers prevent them from using condoms, or due to a myriad of other reasons. Struggling to survive, many such kids place condom use very low on their list of priorities. Children and adolescents can also become infected and transmit STDs to others by engaging in sexual intercourse under more narrowly-defined cultural norms. For example, the belief exists that a male with urethritis can be cured by sexual intercourse with a virgin or prepubertal girl. Elsewhere, it is normal practice for an adult male, typically a boy's uncle, to have anal insertive sexual intercourse with the boy on a regular basis over the period of a couple years to facilitate his transition into manhood. People in young age groups around the world have sex for a range of reasons under a variety of conditions. Measures are needed to ensure that they have the means to prevent infection with STDs and control that infection, if possible, once acquired. Sections discuss vulvovaginitis, donovanosis, chancroid, and venereal and nonvenereal treponematosis, as well as prevention and future research. PMID:7959715

Richens, J

1994-08-01

44

Hormones and History: The Evolution and Development of Primate Female Sexuality  

PubMed Central

Sexual behavior is required for reproduction in internally fertilizing species but poses significant social and physical risks. Females in many nonprimate species have evolved physical and behavioral mechanisms restricting sexual behavior to when females are fertile. The same hormones producing female fertility also control these mechanisms, assuring that sex only occurs when reproduction is possible. In contrast to nonprimate mammals, hormones do not regulate the capacity to engage in sex in female anthropoid primates, uncoupling fertility and the physical capacity to mate. Instead, in primates, sexual motivation has become the primary coordinator between sexual behavior and fertility. This dependence upon psychological mechanisms to coordinate physiology with behavior is possibly unique to primates, including humans, and allows a variety of nonphysiological influences, particularly social context, to regulate sexual behavior. The independence between hormonal state and sexual behavior allows sex to be used for social purposes. This complex regulation of primate sexuality develops during adolescence, where female monkeys show both hormonally influenced sexual motivation and socially modulated sexual behavior. We present findings from rhesus monkeys illustrating how social context and hormonal state interact to modulate adolescent and adult sexuality. It is argued that this flexibility in sexual behavior, combined with a tight regulation of sexual motivational systems by reproductive hormones, allows sexual behavior to be used for nonreproductive purposes while still assuring its occurrence during periods of female fertility. The evolutionary pressures that produced such flexibility in sexual behavior remain puzzling, but may reflect the importance of sexuality to primate social attraction and cohesion. PMID:15216429

Wallen, Kim; Zehr, Julia L.

2005-01-01

45

Normative Sexuality Development in Adolescence: A Decade in Review, 2000-2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review details a key innovation across the field of adolescent sexuality research over the last decade--conceptualizing sexuality as a normative aspect of adolescent development. Anchored in a growing articulation of adolescent sexuality as having positive qualities and consequences, we provide an organizing framework for understanding…

Tolman, Deborah L.; McClelland, Sara I.

2011-01-01

46

Development of Populations 177 6.6 Growth of Populations with Sexual Reproduction  

E-print Network

Development of Populations 177 6.6 Growth of Populations with Sexual Reproduction G. Alsmeyer In Section 5.9, we studied the effect of sexual reproduction on criticality and ex- tinction risk-negative Alsmeyer G (2005). Growth of Populations with Sexual Reproduction. In: Branching Processes: Variation

Alsmeyer, Gerold

47

Developing a Practical Parenting Workshop: A Case Study in Family Sexual Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation discusses the development and assessment of a parent intervention and training program. Out of concern for the sexual health of adolescents in the United States, both parents and researchers have called for programs assisting parents in the sexual education of their children. Encouraging sexual communication and increasing the…

Croatt, Heidi S.

2012-01-01

48

Retrospective Recall of Sexual Orientation Identity Development among Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although recent attention has focused on the likelihood that contemporary sexual minority youth (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual [GLB]) are "coming out" at younger ages, few studies have examined whether early sexual orientation identity development is also present in older GLB cohorts. We analyzed retrospective data on the timing of sexual

Calzo, Jerel P.; Antonucci, Toni C.; Mays, Vickie M.; Cochran, Susan D.

2011-01-01

49

The Impact of Clergy-Perpetrated Sexual Abuse: The Role of Gender, Development, and Posttraumatic Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse suggests that there are two modal populations of survivors: boys and adult women. We review what is known about trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder following sexual abuse and explore the different treatment needs for these two survivor groups. For children, clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse can catastrophically alter the trajectory of psychosocial, sexual, and spiritual development.

Jason M. Fogler; Jillian C. Shipherd; Stephanie Clarke; Jennifer Jensen; Erin Rowe

2008-01-01

50

The importance of smolt development to salmon conservation, culture, and management: perspectives from the 6th International Workshop on Salmonid Smoltification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 6th International Workshop on Salmonid Smoltification was held in Westport, Ireland, during September 3-7, 2001. Perhaps more so than at past workshops, this meeting took a 'salmon life cycle' approach to smoltification. Results presented at the workshop illustrated the variation in the smoltification process among species, populations and individuals, suggesting that within-species variation can be of adaptive significance. Workshop

Sigurd O. Stefanssona; Philip McGinnityb; Carl B. Schreckd; Stephen D. McCormicke

51

Evolutionary consequences of habitat loss for Pacific anadromous salmonids  

PubMed Central

Large portions of anadromous salmonid habitat in the western United States has been lost because of dams and other blockages. This loss has the potential to affect salmonid evolution through natural selection if the loss is biased, affecting certain types of habitat differentially, and if phenotypic traits correlated with those habitat types are heritable. Habitat loss can also affect salmonid evolution indirectly, by reducing genetic variation and changing its distribution within and among populations. In this paper, we compare the characteristics of lost habitats with currently accessible habitats and review the heritability of traits which show correlations with habitat/environmental gradients. We find that although there is some regional variation, inaccessible habitats tend to be higher in elevation, wetter and both warmer in the summer and colder in the winter than habitats currently available to anadromous salmonids. We present several case studies that demonstrate either a change in phenotypic or life history expression or an apparent reduction in genetic variation associated with habitat blockages. These results suggest that loss of habitat will alter evolutionary trajectories in salmonid populations and Evolutionarily Significant Units. Changes in both selective regime and standing genetic diversity might affect the ability of these taxa to respond to subsequent environmental perturbations. Both natural and anthropogenic and should be considered seriously in developing management and conservation strategies.

McClure, Michelle M; Carlson, Stephanie M; Beechie, Timothy J; Pess, George R; Jorgensen, Jeffrey C; Sogard, Susan M; Sultan, Sonia E; Holzer, Damon M; Travis, Joseph; Sanderson, Beth L; Power, Mary E; Carmichael, Richard W

2008-01-01

52

Development of an Index to Bird Predation of Juvenile Salmonids within the Yakima River, 2000 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Avian predation of fish is suspected to contribute to the loss of juvenile spring chinook salmon in the Yakima Basin, potentially constraining natural production. In 1997 and 1998, the Yakama/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW)--whose goal is to increase natural production historically present within the Yakima River--initiated investigations to assess the feasibility of developing an index to avian predation of juvenile salmon within the river. This research--conducted by Dr. Steve Mathews and David Phinney of the University of Washington--confirmed that Ring-billed Gulls and Common Mergansers were the primary avian predators of juvenile salmon, and that under certain conditions could impact migrating smolt populations. Beginning in 1999, the Washington Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (WACFWRU) was asked by the YKFP and the WDFW to continue development of avian consumption indices. Monitoring methods developed by Phinney et al. (1998) were adopted (with modifications) and monitoring of impacts to juvenile salmon along river reaches and at areas of high predator/prey concentrations (colloquially referred to as ''hotspots'') continued through 2000. In 2000, piscivorous birds were counted from river banks at hotspots and from a raft or drift boat along river reaches. Consumption by gulls at Hotspots was based on direct observations of foraging success and modeled abundance; consumption by all other piscivorous birds was estimated using published dietary requirements and modeled abundance. Further development of the avian consumption index model provided an estimation of smolt consumption for the 2000 survey season. Seasonal patterns of avian piscivore abundance were identified, diurnal patterns of gull abundance at hotspots were identified, predation indices were calculated for hotspots and spring and summer river reaches, and the efficacy of aerial surveys for estimating bird abundance within river reaches was evaluated. The only change in survey methods in 2000 was the shortening (in river miles) of surveys on the North Fork of the Teanaway River and the shifting of start and stop dates for river drifts and hotspot surveys. Primary avian predators in 2000 were ''gulls'' (California and Ring-billed) at hotspots and Common Mergansers within upper river reaches. Estimated consumption by gulls at both hotspots combined (10 April-30 June) was 163,475 fish. Assuming a worst case scenario (all fish taken were smolts) this represented 6.0% of all smolts estimated passing or being released from the Chandler Dam area during the 2000 smolt migration season. Total estimated take by Common Mergansers across all strata surveyed was 7,654 kg between 10 Apr and 30 Aug, 2000. Seventy-three percent of that consumption was within the upper river reaches (Stratum 1) where there is a known breeding population of mergansers.

Grassley, James M.; Grue, Christian E.; Major, III, Walter (University of Washington, School of Aquatic and Fishery Science, Seattle, WA)

2002-01-01

53

Puberty without gonadotropins. A unique mechanism of sexual development.  

PubMed

Recent evidence suggests that a group of children exists in whom premature sexual maturation occurs in the absence of pubertal levels of gonadotropins; that is, they have gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty. We compared six boys and one girl with this disorder with four boys and five girls with central precocious puberty, in which there is a pubertal pattern of gonadotropin release. The two groups were similar in age of onset, degree of sexual development, growth velocity, and rate of skeletal maturation. A family history of precocity was noted in four of the boys with gonadotropin-independent precocity, and the girl had McCune-Albright syndrome. Children with central precocious puberty demonstrated a pulsatile release of gonadotropins, pubertal responses to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, and complete suppression of gonadarche after exposure to an analogue of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRHa). In contrast, children with gonadotropin-independent precocity demonstrated an absence of gonadotropin pulsations, variable responses to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, lack of suppression of puberty in response to LHRHa, and cyclic steroidogenesis. Tissue from testicular biopsies performed in five of six boys with gonadotropin-independent precocity showed a range from incipient pubertal development of the tubules with proliferation of Leydig cells to the appearance of normal adult testes. We conclude that gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty is a distinct syndrome, of unknown cause, that may be familial and may have been responsible for many previously reported cases of precocious puberty. PMID:3917301

Wierman, M E; Beardsworth, D E; Mansfield, M J; Badger, T M; Crawford, J D; Crigler, J F; Bode, H H; Loughlin, J S; Kushner, D C; Scully, R E

1985-01-10

54

Perceptions of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors: Development and Initial Validation of a New Scale to Measure Stereotypes of Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale was developed to assess stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Scale items were derived from two studies that elicited cultural and personal beliefs about, and emotions experienced towards adult childhood sexual abuse survivors among university undergraduates. Two scales, Emotions and…

Zafar, Sadia; Ross, Erin C.

2013-01-01

55

Preliminary Estimates of Loss of Juvenile Anadromous Salmonids to Predators in John Day Reservoir and Development of a Predation Model : Interim Report, 1986.  

SciTech Connect

We made preliminary estimates of the loss of juvenile salmonids to predation by walleye, Stizostedion v. vitreum, and northern squawfish, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, in John Day Reservoir in 1984 and 1985 using estimates of predator abundance and daily prey consumption rates. Preliminary estimates may be biased and may be adjusted as much as 30%, but indications are that predation could account for the majority of unexplained loss of juvenile salmonids in John Day Reservoir. Total loss was estimated at 4.1 million in 1984 and 3.3 million in 1985. Northern squawfish consumed 76% and 92% of these totals, respectively. The majority of loss occurred in mid reservoir areas, but loss in a small area, the boat-restricted zone immediately below McNary Dam, was disproportionately large. Peaks in loss in May and July corresponded with peaks in availability of salmonids. Estimated mortality from predation for April through June in 1984 and 1985 was 9% and 7% respectively, for chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and 10% and 15% for steelhead, Salmogairdneri. Mortality was variable with time but tended to increase over the period of migration. Mortality of chinook was estimated at 26% to 55% during July and August. A model of predation in John Day Reservoir is outlined. The model includes a predation submodel that can calculate loss from predator number and consumption rate; a population submodel that can relate predator abundance and population structure to recruitment, exploitation, natural mortality and growth; and a distribution submodel that can apportion predators among areas of the reservoir over time. Applications of the model are discussed for projecting expected changes in predation over time and identifying management alternatives that might limit the impact of predation.

Rieman, Bruce E.

1986-03-01

56

Sexual development and ascospore discharge in Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

Fusarium graminearum has become a model system for studies in development and pathogenicity of filamentous fungi. F. graminearum most easily produces fruiting bodies, called perithecia, on carrot agar. Perithecia contain numerous tissue types, produced at specific stages of perithecium development. These include (in order of appearance) formation of the perithecium initials (which give rise to the ascogenous hyphae), the outer wall, paraphyses (sterile mycelia which occupy the center of the perithecium until the asci develop), the asci, and the ascospores within the asci. The development of each of these tissues is separated by approximately 24 hours and has been the basis of transcriptomic studies during sexual development. Refer to Hallen et al. (2007) for a more thorough description of development, including photographs of each stage. Here, we present the methods for generating and harvesting synchronously developing lawns of perithecia for temporal studies of gene regulation, development, and physiological processes. Although these methods are written specifically to be used with F. graminearum, the techniques can be used for a variety of other fungi, provided that fruiting can be induced in culture and there is some synchrony to development. We have recently adapted this protocol to study the sexual development of F. verticillioides. Although individual perithecia must be hand picked in this species, because a lawn of developing perithecia could not be induced, the process worked well for studying development (Sikhakolli and Trail, unpublished). The most important function of fungal fruiting bodies is the dispersal of spores. In many of the species of Ascomycota (ascus producing fungi), spores are shot from the ascus, due to the generation of turgor pressure within the ascus, driving ejection of spores (and epiplasmic fluid) through the pore in the ascus tip. Our studies of forcible ascospore discharge have resulted in development of a "spore discharge assay", which we use to screen for mutations in the process. Here we present the details of this assay. F. graminearum is homothallic, and thus can form fruiting bodies in the absence of a compatible partner. The advantage of homothallism is that crossing is not necessary to generate offspring homozygous for a particular trait, a facet that has facilitated the study of sexual development in this species. However, heterothallic strains have been generated that can be used for crossing. It is also possible to cross homothallic strains to obtain mutants for several genes in one strain. This is done by coinoculating one Petri dish with 2 strains. Along the meeting point, the majority of perithecia will be recombinant (provided a mutation in one of the parent strains does not inhibit outcrossing). As perithecia age, they exude ascospores en masse instead of forcibly discharging them. The resulting spore exudate (called a cirrhus) sits at the tip of the perithecium and can easily be removed for recovery of individual spores. Here we present a protocol to facilitate the identification of recombinant perithecia and the recovery of recombinant progeny. PMID:22491175

Cavinder, Brad; Sikhakolli, Usha; Fellows, Kayla M; Trail, Frances

2012-01-01

57

The Role of Beliefs in Sexual Behavior of Adolescents: Development and Validation of an Adolescent Sexual Expectancies Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on the development and psychometric properties of the Adolescent Sexual Expectancies Scale (ASEXS). Data were obtained from three annual longitudinal surveys of youth aged 10-17 at the first administration (N = 932 at Wave 3). Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that 4 correlated factors corresponding to Social Risk, Social…

Bourdeau, Beth; Grube, Joel W.; Bersamin, Melina M.; Fisher, Deborah A.

2011-01-01

58

[The course of sexual development in girls with diabetes type I in view of ultrasonographic examinations].  

PubMed

The gynecologic a ultrasonographic examinations in 34 insulin--dependent diabetic girls aged from 1-9 y, were performed. Diabetes duration oscillated between 1-9 y. The obtained results showed that the dynamics of sexual maturation of this girls was independent of theirs calendar age, but was conditioned by the time of obtained sexual development. The right metabolic balance of diabetes stipulates regular course of sexual maturation. PMID:8365678

Prochorow, M; Rzepka-Górska, I; Zó?towski, S; Szymborski, J; Osipowicz, E; Adamczyk, T; Nowak, J

1993-05-01

59

Development, Reliability, and Validity of the Measure of Sexual Identity Exploration and Commitment (MoSIEC)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four studies were conducted on the development and validation of the Measure of Sexual Identity Exploration and Commitment (MoSIEC). Exploratory factor analysis of an initial item pool yielded a 22-item measure with 4 distinct factors assessing commitment, exploration, sexual orientation identity uncertainty, and synthesis/integration. Exploratory…

Worthington, Roger L.; Navarro, Rachel L.; Savoy, Holly Bielstein; Hampton, Dustin

2008-01-01

60

Gender, Pubertal Development, and Peer Sexual Harassment Predict Objectified Body Consciousness in Early Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectified body consciousness (OBC)—the tendency to view one's body as an object for others to look at and evaluate—is theorized to emerge during sexual maturation as adolescents, particularly adolescent girls, experience sexual objectification. Although OBC generally is discussed in develop- mental terms, research so far has examined primarily the experiences of undergraduates and adults. Our goal in this study was

Sara M. Lindberg; Shelly Grabe; Janet Shibley Hyde

61

Developing a Scale of Perception of Sexual Abuse in Youth Sports (SPSAYS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A scale was developed to measure perceptions of sexual abuse in youth sports by assessing (a) the perceived prevalence of sexual abuse committed by pedophilic youth sport coaches, (b) the perceived likelihood that a coach is a pedophile, (c) perceptions on how youth sport organizations should manage the risk of pedophilia, and (d) media influence…

Baker, Thomas A., III.; Byon, Kevin K.

2014-01-01

62

Anticipation of the sexual and gender development of children adopted by same-sex couples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aimed to characterize beliefs surrounding the sexual and gender development of children adopted by lesbian and gay couples. Participants were 768 Portuguese university students. Using a quasiexperimental design, participants were presented with identical descriptions of a couple interested in adopting a child, manipulating couple sexual orientation and child gender. Participants were then asked to anticipate three aspects

Jorge Gato; Anne Marie Fontaine

2012-01-01

63

Sexual Assault Response Team: overcoming obstacles to program development.  

PubMed

After several years of planning, The SART at Immanuel St. Joseph's--Mayo Health Systems became a reality in August 1997. The nurses who were trained for this program were already providing 24-hour coverage in the emergency department for psychiatric emergencies and patients with chemical dependency. The SANE responsibilities were added to their on-call duties. Five nurses participated in a 40-hour training program by SANE specialists and experts in the local community. As expected, nurses were apprehensive as they conducted their first examinations; however, all has gone well. Over time, the providers' and clients' satisfaction with the program has improved. The examination is completed in less time, and the person assaulted does not have to wait as long for the SANE to arrive. Members of law enforcement and the prosecutor's office are especially pleased with the quality of evidence collected and the procedures followed to maintain chain of evidence so the evidence obtained can be used in prosecution. The program has resulted in kind and compassionate care for persons who have been sexually assaulted. The providers are continuing to meet monthly as an interdisciplinary, interagency team and are addressing concerns as they arise. Members of the SART are developing a good working relationship. Everyone involved agrees that developing this program has been a worthwhile effort and that the hospital is providing a valued service for the community. PMID:9814244

Smith, K; Holmseth, J; Macgregor, M; Letourneau, M

1998-08-01

64

Varieties of male-sexual-identity development in clinical practice: a neuropsychoanalytic model.  

PubMed

Variations of sexual identity development are present in all cultures, as well as in many animal species. Freud - founding father of psychoanalysis - believed that all men have an inherited, bisexual disposition, and that many varieties of love and desire are experienced as alternative pathways to intimacy. In the neuropsychoanalytic model, psychic development starts with the constitutional self. The constitutional self is comprised of the neurobiological factors which contribute to sexual identity development. These neurobiological factors are focused on biphasic sexual organization in the prenatal phase, based on variations in genes, sex hormones, and brain circuits. This psychosocial construction of sexual identity is determined through contingent mirroring by the parents and peers of the constitutional self. The development of the self-or personal identity-is linked with the development of sexual identity, gender-role identity, and procreative identity. Incongruent mirroring of the constitutional self causes alienation in the development of the self. Such alienation can be treated within the psychoanalytic relationship. This article presents a contemporary, neuropsychoanalytic, developmental theory of male-sexual identity relating to varieties in male-sexual-identity development, with implications for psychoanalytic treatment, and is illustrated with three vignettes from clinical practice. PMID:25566168

Stortelder, Frans

2014-01-01

65

Varieties of male-sexual-identity development in clinical practice: a neuropsychoanalytic model  

PubMed Central

Variations of sexual identity development are present in all cultures, as well as in many animal species. Freud – founding father of psychoanalysis – believed that all men have an inherited, bisexual disposition, and that many varieties of love and desire are experienced as alternative pathways to intimacy. In the neuropsychoanalytic model, psychic development starts with the constitutional self. The constitutional self is comprised of the neurobiological factors which contribute to sexual identity development. These neurobiological factors are focused on biphasic sexual organization in the prenatal phase, based on variations in genes, sex hormones, and brain circuits. This psychosocial construction of sexual identity is determined through contingent mirroring by the parents and peers of the constitutional self. The development of the self—or personal identity—is linked with the development of sexual identity, gender-role identity, and procreative identity. Incongruent mirroring of the constitutional self causes alienation in the development of the self. Such alienation can be treated within the psychoanalytic relationship. This article presents a contemporary, neuropsychoanalytic, developmental theory of male-sexual identity relating to varieties in male-sexual-identity development, with implications for psychoanalytic treatment, and is illustrated with three vignettes from clinical practice. PMID:25566168

Stortelder, Frans

2014-01-01

66

The development of the crime scene behavior risk measure for sexual offense recidivism.  

PubMed

The inclusion of crime scene behavior in actuarial risk assessment so far is insufficient, unsystematic, and neglecting factors theoretically relevant to sexual recidivism. Therefore, the goal of the current study was to develop a brief actuarial risk scale based on crime scene characteristics. The development sample consisted of data (police databases, paper records, and the National Conviction Registry) from 955 male sexual offenders (77% German citizens, 20% foreign nationals, mean age = 35 years, convicted for sexual abuse and/or sexual violence). Further, the independent cross-validation-sample consisted of data from 77 sexual offenders. The 7 items that are comprised by the Crime Scene Behavior Risk (CBR) measure showed high predictive accuracy for sexual recidivism with little variation between the development (c index = .72) and the replication sample (c index = .74). Further, the CBR was found to provide significant incremental validity and improve the predictive accuracy of the Static-99R risk assessment tool. Given the predictive and incremental validity of the CBR it is suggested that sexual offender risk assessment can be improved by utilizing crime scene behavior. The CBR is currently being used in addition to the Static-99R by the State Office of Criminal Investigations in Berlin to prioritize released sexual offenders for police supervision. PMID:24707910

Dahle, Klaus-Peter; Biedermann, Jürgen; Lehmann, Robert J B; Gallasch-Nemitz, Franziska

2014-12-01

67

Consenting to sexual activity: the development and psychometric assessment of dual measures of consent.  

PubMed

Sexual assault prevention efforts have focused on educating students to obtain consent as a mechanism to reduce sexual assault, yet little is known about how college students consent to sex. Additionally, there are currently no measures available to assess students' consent to sex. The current study aimed to better understand college students consent by using a systematic approach to develop validated measures of sexual consent. This study integrated mixed methods via three phases and two waves of data collection to develop two measures of consent. In Phase 1, qualitative data were collected from college students (n = 185) to inform the design of quantitative measures aimed at assessing sexual consent at last sexual intercourse. In Phase 2, items were written for the closed-ended quantitative instrument and reviewed by a team of experts, educators, and clinicians. In Phase 3, a quantitative survey was administered to college students (n = 660) which included the measures of consent developed from the Phase 1 data; the measures were assessed for their psychometric properties. Exploratory factor analyses were utilized to assess the measures and resulted in five factors each for both consent scales. Both scales had high internal consistency reliability, showed gender differences, and showed differences across relationship status (single vs. in a relationship). The two newly developed measures assess unique constructs of consent and demonstrate assessments of specific concepts. Our findings provide an important contribution to the field of sexuality as these measures can be used in future research to better understand sexual consent. PMID:24452630

Jozkowski, Kristen N; Sanders, Stephanie; Peterson, Zoë D; Dennis, Barbara; Reece, Michael

2014-04-01

68

Anticipation of the sexual and gender development of children adopted by same-sex couples.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to characterize beliefs surrounding the sexual and gender development of children adopted by lesbian and gay couples. Participants were 768 Portuguese university students. Using a quasiexperimental design, participants were presented with identical descriptions of a couple interested in adopting a child, manipulating couple sexual orientation and child gender. Participants were then asked to anticipate three aspects of the sexual and gender development of the adopted child: sexual orientation, gender role behavior, and gender identity. MANOVAs and follow-up ANOVAs were conducted in order to analyze the data. Results indicated that participants, particularly males, considered children adopted by either lesbian or gay couples to have a lower probability of developing a normative sexual and gender identity than children adopted by heterosexual couples. Both men and women considered that children would emulate the sexual orientation of their same-sex parents, and that a boy's gender role behavior was more at risk if he was adopted by a lesbian couple. Moreover, men were apprehensive about the gender role behavior of a boy adopted by a gay male couple. Overall, these results indicate persistence of biased evaluations of the sexual and gender development of children adopted by lesbian and gay parents. Furthermore, both gender of the participant and gender of the child play an important role in these evaluations. Results are discussed and interpreted as a way of "doing gender" in the context of hegemonic masculinity. PMID:23837556

Gato, Jorge; Fontaine, Anne Marie

2013-01-01

69

Empowering or oppressing? Development and exploration of the Enjoyment of Sexualization Scale.  

PubMed

Sexualization of girls and women in America is rampant and has many negative consequences. Women, however, often report enjoying being sexually admired by men. Given this paradox, it is unclear whether such enjoyment represents an authentic empowerment of women's sexuality or is related to traditional feminine norms and sexist beliefs. In Studies 1 and 2, the authors developed and tested the eight-item Enjoyment of Sexualization Scale (ESS). It had good reliability and was differentiated from related constructs including body surveillance, body shame, self-sexualizing behaviors, and appearance-contingent self-esteem. In Study 3, endorsement of traditional gender norms, endorsement of benevolent sexism, and endorsement of hostile sexism were all positively related to the ESS. Moreover, women who both enjoyed sexualization and engaged in self-objectification reported more negative eating attitudes. Overall, there was little support for positive effects of enjoying sexualization. The extent to which enjoying sexualization actually empowers women or contributes to their oppression is discussed. PMID:20947776

Liss, Miriam; Erchull, Mindy J; Ramsey, Laura R

2011-01-01

70

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PERIOD OF SENSITIVITY OF FETAL MALE SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT TO VINCLOZOLIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Characterization of the period of sensitivity of fetal male sexual development to vinclozolin. Wolf CJ, LeBlanc GA, Ostby JS, Gray LE Jr. Endocrinology Branch, MD 72, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U....

71

Apomictic and sexual germline development differ with respect to cell cycle, transcriptional, hormonal and epigenetic regulation.  

PubMed

Seeds of flowering plants can be formed sexually or asexually through apomixis. Apomixis occurs in about 400 species and is of great interest for agriculture as it produces clonal offspring. It differs from sexual reproduction in three major aspects: (1) While the sexual megaspore mother cell (MMC) undergoes meiosis, the apomictic initial cell (AIC) omits or aborts meiosis (apomeiosis); (2) the unreduced egg cell of apomicts forms an embryo without fertilization (parthenogenesis); and (3) the formation of functional endosperm requires specific developmental adaptations. Currently, our knowledge about the gene regulatory programs underlying apomixis is scarce. We used the apomict Boechera gunnisoniana, a close relative of Arabidopsis thaliana, to investigate the transcriptional basis underlying apomeiosis and parthenogenesis. Here, we present the first comprehensive reference transcriptome for reproductive development in an apomict. To compare sexual and apomictic development at the cellular level, we used laser-assisted microdissection combined with microarray and RNA-Seq analyses. Conservation of enriched gene ontologies between the AIC and the MMC likely reflects functions of importance to germline initiation, illustrating the close developmental relationship of sexuality and apomixis. However, several regulatory pathways differ between sexual and apomictic germlines, including cell cycle control, hormonal pathways, epigenetic and transcriptional regulation. Enrichment of specific signal transduction pathways are a feature of the apomictic germline, as is spermidine metabolism, which is associated with somatic embryogenesis in various plants. Our study provides a comprehensive reference dataset for apomictic development and yields important new insights into the transcriptional basis underlying apomixis in relation to sexual reproduction. PMID:25010342

Schmidt, Anja; Schmid, Marc W; Klostermeier, Ulrich C; Qi, Weihong; Guthörl, Daniela; Sailer, Christian; Waller, Manuel; Rosenstiel, Philip; Grossniklaus, Ueli

2014-07-01

72

Apomictic and Sexual Germline Development Differ with Respect to Cell Cycle, Transcriptional, Hormonal and Epigenetic Regulation  

PubMed Central

Seeds of flowering plants can be formed sexually or asexually through apomixis. Apomixis occurs in about 400 species and is of great interest for agriculture as it produces clonal offspring. It differs from sexual reproduction in three major aspects: (1) While the sexual megaspore mother cell (MMC) undergoes meiosis, the apomictic initial cell (AIC) omits or aborts meiosis (apomeiosis); (2) the unreduced egg cell of apomicts forms an embryo without fertilization (parthenogenesis); and (3) the formation of functional endosperm requires specific developmental adaptations. Currently, our knowledge about the gene regulatory programs underlying apomixis is scarce. We used the apomict Boechera gunnisoniana, a close relative of Arabidopsis thaliana, to investigate the transcriptional basis underlying apomeiosis and parthenogenesis. Here, we present the first comprehensive reference transcriptome for reproductive development in an apomict. To compare sexual and apomictic development at the cellular level, we used laser-assisted microdissection combined with microarray and RNA-Seq analyses. Conservation of enriched gene ontologies between the AIC and the MMC likely reflects functions of importance to germline initiation, illustrating the close developmental relationship of sexuality and apomixis. However, several regulatory pathways differ between sexual and apomictic germlines, including cell cycle control, hormonal pathways, epigenetic and transcriptional regulation. Enrichment of specific signal transduction pathways are a feature of the apomictic germline, as is spermidine metabolism, which is associated with somatic embryogenesis in various plants. Our study provides a comprehensive reference dataset for apomictic development and yields important new insights into the transcriptional basis underlying apomixis in relation to sexual reproduction. PMID:25010342

Schmidt, Anja; Schmid, Marc W.; Klostermeier, Ulrich C.; Qi, Weihong; Guthörl, Daniela; Sailer, Christian; Waller, Manuel; Rosenstiel, Philip; Grossniklaus, Ueli

2014-01-01

73

Developing a Training Curriculum on Elderly Sexuality for Long Term Care Facility Staff  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for training programs about elderly sexuality for long term care facility staff is well-reported in the literature, however, no adequate curriculum is available. This article outlines a comprehensive curriculum development process and describes the step-by-step activities that have been completed in developing such a sexuality training curriculum. The process includes a comprehensive literature review, forming an advisory team,

Bonnie L. Walker; Nancy J. Osgood; Paul H. Ephross; James P. Richardson; Bettie Farrar; Clarie Cole

1998-01-01

74

Surgical and ethical challenges in disorders of sexual development.  

PubMed

A resolution to the difficulties faced by parents, physicians, and pediatric patients in treating DSDs will only come with better communication and improved research methodologies. Advocacy groups and the Internet have allowed the intersex community to have a larger role in guiding the research and the ethical frameworks that are used in treating these disorders. These disorders are unusual and collaboration across medical centers should be the rule rather than the exception. When possible, treatments that are innovative or experimental should be subjected to rigorous research oversight [29,30]. Defined periods of family crisis in which counseling and education become important are at the time of diagnosis [30,31], at the time of any surgical procedure, and at the beginning of major developmental stages. Historically, children were often left uninformed until someone judged them old and mature enough to comprehend how they were different. These attempts to protect individual children from their condition may have left them vulnerable to a personal crisis at an age when sexual identity and identity with a peer group are important. Both the needs of the child and the adult the child will become should be considered in making treatment decisions for children and adolescents with DSDs. It is best to counsel parents and educate developing children in a way that parallels chronologic and conceptual growth. When possible, the child should be involved in an age-appropriate fashion in the decision-making process and accurate information about the child's history and body should be made available. In addition, parents and families need as much information as possible and support systems that will help them navigate these challenging situations. PMID:22789583

Fallat, Mary E; Hertweck, Paige; Ralston, Steven J

2012-01-01

75

The Development of a Sexual Abuse Severity Score: Characteristics of Childhood Sexual Abuse Associated with Trauma Symptomatology, Somatization, and Alcohol Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and is associated with both mental and physical health problems in adulthood. Using data from an age- and sex-stratified population survey of 600 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents, a Sexual Abuse Severity Score was developed. The abuse characteristics of 156 CSA respondents were associated with…

Zink, Therese; Klesges, Lisa; Stevens, Susanna; Decker, Paul

2009-01-01

76

Taking ICPD beyond 2015: negotiating sexual and reproductive rights in the next development agenda.  

PubMed

On the twentieth anniversary of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), activists, governments and diplomats engaged in the fight for sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) are anxious to ensure that these issues are fully reflected in the development agenda to succeed the Millennium Development Goals after 2015. In inter-governmental negotiations since 1994 and particularly in the period 2012-2014, governments have shown that they have significantly expanded their understanding of a number of so-called 'controversial' issues in the ICPD agenda, whether safe abortion, adolescent sexual and reproductive health services, comprehensive sexuality education or sexual rights. As in the past and in spite of an increasingly complex and difficult multilateral environment, countering the highly organised conservative opposition to SRHR has required a well-planned and determined mobilisation by progressive forces from North and South. PMID:24889877

Girard, Françoise

2014-01-01

77

Development of the NIH PROMIS® Sexual Function and Satisfaction Measures in Patients with Cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction We describe the development and validation of the PROMIS Sexual Function and Satisfaction (PROMIS SexFS) measures version 1.0 for cancer populations. Aim To develop a customizable self-report measure of sexual function and satisfaction as part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health PROMIS® Network. Methods Our multidisciplinary working group followed a comprehensive protocol for developing psychometrically robust patient reported outcome (PRO) measures including qualitative (scale development) and quantitative (psychometric evaluation) development. We performed an extensive literature review, conducted 16 focus groups with cancer patients and multiple discussions with clinicians, and evaluated candidate items in cognitive testing with patients. We administered items to 819 cancer patients. Items were calibrated using item response theory and evaluated for reliability and validity. Main Outcome Measures The PROMIS Sexual Function and Satisfaction (PROMIS SexFS) measures version 1.0 include 79 items in 11 domains: interest in sexual activity, lubrication, vaginal discomfort, erectile function, global satisfaction with sex life, orgasm, anal discomfort, therapeutic aids, sexual activities, interfering factors, and screener questions. Results In addition to content validity (patients indicate that items cover important aspects of their experiences) and face validity (patients indicate that items measure sexual function and satisfaction), the measure shows evidence for discriminant validity (domains discriminate between groups expected to be different), convergent validity (strong correlations between scores on PROMIS and scores on conceptually-similar older measures of sexual function), as well as favorable test-retest reliability among people not expected to change (inter-class correlations from 2 administrations of the instrument, 1 month apart). Conclusions The PROMIS SexFS offers researchers a reliable and valid set of tools to measure self-reported sexual function and satisfaction among diverse men and women. The measures are customizable; researchers can select the relevant domains and items comprising those domains for their study. PMID:23387911

Flynn, Kathryn E.; Lin, Li; Cyranowski, Jill M.; Reeve, Bryce B.; Reese, Jennifer Barsky; Jeffery, Diana D.; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Porter, Laura S.; Dombeck, Carrie B.; Bruner, Deborah Watkins; Keefe, Francis J.; Weinfurt, Kevin P.

2013-01-01

78

Development and Validation of a Five-Factor Sexual Satisfaction and Distress Scale for Women: The Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women (SSS-W)  

PubMed Central

Introduction This article presents data based on the responses of over 800 women who contributed to the development of the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women (SSS-W). Aim The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive, multifaceted, valid, and reliable self-report measure of women’s sexual satisfaction and distress. Methods Phase I involved the initial selection of items based on past literature and on interviews of women diagnosed with sexual dysfunction and an exploratory factor analysis. Phase II involved an additional administration of the questionnaire, factor analyses, and refinement of the questionnaire items. Phase III involved administration of the final questionnaire to a sample of women with clinically diagnosed sexual dysfunction and controls. Results Psychometric evaluation of the SSS-W conducted in a sample of women meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for female sexual dysfunction and in a control sample provided preliminary evidence of reliability and validity. The ability of the SSS-W to discriminate between sexually functional and dysfunctional women was demonstrated for each of the SSS-W domain scores and total score. Conclusion The SSS-W is a brief, 30-item measure of sexual satisfaction and sexual distress, composed of five domains supported by factor analyses: contentment, communication, compatibility, relational concern, and personal concern. It exhibits sound psychometric properties and has a demonstrated ability to discriminate between clinical and nonclinical samples. PMID:16422909

Meston, Cindy; Trapnell, Paul

2010-01-01

79

Body Image and Sexuality in Indonesian Adults with a Disorder of Sex Development (DSD).  

PubMed

In Indonesia, disorders of sex development (DSDs) are not well recognized and medical care for affected individuals is scarce. Consequently, many patients live with ambiguous genitalia and appearance. We compared reported outcomes on body image, sexual functioning, and sexual orientation of 39 adults with DSDs (aged 18 to 41) and 39 healthy controls matched for gender, age, and residential setting (urban, suburban, rural). Differences in gender and treatment status (treated or untreated) were also explored. On body image, adults with DSDs reported dissatisfaction with sex-related body parts. Compared to the matched controls, women with DSDs reported greater sexual distress, and men with DSDs reported lower erectile and ejaculation frequencies, and more dissatisfaction with sexual life but not with sexual desire and activities. Men with DSDs who had undergone genital surgery reported higher erectile and ejaculation frequencies than untreated men. More women than men in the DSDs group reported a nonexclusive heterosexual orientation. DSDs and infertility had a great impact on sexuality. Fear of ostracism complicated DSD acceptance. Findings were compared to those of Western studies. Based on these results, education about DSDs and their psychosexual consequences may help reduce the sexual distress and problems in adults with DSDs and improve quality of life. PMID:24144298

Ediati, Annastasia; Juniarto, Achmad Zulfa; Birnie, Erwin; Drop, Stenvert L S; Faradz, Sultana M H; Dessens, Arianne B

2015-01-01

80

The association between sexually transmitted pathogens and cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia in a developing community  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To determine the association of sexually transmitted pathogens in women with cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN). SETTING--An urban tertiary referral hospital serving a large indigent developing community. PARTICIPANTS--48 women attending a colposcopy clinic and 49 women attending a family planning clinic. METHODS--Vaginal, endocervical, rectal swab specimens and sera were collected for the detection of sexually transmitted pathogens. Cervical cytology was performed

A B Kharsany; A A Hoosen; J Moodley; J Bagaratee; E Gouws

1993-01-01

81

Innate immune responses of salmonid fish to viral infections.  

PubMed

Viruses are the most serious pathogenic threat to the production of the main aquacultured salmonid species the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and the Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. The viral diseases Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis (IPN), Pancreatic Disease (PD), Infectious Haemorrhagic Necrosis (IHN), Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (VHS), and Infectious Salmon Anaemia (ISA) cause massive economic losses to the global salmonid aquaculture industry every year. To date, no solution exists to treat livestock affected by a viral disease and only a small number of efficient vaccines are available to prevent infection. As a consequence, understanding the host immune response against viruses in these fish species is critical to develop prophylactic and preventive control measures. The innate immune response represents an important part of the host defence mechanism preventing viral replication after infection. It is a fast acting response designed to inhibit virus propagation immediately within the host, allowing for the adaptive specific immunity to develop. It has cellular and humoral components which act in synergy. This review will cover inflammation responses, the cell types involved, apoptosis, antimicrobial peptides. Particular attention will be given to the type I interferon system as the major player in the innate antiviral defence mechanism of salmonids. Viral evasion strategies will also be discussed. PMID:23981327

Collet, Bertrand

2014-04-01

82

Analytical developments in toxicological investigation of drug-facilitated sexual assault.  

PubMed

This paper gives a general overview of the drug-facilitated sexual assault phenomenon. Sexual assault perpetrated on both women and men, while incapacitated by so-called date-rape drugs, recently became the focus of many investigations conducted by law enforcement agencies in the US throughout the 1990s; an alarming increase in reports of this crime as well as in the number of scientific publications on drug-facilitated sexual assault has been observed. The list of drugs reportedly associated with sexual assault is long and among others includes flunitrazepam with other benzodiazepines such as diazepam, temazepam, clonazepam, oxazepam, as well as gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), ketamine, and scopolamine. We discuss the most recent analytical developments in the toxicological investigation of drug-facilitated rape designed to reveal drug presence and that may help successfully prosecute perpetrators. PMID:12682705

Negrusz, Adam; Gaensslen, R E

2003-08-01

83

Development of a nested polymerase chain reaction for amplification of a sequence of the p57 gene of Renibacterium salmoninarum that provides a highly sensitive method for detection of the bacterium in salmonid kidney  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nucleic acid-based assays have shown promise for diagnosing Renibacterium salmoninarum in tissues and body fluids of salmonids. DeVelopment of a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to detect a 320 bp DNA segment of the gene encoding the p57 protein of R. salmoninarum is described. Whereas a conventional PCR for a 383 bp segment of the p57 gene reliably detected 1000 R. salmoninarum cells per reaction in kidney tissue, the nested PCR detected as few as 10 R. salmoninarum per reaction in kidney tissue. Two DNA extraction methods for the nested PCR were compared and the correlation between replicate samples was generally higher in samples extracted by the QIAamp system compared with those extracted by the phenol/chloroform method. The specificity of the nested PCR was confirmed by testing DNA extracts of common bacterial fish pathogens and a panel of bacterial species reported to cause false-positive reactions in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the fluorescent antibody test (FAT) for R. salmoninarum. Kidney samples from 74 naturally infected chinook Salmon were examined by the nested PCR, the ELISA, and the FAT, and the detected prevalences of R. salmoninarum were 61, 47, and 43%, respectively.

Chase, D.M.; Pascho, R.J.

1998-01-01

84

The pharmaceuticalization of sexual risk: vaccine development and the new politics of cancer prevention.  

PubMed

Vaccine development is a core component of pharmaceutical industry activity and a key site for studying pharmaceuticalization processes. In recent decades, two so-called cancer vaccines have entered the U.S. medical marketplace: a vaccine targeting hepatitis B virus (HBV) to prevent liver cancers and a vaccine targeting human papillomavirus (HPV) to prevent cervical and other cancers. These viruses are two of six sexually transmissible infectious agents (STIs) that are causally linked to the development of cancers; collectively they reference an expanding approach to apprehending cancer that focuses attention simultaneously "inward" toward biomolecular processes and "outward" toward risk behaviors, sexual practices, and lifestyles. This paper juxtaposes the cases of HBV and HPV and their vaccine trajectories to analyze how vaccines, like pharmaceuticals more generally, are emblematic of contemporary pharmaceuticalization processes. We argue that individualized risk, in this case sexual risk, is produced and treated by scientific claims of links between STIs and cancers and through pharmaceutical company and biomedical practices. Simultaneous processes of sexualization and pharmaceuticalization mark these cases. Our comparison demonstrates that these processes are not uniform, and that the production of risks, subjects, and bodies depends not only on the specificities of vaccine development but also on the broader political and cultural frames within which sexuality is understood. PMID:24560236

Mamo, Laura; Epstein, Steven

2014-01-01

85

Identification of De Novo Copy Number Variants Associated with Human Disorders of Sexual Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disorders of sexual development (DSD), ranging in severity from genital abnormalities to complete sex reversal, are among the most common human birth defects with incidence rates reaching almost 3%. Although causative alterations in key genes controlling gonad development have been identified, the majority of DSD cases remain unexplained. To improve the diagnosis, we screened 116 children born with idiopathic DSD

Mounia Tannour-Louet; Shuo Han; Sean T. Corbett; Jean-Francois Louet; Svetlana Yatsenko; Lindsay Meyers; Chad A. Shaw; Sung-Hae L. Kang; Sau Wai Cheung; Dolores J. Lamb; Syed A. Aziz

2010-01-01

86

The makings of maleness: towards an integrated view of male sexual development  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the mammalian embryo develops, it must engage one of the two distinct programmes of gene activity, morphogenesis and organogenesis that characterize males and females. In males, sexual development hinges on testis determination and differentiation, but also involves many coordinated transcriptional, signalling and endocrine networks that underpin the masculinization of other organs and tissues, including the brain. Here we bring

Dagmar Wilhelm; Peter Koopman

2006-01-01

87

Partner notification for sexually transmitted infections in developing countries: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The feasibility and acceptability of partner notification (PN) for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in developing countries was assessed through a comprehensive literature review, to help identify future intervention needs. METHODS: The Medline, Embase, and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify studies published between January 1995 and December 2007 on STI PN in developing countries. A systematic review of

Nazmul Alam; Eric Chamot; Sten H Vermund; Kim Streatfield; Sibylle Kristensen

2010-01-01

88

Evolution of the salmonid mitochondrial control region.  

PubMed

To explore the evolutionary nature of the salmonid mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (D-loop) and its utility for inferring phylogenies, the entire region was sequenced from all eight species of anadromous Pacific salmon, genus Oncorhynchus; the Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar; and the Arctic grayling, Thymallus arcticus. A comparison of aligned sequences demonstrates that the generally conserved sequence elements that have been previously reported for other vertebrates are maintained in these primitive teleost fishes. Results reveal a significantly nonrandom distribution of nucleotide substitutions, insertions, and deletions that suggests that portions of the salmonid D-loop may be under differential selective constraints and that most of the control region of these fishes may evolve at a rate similar to that of the remainder of their mtDNA genomes. Maximum likelihood and Fitch parsimony analyses of 9 kb of aligned salmonid sequence data give evolutionary trees of identical topology. These results are consistent with previous molecular studies of a limited number of salmonid taxa and with more comprehensive, classical analyses of salmonid evolution. Predictions from these data, based on a molecular clock assumption for the mtDNA control region, are also consistent with fossil evidence that suggests that species of Oncorhynchus could be as old as the Middle Pliocene and would have thus given rise to the extant Pacific salmon prior to about 5 or 6 million years ago. PMID:1342934

Shedlock, A M; Parker, J D; Crispin, D A; Pietsch, T W; Burmer, G C

1992-09-01

89

Histology of salmonid testes during maturation.  

PubMed

The commonly applied classification systems of fish gonad maturity divide the maturation process into certain stages. However, the scales do not entirely reflect the continuity of the maturation process. Based on light microscope observations, the paper describes a comprehensive pattern of testicular transformations during maturation. The study was carried out on precocious underyearling and 1-year-old males of sea trout (Salmo trutta m. trutta L.), 1-year-old males of salmon (Salmo salar L.), and males of brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario L.) aged from 7 months to 4 years. A total of 821 gonads collected during all seasons of the year were examined. The fish were fixed in Bouin's fluid. Histological slides of the mid-part of the gonad were made using the standard paraffin technique. The 3-6 microm sections were stained with Heidenhain haematoxylin. Histological changes of testes during maturation were similar in the three species studied. Immature and resting gonads contained type A spermatogonia in lobules only. The appearance of cystic structures containing type B spermatogonia in the lobules signalled the beginning of the sexual cycle in male gonads. Type B spermatogonia underwent synchronous mitotic divisions resulting in an increase in the total number of spermatogonia. As the spermatogenesis continued, the gonads showed a gradual increase in the number of cysts containing cells at all the spermatogenetic stages: type B spermatogonia, primary and secondary spermatocytes, spermatids, and spermatozoa. The well-formed spermatozoa were released to the lobule lumen once the Sertoli cells and spermatozoa connections broke up and the cyst disappeared. This was a continuous process observed throughout the spawning season. The spermatozoa were moved to the efferent duct. While some of the germ cells were completing spermatogenesis, the lobules contained less and less cysts with type B spermatogonia, primary and secondary spermatocytes, and spermatids; eventually all the cells completed spermatogenesis. At the end of maturation, vacuoles, up to 18.9 microm in final diameter (brown trout), appeared in the Sertoli cells. The vacuoles were visible in the lobule wall epithelium for a prolonged period of time. In most salmonid individuals examined, the reproductive cycles were observed to overlap. In some fish, the preparation for another cycle began very early, i.e., at the and of preceding spermatogenesis, which had not been observed before. Gonad maturation in some males was incomplete. PMID:14666143

Dziewulska, Katarzyna; Domaga?a, Józef

2003-03-01

90

Salmonid redd dewatering: What do we know  

SciTech Connect

Dewatering of salmonid spawning areas causes abrupt changes in the intergravel environment that may lead to extensive losses of development phases while intergravel in redds. Information on tolerance to dewatering and the extent of physicochemical changes in the gravel during dewatering can be used to assess potential impacts and to design and implement effective mitigation methods. Studies with fall chinook salmon are summarized, and the comparisons are made with results from available literature. Potentially useful methods of mitigation are mentioned. We found that prehatch phases (cleavage eggs and embryos) can be dewatered for several successive days and survive, but posthatch phases (eleutheroembryos and alevins) usually die within 24 hours. Survival of prehatch phases during extended dewatering requires maintenance of favorable intergravel temperature and moisture levels. Elevated temperatures (up to 22/sup 0/C) can be tolerated for up to 8 hours without direct adverse effects, but freezing temperatures (/sup -/1.0/sup 0/C or below) are lethal. Dewatered gravels must remain sufficient moisture to provide near 100% humidity for egg and embryo survival. In field situations, physicochemical conditions that limit survival in dewatered gravels include residual flow, temperature, gravel size and composition, and dissolved oxygen. Biological variables such as alevin behavior and certain species characteristics also influence survival. 29 refs., 6 figs.

Becker, C D; Neitzel, D A

1983-11-01

91

The Maestro (Mro) Gene Is Dispensable for Normal Sexual Development and Fertility in Mice  

PubMed Central

The mammalian gonad arises as a bipotential primordium from which a testis or ovary develops depending on the chromosomal sex of the individual. We have previously used DNA microarrays to screen for novel genes controlling the developmental fate of the indifferent embryonic mouse gonad. Maestro (Mro), which encodes a HEAT-repeat protein, was originally identified as a gene exhibiting sexually dimorphic expression during mouse gonad development. Wholemount in situ hybridisation analysis revealed Mro to be expressed in the embryonic male gonad from approximately 11.5 days post coitum, prior to overt sexual differentiation. No significant expression was detected in female gonads at the same developmental stage. In order to address its physiological function, we have generated mice lacking Maestro using gene targeting. Male and female mice homozygous for a Mro null allele are viable and fertile. We examined gonad development in homozygous male embryos in detail and observed no differences when compared to wild-type controls. Immunohistochemical analysis of homozygous mutant testes of adult mice revealed no overt abnormalities. Expression profiling using DNA microarrays also indicated no significant differences between homozygote embryonic male gonads and controls. We conclude that Maestro is dispensable for normal male sexual development and fertility in laboratory mice; however, the Mro locus itself does have utility as a site for insertion of transgenes for future studies in the fields of sexual development and Sertoli cell function. PMID:19116663

Smith, Lee; Willan, John; Warr, Nick; Brook, Frances A.; Cheeseman, Michael; Sharpe, Richard; Siggers, Pam; Greenfield, Andy

2008-01-01

92

Development and validation of the belief in female sexual deceptiveness scale.  

PubMed

This article describes the development of a scale measuring the extent of men's belief in female sexual deceptiveness. This belief has been postulated as a component of hostile masculinity and a precursor to more serious sexual-assault-facilitating cognitions, though it has not yet been studied empirically. From a final pool of 22 items, the 14-item Belief in Female Sexual Deceptiveness (BFSD) scale was constructed. Data were collected via online survey from 131 predominantly Hispanic college males; scale items were selected by exploratory factor analysis. Three moderately strongly correlated factors emerged, though they overlapped strongly and are currently considered only for future study. An 8-item short form of the BFSD scale (the BFSD-S) was created, as well. The full BFSD scale showed strong internal consistency and significant correlations with gender role attitudes, unequal/coercive relationship attitudes, history of misperceiving women's platonic interest as sexual, history of sexual frustration in relationships, adult attachment, belief in immanent justice, attitudes toward intimate partner violence, and rape myth acceptance. Patterns of divergent correlations with other measures also supported the scale's validity. The BFSD-S performed nearly identically to the BFSD. Limitations, future directions, and implications are discussed. PMID:24920000

Rogers, Darrin L; Cervantes, Emanuel; Espinosa, Joanna C

2015-03-01

93

Freshwater aspects of anadromous salmonid enhancement  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Freshwater enhancement of anadromous salmonid populations has been practiced in the United States and Canada since the late 1800's. Reduction of natural spawning habitat and increasing fishing pressure make artificial enhancement a possible alternative to declining populations. Enhancement of anadromous salmonids involved improvement of the natural environment and reducing natural mortality. Methods of enhancement include fishways, spawning and rearing channels, stream rehabilitation, lake fertilization, environmental management, and artificial propagation techniques. Five Pacific salmon species and steelhead trout are commonly enhanced, primarily in watershed entering the Pacific Ocean and Great Lakes. Enhancement efforts contribute heavily to a commercial and sport industry realizing over $1.5 billion.

Gould, Rowan W.

1982-01-01

94

The Development and Evaluation of a Sexual Harassment Contact Person Training Package  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of a training package to teach listening and helping skills to three pairs of sexual harassment contact person trainees was evaluated, using a multiple probe design. The training package comprised five components: behavioral specifications, rationales, situational examples, study guides, and role-play exercises, provided in a written instructional format based on guidelines developed by Fawcett and Fletcher. Evaluation involved

Michelle C. D. Blaxall; Barry S. Parsonsona; Neville R. Robertson

1993-01-01

95

Influence of cadmium, copper, and pentachlorophenol on growth and sexual development of Eisenia andrei (Oligochaeta; Annelida)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the existing guidelines for earthworm toxicity testing, mortality is the only test criterion. Mortality is, however, not a very sensitive parameter, and from an ecological point of view growth and reproduction are more important for a proper risk assessment of chemicals in soil. In this study the growth and sexual development of juvenile earthworms were considered as test criteria

C. A. M. Gestel; W. A. Dis; E. M. Dirven-van Breemen; P. M. Sparenburg; R. Baerselman

1991-01-01

96

Regulation of sexual development in the basal termite Cryptotermes secundus : mutilation, pheromonal manipulation or honest signal?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social insect colonies are not the harmonious entities they were once considered. Considerable conflicts exist between colony members, as has been shown for Hymenoptera. For termites, similar studies are lacking, but aggressive manipulations have been claimed to regulate sexual development, and even to account for the evolution of workers. This study on a basal termite, Cryptotermes secundus (Kalotermitidae), suggests that

Judith Korb

2005-01-01

97

"InFection Four": Development of a Youth-Informed Sexual Health Card Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Games may be useful tools for learning and communicating about sexual and reproductive health. This article discusses the collaborative design and subsequent evaluation of a narrative-based card game. This game was created in a workshop based on positive youth development, which allowed youth to be involved as game designers and game players.…

Gilliam, Melissa; Jagoda, Patrick; Heathcock, Stephen; Sutherland, Ainsley

2014-01-01

98

Sexual reproduction and mating-typemediated strain development in the penicillin-producing fungus  

E-print Network

Sexual reproduction and mating-type­mediated strain development in the penicillin-producing fungus, being the original and present-day indus- trial source of the antibiotic penicillin. The species has to penicillin production. Furthermore, the MAT1-1­1 mating-type gene, known primarily for a role in govern- ing

Kück, Ulrich

99

MAXIMIZING GROWTH AND SEXUAL MATURATION OF SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS IN SUPPORT OF MULTI-GENERATION TEST DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Hemmer, R.L., G.M. Cripe and L.R. Goodman. In press. Maximizing Growth and Sexual Maturation of Sheepshead Minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) in Support of Multi-Generation Test Development (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November 2004, Portland...

100

Normal Sexual Development of Rats Exposed to Butyl Benzyl Phthalate from Conception to Weaning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) has been administered in drinking water (1000 ?g\\/liter) to pregnant AP rats during gestation and lactation. The sexual development of the pups was then monitored until their termination at postnatal day 90 (pnd 90). Pups derived from animals exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES) in drinking water (50 ?g\\/liter) acted as a positive control group. Glass drinking bottles

J Ashby; H Tinwell; P. A Lefevre; J Odum; D Paton; S. W Millward; S Tittensor; A. N Brooks

1997-01-01

101

Improving the Fit: Adolescents' Needs and Future Programs for Sexual and Reproductive Health in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demand is growing in developing countries for sexual and reproductive health programs for young people. However, little scientifically based evidence exists about which program approaches are most effective in shaping healthy behaviors. Careful evaluation and research must be increased, but meanwhile, planners need guidance as they expand programming. Research indicates that current programs often do not match the needs and

Jane Hughes; Ann P. McCauley

1998-01-01

102

Late-stage clinical development in lower urogenital targets: sexual dysfunction  

PubMed Central

In recent years, late-stage clinical drug development that primarily focuses on urogenital targets has centered around four areas of medical need (both unmet need and aiming to improve on existing therapies). These include male sexual dysfunction (MSD), female sexual dysfunction (FSD), prostatic pathology (neoplastic, pre-neoplasitic, and non-neoplastic), and improvement in lower urinary tract symptoms. Despite the regulatory approval of compounds to treat erectile dysfunction (ED), benign prostatic hyperplasia, a number of treatments for overactive bladder, and stress urinary incontinence, there remains a deficiency in addressing a number of conditions that arise out of pathophysiological dysfunction resulting in lower urogenital tract sexual conditions. In terms of late-stage clinical development, significant progress has most recently been made in MSD development, especially in understanding further a common and complex sexual dysfunction – that of premature ejaculation. The search also continues for compounds that improve ED in terms of better efficacy and superior safety profile compared to the currently marketed phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitors. Whilst there are no approved medications to treat the subtypes of FSD, there has been significant progress in attempting to better understand how to appropriately assess treatment benefit in clinical trial settings for this difficult to diagnose and treat condition. This review will focus on late-stage human clinical development pertaining to MSD and FSD. PMID:16465180

Azam, Usman

2006-01-01

103

Recent Trends and Current Title IX Developments Involving Peer Based Student Sexual Harassment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses current developments and recent litigation regarding sexual harassment of students by other students. Contends that, despite the discrepancy in recent circuit court decisions of different standards of liability in such cases, this uncertainty should not frighten school officials into abandoning their common sense. (24 footnotes) (MLF)

Stevenson, David S.

1997-01-01

104

Population, sexual and reproductive health, rights and sustainable development: forging a common agenda.  

PubMed

This article suggests that sexual and reproductive health and rights activists seeking to influence the post-2015 international development paradigm must work with sustainable development advocates concerned with a range of issues, including climate change, environmental issues, and food and water security, and that a way of building bridges with these communities is to demonstrate how sexual and reproductive health and rights are relevant for these issues. An understanding of population dynamics, including urbanization and migration, as well as population growth, can help to clarify these links. This article therefore suggests that whether or not sexual and reproductive health and rights activists can overcome resistance to discussing "population", become more knowledgeable about other sustainable development issues, and work with others in those fields to advance the global sustainable development agenda are crucial questions for the coming months. The article also contends that it is possible to care about population dynamics (including ageing and problems faced by countries with a high proportion of young people) and care about human rights at the same time. It expresses concern that, if sexual and reproductive health and rights advocates do not participate in the population dynamics discourse, the field will be left free for those for whom respecting and protecting rights may be less of a priority. PMID:24908456

Newman, Karen; Fisher, Sarah; Mayhew, Susannah; Stephenson, Judith

2014-05-01

105

Let's Talk about Sex: Development of a Sexual Health Program for Nepali Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop and test the feasibility of conducting a sexual health intervention for women in Nepal, a country with high political and economic instability and strong patriarchal systems. Of the 88 women enrolled, 100% retention was obtained over three sessions, and 85% completed a 1-month follow-up. Recruitment was so…

Kaufman, Michelle R.; Harman, Jennifer J.; Shrestha, Deepti Khati

2012-01-01

106

Professional development in reproductive and sexual health--a pilot study from Suffolk, UK.  

PubMed

Staff from two neighbouring trusts working in the fields of family planning and sexual health worked together to develop joint guidelines and from this evolved a training initiative. It was acknowledged that staff were either primarily trained in family planning or in the management of sexually transmitted infections (ST1) and therefore the training would be interdisciplinary. In line with current educational thinking it was also decided to make it multiprofessional. A pilot training project was therefore set up to answer the question 'can self directed learning combined with facilitated small group study sessions provide theoretical updating for a range of health professionals within the field of reproductive and sexual health'. The project aimed to increase theoretical knowledge of contraception, sexually transmitted infections and termination of pregnancy for all relevant nursing and medical staff working within the two trusts. The stated outcome of the project was for all staff to achieve a wider core knowledge of the identified topics, regardless of whether their primary training and knowledge base was in family planning or sexually transmitted infection. The project spanned five months and offered professional development packages in hormonal contraception, non-hormonal contraception, termination of pregnancy, bacterial and minor STIs and viral STIs. The pilot project was well received and the process was shown to be an effective way of increasing the knowledge base. The knowledge shift was greatest in the opposing discipline to the primary discipline of each participant. There were added advantages in team building for staff within the same trust and networking across trusts. The strengths and weaknesses of the process were identified and used to develop ideas for future professional development initiatives. PMID:10023098

Reader, F C; Hunt, K; Passmore, H; Royce, S; Adapa, U

1999-01-01

107

The impact of sexual abuse on female development: Lessons from a multigenerational, longitudinal research study  

PubMed Central

This is a report on the research design and findings of a 23-year longitudinal study of the impact of intrafamilial sexual abuse on female development. The conceptual framework integrated concepts of psychological adjustment with theory regarding how psychobiological factors might impact development. Participants included 6- to 16-year-old females with substantiated sexual abuse and a demographically similar comparison group. A cross-sequential design was used and six assessments have taken place, with participants at median age 11 at the first assessment and median age 25 at the sixth assessment. Mothers of participants took part in the early assessments and offspring took part at the sixth assessment. Results of many analyses, both within circumscribed developmental stages and across development, indicated that sexually abused females (on average) showed deleterious sequelae across a host of biopsychosocial domains including: earlier onsets of puberty, cognitive deficits, depression, dissociative symptoms, maladaptive sexual development, hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal attenuation, asymmetrical stress responses, high rates of obesity, more major illnesses and healthcare utilization, dropping out of high school, persistent psottraumatic stress disorder, self-mutilation, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnoses, physical and sexual revictimization, premature deliveries, teen motherhood, drug and alcohol abuse, and domestic violence. Offspring born to abused mothers were at increased risk for child maltreatment and overall maldevelopment. There was also a pattern of considerable within group variability. Based on this complex network of findings, implications for optimal treatments are elucidated. Translational aspects of extending observational research into clinical practice are discussed in terms that will likely have a sustained impact on several major public health initiatives. PMID:23786689

Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.

2013-01-01

108

COMPARATIVE MAPS OF SALMONID GENOMES: AN UPDATE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The construction of detailed comparative maps for salmonid fishes is an important goal that will help transfer genetic information between species, study chromosome evolution, and compare the genetic architecture of complex traits across taxa. In this poster, we report on consolidating comparative m...

109

Lake Michigan Salmonid Stocking Costs in Wisconsin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The costs of stocking salmonids in the Wisconsin waters of Lake Michigan are estimated for 1985. Estimation procedures and costs per stocked and captured fish are presented. Fingerlings of a species were found in most cases to cost more per captured fish than yearlings. However chinook salmon fingerlings were least expensive at an average cost of only $0.35 per captured

Jeffrey A. Cochrane; Richard C. Bishop; David B. Ives

1992-01-01

110

Homosexuality via canalized sexual development: A testing protocol for a new epigenetic model  

PubMed Central

We recently synthesized and reinterpreted published studies to advance an epigenetic model for the development of homosexuality (HS). The model is based on epigenetic marks laid down in response to the XX vs. XY karyotype in embryonic stem cells. These marks boost sensitivity to testosterone in XY fetuses and lower it in XX fetuses, thereby canalizing sexual development. Our model predicts that a subset of these canalizing epigenetic marks stochastically carry over across generations and lead to mosaicism for sexual development in opposite-sex offspring – the homosexual phenotype being one such outcome. Here, we begin by outlining why HS has been under-appreciated as a commonplace phenomenon in nature, and how this trend is currently being reversed in the field of neurobiology. We next briefly describe our epigenetic model of HS, develop a set of predictions, and describe how epigenetic profiles of human stem cells can provide for a strong test of the model. PMID:23868698

Rice, William R; Friberg, Urban; Gavrilets, Sergey

2013-01-01

111

Homosexuality via canalized sexual development: a testing protocol for a new epigenetic model.  

PubMed

We recently synthesized and reinterpreted published studies to advance an epigenetic model for the development of homosexuality (HS). The model is based on epigenetic marks laid down in response to the XX vs. XY karyotype in embryonic stem cells. These marks boost sensitivity to testosterone in XY fetuses and lower it in XX fetuses, thereby canalizing sexual development. Our model predicts that a subset of these canalizing epigenetic marks stochastically carry over across generations and lead to mosaicism for sexual development in opposite-sex offspring--the homosexual phenotype being one such outcome. Here, we begin by outlining why HS has been under-appreciated as a commonplace phenomenon in nature, and how this trend is currently being reversed in the field of neurobiology. We next briefly describe our epigenetic model of HS, develop a set of predictions, and describe how epigenetic profiles of human stem cells can provide for a strong test of the model. PMID:23868698

Rice, William R; Friberg, Urban; Gavrilets, Sergey

2013-09-01

112

Sexual Understanding and Development of Young People with Intellectual Disabilities: Mothers' Perspectives of Within-Family Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The sexual development of young people with intellectual disabilities is a marker of their transition to adulthood and affects their sense of well being and identity. Cognitive impairments and a socially marginalized position increase dependence on their families to assist with sexual matters. In this study, the authors adopted a novel…

Pownall, Jaycee D.; Jahoda, Andrew; Hastings, Richard; Kerr, Linda

2011-01-01

113

Implications of Our Developing Understanding of Risk and Protective Factors in the Treatment of Adult Male Sexual Offenders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarizes our developing knowledge of factors that contribute added risk of sexual recidivism (risk factors) and factors that are associated with a reduced risk of sexual recidivism (protective factors). Specific implications for the design of future treatment programs are drawn. This information is contrasted with the common foci of…

Thornton, David

2013-01-01

114

"You Want Me to Talk to Children about What?" Responding to the Subject of Sexuality Development in Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many people think it is taboo to talk about sex with children. Adults reinforce this belief when, for example, they use substitute words rather than "vagina" or "penis". They may be embarrassed to learn about children's sexual development or ask others for assistance. Although most people in US society are open about sexuality now, the topic of…

Sciaraffa, Mary; Randolph, Theresa

2011-01-01

115

Expanding Our Reach: The Potential for Youth Development Professionals in Community-Based Organizations to Provide Sexuality Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents in the United States continue to face sexual health issues. While community-based organizations (CBOs) have a long history of addressing the sexual health needs of those they serve, little attention has been given to CBOs focused on adolescent populations and the role youth development professionals (YDPs) might play in the advancement…

Fisher, Christopher M.; Reece, Michael; Dodge, Brian; Wright, Eric; Sherwood-Laughlin, Catherine; Baldwin, Kathleen

2010-01-01

116

In ovo exposure to o,p -DDE affects sexual development but not sexual differentiation in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).  

PubMed Central

Despite being banned in many countries, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) continue to be found in fish tissues at concentrations of concern. Like o,p -DDT, o,p -DDE is estrogenic and is believed to exert its effects through binding to the estrogen receptor. The limited toxicologic data for o,p -DDE suggest that it decreases fecundity and fertility of fishes. We conducted an egg injection study using the d-rR strain of medaka and environmentally relevant concentrations of o,p -DDE to examine its effects on sexual differentiation and development. The gonads of exposed fish showed no evidence of sex reversal or intersex. However, other gonad abnormalities occurred in exposed individuals. Females exhibited few vitellogenic oocytes and increased atresia. Male testes appeared morphologically normal but were very small. Gonadosomatic index values for both sexes were lower for exposed fish. Our observations of abnormal female and very small male gonads after in ovo o,p -DDE exposure may be indicative of effects on early endocrine processes important for normal ovarian and testicular development. PMID:12515675

Papoulias, Diana M; Villalobos, Sergio A; Meadows, John; Noltie, Douglas B; Giesy, John P; Tillitt, Donald E

2003-01-01

117

In ovo exposure to o,p -DDE affects sexual development but not sexual differentiation in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Despite being banned in many countries, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) continue to be found in fish tissues at concentrations of concern. Like o,p -DDT, o,p -DDE is estrogenic and is believed to exert its effects through binding to the estrogen receptor. The limited toxicologic data for o,p -DDE suggest that it decreases fecundity and fertility of fishes. We conducted an egg injection study using the d-rR strain of medaka and environmentally relevant concentrations of o,p -DDE to examine its effects on sexual differentiation and development. The gonads of exposed fish showed no evidence of sex reversal or intersex. However, other gonad abnormalities occurred in exposed individuals. Females exhibited few vitellogenic oocytes and increased atresia. Male testes appeared morphologically normal but were very small. Gonadosomatic index values for both sexes were lower for exposed fish. Our observations of abnormal female and very small male gonads after in ovo o,p -DDE exposure may be indicative of effects on early endocrine processes important for normal ovarian and testicular development.

Papoulias, D.M.; Villalobos, S.A.; Meadows, J.; Noltie, D.B.; Giesy, J.P.; Tillitt, D.E.

2003-01-01

118

Sexual stage development of cryptosporidia in the Caco-2 cell line.  

PubMed Central

We used the spontaneously differentiated human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2 to develop an in vitro model of Cryptosporidium sp. infection. The mean cell infection rate was 3% +/- 2%. Asexual stages of cryptosporidia were observed on day 2 postinoculation. Transmission electron microscopy showed the presence of macrogametes at day 5. This cell line appears to be suited to the study of the mechanisms by which biological agents inhibit both sexual and asexual development of cryptosporidia. Images PMID:1937821

Buraud, M; Forget, E; Favennec, L; Bizet, J; Gobert, J G; Deluol, A M

1991-01-01

119

Normal Sexual Development and Fertility in testatin Knockout Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The testatin gene was previously isolated in a screen focused on finding novel signaling molecules involved in sex determination and differentiation. testatin is specifically upregulated in pre-Sertoli cells in early fetal development, immediately after the onset of Sry expression, and was therefore considered a strong candidate for involvement in early testis development. testatin expression is maintained in the adult Sertoli

Virpi Tohonen; Jessica Frygelius; Majid Mohammadieh; Ulrik Kvist; Lauri J. Pelliniemi; Kevin O'Brien; Katarina Nordqvist; Anna Wedell

2005-01-01

120

Incorporating Geomorphological and Biological Processes Into Recovery Planning Strategies for Listed Salmonids in the Pacific Northwest  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of species of Pacific salmonids are listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act due to a combination of habitat loss and degradation, hatchery programs, and harvest practices. Efforts are underway throughout the geographic ranges of the listed salmon to develop recovery plans describing the necessary conditions for delisting. Habitat restoration strategies in some watershed recovery plans address the

M. Ruckelshaus; T. Beechie; K. Lagueux; A. Haas

2005-01-01

121

Vaccination strategies in seawater cage culture of salmonids.  

PubMed

Successful vaccination depends both on the development of protective vaccines and their correct use. In addition to deciding which diseases to vaccinate against, the choice of the method, timing, and use of revaccination must be considered. In seawater culture of salmonids, vibriosis and furunculosis are the most important diseases against which to vaccinate in many parts of the world, while cold-water vibriosis is of great significance in Atlantic salmon in some areas with low water temperatures. A vaccine against infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) has also been introduced recently. For optimal protection of salmonids in sea-water, vaccination should be carried out some time before sea transfer, in order to give immunity sufficient time to develop, and to avoid handling stress during smoltification. On the other hand however, vaccination should not be carried out too early, as the degree of immunity declines with time. Water temperature is an important factor when deciding when to vaccinate. Recent research has demonstrated that Atlantic salmon may be vaccinated successfully at low water temperatures. In general, vaccination by the injection method gives superior protection. Vaccines against the Vibrio-infections can also be administered successfully by immersion. However, due to lower levels of immunity, the need for a booster vaccination is greater when such a method is used. As regards vaccines against furunculosis, adjuvants are needed in order to achieve good protection, and, consequently, administration by injection is the only option. PMID:9270869

Lillehaug, A

1997-01-01

122

REPRODUCTION Endocrine control of sexual development in the gilt  

E-print Network

, prolactin and LH were measured in these samples. Examination of ovaries and uterus showed two stages and little deve- loped uterus and « prebuberty » characterised by some follicles (4 to 8 mm) and a well irrigated and developed uterus. However, induction of puberty depended more on the nature of the stimulus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

123

Fish and chips: Various methodologies demonstrate utility of a 16,006-gene salmonid microarray  

PubMed Central

Background We have developed and fabricated a salmonid microarray containing cDNAs representing 16,006 genes. The genes spotted on the array have been stringently selected from Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout expressed sequence tag (EST) databases. The EST databases presently contain over 300,000 sequences from over 175 salmonid cDNA libraries derived from a wide variety of tissues and different developmental stages. In order to evaluate the utility of the microarray, a number of hybridization techniques and screening methods have been developed and tested. Results We have analyzed and evaluated the utility of a microarray containing 16,006 (16K) salmonid cDNAs in a variety of potential experimental settings. We quantified the amount of transcriptome binding that occurred in cross-species, organ complexity and intraspecific variation hybridization studies. We also developed a methodology to rapidly identify and confirm the contents of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library containing Atlantic salmon genomic DNA. Conclusion We validate and demonstrate the usefulness of the 16K microarray over a wide range of teleosts, even for transcriptome targets from species distantly related to salmonids. We show the potential of the use of the microarray in a variety of experimental settings through hybridization studies that examine the binding of targets derived from different organs and tissues. Intraspecific variation in transcriptome expression is evaluated and discussed. Finally, BAC hybridizations are demonstrated as a rapid and accurate means to identify gene content. PMID:16164747

von Schalburg, Kristian R; Rise, Matthew L; Cooper, Glenn A; Brown, Gordon D; Gibbs, A Ross; Nelson, Colleen C; Davidson, William S; Koop, Ben F

2005-01-01

124

Fetal programming of sexual development and reproductive function.  

PubMed

The recent growth of interest in developmental programming of physiological systems has generally focused on the cardiovascular system (especially hypertension) and predisposition to metabolic dysfunction (mainly obesity and diabetes). However, it is now clear that the full range of altered offspring phenotypes includes impaired reproductive function. In rats, sheep and nonhuman primates, reproductive capacity is altered by challenges experienced during critical periods of development. This review will examine available experimental evidence across commonly studied experimental species for developmental programming of female and male reproductive function throughout an individual's life-course. It is necessary to consider events that occur during fetal development, early neonatal life and prior to and during puberty, during active reproductive life and aging as reproductive performance declines. PMID:24045010

Zambrano, Elena; Guzmán, Carolina; Rodríguez-González, Guadalupe L; Durand-Carbajal, Marta; Nathanielsz, Peter W

2014-01-25

125

Heterogeneity in sexual bipotentiality and plasticity of granulosa cells in developing mouse ovaries.  

PubMed

In mammalian sex determination, SRY directly upregulates the expression of SOX9, the master regulatory transcription factor in Sertoli cell differentiation, leading to testis formation. Without SRY action, the bipotential gonadal cells become pre-granulosa cells, which results in ovarian follicle development. When, where and how pre-granulosa cells are determined to differentiate into developing ovaries, however, remains unclear. By monitoring SRY-dependent SOX9 inducibility (SDSI) in an Sry-inducible mouse system, we were able to identify spatiotemporal changes in the sexual bipotentiality/plasticity of ovarian somatic cells throughout life. The early pre-granulosa cells maintain the SDSI until 11.5 d.p.c., after which most pre-granulosa cells rapidly lose this ability by 12.0 d.p.c. Unexpectedly, we found a subpopulation of the pre-granulosa cells near the mesonephric tissue that continuously retains SDSI throughout fetal and early postnatal stages. After birth, these SDSI-positive pre-granulosa cells contribute to the initial round of folliculogenesis by the secondary follicle stage. In experimental sex reversal of 13.5-d.p.c. ovaries grafted into adult male nude mice, the differentiated granulosa cells re-acquire the SDSI before other signs of masculinization. Our data provide direct evidence of an unexpectedly high sexual heterogeneity of granulosa cells in developing mouse ovaries in a stage- and region-specific manner. Discovery of such sexually bipotential granulosa cells provides a novel entry point to the understanding of masculinization in various cases of XX disorders of sexual development in mammalian ovaries. PMID:23613466

Harikae, Kyoko; Miura, Kento; Shinomura, Mai; Matoba, Shogo; Hiramatsu, Ryuji; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Kanai-Azuma, Masami; Kurohmaru, Masamichi; Morohashi, Ken-Ichirou; Kanai, Yoshiakira

2013-07-01

126

Development and characterization of microsatellite markers in the sexual-apomictic complex Taraxacum officinale (dandelion)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellite markers were developed in Taraxacum officinale to study gene flow between sexual and apomictic plants and to identify clones. Twenty five thousand genomic DNA clones were\\u000a hybridized with a (CT)12D probe. The density of (GA\\/CT)\\u000a n\\u000a repeats was estimated at one every 61?kb in the T. officinale genome, which translates to 13?500 repeats per haploid genome. Ninety two percent

M. Falque; J. J. B. Keurentjes; J. M. T. Bakx-Schotman; P. J. van Dijk

1998-01-01

127

Genetic and molecular insights into the development and evolution of sexual dimorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual dimorphism is common throughout the animal kingdom. However, a molecular understanding of how sex-specific traits develop and evolve has been elusive. Recently, substantial progress has been made in elucidating how diverse sex-determination systems are integrated into developmental gene networks. One common theme from these studies is that sex-limited traits and gene expression are produced by the combined action of

Thomas M. Williams; Sean B. Carroll

2009-01-01

128

Sfrp1 and Sfrp2 are required for normal male sexual development in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secreted frizzled-related proteins (Sfrps) are antagonists of WNT signalling implicated in a variety of biological processes. However, there are no reports of a direct role for Sfrps in embryonic organogenesis in mammals. Using in vivo loss-of-function studies we report here for the first time a redundant role for Sfrp1 and Sfrp2 in embryonic sexual development of the mouse. At 16.5 dpc,

Nick Warr; Pam Siggers; Debora Bogani; Rachel Brixey; Laura Pastorelli; Laura Yates; Charlotte H. Dean; Sara Wells; Wataru Satoh; Akihiko Shimono; Andy Greenfield

2009-01-01

129

Normal Sexual Development and Fertility in testatin Knockout Mice  

PubMed Central

The testatin gene was previously isolated in a screen focused on finding novel signaling molecules involved in sex determination and differentiation. testatin is specifically upregulated in pre-Sertoli cells in early fetal development, immediately after the onset of Sry expression, and was therefore considered a strong candidate for involvement in early testis development. testatin expression is maintained in the adult Sertoli cell, and it can also be found in a small population of germ cells. Testatin shows homology to family 2 cystatins, a group of broadly expressed small secretory proteins that are inhibitors of cysteine proteases in vitro but whose in vivo functions are unclear. testatin belongs to a novel subfamily among the cystatins, comprising genes that all show expression patterns that are strikingly restricted to reproductive tissue. To investigate a possible role of testatin in testis development and male reproduction, we have generated a mouse with targeted disruption of the testatin gene. We found no abnormalities in the testatin knockout mice with regard to fetal and adult testis morphology, cellular ultrastructure, body and testis weight, number of offspring, spermatogenesis, or hormonal parameters (testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone). PMID:15923608

Töhönen, Virpi; Frygelius, Jessica; Mohammadieh, Majid; Kvist, Ulrik; Pelliniemi, Lauri J.; O'Brien, Kevin; Nordqvist, Katarina; Wedell, Anna

2005-01-01

130

Visual method for evaluating the state of sexual development in male grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis).  

PubMed

Stages of sexual development in grey squirrels were classified by scoring the presence of periscrotal hair and staining, as well as the position, size and colour of testes, to develop a visual breeding score (VBS). The VBS was a highly significant predictor of the presence and concentration of epididymal spermatozoa, which were produced from 12 months of age. Two classes of producers were identified: 'high' with spermatozoa levels > 10 x 10(6) mL(-1) and 'low' with spermatozoa levels < 10 x 10(6) mL(-1). Sperm motility was variable across all levels of productive males but was generally higher in the 'high' group, indicating that these were 'functional' males. Sexual regression was observed in two autumn periods. The VBS was less effective in determining states of regression and redevelopment; the confidence of classification improved when age class (adult or prepubertal) and date of capture was known. The use of the VBS to classify stages of sexual development in grey squirrels will improve selection of animals for studies of population biology and fertility control, and has potential application in captive breeding studies of rare Sciuridae species. PMID:16554014

Ferryman, Mark; Mayle, Brenda A; Morgan, Geoff W

2006-01-01

131

A cascade of DNA binding proteins for sexual commitment and development in Plasmodium  

PubMed Central

Commitment to and completion of sexual development are essential for malaria parasites (protists of the genus Plasmodium) to be transmitted through mosquitoes1. The molecular mechanism(s) responsible for commitment have been hitherto unknown. Here we show that PBAP2-G, a conserved member of the ApiAP2 family of transcription factors, is essential for the commitment of asexually replicating forms to sexual development in P. berghei, a malaria parasite of rodents. PBAP2-G was identified from mutations in its encoding gene, PBANKA_143750, which account for the loss of sexual development frequently observed in parasites transmitted artificially by blood passage. Systematic gene deletion of conserved ApiAP2 genes in Plasmodium confirmed the role of PBAP2-G and revealed a second ApiAP2 member (PBANKA_103430, termed PBAP2-G2) that significantly modulates but does not abolish gametocytogenesis indicating that a cascade of ApiAP2 proteins are involved in commitment to the production and maturation of gametocytes. The data suggest a mechanism of commitment to gametocytogenesis in Plasmodium consistent with a positive feedback loop involving PBAP2G which might be exploited to prevent the transmission of this pernicious parasite. PMID:24572359

Otto, Thomas D.; Pfander, Claudia; Dickens, Nicholas J.; Religa, Agnieszka A.; Bushell, Ellen; Graham, Anne L.; Cameron, Rachael; Kafsack, Bjorn F.C.; Williams, April E.; Llinas, Manuel; Berriman, Matthew; Billker, Oliver; Waters, Andrew P.

2014-01-01

132

Sex-biased gene expression during head development in a sexually dimorphic stalk-eyed fly.  

PubMed

Stalk-eyed flies (family Diopsidae) are a model system for studying sexual selection due to the elongated and sexually dimorphic eye-stalks found in many species. These flies are of additional interest because their X chromosome is derived largely from an autosomal arm in other flies. To identify candidate genes required for development of dimorphic eyestalks and investigate how sex-biased expression arose on the novel X, we compared gene expression between males and females using oligonucleotide microarrays and RNA from developing eyestalk tissue or adult heads in the dimorphic diopsid, Teleopsis dalmanni. Microarray analysis revealed sex-biased expression for 26% of 3,748 genes expressed in eye-antennal imaginal discs and concordant sex-biased expression for 86 genes in adult heads. Overall, 415 female-biased and 482 male-biased genes were associated with dimorphic eyestalk development but not differential expression in the adult head. Functional analysis revealed that male-biased genes are disproportionately associated with growth and mitochondrial function while female-biased genes are associated with cell differentiation and patterning or are novel transcripts. With regard to chromosomal effects, dosage compensation occurs by elevated expression of X-linked genes in males. Genes with female-biased expression were more common on the X and less common on autosomes than expected, while male-biased genes exhibited no chromosomal pattern. Rates of protein evolution were lower for female-biased genes but higher for genes that moved on or off the novel X chromosome. These findings cannot be due to meiotic sex chromosome inactivation or by constraints associated with dosage compensation. Instead, they could be consistent with sexual conflict in which female-biased genes on the novel X act primarily to reduce eyespan in females while other genes increase eyespan in both sexes. Additional information on sex-biased gene expression in other tissues and related sexually monomorphic species could confirm this interpretation. PMID:23527273

Wilkinson, Gerald S; Johns, Philip M; Metheny, Jackie D; Baker, Richard H

2013-01-01

133

Sexual Assault  

MedlinePLUS

... assault fact sheet Sexual assault fact sheet ePublications Sexual assault fact sheet Print this fact sheet Sexual assault ... assaulted? More information on sexual assault What is sexual assault? Sexual assault and abuse is any type of ...

134

Sexual Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Sexual Attraction and Orientation Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying Talking to Your Partner About Condoms Tampons, Pads, ... Sexual Attraction and Orientation Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying Talking to Your Partner About Condoms Testicular Exams ...

135

Development of an analytical approach to the specimens collected from victims of sexual assault.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to develop a screening process for the analysis of sexual assault samples. Recently, the Society of Forensic Toxicologists created a committee to address the issue of drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) in the toxicology field. This committee prepared a list of drugs that could be, or have been, used in DFSAs. The list comprises about 50 compounds, including illicit, prescription, and over-the-counter drugs. Using this list, our laboratory wanted an easy, fast, and sensitive method to analyze a urine sample for all 50 of these drugs. We screened and confirmed for 20 compounds, including cocaine, amphetamines, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, opiates, methadone, alcohol, and PCP. A gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric screening method that was able to detect the remaining 30 compounds following 1 extraction and using only 2 mL of urine was developed. The process is inexpensive and uses equipment available in most forensic toxicology laboratories. This method is recommended for any laboratory that commonly receives specimens collected from sexual assault victims and is interested in a more thorough analysis. PMID:15516286

Juhascik, Matthew; Le, Ngog Lan; Tomlinson, Kimberly; Moore, Christine; Gaensslen, R E; Negrusz, Adam

2004-09-01

136

REPORT OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONSENSUS DEVELOPMENT CONFERENCE ON FEMALE SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION: DEFINITIONS AND CLASSIFICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Female sexual dysfunction is highly prevalent but not well defined or understood. We evaluated and revised existing definitions and classifications of female sexual dysfunction. Materials and Methods: An interdisciplinary consensus conference panel consisting of 19 experts in female sexual dysfunction selected from 5 countries was convened by the Sexual Function Health Council of the American Foundation for Urologic Disease.

ROSEMARY BASSON; JENNIFER BERMAN; ARTHUR BURNETT; LEONARD DEROGATIS; DAVID FERGUSON; JEAN FOURCROY; IRWIN GOLDSTEIN; ALESSANDRA GRAZIOTTIN; JULIA HEIMAN; ELLEN LAAN; SANDRA LEIBLUM; HARIN PADMA-NATHAN; RAYMOND ROSEN; KATHLEEN SEGRAVES; R. TAYLOR SEGRAVES; RIDWAN SHABSIGH; MARCALEE SIPSKI; GORM WAGNER; BEVERLY WHIPPLE

2000-01-01

137

Sexually transmitted diseases in Ethiopia. Social factors contributing to their spread and implications for developing countries.  

PubMed

Sexually transmitted diseases in developing countries are causing concern to those responsible for their control and eradication. To gain a better understanding of the problems involved in a country struggling with development, the economic and psychosocial factors influencing the spread of STD in Ethiopia have been studied. Increased migration and urbanisation and the changing role of women have led to a rise in prostitution. Thus changes in the social structure--particularly in relation to the education and employment of women--and improved medical services are essential for the long-term control of STD. PMID:6895708

Plorde, D S

1981-12-01

138

Development and initial validation of The Sexual Orientation Beliefs Scale (SOBS).  

PubMed

The purpose of these studies was to develop and validate a measure of beliefs about sexual orientation (SO) that incorporates essentialist, social constructionist, and constructivist themes. The Sexual Orientation Beliefs Scale (SOBS) is offered as a multidimensional instrument with which to assess a broad range of beliefs about SO, which evidence suggests are highly correlated with positive and negative attitudes about sexual minorities. An initial exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted in the general population with a lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender-identified (LGBT) sample (n = 323) and suggested a 4-factor structure of naturalness (? = .86), discreetness (? = .82), entitativity (? = .75), and personal and social importance (? = .68); this 4-factor structure was supported by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with an independent LGBT sample (n = 330; "Form 1"). Additional EFA (n = 183) and CFA (n = 201) in a college student, mostly heterosexual-identified population suggest a slightly different factor structure, whereby group homogeneity (? = .84) and informativeness (? = .77) are salient themes ("Form 2"), and this structure was replicated across SO groups. Finally, a study of test-retest reliability in an undergraduate, mostly heterosexual-identified sample (n = 45) demonstrated strong temporal stability for the SOBS. PMID:23668729

Arseneau, Julie R; Grzanka, Patrick R; Miles, Joseph R; Fassinger, Ruth E

2013-07-01

139

Brazilian organization develops "sexual guidance" programs defined by long-term communication.  

PubMed

In a 1993 survey conducted in Brazil's 10 most populated areas, 86% of respondents supported the inclusion of sex education in the school curricula. More controversial is whether this material should be presented as a separate subject or integrated with other material. The nongovernmental organization Grupo de Trabalho e Pesquisa em Orientacao Sexual (GTPOS) has developed a sexual guidance program that provides a model for such campaigns. The program begins in the preschool years with games and simple communication exercises. Structured programming is introduced in the fourth grade, with an emphasis on participatory learning and responsiveness to student concerns and interests. It is assumed that open discussions in a context of respect for a range of views will enable students to make knowledgeable decisions about their sexual behavior. Although individual teachers are free to alter the curriculum, the human body, gender issues, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are covered at all schools. Parents participate in designated classroom activities and are encouraged to attend special parental guidance programs. PMID:12320003

Egypto, A C; Pinto, M C; Bock, S D

1996-01-01

140

Investigating the impact of chronic atrazine exposure on sexual development in zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Atrazine (ATZ) is a selective triazine herbicide used primarily for pre-emergent weed control in corn, sorghum and sugar cane production. It is one of the most widely used herbicides in North America. Some research published over the last decade suggests that chronic exposure to environmentally relevant ATZ concentrations can adversely impact gonadal development and/or sexual differentiation in amphibians and fish, while other studies report no effect, or moderate effects. As a result, contrasting conclusions have been published regarding the potential effects of the herbicide ATZ on aquatic species. Two near-identical four-month studies in 2009 (Study I) and 2010 (Study II), were performed investigating the potential for chronic ATZ exposure to affect zebrafish (Danio rerio) sexual development and differentiation. Zebrafish, were chronically exposed to 0, 0.1, 1, 10 µM ATZ or 1 nM 17?-estradiol (E2). Fish were histologically examined to assign gender and to evaluate potential impacts of E2 or ATZ on gonadal development. Exposure to E2 consistently resulted in a significantly higher proportion of female fish to normal male fish when compared to unexposed fish (both studies). In both studies, ATZ exposure did not significantly influence the percentage of female or male fish when compared to unexposed fish. A greater percentage of abnormally developed male fish and fish lacking differentiated gonadal tissue was observed in Study II E2 exposures but not in ATZ exposures. Together, these studies indicate that long-term exposure to ATZ at or above environmentally relevant concentrations does not significantly impact zebrafish gonadal development or sexual differentiation. PMID:22581590

Corvi, Margaret M; Stanley, Kerri A; Peterson, Peterson; Kent, Michael L; Feist, Stephen W; La Du, Jane K; Volz, David C; Hosmer, Hosmer; Tanguay, Robert L

2014-01-01

141

Regulation of sexual development in the basal termite Cryptotermes secundus: mutilation, pheromonal manipulation or honest signal?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social insect colonies are not the harmonious entities they were once considered. Considerable conflicts exist between colony members, as has been shown for Hymenoptera. For termites, similar studies are lacking, but aggressive manipulations have been claimed to regulate sexual development, and even to account for the evolution of workers. This study on a basal termite, Cryptotermes secundus (Kalotermitidae), suggests that the importance of aggressive manipulations in termites has been overemphasized. Wing-bud mutilations, a means proposed to regulate the development of dispersing sexuals (alates), seem to be artifacts of handling conditions that cause disturbance. Aggressive behaviors never occurred unless colonies were disturbed. Theoretical considerations further showed that the potential for intense conflict among termite nestmates is low compared to hymenopteran societies. Strong conflicts are only expected to occur over the replacement of natal reproductives that died, while less intense conflicts should exist over the development into alates when food in the colony becomes limiting. Accordingly, intracolonial aggressive interactions over replacement are common, whereas nestmates seem to manipulate alate development via proctodeal feeding when food resources decline. However, the latter is rather an honest signal than a manipulation because only the most competent prospective dispersers can impede the development of nestmates.

Korb, Judith

2005-01-01

142

Regulation of sexual development in the basal termite Cryptotermes secundus: mutilation, pheromonal manipulation or honest signal?  

PubMed

Social insect colonies are not the harmonious entities they were once considered. Considerable conflicts exist between colony members, as has been shown for Hymenoptera. For termites, similar studies are lacking, but aggressive manipulations have been claimed to regulate sexual development, and even to account for the evolution of workers. This study on a basal termite, Cryptotermes secundus (Kalotermitidae), suggests that the importance of aggressive manipulations in termites has been overemphasized. Wing-bud mutilations, a means proposed to regulate the development of dispersing sexuals (alates), seem to be artifacts of handling conditions that cause disturbance. Aggressive behaviors never occurred unless colonies were disturbed. Theoretical considerations further showed that the potential for intense conflict among termite nestmates is low compared to hymenopteran societies. Strong conflicts are only expected to occur over the replacement of natal reproductives that died, while less intense conflicts should exist over the development into alates when food in the colony becomes limiting. Accordingly, intracolonial aggressive interactions over replacement are common, whereas nestmates seem to manipulate alate development via proctodeal feeding when food resources decline. However, the latter is rather an honest signal than a manipulation because only the most competent prospective dispersers can impede the development of nestmates. PMID:15565384

Korb, Judith

2005-01-01

143

TMC-1 attenuates C. elegans development and sexual behaviour in a chemically defined food environment.  

PubMed

Although diet affects growth and behaviour, the adaptive mechanisms that coordinate these processes in non-optimal food sources are unclear. Here we show that the C. elegans tmc-1 channel, which is homologous to the mammalian tmc deafness genes, attenuates development and inhibits sexual behaviour in non-optimal food, the synthetic CeMM medium. In CeMM medium, signalling from the pharyngeal MC neurons and body wall muscles slows larval development. However, in the non-standard diet, mutation in tmc-1 accelerates development, by impairing the excitability of these cells. The tmc-1 larva can immediately generate ATP when fed CeMM, and their fast development requires insulin signalling. Our findings suggest that the tmc-1 channel indirectly affects metabolism in wild-type animals. In addition to regulating the development, we show that mutating tmc-1 can relax diet-induced inhibition of male sexual behaviour, thus indicating that a single regulator can be genetically modified to promote growth rate and reproductive success in new environments. PMID:25695879

Zhang, Liusuo; Gualberto, Daisy G; Guo, Xiaoyan; Correa, Paola; Jee, Changhoon; Garcia, L Rene

2015-01-01

144

Expression of Dmrt1 in the Genital Ridge of Mouse and Chicken Embryos Suggests a Role in Vertebrate Sexual Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex-determining mechanisms are highly variable between phyla. Only one example has been found in which structurally and functionally related genes control sex determination in different phyla: the sexual regulators mab-3 of Caenorhabditis elegans and doublesex of Drosophila both encode proteins containing the DM domain, a novel DNA-binding motif. These two genes control similar aspects of sexual development, and the male

Christopher S. Raymond; Jae R. Kettlewell; Betsy Hirsch; Vivian J. Bardwell; David Zarkower

1999-01-01

145

Salmonid Abundance and Distribution in the middle Green River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salmonid abundance and distribution in the Green River between Flaming Gorge Dam the Split Mountain Boat Ramp (middle Green River, Figure 1) are governed by recruitment, habitat requirements and interspecific competition, played out on the framework of the Green river hydrology and geomorphology. Although salmonids historically did not inhabit the middle Green River after the end of the last glaciation,

Karrigan S. Börk

146

A Global Assessment of Salmon Aquaculture Impacts on Wild Salmonids  

E-print Network

A Global Assessment of Salmon Aquaculture Impacts on Wild Salmonids Jennifer S. Ford* , Ransom A, wild salmon catch and abundance have declined dramatically in the North Atlantic and in much of farmed salmon. Previous studies have shown negative impacts on wild salmonids, but these results have

Myers, Ransom A.

147

GENOMIC RESOURCES FOR STUDYING EARLY LIFE STAGE SALMONID HEALTH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genomic approaches are being used to study pathological and normal processes in early life stage salmonids. Early Mortality Syndrome (EMS), a disease associated with low egg thiamine levels, causes early life stage mortality and low recruitment of Great Lakes salmonids including lake trout. We use...

148

Ontogenetic development and sexual dimorphism of franciscana dolphin skull: A 3D geometric morphometric approach.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study the postnatal ontogenetic development of Pontoporia blainvillei skull, identifying major changes on shape, and relating them to relevant factors in the life history of the species. We analyzed a complete ontogenetic series (73?, 83?) with three-dimensional geometric morphometric techniques. Immature dolphins showed a very well-developed braincase and a poorly developed rostrum, and the principal postnatal changes affected the rostrum and the temporal fossa, both structures implied functionally to the feeding apparatus, thus suggesting a specialized mode for catch fast prey in P. blainvillei. Osseous elements associated with sound production were already well developed on immature dolphins, suggesting the importance of this apparatus since the beginning of postnatal life. Sexual dimorphism was detected on both shape and size variables. Females were bigger than males, in accordance with previous studies. Shape differences between sexes were found on the posterior part of premaxillaries and external bony nares (P?sexual dimorphism is related to differences on vocalization capabilities. PMID:25052760

del Castillo, Daniela L; Flores, David A; Cappozzo, Humberto L

2014-12-01

149

Sexual understanding and development of young people with intellectual disabilities: mothers' perspectives of within-family context.  

PubMed

The sexual development of young people with intellectual disabilities is a marker of their transition to adulthood and affects their sense of well being and identity. Cognitive impairments and a socially marginalized position increase dependence on their families to assist with sexual matters. In this study, the authors adopted a novel interpretive phenomenological analysis approach, asking 8 mothers to contrast their experience of supporting similarly aged siblings with and without intellectual disabilities. Acknowledgment of their nondisabled offspring's sexuality was demanded by increasing autonomy, whereas continuing dependence of the offspring with intellectual disabilities hindered mothers who were addressing this intensely private and sensitive issue with them. The topic of sexuality brought to the forefront mothers' fears about their offspring's ability to cope with the challenges of adulthood. PMID:21591844

Pownall, Jaycee D; Jahoda, Andrew; Hastings, Richard; Kerr, Linda

2011-05-01

150

Gill diseases of cultured salmonids in Ontario.  

PubMed Central

Between 1977 and 1981, the Fish Pathology Laboratory of the Ontario Veterinary College received 239 cases from trout farms of southern Ontario, 51 (21.3%) of which had diseased gills. Branchial lesions in 86.3% of these 51 cases were characterized by marked lamellar epithelial hyperplasia with epithelial hypertrophy and lamellar fusion. Filamentous bacteria were seen on the surface of the branchial filaments and lamellae in 68.6% of the cases. Our observations highlight the importance of gill diseases as a production problem of farmed salmonids in southern Ontario. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:6416657

Daoust, P Y; Ferguson, H W

1983-01-01

151

[Bilateral gonadectomy and laparoscopic hysterosalpingectomy in an adolescent with ovotesticular disorder of sexual development].  

PubMed

Disorders of sexual development in adolescents refer to children whose genitals at birth present characteristics of both genders, or to those children with normal phenotype that present a development alteration during puberty or adolescence. These disorders represent diagnostic and therapeutic challenges, because they can be triggered by different nosological entities; and on the other hand, patients carrying the same pathologies can present different anatomical alterations. Laparoscopy plays an important role in the diagnostic approach of these patients because, besides the fact that it allows an excellent visualization of the internal genitals anatomy, it also allows tissue sample taking for histological studies. On the other hand, from a therapeutic point of view, laparoscopic surgery allows removal of internal structures opposed to the patient's definite gender. We report the case of an adolescent with ovotesticular disorder of sexual development (True Hermaphrodite) from whom, once his male gender was socially defined, the embrionary remnants derived from Müller were removed through laparoscopic approach. Mamoplastic reduction and testicular prosthesis implantation were also practiced through conventional surgery. PMID:20306724

Fernández-Fernández, Jesús; Pachano-Arenas, Freddy; Chacín-Fuenmayor, Josymar; Villalobos-Robles, Joalice; Zara-Chirinos, Carmen

2009-12-01

152

MORN1 Has a Conserved Role in Asexual and Sexual Development across the Apicomplexa?  

PubMed Central

The gene encoding the membrane occupation and recognition nexus protein MORN1 is conserved across the Apicomplexa. In Toxoplasma gondii, MORN1 is associated with the spindle poles, the anterior and posterior rings of the inner membrane complex (IMC). The present study examines the localization of MORN1 during the coccidian development of T. gondii and three Eimeria species (in the definitive host) and erythrocytic schizogony of Plasmodium falciparum. During asexual proliferation, MORN1 is associated with the posterior ring of the IMCs of the multiple daughters forming during T. gondii endopolygeny and schizogony in Eimeria and P. falciparum. Furthermore, the expression of P. falciparum MORN1 protein peaked in late schizogony. These data fit a model with a conserved role for MORN1 during IMC assembly in all variations of asexual development. An important new observation is the reactivity of MORN1 antibody with certain sexual stages in T. gondii and Eimeria species. Here MORN1 is organized as a ring-like structure where the microgametes bud from the microgametocyte while in mature microgametes it is present near the flagellar basal bodies and mitochondrion. These observations suggest a conserved role for MORN1 in both asexual and sexual development across the Apicomplexa. PMID:18310354

Ferguson, David J. P.; Sahoo, Nivedita; Pinches, Robert A.; Bumstead, Janene M.; Tomley, Fiona M.; Gubbels, Marc-Jan

2008-01-01

153

Sfrp1 and Sfrp2 are required for normal male sexual development in mice.  

PubMed

Secreted frizzled-related proteins (Sfrps) are antagonists of WNT signalling implicated in a variety of biological processes. However, there are no reports of a direct role for Sfrps in embryonic organogenesis in mammals. Using in vivo loss-of-function studies we report here for the first time a redundant role for Sfrp1 and Sfrp2 in embryonic sexual development of the mouse. At 16.5 dpc, male embryos lacking both genes exhibit multiple defects in gonad morphology, reproductive tract maturation and gonad positioning. Abnormal positioning of the testis appears to be due to failed gubernaculum development and an unusually close association between the cranial end of the reproductive tract and the kidney. The testes of double homozygotes are smaller than controls, contain fewer cords from the earliest stages, but still express Insl3, which encodes the hormone required for gubernacular masculinisation. Lgr8, which encodes the Insl3 receptor, is also expressed in the mutant gubernaculum, suggesting that Sfrp1/Sfrp2 signalling is not required for expression of the ligand or receptor that controls transabdominal testicular descent. Similarities between the abnormalities of embryonic sexual development in Sfrp1(-/-)Sfrp2(-/-) embryos with those exhibited by the Looptail and Wnt5a mutants suggest that disrupted non-canonical Wnt signalling may cause these defects. PMID:19100252

Warr, Nick; Siggers, Pam; Bogani, Debora; Brixey, Rachel; Pastorelli, Laura; Yates, Laura; Dean, Charlotte H; Wells, Sara; Satoh, Wataru; Shimono, Akihiko; Greenfield, Andy

2009-02-15

154

Peripheral administration of Kiss1 pentadecapeptide induces gonadal development in sexually immature adult scombroid fish.  

PubMed

Kisspeptins have emerged as potent regulators of the reproductive brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis. Our previous study demonstrated that the brain of the chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus), a scombroid fish, expresses two kisspeptin-encoding genes, kiss1 and kiss2, and exhibits sexually dimorphic expression profiles. Recent studies strongly suggest that teleost Kiss1 and Kiss2 precursors produce mature Kiss1-pentadecapeptides (Kiss1-15) and Kiss2-dodecapeptides (Kiss2-12), respectively. In light of the above, the present study evaluated the potency of synthetic peptides of Kiss1-15, Kiss2-12, and a GnRH analog (GnRHa) on inducing gonadal development in sexually immature adult chub mackerel. Synthetic peptides were administered subcutaneously through mini-osmotic pumps. On day 45 post-administration, gonadosomatic index (GSI) values (%) of male fish treated with Kiss1-15 (1.82) significantly increased in comparison to initial control (0.33), final control (0.49), Kiss2-12 (0.24), and GnRHa (1.13)-treated fish. Interestingly, the testis of all Kiss1-15 treated fish revealed spermiation, and were full of spermatozoa. These fish showed significantly higher levels of pituitary fsh? and Ih? mRNAs and circulating 11-ketotestosterone. GnRHa treated fish also revealed the presence of few spermatozoa in the testis. In females, no significant changes in GSI values were found between treatments; however, Kiss1-15- and GnRHa-treated fish showed prominent signs of vitellogenic onset, with many early yolk oocytes in their ovaries. Interestingly, Kiss1-15-treated fish exhibited higher levels of pituitary fsh? and circulating estradiol-17?. These results indicate that peripheral administration of Kiss1-15 and GnRHa can induce gonadal development in sexually immature chub mackerel. PMID:23721468

Selvaraj, Sethu; Ohga, Hirofumi; Kitano, Hajime; Nyuji, Mitsuo; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

2013-06-01

155

The intercellular organization of the two muscular systems in the adult salmonid heart, the compact  

E-print Network

in the anatomy, physiology and pathology of the salmonid heart. Salmonids are characterized as being veryThe intercellular organization of the two muscular systems in the adult salmonid heart, the compact of the salmonid heart consists of an outer compact layer of circumferentially arranged cardio- myocytes encasing

Farrell, Anthony P.

156

Sexual Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Parents can help their adolescent make healthy choices Sexual Health News & Information Understanding Sexual Health Public Health Reports ... infectious diseases, reproductive health and sexual violence prevention. Sexual Health Topics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Up-to-date information ...

157

"Mostly Straight" Young Women: Variations in Sexual Behavior and Identity Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers have begun to explore and identify various gradations in sexual orientation identity, paying attention to alternative sexual identity categories and attempting to clarify potential subtypes of same-sex sexuality, particularly among women. This study utilizes both quantitative and qualitative data to explore the behavioral experiences…

Thompson, Elisabeth Morgan; Morgan, Elizabeth M.

2008-01-01

158

The Effects of Sexual Assault on the Identity Development of Black College Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual assault victims face more social criticism than victims of any other crime. It is uncertain whether women of color are more at risk for sexual assault than White women during their college years. However, studies suggest that Black female sexual assault victims are more likely than White female victims to be blamed for their attacks and…

Henry, Wilma J.

2009-01-01

159

Large-scale identification of proteins involved in the development of a sexually dimorphic behavior.  

PubMed

Sexually dimorphic behaviors develop under the influence of sex steroids, which induce reversible changes in the underlying neural network of the brain. However, little is known about the proteins that mediate these activational effects of sex steroids. Here, we used a proteomics approach for large-scale identification of proteins involved in the development of a sexually dimorphic behavior, the electric organ discharge of brown ghost knifefish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus. In this weakly electric fish, the discharge frequency is controlled by the medullary pacemaker nucleus and is higher in males than in females. After lowering the discharge frequency by chronic administration of ?-estradiol, 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis revealed 62 proteins spots in tissue samples from the pacemaker nucleus that exhibited significant changes in abundance of >1.5-fold. The 20 identified protein spots indicated, among others, a potential involvement of astrocytes in the establishment of the behavioral dimorphism. Indeed, immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated higher expression of the astrocytic marker protein GFAP and increased gap-junction coupling between astrocytes in females compared with males. We hypothesize that changes in the size of the glial syncytium, glial coupling, and/or number of glia-specific potassium channels lead to alterations in the firing frequency of the pacemaker nucleus via a mechanism mediating the uptake of extracellular potassium ions from the extracellular space. PMID:24478160

Zupanc, Günther K H; Ilies, Iulian; Sîrbulescu, Ruxandra F; Zupanc, Marianne M

2014-04-01

160

Cloning and expression of candidate sexual development genes in the cane toad (Bufo marinus).  

PubMed

The development of the reproductive system in bufonids (true toads) is unique in several respects: sexual differentiation occurs later than in other anurans, and toads develop a Bidder's organ, a rudimentary ovary that can be manipulated in males to produce mature oocytes. To illuminate the genesis of this unusual reproductive system, we isolated from the cane toad (Bufo marinus) the orthologues of several known vertebrate sex-determining genes, determined their primary structure, and studied their expression by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization of tissue sections. We report here that cane toad Sox9, Dmrt1, and p450aromatase (Cyp19a1) are highly homologous to their counterparts in other vertebrates. They show profiles of expression that generally follow patterns observed in other taxa, but with some novel features. Our data suggest that these genes likely play key roles in sex determination and early gonad development in bufonids. PMID:19653320

Abramyan, John; Feng, Chun-Wei; Koopman, Peter

2009-09-01

161

Sexual reproduction and mating-type–mediated strain development in the penicillin-producing fungus Penicillium chrysogenum  

PubMed Central

Penicillium chrysogenum is a filamentous fungus of major medical and historical importance, being the original and present-day industrial source of the antibiotic penicillin. The species has been considered asexual for more than 100 y, and despite concerted efforts, it has not been possible to induce sexual reproduction, which has prevented sexual crosses being used for strain improvement. However, using knowledge of mating-type (MAT) gene organization, we now describe conditions under which a sexual cycle can be induced leading to production of meiotic ascospores. Evidence of recombination was obtained using both molecular and phenotypic markers. The identified heterothallic sexual cycle was used for strain development purposes, generating offspring with novel combinations of traits relevant to penicillin production. Furthermore, the MAT1-1–1 mating-type gene, known primarily for a role in governing sexual identity, was also found to control transcription of a wide range of genes with biotechnological relevance including those regulating penicillin production, hyphal morphology, and conidial formation. These discoveries of a sexual cycle and MAT gene function are likely to be of broad relevance for manipulation of other asexual fungi of economic importance. PMID:23307807

Böhm, Julia; Hoff, Birgit; O’Gorman, Céline M.; Wolfers, Simon; Klix, Volker; Binger, Danielle; Zadra, Ivo; Kürnsteiner, Hubert; Pöggeler, Stefanie; Dyer, Paul S.; Kück, Ulrich

2013-01-01

162

Language choice and sexual communication among Xhosa speakers in Cape Town, South Africa: implications for HIV prevention message development  

PubMed Central

Communicating about sex is a vital component of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and influences how HIV educators convey messages to communities and how couples negotiate safer sex practices. However, sexual communication inevitably confronts culturally based behavioral guidelines and linguistic taboos unique to diverse social contexts. The HIV interventionist needs to identify the appropriate language for sexual communication given the participants and the message. Ethnographic research can help facilitate the exploration of how sex terminology is chosen. A theoretical framework, developed to guide HIV interventionists, suggests that an individual's language choice for sexual communication is influenced by gender roles and power differentials. In-depth interviews, free listing and triadic comparisons were conducted with Xhosa men and women in Cape Town, South Africa, to determine the terms for male genitalia, female genitalia and sexual intercourse that are most appropriate for sexual communication. Results showed that sexual terms express cultural norms and role expectations where men should be powerful and resilient and women should be passive and virginal. For HIV prevention education, non-mother tongue (English and Zulu) terms were recommended as most appropriate because they are descriptive, but allow the speaker to communicate outside the restrictive limits of their mother tongue by reducing emotive cultural connotations. PMID:21059802

Cain, Demetria; Schensul, Stephen; Mlobeli, Regina

2011-01-01

163

Sexual Dimorphism in the Andromonoecious Euphorbia nicaeensis: Effects of Gender and Inflorescence Development  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims In andromonoecious taxa with separate floral types along the inflorescence, architectural or plastic effects can simulate floral sexual dimorphism. Both the primary and secondary sexual characteristics of the cyathia of the protogynous andromonoecious species Euphorbia nicaeensis were analysed according to their sex and arrangement on the inflorescence. Methods The production of male and hermaphrodite cyathia at each inflorescence level was surveyed in two natural populations. The longevity, size, pollen production and viability, and nectar secretion of both types of cyathia were checked between inflorescence levels and between sexes at the only level at which they occur together. This sampling method makes it possible to know whether differences between cyathia types are based on sex or are attributable to inflorescence development. Key Results Male cyathia were produced predominantly at the first and second inflorescence levels, whereas at levels 3–5, the cyathia were almost exclusively hermaphrodite. Viable pollen production by male cyathia at the second inflorescence level was higher than that of hermaphrodite cyathia at the third level but, when males and hermaphrodites at the same level were compared, their pollen production was similar. Male and hermaphrodite cyathia were similar in size, irrespective of the inflorescence level, although the exclusively hermaphrodite cyathia of the last level were smaller. Both cyathium types produced similar amounts of sugar. However, male cyathia produced nectar during their whole lifespans, whereas hermaphrodites produced it exclusively during their male phase. Moreover, the nectary activity of male cyathia started earlier in the day than that of hermaphrodites. Conclusions An apparent floral dimorphism exists in the primary sexual characteristics of Euphorbia nicaeensis because differences in pollen production between cyathium types are due to theirs positions. Similarly, differences affecting most secondary sexual characteristics are only apparent between the two cyathium types. However, E. nicaeensis shows a true but slight floral dimorphism in some of the secondary sex characters related to nectar secretion. The lack of nectar production by the female phase of the hermaphrodite cyathia of E. nicaeensis indicates that this is a deceit-pollinated species. PMID:18250109

Narbona, Eduardo; Ortiz, Pedro Luis; Arista, Montserrat

2008-01-01

164

Abnormalities of Sexual Development in Male Rats with in Utero and Lactational Exposure to the Antiandrogenic Plasticizer Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several members of the phthalate ester family have antiandrogenic properties, yet little is known about how exposure to these ubiquitous environmental contaminants early in development may affect sexual development. We conducted experiments to determine effects of in utero and lacta- tional exposure to the most prevalent phthalate ester, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), on male reproductive system development and sexual behavior. Sprague-Dawley

Robert W. Moore; Thomas A. Rudy; Tien-Min Lin; Kinarm Ko; Richard E. Peterson

165

Guidelines for evaluating and managing children born with disorders of sexual development.  

PubMed

Children born with disorders of sexual differentiation (DSD) pose numerous challenges for the parents, family, and treating physicians. The pediatrician is usually the first medical contact for newborns with DSD or for toddlers and children who present with DSD at a later time. Several years ago, we formed a Gender Medicine Team (GMT) at Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital (TCH) to explore and evaluate the most appropriate management strategies, which had long been a matter of concern and contention. Subsequently, the GMT, composed of experts in the fields of endocrinology, ethics, genetics, gynecology, psychology, pediatric surgery, and urology, formed a Task Force to evaluate the information available from our own experiences and from reviews of the literature. Utilizing the Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system to assess the evidence and recommendations, the Task Force developed a consensus statement for clinical management of DSD and for making appropriate sex assignments. PMID:22494213

Douglas, Ganka; Axelrad, Marni E; Brandt, Mary L; Crabtree, Elizabeth; Dietrich, Jennifer E; French, Shannon; Gunn, Sheila; Karaviti, Lefkothea; Lopez, Monica E; Macias, Charles G; McCullough, Laurence B; Suresh, Deepa; Austin, Elise; Reid Sutton, V

2012-04-01

166

How queer!--the development of gender identity and sexual orientation in LGBTQ-headed families.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on the impact of heteronormativity on research and clinical theory, utilizing the case of a lesbian couple with a young gender dysphoric child as a backdrop to discuss the contextual unfolding of gender development within a lesbian parented family. The extant research on LGBTQ-headed families has minimized the complexity of children's developing gender identity and sexual orientation living in queer families, and has been guided by heteronormative assumptions that presume a less optimal outcome if the children of LGBTQ parents are gay or transgender themselves. This article challenges family therapists to recognize the enormous societal pressure on LGBTQ parents to produce heterosexual, gender-normative children, and the expectations on their children, especially those questioning their own sex or gender identities. PMID:20831761

Istar Lev, Arlene

2010-09-01

167

Identification of De Novo Copy Number Variants Associated with Human Disorders of Sexual Development  

PubMed Central

Disorders of sexual development (DSD), ranging in severity from genital abnormalities to complete sex reversal, are among the most common human birth defects with incidence rates reaching almost 3%. Although causative alterations in key genes controlling gonad development have been identified, the majority of DSD cases remain unexplained. To improve the diagnosis, we screened 116 children born with idiopathic DSD using a clinically validated array-based comparative genomic hybridization platform. 8951 controls without urogenital defects were used to compare with our cohort of affected patients. Clinically relevant imbalances were found in 21.5% of the analyzed patients. Most anomalies (74.2%) evaded detection by the routinely ordered karyotype and were scattered across the genome in gene-enriched subtelomeric loci. Among these defects, confirmed de novo duplication and deletion events were noted on 1p36.33, 9p24.3 and 19q12-q13.11 for ambiguous genitalia, 10p14 and Xq28 for cryptorchidism and 12p13 and 16p11.2 for hypospadias. These variants were significantly associated with genitourinary defects (P?=?6.08×10?12). The causality of defects observed in 5p15.3, 9p24.3, 22q12.1 and Xq28 was supported by the presence of overlapping chromosomal rearrangements in several unrelated patients. In addition to known gonad determining genes including SRY and DMRT1, novel candidate genes such as FGFR2, KANK1, ADCY2 and ZEB2 were encompassed. The identification of risk germline rearrangements for urogenital birth defects may impact diagnosis and genetic counseling and contribute to the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of human sexual development. PMID:21048976

Tannour-Louet, Mounia; Han, Shuo; Corbett, Sean T.; Louet, Jean-Francois; Yatsenko, Svetlana; Meyers, Lindsay; Shaw, Chad A.; Kang, Sung-Hae L.; Cheung, Sau Wai; Lamb, Dolores J.

2010-01-01

168

Identification of de novo copy number variants associated with human disorders of sexual development.  

PubMed

Disorders of sexual development (DSD), ranging in severity from genital abnormalities to complete sex reversal, are among the most common human birth defects with incidence rates reaching almost 3%. Although causative alterations in key genes controlling gonad development have been identified, the majority of DSD cases remain unexplained. To improve the diagnosis, we screened 116 children born with idiopathic DSD using a clinically validated array-based comparative genomic hybridization platform. 8951 controls without urogenital defects were used to compare with our cohort of affected patients. Clinically relevant imbalances were found in 21.5% of the analyzed patients. Most anomalies (74.2%) evaded detection by the routinely ordered karyotype and were scattered across the genome in gene-enriched subtelomeric loci. Among these defects, confirmed de novo duplication and deletion events were noted on 1p36.33, 9p24.3 and 19q12-q13.11 for ambiguous genitalia, 10p14 and Xq28 for cryptorchidism and 12p13 and 16p11.2 for hypospadias. These variants were significantly associated with genitourinary defects (P?=?6.08×10(-12)). The causality of defects observed in 5p15.3, 9p24.3, 22q12.1 and Xq28 was supported by the presence of overlapping chromosomal rearrangements in several unrelated patients. In addition to known gonad determining genes including SRY and DMRT1, novel candidate genes such as FGFR2, KANK1, ADCY2 and ZEB2 were encompassed. The identification of risk germline rearrangements for urogenital birth defects may impact diagnosis and genetic counseling and contribute to the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of human sexual development. PMID:21048976

Tannour-Louet, Mounia; Han, Shuo; Corbett, Sean T; Louet, Jean-Francois; Yatsenko, Svetlana; Meyers, Lindsay; Shaw, Chad A; Kang, Sung-Hae L; Cheung, Sau Wai; Lamb, Dolores J

2010-01-01

169

Human Sexuality: Responsible Life Choices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides a complete course in human sexuality. It can also be used to supplement a family living course. Text content provides current information for teaching high school students about sexuality issues. The text offers basic information on growth and development, sexual development, pregnancy, and birth. It explains the sexual decision…

Ryder, Verdene; Smith, Peggy B.

170

Blue Light Acts as a Double-Edged Sword in Regulating Sexual Development of Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei)  

PubMed Central

The industrially important cellulolytic filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is the anamorph of the pantropical ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina. H. jecorina CBS999.97 strain undergoes a heterothallic reproductive cycle, and the mating yields fertilized perithecia imbedded in stromata. Asci in the perithecia contain 16 linearly arranged ascospores. Here, we investigated H. jecorina sexual development under different light regimes, and found that visible light was dispensable for sexual development (stroma formation and ascospore discharge). By contrast, constant illumination inhibited stroma formation, and an interruption of the darkness facilitated timely stroma formation in a 12 h/12 h light-dark photoperiod. The results of genetic analyses further revealed that H. jecorina blue-light photoreceptors (BLR1, BLR2) and the photoadaptation protein ENV1 were not essential for sexual development in general. BLR1, BLR2 and ENV1 are orthologues of the conserved Neurospora crassa WC-1, WC-2 and VVD, respectively. Moreover, BLR1 and BLR2 mediate both positive and negative light-dependent regulation on sexual development, whereas ENV1 is required for dampening the light-dependent inhibitory effect in response to changes in illumination. Comparative genome-wide microarray analysis demonstrated an overview of light-dependent gene expression versus sexual potency in CBS999.97 (MAT1–2) haploid cells. Constant illumination promotes abundant asexual conidiation and high levels of hpp1 transcripts. hpp1 encodes a h (hybrid)-type propheromone that exhibits features of both yeast a and a pheromone precursors. Deletion of hpp1 could rescue stroma formation but not ascospore generation under constant illumination. We inferred that the HPP1-dependent pheromone signaling system might directly prevent stroma formation or simply disallow the haploid cells to acquire sexual potency due to abundant asexual conidiation upon constant illumination. PMID:23028710

Chen, Chia-Ling; Kuo, Hsiao-Che; Tung, Shu-Yu; Hsu, Paul Wei-Che; Wang, Chih-Li; Seibel, Christian; Schmoll, Monika; Chen, Ruey-Shyang; Wang, Ting-Fang

2012-01-01

171

Adaptive landscapes and density-dependent selection in declining salmonid populations: going beyond numerical responses to human disturbance  

PubMed Central

Theory suggests an important role for population density in shaping adaptive landscapes through density-dependent selection. Here, we identify five methodological approaches for studying such selection, review the existing empirical evidence for it, and ask whether current declines in abundance can be expected to trigger evolutionary responses in salmonid fishes. Across taxa we find substantial amounts of evidence for population density influencing the location of adaptive peaks for a range of traits, and, in the presence of frequency dependence, changing the shape of selection (stabilizing versus disruptive). For salmonids, biological and theoretical considerations suggest that the optimal value of a number of traits associated with juvenile competitive ability (e.g. egg size, timing of emergence from nests, dominance ability), may depend on population density. For adults, more direct experimental and comparative evidence suggest that secondary sexual traits can be subject to density-dependent selection. There is also evidence that density affects the frequency-dependent selection likely responsible for the expression of alternative male reproductive phenotypes in salmon. Less is known however about the role of density in maintaining genetic variation among juveniles. Further efforts are required to elucidate the indirect evolutionary effects of declining population abundances, both in salmonids and in other anthropogenically challenged organisms. PMID:25567629

Einum, Sigurd; Robertsen, Grethe; Fleming, Ian A

2008-01-01

172

COMBINING PROXIMATE AND ULTIMATE APPROACHES TO UNDERSTAND LIFE HISTORY VARIATION IN SALMONIDS WITH APPLICATION TO FISHERIES, CONSERVATION, AND AQUACULTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the great challenges of biology is to understand pattern and variation simultaneously. In the salmonids, this challenge arises in the context of the ma - jor life-history events of migration from freshwater to the sea and returning from seawater to freshwater. We have developed life-history models that combine proxi - mate (physiological mechanism) and ultimate (natural selection) considerations

Marc Mangel; William H. Satterthwaite

173

Sexual development in Lucilia cuprina (Diptera, Calliphoridae) is controlled by the transformer gene.  

PubMed

Insects use an amazing variety of genetic systems to control sexual development. A Y-linked male determining gene (M) controls sex in the Australian sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina, an important pest insect. In this study, we isolated the L. cuprina transformer (Lctra) and transformer2 (Lctra2) genes, which are potential targets of M. The LCTRA and LCTRA2 proteins are significantly more similar to homologs from tephritid insects than Drosophila. The Lctra transcript is alternatively spliced such that only females make a full-length protein and the presence of six TRA/TRA2 binding sites in the female first intron suggest that Lctra splicing is autoregulated as in tephritids. LCTRA is essential for female development as RNAi knockdown of Lctra mRNA leads to the development of male genitalia in XX adults. Analysis of Lctra expression during development shows that early and midstage male and female embryos express the female form of Lctra and males express only the male form by the first instar larval stage. Our results suggest that an autoregulatory loop sustains female development and that expression of M inhibits Lctra autoregulation, switching its splicing to the male form. The conservation of tra function and regulation in a Calliphorid insect shows that this sex determination system is not confined to Tephritidae. Isolation of these genes is an important step toward the development of a strain of L. cuprina suitable for a genetic control program. PMID:19433631

Concha, Carolina; Scott, Maxwell J

2009-07-01

174

Sexual Development in Lucilia cuprina (Diptera, Calliphoridae) Is Controlled by the Transformer Gene  

PubMed Central

Insects use an amazing variety of genetic systems to control sexual development. A Y-linked male determining gene (M) controls sex in the Australian sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina, an important pest insect. In this study, we isolated the L. cuprina transformer (Lctra) and transformer2 (Lctra2) genes, which are potential targets of M. The LCTRA and LCTRA2 proteins are significantly more similar to homologs from tephritid insects than Drosophila. The Lctra transcript is alternatively spliced such that only females make a full-length protein and the presence of six TRA/TRA2 binding sites in the female first intron suggest that Lctra splicing is autoregulated as in tephritids. LCTRA is essential for female development as RNAi knockdown of Lctra mRNA leads to the development of male genitalia in XX adults. Analysis of Lctra expression during development shows that early and midstage male and female embryos express the female form of Lctra and males express only the male form by the first instar larval stage. Our results suggest that an autoregulatory loop sustains female development and that expression of M inhibits Lctra autoregulation, switching its splicing to the male form. The conservation of tra function and regulation in a Calliphorid insect shows that this sex determination system is not confined to Tephritidae. Isolation of these genes is an important step toward the development of a strain of L. cuprina suitable for a genetic control program. PMID:19433631

Concha, Carolina; Scott, Maxwell J.

2009-01-01

175

Partial urorectal septum malformation sequence in a kitten with disorder of sexual development.  

PubMed

A 2-month-old kitten exhibited simultaneously an imperforate anus, hypospadias, rectourethral fistula and genital dysgenesis (penis restricted to the glans, absence of prepuce and bifid scrotum). Surgical correction consisted of separation of the urinary and digestive tracts, perineal urethrostomy and connection of the rectum to the newly made anal opening. Pathological examination of the testes, conventionally removed at 9 months of age, showed no mature spermatozoa and underdevelopment of germ and Leydig cells. In humans, the absence of an anal opening in association with abnormal sexual development defines the urorectal septum malformation sequence. Here, we describe the first case of this syndrome in a kitten with a normal male karyotype (38,XY) and a normal coding sequence for the SRY gene. Both the rectourethral fistula and observed genital abnormalities might have been induced by a disturbance in the hedgehog signalling pathway. However, although four polymorphic sites were identified by DHH gene sequencing, none cosegregated with the malformation. PMID:24718294

Reynolds, Brice S; Pain, Amélie; Meynaud-Collard, Patricia; Nowacka-Woszuk, Joanna; Szczerbal, Izabela; Switonski, Marek; Chastant-Maillard, Sylvie

2014-12-01

176

Sexual Assault  

MedlinePLUS

... for Patients Share This Page: Sexual Assault Resources Sexual Assault Sexual assault is a significant problem affecting American ... National Network at 1-800-656-HOPE (4673). Sexual Assault Examinations It is important to know that a ...

177

Applying the Female Sexual Functioning Index to Sexual Minority Women  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Available measurements of women's sexual function do not account for different sexual orientations; rather, instruments have been developed using heterosexual samples. The Female Sexual Functioning Index (FSFI) is a widely used instrument, applicable for sexually active or inactive women. We apply the FSFI to a sample of women who have or prefer women as sexual partners, defined as sexual minority women, and who vary with respect to their sexual activity. Methods A modified version of the FSFI was used in a sample of sexual minority women. Statistical analyses focused on examining associations between FSFI responses of no sexual activity and women's characteristics. Results Partner status and sexual frequency was significantly associated with reporting no sexual activity on the FSFI. A revised scoring of the FSFI allows for the use of this instrument among women who vary on sexual frequency and partner status, without biasing their scores towards sexual dysfunction. The desire subscale is independent of sexual frequency, partner status, and sexual orientation. Conclusions The modified wording of the FSFI and its revised scoring allow for the use of this instrument among sexual minority women. A separate reporting of the desire subscale will generate reliable and valid assessments of sexual minority women's sexual functioning. PMID:22136340

Timm, Alison; Ozonoff, Al; Potter, Jennifer

2012-01-01

178

Building a scientific framework for studying hormonal effects on behavior and on the development of the sexually dimorphic nervous system  

EPA Science Inventory

There has been increasing concern that low-dose exposure to hormonally active chemicals disrupts sexual differentiation of the brain and peripheral nervous system. There also has been active drug development research on the therapeutic potential of hormone therapy on behaviors. T...

179

Uncommonly Good: Exploring How Mass Media May Be a Positive Influence on Young Women's Sexual Health and Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter discusses several ways in which the media may serve as a positive force in young women's sexual health and development through the information and models they provide and the opportunities they offer for validation and self-expression. (Contains 1 table.)

Ward, L. Monique; Day, Kyla M.; Epstein, Marina

2006-01-01

180

"Teacher Talk": The Problems, Perspectives and Possibilities of Developing a Comprehensive Sexual Health Education Curriculum for Australian Muslim Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a study that examines how a group of teachers at a Victorian Islamic College deliberated on how to develop an appropriate sexual health education curriculum for their Muslim students. Teachers found themselves challenged by the current restrictive curriculum structures, policies and practices at their school. They also found…

Sanjakdar, Fida

2009-01-01

181

Sexual Identity as a Universal Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter summarizes advances in current theoretical and empirical literature on sexual identity development. It proposes\\u000a a model of sexual identity that offers a more global (i.e., non-sexual identity group specific) perspective in comparison\\u000a to existing sexual identity group-specific sexual identity models. Attention to commonalities in sexual identity development\\u000a across sexual identity subgroups can offer a more global perspective that

Frank R. Dillon; Roger L. Worthington; Bonnie Moradi

182

Seasonal Juvenile Salmonid Presence and Migratory Behavior in the Lower Columbia River  

SciTech Connect

To facilitate preparing Biological Assessments of proposed channel maintenance projects, the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers contracted the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to consolidate and synthesize available information about the use of the lower Columbia River and estuary by juvenile anadromous salmonids. The information to be synthesized included existing published documents as well as data from five years (2004-2008) of acoustic telemetry studies conducted in the Columbia River estuary using the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System. For this synthesis, the Columbia River estuary includes the section of the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam at river kilometer (Rkm) 235 downstream to the mouth where it enters the Pacific Ocean. In this report, we summarize the seasonal salmonid presence and migration patterns in the Columbia River estuary based on information from published studies as well as relevant data from acoustic telemetry studies conducted by NOAA Fisheries and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) between 2004 and 2008. Recent acoustic telemetry studies, conducted using the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS; developed by the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers), provided information on the migratory behavior of juvenile steelhead (O. mykiss) and Chinook salmon in the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam to the Pacific Ocean. In this report, Section 2 provides a summary of information from published literature on the seasonal presence and migratory behavior of juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River estuary and plume. Section 3 presents a detailed synthesis of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead migratory behavior based on use of the JSATS between 2004 and 2008. Section 4 provides a discussion of the information summarized in the report as well as information drawn from literature reviews on potential effects of channel maintenance activities to juvenile salmonids rearing in or migrating through the Columbia River estuary and plume.

Carter, Jessica A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Welch, Ian D.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.

2009-04-30

183

Partner notification for sexually transmitted infections in developing countries: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background The feasibility and acceptability of partner notification (PN) for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in developing countries was assessed through a comprehensive literature review, to help identify future intervention needs. Methods The Medline, Embase, and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify studies published between January 1995 and December 2007 on STI PN in developing countries. A systematic review of the research extracted information on: (1) willingness of index patients to notify partners; (2) the proportion of partners notified or referred; (3) client-reported barriers in notifying partners; (4) infrastructure barriers in notifying partners; and (5) PN approaches that were evaluated in developing countries. Results Out of 609 screened articles, 39 met our criteria. PN outcome varied widely and was implemented more often for spousal partners than for casual or commercial partners. Reported barriers included sociocultural factors such as stigma, fear of abuse for having an STI, and infrastructural factors related to the limited number of STD clinics, and trained providers and reliable diagnostic methods. Client-oriented counselling was found to be effective in improving partner referral outcomes. Conclusions STD clinics can improve PN with client-oriented counselling, which should help clients to overcome perceived barriers. The authors speculate that well-designed PN interventions to evaluate the impact on STI prevalence and incidence along with cost-effectiveness components will motivate policy makers in developing countries to allocate more resources towards STI management. PMID:20082718

2010-01-01

184

A transcriptional switch underlies commitment to sexual development in human malaria parasites  

PubMed Central

The life cycles of many parasites involve transitions between disparate host species, requiring these parasites to go through multiple developmental stages adapted to each of these specialized niches. Transmission of malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) from humans to the mosquito vector requires differentiation from asexual stages replicating within red blood cells into non-dividing male and female gametocytes. Although gametocytes were first described in 1880, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in commitment to gametocyte formation is extremely limited and disrupting this critical developmental transition remains a long-standing goal1. We show here that expression levels of the DNA-binding protein PfAP2-G correlate strongly with levels of gametocyte formation. Using independent forward and reverse genetics approaches, we demonstrate that PfAP2-G function is essential for parasite sexual differentiation. By combining genome-wide PfAP2-G cognate motif occurrence with global transcriptional changes resulting from PfAP2-G ablation, we identify early gametocyte genes as likely targets of PfAP2-G and show that their regulation by PfAP2-G is critical for their wild-type level expression. In the asexual blood-stage parasites pfap2-g appears to be among a set of epigenetically silenced loci2,3 prone to spontaneous activation4. Stochastic activation presents a simple mechanism for a low baseline of gametocyte production. Overall, these findings identify PfAP2-G as a master regulator of sexual-stage development in malaria parasites and mark the first identification of a transcriptional switch controlling a differentiation decision in protozoan parasites. PMID:24572369

Kafsack, Björn F.C.; Rovira-Graells, Núria; Clark, Taane G.; Bancells, Cristina; Crowley, Valerie M.; Campino, Susana G.; Williams, April E.; Drought, Laura G.; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P.; Baker, David A.; Cortés, Alfred; Llinás, Manuel

2014-01-01

185

[Adolescent sexuality].  

PubMed

Between 1975-79, adolescents between ages 14-18 in Austrian schools were questioned about their sexual behavior. In contrast to earlier reports, an increased incidence and earlier onset of premarital sexual activity was seen. Of the 2809 individuals questioned, 41% of the females and 36% of the males had already had intercourse. There was a strong age dependence. At age 16, 30% had already engaged in sex; 49% at age 17; 65% at age 18; and 75% at age 19. Prior to age 16, 23% had already had intercourse. Early physical maturation (acceleration) freedom both sexually and morally, and a greater independence from the ethical and moral authority of the church seem to play a major part in this development. Love and fidelity play a major role among young people. The change of partners and promiscuity are not typical behavioral features among young people. The reproductive function of sexual activity is of no concern to young people; this aspect of sexuality must be eliminated through contraception. Contraception is a central topic for young people. 85% of this group do not feel that early onset of intercourse contradicts marriage. 95% of all young people want to marry and have a family at a later date. (author's modified) PMID:7112445

Husslein, A

1982-06-01

186

Differential invasion success of salmonids in southern Chile: patterns and hypotheses  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Biological invasions create complex ecological and societal issues worldwide. Most of the knowledge about invasions comes only from successful invaders, but less is known about which processes determine the differential success of invasions. In this review, we develop a framework to identify the main dimensions driving the success and failure of invaders, including human influences, characteristics of the invader, and biotic interactions. We apply this framework by contrasting hypotheses and available evidence to explain variability in invasion success for 12 salmonids introduced to Chile. The success of Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salmo trutta seems to be influenced by a context-specific combination of their phenotypic plasticity, low ecosystem resistance, and propagule pressure. These well-established invaders may limit the success of subsequently introduced salmonids, with the possible exception of O. tshawytscha, which has a short freshwater residency and limited spatial overlap with trout. Although propagule pressure is high for O. kisutch and S. salar due to their intensive use in aquaculture, their lack of success in Chile may be explained by environmental resistance, including earlier spawning times than in their native ranges, and interactions with previously established and resident Rainbow Trout. Other salmonids have also failed to establish, and they exhibit a suite of ecological traits, environmental resistance, and limited propagule pressure that are variably associated with their lack of success. Collectively, understanding how the various drivers of invasion success interact may explain the differential success of invaders and provide key guidance for managing both positive and negative outcomes associated with their presence.

Arismendi, Ivan; Penaluna, Brooke E.; Dunham, Jason; García de Leaniz, Carlos; Soto, Doris; Fleming, Ian A.; Gomez-Uchidam, Daniel; Gajardo, Gonzalo; Vargas, Pamela V.; León-Muñoz, Jorge

2014-01-01

187

Ethical Parenting of Sexually Active Youth: Ensuring Safety While Enabling Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The protection of children from harm is commonly accepted as the cardinal duty of parents. In the USA, where young people's sexuality is often regarded with anxiety, attempts to restrict adolescent sexual behaviour are seen as ethically justified and even required of "good" parents. Running counter to popular anxiety surrounding…

Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.

2013-01-01

188

Is It Bullying or Sexual Harassment? Knowledge, Attitudes, and Professional Development Experiences of Middle School Staff  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study fills a gap in the literature by examining how school staff members view bullying and sexual harassment and their role in preventing both. Given recent legislation, increasingly more attention is paid to bully prevention; however, student-on-student sexual harassment is less addressed. Methods: Four focus groups were…

Charmaraman, Linda; Jones, Ashleigh E.; Stein, Nan; Espelage, Dorothy L.

2013-01-01

189

Gender, Pubertal Development, and Peer Sexual Harassment Predict Objectified Body Consciousness in Early Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectified body consciousness (OBC)--the tendency to view one's body as an object for others to look at and evaluate--is theorized to emerge during sexual maturation as adolescents, particularly adolescent girls, experience sexual objectification. Although OBC generally is discussed in developmental terms, research so far has examined primarily…

Lindberg, Sara M.; Grabe, Shelly; Hyde, Janet Shibley

2007-01-01

190

Sexual identity development among gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths: consistency and change over time.  

PubMed

A longitudinal report of 156 gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths examined changes in sexual identity over time. Fifty-seven percent of the youths remained consistently self-identified as gay/lesbian, 18% transited from bisexual to gay/lesbian, and 15% consistently identified as bisexual over time. Although youths who consistently identified as gay/lesbian did not differ from other youths on time since experiencing sexual developmental milestones, they reported current sexual orientation and sexual behaviors that were more same-sex centered and they scored higher on aspects of the identity integration process (e.g., more certain, comfortable, and accepting of their same-sex sexuality, more involved in gay-related social activities, more possessing of positive attitudes toward homosexuality, and more comfortable with others knowing about their sexuality) than youths who transited to a gay/lesbian identity and youths who consistently identified as bisexual. Contrary to the hypothesis that females are more sexually fluid than males, female youths were less likely to change identities than male youths. The finding that youths who transited to a gay/lesbian identity differed from consistently gay/lesbian youths suggests that identity integration continues after the adoption of a gay/lesbian sexual identity. PMID:16817067

Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Hunter, Joyce; Braun, Lisa

2006-02-01

191

Development of an Attachment-Informed Measure of Sexual Behavior in Late Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is considerable interest in relations between sexual behavior and romantic attachment styles in adolescence as attachment needs are increasingly met through intimate partners rather than parents. The objectives of this research were to organize a measure of sexual behavior within an attachment theory framework, and then show that this new…

Szielasko, Alicia L.; Symons, Douglas K.; Price, E. Lisa

2013-01-01

192

Development of the renal sexual segment in immature snakes: effect of sex steroid hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The renal sexual segment (RSS) of immature Northern and Diamondback Water Snakes and Red-Sided Garter Snakes exhibited varying responses to testosterone or 17?-estradiol. In both male and female water snakes, kidney mass was not a reliable indicator of hormone treatment, whereas tubule diameter, epithelial height and number of sexual granules responded to hormone treatment. In male water snakes, either hormone

Randolph W. Krohmer; Dora Martinez; Robert T. Mason

2004-01-01

193

Twenty years after international conference on population and development: where are we with adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights?  

PubMed

The International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994 laid out a bold, clear, and comprehensive definition of reproductive health and called for nations to meet the educational and service needs of adolescents to enable them to deal in a positive and responsible way with their sexuality. In the context of the ongoing review of the International Conference on Population and Development Programme of Action and the considerations for a post-2015 development agenda, this article summarizes the findings of the articles presented in this volume and identifies key challenges and critical answers that need to be tackled in addressing adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights. The key recommendations are to link the provision of sexuality education and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services; build awareness, acceptance, and support for youth-friendly SRH education and services; address gender inequality in terms of beliefs, attitudes, and norms; and target the early adolescent period (10-14 years). The many knowledge gaps, however, point to the pressing need for further research on how to best design effective adolescent SRH intervention packages and how best to deliver them. PMID:25528975

Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Svanemyr, Joar; Amin, Avni; Fogstad, Helga; Say, Lale; Girard, Françoise; Temmerman, Marleen

2015-01-01

194

Treatment of sexual offenders with psychopathic traits: recent research developments and clinical implications.  

PubMed

This article provides a review of recent literature related to the treatment of psychopathy in forensic settings, with particular focus on studies with sexual offenders. The lack of empirical support for the position that psychopaths are untreatable is noted, and data suggesting optimism is discussed. Research demonstrating an interaction between psychopathy and substance abuse and between psychopathy and sexual deviance is also presented. Both substance abuse disorders and inappropriate arousal are frequently encountered in high-risk groups of sexual offenders. These topics are of relevance, in that the question of whether treatment is beneficial with high-risk sexual offenders, including those who are psychopathic, cannot be answered unless groups presenting with typical concurrent disorders (paraphilias, substance abuse, dependence) are discussed. It is argued that, although the evidence is still preliminary, there is reason for optimism with reference to whether psychopathic sexual offenders are responsive to treatment, including offenders presenting with concurrent disorders. PMID:18495937

Abracen, Jeffrey; Looman, Jan; Langton, Calvin M

2008-07-01

195

Sexual harassment proclivities in men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three studies were conducted to develop and validate a measure of sexual harassment proclivities in males. Previous studies of sexual harassment were reviewed and a gap in the current knowledge of the psychological characteristics of sexual harassers was revealed. A possible technique for studying sexual harassment proclivities was suggested by recent research on rape proclivities. Two initial studies using this

John B. Pryor

1987-01-01

196

In utero exposure to chloroquine alters sexual development in the male fetal rat  

SciTech Connect

Chloroquine (CQ), a drug that has been used extensively for the prevention and treatment of malaria, is currently considered safe for use during pregnancy. However, CQ has been shown to disrupt steroid homeostasis in adult rats and similar compounds, such as quinacrine, inhibit steroid production in the Leydig cell in vitro. To explore the effect of in utero CQ exposure on fetal male sexual development, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given a daily dose of either water or chloroquine diphosphate from GD 16-18 by oral gavage. Chloroquine was administered as 200 mg/kg CQ base on GD 16, followed by two maintenance doses of 100 mg/kg CQ base on GD 16 and 18. Three days of CQ treatment resulted in reduced maternal and fetal weight on GD 19 and increased necrosis and steatosis in the maternal liver. Fetal livers also displayed mild lipid accumulation. Maternal serum progesterone was increased after CQ administration. Fetal testes testosterone, however, was significantly decreased. Examination of the fetal testes revealed significant alterations in vascularization and seminiferous tubule development after short-term CQ treatment. Anogenital distance was not altered. Microarray and RT-PCR showed down-regulation of several genes associated with cholesterol transport and steroid synthesis in the fetal testes. This study indicates that CQ inhibits testosterone synthesis and normal testis development in the rat fetus at human relevant doses.

Clewell, Rebecca A. [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)], E-mail: rclewell@thehamner.org; Pluta, Linda; Thomas, Russell S.; Andersen, Melvin E. [Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

2009-06-15

197

Individual and combined roles of malonichrome, ferricrocin, and TAFC siderophores in Fusarium graminearum pathogenic and sexual development  

PubMed Central

Intra- and extracellular iron-chelating siderophores produced by fungal non-ribosomal peptide synthetases have been shown to be involved in reproductive and pathogenic developmental processes and in iron and oxidative stress management. Here we report individual and combined contributions of three of these metabolites to developmental success of the destructive cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. In previous work, we determined that deletion of the NPS2 gene, responsible for intracellular siderophore biosynthesis, results in inability to produce sexual spores when mutants of this homothallic ascomycete are selfed. Deletion of the NPS6 gene, required for extracellular siderophore biosynthesis, does not affect sexual reproduction but results in sensitivity to iron starvation and oxidative stress and leads to reduced virulence to the host. Building on this, we report that double mutants lacking both NPS2 and NPS6 are augmented in all collective phenotypes of single deletion strains (i.e., abnormal sexual and pathogenic development, hypersensitivity to oxidative and iron-depletion stress), which suggests overlap of function. Using comparative biochemical analysis of wild-type and mutant strains, we show that NPS1, a third gene associated with siderophore biosynthesis, is responsible for biosynthesis of a second extracellular siderophore, malonichrome. nps1 mutants fail to produce this metabolite. Phenotypic characterization reveals that, although single nps1 mutants are like wild-type with respect to sexual development, hypersensitivity to ROS and iron-depletion stress, and virulence to the host, triple nps1nps2nps6 deletion strains, lacking all three siderophores, are even more impaired in these attributes than double nps2nps6 strains. Thus, combinatorial mutants lacking key iron-associated genes uncovered malonichrome function. The intimate connection between presence/absence of siderophores and resistance/sensitivity to ROS is central to sexual and pathogenic development.

Oide, Shinichi; Berthiller, Franz; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Adam, Gerhard; Turgeon, B. Gillian

2015-01-01

198

Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Yakima River Tributaries, 2001-2002 Technical Report.  

SciTech Connect

The benefits that marine derived nutrients from adult salmon carcasses provide to juvenile salmonids are increasingly being recognized. Current estimates suggest that only 6-7% of marine-derived nitrogen and phosphorus that were historically available to salmonids in the Pacific Northwest are currently available. Food limitation may be a major constraint limiting the restoration of salmonids. A variety of methods have been proposed to offset this nutrient deficit including: allowing greater salmon spawning escapement, stocking hatchery salmon carcasses, and stocking inorganic nutrients. Unfortunately, each of these methods has some ecological or socio-economic shortcoming. We intend to overcome many of these shortcomings by making and evaluating a pathogen free product that simulates a salmon carcass (analog). Abundant sources of marine derived nutrients are available such as fish offal from commercial fishing and salmon carcasses from hatcheries. However, a method for recycling these nutrients into a pathogen free analog that degrades at a similar rate as a natural salmon carcass has never been developed. We endeavored to (1) develop a salmon carcass analog that will increase the food available to salmonids, (2) determine the pathways that salmonids use to acquire food from analogs, and (3) determine the benefits to salmonids and the potential for application to salmonid restoration. We used a before-after-control-impact-paired design in six tributaries of the upper Yakima basin to determine the utility of stocking carcass analogs. Our preliminary results suggest that the introduction of carcass analogs into food-limited streams can be used to restore food pathways previously provided by anadromous salmon. The analogs probably reproduced both of the major food pathways that salmon carcasses produce: direct consumption and food chain enhancement. Trout and salmon fed directly on the carcass analogs during the late summer and presumably benefited from the increased invertebrate biomass later in the year. Future reports will analyze whether any benefits are statistically detectable. The risks of using carcass analogs also appear to be low. Pathogens appear to be killed in the manufacturing process of the analogs. In addition, preliminary results suggest that fish exposed to the analogs did not have higher incidences of pathogens. The water quality was also not degraded by the analog additions with the exception of a temporary surface film. Finally, our anecdotal observations, suggested that there was not an increase in the number of predators during the first year of analog distribution. In summary, the risks of analog placement appear to be low but the benefits appear to be high. All results should be considered preliminary until further analyses and field work are conducted.

Pearsons, Todd N.; Johnson, Christopher L. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

2003-04-01

199

A conserved haplotype controls parallel adaptation in geographically distant salmonid populations  

E-print Network

A conserved haplotype controls parallel adaptation in geographically distant salmonid populations Aquaculture, Agricultural Research Service-USDA, Kearneysville, WV 25430, USA Abstract Salmonid fishes exhibit extensive local adaptations owing to abundant environmental variation and precise natal homing

Doe, Chris

200

Sexual objectification, self-objectification, self-efficacy, and female identity development.  

E-print Network

??Sexual and self-objectification, self-efficacy and identity status were investigated using data collected from undergraduate and graduate classes from West Virginia University. Subjects were 267 females,… (more)

Coffers, Kathleen Reilly, 1966-

2006-01-01

201

CUMULATIVE EFFECTS OF LOGGING ROAD SEDIMENT ON SALMONID POPULATIONS IN THE CLEARWATER RIVER, JEFFERSON COUNTY, WASHINGTON  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT................,.............. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................,.......... INTRODUCTION ................,............ THE STUDY AREA ,................,........... METHODS ,................,.............. RESULTS ,................,.............. Mortality,Rates ,of Salmonid ,Eggs ,Planted ,in Areas ,Affected

C. J. Cederholm; L. M. Reid

202

Analytical developments in toxicological investigation of drug-facilitated sexual assault  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a general overview of the drug-facilitated sexual assault phenomenon. Sexual assault perpetrated on both women and men, while incapacitated by so-called date-rape drugs, recently became the focus of many investigations conducted by law enforcement agencies in the US throughout the 1990s; an alarming increase in reports of this crime as well as in the number of scientific

Adam Negrusz; R. E. Gaensslen

2003-01-01

203

THE ROLE OF ANDROGENS AND ESTROGENS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF BRAIN AND PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: APPROACHES TO DEVELOPING ANIMAL MODELS FOR SEXUALLY DIMORPHIC BEHAVIORS  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation provides an overview of research on the effects of hormonally active chemicals on sexual differentiation of the brain including (a) research on the role of androgens and estrogens in the development of the brain and peripheral nervous system, (b) approaches to d...

204

Proteomic approaches to sexual development mediated by antheridiogen in the fern Blechnum spicant L.  

PubMed

This report is intended to compare proteomic profiles between female and male gametophytes of Blechnum spicant L. For this purpose, female gametophytes were obtained from spores germinated on Murashige and Skoog medium (1962), and the male ones by culturing 30-day-old gametophytes on the same medium supplemented with extract derived from mature gametophytes, which exhibits anteridiogen effect. Proteins were extracted using the phenolic method, and after two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, 581 spots were detected in Coomassie stained gels within the 3-11 pH range and 10-100 kDa Mr ranges. Quantitative and qualitative differences in spot intensity between both types of gametophytes were found. The induction of male gametophytes by antheridiogens was correlated to a global increase in stress and defence-related pathways, which affect flavonoid signaling and cell division, while reducing protein biosynthesis, photosynthesis, and other energy-related pathways, reflecting how stressed are the gametophytes during the induction process. This is the first proteomic study that examines proteins associated to sexual development in the gametophyte of the fern B. spìcant. PMID:25044718

Valledor, Luis; Menéndez, Virginia; Canal, María Jesús; Revilla, Angeles; Fernández, Helena

2014-09-01

205

Sexual development in prepubertal obese boys: a 4-year longitudinal study.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to evaluate whether or not sexual development differs between boys with prepubertal obesity and boys of normal weight. We enrolled healthy obese and normoweight schoolboys from Shenyang City, Liaoning, China. Eligible boys were at Tanner stage 1 and 8 years of age at baseline. We measured testosterone and estradiol concentrations in the saliva and assessed auxology annually for 4 years. In all 56 obese and 56 normoweight boys, the height, weight, body composition, and sex organ volume increased with age. The percentages of body fat, fat mass, and lean mass were all higher in obese than in normoweight boys. The mean testicular volume was smaller in obese boys than in normoweight boys. The sex hormone concentrations increased with age, except for testosterone in obese boys in year 3 of follow-up. In year 4, estradiol concentrations were significantly higher in obese boys than in normoweight boys. Excessive adiposity in prepubertal boys might affect testicular volume, possibly because of high estradiol and low testosterone concentrations. PMID:23729608

Zhai, Lingling; Zhao, Jian; Bai, Yinglong; Liu, Li; Zheng, Linlin; Jia, Lihong; Yao, Xingjia

2013-01-01

206

Stage-specific gene expression during sexual development in Phytophthora infestans.  

PubMed

Eight genes that are upregulated during sexual development in the heterothallic oomycete, Phytophthora infestans, were identified by suppression subtractive hybridization. Two genes showed very low but detectable expression in vegetative hyphae and became induced about 40- to >100-fold early in mating, before gametangial initials appeared. The remaining six loci were not induced until later in mating, coincident with the formation of gametangia and oospores, with induction levels ranging from 60- to >100-fold. Five genes were single copy, and three were members of families. Sequence analysis revealed that the predicted products of three of the genes had similarity to proteins that influence RNA stability, namely a ribonuclease activator, the pumilio family of RNA-binding proteins and RNase H. The products of two other mating-induced genes resembled two types of Phytophthora proteins previously shown to elicit plant defence responses. Each mating-induced gene was also expressed in a self-fertile strain, which was shown to be a heterokaryon. However, quantitative and qualitative differences existed in their expression in normal matings and in the self-fertile heterokaryon. Besides the mating-induced genes, two extrachromosomal RNA elements were identified. PMID:12180924

Fabritius, Anna-Liisa; Cvitanich, Cristina; Judelson, Howard S

2002-08-01

207

The physiology and toxicology of salmonid eggs and larvae in relation to water quality criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this review is to collate physiological knowledge on salmonid eggs and larvae in relation to water quality criteria. Salmonid genera reviewed include Coregonus, Thymallus, Salvelinus, Salmo, and Oncorhynchus spp. When physiological data for salmonids are lacking, the zebrafish and medaka models are included. The primary focus is on the underlying mechanisms involved in the hydro-mineral, thermal, and

Roderick Nigel Finn

2007-01-01

208

[Sexual dysfunction in men after surgery of colorectal carcinoma. New developments in prevention and therapy].  

PubMed

Current procedures in the treatment of rectal carcinoma respect preservation quality of life. Development of sexual dysfunction (SD) in men after iatrogenic damage to neurovascular structures has been reported in 21-38% and significantly decreases quality of life. The author summarizes new developments in the area of surgical anatomy of Denonvilliers' fascia, occurrence of accessory pudendal arteries (APA), and neural anatomy. Introduction of robotic nerve-sparing surgery along with application of new diagnostic perioperative methods such as Doppler diagnostics and Optical Coherence Tomography will allow precise perioperative identification of neurovascular structures. New approaches in the treatment of erectile dysfunction prevent cavernosal hypoxia after neurovascular damage. Decrease of pO2 leads to fibrosis of penile structures and development of venous leak. Early administration of phosfodiesterasis-5 (PDE5) inhibitors forms the basis of treatment. Besides inducing erection in spite of decreased pO2, inhibitors PDE5 also have protective effect on the smooth muscles and endothelia of the penis. Combination with intracavernously applied prostaglandin PGE1 or with statins (Atorvastatin) increases efficacy. Currently, there is no standardized procedure in penile rehabilitation. Early start of therapy is recommended. In case of permanent medication support, the dosage for achieving erection is lower than in non-rehabilitated patients. Complex sexologiceal care is essential. It is necessary to initiate educational campaign of sexologists, surgeons, oncologists and patients themselves. Patients must be well informed and referred to a sexologist prior the treatment of carcinoma. Late start of rehabilitation leads to irreversible structural changes that require increased doses of drug therapy. PMID:19642325

Sutorý, M

2009-06-01

209

Breeding biology, sexually dimorphic development and nestling testosterone concentrations of the classically polyandrous African black coucal, Centropus grillii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many internal and environmental factors influence the growth of birds. Here we ask whether the reversed sexual dimorphism\\u000a in the classically polyandrous black coucal is reflected in differential growth and fledging parameters of females and males.\\u000a We also investigate whether androgen concentrations were higher in females than males during the nestling development, thus,\\u000a providing a potential mechanism for the ‘behavioural

Wolfgang Goymann; Bart Kempenaers; John Wingfield

2005-01-01

210

Sustaining salmonid populations: A caring understanding of naturalness of taxa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Species of the family of Salmonidae occur naturally in Northern Hemisphere waters that remain clear and cool to cold in summer. For purposes of reproduction, salmonids generally behaviorally respond to the currents of streams and lakes in recently glaciated areas. For feeding and maturation, many larger species migrate into existing systems of large lakes, seas, and oceans. The subfamilies include Salmoninae, Coregoninae, and Thymallinae. In many locales and regions of the hemisphere, numerous species of these subfamilies evolved and self-organized into species flocks or taxocenes of bewildering complexity. For example, any individual species may play different or unique ecological roles in different taxocenes. The northern Pacific and Atlantic Ocean ecosystems, with their seas and tributaries, each contained a metacomplex of such taxocenes that, in their natural state some centuries ago, resembled each other but differed in many ways. Humans have valued all species of this family for subsistence, ceremonial, naturalist, gustatory, angling, and commercial reasons for centuries. Modern progressive humans (MPHs), whose industrial and commercial enterprises have gradually spread over this hemisphere in recent time, now affect aquatic ecosystems at all scales from local to global. These human effects mingle in complex ways that together induce uniquely natural salmonid taxocenes to disintegrate with the loss of species, including those groups least tolerant to human manipulations, but extending more recently to those taxa more adapted to anthropogenic change. As we leave the modern era, dominated by MPHs, will we find ways to live sustainably with salmonid taxocenes that still exhibit self-organizational integrity, or will only individual, isolated populations of salmonid species, derived from those most tolerant of MPHs, survive? To achieve future sustainability of salmonids, we suggest implementation of a search for intuitive knowledge based on faith in the wisdom of nature and a caring-sharing, behavioral structure based on "survival of the wisest" for both humans and salmonids. ?? 2004 by the American Fisheries Society.

Nielsen, J.L.; Regier, H.A.

2004-01-01

211

Growth and the development of sexual size dimorphism in lorises and galagos.  

PubMed

Three fundamental ontogenetic pathways lead to the development of size differences between males and females. Males and females may grow at the same rate for different durations (bimaturism), grow for the same duration at different rates, or grow at a mix of rate and duration differences. While patterns of growth and the development of adult body size are well established for many haplorhines, the extent to which rate and duration differences affect strepsirrhine growth trajectories remains unclear. Here, we present iterative piecewise regression models that describe the ontogeny of adult body mass for males and females of five lorisoid species (i.e., lorises and galagos) from the Duke Lemur Center. We test the hypotheses that, like most haplorhines, sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is a result of bimaturism, and males and females of monomorphic species grow at the same rate for a similar duration. We confirm that the galagos in this sample (Galago moholi and Otolemur garnettii) show significant SSD that is achieved through bimaturism. Unlike monomorphic lemurids, the lorises in this sample show a diversity of ontogenetic patterns. Loris tardigradus does follow a lemur-like trajectory to monomorphism but Nycticebuscoucang and Nycticebus pygmaeus achieve larger adult female body sizes through a mixture of rate and duration differences. We show that contrary to previous assumptions, there are patterns of both similarity and difference in growth trajectories of comparably sized lorises and galagos. Furthermore, when ontogenetic profiles of lorisoid and lemurid growth are compared, it is evident that lorisoids grow faster for a shorter period of time. PMID:21989860

O'Mara, M Teague; Gordon, Adam D; Catlett, Kierstin K; Terranova, Carl J; Schwartz, Gary T

2012-01-01

212

Sexual Assault  

MedlinePLUS

Sexual assault is any sexual activity to which you haven't freely given your consent. This includes completed ... trust, a friend, an acquaintance, or a stranger. Sexual assault can affect your health in many ways. It ...

213

Loss of the TOR Kinase Tor2 Mimics Nitrogen Starvation and Activates the Sexual Development Pathway in Fission Yeast? †  

PubMed Central

Fission yeast has two TOR (target of rapamycin) kinases, namely Tor1 and Tor2. Tor1 is required for survival under stressed conditions, proper G1 arrest, and sexual development. In contrast, Tor2 is essential for growth. To analyze the functions of Tor2, we constructed two temperature-sensitive tor2 mutants. Interestingly, at the restrictive temperature, these mutants mimicked nitrogen starvation by arresting the cell cycle in G1 phase and initiating sexual development. Microarray analysis indicated that expression of nitrogen starvation-responsive genes was induced extensively when Tor2 function was suppressed, suggesting that Tor2 normally mediates a signal from the nitrogen source. As with mammalian and budding yeast TOR, we find that fission yeast TOR also forms multiprotein complexes analogous to TORC1 and TORC2. The raptor homologue, Mip1, likely forms a complex predominantly with Tor2, producing TORC1. The rictor/Avo3 homologue, Ste20, and the Avo1 homologue, Sin1, appear to form TORC2 mainly with Tor1 but may also bind Tor2. The Lst8 homologue, Wat1, binds to both Tor1 and Tor2. Our analysis shows, with respect to promotion of G1 arrest and sexual development, that the loss of Tor1 (TORC2) and the loss of Tor2 (TORC1) exhibit opposite effects. This highlights an intriguing functional relationship among TOR kinase complexes in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. PMID:17261596

Matsuo, Tomohiko; Otsubo, Yoko; Urano, Jun; Tamanoi, Fuyuhiko; Yamamoto, Masayuki

2007-01-01

214

A salmonid EST genomic study: genes, duplications, phylogeny and microarrays  

PubMed Central

Background Salmonids are of interest because of their relatively recent genome duplication, and their extensive use in wild fisheries and aquaculture. A comprehensive gene list and a comparison of genes in some of the different species provide valuable genomic information for one of the most widely studied groups of fish. Results 298,304 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from Atlantic salmon (69% of the total), 11,664 chinook, 10,813 sockeye, 10,051 brook trout, 10,975 grayling, 8,630 lake whitefish, and 3,624 northern pike ESTs were obtained in this study and have been deposited into the public databases. Contigs were built and putative full-length Atlantic salmon clones have been identified. A database containing ESTs, assemblies, consensus sequences, open reading frames, gene predictions and putative annotation is available. The overall similarity between Atlantic salmon ESTs and those of rainbow trout, chinook, sockeye, brook trout, grayling, lake whitefish, northern pike and rainbow smelt is 93.4, 94.2, 94.6, 94.4, 92.5, 91.7, 89.6, and 86.2% respectively. An analysis of 78 transcript sets show Salmo as a sister group to Oncorhynchus and Salvelinus within Salmoninae, and Thymallinae as a sister group to Salmoninae and Coregoninae within Salmonidae. Extensive gene duplication is consistent with a genome duplication in the common ancestor of salmonids. Using all of the available EST data, a new expanded salmonid cDNA microarray of 32,000 features was created. Cross-species hybridizations to this cDNA microarray indicate that this resource will be useful for studies of all 68 salmonid species. Conclusion An extensive collection and analysis of salmonid RNA putative transcripts indicate that Pacific salmon, Atlantic salmon and charr are 94–96% similar while the more distant whitefish, grayling, pike and smelt are 93, 92, 89 and 86% similar to salmon. The salmonid transcriptome reveals a complex history of gene duplication that is consistent with an ancestral salmonid genome duplication hypothesis. Genome resources, including a new 32 K microarray, provide valuable new tools to study salmonids. PMID:19014685

Koop, Ben F; von Schalburg, Kristian R; Leong, Jong; Walker, Neil; Lieph, Ryan; Cooper, Glenn A; Robb, Adrienne; Beetz-Sargent, Marianne; Holt, Robert A; Moore, Richard; Brahmbhatt, Sonal; Rosner, Jamie; Rexroad, Caird E; McGowan, Colin R; Davidson, William S

2008-01-01

215

Environmental pollutants and diseases of sexual development in humans and wildlife in South Africa: harbingers of impact on overall health?  

PubMed

This study deals with disorders of sexual development in humans, wildlife and animals in an urban nature reserve (RNR) and a currently DDT-sprayed malarial area. High levels of oestrogenic chemical residues in water, sediment and tissue; skewed sex ratios; reduced biodiversity; gonadal malformations in sharptooth catfish and freshwater snails; intersex in catfish; and impaired spermatogenesis in catfish and striped mouse are of serious concern in the RNR. Persistent eggshell thinning in African darter eggs, intersex in male Mozambican tilapia, follicular atresia in females and impaired spermatogenesis in males following laboratory exposure of parent fish to environmentally relevant DDT and DDE concentrations, and abnormalities in freshwater snails were found in the DDT-sprayed area. Human studies related to DDT exposure indicated impaired semen quality, a weak association with sperm chromatin defects and higher risks for external urogenital birth defects in those who were born to mothers whose houses were sprayed and those who were homemakers (stay at home mother) instead of being employed. These findings indicate that diseases of sexual development occurred in both human and wildlife populations exposed to environmental endocrine disruptor chemicals in South Africa. The chemical mixtures, possibly related to disorders of sexual differentiation (DSD), were very different between the two. However, DSD occurred concurrently in the malarial area, possibly indicating that humans and wildlife shared exposures. Moreover, it emphasizes the importance of suspecting disease in the other when disease is found in either human or wildlife populations. PMID:22827388

Riana Bornman, M S; Bouwman, Hindrik

2012-08-01

216

Normal prenatal but arrested postnatal sexual development of luteinizing hormone receptor knockout (LuRKO) mice.  

PubMed

To study further the role of gonadotropins in reproductive functions, we generated mice with LH receptor (LHR) knockout (LuRKO) by inactivating, through homologous recombination, exon 11 on the LHR gene. LuRKO males and females were born phenotypically normal, with testes, ovaries, and genital structures indistinguishable from their wild-type (WT) littermates. Postnatally, testicular growth and descent, and external genital and accessory sex organ maturation, were blocked in LuRKO males, and their spermatogenesis was arrested at the round spermatid stage. The number and size of Leydig cells were dramatically reduced. LuRKO females also displayed underdeveloped external genitalia and uteri postnatally, and their age of vaginal opening was delayed by 5-7 days. The (-/-) ovaries were smaller, and histological analysis revealed follicles up to the early antral stage, but no preovulatory follicles or corpora lutea. Reduced gonadal sex hormone production was found in each sex, as was also reflected by the suppressed accessory sex organ weights and elevated gonadotropin levels. Completion of meiosis of testicular germ cells in the LuRKO males differs from other hypogonadotropic/cryptorchid mouse models, suggesting a role for FSH in this process. In females, FSH appears to stimulate developing follicles from the preantral to early antral stage, and LH is the stimulus beyond this stage. Hence, in each sex, the intrauterine sex differentiation is independent of LH action, but it has a crucial role postnatally for attaining sexual maturity. The LuRKO mouse is a close phenocopy of recently characterized human patients with inactivating LHR mutations, although the lack of pseudohermaphroditism in LuRKO males suggests that the intrauterine sex differentiation in this species is not dependent on LH action. PMID:11145748

Zhang, F P; Poutanen, M; Wilbertz, J; Huhtaniemi, I

2001-01-01

217

Ensuring the inclusion of sexual and reproductive health and rights under a sustainable development goal on health in the post-2015 human rights framework for development.  

PubMed

Since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo placed reproductive health and rights firmly on the international agenda, civil society and other advocates have worked ceaselessly to ensure that they remain central to women's empowerment and have taken all opportunities to expand the framework to include sexual health and rights. When the development process changed with the introduction of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2000, sexual and reproductive health and rights were excluded, and only in 2007 was universal access to reproductive health added back in. In 2014 and 2015, the future of ICPD Beyond 2014, the MDGs and the post-2015 development framework will be decided, following consultations and meetings across the globe. This paper takes stock of the key influences on efforts to achieve the ICPD agenda and summarises the past, current and planned future events, reports and processes between 1994 and 2014, leading up to the determination of the post-2015 development framework and sustainable development goals. It concludes that the one thing we cannot afford to allow is what happened with the MDGs in 2000. We must not leave the room empty-handed, but must instead ensure the inclusion of sexual and reproductive health and rights as a priority under a new health goal. PMID:24315064

Haslegrave, Marianne

2013-11-01

218

Analysis of Historic Data for Juvenile and Adult Salmonid Production. Phase 1, Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

Survival of hatchery reared Columbia River chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) salmon from release to return is highly variable and thought to be related to river flow during juvenile outmigration in the spring. The purpose of this project is to examine the relationship between survival of coded-wire-tagged (CWT) Columbia River salmonids and in-river flow and other freshwater factors. This report covers Phase 1, in which two methods to estimate survival were developed and evaluated, and criteria for data selection were established.

Hilborn, Ray; Pascual, Miguel; Donnelly, Robert; Coronado-Hernadez, Claribel

1993-11-01

219

Female Sexual Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this book is men and their sexual function and dysfunction, however, many women will also develop some degree\\u000a of sexual health problems concerned with sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and\\/or pain. The goal is to make relevant evidence-based\\u000a clinical information to help identify and treat specific biologically based pathophysiologies available to the motivated health\\u000a care professional. The prevalence

Irwin Goldstein

220

Sexually dimorphic expression of steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) in developing gonads of the American bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana.  

PubMed

Genetic sex determination leads to gonadal differentiation and ultimately the differences between the sexes in steroid hormone secretion. Gonadal steroidogenesis is critical for the development of a sexually dimorphic phenotype and adult reproductive function. Control of gonadal development and steroidogenesis is under the regulation, at least in part, of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1). We have begun to characterize SF-1 expression in an amphibian to determine the role of this protein in development and reproduction. We have detected a putative SF-1 protein from several tissues in the American bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, that co-migrates with mouse SF-1 on a Western blot. Our results show that bullfrog SF-1 protein is expressed in steroidogenic and other reproductive tissues in a manner similar to that reported for other species, with high expression in the brain, pituitary, gonad, liver, and interrenal, but little or no expression in non-reproductive tissues such as skin and intestine. Using a quantitative Western blot analysis system, we documented changes in SF-1 protein in the gonads of developing tadpoles. Our results indicate that there is sexually dimorphic expression of SF-1 protein that becomes evident at the time of sexual differentiation of the gonads. In males, the expression of SF-1 decreases following testicular formation and in females the expression increases with the formation of ovaries. This is the first study to investigate changes in SF-1 during development at the protein level. The expression is similar to that reported for changes in SF-1 mRNA expression in chickens and alligators, however, opposite to that seen in mammals and turtles. These results indicate that SF-1 may play a pivotal role in development of the reproductive system in amphibians as it does in other vertebrate groups. PMID:12161200

Mayer, Loretta P; Overstreet, Stefanie L; Dyer, Cheryl A; Propper, Catherine R

2002-06-01

221

Sexually Harassing Behavior against Adolescent Girls in Rural Bangladesh: Implications for Achieving Millennium Development Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the extent and type of sexually harassing behavior or intimidations unmarried adolescent girls experienced on their way to school, college or social visits and type of perpetrators in victims' view in rural Bangladesh using data of the 2004 National Nutrition Programme baseline survey. The survey collected self-reported data on…

Alam, Nurul; Roy, Swapan K.; Ahmed, Tahmeed

2010-01-01

222

Sterilization and Training for Normal Sexual Development: Human Rights and Obligations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper notes the lack of attention given to the sexuality of people with intellectual disabilities in both the literature and service delivery (in Australia). It discusses sterilization issues (such as authority to give consent and the "best interest" concept) and recommends approaches less intrusive on individual rights than sterilization.…

Ashman, Adrian F.

1990-01-01

223

Identification of genes differentially expressed during apomictic and sexual development in buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Apomixis, an asexual method of reproduction through seeds with the absence of meiosis and fertilization holds great potential for plant breeding and hybrid seed production. Buffelgrass, an apomictic forage grass, has well characterized apomictic, facultative and sexual accessions to study apomictic...

224

Diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections in developing nations using syndromic management: Is it working?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a major public health problem, and controlling their spread is a priority. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there are 340 million new cases of treatable STIs among 15–49 year olds that occur yearly around the world (1). Infection with STIs can lead to several complications such as pelvic inflammatory disorder (PID), cervical cancer,

Betiel K Fesseha

2008-01-01

225

[In depth study of troubles in sexual development and behavior associated with anorexia nervosa].  

PubMed

A group of 200 girls suffering from mental anorexia have been systematically studied, including the consequences of this illness on their psychosocial behaviour. The psychotherapeutic approach was completely indirect, concerning only all forms of sexual problems related with the alimentary dysfunctions in mental anorexia. PMID:21542377

Brukhin, A E; Souleimanov, R A; Artemieva, M S

2011-03-23

226

Implicit cognitive distortions and sexual offending.  

PubMed

This work develops and tests the semantic-motivation hypothesis of sexual offenders' implicit cognitions. This hypothesis posits that sexual offenders' cognitive distortions emerge at the interface between implicit motivation and cognition. The semantic-motivation hypothesis is used to guide the development of 3 implicit association tests (IATs). These IATs were used to test for the existence of 3 expected child sexual offender implicit cognitive distortions in child sexual offenders ("children as sexual beings," "uncontrollability of sexuality," and "sexual entitlement-bias"). Results showed that child sexual offenders had larger IAT effects than did mainstream offenders and male and female nonoffenders for the "children as sexual beings" and the "uncontrollability of sexuality" implicit theories. Child sexual offenders also had a larger IAT effect than male and female nonoffenders for the "sexual entitlement-bias" implicit theory. Implications for the semantic-motivation hypothesis are discussed. PMID:15560415

Mihailides, Stephen; Devilly, Grant J; Ward, Tony

2004-10-01

227

Response to ISRP Comments Statistical Support for Salmonid Survival Studies  

E-print Network

Response to ISRP Comments Statistical Support for Salmonid Survival Studies University by the number of technical reports produced by resource agencies that used the statistical software products and assess the multitude of mitigation activities at dams. These methods will also be used to assess whether

228

The origin of the salmonid fishes: marine, freshwater... or neither?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolutionary origins of the salmonidfishes, whether in freshwater or the sea, havebeen debated for centuries. Early viewsfavoured a group of marine ancestry invadingfreshwaters; more recently, there was a shifttowards a freshwater ancestry, on grounds thata return to freshwater to spawn indicates theancestral biome. Salmonids are widely believedto share an ancient common ancestry with thenorthern hemisphere Osmeridae and southernhemisphere Retropinnidae

R. M. McDowall

2001-01-01

229

Rainmap Database: Mapping the Salmonids (Rainbow Trout) Genome  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Institut National de Recherche Agronomique (France) provides online databases of genomes for several organisms, including Salmonids (Rainbow Trout). The database is updated as more data becomes available, and provide records on loci, genes, microsatellites, polymorphisms, probes, enzymes, homologue loci, alleles, primers, references, and links to external databases. Instructions for submitting data to the databases are provided on-site.

230

Stress hormones and the cellular stress response in salmonids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between stress protein (SP) levels and the hormonal stress response in salmonids was examined through the measurement of gill SP70 and SP30 levels together with plasma cortisol, glucose and ion concentrations, in response to handling stress (45 s holding in a net), intraperitoneal cortisol implants, and heat shock (+10 °C). Handling and cortisol implants resulted in increased plasma cortisol and

P. A. Ackerman; R. B. Forsyth; C. F. Mazur; G. K. Iwama

2000-01-01

231

FURUNCULOSIS OF SALMONIDS : VACCINATION ATTEMPTS IN RAINBOW TROUT  

E-print Network

FURUNCULOSIS OF SALMONIDS : VACCINATION ATTEMPTS IN RAINBOW TROUT (SALMO GAIRDNERI) BY FORMALIN early days. We give an account of two immunisation assays #12;carried out in 1976 and 1977 on rainbow of the Seine-Maritime with no previous history of Furunculosis, was carried out on 200 g rainbow trout. Six

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

232

Patterns of subspecific anthropogenic introgression in two salmonid genera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introgressive hybridizations have often been observed between native and introduced trouts of North America (Oncorhynchus spp.) and Europe (Salmo spp.), including some lineages that have been isolated for more than a million years. These observations have suggested that introgression is the expected result between introduced and indigenous conspecific salmonids. However, an examination of published information reveals a high variability in

Fred Utter

2000-01-01

233

Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River, Estuary, and Plume in 2010  

SciTech Connect

Uncertainty regarding the migratory behavior and survival of juvenile salmonids passing through the lower Columbia River and estuary after negotiating dams on the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) prompted the development and application of the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS). The JSATS has been used to investigate the survival of juvenile salmonid smolts between Bonneville Dam (river kilometer (rkm) 236) and the mouth of the Columbia River annually since 2004. In 2010, a total of 12,214 juvenile salmonids were implanted with both a passive integrated transponder (PIT) and a JSATS acoustic transmitter. Using detection information from JSATS receiver arrays deployed on dams and in the river, estuary, and plume, the survival probability of yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts tagged at John Day Dam was estimated form multiple reaches between rkm 153 and 8.3 during the spring. During summer, the survival probability of subyearling Chinook salmon was estimated for the same reaches. In addition, the influence of routes of passage (e.g., surface spill, deep spill, turbine, juvenile bypass system) through the lower three dams on the Columbia River (John Day, The Dalles, and Bonneville) on juvenile salmonid smolt survival probability from the dams to rkm 153 and then between rkm 153 and 8.3 was examined to increase understanding of the immediate and latent effects of dam passage on juvenile salmon survival. Similar to previous findings, survival probability was relatively high (>0.95) for most groups of juvenile salmonids from the Bonneville Dam tailrace to about rkm 50. Downstream of rkm 50 the survival probability of all species and run types we examined decreased markedly. Steelhead smolts suffered the highest mortality in this lower portion of the Columbia River estuary, with only an estimated 60% of the tagged fish surviving to the mouth of the river. In contrast, yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon smolts survived to the mouth of the river at higher rates, with estimated survival probabilities of 84% and 86%, respectively. The influence of route of passage at the lower three dams in the FCRPS on juvenile salmonid survival appeared to be relatively direct and immediate. Significant differences in estimated survival probabilities of juvenile salmonid smolts among groups with different dam passage experiences were often detected between the dams and rkm 153. In contrast, the influence of route of passage on survival to the mouth of the Columbia River was not apparent among the groups of tagged juvenile salmonids with different FCRPS passage experiences after they had already survived to a point about 80 km downstream of Bonneville Dam. Yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts that migrated through the lower estuary in off-channel habitats took two to three times longer to travel through these lower reaches and their estimated survival probabilities were not significantly different from that of their cohorts which migrated in or near the navigation channel. A large proportion of the tagged juvenile salmonids migrating in or near the navigation channel in the lower estuary crossed from the south side of the estuary near Astoria, Oregon and passed through relatively shallow expansive sand flats (Taylor Sands) to the North Channel along the Washington shore of the estuary. This migratory behavior may contribute to the avian predation losses observed on for fish (2 to 12% of fish in this study).

McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Skalski, John R.; Deters, Katherine A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Townsend, Richard L.; Titzler, P. Scott; Hughes, Michael S.; Kim, Jin A.; Trott, Donna M.

2011-09-01

234

Detection of salmonid thermal refugia from airborne thermal infrared (TIR) imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During elevated summer temperatures, salmonid species seek out areas of cool, well-oxygenated river water to alleviate thermal stress. Collectively known as ‘thermal refugia’, these are of great significance to the ability of salmonids to survive increased water temperatures, and a better understanding of their spatial and temporal characteristics may aid mitigation strategies against the possible effects of climate change on rivers. However, thermal refugia are traditionally hard to detect, and their in-river abundance and spatial patterns are largely unknown. Although previous research has examined TIR imaging as a means to sense river temperatures, few have achieved a resolution amenable to the detection of small thermal anomalies typically used by salmonids, with the majority of literature focusing on the general application of thermal imaging to river temperature detection and analysis. From preliminary research, we note that riverine thermal anomalies (as viewed from TIR imagery) can comprise a number of different forms resulting from a diverse range of sources. Given that the structural, spatial and temporal dynamics of thermal refugia in gravel bed rivers are a presumably a function of the complex geomorphological processes within a catchment, the ability to discriminate multi-scale thermal refugia may aid our comprehension not only of the behaviour of salmonids during high temperature events, but also of the geomorphological phenomena that are fundamental in governing river temperature heterogeneity. Initial thermal infrared imagery acquired in August 2009 suggested that while it is possible to manually detect riverine temperature anomalies, the creation of a dedicated remote sensing platform capable of obtaining both TIR and RGB photography easily and with a resolution amenable to refugia detection would greatly aid our ability to discriminate true refugia from other thermal anomalies (false positives). To this end, we have developed a system able to simultaneously acquire high resolution thermal (c. 20cm GSD) and optical (c. 3cm GSD) imagery with a view towards automatically detecting and classifying refugia. This paper presents the preliminary results of several thermal image acquisition flights undertaken in Quebec, Canada, both before and after the development of the new photography system (Summer 2009 and 2010 respectively), with the intention of exploring the various types of different refugia visible to thermal images. Early indications (both from imagery and ground validation) suggest that while the streamwise location of thermal refugias appears to be temporally stable, their form, extent and temperature are highly dynamic.

Dugdale, S. J.; Bergeron, N.; Rousseau, M.

2010-12-01

235

Internet Sexualities  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The term “internet sexuality” (or OSA, online sexual activities) refers to sexual-related content and activities observable\\u000a on the internet (cf. Adams, Oye, & Parker, 2003; Cooper, McLoughlin, & Campbell, 2000; Leiblum & Döring, 2002). It designates\\u000a a variety of sexual phenomena (e.g., pornography, sex education, sexual contacts) related to a wide spectrum of online services\\u000a and applications (e.g., websites, online

Nicola Döring

2010-01-01

236

Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Klickitat River Tributaries, 2001-2005 Completion Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the work completed by the Yakama Nation Fisheries Program (YNFP) in the Klickitat subbasin in south-central Washington under BPA innovative project No.200105500--Influences of stocking salmon carcass analogs on salmonids in Columbia River Tributaries. Salmon carcasses historically provided a significant source of marine-derived nutrients to many stream systems in the Columbia basin, and decreased run sizes have led to a loss of this nutrient source in many streams. Partners in this project developed a pathogen-free carcass analog and stocked the analogs in streams with the following objectives: restoring food availability to streams with reduced anadromous salmon returns; mimicking the natural pathways and timing of food acquisition by salmonids; minimizing unintended negative ecological effects; and increasing the growth and survival of salmonids. In the Klickitat subbasin, carcass analogs were stocked in two streams in 2002 and 2003; a third stream was used as a control. Salmonid fish abundance, growth, and stomach contents were monitored in all three streams before and after carcass analog placement. Fish, invertebrate, and periphyton samples were also collected for stable isotope analysis (to determine if nutrients from carcass analogs were incorporated into the stream food web). Water quality samples were also collected to determine if nutrient overloading occurred in streams. Significant differences in growth were found between fish in treated and untreated stream reaches. Fish in treatment reaches exhibited higher instantaneous growth rates approximately one month after the first carcass analog stocking. Stomach contents sampling indicated that salmonid fish routinely consumed the carcass analog material directly, and that stomach fullness of fish in treatment reaches was higher than in untreated reaches in the first few weeks following carcass analog stockings. No significant differences were detected in fish abundance between treatment and control streams after carcass analog stocking. Stable isotope analysis provided some evidence that nutrients (primarily nitrogen) were incorporated into periphyton and invertebrates, although this evidence is not strong. No significant differences in water quality were observed between treatment and control streams after analog stocking. Although no significant changes were observed in fish abundance, this study does provide evidence that carcass analogs provide a viable and potentially useful alternative to stocking salmon carcasses. The analogs provide a direct food source to salmonids, and show some potential for providing nutrients for stream food webs. They can also increase stomach fullness and growth rates of individual fish. This nutrient source may very well improve individual fish condition sufficiently to improve overwintering or smolt survival. Further refinement of stocking densities and timing, treatment duration, and tailoring analog placement to individual stream characteristics (such as channel confinement and flow) will further improve the usefulness of carcass analogs.

Zendt, Joe; Sharp, Bill (Yakama Nation Fisheries, Toppenish, WA)

2006-09-01

237

Embedding sexual and reproductive health and rights in a transformational development framework: lessons learned from the MDG targets and indicators.  

PubMed

This paper explores the intended and unintended consequences of the selection of MDG 5 as a global goal, together with its respective targets and indicators, and places what happened to MDG 5, and sexual and reproductive health and rights more broadly, into the context of the development model that was encoded in the MDGs. Over the last decade, as the MDGs increasingly took centre stage in development and their use evolved, they were inappropriately converted from global goals into national planning targets. This conversion was particularly detrimental in the case of MDG 5. It not only created a narrowing in terms of policies and programming, but also had an enormous impact on the discourse of development itself, reshaping the field in terms of the organization and dissemination of knowledge, and underscoring that the process of setting targets and indicators is far from neutral but encodes normative values. Looking forward, it is not adequate to propose an MDG+ framework based on the same structure. Sexual and reproductive health and rights must be placed back into the global discourse, using development to empower women and marginalized populations, and to address structural inequalities that are fundamental to sustained social change. The new development framework should include a strong narrative of social transformation in which fit-for-purpose targets and indicators play a role, but do not overtake or restrict the broader aims of advancing social, political, and gender justice. PMID:24315065

Yamin, Alicia Ely; Boulanger, Vanessa M

2013-11-01

238

Epidemiology and Control of Infectious Diseases of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin, 1983 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Microbiology at Oregon State University with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration conducted a study relating to the epidemiology and control of three fish diseases of salmonids in the Columbia River Basin. These three diseases were ceratomyxosis which is caused by the myxosporidan parasite Ceratomyxa shasta, bacterial kidney disease, the etiological agent of which is Renibacterium salmoninarum, and infectious hematopoietic necrosis, which is caused by a rhabdovirus. Each of these diseases is highly destructive and difficult or impossible to treat with antimicrobial agents. The presence of ceratomyxosis in rainbow trout exposed at McNary and Little Goose Dams extends the range of this disease about 200 miles further up the Columbia River and into the Snake River drainage. Wallowa steelhead trout were less resistant to this disease than other upriver stocks tested. Juvenile salmonids entering the Columbia River estuary were collected periodically between May to September, 1983. Nine percent of the beach seined chinook salmon and 5, 11 and 12%, respectively, of the purse seined coho and chinook salmon and steelhead trout were infected with Ceratomyxa shasta. Experiments indicated ceratomyxosis progresses in salt water at the same rate as in fresh water once the fish have become infected. These data indicate a longer exposure to infective stages of C. shasta than previously identified and that approximately 10% of the migrating salmonids are infected and will probably die from this organism after entering salt water. Since sampling began in 1981 the bacterial kidney disease organism, Renibacterium salmoninarum, has been detected by the fluorescent antibody test in seven salmonid species caught in the open ocean off the coasts of Washington and Oregon. The bacterium has been found primarily in chinook salmon (11%) with lesions in 2.5% of these fish. This disease was also detected at levels ranging from 17% in coho salmon to 25% in chinook salmon seined from the Columbia River just before entering the estuary. Interpretation of these numbers suggests an even greater economic impact on Columbia River salmonid stocks than that proposed for C. shasta. Fertilized eggs from bacterial kidney disease infected parents examined after one month of incubation revealed the presence of bacteria with identical morphology to R. salmoninarum on or in the egg wall further reinforcing the proposed vertical transmission of this disease organism. Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus was recovered at the 67% level from seeded water samples supplemented with 1% fetal calf serum. Virus injected into unfertilized eggs survived for over two weeks; in eyed eggs the virus also replicated. Epizootics caused by IHNV occurred in two of the 8 separate groups of steelhead trout fingerlings held in LJV treated water at Round Butte Hatchery. Comparing these results to those in the vertical transmission experiment where none of the groups developed IHNV suggests that vertical transmission of IHNV, if it occurs, is a very infrequent or random event. On three occasions IHNV was detected in ovarian fluid samples after storage for 6--9 days at 4 C. No virus had been detected in these samples at spawning. This suggests the presence of an interfering substance, perhaps anti-IHNV antibody in ovarian fluid. This observation raises the possibility that IHNV is much more widespread throughout Columbia River Basin salmonid stocks than previously believed.

Fryer, John L.

1984-11-01

239

The virtual people set: developing computer-generated stimuli for the assessment of pedophilic sexual interest.  

PubMed

The implicit assessment of pedophilic sexual interest through viewing-time methods necessitates visual stimuli. There are grave ethical and legal concerns against using pictures of real children, however. The present report is a summary of findings on a new set of 108 computer-generated stimuli. The images vary in terms of gender (female/male), explicitness (naked/clothed), and physical maturity (prepubescent, pubescent, and adult) of the persons depicted. A series of three studies tested the internal and external validity of the picture set. Studies 1 and 2 yielded good-to-high estimates of observer agreement with regard to stimulus maturity levels by two methods (categorization and paired comparison). Study 3 extended these findings with regard to judgments made by convicted child sexual offenders. PMID:23296092

Dombert, Beate; Mokros, Andreas; Brückner, Eva; Schlegl, Verena; Antfolk, Jan; Bäckström, Anna; Zappalà, Angelo; Osterheider, Michael; Santtila, Pekka

2013-12-01

240

Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary in 2009  

SciTech Connect

The study reported herein was funded as part of the Anadromous Fish Evaluation Program, which is managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The Anadromous Fish Evaluation Program study code is EST P 02 01: A Study of Salmonid Survival and Behavior through the Columbia River Estuary Using Acoustic Tags. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Fisheries for the USACE Portland District. Estimated survival of acoustic-tagged juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead through the lower Columbia River and estuary in 2009 was lowest in the final 50 km of the estuary. Probability of survival was relatively high (>0.90) for yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon from the Bonneville Dam forebay (rkm 236) to Three-tree Point (rkm 49.6). Survival of juvenile Chinook salmon declined sharply through the lower 50 km of the estuary. Acoustic-tagged steelhead smolts did not survive as well as juvenile Chinook salmon between Bonneville Dam and the mouth of the Columbia River. Steelhead survival began to decline farther upstream (at rkm 86) relative to that of the Chinook salmon stocks. Subyearling Chinook salmon survival decreased markedly as the season progressed. It remains to be determined whether later migrating subyearling Chinook salmon are suffering increasing mortality as the season progresses or whether some portion of the apparent loss is due to fish extending their freshwater residence. This study provided the first glimpse into what promises to be a very informative way to learn more about how juvenile salmonid passage experiences through the FCRPS may influence their subsequent survival after passing Bonneville Dam. New information regarding the influence of migration pathway through the lower 50 km of the Columbia River estuary on probability of survival of juvenile salmonids, combined with increased understanding regarding the foraging distances and time periods of avian predators should prove useful in developing or assessing management actions to reduce losses of juvenile salmonid smolts that attempt to pass through the estuary on their seaward migration.

McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Carter, Jessica A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Titzler, P. Scott; Hughes, Michael S.

2010-08-01

241

Does Knowledge about Sexuality Prevent Adolescents from Developing Rape-Supportive Beliefs?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Believing that rape is acceptable in some situations may account for adolescent boys' perpetration of forced sex on girls. This study was intended to examine two hypothesized cognitive factors of adolescents' rape-supportive beliefs: general knowledge, measured with grade point average (GPA); and specific knowledge about sexuality, measured with a newly devised questionnaire. Fourteen-year-old adolescents (N = 248) participated in a short-term longitudinal

Pascal Mallet; Dominique Herbé

2011-01-01

242

Adolescent Sexual Activity and the Development of Delinquent Behavior: The Role of Relationship Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the well-established association between adolescent sexual activity and delinquent behavior, little research has examined\\u000a the potential importance of relationship contexts in moderating this association. The current study used longitudinal, behavioral\\u000a genetic data on 519 same-sex twin pairs (48.6% female) divided into two age cohorts (13–15 and 16–18 years olds) drawn from\\u000a the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Analyses tested

K. Paige Harden; Jane Mendle

2011-01-01

243

Development of a sexual assault evidence collection kit - the need for standardization in Turkey.  

PubMed

Sexual offences are recognized to be one of the most critical of crimes throughout the world. In Turkey, forcible rapes show, in the sexual crime rates, an increase of approximately 3% every year. It becomes even more critical, when realizing that less than half of all rapes, which are believed to occur, are reported to law enforcement, and of those few assailants who are arrested even fewer are convicted of rape. Often, little or no knowledge of the correct methods of locating, recovering, packaging, and preserving evidence specimens are the causes for compromising the forensic examination in court. This problem occurs when medical personnel are not adequately trained or properly advised in the evidentiary aspects and medical features of treating a victim. The current survey is aimed to increase the awareness of the need of an initial and continuing education by health care policies to cope with increasing professional demands for forensic practice sexual assault cases, to take judicial and social precautions, and medico-legal evidence. To determine the likelihood of obtaining corroborating evidence this paper presents the results of a study referring to this problem. An updated questionnaire has been applied at random to medical personnel, a total of 543 participants, throughout Turkey. Taking certain criteria into consideration the findings revealed a significant deficiency of knowledge regarding medical-legal examination. In comparison, a one-semester course of basic forensic sciences proved to be sufficient to recognize the amount of knowledge required to work as a forensic professional. Based on the results, recommendations are presented in the form of a sexual assault evidence collection kit (SAECK). A kit, which takes into consideration the needs of crime laboratories, law enforcement agencies, medical personnel, and above all the victim. This is the first step in building a responsible and successful evidence collection program that will survive the rigors of courtroom challenge. PMID:19773096

Gökdo?an, M R; Bafra, J

2010-05-01

244

Impact of the Potholes Reservoir Caspian Tern Breeding Colony on Out-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids in the Mid-Columbia River  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the foraging behavior and diet of Caspian terns Hydroprogne caspia breeding at Potholes Reservoir, Washington, in 2003, 2005, and 2006, and we developed a bioenergetics model to estimate impacts on juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. from Columbia River stocks. Potholes Reservoir Caspian terns mostly foraged on local fish (68–97% of tern bill loads) rather than traveling to the Columbia

Christina J. Maranto; Thomas P. Good; Francis K. Wiese; Julia K. Parrish

2010-01-01

245

Ecology of Juvenile Salmonids in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta, Lower Columbia River, 2007 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document is the first annual report for the study titled 'Ecology of Juvenile Salmonids in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta in the Lower Columbia River'. Hereafter, we refer to this research as the Tidal Freshwater Monitoring (TFM) Study. The study is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation effort developed by the

Kathryn Sobocinski; Gary Johnson; Nichole Sather

2008-01-01

246

Smoothelin-like 1 protein regulates myosin phosphatase-targeting subunit 1 expression during sexual development and pregnancy.  

PubMed

Pregnancy coordinately alters the contractile properties of both vascular and uterine smooth muscles reducing systemic blood pressure and maintaining uterine relaxation. The precise molecular mechanisms underlying these pregnancy-induced adaptations have yet to be fully defined but are likely to involve changes in the expression of proteins regulating myosin phosphorylation. Here we show that smoothelin like protein 1 (SMTNL1) is a key factor governing sexual development and pregnancy induced adaptations in smooth and striated muscle. A primary target gene of SMTNL1 in these muscles is myosin phosphatase-targeting subunit 1 (MYPT1). Deletion of SMTNL1 increases expression of MYPT1 30-40-fold in neonates and during development expression of both SMTNL1 and MYPT1 increases over 20-fold. Pregnancy also regulates SMTNL1 and MYPT1 expression, and deletion SMTNL1 greatly exaggerates expression of MYPT1 in vascular smooth muscle, producing a profound reduction in force development in response to phenylephrine as well as sensitizing the muscle to acetylcholine. We also show that MYPT1 is expressed in Type2a muscle fibers in mice and humans and its expression is regulated during pregnancy, suggesting unrecognized roles in mediating skeletal muscle plasticity in both species. Our findings define a new conserved pathway in which sexual development and pregnancy mediate smooth and striated muscle adaptations through SMTNL1 and MYPT1. PMID:20634291

Lontay, Beata; Bodoor, Khaldon; Weitzel, Douglas H; Loiselle, David; Fortner, Christopher; Lengyel, Szabolcs; Zheng, Donghai; Devente, James; Hickner, Robert; Haystead, Timothy A J

2010-09-17

247

A 6K-Deletion Variant of Salmonid Alphavirus Is Non-Viable but Can Be Rescued through RNA Recombination  

PubMed Central

Pancreas disease (PD) of Atlantic salmon is an emerging disease caused by Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) which mainly affects salmonid aquaculture in Western Europe. Although genome structure of SAV has been characterized and each individual viral protein has been identified, the role of 6K protein in viral replication and infectivity remains undefined. The 6K protein of alphaviruses is a small and hydrophobic protein which is involved in membrane permeabilization, protein processing and virus budding. Because these common features are shared across many viral species, they have been named viroporins. In the present study, we applied reverse genetics to generate SAV3 6K-deleted (?6K) variant and investigate the role of 6K protein. Our findings show that the 6K-deletion variant of salmonid alphavirus is non-viable. Despite viral proteins of ?6K variant are detected in the cytoplasm by immunostaining, they are not found on the cell surface. Further, analysis of viral proteins produced in ?6K cDNA clone transfected cells using radioimmunoprecipitation (RIPA) and western blot showed a protein band of larger size than E2 of wild-type SAV3. When ?6K cDNA was co-transfected with SAV3 helper cDNA encoding the whole structural genes including 6K, the infectivity was rescued. The development of CPE after co-transfection and resolved genome sequence of rescued virus confirmed full-length viral genome being generated through RNA recombination. The discovery of the important role of the 6K protein in virus production provides a new possibility for the development of antiviral intervention which is highly needed to control SAV infection in salmonids. PMID:25009976

Guo, Tz-Chun; Johansson, Daniel X.; Haugland, Øyvind; Liljeström, Peter; Evensen, Øystein

2014-01-01

248

Sexuality Education as a Ministry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author describes her development from being her religious congregation's sexuality educator to completing doctoral studies and finding her place in the professional sexuality education community. She equates sexuality education to a ministry that reaches out to those in need of knowledge.

Davis, Melanie J.

2011-01-01

249

Sexual Education for Psychiatric Residents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors seek to promote sexuality curriculum development in departments of psychiatry. Methods: The authors first focus on educational philosophy about what residents can be taught about sexual topics and then provide numerical and narrative resident evaluation data following a 6-month, half day per week rotation in a sexuality

Levine, Stephen B.; Scott, David L.

2010-01-01

250

An in vivo model fish system to test chemical effects on sexual differentiation and development: exposure to ethinyl estradiol  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A model system was characterized which may be used as an in vivo screen for effects of chemicals or environmental mixtures on sexual differentiation and development of reproductive organs and gametes. We evaluated the effects of a model environmental estrogen, ethinyl estradiol (EE2), on the d-rR strain of medaka, Oryzias latipes, using a nano-injection exposure. Gonad histopathology indicated that a single injection of 0.5-2.5 ng EE2/egg can cause phenotypic sex-reversal of genetic males to females. Sex-reversals could be detected as early as 7 days post-hatch. Sex-reversed males had female-typical duct development and the secondary sex characteristics we measured were generally consistent with phenotype, with the exception of a few EE2-exposed XX and XY females which possessed ambiguous anal fins. Using discriminant analysis, we determined that the presence or absence of the secondary sex characteristic, a dorsal fin notch, was a very reliable indicator of gonadal sex. No instances of gonadal intersexes were observed. Ethinyl estradiol also appeared to reduce growth but not condition (weight-at-length) and exposed XX females appeared to have a higher incidence of atretic follicles relative to controls. Our results suggest that estrogenic chemicals may influence sexual differentiation and development and that the medaka model is well suited to assessing these effects. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

Papoulias, D.M.; Noltie, D.B.; Tillitt, D.E.

2000-01-01

251

Soy isoflavones administered to rats from weaning until sexual maturity affect ovarian follicle development by inducing apoptosis.  

PubMed

Twenty-one-day-old female Wistar rats were treated daily with orally administered soy isoflavones (SIFs) at concentrations of 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg body weight from weaning until sexual maturity (3 mo.), and ovarian follicle development was evaluated. At the end of the treatment period, the ultrastructure of the ovarian granulosa cells was examined by transmission electron microscopy. The apoptotic cell death of ovarian granulosa cells was detected using TUNEL staining. The mRNA expression levels of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, Bcl2, Bax, and Fas were determined by real-time quantitative PCR. The protein expression levels of caspase-3, Bcl2, Bax, and Fas were determined by western blotting. Our data showed that exposure to SIFs resulted in morphological changes consistent with ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis. The percentage of TUNEL-positive granulosa cells was increased. The mRNA expression levels of the apoptosis-related genes caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, Bax, and Fas increased significantly. The protein levels of Bax, Fas, and cleaved caspase-3 were also increased. These results indicate that the exposure of rats to modest doses of SIFs from weaning until sexual maturity can affect ovarian follicle development by inducing apoptosis. The mechanism of SIF-induced alterations in ovarian follicle development may involve the activation of Fas-mediated and Bcl2/Bax-mediated apoptotic signaling pathways. PMID:25035168

Wang, Wenxiang; Sun, Yan; Liu, Jin; Li, Yuchen; Li, Hong; Xiao, Shihua; Weng, Shaozheng; Zhang, Wenchang

2014-10-01

252

Functional Roles of FgLaeA in Controlling Secondary Metabolism, Sexual Development, and Virulence in Fusarium graminearum  

PubMed Central

Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight in cereal crops, produces mycotoxins such as trichothecenes and zearalenone in infected plants. Here, we focused on the function of FgLaeA in F. graminearum, a homolog of Aspergillus nidulans LaeA encoding the global regulator for both secondary metabolism and sexual development. Prior to gene analysis, we constructed a novel luciferase reporter system consisting of a transgenic F. graminearum strain expressing a firefly luciferase gene under control of the promoter for either TRI6 or ZEB2 controlling the biosynthesis of these mycotoxins. Targeted deletion of FgLaeA led to a dramatic reduction of luminescence in reporter strains, indicating that FgLaeA controls the expression of these transcription factors in F. graminearum; reduced toxin accumulation was further confirmed by GC-MS analysis. Overexpression of FgLaeA caused the increased production of trichothecenes and additional metabolites. RNA seq-analysis revealed that gene member(s) belonging to ?70% of total tentative gene clusters, which were previously proposed, were differentially expressed in the ?FgLaeA strain. In addition, ?FgLaeA strains exhibited an earlier induction of sexual fruiting body (perithecia) formation and drastically reduced disease symptoms in wheat, indicating that FgLaeA seems to negatively control perithecial induction, but positively control virulence toward the host plant. FgLaeA was constitutively expressed under both mycotoxin production and sexual development conditions. Overexpression of a GFP-FgLaeA fusion construct in the ?FgLaeA strain restored all phenotypic changes to wild-type levels and led to constitutive expression of GFP in both nuclei and cytoplasm at different developmental stages. A split luciferase assay demonstrated that FgLaeA was able to interact with FgVeA, a homolog of A. nidulans veA. Taken together, these results demonstrate that FgLaeA, a member of putative FgVeA complex, controls secondary metabolism, sexual development, and virulence in F. graminearum, although the specific regulation pattern differs from that of LaeA in A. nidulans. PMID:23874628

Jo, Seong-Mi; McCormick, Susan P.; Butchko, Robert A. E.; Proctor, Robert H.; Yun, Sung-Hwan

2013-01-01

253

Challenges in sexual medicine.  

PubMed

The sexual medicine field has been in mode of revolution until recently. Like all other fields of biomedical research, the economic situation around the world has had a negative impact on the field's momentum-research funding bodies, regulatory bodies and pharmaceutical companies seem to have placed sexual medicine in their low-priority list. But this is not the only challenge the field is facing. The successful development of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors for treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) means that research in this area seems to have slowed. However, there remain several unmet medical needs within sexual medicine such as premature ejaculation, severe ED and hypoactive sexual desire disorder, which await novel therapeutic approaches. Despite these challenges, research into finding and developing such therapies is likely to continue in the sexual medicine field, in an effort to improve the lives of our patients, who wait for effective therapies. PMID:22777290

Cellek, Selim; Giraldi, Annamaria

2012-09-01

254

Pilot Study in the Development of an Interactive Multimedia Learning Environment for Sexual Health Interventions: A Focus Group Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the UK there are high rates of sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies amongst young people. There is limited and contradictory evidence that current sexual health education interventions are effective or that they improve access to appropriate sexual health services. This paper describes the outcome of focus group work with…

Goold, P. C.; Bustard, S.; Ferguson, E.; Carlin, E. M.; Neal, K.; Bowman, C. A.

2006-01-01

255

Isospora suis in an Epithelial Cell Culture System – An In Vitro Model for Sexual Development in Coccidia  

PubMed Central

Coccidian parasites are of major importance in animal production, public health and food safety. The most frequently used representative in basic research on this group is Toxoplasma gondii. Although this parasite is well investigated there is no adequate in vitro model for its sexual development available and knowledge on this important life cycle phase is therefore scarce. The use of Isosporasuis, a sister taxon to T. gondii and the causative agent of piglet coccidiosis, could provide a solution for this. In the present study an in vitro model for neonatal porcine coccidiosis in cells representative for the in vivo situation in the piglet gut was developed and evaluated. The parasite development was investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy and optimum culture conditions were evaluated. Intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) adequately representing the natural host cells supported the development of all endogenous life cycle stages of I. suis, including gametocytes and oocysts. A concentration of 5% fetal calf serum in the culture medium led to highest gametocyte densities on day 12 post infection. Low infection doses (?1 sporozoite for 100 host cells) were best for oocyst and gametocyte development. The presented system can also be used for immunostaining with established antibodies developed against T. gondii (in our case, anti-TgIMC3 antibodies directed against the inner membrane complex 3). The complete life cycle of I. suis in a cell line representing the natural host cell type and species provides a unique model among coccidian parasites and can be used to address a wide range of topics, especially with regard to the sexual development of coccidia. PMID:23861983

Worliczek, Hanna Lucia; Ruttkowski, Bärbel; Schwarz, Lukas; Witter, Kirsti; Tschulenk, Waltraud; Joachim, Anja

2013-01-01

256

Isospora suis in an epithelial cell culture system - an in vitro model for sexual development in coccidia.  

PubMed

Coccidian parasites are of major importance in animal production, public health and food safety. The most frequently used representative in basic research on this group is Toxoplasma gondii. Although this parasite is well investigated there is no adequate in vitro model for its sexual development available and knowledge on this important life cycle phase is therefore scarce. The use of Isosporasuis, a sister taxon to T. gondii and the causative agent of piglet coccidiosis, could provide a solution for this. In the present study an in vitro model for neonatal porcine coccidiosis in cells representative for the in vivo situation in the piglet gut was developed and evaluated. The parasite development was investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy and optimum culture conditions were evaluated. Intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) adequately representing the natural host cells supported the development of all endogenous life cycle stages of I. suis, including gametocytes and oocysts. A concentration of 5% fetal calf serum in the culture medium led to highest gametocyte densities on day 12 post infection. Low infection doses (?1 sporozoite for 100 host cells) were best for oocyst and gametocyte development. The presented system can also be used for immunostaining with established antibodies developed against T. gondii (in our case, anti-TgIMC3 antibodies directed against the inner membrane complex 3). The complete life cycle of I. suis in a cell line representing the natural host cell type and species provides a unique model among coccidian parasites and can be used to address a wide range of topics, especially with regard to the sexual development of coccidia. PMID:23861983

Worliczek, Hanna Lucia; Ruttkowski, Bärbel; Schwarz, Lukas; Witter, Kirsti; Tschulenk, Waltraud; Joachim, Anja

2013-01-01

257

Evaluating potential changes in salmonid rearing capacity from alternative sets of rehabilitation actions in the Trinity River, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River restoration plans often propose numerous rehabilitation actions to address key habitat impairments for salmonids. However, restoration plans rarely propose alternative sets of actions or attempt to quantify the potential benefits to targeted biota. In this paper we use geomorphic and biological analyses to estimate restoration potential for each of 37 reaches in a 64-km section of Trinity River, California from the North Fork Trinity River to Lewiston Dam (the focus of habitat rehabilitation efforts under the Trinity River Restoration Program). We first predicted the channel pattern that might develop based in each reach on slope-discharge criteria, and then used these potential patterns along with floodplain width to estimate the maximum sinuosity that restoration actions could likely achieve, as well as a maximum side-channel length that might be created in each reach. For each scenario, we then used existing stream habitat and juvenile salmonid data from previous studies in the Trinity River and other watersheds to determine current and restored carrying capacity. Potential increases in Chinook and steelhead carrying capacity range from 39% for a relatively realistic estimate of increasing habitat quality (more low velocity areas with cover) to 67% for a more optimistic scenario that increases both sinuosity and habitat quality. Only the most optimistic scenario that increases habitat quality, increases sinuosity, and constructs tens of kilometers of side channels more than doubles potential juvenile salmonid production (140% increase). These quantitative predictions provide a frame of reference for evaluating alternative restoration options, and for setting measurable restoration goals.

Beechie, T. J.; Pess, G. R.; Imaki, H.; Martin, A.; Alvarez, J.; Goodman, D.

2013-12-01

258

Discrimination between farmed and free-living invasive salmonids in Chilean Patagonia using stable isotope analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Chilean Patagonia relatively pristine aquatic environments are being modified by the introduction of exotic salmonids,\\u000a initially through their deliberate release for sport fishing since the early twentieth century, and more recently via the\\u000a accidental escape from fish farms. There is therefore a need to reliably distinguish between naturally reproducing and fugitive\\u000a salmonids associated with the Chilean salmonid farming industry,

V. SchroderCarlos; Carlos Garcia de Leaniz

2011-01-01

259

A fungal mating type protein that regulates sexual and asexual development contains a POU-related domain.  

PubMed

The A mating type factor of the fungus Coprinus cinereus regulates essential steps in sexual development. Here we describe features of one of the four specificity genes of the A42 factor. By transformation we show that the gene regulates not only sexual development but also asexual sporulation. DNA sequence analysis shows that the gene beta 1-1, encodes a protein with a DNA binding motif and is thus likely to be a transcription factor. The DNA binding domain is an unusual homeodomain with D replacing the normally invariant N in the recognition helix and apparent absence of helix II. The homeodomain is linked to a helical region related to the POUs domain, which is part of a bipartite DNA binding domain of certain animal transcription factors. Like POU factors, the beta 1-1 protein has regions rich in serine, threonine and proline which are possible transactivation domains. Putative dimerization domains and sites for post-translational modification are described. PMID:1582410

Tymon, A M; Kües, U; Richardson, W V; Casselton, L A

1992-05-01

260

Physiology and immunology of Lepeophtheirus salmonis infections of salmonids.  

PubMed

'Sea lice' is a common name for a large number of species of marine ectoparasitic copepods, many of which are widespread and important disease-causing agents that infect both cultured and wild fish. Of these copepods, the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis is the most extensively studied because of its economic impact on the salmonid aquaculture industry and its possible impacts on wild salmonid populations. Different levels of infection by this parasite can affect the long-term survival and viability of its hosts. In this article, we review the nature of the interactions between L. salmonis and it hosts to identify crucial areas that warrant further research to aid understanding of the impact of infection with L. salmonis. PMID:18329341

Wagner, Glenn N; Fast, Mark D; Johnson, Stewart C

2008-04-01

261

Endohelminth parasites from salmonids in intensive culture from southern Chile.  

PubMed

A total of 228 salmonids (90 Oncorhynchus mykiss, 48 Oncorhynchus kisutch, and 90 Salmo salar) from 8 intensive aquaculture centers in the south of Chile were examined for endohelminths parasites between December 2008 and May 2009. The body cavities of 2 O. mykiss were infected by Diphyllobothrium sp. plerocercoids (prevalence: 6.7%, mean intensity: 1.0, mean abundance: 0.07) from the Lake Tarahuin hatchery on the south of Chiloé Island. Also, tetraphyllidean plerocercoids (prevalence: 3.3%, mean intensity: 1, mean abundance: 0.03) and fourth-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium aduncum (prevalence: 6.7%, mean intensity: 1, mean abundance 0.07) were observed in O. kisutch from a marine hatchery in Chiloé. The occurrences of Diphyllobothrium sp. in a lake and a tetraphyllidean plerocercoid from marine cultured salmonid in Chiloé are reported for first time. No muscular infection by helminths was recorded in the fish examined. PMID:20557217

Torres, P; Quintanilla, J C; Rozas, M; Miranda, P; Ibarra, R; San Martín, M F; Raddatz, B; Wolter, M; Villegas, A; Canobra, C; Hausdorf, M; Silva, R

2010-06-01

262

Sexual Difficulties  

MedlinePLUS

... difficulties Explore other publications and websites Age Page: Sexuality in Later Life - This brochure describes the normal ... effects of illness, disability, and emotional concerns of sexuality in later life. Atrophic Vaginitis (Copyright © UCLA Health ...

263

Healthy Sexuality  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... a sexual experience is safe, healthy, and enjoyable. Sexual health is a vital part of a person’s total well-being. Of course, sex is essential for reproduction, but it can also build intimacy in relationships ...

264

Sexual Abuse  

MedlinePLUS

... between victim and suspect Inappropriate, unusual, or aggressive sexual behavior How can I learn more? "Speaking the unspeakable: An interview about elder sexual assault with Holly Ramsey-Klawsnik, Ph.D" in ...

265

Sexually dimorphic expression of protease nexin-1 and vanin-1 in the developing mouse gonad prior to overt differentiation suggests a role in mammalian sexual development  

Microsoft Academic Search

DDBJ\\/EMBL\\/GenBank accession nos AI115537, AI115468 The mammalian sex-determining pathway is controlled by the presence or absence of SRY expres- sion in the embryonic gonad .E xpression of SRY in males is believed to initiate a pathway of gene expres- sion resulting in testis development .I n the absence of SRY, ovary development ensues. Several genes have now been placed in

Sean Grimmond; ick Van Hateren; Pam Siggers; Ruth Arkell; Rachel Larder; Marcelo Bento Soares; Maria de Fatima Bonaldo; L ee Smith; Zuzanna Tymowska-Lalanne; Christine Wells; Andy Greenfield

2000-01-01

266

Associations between youth homelessness, sexual offenses, sexual victimization, and sexual risk behaviors: a systematic literature review.  

PubMed

Homeless youth commonly report engaging in sexual risk behaviors. These vulnerable young people also frequently report being sexually victimized. This systematic review collates, summarizes, and appraises published studies of youth investigating relationships between homelessness, perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior. A systematic search of seventeen psychology, health, and social science electronic databases was conducted. Search terms included "homeless*," "youth," "offend*," "victimization," "crime," "rape," "victim*," and "sex crimes." Thirty-eight studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Findings showed homeless youth commonly report being raped and sexually assaulted, fear being sexually victimized, and engage in street prostitution and survival sex. Rates of victimization and sexual risk behavior were generally higher for females. Given the paucity of longitudinal studies and limitations of current studies, it is unclear whether homelessness is prospectively associated with sexual victimization or engagement in sexual risk behavior, and whether such associations vary cross nationally and as a function of time and place. Future prospective research examining the influence of the situational context of homelessness is necessary to develop a better understanding of how homelessness influences the perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior among homeless youth. PMID:25411128

Heerde, Jessica A; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A

2015-01-01

267

Molecular Evolution of Transferrin: Evidence for Positive Selection in Salmonids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transferrins are iron-binding proteins that are involved in iron storage and resistance to bacterial disease. Previous work has shown that nonsynonymous-to-synonymous-site substitution ratios (dn\\/ds ratios) between transferrin genes from some salmonid species were significantly greater than 1.0, providing evidence for positive selection at the transferrin gene. The purpose of the current study was to put these earlier results in a

Michael J. Ford

268

Asymmetric competition drives lake use of coexisting salmonids  

Microsoft Academic Search

To what degree are population differences in resource use caused by competition and the occupation of adjacent positions along\\u000a environmental gradients evidence of competition? Habitat use may be the result of a competitive lottery, or restricted by\\u000a competition. We tested to what extent population differences in habitat use of two salmonids, cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) and Dolly Varden charr (Salvelinus

B. Jonsson; N. Jonsson; Kjetil Hindar; T. G. Northcote; S. Engen

2008-01-01

269

The relationship between productivities of salmonids and forest stands in northern California watersheds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Productivities of resident salmonids and upland and riporian forests in 22 small watersheds of coastal northern California were estimated and compared to determine whether: 1) upland site productivity predicted riparian site productivity; 2) either upland or riparian site productivity predicted salmonid productivity; and 3) other parameters explained more of the variance in salmonid productivity. Upland and riparian site productivities were estimated using Site Index values for redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and red alder (Alnus rubra), respectively. Salmonid productivity was indexed by back-calculated length at age 1 of the largest individuals sampled and by total biomass. Upland and riparian site indices were correlated, but neither factor contributed to the best approximating models of salmonid productivity. Total salmonid biomass was best described by a positive relationship with drainage area. Length of dominant fish was best described by a positive relationship with percentage of hardwoods within riparian areas, which may result from nutrient and/or litter subsidies provided by red older. The inability of forest productivity to predict salmon productivity may reflect insufficient variation in independent variables, limitations of the indices, and the operation of other factors affecting salmonid production. The lack of an apparent relationship between upland conifer and salmonid productivity suggests that management of land for timber productivity and component streams for salmonid production in these sites will require separate, albeit integrated, management strategies.

Frazey, S.L.; Wilzbach, M.A.

2007-01-01

270

Developing empathy in sexual offenders: the value of offence re-enactments.  

PubMed

This paper describes an evaluation of different uses of role-play to enhance victim-specific empathy in sexual offenders. Thirty-three men participated in a treatment program involving offence re-enactment as described by Pithers (1994) and Mann, Daniels, and Marshall (2002). A matched group of 33 men participated in a treatment program that was identical in all respects except that they did not complete offence re-enactments. Instead, they completed extra role-plays designed to enhance empathy for the short and long-term consequences for their victim(s). Results indicated that completing an offence re-enactment led to slightly better ability to identify some types of negative consequences for abuse victims, and identify cognitive distortions about their offending and women per se. Rapists in particular seemed more likely to benefit from offence re-enactment. The non-reenactment group showed better understanding of lifestyle disruption effects for sexual abuse victims. The differences between the groups were not very marked, and the study only involved measures of cognitive empathy. Given the concerns about offence re-enactment expressed by Pithers (1997), this procedure should be used with caution and future investigations should test specifically for possible signs of damage caused by the procedure. PMID:15757006

Webster, Stephen D; Bowers, Louise E; Mann, Ruth E; Marshall, William L

2005-01-01

271

Using real-time PCR and Bayesian analysis to distinguish susceptible tubificid taxa important in the transmission of Myxobolus cerebralis, the cause of salmonid whirling disease.  

PubMed

Aquatic oligochaetes have long been appreciated for their value in assessing habitat quality because they are ubiquitous sediment-dwelling filter feeders. Many oligochaete taxa are also important in the transmission of fish diseases. Distinguishing resistant and susceptible taxa is important for managing fish disease, yet challenging in practice. Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaeta: Tubificidae) is the definitive host for the complex life-cycle parasite, Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of salmonid whirling disease. We developed two hydrolysis probe-based qualitative real-time PCR (qPCR) multiplex assays that distinguish among tubificid taxa collected from the Madison River, Montana, USA. The first assay distinguishes T. tubifex from Rhyacodrilus spp.; while the second classifies T. tubifex identified by the first assay into two genetic lineages (I and III). Specificity and sensitivity were optimized for each assay; the two assays showed specificity of 94.3% and 98.6% for the target oligochaetes, respectively. DNA sequencing verified the results. The development of these assays allowed us to more fully describe tubificid community composition (the taxa and their abundance at a site) and estimate the relative abundances of host taxa. To relate tubificid relative abundance to fish disease risk, we determined M. cerebralis infection prevalence in samples identified as T. tubifex using similar molecular techniques. Given prior information (i.e., morphological identification of sexually mature worms), Bayesian analysis inferred that the first qPCR assay improved taxonomic identification. Bayesian inference of the relative abundance of T. tubifex, combined with infection assay results, identified sites with a high prevalence of infected T. tubifex. To our knowledge, this study represents both the first assessment of oligochaete community composition using a qPCR assay based on fluorescent probes and the first use of Bayesian analysis to fully characterize the dominant infected taxa in streams where whirling disease is observed. PMID:23474394

Fytilis, Nikolaos; Rizzo, Donna M; Lamb, Ryan D; Kerans, Billie L; Stevens, Lori

2013-05-01

272

Sexual conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual conflict occurs when the genetic interests of males and females diverge. Recent evidence supporting the view that male and female genomes are in conflict has now revolutionized the way in which we interpret interactions between the sexes, and suggests that sexual conflict is a potent force in male–female coevolution. Here, we consider the nature of sexual conflict and what

Tracey Chapman; Göran Arnqvist; Jenny Bangham; Locke Rowe

2003-01-01

273

Sexual Health and Reproduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity provides questions and Web sites to guide student investigation of birth control methods, fetal development, risks of alcohol and smoking during pregnancy, changes during puberty, and HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases.

Ingrid Waldron

274

REDUCING SEXUAL RISK AMONG FILIPINA FEMALE BAR WORKERS: EFFECTS OF A CBPR-DEVELOPED STRUCTURAL AND NETWORK INTERVENTION  

PubMed Central

The effects of three interventions designed to reduce sexual risk among Filipina female bar workers (FBWs) were compared with each other and with usual care (nonintervention). The interventions were developed iteratively by a community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership comprising lay community members, organizational representatives (including nongovernmental organizations), and academic researchers from the United States and the Philippines. Peer educators and bar managers from 110 different establishments in three southern regions were recruited and trained to increase knowledge of HIV and of condom use rules and regulations within establishments, as well as to change attitudes about risk reduction, provide HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing referrals, and build condom use skills among FBWs. Compared with the control community, all three interventions increased HIV and STI testing; however, only FBWs in the combination peer-educator and manager-training intervention significantly increased condom use from baseline to 2-year follow-up. Condom use was significantly associated with higher HIV knowledge, attendance of a prevention class, and being taught how to use condoms properly. Given these findings, research is warranted to further explore and understand various forms of commercial sex work and to test adapted peer-educator and manger-training interventions within HIV epicenters. PMID:20707696

Morisky, Donald E.; Malow, Robert M.; Tiglao, Teodora V.; Lyu, Shu-Yu; Vissman, Aaron T.; Rhodes, Scott D.

2011-01-01

275

Development of an HIV risk reduction counselling intervention for use in South African sexually transmitted infection clinics.  

PubMed

South Africa urgently needs HIV prevention interventions that can be disseminated for use in clinical and community settings. A brief theory-based HIV risk reduction counselling intervention originally developed in the USA has recently been adapted for use in a South African sexually transmitted infection clinic. The 60-minute risk reduction counselling intervention was grounded in the Information-Motivation-Behavioural Skills (IMB) model of HIV preventive behaviour change, adapted through a series of interdisciplinary collaborative workshops. This paper reports the process of developing and culturally adapting the brief risk reduction counselling intervention. The processes used for adapting the HIV risk reduction counselling for South Africa provides a potential model for conducting technology transfer activities with other HIV prevention interventions. Several lessons learned from this process may help guide future efforts to transfer HIV prevention technologies. PMID:17601009

Mathiti, V; Simbayi, L C; Jooste, S; Kekana, Q; Nibe, X P; Shasha, L; Bidla, P; Magubane, P; Cain, D; Cherry, C; Kalichman, S C

2005-07-01

276

LEAFY COTYLEDON1, a Key Regulator of Seed Development, Is Expressed in Vegetative and Sexual Propagules of Selaginella moellendorffii  

PubMed Central

LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) is a central regulator of seed development that plays a key role in controlling the maturation phase during which storage macromolecules accumulate and the embryo becomes tolerant of desiccation. We queried the genomes of seedless plants and identified a LEC1 homolog in the lycophyte, Selaginellamoellendorffii, but not in the bryophyte, Physcomitrellapatens. Genetic suppression experiments indicated that Selaginella LEC1 is the functional ortholog of Arabidopsis LEC1. Together, these results suggest that LEC1 originated at least 30 million years before the first seed plants appeared in the fossil record. The accumulation of Selaginella LEC1 RNA primarily in sexual and asexual reproductive structures suggests its involvement in cellular processes similar to those that occur during the maturation phase of seed development. PMID:23776713

Kirkbride, Ryan C.; Fischer, Robert L.; Harada, John J.

2013-01-01

277

Assessing Success of Instream Structures for Salmonid Stream Restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stream restoration is a billion dollar industry in North America; despite this expenditure there remain questions regarding the effectiveness of current techniques such as the installation of instream structures. Assessing the effect that such structures have on physical habitat and on salmonid density are key ways of determining project success. The objectives of this research were to assess the impact of instream structures on physical habitat in the Nicolet River (Quebec) and to analyze physical habitat and fish density data from many stream restoration projects in North America. Results of intensive surveys of the Nicolet River show that the installation of weirs and deflectors results in a greater frequency of pools. These pools have significantly greater depths, lower velocities, larger sediment size and higher percent cover than those without structures. Meta analysis of data from 187 stream restoration projects in North America also show significant increases in percent pool area, average depth, and percent cover as well as decreases in channel width following the installation of structures. The physical changes observed in the Nicolet River resulted in improved trout habitat, as measured by applying habitat preference curves, but uneven stocking practices and fishing pressure confounded attempts to verify differences in trout density based on presence or absence of structures. The meta analysis, however, shows significant increases in salmonid density, measured as fish/m2, following the installation of structures. On average, density increased by 161%. Different structure types result in significantly different changes in physical habitat, with weir structures providing the largest density increase. Multiple linear regression analysis reveals that the combination of change in relative pool area and in width is the best predictor of change in salmonid density (r2=0.511). Instream structures are significantly more successful at increasing brook trout density than cutthroat and steelhead trout or coho salmon. Furthermore, salmonids over 15cm in length show significantly higher increases in density than smaller fish. These results highlight that restoration structures can play an important role in creating better habitat for salmonids and increasing their densities, but much work is needed to determine the best way to rehabilitate disturbed streams for various species.

Whiteway, S.; Biron, P.

2009-05-01

278

Examining key design decisions involved in developing a serious game for child sexual abuse prevention  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a case study of the key decisions made in the design of Orbit, a child sexual abuse prevention computer game targeted at school students between 8 and 10 years of age. Key decisions include providing supported delivery for the target age group, featuring adults in the program, not over-sanitizing game content, having a focus on building healthy self-concept of players, making the game engaging and relatable for all players and evaluating the program. This case study has implications for the design of Serious Games more generally, including that research should underpin game design decisions, game designers should consider ways of bridging the game to real life, the learning that arises from the game should go beyond rote-learning, designers should consider how the player can make the game-world their own and comprehensive evaluations of Serious Games should be undertaken. PMID:24550880

Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Jones, Christian M.; Rolfe, Ben; Pozzebon, Kay

2014-01-01

279

Examining key design decisions involved in developing a serious game for child sexual abuse prevention.  

PubMed

This paper presents a case study of the key decisions made in the design of Orbit, a child sexual abuse prevention computer game targeted at school students between 8 and 10 years of age. Key decisions include providing supported delivery for the target age group, featuring adults in the program, not over-sanitizing game content, having a focus on building healthy self-concept of players, making the game engaging and relatable for all players and evaluating the program. This case study has implications for the design of Serious Games more generally, including that research should underpin game design decisions, game designers should consider ways of bridging the game to real life, the learning that arises from the game should go beyond rote-learning, designers should consider how the player can make the game-world their own and comprehensive evaluations of Serious Games should be undertaken. PMID:24550880

Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Jones, Christian M; Rolfe, Ben; Pozzebon, Kay

2014-01-01

280

Sexual dimorphism of AMH, DMRT1 and RSPO1 localization in the developing gonads of six anuran species.  

PubMed

In vertebrates, several genes which are differentially expressed in various species, have been implicated in sex determination and gonadal differentiation. We used immunolocalization to study the expression pattern of three proteins AMH, DMRT1, RSPO1 involved in the sexual differentiation of gonads. The pattern of AMH, DMRT1 and RSPO1 expression was analyzed in X. laevis and in five other divergent anuran species: Bombina bombina, Bufo viridis, Hyla arborea, Rana arvalis and Rana temporaria during gonadal development. The pattern of expression of AMH in the developing testes of six studied anuran species was similar to that described for other vertebrates. AMH was strongly expressed in differentiating Sertoli cells. Interestingly, in B. viridis, R. arvalis and R. temporaria, AMH was also expressed in ovaries. In all studied species, DMRT1 was highly expressed in the developing testes, in both the somatic and germ cells. It was also expressed at low level in ovaries in all studied species, with the exception of H. arborea. RSPO1 was expressed in the developing ovaries, especially in the somatic cells, and was almost undetectable in developing testes in all examined anurans. These developmental expression patterns strongly suggest an involvement of AMH and DMRT1 in the development of male gonads and of RSPO1 in the female gonads. The differences in the expression patterns of these proteins in the gonads of different species might reflect the diversity of gonadal development patterns in anurans resulting from long lasting and diverged paths of their evolution. PMID:24623081

Piprek, Rafal P; Pecio, Anna; Laskowska-Kaszub, Katarzyna; Kubiak, Jacek Z; Szymura, Jacek M

2013-01-01

281

NonNon--native Species Impacts on Nativenative Species Impacts on Native Salmonids in the Columbia River BasinSalmonids in the Columbia River BasinNon-native Species Impacts on Native  

E-print Network

NonNon--native Species Impacts on Nativenative Species Impacts on Native Salmonids in the Columbia River BasinSalmonids in the Columbia River BasinNon-native Species Impacts on Native Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin Including Recommendations for Evaluating the Use of Non-native Species in Resident

282

Anthropogenic changes to the hydrologic regime and potential effects on anadromous salmonids in California south of the timber forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though the natural range of anadromous salmonids on the Pacific coast of North America extends from Alaska to Baja California, most studies to identify factors that affect their viability in coastal watersheds are conducted in timber-dominated catchments from northern California into Canada. These studies have focused especially on anthropogenic additions of fine sediment as limiting salmonid survival. South of the timber forests, the availability of water may be more important than sediment for affecting salmonid viability. The potential influence of human water demands on the natural hydrologic regime may be greater in central California than in the Pacific Northwest because of less total annual rainfall and the persistent drought that occurs from May through September (when human water needs are greatest). Identifying human-caused impacts requires a thorough understanding of regional climate and hydrology, which vary widely across temporal scales (from one year to the next, across seasonal gradients, and even over a daily scale), and across spatial scales as well. By examining historical stream flow and precipitation records, we characterize the effects of the climate on stream flow, and how these effects vary through the drainage network: more than 50% of annual precipitation is transferred to runoff in an average year, but only 5% of this runoff occurs between May and September. Manipulations in the hydrologic regime may affect winter flows, when salmonids need different water levels for passage, spawning, and channel maintenance; but they may have a more profound and widespread effect on spring and summer flows, when water is needed for juvenile rearing. By examining historical stream flow records and documented demands of stream water for human use, we identify the short-term and long-term impacts (through measures of intensity, persistence, and frequency) of potentially adverse conditions to various stages of the salmonid life cycle that manipulations to the natural hydrologic regime may cause as a result of water use. Analyses considering the spatial and temporal variations of the hydrologic regime, and the potential impacts that human water demands may place on natural hydrologic processes, are essential for planning restorative practices and for developing management plans for coastal watersheds throughout this region.

Deitch, M. J.; Kondolf, G. M.

2004-12-01

283

Development, standardization and refinement of procedures for evaluating effects of endocrine active compounds on development and sexual differentiation of Xenopus laevis  

PubMed Central

Xenopus laevis has been introduced as a model to study effects of endocrine-active compounds (EAC) on development and sexual differentiation. However, variable and inconsistent data have raised questions about the reliability of the test methods applied. The current study was conducted in two laboratories to develop, refine, and standardize procedures and protocols. Larvae were exposed in flow-through systems to 17?-estradiol (E2), at concentrations from 0.2 to 6.0 ?g E2 L?1 in Experiment 1A, and 0.015 to 2.0 ?g E2 L?1 in Experiment 1B. In both studies survival (92%, 99%) and percentage of animals that completed metamorphosis (97%, 99%) indicated reproducible biological performance. Furthermore, minor variations in husbandry led to significant differences in snout-to-vent length, weight, and gonad size. In Experiment 1A, almost complete feminization occurred in all E2 treatment groups whereas a concentration response was observed in Experiment 1B resulting in an EC50 of 0.12 ?g E2 L?1. The final verified protocol is suitable for determining effects of EAC on development and sexual differentiation in X. laevis. PMID:18327572

Kloas, Werner; Springer, Timothy A.; Holden, Larry R.; Wolf, Jeff C.; Krueger, Henry O.; Hosmer, Alan J.

2008-01-01

284

Fgfr1 signalling in the development of a sexually selected trait in vertebrates, the sword of swordtail fish  

PubMed Central

Background One of Darwin's chosen examples for his idea of sexual selection through female choice was the "sword", a colourful extension of the caudal fin of male swordtails of the genus Xiphophorus. Platyfish, also members of the genus Xiphophorus, are thought to have arisen from within the swordtails, but have secondarily lost the ability to develop a sword. The sustained increase of testosterone during sexual maturation initiates sword development in male swordtails. Addition of testosterone also induces sword-like fin extensions in some platyfish species, suggesting that the genetic interactions required for sword development may be dormant, rather than lost, within platyfish. Despite considerable interest in the evolution of the sword from a behavioural or evolutionary point of view, little is known about the developmental changes that resulted in the gain and secondary loss of the sword. Up-regulation of msxC had been shown to characterize the development of both swords and the gonopodium, a modified anal fin that serves as an intromittent organ, and prompted investigations of the regulatory mechanisms that control msxC and sword growth. Results By comparing both development and regeneration of caudal fins in swordtails and platyfish, we show that fgfr1 is strongly up-regulated in developing and regenerating sword and gonopodial rays. Characterization of the fin overgrowth mutant brushtail in a platyfish background confirmed that fin regeneration rates are correlated with the expression levels of fgfr1 and msxC. Moreover, brushtail re-awakens the dormant mechanisms of sword development in platyfish and activates fgfr1/msxC-signalling. Although both genes are co-expressed in scleroblasts, expression of msxC in the distal blastema may be independent of fgfr1. Known regulators of Fgf-signalling in teleost fins, fgf20a and fgf24, are transiently expressed only during regeneration and thus not likely to be required in developing swords. Conclusion Our data suggest that Fgf-signalling is involved upstream of msxC in the development of the sword and gonopodium in male swordtails. Activation of a gene regulatory network that includes fgfr1 and msxC is positively correlated with fin ray growth rates and can be re-activated in platyfish to form small sword-like fin extensions. These findings point towards a disruption between the fgfr1/msxC network and its regulation by testosterone as a likely developmental cause for sword-loss in platyfish. PMID:18844994

Offen, Nils; Blum, Nicola; Meyer, Axel; Begemann, Gerrit

2008-01-01

285

Sexual behaviour.  

PubMed

Sexual health is not merely the absence of disease, but the ability to have informed, consensual, safe, respectful, and pleasurable sexual relationships. The majority of the population are sexually active, most with someone of the opposite sex. The frequency and range of sexual practices that people engage in declines with age, but for many, sexual activity continues well into later life. Different aspects of sexual health affect people at different times throughout their lives. As people in the UK tend to first have sex around the age of 16, but do not start living with a partner until much later, the avoidance of sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancy is necessary for many for a number of years. As people get older, their sexual health needs change and they become more concerned with the impact of their general health on their ability to have sex. Some people experience non-volitional sex (sex against their will); although this occurs typically in late teenage it may affect women and men at any age and so requires consideration throughout life. As many people find it difficult to talk about sex and sexual health matters, health professionals should make sexual health enquiry a component of their holistic healthcare. PMID:24966786

Mercer, Catherine H

2014-06-01

286

Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Yakima River Tributaries, 2001-2002 Technical Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benefits that marine derived nutrients from adult salmon carcasses provide to juvenile salmonids are increasingly being recognized. Current estimates suggest that only 6-7% of marine-derived nitrogen and phosphorus that were historically available to salmonids in the Pacific Northwest are currently available. Food limitation may be a major constraint limiting the restoration of salmonids. A variety of methods have been

Todd N. Pearsons; Christopher L. Johnson

2003-01-01

287

Modeling the Association between Sexual Maturation, Transmissible Risk, and Peer Relationships During Childhood and Adolescence on Development of Substance Use Disorder in Young Adulthood  

PubMed Central

Background This prospective study investigated pubertal timing and transmissible risk in relation to affiliation with deviant peers on the development of substance use disorder (SUD). Methods Participants were boys (N = 500) ascertained through proband fathers with (N = 250) and without (N = 250) DSM-III-R lifetime diagnosis of SUD who were prospectively tracked from age 10–12 to 22. Transmissible liability index (TLI), Tanner stage, peer delinquency, and substance use were measured at ages 10–12 and 16. SUD diagnosis during early adulthood was determined. Results Structural equation modeling revealed two pathways in which transmissible risk and sexual maturation influenced development of SUD. In the first pathway, transmissible risk was correlated with and prospectively predicted affiliation with deviant peers and substance use presaging SUD. In the second pathway, advanced sexual maturation positively predicted affiliation with deviant peers and substance use, which in turn predicted SUD. However, transmissible risk was not associated with pubertal development. Conclusions These findings indicate that advanced sexual maturation and transmissible risk constitute unrelated facets of SUD liability; however, both factors bias development toward SUD via affiliation with deviant peers. Scientific Significance Youth with advanced sexual maturation and/or transmissible risk for SUD are at higher risk for developing SUD. Additional research is needed to determine if addressing these risk factors will contribute to advancements in SUD prevention. PMID:23952893

Horner, Michelle S.; Tarter, Ralph; Kirisci, Levent; Clark, Duncan B.

2013-01-01

288

Caspian Tern Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in the Mid-Columbia River  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used a bioenergetics approach to determine the magnitude of predation by Caspian terns Sterna caspia on juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. in the mid-Columbia River during 2000 and 2001. Caspian terns nesting on Crescent Island, Washington, located below the confluence of the Snake and Columbia rivers, consumed several hundred thousand juvenile salmonids each year of the study. Tern consumption of

Michelle Antolos; Daniel D. Roby; Donald E. Lyons; Ken Collis; Allen F. Evans; Mike Hawbecker; Brad A. Ryan

2005-01-01

289

Habitat Use by Juvenile Salmonids in the Smith River Estuary, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estuaries are highly productive areas that serve as important nursery habitat for many species of fish. Estuaries provide juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. with foraging habitats, refuge from predators, and areas in which smoltification and orientation for return migrations can occur. Our primary goal was to describe how juvenile salmonids use the Smith River estuary in northern California, a system that

Rebecca M. Quiñones; Timothy J. Mulligan

2005-01-01

290

Sexually dimorphic effects of NMDA receptor antagonism on brain-pituitary-gonad axis development in the platyfish  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR) is found in hypothalamic nuclei involved in the regulation of reproduction in several species of mammals and fishes. NMDAR is believed to affect reproductive development and function by regulating gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)-producing cells. These pathways are likely to be sexually dimorphic, as are several other neurotransmitter systems involved in reproductive function. In this report, male and female platyfish received intraperitoneal injections of 0, 5, 10, 20, 40 or 60 microg/g body wt. of the non-competitive NMDAR antagonist MK-801. Injections began at 6 weeks of age and continued thrice weekly until control animals reached puberty, as evidenced by anal fin maturation. The percent of pubescent animals was significantly affected by sex and treatment, with fewer MK-801-injected females in puberty than control females at each dose (P<0.001), and fewer pubescent females than males at 10, 20 and 40 microg/g (P<0.05). There were no MK-801-related effects in males. Histological analyses revealed typical immature gonads and pituitary glands in treated females, and typical mature morphology in control females and all males. Immunocytochemical distribution of the R1 subunit of the NMDAR within the brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis was limited to GnRH-containing brain cells in all animals; however, NMDAR1 distribution was in an immature pattern in treated females and a mature pattern in all others. Neural concentrations of GnRH were unaffected by MK-801 treatment in both sexes. These data suggest that in the platyfish, NMDAR influence on reproductive development is sexually dimorphic and occurs at, or above, the level of GnRH-containing cells of the BPG axis.

Flynn, Katherine M.; Miller, Shelly A.; Sower, Stacia A.; Schreibman, Martin P.

2002-01-01

291

Its not part of the religion: The Null Curriculum and the Sexual Identity Development of Muslim American Youth.  

E-print Network

??This paper explores the intersection of religious and sexual identity formation amongst Muslim-American youth, employing psychological theories of identity, sociological theories of performance, and theological… (more)

Mohyuddin, Hasina Akhtar

2014-01-01

292

Sexuality in nursing homes: practice and policy.  

PubMed

Older adults' sexuality and sexual expression are often overlooked in nursing home and residential care settings. Despite cultural beliefs that this population is asexual, sexual activity occurs frequently among residents in long-term care. This study, using written survey instrumentation, examines the scope of resident sexuality, staff reactions to sexual behavior, and the policies and guidelines used in 91 nursing homes to address residents' sexual activity. Eighty-five percent of respondents reported that sexual activity had occurred in their homes, and staff reactions to sexual activity were based on general guidelines. Many responses indicated that sexual expression of residents was considered non-normative. Issues of consent, especially concerning residents with dementia, and residents' right to privacy were addressed using existing general policies. Survey results demonstrate a need for specific policies and staff training regarding sexual expression to be developed with the input of nurses, family members, and residents. PMID:23614386

Doll, Gayle M

2013-07-01

293

Sea lice as a density-dependent constraint to salmonid farming  

PubMed Central

Fisheries catches worldwide have shown no increase over the last two decades, while aquaculture has been booming. To cover the demand for fish in the growing human population, continued high growth rates in aquaculture are needed. A potential constraint to such growth is infectious diseases, as disease transmission rates are expected to increase with increasing densities of farmed fish. Using an extensive dataset from all farms growing salmonids along the Norwegian coast, we document that densities of farmed salmonids surrounding individual farms have a strong effect on farm levels of parasitic sea lice and efforts to control sea lice infections. Furthermore, increased intervention efforts have been unsuccessful in controlling elevated infection levels in high salmonid density areas in 2009–2010. Our results emphasize host density effects of farmed salmonids on the population dynamics of sea lice and suggest that parasitic sea lice represent a potent negative feedback mechanism that may limit sustainable spatial densities of farmed salmonids. PMID:22319130

Jansen, Peder A.; Kristoffersen, Anja B.; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Jimenez, Daniel; Aldrin, Magne; Stien, Audun

2012-01-01

294

Longitudinal hormonal evaluation in a patient with disorder of sexual development, 46,XY karyotype and one NR5A1 mutation.  

PubMed

Steroidogenic factor 1 (encoded by the NR5A1 gene) is a critical regulator of reproduction, controlling transcription of key genes involved in sexual dimorphism. To date, NR5A1 variants have been found in individuals with a 46,XY karyotype and gonadal dysgenesis, as well as with a wide spectrum of genital anomalies and, in some patients, with adrenal insufficiency. We describe evolution of gonadal function, from the neonatal period to puberty, in a patient with a 46,XY karyotype, a disorder of sexual development, and a mutation (c.691_699dupCTGCAGCTG) in the NR5A1 gene. The patient, ascertained at birth due to ambiguous genitalia, showed normal values of plasma testosterone in the late neonatal period. Evaluation of the hormonal profile over time indicated severe tubular testicular hypofunction suggestive for a 46,XY disorder of gonadal development. A comprehensive review of published reports of 46,XY and disordered sexual development related to the NR5A1 gene confirmed the clinical and hormonal variability in patients with NR5A1 mutations. Analysis of multiple data allowed us to define the most common features associated with NR5A1 mutations. We further confirmed the indication to perform NR5A1 screening in patients with 46,XY karyotype and disordered sexual development even when Müllerian structures appear to be absent and plasma testosterone levels are within the normal range for age. PMID:25160005

Pedace, Lucia; Laino, Luigi; Preziosi, Nicoletta; Valentini, Maria Stella; Scommegna, Salvatore; Rapone, Anna Maria; Guarino, Nino; Boscherini, Brunetto; De Bernardo, Carmelilia; Marrocco, Giacinto; Majore, Silvia; Grammatico, Paola

2014-11-01

295

Childhood sexual and physical abuse as risk factors for the development of bulimia nervosa: A community-based case control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. There were two aims: First, to determine whether sexual or physical abuse in childhood or adolescence increases the risk of developing bulimia nervosa, and second, to see whether any increase in risk is specific to bulimia nervosa rather than being common to psychiatric disorders in general.Method. A case control design with individual matching was used. There were two related

Christopher G. Fairburn

1996-01-01

296

EFFECTS OF MIXTURES OF PHTHALATES, PESTICIDES AND TCDD ON SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATON IN RATS: A RISK FRAMEWORK BASED UPON DISRUPTION OF COMMON DEVELOPING SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Since humans are exposed to more than one chemical at a time, concern has arisen about the effects of mixtures of chemicals on human reproduction and development. We are conducting studies to determine the 1) classes of chemicals that disrupt sexual differentiation via different ...

297

Multivariate Expression Analysis of the Gene Network Underlying Sexual Development in Turtle Embryos with Temperature-Dependent and Genotypic Sex Determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual development has long been the target of study and despite great advances in our understanding of the composition and regulation of the gene network underlying gonadogenesis, our knowledge remains incomplete. Of particular interest is the relative role that the environment and the genome play in directing gonadal formation, especially the effect of environmental temperature in directing this process in

N. Valenzuela

2010-01-01

298

A Comparison of Self-Reported Puberty Using the Pubertal Development Scale and the Sexual Maturation Scale in a School-Based Epidemiologic Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine concordance between two self-reported measures of puberty: Sexual Maturation Scale (SMS) and Pubertal Development Scale (PDS) and their acceptability to adolescents. Methods: Participants of a school-based study in grades 5, 7 and 9 were classified into one of 5 pubertal stages using each method. Results: 2864 students (age…

Bond, Lyndal; Clements, Jackie; Bertalli, Nadine; Evans-Whipp, Tracy; McMorris, Barbara J.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

2006-01-01

299

Sexual side effects of antidepressants.  

PubMed

Patients with depressive disorders frequently have concurrent sexual problems. The sexual dysfunction is often masked by the mood disorder, and many patients have difficulty discussing these problems openly. Thus, sexual dysfunction often is detectable only by careful inquiry. The relationship between sexual dysfunction and depressive disorders is further complicated by antidepressant therapy, which itself may cause sexual dysfunction, increasing the risk of noncompliance and relapse. This article reviews studies indicating that antidepressants may cause 30% to 40% of patients who take them to develop some degree of sexual dysfunction. Management strategies for alleviating sexual dysfunction as a complication of antidepressant treatment are discussed in terms of supporting research studies as well as practicality. Spontaneous resolution of antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunctions rarely occurs, and dose reductions may jeopardize the antidepressant effect. Antidotes, drug holidays, and timing sexual relations with respect to antidepressant dose are effective for some patients, but only a few of these strategies have been studied with double-blind paradigms. Switching to antidepressants that cause sexual dysfunction at lower rates and data comparing rates of sexual dysfunction among antidepressants are discussed. PMID:10926052

Rothschild, A J

2000-01-01

300

Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes of Men with Intellectual Disability Who Sexually Offend  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Various explanations of sexual offending in men with intellectual disability (ID) have stressed sexual deviance and a lack of developmental socio-sexual knowledge. Method: Using the normative dataset of people with ID from the development of the "Socio-Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Assessment Tool--Revised" (SSKAAT-R: Griffiths &…

Lunsky, Yona; Frijters, Jan; Griffiths, Dorothy M.; Watson, Shelley L.; Williston, Stephanie

2007-01-01

301

Sexual History and Present Behavior of Unmarried Cohabitating College Couples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cohabitating college couples (N=89) responded to a questionnaire pertaining to their current sexual relationships and individual sexual behavior patterns, historical and present. Results indicate that those individuals, especially the males, had been unusually precocious in their sexual development. (Author)

Catlin, Nancy; And Others

1976-01-01

302

Susceptibility of salmonid alphavirus to a range of chemical disinfectants.  

PubMed

A range of commercially available disinfectants were tested for efficacy against salmonid alphavirus under a range of different conditions including variations in concentration, temperature, contact time, water type and presence or absence of organic matter. Testing was based on the protocol defined in the draft European Standard prEN 14675, for which the effective standard is a 4 log(10) reduction in viral titre. All disinfectants were found to be effective under at least some of the conditions tested. However, the presence of organic matter in particular was shown to be detrimental in some cases, either through rendering some disinfectants ineffective, or by production of a visible inhomogeneity. PMID:17501737

Graham, D A; Cherry, K; Wilson, C J; Rowley, H M

2007-05-01

303

Gene regulation by NMDA receptor activation in the SDN-POA neurons of male rats during sexual development.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to identify possible signaling pathways, which may play a role in prevention of neuronal apoptosis in the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) after physiological activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. Gene response to the blockage of the NMDA receptor by an antagonist (dizocilpine hydrogen maleate; MK-801) was screened after suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). The results showed that differential screening after SSH detected the presence of some neurotrophic genes (RNA binding motif protein 3 (RBM3), alpha-tubulin) as well as apoptosis-related genes (Bcl-2, cytochrome oxidase subunit II, cytochrome oxidase subunit III) in the SDN-POA of male rats, which were down-regulated by blocking the NMDA receptor. The RT-PCR products of the aforementioned genes in MK-801-treated males were significantly less than that in untreated males. In particular, the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA, including Bcl-2 protein, in male rats were significantly suppressed by MK-801 treatment. Moreover, the binding activity of nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) was significantly higher in male rats than in females, but significantly diminished by blocking the NMDA receptor with MK-801 in male rats. No significant difference in cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) binding activity was observed among untreated male, MK-801-treated male, untreated female and MK-801-treated female groups. These results suggest that genes regulated by NMDA receptor activation might participate in neuronal growth and/or anti-apoptosis, and support an important signaling pathway of NFkappaB activation and its target gene, Bcl-2, in preventing neuronal apoptosis in the SDN-POA of male rats during sexual development. PMID:15821108

Hsu, Hseng-Kuang; Shao, Pei-Lin; Tsai, Ke-Li; Shih, Huei-Chuan; Lee, Tzu-Ying; Hsu, Chin

2005-04-01

304

Saving Sex for Later: developing a parent–child communication intervention to delay sexual initiation among young adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young adolescents in communities with high rates of early sexual initiation are at risk of multiple negative health outcomes. Although sex education programs for this age group are often controversial, surveys document that many mothers and fathers would appreciate guidance about how to discuss sexuality with their children. This paper presents an innovative strategy for reaching inner?city parents and helping

Lydia ODonnell; Kim Dash; Varzi Jeanbaptiste; Jesse Moss; Ann Stueve

2007-01-01

305

The Development of Reproductive Strategy in Females: Early Maternal Harshness [right arrow] Earlier Menarche [right arrow] Increased Sexual Risk Taking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To test a proposition central to J. Belsky, L. Steinberg, and P. Draper's (1991) evolutionary theory of socialization--that pubertal maturation plays a role in linking early rearing experience with adolescent sexual risk taking (i.e., frequency of sexual behavior) and, perhaps, other risk taking (e.g., alcohol, drugs, delinquency)--the authors…

Belsky, Jay; Steinberg, Laurence; Houts, Renate M.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

2010-01-01

306

"Saving Sex for Later": Developing a Parent-Child Communication Intervention to Delay Sexual Initiation among Young Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young adolescents in communities with high rates of early sexual initiation are at risk of multiple negative health outcomes. Although sex education programs for this age group are often controversial, surveys document that many mothers and fathers would appreciate guidance about how to discuss sexuality with their children. This paper presents an…

O'Donnell, Lydia; Wilson-Simmons, Renee; Dash, Kim; Jeanbaptiste, Varzi; Myint-U, Athi; Moss, Jesse; Stueve, Ann

2007-01-01

307

Sexual Risk Behavior Among Youth With Perinatal HIV Infection in the United States: Predictors and Implications for Intervention Development  

PubMed Central

Background.?Factors associated with initiation of sexual activity among perinatally human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected (PHIV+) youth, and the attendant potential for sexual transmission of antiretroviral (ARV) drug-resistant HIV, remain poorly understood. Methods.?We conducted cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of PHIV+ youth aged 10–18 years (mean, 13.5 years) enrolled in the US-based Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study between 2007 and 2009. Audio computer-assisted self-interviews (ACASI) were used to collect sexual behavior information. Results.?Twenty-eight percent (95% confidence interval [CI], 23%–33%) (92/330) of PHIV+ youth reported sexual intercourse (SI) (median initiation age, 14 years). Sixty-two percent (57/92) of sexually active youth reported unprotected SI. Among youth who did not report history of SI at baseline, ARV nonadherence was associated with sexual initiation during follow-up (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.87; 95% CI, 1.32–6.25). Youth living with a relative other than their biological mother had higher odds of engaging in unprotected SI than those living with a nonrelative. Thirty-three percent of youth disclosed their HIV status to their first sexual partner. Thirty-nine of 92 (42%) sexually active youth had HIV RNA ?5000 copies/mL after sexual initiation. Viral drug resistance testing, available for 37 of these 39 youth, identified resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in 62%, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in 57%, protease inhibitors in 38%, and all 3 ARV classes in 22%. Conclusions.?As PHIV+ youth become sexually active, many engage in behaviors that place their partners at risk for HIV infection, including infection with drug-resistant virus. Effective interventions to facilitate youth adherence, safe sex practices, and disclosure are urgently needed. PMID:23139252

Tassiopoulos, Katherine; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Mellins, Claude; Kacanek, Deborah; Malee, Kathleen; Allison, Susannah; Hazra, Rohan; Siberry, George K.; Smith, Renee; Paul, Mary; Van Dyke, Russell B.; Seage, George R.

2013-01-01

308

The Problem... ! Sexual Assault & Sexual Harassment are  

E-print Network

SPEAK UP SPEAK OUT #12;The Problem... ! Sexual Assault & Sexual Harassment are underreported and sexual harassment seriously. " We continue to meet WSU's obligations under Title IX and under WSU's own Sexual Harassment ! Unwelcome sexual advances or other behavior of a sexual nature, when submission

VandeVord, Pamela

309

Ras GTPase-Activating Protein Gap1 of the Homobasidiomycete Schizophyllum commune Regulates Hyphal Growth Orientation and Sexual Development  

PubMed Central

The white rot fungus Schizophyllum commune is used for the analysis of mating and sexual development in homobasidiomycete fungi. In this study, we isolated the gene gap1 encoding a GTPase-activating protein for Ras. Disruption of gap1 should therefore lead to strains accumulating Ras in its activated, GTP-bound state and to constitutive Ras signaling. Haploid ?gap1 monokaryons of different mating types did not show alterations in mating behavior in the four different mating interactions possible in fungi expressing a tetrapolar mating type system. Instead, the growth rate in ?gap1 monokaryons was reduced by ca. 25% and ca. 50% in homozygous ?gap1/?gap1 dikaryons. Monokaryons, as well as homozygous dikaryons, carrying the disrupted gap1 alleles exhibited a disorientated growth pattern. Dikaryons showed a strong phenotype during clamp formation since hook cells failed to fuse with the peg beside them. Instead, the dikaryotic character of the hyphae was rescued by fusion of the hooks with nearby developing branches. ?gap1/?gap1 dikaryons formed increased numbers of fruitbody primordia, whereas the amount of fruitbodies was not raised. Mature fruitbodies formed no or abnormal gills. No production of spores could be observed. The results suggest Ras involvement in growth, clamp formation, and fruitbody development. PMID:16607016

Schubert, Daniela; Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Knabe, Nicole; Kothe, Erika

2006-01-01

310

Ras GTPase-activating protein gap1 of the homobasidiomycete Schizophyllum commune regulates hyphal growth orientation and sexual development.  

PubMed

The white rot fungus Schizophyllum commune is used for the analysis of mating and sexual development in homobasidiomycete fungi. In this study, we isolated the gene gap1 encoding a GTPase-activating protein for Ras. Disruption of gap1 should therefore lead to strains accumulating Ras in its activated, GTP-bound state and to constitutive Ras signaling. Haploid Deltagap1 monokaryons of different mating types did not show alterations in mating behavior in the four different mating interactions possible in fungi expressing a tetrapolar mating type system. Instead, the growth rate in Deltagap1 monokaryons was reduced by ca. 25% and ca. 50% in homozygous Deltagap1/Deltagap1 dikaryons. Monokaryons, as well as homozygous dikaryons, carrying the disrupted gap1 alleles exhibited a disorientated growth pattern. Dikaryons showed a strong phenotype during clamp formation since hook cells failed to fuse with the peg beside them. Instead, the dikaryotic character of the hyphae was rescued by fusion of the hooks with nearby developing branches. Deltagap1/Deltagap1 dikaryons formed increased numbers of fruitbody primordia, whereas the amount of fruitbodies was not raised. Mature fruitbodies formed no or abnormal gills. No production of spores could be observed. The results suggest Ras involvement in growth, clamp formation, and fruitbody development. PMID:16607016

Schubert, Daniela; Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Knabe, Nicole; Kothe, Erika

2006-04-01

311

Teenage Sexuality  

MedlinePLUS

... Register About Us Contact Us My Cart Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen > Dating & Sex > Teenage Sexuality Ages & Stages Listen Teenage Sexuality Article ... to Know, 2nd Edition Sports Success Rx! Your Child’s Prescription for the Best Experience HealthyChildren.org Post-it Notes Home Strength Training for Young Athletes ... Nutrition Driving Safety School Substance Abuse Young ...

312

Sexual selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competition over mates takes many forms and has far-reaching consequences for many organisms. Recent work suggests that relative reproductive rates of males and females, sperm competition and quality variation among mates affect the strength of sexual selection. Song, other display, body size, visual ornaments and material resource offerings are often sexually selected. There is much empirical evidence of mate choice,

Malte Andersson; Yoh Iwasa

1996-01-01

313

A Global Assessment of Salmon Aquaculture Impacts on Wild Salmonids  

PubMed Central

Since the late 1980s, wild salmon catch and abundance have declined dramatically in the North Atlantic and in much of the northeastern Pacific south of Alaska. In these areas, there has been a concomitant increase in the production of farmed salmon. Previous studies have shown negative impacts on wild salmonids, but these results have been difficult to translate into predictions of change in wild population survival and abundance. We compared marine survival of salmonids in areas with salmon farming to adjacent areas without farms in Scotland, Ireland, Atlantic Canada, and Pacific Canada to estimate changes in marine survival concurrent with the growth of salmon aquaculture. Through a meta-analysis of existing data, we show a reduction in survival or abundance of Atlantic salmon; sea trout; and pink, chum, and coho salmon in association with increased production of farmed salmon. In many cases, these reductions in survival or abundance are greater than 50%. Meta-analytic estimates of the mean effect are significant and negative, suggesting that salmon farming has reduced survival of wild salmon and trout in many populations and countries. PMID:18271629

Ford, Jennifer S; Myers†, Ransom A

2008-01-01

314

A global assessment of salmon aquaculture impacts on wild salmonids.  

PubMed

Since the late 1980s, wild salmon catch and abundance have declined dramatically in the North Atlantic and in much of the northeastern Pacific south of Alaska. In these areas, there has been a concomitant increase in the production of farmed salmon. Previous studies have shown negative impacts on wild salmonids, but these results have been difficult to translate into predictions of change in wild population survival and abundance. We compared marine survival of salmonids in areas with salmon farming to adjacent areas without farms in Scotland, Ireland, Atlantic Canada, and Pacific Canada to estimate changes in marine survival concurrent with the growth of salmon aquaculture. Through a meta-analysis of existing data, we show a reduction in survival or abundance of Atlantic salmon; sea trout; and pink, chum, and coho salmon in association with increased production of farmed salmon. In many cases, these reductions in survival or abundance are greater than 50%. Meta-analytic estimates of the mean effect are significant and negative, suggesting that salmon farming has reduced survival of wild salmon and trout in many populations and countries. PMID:18271629

Ford, Jennifer S; Myers, Ransom A

2008-02-01

315

Changes in salmonid communities associated with pesticide runoff events.  

PubMed

Two agricultural runoff events involving the pesticide azinphos-methyl occurred in July 2002 on the Wilmot River, Prince Edward Island, Canada, resulting in the death of thousands of fish. The fish communities from three sites on this river had been sampled in 2001, permitting comparisons of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations before and after the events. Samples taken immediately after the runoff events suggested that brook trout suffered higher mortality than rainbow trout. Young-of-the-year fish were more affected than older age classes for both species. Sampling in 2003, a year after the pesticide runoff events, revealed salmonid communities that were still skewed towards rainbow trout, and a decrease in the 1+ age class density (2002's young of the year) at affected sites. These results suggest a differential effect of the pesticide azinphos-methyl on salmonid species and age classes under natural conditions, and a subsequent change in population and community structure. The possibility of these pesticide runoff events selecting for rainbow trout, an exotic species, is a consideration in management of agriculturally impacted rivers. PMID:16151612

Gormley, Karen L; Teather, Kevin L; Guignion, Daryl L

2005-10-01

316

Biology and Sexual Minority Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this chapter is to provide clinicians with an overview of current knowledge pertaining to the biology of sexual\\u000a minority status. Under the umbrella of sexual minority are included homosexuals, bisexuals, transgenders and intersexes. The\\u000a most developed biologic theory pertaining to sexual minority status is the prenatal hormonal\\u000a hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, prenatal hormones act (primarily during

William Byne

317

Large scale modelling of salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) infection pressure based on lice monitoring data from Norwegian salmonid farms.  

PubMed

Infection by parasitic sea lice is a substantial problem in industrial scale salmon farming. To control the problem, Norwegian salmonid farms are not permitted to exceed a threshold level of infection on their fish, and farms are required to monitor and report lice levels on a weekly basis to ensure compliance with the regulation. In the present study, we combine the monitoring data with a deterministic model for salmon lice population dynamics to estimate farm production of infectious lice stages. Furthermore, we use an empirical estimate of the relative risk of salmon lice transmission between farms, that depend on inter-farm distances, to estimate the external infection pressure at a farm site, i.e. the infection pressure from infective salmon lice of neighbouring farm origin. Finally, we test whether our estimates of infection pressure from neighbouring farms as well as internal within farm infection pressure, predicts subsequent development of infection in cohorts of farmed salmonids in their initial phase of marine production. We find that estimated external infection pressure is a main predictor of salmon lice population dynamics in newly stocked cohorts of salmonids. Our results emphasize the importance of keeping the production of infectious lice stages at low levels within local networks of salmon farms. Our model can easily be implemented for real time estimation of infection pressure at the national scale, utilizing the masses of data generated through the compulsory lice monitoring in salmon farms. The implementation of such a system should give the salmon industry greater predictability with respect to salmon lice infection levels, and aid the decision making process when the development of new farm sites are planned. PMID:25480132

Kristoffersen, Anja B; Jimenez, Daniel; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Grøntvedt, Randi; Stien, Audun; Jansen, Peder A

2014-12-01

318

From Violence Exposure to Development of Sexual Risk in Low-Income Urban Girls: The Role of Psychopathology.  

PubMed

This longitudinal study examined psychopathology as an explanatory mechanism linking childhood violence exposure (CVE) to sexual risk in 177 African American girls recruited from mental health clinics serving low-income communities in Chicago. Beginning at average age 14, girls completed five interviews over 2 years and a sixth assessment including trauma history. CVE reflected sexual, physical, or witnessed violence before age 12. Latent growth modeling accounted for developmental change across the six time points. Externalizing, but not internalizing, symptoms mediated the pathway from CVE to number of partners (indirect effect = .16, 95 % CIBCBS = .04-.29) and inconsistent condom use (indirect effect = .11, CIBCBS = .004-.21). Externalizing problems associated with CVE may help to explain its relationship with sexual risk in low-income, treatment-seeking African American girls. Behavioral interventions addressing aggression, impulsivity, and general risk-taking may be most effective in reducing sexual risk in this population. PMID:24801477

Wilson, Helen W; Pettineo, Laura; Edmonds, Alexus; Goodman, Elizabeth A; Emerson, Erin; Donenberg, Geri R

2014-05-01

319

Child sexual abuse, links to later sexual exploitation/high-risk sexual behavior, and prevention/treatment programs.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly. PMID:20679329

Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen

2010-10-01

320

Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata).  

PubMed

Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine-disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi-static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long-term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17?-estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine-disrupting action. PMID:22714039

Tian, Hua; Li, Yun; Wang, Wei; Wu, Peng; Ru, Shaoguo

2012-09-01

321

Determine the Influence of Time Held in “Knockdown” Anesthesia on Survival and Stress of Surgically Implanted Juvenile Salmonids  

SciTech Connect

The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) was developed for the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers Portland District (USACE) to address questions related to survival and performance measures of juvenile salmonids as they pass through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). Researchers using JSATS acoustic transmitters (ATs) were tasked with standardizing the surgical implantation procedure to ensure that the stressors of handling and surgery on salmonids were consistent and less likely to cause effects of tagging in survival studies. Researchers questioned whether the exposure time in 'knockdown' anesthesia (or induction) to prepare fish for surgery could influence the survival of study fish (CBSPSC 2011). Currently, fish are held in knockdown anesthesia after they reach Stage 4 anesthesia until the completion of the surgical implantation of a transmitter, varies from 5 to 15 minutes for studies conducted in the Columbia Basin. The Columbia Basin Surgical Protocol Steering Committee (CBSPSC ) expressed concern that its currently recommended 10-minute maximum time limit during which fish are held in anesthetic - tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222, 80 mg L-1 water) - could increase behavioral and physiological costs, and/or decrease survival of outmigrating juvenile salmonids. In addition, the variability in the time fish are held at Stage 4 could affect the data intended for direct comparison of fish within or among survival studies. Under the current recommended protocol, if fish exceed the 10-minute time limit, they are to be released without surgical implantation, thereby increasing the number of fish handled and endangered species 'take' at the bypass systems for FCRPS survival studies.

Woodley, Christa M.; Wagner, Katie A.; Knox, Kasey M.

2012-01-31

322

Comparative evaluation of molecular diagnostic tests for Nucleospora salmonis and prevalence in migrating juvenile salmonids from the Snake River, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nucleospora salmonis is an intranuclear microsporidian that primarily infects lymphoblast cells and contributes to chronic lymphoblastosis and a leukemia-like condition in a range of salmonid species. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of N. salmonis in out-migrating juvenile hatchery and wild Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss from the Snake River in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. To achieve this goal, we first addressed the following concerns about current molecular diagnostic tests for N. salmonis: (1) nonspecific amplification patterns by the published nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) test, (2) incomplete validation of the published quantitative PCR (qPCR) test, and (3) whether N. salmonis can be detected reliably from nonlethal samples. Here, we present an optimized nPCR protocol that eliminates nonspecific amplification. During validation of the published qPCR test, our laboratory developed a second qPCR test that targeted a different gene sequence and used different probe chemistry for comparison purposes. We simultaneously evaluated the two different qPCR tests for N. salmonis and found that both assays were highly specific, sensitive, and repeatable. The nPCR and qPCR tests had good overall concordance when DNA samples derived from both apparently healthy and clinically diseased hatchery rainbow trout were tested. Finally, we demonstrated that gill snips were a suitable tissue for nonlethal detection of N. salmonis DNA in juvenile salmonids. Monitoring of juvenile salmonid fish in the Snake River over a 3-year period revealed low prevalence of N. salmonis in hatchery and wild Chinook salmon and wild steelhead but significantly higher prevalence in hatchery-derived steelhead. Routine monitoring of N. salmonis is not performed for all hatchery steelhead populations. At present, the possible contribution of this pathogen to delayed mortality of steelhead has not been determined.

Badil, Samantha; Elliott, Diane G.; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Hedrick, Ronald P.; Clemens, Kathy; Blair, Marilyn; Purcell, Maureen K.

2011-01-01

323

Sexual assertiveness mediates the effect of social interaction anxiety on sexual victimization risk among college women.  

PubMed

Sexual victimization is prevalent among college women and is associated with adverse psychological consequences. Social anxiety, particularly related to interpersonal interaction, may increase risk of sexual victimization among college women by decreasing sexual assertiveness and decreasing the likelihood of using assertive resistance techniques. This study examined social interaction anxiety as a risk factor for sexual victimization. College women (n=672) completed online measures of social interaction anxiety, sexual assertiveness, and sexual victimization experiences. Social interaction anxiety was significantly positively related to likelihood of experiencing coerced sexual intercourse, and significant indirect effects, via decreased sexual refusal assertiveness, were found for both coerced sexual intercourse and rape. Social anxiety may be an important psychological barrier to assertive resistance during risky sexual situations, and developers of risk reduction programs for college women should consider including methods to help women overcome their social anxiety in order to successfully use assertive resistance techniques. PMID:23312432

Schry, Amie R; White, Susan W

2013-03-01

324

Same-sex sexual behavior in birds: expression is related to social mating system and state of development at hatching  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the findings of a phylogenetic comparative analysis examining patterns and frequency of occurrence of same-sex courtship and mounting behavior in birds. Our analysis has shown associations between same-sex sexual behavior and both mating system and degree of precociousness at hatching. The patterns of expression and frequency of occurrence of same-sex sexual behavior differed markedly for males and females.

Geoff R. MacFarlane; Simon P. Blomberg; Gisela Kaplan; L. J. Rogers

2006-01-01

325

The Implications of Erotic Plasticity and Social Constructionism in the Formation of Female Sexual Identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the definition of erotic plasticity, female sexuality is more flexible than male sexuality and more influenced by social, cultural, and situational factors. The social constructionist model suggests that sexuality is constructed by culture so that female sexuality may vary based on the context of one's experiences. Developing a sexual identity may involve exploring a variety of sexual experiences

Alyssa D. McElwain; Michele E. Grimes; Melissa L. McVicker

2009-01-01

326

Development and Evaluation of a Sexual Decision-Making and Social Skills Program: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of interactive videodisc programs designed to reduce HIV\\/STD risk behaviors was developed and evaluated. Separate programs were developed for each of three race\\/ethnicities (African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian) at each of two age levels (middle school and high school) using extensive formative procedures. Each program uses scenarios with extensive branching story lines to teach decision-making skills and socially

John Noell; Dennis Ary; Terry Duncan

1997-01-01

327

Functional analysis of hydrophobin genes in sexual development of Botrytis cinerea.  

PubMed

Hydrophobins are small secreted fungal proteins that play roles in growth and development of filamentous fungi, i.e. in the formation of aerial structures and the attachment of hyphae to hydrophobic surfaces. In Botrytis cinerea, three hydrophobin genes have been identified. Studies by Mosbach et al. (2011) showed that hydrophobins are neither involved in conferring surface hydrophobicity to conidia and aerial hyphae of B. cinerea, nor are they required for virulence. The present study investigated the role of hydrophobins in sclerotium and apothecium development. Expression analysis revealed high expression of the Bhp1 gene during different stages of apothecium development. Two Bhp1 splice variants were detected that differ by an internal stretch of 13 amino acid residues. Seven different mutants in which either a single, two or three hydrophobin genes were knocked out, as well as two wild type strains of opposite mating types, were characterized for sclerotium and apothecium development. No aberrant morphology was observed in sclerotium development when single deletion mutants in hydrophobin genes were analyzed. Sclerotia of double knock out mutant ?Bhp1/?Bhp3 and the triple knock out mutant, however, showed easily wettable phenotypes. For analyzing apothecium development, a reciprocal crossing scheme was setup. Morphological aberrations were observed in crosses with two hydrophobin mutants. When the double knock out mutant ?Bhp1/?Bhp2 and the triple knock out mutant were used as the maternal parent (sclerotia), and fertilized with wild type microconidia, the resulting apothecia were swollen, dark brown in color and had a blotched surface. After initially growing upwards toward the light source, the apothecia in many cases collapsed due to loss of structural integrity. Aberrant apothecium development was not observed in the reciprocal cross, when these same mutants were used as the paternal parent (microconidia). These results indicate that the presence of hydrophobins in maternal tissue is important for normal development of apothecia of B. cinerea. PMID:25181040

Terhem, Razak B; van Kan, Jan A L

2014-10-01

328

A case of leucocyte chimerism (78,XX/78,XY) in a dog with a disorder of sexual development.  

PubMed

A 1-year-old Shih Tzu dog was presented for examination because of abnormal external genitalia. A residual penis with a prepuce was located in a position typical of a male. The dog had no palpable testicles or scrotum. The ultrasound examination revealed the presence of the prostate, but the gonads remained undetectable. Cytogenetic analysis performed on chromosome preparations obtained from lymphocyte culture showed two cell lines - 78,XX and 78,XY. Molecular analysis of 14 polymorphic microsatellite markers allowed us to distinguish leucocyte chimerism from whole body chimerism. The presence of 3 or 4 alleles was confirmed in DNA isolated from blood, while in DNA isolated from hair follicles only 1 or 2 alleles were detected. The case was classified as leucocyte 78,XX/78,XY chimerism. Our study showed that XX/XY leucocyte chimerism might be associated with disorder of sexual development in dogs. Furthermore, it is emphasized that the use of cytogenetic study, in combination with analysis of polymorphic markers in DNA isolated from different somatic cells, facilitates distinguishing between leucocyte and whole body chimerism. PMID:24735223

Szczerbal, I; Nowacka-Woszuk, J; Nizanski, W; Salamon, S; Ochota, M; Dzimira, S; Atamaniuk, W; Switonski, M

2014-06-01

329

Disposition of diiosononyl phthalate and its effects on sexual development of the male fetus following repeated dosing in pregnant rats.  

PubMed

Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received 50, 250, and 500 mg/kg/day diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) from GD 12 to 19 via corn oil gavage to study the dose response for effects on fetal male rat sexual development as well as metabolite disposition in the dam and fetus. Monoisononyl phthalate (MiNP), mono(carboxy-isooctyl) phthalate (MCiOP), mono(hydroxyl-isononyl) phthalate (MHiNP), mono(oxo-isononyl) phthalate (MOiNP), and monoisononyl phthalate glucuronide (MiNP-G) were found in all measured tissues. MCiOP was the major metabolite, followed in decreasing order by MiNP, MHiNP, MOiNP, and MiNP-G. Percentage of dose absorbed decreased at 750 mg/kg/day. Testosterone concentration in the fetal testes was reduced at 250 and 750 mg/kg/day. Multinucleated germ cells were increased in the testes of rats at 250 and 750 mg/kg/day. The no observed effect level (NOEL) for this study was 50 mg/kg/day based on increased MNGs and reduced testes testosterone concentration in the fetal rat. PMID:22813627

Clewell, Rebecca A; Sochaski, Mark; Edwards, Kendra; Creasy, Dianne M; Willson, Gabrielle; Andersen, Melvin E

2013-01-01

330

Sexual Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... that is, no pleasurable sexual sensations in her clitoris or vagina. Male erectile disorder, or ED, is ... fall under this category, including vibrators, dilators, and clitoral devices. Vibrators and dildos can be used by ...

331

A Study on the Effect of a Program Teaching Healthy Sexuality Values on Adolescent Sexual Awareness and Sexual Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to explore the effectiveness of a program teaching healthy sexuality values on adolescent sexual awareness and sexual behavior. For this study, the present researcher, along with two other professors, developed a 4-h program on 4 different subjects, and conducted the full education program through four different 4-h…

Moon, Sang Huy

2013-01-01

332

Psychological consequences of sexual assault.  

PubMed

Sexual violence is an important issue worldwide and can have long-lasting and devastating consequences. In this chapter, we outline the psychological reactions to serious sexual assault and rape, including development of post-traumatic stress disorder. Myths and stereotypes surrounding this subject, and their potential effect on the emotional response and legal situation, are discussed. PMID:23182852

Mason, Fiona; Lodrick, Zoe

2013-02-01

333

Sexuality, Television and Broadcast Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph provides a rationale for contemporary guidelines for the television and broadcast network management of sexual content in proposed progam materials. Beginning with a brief outline of the professional practices and responsibilities of broadcast standards editors, it then explores the relationships between sexual development,…

Heller, Melvin S.

334

Treatment of sexually compulsive adolescents.  

PubMed

We clarified the nature of sexual compulsivity in adolescence, addressed who is labeled as "sexually compulsive youth," conceptualized the underlying factors of sexual compulsivity, and outlined a treatment format. We focused on trauma, dissociation, attachment, and self-concept. We questioned the conventional perceptions of who is included in this group. We reiterated that the belief that sexually compulsive adolescents are abusive males is no longer considered accurate. The evolution and accessibility of the Internet only raises greater concerns about compulsive sexual behavior, as more adolescents are brought into therapy because of Internet use to seek sexual interaction or stimulation. The sexually compulsive youth is as likely to be the clean-cut, high-achieving, intelligent student as is the economically deprived, juvenile delinquent on the street. This article began with the observation that adolescents rarely receive any direct, accurate information about sexuality and intimacy. The messages taken in through music, television, movies, politicians, popular press, clergy, and school are polarizing and contradictory. Beyond this are the implications as to how we, as a society, treat the youths that do present with sexual behavior problems. We have tended to treat these youth (as well as adults) with disdain and to designate sexually abusive youth the same as adult offenders with harsher, more punitive treatment interventions. Research and clinical experience now strongly question this type of response. This article is consistent with this leaning. Early psychological injury, from sexual abuse, physical abuse, exposure to violence, attachment trauma, or early sexualization, is at the root of sexually compulsive behavior. While it is necessary to reign in out-of-control and destructive behaviors, if we acknowledge that the source of the behavior is psychological injury, then it is cruel and inconsistent to treat the individual with disdain or as a pariah. The same dilemma is present with adult sexual addicts and offenders. Our society must develop a response to sexually compulsive or offensive behavior that can protect those who need protection, while implementing a rational legal response and providing treatment options for the underlying injury. Perhaps even more importantly, our society must learn how to educate adolescents about sexuality with clear, accurate information that includes not only reproduction but sexual response and intimacy as well. PMID:18996305

Gerber, James

2008-12-01

335

Review of the negative influences of non-native salmonids on native fish species  

USGS Publications Warehouse

suggested that non-native salmonids negatively inflfluence species of concern. The objective of this paper is to review known interactions between non-native salmonids and native fifishes, with a focus on native species of concern. After an extensive search of the literature, it appears that in many cases non-native salmonids do negatively inflfl uence species of concern (e.g., reduce abundance and alter behavior) via different mechanisms (e.g., predation and competition). However, there are some instances in which introduced salmonids have had no perceived negative inflfl uence on native fifi shes. Unfortunately, the majority of the literature is circumstantial, and there is a need to experimentally manipulate these interactions.

Turek, Kelly C.; Pegg, Mark A.; Pope, Kevin L.

2013-01-01

336

Sexual orientation and boyhood gender conformity: Development of the Boyhood Gender Conformity Scale (BGCS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred twenty-eight respondents (110 heterosexuals and 118 homosexuals) completed a survey containing a 20-item Boyhood Gender Conformity Scale (BGCS). This scale was largely composed of edited and abridged gender items from Part A of Freund et al.'s Feminine Gender Identity Scale (FGISA) and Whitam's “childhood indicators.” The combined scale was developed in an attempt to obtain a reliable, valid,

Stewart L. Hockenberry; Robert E. Billingham

1987-01-01

337

Transporting juvenile salmonids around dams impairs adult migration.  

PubMed

Mitigation and ecosystem-restoration efforts may have unintended consequences on both target and nontarget populations. Important effects can be displaced in space and time, making them difficult to detect without monitoring at appropriate scales. Here, we examined the effects of a mitigation program for juvenile salmonids on subsequent adult migration behaviors and survival. Juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) were collected and uniquely tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags at Lower Granite Dam (Washington State, USA) on the Snake River and were then either transported downstream in barges in an effort to reduce out-migration mortality or returned to the river as a control group. Returning adults were collected and radio-tagged at Bonneville Dam (Washington-Oregon, USA) on the Columbia River 1-3 years later and then monitored during approximately 460 km of their homing migrations. The proportion of adults successfully homing was significantly lower, and unaccounted loss and permanent straying into non-natal rivers was higher, for barged fish of both species. On average, barged fish homed to Lower Granite Dam at rates about 10% lower than for in-river migrants. Barged fish were also 1.7-3.4 times more likely than in-river fish to fall back downstream past dams as adults, a behavior strongly associated with lower survival. These results suggest that juvenile transport impaired adult orientation or homing abilities, perhaps by disrupting sequential imprinting processes during juvenile out-migration. While juvenile transportation has clear short-term juvenile-survival benefits, the delayed effects that manifest in adult stages illustrate the need to assess mitigation success throughout the life cycle of target organisms, i.e., the use of fitness-based measures. In the case of Snake River salmonids listed under the Endangered Species Act, the increased straying and potential associated genetic and demographic effects may represent significant risks to successful recovery for both target and nontarget populations. PMID:19263886

Keefer, Matthew L; Caudill, Christopher C; Peery, Christopher A; Lee, Steven R

2008-12-01

338

Adolescent Sexual Education: Designing Curriculum That Works  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this review paper, "Adolescent Sexual Education: Designing Curriculum That Works", is to present some basic curriculum necessities for developing an in-school sexual education program that results in decreasing the number of teenagers initiating sex, thus reducing the number of teen pregnancies and cases of sexually transmitted…

Quincy, Michael L.

2009-01-01

339

Sexual Health for Older Women  

PubMed Central

This article presents findings from a review of the evidence regarding sexual health for older women from MEDLINE, SCOPUS and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINHAL) databases. A total of 10 articles based on primary studies, reporting about the sexuality or sexual health of older women (and older people), and published between 2002–2012, were deemed suitable. The major themes that emerged from the available literature suggest that the sexual health of older people is affected by factors such as physical changes, mental health, changes to their relationship with their husband, chronic ill health and other psychosocial situations. It is concluded that nurses and other healthcare providers have a range of interventions that can be adopted to promote sexual health among older women. These interventions may focus on improving the older woman’s sexual health assessment; increasing awareness and knowledge about sexuality in later life; pharmacological and psychotherapeutic therapies; using alternative techniques to achieve better sexual functioning; addressing partner and relationship issues, and advocating the importance of sexual health through media and policy development. PMID:24273655

Muliira, Joshua K.; Muliira, Rhoda S.

2013-01-01

340

Watershed processes, fish habitat, and salmonid distribution in the Tonsina River (Copper River watershed), Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Copper River watershed is a critical resource for northeastern Pacific salmon, with annual escapements in the millions. The Tonsina River basin, a diverse 2100-km2 tributary to the Copper River that supports important salmonid populations, offers an opportunity to integrate watershed-scale channel network data with field reconnaissance of physical processes and observed distribution of salmonid species. Our long-term goals are

D. B. Booth; F. K. Ligon; M. R. Sloat; B. Amerson; S. C. Ralph

2007-01-01

341

Extent and scale of local adaptation in salmonid fishes: review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is the extent and scale of local adaptation (LA)? How quickly does LA arise? And what is its underlying molecular basis? Our review and meta-analysis on salmonid fishes estimates the frequency of LA to be ?55–70%, with local populations having a 1.2 times average fitness advantage relative to foreign populations or to their performance in new environments. Salmonid LA

D J Fraser; L K Weir; L Bernatchez; M M Hansen; E B Taylor

2011-01-01

342

[Sexuality and Alzheimer's in care facilities].  

PubMed

Sexuality of people with Alzheimer's disease is often prohibited in care facilities because its manitestations are considered harmful for the residents and the facility. Ethics of welfare implemented in care facilities require respect for the emotional and sexual lives of residents. Restoring sexual desire in care facilities can be achieved by adopting a humanistic approach that focuses on the development and personal fulfilment of individuals in every sphere of their lives, including sexuality. PMID:25373262

Dupras, André; Boucher, Sonya

2014-01-01

343

Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bulllying  

MedlinePLUS

... sexual assault or rape, and it's a serious crime. Back Continue Flirting or Harassment? Sometimes people who ... worth it. It can help to keep a record of the events that have happened. Write down ...

344

Choline incorporation by Schistosoma mansoni: distribution of choline metabolites during development and after sexual differentiation  

SciTech Connect

Choline metabolism was investigated in Schistosoma mansoni during the main phases of its development, namely, schistosomula, 11- and 15-day-old worms, and adults. At the physiological choline concentration used in the assay (20 microM), betaine was, along with phosphatidylcholine, one of the most abundant choline metabolites, revealing considerable choline oxidation activity. Very little radioactivity was associated with CDP-choline, whereas a sustained incorporation into phosphocholine occurred. These results provide good evidence that CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase plays a regulatory role in the de novo pathway of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. During development, the incorporation of choline into its various metabolites was maximal in 11-day-old worms. At this stage, the oxidative pathway predominated over the Kennedy pathway, whereas at all other stages the de novo phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis was predominant. Furthermore, choline incorporation into betaine was much more important in the adult female worm than in the male, indicating a major difference in choline incorporation and distribution between the 2 sexes of the adult worms.

Ancelin, M.L.; Torpier, G.; Vial, H.J.; Capron, A.

1987-06-01

345

Developing a Valid and Reliable Instrument to Predict the Protective Sexual Behaviors in Women at Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus  

PubMed Central

Background: One much needed tool to assist with the monitoring and evaluation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevention programs is to provide a valid instrument to measure protective sexual behavior and related factors. Objectives: The current study aimed to design a valid and reliable instrument to predict the protective sexual behaviors of women at risk of HIV in Iran. Patients and Methods: The current study was a sequential mixed cross-sectional and methodological research. Initially, via a qualitative research, constructs and factors associated with sexual protective behavior of women at risk were identified through 25 in-depth interviews. The questionnaire on predictors of protective sexual behaviors in women at risk of HIV (PSPB) was designed based on a qualitative study, and then its qualitative validity, content, and construct validity were evaluated. Exploratory factor analysis was performed and 200 women at risk participated. Results: Seven concepts emerged after exploratory factor analysis of the 48 items. The content validity ratio (CVR) of the questionnaire constructs were 0.55 to 0.76, and content validity index (CVI) structure was 0.86 to 0.95. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the entire questionnaire was 0.78, and correlation coefficient of the test-retest reliability for the constructs was from 0.73 to 0.89. Conclusions: The current study proved the capability of the predictors of sexual protective behavior in women at risk for HIV questionnaire as a valid and reliable instrument for the Iranian community.

Lotfi, Razieh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Yaghmaei, Farideh; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

2014-01-01

346

Healthy Aging -- Sexual Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) Sexual health More information on sexual health Many older women ... Protecting yourself Return to top More information on Sexual health Read more from womenshealth.gov Sexually Transmitted Infections ...

347

Factors associated with sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking, and sexual satisfaction among African-American adolescent females  

PubMed Central

Sexuality-related constructs such as sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking (SSS) and sexual satisfaction have been related to sexual behaviors that place one at risk for adverse consequences such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs), HIV, and unintended pregnancy. The biopsychosocial model posits an array of factors, ranging from social environmental factors, biological, and psychological predispositions that may be associated with these sexuality constructs in adolescent samples. African-American females aged 14-20 were recruited from reproductive health clinics for an HIV intervention. Baseline survey and follow-up DNA data (N=304) was used to assess biological, psychological and social environmental associations with the sexuality constructs of arousal, SSS, and sexual satisfaction. In multivariable linear regressions, a higher depressive symptom rating was associated with higher arousability while short serotonin allele(s) status was associated with lower arousability. Impulsivity and perceived peer norms supportive of unsafe sexual behaviors were associated with increased SSS, and short serotonin allele(s) status was associated with lower SSS. Higher social support was also associated with higher levels of sexual satisfaction while short serotonin allele(s) status was associated with lower satisfaction. The sexuality constructs were also significantly related to number of sex partners, frequency of vaginal sex, and number of unprotected vaginal sex acts in the past six months. These findings emphasize the importance of understanding biopsychosocial factors, including the role of serotonin as an indicator of natural variations in sexual inclination and behaviors, that influence sexuality constructs, which in turn are associated with sexual behaviors, to allow further refinement of sexual health clinical services and programs and promote the development of healthy sexuality. PMID:24262218

Sales, Jessica M.; Smearman, Erica; Brody, Gene H.; Milhausen, Robin; Philibert, Robert A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

2013-01-01

348

Diverting Victims of Commercial Sexual Exploitation From Juvenile Detention: Development of the InterCSECt Screening Protocol.  

PubMed

Identifying victims of commercial sexual exploitation in the juvenile justice system is a challenging complexity requiring concerted organizational commitment. Using a three-tiered, trauma-informed screening process, a 3½-month pilot intervention was implemented in Clark County Juvenile Court (Washington) to identify victims in an effort to connect them to community youth advocates and sexual assault resources. A total of 535 boys and girls ages 9 to 19 were screened during intake; 47 of these youth reported risk factors associated with commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) and were subsequently referred to community advocates. Six youth (all girls) were confirmed CSEC victims and were successfully diverted from juvenile detention. Study results suggest that despite the lack of reliable data surrounding the prevalence of CSEC, juvenile justice agencies need to become educated on the risk factors to triage victims to services. PMID:25038222

Salisbury, Emily J; Dabney, Jonathan D; Russell, Kelli

2015-04-01

349

Factors Affecting the Survival of Upstream Migrant Adult Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 9 of 11.  

SciTech Connect

The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is developing conservation planning documentation to support the National Marine Fisheries Service`s (NMFS) recovery plan for Columbia Basin salmonid stocks that are currently listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Information from the conservation planning documentation will be used as a partial scientific basis for identifying alternative conservation strategies and to make recommendations toward conserving, rebuilding, and ultimately removing these salmon stocks from the list of endangered species. This report describes the adult upstream survival study, a synthesis of biological analyses related to conditions affecting the survival of adult upstream migrant salmonids in the Columbia River system. The objective of the adult upstream survival study was to analyze existing data related to increasing the survival of adult migrant salmonids returning to the Snake River system. The fate and accountability of each stock during its upstream migration period and the uncertainties associated with measurements of escapement and survival were evaluated. Operational measures that affected the survival of adult salmon were evaluated including existing conditions, augmented flows from upstream storage release, and drawdown of mainstem reservoirs. The potential impacts and benefits of these measures to each ESA stock were, also described based on considerations of species behavior and run timing.

Dauble, Dennis D.; Mueller, Robert P.

1993-06-01

350

Detection and quantification of Renibacterium salmoninarum DNA in salmonid tissues by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Renibacterium salmoninarum is an important salmonid pathogen that is difficult to culture. We developed and assessed a real-time, quantitative, polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for the detection and enumeration of R. salmoninarum. The qPCR is based on TaqMan technology and amplifies a 69-base pair (bp) region of the gene encoding the major soluble antigen (MSA) of R. salmoninarum. The qPCR assay consistently detected as few as 5 R. salmoninarum cells per reaction in kidney tissue. The specificity of the qPCR was confirmed by testing the DNA extracts from a panel of microorganisms that were either common fish pathogens or reported to cause false-positive reactions in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Kidney samples from 38 juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in a naturally infected population were examined by real-time qPCR, a nested PCR, and ELISA, and prevalences of R. salmoninarum detected were 71, 66, and 71%, respectively. The qPCR should be a valuable tool for evaluating the R. salmoninarum infection status of salmonids.

Chase, D.M.; Elliott, D.G.; Pascho, R.J.

2006-01-01

351

Measuring Iranian women's sexual behaviors: Expert opinion  

PubMed Central

The cultural compatibility of sexually related instruments is problematic because the contexts from which the concepts and meanings were extracted may be significantly different from related contexts in a different society. This paper describes the instruments that have been used to assess sexual behaviors, primarily in Western contexts. Then, based on the instruments’ working definition of ‘sexual behavior’ and their theoretical frameworks, we will (1) discuss the applicability or cultural compatibility of existing instruments targeting women's sexual behaviors within an Iranian context, and (2) suggest criteria for sexually related tools applicable in Iranian settings. Iranian women's sexual scripts may compromise the existing instruments’ compatibility. Suggested criteria are as follows: understanding, language of sexuality, ethics and morality. Therefore, developing a culturally comprehensive measure that can adequately examine Iranian women's sexual behaviors is needed. PMID:25250346

Ghorashi, Zohreh; Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Yousefy, Alireza

2014-01-01

352

The gene transformer-2 of Sciara (Diptera, Nematocera) and its effect on Drosophila sexual development  

PubMed Central

Background The gene transformer-2, which is involved in sex determination, has been studied in Drosophila, Musca, Ceratitis, Anastrepha and Lucilia. All these members of Diptera belong to the suborder Brachycera. In this work, it is reported the isolation and characterisation of genes transformer-2 of the dipterans Sciara ocellaris and Bradysia coprophila (formerly Sciara coprophila), which belong to the much less extensively analysed Sciaridae Family of the Suborder Nematocera, which is paraphyletic with respect to Suborder Brachycera. Results The transformer-2 genes of the studied Sciara species were found to be transcribed in both sexes during development and adult life, in both the soma and germ lines. They produced a single primary transcript, which follows the same alternative splicing in both sexes, giving rise to different mRNAs isoforms. In S. ocellaris the most abundant mRNA isoform encoded a full-length protein of 251 amino acids, while that of B. coprophila encoded a protein of 246 amino acids. Both showed the features of the SR protein family. The less significant mRNA isoforms of both species encoded truncated, presumably non-functional Transformer-2 proteins. The comparison of the functional Sciara Transformer-2 proteins among themselves and those of other insects revealed the greatest degree of conservation in the RRM domain and linker region. In contrast, the RS1 and RS2 domains showed extensive variation with respect to their number of amino acids and their arginine-serine (RS) dipeptide content. The expression of S. ocellaris Transformer-2 protein in Drosophila XX pseudomales lacking the endogenous transformer-2 function caused their partial feminisation. Conclusions The transformer-2 genes of both Sciaridae species encode a single protein in both sexes that shares the characteristics of the Transformer-2 proteins of other insects. These proteins showed conserved sex-determination function in Drosophila; i.e., they were able to form a complex with the endogenous Drosophila Transformer protein that controls the female-specific splicing of the Drosophila doublesex pre-mRNA. However, it appears that the complex formed between the Drosophila Transformer protein and the Sciara Transformer-2 protein is less effective at inducing the female-specific splicing of the endogenous Drosophila doublesex pre-mRNA than the DrosophilaTransformer-Transformer2 complex. This suggests the existence of species-specific co-evolution of the Transformer and Transformer-2 proteins. PMID:21406087

2011-01-01

353

Healthy sex and sexual health: new directions for studying outcomes of sexual health.  

PubMed

Sexual behavior is an important aspect of adolescent development with implications for well-being. These chapters highlight important perspectives on studying sexual health from a normative, developmental perspective, such as viewing a range of sexual behaviors as life events; considering potentially positive physical health, mental health, social health, and identity outcomes; examining both intraindividual and interindividual differences in outcomes; recognizing the romantic relationship context of sexual behavior; and understanding how sexual media may impact sexual health outcomes. We suggest new directions for studying sexual health outcomes, such as studying behaviors beyond vaginal sex and condom use, new methodologies such as latent class analysis, sophisticated longitudinal designs, and collection and analysis of dyadic data. We recommend research on populations underrepresented in sexual health research such as late adolescents who do not attend traditional universities and adolescents from ethnic/racial minorities. Finally, we consider future directions for sexuality education and prevention efforts. PMID:24962364

Lefkowitz, Eva S; Vasilenko, Sara A

2014-01-01

354

Rescheduling Child Sexual Trajectories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author comments on Diederik Janssen's essay "ReQueering Queer Youth Development: A Post-Developmental Approach to Childhood and Pedagogy," commenting that Janssen's analysis can inform both both materialist and post-structuralist understandings of children's sexuality by shifting focus from children as fetishized objects or as a group…

Yuill, Richard

2008-01-01

355

Healing from Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Theoretical Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood sexual abuse is a prevalent social and health care problem. The processes by which individuals heal from childhood sexual abuse are not clearly understood. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical model to describe how adults heal from childhood sexual abuse. Community recruitment for an ongoing broader project on sexual violence throughout the lifespan, referred to

Claire Burke Draucker; Donna S. Martsolf; Cynthia Roller; Gregory Knapik; Ratchneewan Ross; Andrea Warner Stidham

2011-01-01

356

Disruptive sexual selection for plumage coloration in a passerine bird  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of sexual selection was developed to explain the evolution of highly exaggerated sexual ornaments. Now supported by vast empirical evidence, sexual selection is generally considered to favour individuals with the most extreme trait expression. Here we describe disruptive selection on a sexual ornament, plumage coloration, in yearling male lazuli buntings (Passerina amoena). In habitats with limited good-quality nesting

Erick Greene; Bruce E. Lyon; Vincent R. Muehter; Laurene Ratcliffe; Steven J. Oliver; Peter T. Boag

2000-01-01

357

Involving the Hard to Reach: Developing and Evaluating a Sexual Health Programme for Early School Leavers in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early school leavers cannot access school-based sex education programmes, increasing their vulnerability to sexual health issues. This study evaluated a culturally-sensitive and target-orientated sex education programme involving this group. Early school leavers were recruited from two branches of the Chinese Young Men's Christian Association in…

Wong, William C. W.; Holroyd, Eleanor A.; Lee, Albert; Wong, Jonathan C. P.; Leung, Phil W. S.

2011-01-01

358

Development of partner preferences in female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster): The role of social and sexual experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) exhibit a monogamous mating system char- acterized by long-term pair bonds between mates. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of cohabitation time and sexual experience on the devcl- opment of pair bond formation in female prairie voles. Females that were allowed to cohabit for 24 hr or more, with or without mating,

JESSIE R. WILLIAMS; KENNETH C. CATANIA; C. SUE CARTER

1992-01-01

359

Ethnic\\/Racial Differences in the Coming-Out Process of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youths: A Comparison of Sexual Identity Development Over Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

This longitudinal report of 145 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths examined ethnic\\/racial differences in the coming-out process. No significant differences emerged in sexual developmental milestones, sexual orientation, sexual behavior, or sexual identity. However, Black youths reported involvement in fewer gay-related social activities, reported less comfort with others knowing their sexual identity, and disclosed that identity to fewer people than

Margaret Rosario; Eric W. Schrimshaw; Joyce Hunter

2004-01-01

360

New Protocetid Whale from the Middle Eocene of Pakistan: Birth on Land, Precocial Development, and Sexual Dimorphism  

PubMed Central

Background Protocetidae are middle Eocene (49–37 Ma) archaeocete predators ancestral to later whales. They are found in marine sedimentary rocks, but retain four legs and were not yet fully aquatic. Protocetids have been interpreted as amphibious, feeding in the sea but returning to land to rest. Methodology/Principal Findings Two adult skeletons of a new 2.6 meter long protocetid, Maiacetus inuus, are described from the early middle Eocene Habib Rahi Formation of Pakistan. M. inuus differs from contemporary archaic whales in having a fused mandibular symphysis, distinctive astragalus bones in the ankle, and a less hind-limb dominated postcranial skeleton. One adult skeleton is female and bears the skull and partial skeleton of a single large near-term fetus. The fetal skeleton is positioned for head-first delivery, which typifies land mammals but not extant whales, evidence that birth took place on land. The fetal skeleton has permanent first molars well mineralized, which indicates precocial development at birth. Precocial development, with attendant size and mobility, were as critical for survival of a neonate at the land-sea interface in the Eocene as they are today. The second adult skeleton is the most complete known for a protocetid. The vertebral column, preserved in articulation, has 7 cervicals, 13 thoracics, 6 lumbars, 4 sacrals, and 21 caudals. All four limbs are preserved with hands and feet. This adult is 12% larger in linear dimensions than the female skeleton, on average, has canine teeth that are 20% larger, and is interpreted as male. Moderate sexual dimorphism indicates limited male-male competition during breeding, which in turn suggests little aggregation of food or shelter in the environment inhabited by protocetids. Conclusions/Significance Discovery of a near-term fetus positioned for head-first delivery provides important evidence that early protocetid whales gave birth on land. This is consistent with skeletal morphology enabling Maiacetus to support its weight on land and corroborates previous ideas that protocetids were amphibious. Specimens this complete are virtual ‘Rosetta stones’ providing insight into functional capabilities and life history of extinct animals that cannot be gained any other way. PMID:19194487

Gingerich, Philip D.; ul-Haq, Munir; von Koenigswald, Wighart; Sanders, William J.; Smith, B. Holly; Zalmout, Iyad S.

2009-01-01

361

Modeling Food Delivery Dynamics For Juvenile Salmonids Under Variable Flow Regimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional approaches for assessing instream flow needs for salmonids have typically focused on the importance of physical habitat in determining fish habitat selection. This somewhat simplistic approach does not account for differences in food delivery rates to salmonids that arise due to spatial variability in river morphology, hydraulics and temporal variations in the flow regime. Explicitly linking how changes in the flow regime influences food delivery dynamics is an important step in advancing process-based bioenergetic models that seek to predict growth rates of salmonids across various life-stages. Here we investigate how food delivery rates for juvenile salmonids vary both spatially and with flow magnitude in a meandering reach of the Merced River, CA. We utilize a two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic model and discrete particle tracking algorithm to simulate invertebrate drift transport rates at baseflow and a near-bankfull discharge. Modeling results indicate that at baseflow, the maximum drift density occurs in the channel thalweg, while drift densities decrease towards the channel margins due to the process of organisms settling out of the drift. During high-flow events, typical of spring dam-releases, the invertebrate drift transport pathway follows a similar trajectory along the high velocity core and the drift concentrations are greatest in the channel centerline, though the zone of invertebrate transport occupies a greater fraction of the channel width. Based on invertebrate supply rates alone, feeding juvenile salmonids would be expected to be distributed down the channel centerline where the maximum predicted food delivery rates are located in this reach. However, flow velocities in these channel sections are beyond maximum sustainable swimming speeds for most juvenile salmonids. Our preliminary findings suggest that a lack of low velocity refuge may prevent juvenile salmonids from deriving energy from the areas with maximum drift density in this reach. Future efforts will focus on integration of food delivery and bioenergetic models to account for conflicting demands of maximizing food intake while minimizing the energetic costs of swimming.

Harrison, L.; Utz, R.; Anderson, K.; Nisbet, R.

2010-12-01

362

Thoreau's Sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) has often been described as lacking in sexual drive or at most a rather reluctant heterosexual, a close study of his life and writings indicates the presence of a pronounced vein of homoeroticism-although there seems to be no concrete evidence of any homosexual activity on his part. Cognizance of that homoeroticism helps one to understand

Walter Harding

1991-01-01

363

Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage at The Dalles Dam Sluiceway, 2005  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District engaged the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate fish passage at The Dalles Dam powerhouse in 2005. The goal of the study was to provide information on smolt passage that will inform decisions on long-term measures and operations to enhance sluiceway passage and reduce turbine passage to improve smolt survival at the dam. The study addressed one of the main programs dedicated to improving juvenile salmonid survival at The Dalles Dam: Surface Flow Bypass. The study objectives (see below) were met using a combination of hydroacoustic and hydraulic data. The study incorporated fixed-location hydroacoustic methods across the entire powerhouse, with especially intense sampling using multiple split-beam transducers at all sluiceway portals. We did not sample fish passage at the spillway in 2005. In the sluiceway nearfield, we used an acoustic camera to track fish movements. The fish data were interpreted with hydraulic data from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Fish passage data were collected in the framework of an “experiment” using a randomized block design (3-day treatments; two treatments) to compare two sluiceway operational configurations: Sluice 2+5 and Sluice 2+19 (six gates open for each configuration). Total project outflow was 76% of the 10-year average for spring and 71% of the 10-year average for summer. Based on these findings, we make the following recommendations: 1) The sluice should be operated 24 h/d from April until November. 2) Open six rather than three sluice gates to take advantage of the maximum hydraulic capacity of the sluiceway. 3) Open the three gates above the western-most operating main turbine unit and the three gates at MU 8 where turbine passage rates are relatively high. 4) Operate the turbine units below open sluice gates as a standard fish operations procedure. 5) Develop hydraulic and entrance enhancements to the sluiceway to tap the potential of The Dalles Dam sluiceway to be highly efficient and effective at passing juvenile salmonids. 6) Consider the following elements for surface flow bypasses during design of any sluiceway enhancements at The Dalles Dam: Form an extensive surface flow bypass flow net (surface bypass discharge greater than ~7% of total project discharge) at both west and east ends of the dam; Create a gradual increase in water velocity approaching the surface flow bypass (ideally, acceleration < 1 m/s per meter); Make water velocities at an entrance high enough (> 3 m/s) to entrain the subject juvenile fishes, e.g., 10,000 cfs or so; Adapt the shape and orientation of the surface entrance(s) to fit site-specific features, i.e., test a Removable Sluiceway Weir. 7)The Dalles Dam sluiceway has potential to be highly efficient and effective at passing juvenile salmonids. We recommend tapping this potential with enhancements to the sluiceway.

Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Hedgepeth, J; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.; Skalski, John R.

2006-06-01

364

An online database for IHN virus in Pacific Salmonid fish: MEAP-IHNV  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The MEAP-IHNV database provides access to detailed data for anyone interested in IHNV molecular epidemiology, such as fish health professionals, fish culture facility managers, and academic researchers. The flexible search capabilities enable the user to generate various output formats, including tables and maps, which should assist users in developing and testing hypotheses about how IHNV moves across landscapes and changes over time. The MEAP-IHNV database is available online at http://gis.nacse.org/ihnv/ (fig. 1). The database contains records that provide background information and genetic sequencing data for more than 1,000 individual field isolates of the fish virus Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), and is updated approximately annually. It focuses on IHNV isolates collected throughout western North America from 1966 to the present. The database also includes a small number of IHNV isolates from Eastern Russia. By engaging the expertise of the broader community of colleagues interested in IHNV, our goal is to enhance the overall understanding of IHNV epidemiology, including defining sources of disease outbreaks and viral emergence events, identifying virus traffic patterns and potential reservoirs, and understanding how human management of salmonid fish culture affects disease. Ultimately, this knowledge can be used to develop new strategies to reduce the effect of IHN disease in cultured and wild fish.

Kurath, Gael

2012-01-01

365

Female sexual dysfunction: definition, classification, and debates.  

PubMed

Sexual dysfunction refers to difficulties that occur during the sexual response cycle that prevent the individual from experiencing satisfaction from sexual activity. It is relatively difficult to estimate the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction (FSD), because the definition and diagnostic criteria are still controversial and under development. These difficulties reveal our insufficient understanding of the basis of FSD. This review was conducted in an effort to deal with this complicated clinical issue, by examining the most updated clinical criteria of FSD under the context of a redefined female sexual response model. PMID:23548211

Chen, Ching-Hui; Lin, Yen-Chin; Chiu, Li-Hsuan; Chu, Yuan-Hsiang; Ruan, Fang-Fu; Liu, Wei-Min; Wang, Peng-Hui

2013-03-01

366

Removal of small dams and its influence on physical habitat for salmonids in a Norwegian river  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While research and implementation of upstream migration solutions is extensive, and indeed often successful, full scale restoration projects and investigations of their influence on fish biology are rare in Norway. Acid deposition in Norwegian catchments peaked in the 1980's and resulted in both chronically and episodically acidified rivers and Salmonids in River Nidelva, one of the largest cathments in southern Norway, where extinct for decades. During this period hydropower development in the river paid limited attention to aquatic ecology. Weirs were constructed for esthetic purposes in the late 1970's and turned a 3 km stretch into a lake habitat, well suited for lake dwelling fish species, but unsuited for migration, spawning and juvenile habitat for salmonids. Since 2005, continuous liming to mitigate acidification has improved the water quality and a program for reintroduction of Atlantic salmon has been implemented. We used hydraulic modeling to plan the removal of two weirs on a bypass reach of the river. The 50 meters wide concrete weirs were blasted and removed in 2007, and ecological monitoring has been carried out in the river to assess the effect of weir removal. Topographic mapping, hydraulic measurements and modeling, in combination with biological surveys before and after the removal of the weirs, has proved to represent a powerful method for design of physical habitat adjustments and assessing their influence on fish biology. The model results also supported a rapid progress of planning and executing of the works. While telemetry studies before weir removal suggested that adult migration past the weirs was delayed with several weeks the fish can now pass the reach with minor obstacles. Spawning sites were discovered in the old bed substrate and were occupied already the first season after water velocities increased to suitable levels for spawning. Accordingly, the densities of Atlantic salmon juveniles have shown a marked increased after the conclusion of the project. Catches of pike and cyprinids on the reach is reduced, indicating that their habitat is no longer suitable, while salmon anglers have found new favorite spots in the restored pools and runs.

Fjeldstad, Hans-Petter; Barlaup, Bjørn; Stickler, Morten; Alfredsen, Knut; Gabrielsen, Sven-Erik

2010-05-01

367

Comparative Performance of Acoustic-tagged and PIT-tagged Juvenile Salmonids  

SciTech Connect

Numerous research tools and technologies are currently being used to evaluate fish passage and survival to determine the impacts of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) on endangered and threatened juvenile salmonids, including PIT tags, balloon tags, hydroacoustic evaluations, radio telemetry, and acoustic telemetry. Each has advantages and disadvantages, but options are restricted in some situations because of limited capabilities of a specific technology, lack of detection capability downstream, or availability of adequate numbers of fish. However, there remains concern about the comparative effects of the tag or the tagging procedure on fish performance. The recently developed Juvenile Salmonid Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) acoustic transmitter is the smallest active acoustic tag currently available. The goal of this study was to determine whether fish tagged with the JSATS acoustic-telemetry tag can provide unbiased estimates of passage behavior and survival within the performance life of the tag. We conducted both field and laboratory studies to assess tag effects. For the field evaluation we released a total of 996 acoustic-tagged fish in conjunction with 21,026 PIT-tagged fish into the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam on 6 and 13 May. Travel times between release and downstream dams were not significantly different for the majority of the reaches between acoustic-tagged and PIT-tagged fish. In addition to the field evaluation, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted to determine if growth and survival of juvenile Chinook salmon surgically implanted with acoustic transmitters is different than untagged or PIT tagged juvenile Chinook salmon. Only yearling fish with integrated and non-integrated transmitters experienced mortalities, and these were low (<4.5%). Mortality among sub-yearling control and PIT-tag treatments ranged up to 7.7% while integrated and non-integrated treatments had slightly higher rates (up to 8.3% and 7.9% respectively). No acoustic transmitters were shed by yearling fish during the course of the 90 day study. Up to 7.8% of subyearling fish expelled transmitters. Tags were expelled from 5 to 63 days post-surgery. The average time to expulsion was 27 days; few fish expelled transmitters within 14 days of implantation or less. Histological results suggest that inflammation associated with implantation of an acoustic transmitter can produce fibrous tissue which can invade and possibly damage internal organs soon after implantation. Reactions severe enough to damage organs however, were limited to only ~20% of subyearling Chinook salmon, all of which were under 101mm and 12g at tagging. The infiltration of the fibrous tissue into organs was observed most often in fish held for 21 days and appeared to decrease in subsequent holding times.

Hockersmith, Eric E.; Brown, Richard S.; Liedtke, Theresa L.

2008-02-01

368

The Adolescent Sexual Perpetrator: A New Challenge in the Field of Sexual Abuse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The interest in juvenile perpetrators of sexual abuse is one of the most momentous developments in the field of sexual assault prevention and treatment. It is hoped that by working with juvenile perpetrators, counselors will have the greatest chance of identifying and stopping patterns of sexually abusive behavior before it becomes a more serious…

Finkelhor, David

369

Healthy Sex and Sexual Health: New Directions for Studying Outcomes of Sexual Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual behavior is an important aspect of adolescent development with implications for well-being. These chapters highlight important perspectives on studying sexual health from a normative, developmental perspective, such as viewing a range of sexual behaviors as life events; considering potentially positive physical health, mental health, social…

Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Vasilenko, Sara A.

2014-01-01

370

Young Women’s Social and Occupational Development and Mental Health in the Aftermath of Child Sexual Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined social role functioning and depressive symptoms of young adults who were abused as children in data from a longitudinal\\u000a community sample. Sexually abused women and men were more depressed during their senior year of high school, and this difference\\u000a was more pronounced 2 years later. We then examined a mediational model to determine whether social functioning explained\\u000a the course

Elizabeth A. Schilling; Robert H. Aseltine Jr; Susan Gore

2007-01-01

371

Advancing sexual and reproductive health and rights in low- and middle-income countries: Implications for the post-2015 global development agenda.  

PubMed

The papers and commentaries in this special issue illuminate progress made by low- and middle-income countries towards implementation of the Programme of Action (PoA) agreed by 179 countries during the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994. The PoA presents a path-breaking sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) framework for global and national population and health policies. While progress towards implementation has been made at global, regional and national levels, continuing and new challenges require that high priority be given to SRHR for all, particularly women and girls, during the remaining months of the millennium development goals and in the United Nations post-2015 development agenda. This paper highlights three critical gaps, raised in other papers: inequalities in access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information and services; the widespread need to improve SRH services to meet public health, human rights and medical ethics standards for quality of care; and the absence or inadequate use of accountability mechanisms to track and remedy the other two. We discuss priority actions to achieve equality, quality and accountability in SRHR policies, programmes and services, especially those that should be included in the post-2015 development agenda. PMID:25628182

Germain, Adrienne; Sen, Gita; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia; Shankar, Mridula

2015-02-01

372

Advancing sexual and reproductive health and rights in low- and middle-income countries: Implications for the post-2015 global development agenda  

PubMed Central

The papers and commentaries in this special issue illuminate progress made by low- and middle-income countries towards implementation of the Programme of Action (PoA) agreed by 179 countries during the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994. The PoA presents a path-breaking sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) framework for global and national population and health policies. While progress towards implementation has been made at global, regional and national levels, continuing and new challenges require that high priority be given to SRHR for all, particularly women and girls, during the remaining months of the millennium development goals and in the United Nations post-2015 development agenda. This paper highlights three critical gaps, raised in other papers: inequalities in access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information and services; the widespread need to improve SRH services to meet public health, human rights and medical ethics standards for quality of care; and the absence or inadequate use of accountability mechanisms to track and remedy the other two. We discuss priority actions to achieve equality, quality and accountability in SRHR policies, programmes and services, especially those that should be included in the post-2015 development agenda. PMID:25628182

Germain, Adrienne; Sen, Gita; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia; Shankar, Mridula

2015-01-01

373

Sensitivity of salmonid freshwater life history in western US streams to future climate conditions.  

PubMed

We projected effects of mid-21st century climate on the early life growth of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) in western United States streams. Air temperature and snowpack trends projected from observed 20th century trends were used to predict future seasonal stream temperatures. Fish growth from winter to summer was projected with temperature-dependent models of egg development and juvenile growth. Based on temperature data from 115 sites, by mid-21st century, the effects of climate change are projected to be mixed. Fish in warm-region streams that are currently cooled by snow melt will grow less, and fish in suboptimally cool streams will grow more. Relative to 20th century conditions, by mid-21st century juvenile salmonids' weights are expected to be lower in the Columbia Basin and California Central Valley, but unchanged or greater in coastal and mountain streams. Because fish weight affects fish survival, the predicted changes in weight could impact population fitness depending on other factors such as density effects, food quality and quantity changes, habitat alterations, etc. The level of year-to-year variability in stream temperatures is high and our analysis suggests that identifying effects of climate change over the natural variability will be difficult except in a few streams. PMID:23640715

Beer, W Nicholas; Anderson, James J

2013-08-01

374

SALMOD: a population model for salmonids: user's manual. Version W3  

USGS Publications Warehouse

SALMOD is a computer model that simulates the dynamics of freshwater salmonid populations, both anadromous and resident. The conceptual model was developed in a workshop setting (Williamson et al. 1993) using fish experts concerned with Trinity River chinook restoration. The model builds on the foundation laid by similar models (see Cheslak and Jacobson 1990). The model’s premise that that egg and fish mortality are directly related to spatially and temporally variable micro- and macrohabitat limitations, which themselves are related to the timing and amount of streamflow and other meteorological variables. Habitat quality and capacity are characterized by the hydraulic and thermal properties of individual mesohabitats, which we use as spatial “computation units” in the model. The model tracks a population of spatially distinct cohorts that originate as gees and grow from one life stage to another as a function of local water temperature. Individual cohorts either remain in the computational unit in which they emerged or move, in whole or in part, to nearby units (see McCormick et al. 1998). Model processes include spawning (with red superimposition and incubation losses), growth (including egg maturation), mortality, and movement (freshet-induced, habitat-induced, and seasonal). Model processes are implemented such that the user (modeler) has the ability to more-or-less program the model on the fly to create the dynamics thought to animate the population. SALMOD then tabulates the various causes of mortality and the whereabouts of fish.

Bartholow, John; Heasley, John; Laake, Jeff; Sandelin, Jeff; Coughlan, Beth A.K.; Moos, Alan

2002-01-01

375

Assessment of Salmonids and Their Habitat Conditions in the Walla Walla River Basin within Washington, Annual Report 2002-2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study began in 1998 to assess salmonid distribution, relative abundance, genetics, and the condition of salmonid habitats in the Walla Walla River basin. Stream flows in the Walla Walla Basin continue to show a general trend that begins with a sharp decline in discharge in late June, followed by low summer flows and then an increase in discharge in

Glen Mendel; Jeremy Trump; Mike Gembala

2003-01-01

376

Transmission of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa: Malacosporea), the causative organism of salmonid proliferative kidney disease, to the freshwater bryozoan Fredericella sultana  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Proliferative kidney disease (PKD), caused by the malacosporean parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, causes significant losses among salmonids in Western Europe and North America. The role of salmonid fish in the life-cycle of this parasite has been conjectured upon for over a quarter of a century. To examine whether fish can transmit the infection to bryozoans, the known invertebrate host, water

D. J. MORRIS; A. ADAMS

2006-01-01

377

A DNA-based Identification Key to Pacific Northwest Freshwater Mussel Glochidia: Importance to Salmonid and Mussel Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glochidia larvae of unionacean mussels native to Pacific coast drainages are temporary obligate parasites on the gills or fins of fish, including juvenile Pacific salmonids. This parasitic condition in fishes has been termed glochidiosis, and may have a detrimental impact on both long- and short-term survival and growth in juvenile salmonids, particularly in hatcheries. Here we report diagnostic differences in

Richard G. Gustafson; Eric M. Iwamoto

2005-01-01

378

Introduction, establishment and effects of non-native salmonids: considering the risk of rainbow trout invasion in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salmonids like rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta are potent invaders in various regions throughout the world, but non-native rainbow trout have become established in only a few locations in the U.K. to date. Salmonid invasions in other regions are often driven by repeated authorized introductions of large numbers of fish, escapees from

K. D. Fausch

2007-01-01

379

Isolation, characterization and cross-salmonid amplification of 31 microsatellite loci in the lake whitefish ( Coregonus clupeaformis , Mitchill)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coregonine fish represent the most successful evolutionary lineage of salmonids with Coregonus as the most speciose salmonid genus inhabiting numerous postglacial lakes across the northern hemisphere. We isolated and characterized 31 polymorphic microsatel- lite loci in Coregonus clupeaformis with an average number of 5.3 alleles per locus (range three to eight) and an overall expected heterozygosity of 0.74 ± ±

SEAN M. ROGERS; MARIE-HÉLÈNE MARCHAND; LOUIS BERNATCHEZ

380

Enumeration of Salmonids in the Okanogan Basin Using Underwater Video, Performance Period: October 2005 (Project Inception) - 31 December 2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Tribes) identified the need for collecting baseline census data on the timing and abundance of adult salmonids in the Okanogan River Basin in order to determine basin and tributary-specific spawner distributions, evaluate the status and trends of natural salmonid production in the basin, document local fish populations, and augment existing fishery data.

Peter N. Johnson; Michael D. Rayton; Bryan L. Nass; John E. Arterburn

2007-01-01

381

Bioenergetic Assessment of Temporal Food Supply and Consumption Demand by Salmonids in the Strawberry Reservoir Food Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study quantified temporal, spatial, and ontogenetic trophic interactions in Strawberry Reservoir to determine whether salmonid sport fish production was limited by food supply or predation. We combined field data on growth, diet composition, distribution, abundance, survival, and thermal experience with species-specific bioenergetics models for salmonids in Strawberry Reservoir to quantify monthly consumption of all prey fish, Daphnia, and macroinvertebrates.

Casey M. Baldwin; David A. Beauchamp; Jason J. Van Tassell

2000-01-01

382

Are Block Nets Necessary?: Movement of Stream-Dwelling Salmonids in Response to Three Common Survey Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish movement during sampling may negatively bias sample data and population estimates. We evaluated the short-term movements of stream-dwelling salmonids by recapture of marked individuals during day and night snorkeling and backpack electrofishing. Bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss were captured in sufficient numbers to evaluate instream movements and the influence of stream habitat on movement. Salmonids

James T. Peterson; Nolan P. Banish; Russell F. Thurow

2005-01-01

383

Anthropogenic changes to the hydrologic regime and potential effects on anadromous salmonids in California south of the timber forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though the natural range of anadromous salmonids on the Pacific coast of North America extends from Alaska to Baja California, most studies to identify factors that affect their viability in coastal watersheds are conducted in timber-dominated catchments from northern California into Canada. These studies have focused especially on anthropogenic additions of fine sediment as limiting salmonid survival. South of the

M. J. Deitch; G. M. Kondolf

2004-01-01

384

The effects of a systematically developed photo-novella on knowledge, attitudes, communication and behavioural intentions with respect to sexually transmitted infections among secondary school learners in South Africa.  

PubMed

A pre-post test follow-up design was used to test the effects of a systematically developed photo-novella (Laduma) on knowledge, attitudes, communication and behavioural intentions with respect to sexually transmitted infections, after a single reading by 1168 secondary school learners in South Africa. The reading resulted in an increase in knowledge on the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), change in attitude to condom use and towards people with STIs and/or HIV/AIDS, as well as increased intention to practice safe sex. Laduma did not influence communication about sexually transmitted infections and reported sexual behaviour and condom use. While print media proved to be an effective strategy to reach large numbers of youth and prepare them for adequate preventive behaviours, the study also identified the need to combine print media with other planned theory-based interventions that build confidence and skills to initiate the preventive behaviour. PMID:15764686

James, Shamagonam; Reddy, Priscilla S; Ruiter, Robert A C; Taylor, Myra; Jinabhai, Champaklal C; Van Empelen, Pepijn; Van den Borne, Bart

2005-06-01

385

Localization of eimeripain, an Eimeria tenella cathepsin B-like cysteine protease, during asexual and sexual intracellular development in chicken ceca.  

PubMed

Hemorrhagic diarrhea in poultry is caused by Eimeria tenella, the most pathogenic avian coccidian parasite, and new approaches to treat the disease are continually being sought. Although eimeripain, a cathepsin B-like cysteine protease from E. tenella, has recently been identified as a novel anticoccidial drug target, its localization during the intracellular development of parasites remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate the expression of eimeripain during asexual and sexual development of E. tenella in vivo. Promature eimeripain was detected only in the early immature second generation of schizonts. In contrast, the mature eimeripain was most strongly detected in the middle-sized immature second generation of schizonts. Both promature and mature eimeripain disappeared depending on the maturation level of second generation of schizonts, but were strongly expressed again in the third generation of schizonts. In the sexual stage, both promature and mature eimeripain were detected in the cytoplasm of micro- and macro-gametocytes and zygotes, but expression became weak in zoites forming oocysts. Collectively, our findings suggest that eimeripain might play a key role in the differentiation of intracellular zoites in the ceca and could be an interesting candidate to develop a novel, effective anti-coccidian drug. PMID:24366155

Matsubayashi, Makoto; Hatta, Takeshi; Miyoshi, Takeharu; Anisuzzaman; Sasai, Kazumi; Yamaji, Kayoko; Shimura, Kameo; Isobe, Takashi; Kita, Kiyoshi; Tsuji, Naotoshi

2014-04-01

386

Sexual Esteem in Emerging Adulthood: Associations with Sexual Behavior, Contraception Use, and Romantic Relationships.  

PubMed

Sexual esteem is an integral psychological aspect of sexual health (Snell & Papini, 1989 ), yet it is unclear whether sexual esteem is associated with sexual health behavior among heterosexual men and women. The current analysis used a normative framework for sexual development (Lefkowitz & Gillen, 2006 ; Tolman & McClelland, 2011 ) by examining the association of sexual esteem with sexual behavior, contraception use, and romantic relationship characteristics. Participants (N = 518; 56.0% female; mean age = 20.43 years; 26.8% identified as Hispanic/Latino; among non-Hispanic/Latinos, 27.2% of the full sample identified as European American, 22.4% Asian American, 14.9% African American, and 8.7% multiracial) completed Web-based surveys at a large Northeastern university. Participants who had oral sex more frequently, recently had more oral and penetrative sex partners (particularly for male participants), and spent more college semesters in romantic relationships tended to have higher sexual esteem than those who had sex less frequently, with fewer partners, or spent more semesters without romantic partners. Sexually active male emerging adults who never used contraception during recent penetrative sex tended to have higher sexual esteem than those who did use it, whereas female emerging adults who never used contraception tended to have lower sexual esteem than those who did use it. Implications of these results for the development of a healthy sexual self-concept in emerging adulthood are discussed. PMID:25210789

Maas, Megan K; Lefkowitz, Eva S

2014-09-11

387

The Multidimensional Scale of Sexuality.  

PubMed

Research on the assessment of sexual orientation has been limited, and what does exist is often conflicting and confusing. This is largely due to the lack of any agreed upon definition of bisexuality. The Multidimensional Scale of Sexuality (MSS) was developed to validate and to contrast six proposed categories of bisexuality, as well as categories related to heterosexuality, homosexuality, and asexuality. This instrument includes ratings of the behavioral and cognitive/affective components of sexuality. The MSS was completed by 148 subjects, the majority of whom were from identified homosexual and bisexual populations. Although subjects' self-descriptions on the MSS were consistent with their self-descriptions on the Kinsey Heterosexual-Homosexual Scale, the MSS provided a more varied description of sexual orientation. Subject's self-described sexual orientation on the MSS was more consistent with their cognitive/affective ratings than with their behavioral ratings. With the exception of self-described heterosexuals, the frequency of cognitive/affective sexuality was greater than that of behavioral sexuality. PMID:2230111

Berkey, B R; Perelman-Hall, T; Kurdek, L A

1990-01-01

388

Flibanserin for female sexual dysfunction.  

PubMed

Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most commonly described form of female sexual dysfunction. There is currently no pharmacological therapy approved to treat HSDD, and therefore, there is an unmet medical need for the development of efficacious treatment alternatives. Flibanserin is a novel, non-hormonal drug for the treatment of HSDD in pre- and postmenopausal women, although the application submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration by Sprout Pharmaceuticals is only for premenopausal women. Flibanserin works by correcting an imbalance of the levels of the neurotransmitters that affect sexual desire. More specifically, flibanserin increases dopamine and norepinephrine, both responsible for sexual excitement, and decreases serotonin, responsible for sexual inhibition. Clinically, flibanserin has exhibited some encouraging results in terms of its ability to increase the frequency of satisfying sexual events, and the intensity of sexual desire. However, adverse events such as dizziness, nausea, fatigue and somnolence, typical of a centrally acting drug, are also frequently related to flibanserin treatment. PMID:25187905

Reviriego, C

2014-08-01

389

Sexual Intimacy After Sexual Assault or Sexual Abuse1  

E-print Network

with others for some time. Fortunately, even if one does not actively work on sexual healing, as the sexual or maintaining an intimate relationship 9. Experiencing vaginal pain or orgasmic difficulties 10.Experiencing concerns at this time, and it will indicate to you how the sexual assault or abuse may have impacted your

Machel, Hans

390

Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility  

MedlinePLUS

... asrm.org PATIENT FACT SHEET Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility You probably don't realize how many people ... talk to a sex therapist. Sexual dysfunction and infertility Sexual dysfunction may cause problems getting pregnant (infertility). ...

391

Your Sexual Health  

MedlinePLUS

... during treatment of a sexual problem? • Glossary Your Sexual Health 4. Sexual pain disorder What are desire problems? ... by women. A lack of desire before having sex is normal for some women. They may not ...

392

Understanding Sexual Violence  

MedlinePLUS

... risky sexual activity. Why is sexual violence a public health problem? SV is a significant problem in the ... CDC uses a 4-step approach to address public health problems like sexual violence. Step 1: Define the ...

393

Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin; 1995 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This is the first year report of a multi-year project that monitors the outmigration and survival of hatchery and naturally produced juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River. This project supplements and complements ongoing or completed fisheries projects in the Umatilla river basin. Knowledge gained on outmigration and survival will assist researchers and managers in adapting hatchery practices, flow enhancement strategies, canal operations, and supplementation and enhancement efforts for natural fish populations. This project also completed tasks related to evaluating juvenile salmonid passage at Three Mile Falls Dam and West Extension Canal.

Knapp, Suzanne M.; Cameron, William A.; Shapleigh, Stacey L. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

1995-12-01

394

Topographic and lithologic controls on occurrence of cobble-boulder channel beds: implications for salmonid over-wintering habitat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Channel beds dominated by cobble- and boulder-sized particles provide over-wintering habitat to Steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and other salmonids because the fish use the interstitial space as refuge from high flows, particularly where large woody debris and off-channel habitat are not present. Methods for predicting the occurrence and quality of cobble-boulder (CoBo) substrate are needed to guide population modeling and landuse management to support salmonid restoration efforts. Here we report results of an ongoing study of the controls on CoBo occurrence in Pescadero Creek, a forested coastal watershed draining the north-western side of the Santa Cruz mountains in central California. Our operational definition of CoBo is a bed material median grain size of 120 mm, with a thickness of at least 150 mm, open interstitial matrix, and low recurrence interval of mobilization (e.g 50 years). CoBo habitat is typically found at channel slopes of 2% and greater, and where drainage area is sufficient to provide perennial flow, however many channels with these slope-area characteristics are too fine-grained to serve as CoBo habitat. We hypothesize that the occurrence of Cobo habitat is controlled by hillslope sediment supply conditions. In particular, production of a sufficient supply of cobbles and boulders requires a durable bedrock lithology and either steep topography capable of producing debris flow-generating landslides or bedrock-walled inner gorges. In larger-drainage-area, lower-slope mainstem channels, coarse sediment plumes associated with tributary junctions may also be common sites of CoBo occurrence. We are using a combination of field reconnaissance and surveying, geologic mapping, and DEM analysis of channel network and hillslope topography to assess sediment supply conditions associated with occurrence of CoBo substrates. We are also assessing the habitat quality of reaches with CoBo substrates, which can be degraded by high supply of gravel and finer-grained sediments. Our goal is to develop and test a predictive model of CoBo occurrence that can be applied in other watersheds where availability of over-wintering habitat may be a limiting factor for salmonid populations.

Donaldson, E. T.; Sklar, L. S.; Marshall, J. A.; Ligon, F. K.; Dietrich, W. E.

2009-12-01

395

Clinicians' perspective of the relational processes for family and individual development during the mediation of religious and sexual identity disclosure.  

PubMed

Although the psychological literature regarding gay men from religious families is continually expanding, it is also limited in that few studies focus on the use of therapy in the negotiation of the interrelated systems of religion, sexuality, and family. Utilizing a cultural historical activity theory-based process of analysis, this study focuses on the narratives of 12 clinicians discussing 230 conflicts and how those conflicts are mediated in both productive (e.g., seeking secular support) and unproductive ways (e.g., bringing one's son to an exorcist) by gay men and their religious families independent of and at the advice of their therapists. PMID:25364980

Etengoff, Chana; Daiute, Colette

2015-03-01

396

Relating Sexual Sadism and Psychopathy to One Another, Non-Sexual Violence, and Sexual Crime Behaviors  

PubMed Central

Sexual sadism and psychopathy have been theoretically, clinically, and empirically linked to violence. Although both constructs are linked to predatory violence, few studies have sought to explore the covariation of the two constructs, and even fewer have sought to conceptualize the similarities of violence prediction in each. The current study considered all four Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) facets and employed well-defined, validated measures of sadism to elucidate the relation between sadism and psychopathy, as well as to determine the role of each in the prediction of non-sexual violence and sexual crime behaviors. Study 1 assessed 314 adult, male sex offenders using archival ratings, as well as the self-report Multidimensional Inventory of Development, Sex, and Aggression (the MIDSA). Study 2 used archival ratings to assess 599 adult, male sex offenders. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of crime scene descriptions yielded four sexual crime behavior factors: Violence, Physical Control, Sexual Behavior, and Paraphilic. Sadism and psychopathy covaried, but were not coextensive; sadism correlated with Total PCL-R, Facet 1, and Facet 4 scores. The constructs predicted all non-sexual violence measures, but predicted different sexual crime behavior factors. The PCL-R facets collectively predicted the Violence and Paraphilic factors, whereas sadism only predicted the Violence factor. PMID:24019144

Robertson, Carrie A.; Knight, Raymond A.

2014-01-01

397

[Sexual expression among the institutionalized elderly with dementia, and strategies for sexual care].  

PubMed

Despite the general reduction in sexual needs with aging, human beings have sexual needs which are life long. This study looks at the overall lack of privacy, as well as at the biological, psychological and social changes that occur among the institutionalized elderly with dementia, and addresses the appropriateness of sexual expression. Conflicts involving social values, a lack of policies regarding sexual issues, and a lack of in-service training in institutions result in caregivers experiencing difficulty with the sexual issues faced by patients. It is essential to develop strategies which are consistent with culture and institutional philosophy. Through the understanding of sexual expression and its influencing factors among residents with dementia, caregivers can develop a care plan that allows residents to express appropriate sexual behavior. PMID:16767626

Tseng, Yu-Ling; Lin, Li-Chan

2006-06-01

398

Thoreau's sexuality.  

PubMed

Although Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) has often been described as lacking in sexual drive or at most a rather reluctant heterosexual, a close study of his life and writings indicates the presence of a pronounced vein of homoeroticism--although there seems to be no concrete evidence of any homosexual activity on his part. Cognizance of that homoeroticism helps one to understand many elements of his life and writings and suggests that his intense love of nature may have resulted from sublimation of that homoeroticism. PMID:1880400

Harding, W

1991-01-01

399

Toward personalized sexual medicine (part 1): integrating the "dual control model" into differential drug treatments for hypoactive sexual desire disorder and female sexual arousal disorder.  

PubMed

In three related manuscripts we describe our drug development program for the treatment of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD). In this first theoretical article we will defend the hypothesis that different causal mechanisms are responsible for the emergence of HSDD: low sexual desire in women (with HSDD) could be due to either a relative insensitive brain system for sexual cues or to enhanced activity of sexual inhibitory mechanisms. This distinction in etiological background was taken into account when designing and developing new pharmacotherapies for this disorder. Irrespective of circulating plasma levels of testosterone, administration of sublingual 0.5 mg testosterone increases the sensitivity of the brain to sexual cues. The effects of an increase in sexual sensitivity of the brain depend on the motivational state of an individual. It might activate sexual excitatory mechanisms in low sensitive women, while it could evoke (or strengthen) sexual inhibitory mechanisms in women prone to sexual inhibition. Sexual stimulation in the brain is necessary for phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5i)-mediated increase in genital sexual response. Accordingly, a single dose of T+PDE5i might enhance sexual responsiveness, especially in women with low sensitivity to sexual cues. In other women sexual stimulation might elicit a prefrontal cortex (PFC)-mediated phasic increase in sexual inhibition, in which activity of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) is involved. We hypothesize that a single dose of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor agonist (5-HT(1A)ra) will reduce the sexual-stimulation-induced PFC-mediated sexual inhibition during a short period after administration. Consequently, treatment with T+5-HT(1A)ra will be more effective, in particular in women exhibiting sexual inhibition. Based on the results of our efficacy studies described in parts 2 and 3 of the series, we conclude that tailoring on-demand therapeutics to different underlying etiologies might be a useful approach to treat common symptoms in subgroups of women with HSDD. PMID:23130782

Bloemers, Jos; van Rooij, Kim; Poels, Saskia; Goldstein, Irwin; Everaerd, Walter; Koppeschaar, Hans; Chivers, Meredith; Gerritsen, Jeroen; van Ham, Diana; Olivier, Berend; Tuiten, Adriaan

2013-03-01

400

Distribution, seasonal abundance, and feeding dependencies of juvenile salmon and non-salmonid fishes in the Yukon River delta. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In autumn 1984 Envirosphere Company was awarded a contract to conduct a one-year investigation of the distribution, seasonal abundance, and feeding dependencies of juvenile salmon and non-salmonid fishes in the Yukon River Delta. Initial field investigation began with a small synoptic survey which was conducted during December 1984. A larger open-water survey was conducted during June through September 1985. The report contains the results of both surveys and includes an assessment of the potential vulnerability of fish and delta habitats to oil and gas development.

Martin, D.J.; Glass, D.R.; Simenstad, C.A.; Stevenson, M.L.; Grotefendt, R.A.

1986-09-01

401

Prevalence of dating violence among sexual minority youth: variation across gender, sexual minority identity and gender of sexual partners.  

PubMed

Dating violence during adolescence negatively influences concurrent psychosocial functioning, and has been linked with an increased likelihood of later intimate partner violence. Identifying who is most vulnerable for this negative outcome can inform the development of intervention practices addressing this problem. The two goals of this study were to assess variations in the prevalence of dating violence across different measures of sexual minority status (e.g., sexual minority identity or same-sex sexual behavior), and to assess whether this association was mediated by bullying, the number of sexual partners, binge drinking or aggressive behaviors. These goals were assessed by employing the Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey (N = 12,984), a regionally representative sample of youth ages 14-18. In this sample, a total of 540 girls and 323 boys reported a non-heterosexual identity, and 429 girls and 230 boys reported having had one or more same-sex sexual partners. The results generally supported a higher prevalence of dating violence among sexual minority youth. This vulnerability varied considerably across gender, sexual minority identity and the gender of sexual partners, but generally persisted when accounting for the mediating variables. The findings support investigating dating violence as a mechanism in the disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual youth, and the importance of addressing sexual minority youth specifically in interventions targeting dating violence. PMID:24407932

Martin-Storey, Alexa

2015-01-01

402

The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis in two sexually dimorphic pinniped species--is there a sex difference in immunity during early development?  

PubMed

The 'immunocompetence handicap hypothesis' predicts that highly sexually dimorphic and polygynous species will exhibit sex differences in immunity. We tested this hypothesis in southern elephant and grey seals during their early development by measuring the following parameters: leucocyte counts, serum IgG levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and haematocrit. We failed to find any differences due to sex as assessed by the parameters investigated. Animals were sampled longitudinally during their development and there were significant age effects from birth to weaning in both species. Total and differential leucocyte counts and erythrocyte sedimentation rates increased just prior to weaning then decreased. Haematocrits declined whilst total circulating immunoglobulin G concentrations increased. Body temperatures remained constant throughout the postnatal period. Differences between the species were seen in total leucocyte counts and in polymorphonuclear cells and eosinophils. Southern elephant seals had higher concentrations than grey seals and total leucocyte counts in the former were among the highest reported for mammals. PMID:12697319

Hall, Ailsa J; Engelhard, Georg H; Brasseur, Sophie M J M; Vecchione, Anna; Burton, Harry R; Reijnders, Peter J H

2003-01-01

403

Investigating the Geomorphic and Ecologic Functions of Wood in Relationship to Habitat Type and Salmonid Redds on a Regulated California River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most river rehabilitation projects incorporate little to no wood in current designs, and those that do have little science to guide them. The overall goal of this research is to investigate the role of wood in a regulated, mid- sized (where river width is greater than most tree heights), Mediterranean-climate (where smaller, softer-wood trees dominate the landscape) river in order to provide a scientific foundation for the potential use of wood in rehabilitation projects within such systems. Wood structures in the active salmonid spawning reach of the Lower Mokelumne River in Central California were measured, mapped, and described during summer and fall 2006. Digital photos and GPS coordinates were used to establish wood location within the stream channel. Structural morphology was determined by measuring physical properties such as individual diameter and length, orientation to stream flow, and jam dimensions. In addition, qualitative attributes were recorded such as decay class and leaf, limb, bark, and root characteristics. A GIS wood layer will be created and added to a database of existing Mokelumne River GIS layers containing salmonid redd (salmon egg nests) densities, hydraulic conditions associated with individual redds, and sub-reach habitat types. An analysis of wood properties, redd locations and conditions, and habitat types will be used to develop a conceptual model of wood dynamics in relation to salmonid habitat on the Lower Mokelumne River. The primary products of this study will be (1) a scientific conceptual model of the role of wood in regulated gravel reaches of mid-size rivers in Mediterranean California and (2) a decision-making framework that will enable river managers to include scientifically based wood structures into rehabilitation designs, thereby enhancing spawning habitat, stream complexity, and biological diversity. These tools will be developed in collaboration with East Bay Municipal Utilities District to aid in the continuing rehabilitation of the Lower Mokelumne River.

Senter, A. E.; Pasternack, G. B.

2006-12-01

404

Tolerance of Sexual Harassment: A Laboratory Paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study attempted to develop a laboratory analogue for the study of tolerance for sexual harassment by using an\\u000a online speed-dating paradigm. In that context, the relation between participants’ sexual harassment attitudes, perpetrator\\u000a attractiveness, perpetrator status, and perceived dating potential of the perpetrator were examined as factors influencing\\u000a participants’ tolerance of sexually harassing behavior. Participants were 128 female college

David J. Angelone; Damon Mitchell; Kara Carola

2009-01-01

405

Characterizing the distribution of an endangered salmonid using environmental DNA analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Determining species distributions accurately is crucial to developing conservation and management strategies for imperiled species, but a challenging task for small populations. We evaluated the efficacy of environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis for improving detection and thus potentially refining the known distribution of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Methow and Okanogan Subbasins of the Upper Columbia River, which span the border between Washington, USA and British Columbia, Canada. We developed an assay to target a 90 base pair sequence of Chinook DNA and used quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to quantify the amount of Chinook eDNA in triplicate 1-L water samples collected at 48 stream locations in June and again in August 2012. The overall probability of detecting Chinook with our eDNA method in areas within the known distribution was 0.77 (±0.05 SE). Detection probability was lower in June (0.62, ±0.08 SE) during high flows and at the beginning of spring Chinook migration than during base flows in August (0.93, ±0.04 SE). In the Methow subbasin, mean eDNA concentration was higher in August compared to June, especially in smaller tributaries, probably resulting from the arrival of spring Chinook adults, reduced discharge, or both. Chinook eDNA concentrations did not appear to change in the Okanogan subbasin from June to August. Contrary to our expectations about downstream eDNA accumulation, Chinook eDNA did not decrease in concentration in upstream reaches (0–120 km). Further examination of factors influencing spatial distribution of eDNA in lotic systems may allow for greater inference of local population densities along stream networks or watersheds. These results demonstrate the potential effectiveness of eDNA detection methods for determining landscape-level distribution of anadromous salmonids in large river systems.

Laramie, Matthew; Pilliod, David S.; Goldberg, Caren S.

2015-01-01

406

Use of genetic data to estimate salmonid stock composition and migration patterns  

E-print Network

Use of genetic data to estimate salmonid stock composition and migration patterns Jon Hess;Basic information needed for management of fisheries: 1)What is the general stock composition)What is the general stock composition of the total return of fish in the Columbia River? 2)How does

407

Models of alternative life-history strategies, population structure and potential speciation in salmonid fish stocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. High Arctic landlocked Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus L., are used as a reference system to examine the theory of alternative life history strategies in Salmonids and their implication for population structure and potential speciation. In these closed, auto- nomous systems, Arctic charr are the only fish species present and alternative life history strategies are represented by two distinct

Henry H. Parker; Erik G. Noonburg; Roger M. Nisbet

2001-01-01

408

Comparison of growth and metabolic regulation between wild, domesticated and transgenic salmonids.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To gain a better understanding of the aspects underlying normal and growth hormone enhanced growth in salmonids, quantitative expression analysis was performed for a number of genes related to muscle growth, metabolism, immunology and energy regulation. This analysis was performed in liver and musc...

409

Effectiveness of Strobe Lights for Reducing Juvenile Salmonid Entrainment into a Navigation Lock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strobe lights effectively reduced fish entrainment into the large locks at the Hiram M. Chittenden Locks Project in Seattle, Washington. The anadromous salmonids of the Lake Washington system, Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, coho salmon O. kisutch, sockeye salmon O. nerka, and steelhead O. mykiss, must pass through these locks en route to the Pacific Ocean. Of the available downstream passage

Peter N. Johnson; Kyle Bouchard; Frederick A. Goetz

2005-01-01

410

Inactivation of bacteria using ultraviolet irradiation in a recirculating salmonid culture system  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this research was to determine the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation dosages required to inactivate bacteria in a commercial-scale recirculating salmonid culture system. Research was conducted in the commercial-scale recirculating system used for Arctic char growout at the Conservation ...

411

Competitive interactions between native and exotic salmonids: a combined field and laboratory  

E-print Network

salmonid species (brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) on native and apparent survival were hardly affected by brook trout. These results support the idea that rainbow trout brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) habitat, growth and survival. Habitat selection and vertical

Grenouillet, Gael

412

Consumption of Migrating Juvenile Salmonids by Gulls Foraging below a Columbia River Dam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumption of migrating juvenile Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead Salmo gairdneri by gulls was estimated below the turbine area of Wanapum Dam on the Columbia River in 1982. Foraging success of the gulls, chiefly ring-billed gulls Larus delawarensis, averaged 65% during bright light conditions and 51% during the evening. The number of salmonids consumed by gulls ranged from 50

Gregory T. Ruggerone

1986-01-01

413

A STREAM SYSTEMS EVALUATION - AN EMPHASIS ON SPAWNING HABITAT FOR SALMONIDS  

EPA Science Inventory

As a result of silvicultural activities in the Pacific Northwest, various levels of sediments and debris enter the streams, often degrading spawning substrate of salmonid fishes. Simple but reliable procedures are needed to monitor spawning gravels to assess the level of these im...

414

4-Genetic studies in saLmonids GENETIC VARIATION IN PRODUCTION TRAITS OF ATLANTIC SALMON  

E-print Network

4- Genetic studies in saLmonids GENETIC VARIATION IN PRODUCTION TRAITS OF ATLANTIC SALMON K. GUNNES of genetic variation in production traits of wild Atlantic salmon strains has been carried out at five fish. It is concluded that this interaction can be neglected in a selection program for farmed salmon. Highly

Boyer, Edmond

415

During 2000-2010 the 2750 wild and cultured young salmonids fish (Oncorhynchus nerka, O. tschawytscha,  

E-print Network

1 During 2000-2010 the 2750 wild and cultured young salmonids fish (Oncorhynchus nerka, O Fingerlings of sockeye salmon O. nerka The pathogenic influence of the Myxobolus cerebralis (), determined) of vertebrae ribs in the fingerlings of S. malma (A, B) from Lake Kurilskoe in 2008 and O. nerka in Lake

Kane, Andrew S.

416

Response to organic enrichment of infaunal macrobenthic communities under salmonid seacages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of infaunal macrobenthic communities beneath salmonid seacages to solid organic wastes (food pellets and fish excreta) was tested by means of the ABC-method (abundance, biomass comparison method: Warwick 1986) on samples collected from the SAFCOL seafarm at Badger Cove, southeast Tasmania, from February to July 1988. The intermittent nature of the addition of organic waste allowed us to

D. A. Ritz; M. E. Lewis; Ma Shen

1989-01-01

417

NON-NATIVE SPECIES IMPACTS ON NATIVE SALMONIDS IN THE COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN  

E-print Network

NON-NATIVE SPECIES IMPACTS ON NATIVE SALMONIDS IN THE COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN Including Recommendations for Evaluating the Use of Non-Native Fish Species in Resident Fish Substitution Projects Non-native Species Report ISAB 2008-4 #12;Independent Scientific Advisory Board for the Northwest

418

Return to the River: Scientific Issues in the Restoration of Salmonid Fishes in the Columbia River  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Columbia River once was one of the most productive river basins for anadromous salmonids on the West Coast of North America; however, its current runs total less than 10% of historic levels. The Independent Scientific Group (ISG) of the Northwest Power Planning Council reviewed regional salmon management actions described in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program and

Richard N. Williams; Peter A. Bisson; Daniel L. Bottom; Lyle D. Calvin; Charles C. Coutant; Michael W. Erho Jr; Christopher A. Frissell; James A. Lichatowich; William J. Liss; Willis E. McConnaha; Phillip R. Mundy; Jack A. Stanford; Richard R. Whitney

1999-01-01

419

Influence of streamside vegetation on inputs of terrestrial invertebrates to salmonid food webs  

E-print Network

Influence of streamside vegetation on inputs of terrestrial invertebrates to salmonid food webs J, and spawning migrations. We examined the contribution of terrestrially derived invertebrates (TI) to juvenile of invertebrate mass averaged across all sites; no significant differences associated with location (plant

Wagner, Diane

420

Introduced Salmonids: Where are They Going in Quebec Watersheds of the Saint-Laurent River?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salmonid fish (Salmonidae) are among the most important sport and commercial species in North America. Numerous attempts to extend their range have been made over the past 100 years. In Canada, Québec was among the first provinces to be involved in such attempts. Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), brown trout (S. trutta), cutthroat trout (S. clarki), kokanee (Oncorhyncus nerka), Arctic grayling

Pierre Dumont; Jacques F. Bergeron; Pierre Dulude; Yves Mailhot; Aubin Rouleau; Grégoire Ouellet; Jean-Pierre Lebel

1988-01-01

421

INTERRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN JUVENILE SALMONIDS AND NONSALMONID FISH IN THE COLUMBIA RIVER ESTUARY  

E-print Network

Interrelationships between juvenile salmonids-coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch; chinook salmon, 0. tshawytscha pro- ducer of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) and steelhead, Salrno gairdneri, in North America). Historically, the world's largest migration of adult chinook salmon, O. tshawytscha, occurred in the Columbia

422

Minimally Invasive Detection of Piscirickettsia salmonis in Cultivated Salmonids via the PCR  

PubMed Central

The attributes of the PCR allowed implementation of an assay for specific detection of Piscirickettsia salmonis from a few microliters of fish serum. This opens the way to less invasive modes of sampling for this microbial pathogen in salmonids. PMID:9687475

Marshall, Sergio; Heath, Sekou; Henríquez, Vitalia; Orrego, Cristián

1998-01-01

423

Potential for Dissemination of the Nonnative Salmonid Parasite Myxobolus cerebralis in Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myxobolus cerebralis, the myxozoan parasite responsible for whirling disease in salmonids, was first introduced into the United States in 1958 and has since spread across the country, causing severe declines in wild trout populations in the intermountain western United States. The recent detection of the parasite in Alaska is further evidence of the species' capability to invade and colonize new

E. Leyla Arsan; Jerri L. Bartholomew

2008-01-01

424

An Assessment of Lower Snake River Hydrosystem Alternatives on Survival and Recovery of Snake River Salmonids  

E-print Network

REFERENCES Websites An Assessment of Lower Snake River Hydrosystem Alternatives on Survival and Recovery of Snake River Salmonids http://www.nwfsc.noaa.gov/afis/ Columbia River article http://www.umatilla.nsn.us/main.html Economics of Snake River Salmon Recovery http://www.columbiaconversations.org/pages/Economics/Economics_Snake

425

Pair-Trawl Detection of PIT-Tagged Juvenile Salmonids Migrating in the Columbia River Estuary, 2008 Report of Research.  

SciTech Connect

In 2008, we sampled migrating juvenile Pacific salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags using a surface pair trawl in the upper Columbia River estuary (rkm 61-83). The cod-end of the trawl was replaced with a cylindrical PIT-tag detection antenna with an 86-cm-diameter fish-passage opening and two detection coils connected in series. The pair trawl was 105 m long with a 91.5-m opening between the wings and a sample depth of 4.9 m. Also during 2008, we finalized the development of a prototype 'matrix' antenna, which was larger than previous antennas by a considerable magnitude. The matrix antenna consisted of 6 coils: a 3-coil front component and a 3-coil rear component, which were separated by 1.5-m of net mesh. The fish-passage opening was 2.5 m wide by 3.0 m tall and was attached to a standard-size pair trawl net. Intermittent sampling with a single crew began on 7 March and targeted yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss. Daily sampling using two crews began on 30 April and continued through 14 June; during this period we detected 2.7% of all juvenile salmonids previously detected at Bonneville Dam--a measure of sample efficiency. Sampling with a single crew continued through 20 August and targeted subyearling Chinook salmon. We detected 7,397 yearling Chinook salmon, 2,735 subyearling Chinook salmon, 291 coho salmon O. kisutch, 5,950 steelhead, and 122 sockeye salmon O. nerka in the upper estuary. We deployed the matrix antenna system and the older, cylindrical antenna system (86-cm-diameter fish-passage opening) simultaneously in mid-May 2008 to test matrix detection efficiency. The cylindrical antenna system had been used successfully in 2007 and early 2008. Because distribution of migrating salmonids in the estuary changes rapidly, we felt that a tandem sampling effort between the two systems was the only way to truly evaluate comparative detection efficiency. We deployed both systems within 1 km of each other during a period of high fish densities on 13, 14, and 15 May. Detections of the matrix system surpassed those of the cylindrical system by 53% in 14 h of simultaneous sampling (total detections 716 and 339, respectively). We believe that the higher detection rate observed with the matrix system was due to fewer smolts escaping the trawl entrance and to more smolts readily passing through the larger fish-passage opening. After tandem sampling, we continued exclusive use of the matrix system for the remainder of the 2008 juvenile migration season. Mean survival rates from Lower Granite to Bonneville Dam for yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead were 42% (SE = 3.7%) and 46% (SE = 1.5%), respectively. Over 358,000 PIT-tagged salmonids were transported, and we detected 4,619 of these fish.

Magie, Robert J.; Morris, Matthew S.; Ledgerwood, Richard D. [Northwest Fisheries Science Center

2009-06-03

426

Understanding sexuality among Indian urban school adolescents  

PubMed Central

Context: Adolescence is a very exciting phase of life fraught with many challenges like sexuality. Understanding them is important in helping the adolescents grow up healthily. Aims: To ascertain the attitudes and knowledge about sexuality among school-going adolescents. Settings and Design: Students in two urban schools of an Indian city from class IX to XII were administered a self-reporting questionnaire on matters related to sexuality. Materials and Methods: Requisite ethical clearances were taken as also the consent of the parents and students before administration of the questionnaire. The authors clarified doubts to adolescents. Statistical analysis: Statistical package for social sciences. Results: The incidence of having sexual contact was 30.08% for boys and 17.18% for girls. 6.31% boys and 1.31% girls reported having had experienced sexual intercourse. Friends constituted the main sexual partners for both boys and girls. Sexual abuse had been reported by both girls and boys. These and other findings are discussed in the article. Conclusions: Adolescent school students are involved in sexual activity, but lack adequate knowledge in this regard. Students, teachers, and parents need to understand various aspects of sexuality to be able to help adolescents’ healthy sexual development. PMID:22969181

Ramadugu, Shashikumar; Ryali, VSSR; Srivastava, K.; Bhat, P. S.; Prakash, J.

2011-01-01

427

Sexuality in the child, teen, and young adult: concepts for the clinician.  

PubMed

This article discusses basic concepts of sexuality in children, adolescents, and young adults based on development stages. Sexual behavior of adolescents is a common phenomenon, leading to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and unwanted pregnancy. Clinicians should provide anticipatory guidance to help with healthy sexuality development while reducing negative aspects of human sexuality. Comprehensive sexuality education should be provided, with emphasis on avoiding unwanted sexual advances (including Internet dangers), bullying, pregnancy, and STDs. Clinicians can teach sexually active patients to use effective contraception and condoms for STD protection. Ensuring full immunization with the hepatitis B vaccine and the human papillomavirus vaccine also is important. PMID:17666227

Fonseca, Helena; Greydanus, Donald E

2007-06-01

428

Sexuality and Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author examines specific manifestations of violence in relation to sexuality: (1) forcible rape rate; (2) war atrocities; (3) sexual violence in prisons; and (4) pornography. Drawing much from Hannah Arendt's book on violence, he views sexual violence as symptomatic of a lack of sexual power, not a sign of its possession. The causes are seen…

Sanctuary, Gerald

429

Addressing Sexual Harassment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

2008-01-01

430

Sexuality and sickle cell anemia  

PubMed Central

Background Sickle cell disease, the most common hereditary blood disease in the world, is the result of an atypical hemoglobin called S (Hb S) which, when homozygous (Hb SS) is the cause of sickle cell anemia. Changes of puberty, correlated with a delayed growth spurt, begin late in both male and female sickle cell anemia individuals with repercussions on sexuality and reproduction. The objectives of this exploratory and descriptive study were to characterize the development of sexuality in adults with sickle cell anemia by investigating the patient's perception of their sex life, as well as the information they had and needed on this subject. Methods Twenty male and female sickle cell anemia patients treated at the Hemocentro Regional de Uberaba (UFTM) with ages between 19 and 47 years old were enrolled. A socioeconomic questionnaire and a semi-structured interview on sexuality, reproduction and genetic counseling were applied. Results This study shows that the sickle cell anemia patients lacked information on sexuality especially about the risks of pregnancy and the possible inheritance of the disease by their children. Moreover, the sexual life of the patients was impaired due to pain as well as discrimination and negative feelings experienced in close relationships. Conclusion The health care of sickle cell anemia patients should take into account not only the clinical aspects of the disease, but also psychosocial aspects by providing counseling on sexuality, reproduction and genetics, in order to give this population the possibility of a better quality of life. PMID:23741184

Côbo, Viviane de Almeida; Chapadeiro, Cibele Alves; Ribeiro, João Batista; Moraes-Souza, Helio; Martins, Paulo Roberto Juliano

2013-01-01

431

[Hypoactive sexual desire disorder, HSDD].  

PubMed

Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD) is the most common Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD) affecting adult women of any age, including postmenopausal women. HSDD may have significant effects on the relationships and emotional balance of women and constitutes the most common form of FSD observed in clinical practice. HSDD is characterised by a deficiency or lack of sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity, causing serious distress or interpersonal difficulties, and it is not exclusively caused by the effects of another psychiatric disorder, pathology or substance (such as medication). HSDD pathophysiology is not yet well understood, but it is thought to involve an imbalance between factors controlling inhibition and excitation of sexual desire in the brain. Many physicians are reluctant to discuss sexual desire problems with their patients for various reasons, such as insufficient knowledge of the field, an absence of efficient treatments and time constraints. Even though current treatment options are limited, a better understanding of the physiopathology behind HSDD may help develop new therapies. PMID:21186133

Mimoun, S

2011-01-01

432

Sensual sexuality education with young parenting women.  

PubMed

Comprehensive sexuality education curricula that incorporate sex positive and integrated approaches go beyond a presentation of facts and strategies for prevention to emphasize the promotion of sexual subjectivity and wellbeing. A pilot sensual sexuality education program was planned, implemented and informally evaluated with young parenting women at an alternative General Educational Development test preparation center. The program prioritized a sex positive framework, including topics such as pleasure, desire and sexual entitlement, and invited participants to explore sexuality through a multisensory orientation. Participants took part in small group discussions and activities that engaged their senses through arts-based methods. Grounded in holism, program topics were integrated with a focus on participants' everyday experiences. The pilot curriculum serves as a promising program for re-positioning young parenting women as sexual subjects, which is key to the promotion of health and wellbeing. PMID:24572457

Gubrium, Aline C; Shafer, Miriam B

2014-08-01

433