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Sample records for salmonid sexual development

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF FIELD-BASED EMPIRICAL MODELS OF SUITABLE TEMPERATURE REGIMES FOR INTERIOR SALMONIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interior salmonids are species of growing interest and concern in the Pacific Northwest. Evidence of population declines associated with habitat loss and fragmentation have culminate in every species being listed, or proposed or petitioned for listing under he Endangered Species...

  2. Clock genes and their genomic distributions in three species of salmonid fishes: Associations with genes regulating sexual maturation and cell cycling

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Clock family genes encode transcription factors that regulate clock-controlled genes and thus regulate many physiological mechanisms/processes in a circadian fashion. Clock1 duplicates and copies of Clock3 and NPAS2-like genes were partially characterized (genomic sequencing) and mapped using family-based indels/SNPs in rainbow trout (RT)(Oncorhynchus mykiss), Arctic charr (AC)(Salvelinus alpinus), and Atlantic salmon (AS)(Salmo salar) mapping panels. Results Clock1 duplicates mapped to linkage groups RT-8/-24, AC-16/-13 and AS-2/-18. Clock3/NPAS2-like genes mapped to RT-9/-20, AC-20/-43, and AS-5. Most of these linkage group regions containing the Clock gene duplicates were derived from the most recent 4R whole genome duplication event specific to the salmonids. These linkage groups contain quantitative trait loci (QTL) for life history and growth traits (i.e., reproduction and cell cycling). Comparative synteny analyses with other model teleost species reveal a high degree of conservation for genes in these chromosomal regions suggesting that functionally related or co-regulated genes are clustered in syntenic blocks. For example, anti-müllerian hormone (amh), regulating sexual maturation, and ornithine decarboxylase antizymes (oaz1 and oaz2), regulating cell cycling, are contained within these syntenic blocks. Conclusions Synteny analyses indicate that regions homologous to major life-history QTL regions in salmonids contain many candidate genes that are likely to influence reproduction and cell cycling. The order of these genes is highly conserved across the vertebrate species examined, and as such, these genes may make up a functional cluster of genes that are likely co-regulated. CLOCK, as a transcription factor, is found within this block and therefore has the potential to cis-regulate the processes influenced by these genes. Additionally, clock-controlled genes (CCGs) are located in other life-history QTL regions within salmonids suggesting that at least in part, trans-regulation of these QTL regions may also occur via Clock expression. PMID:20670436

  3. Toxicity of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls during salmonid early development

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the lethal potency and signs of toxicity of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) during salmonid early development. Metabolism, elimination, and toxicity of 2,3,7,8tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during lake trout early life stage development was investigated following waterborne exposure of lake trout eggs to ({sup 3}H)TCDD. TCDD was not metabolized or eliminated by eggs or sac fry, but was rapidly eliminated from fry. TCDD toxicity was manifested by some hatching mortality, but predominantly by sac fry mortality associated with subcutaneous yolk sac edema and hemorrhages, resembling blue-sac disease. Based on the egg TCDD concentration, the no-observable-adverse-effect level for mortality was 34 pg TCDD/g egg and the lowest-observable-adverse-effect level for mortality was 40 pg/g. LD{sub 50} was 65 pg/g. An injection method was developed to administer graded doses of non-radiolabeled PCDD, PCDF, and PCB congeners to lake trout and rainbow trout eggs. Following TCDD egg injection, lake trout were more sensitive than rainbow trout to the lethal effect of TCDD with LD{sub 50}S of 47 and 402 pg/g, respectively; however, TCDD toxicity in both species was manifested by sac fry mortality and blue-sac disease. Toxicity of TCDD was assessed during lake trout early life stage development following TCDD maternal-deposition, TCDD egg injection, and TCDD waterborne egg exposure. The lethal potency of TCDD and signs of toxicity during lake trout early development following all three routes of egg exposure were essentially the same.

  4. Measuring Rates of Sexual Development in Female

    E-print Network

    Galef Jr., Bennett G.

    Measuring Rates of Sexual Development in Female Mongolian Gerbils MERTICE M. CLARK BENNETT G. GALEF, and aggressive behavior of female Mongolian gerbils. In the present series of studies, we explored the relationship in gerbils between age at vaginal patency and three other indices of rate of female sexual

  5. Significance of Selective Predation and Development of Prey Protection Measures for Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs: Annual Progress Report, February 1991-February 1992.

    SciTech Connect

    Poe, Thomas P.

    1992-12-31

    This document is the 1991 annual report of progress for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) research Project conducted by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). Our approach was to present the progress achieved during 1991 in a series of separate reports for each major project task. Each report is prepared in the format of a scientific paper and is able to stand alone, whatever the state of progress or completion. This project has two major goals. One is to understand the significance of selective predation and prey vulnerability by determining if substandard juvenile salmonids (dead, injured, stressed, diseased, or naive) are more vulnerable to predation by northern squawfish, than standard or normal juvenile salmonids. The second goal is to develop and test prey protection measures to control predation on juvenile salmonids by reducing predator-smolt encounters or predator capture efficiency.

  6. Celibacy and male psycho-sexual development.

    PubMed

    McGavin, Paul Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Counselors and psychologists would benefit from a nuanced appreciation of Catholic sexual morality when working with human development issues among those who adhere to Church teaching. This focus is especially so among those preparing for a life of stable celibate chastity. Appreciation of the differences between boys and men and girls and women in the processes of psycho-sexual maturation is important. This article addresses these issues with a focus on celibacy and male psycho-sexual development in young men of Catholic commitment. PMID:22452150

  7. Peroxisomes and sexual development in fungi

    PubMed Central

    Peraza-Reyes, Leonardo; Berteaux-Lecellier, Véronique

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisomes are versatile and dynamic organelles that are essential for the development of most eukaryotic organisms. In fungi, many developmental processes, such as sexual development, require the activity of peroxisomes. Sexual reproduction in fungi involves the formation of meiotic-derived sexual spores, often takes place inside multicellular fruiting bodies and requires precise coordination between the differentiation of multiple cell types and the progression of karyogamy and meiosis. Different peroxisomal functions contribute to the orchestration of this complex developmental process. Peroxisomes are required to sustain the formation of fruiting bodies and the maturation and germination of sexual spores. They facilitate the mobilization of reserve compounds via fatty acid ?-oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle, allowing the generation of energy and biosynthetic precursors. Additionally, peroxisomes are implicated in the progression of meiotic development. During meiotic development in Podospora anserina, there is a precise modulation of peroxisome assembly and dynamics. This modulation includes changes in peroxisome size, number and localization, and involves a differential activity of the protein-machinery that drives the import of proteins into peroxisomes. Furthermore, karyogamy, entry into meiosis and sorting of meiotic-derived nuclei into sexual spores all require the activity of peroxisomes. These processes rely on different peroxisomal functions and likely depend on different pathways for peroxisome assembly. Indeed, emerging studies support the existence of distinct import channels for peroxisomal proteins that contribute to different developmental stages. PMID:24046747

  8. Development of a rapid and efficient microinjection technique for gene insertion into fertilized salmonid eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, D.P.; Welt, M.; Leung, F.C.

    1990-10-01

    An efficient one-step injection technique for gene insertion into fertilized rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) eggs is described, and basic parameters affecting egg survival are reported. Freshly fertilized rainbow trout eggs were injected in the perivitelline space with a recombinant mouse metallothionein-genomic bovine growth hormone (bGH) DNA construct using a 30-gauge hypodermic needle and a standard microinjection system. Relative to control, site of injection and DNA concentration did not affect the egg survival, but injections later than 3--4 hours post fertilization were detrimental. The injection technique permitted treatment of 100 eggs/hr with survivals up to 100%, resulting in a 4% DNA uptake rate as indicated by DNA dot blot analysis. Positive dot blot results also indicated that the injected DNA is able to cross the vitelline membrane and persist for 50--60 days post hatching, obviating the need for direct injection into the germinal disk. Results are consistent with previous transgenic fish work, underscoring the usefulness of the technique for generating transgenic trout and salmonids. 24 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Measures of Growth, Development, and Sexual

    E-print Network

    Galef Jr., Bennett G.

    Measures of Growth, Development, and Sexual Maturation in Mongolian Gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus McMaster University Hamilton, Ontario, CmJada We examined, in Mongolian gerbils, the adequacy of two in Mongolian gerbils whose rates of development were manipulated by altering the extent of their exposure

  10. Improving Sexuality Education: The Development of Teacher-Preparation Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Elissa M.; Goldfarb, Eva S.; Russell, Susan; Seabert, Denise; Wallen, Michele; Wilson, Kelly L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Teaching sexuality education to support young people's sexual development and overall sexual health is both needed and supported. Data continue to highlight the high rates of teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted disease, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, among young people in the United States as well as the…

  11. Developing a Predation Index and Evaluating Ways to Reduce Salmonid Losses to Predation in the Columbia River Basin, Final Report August 1988-September 1990.

    SciTech Connect

    Nigro, Anthony A.

    1990-12-01

    We report our results of studies to develop a predation index and evaluate ways to reduce juvenile salmonid losses to predation in the Columbia River Basin. Study objectives of each were: develop an index to estimate predation losses of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp) in reservoirs throughout the Columbia River Basin, describe the relationships among predator-caused mortality of juvenile salmonids and physical and biological variables, examine the feasibility of developing bounty, commercial or recreational fisheries on northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) and develop a plan to evaluate the efficacy of predator control fisheries; determine the economic feasibility of developing bounty and commercial fisheries for northern squawfish, assist ODFW with evaluating the economic feasibility of recreational fisheries for northern squawfish and assess the economic feasibility of utilizing northern squawfish, carp (Cyprinus carpio) and suckers (Castostomus spp) in multispecies fisheries; evaluate commercial technology of various fishing methods for harvesting northern squawfish in Columbia River reservoirs and field test the effectiveness of selected harvesting systems, holding facilities and transportation systems; and modify the existing Columbia River Ecosystem Model (CREM) to include processes necessary to evaluate effects of removing northern squawfish on their population size structure and abundance, document the ecological processes, mathematical equations and computer (FORTRAN) programming of the revised version of CREM and conduct systematic analyses of various predator removal scenarios, using revised CREM to generate the simulations. Individual reports are indexed separately.

  12. Adolescent Development and Sexuality. Adolescent Decisions Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brion-Meisels, Steven; And Others

    This teacher's manual is one volume in a six volume curriculum for the secondary level, designed to provide a systematic, group-oriented approach to decision-making in areas crucial to adolescent development: sexuality and social relationships, drug (substance) use and abuse, work, juvenile law, and people and government. An introductory section…

  13. Vaccination against salmonid bacterial kidney disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) of salmonid fishes, caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, has presented challenges for development of effective vaccines, despite several decades of research. The only vaccine against BKD that is commercially licensed is an injectable preparation containing live cells ...

  14. [Sexual development in the light of socio-cultural changes].

    PubMed

    Strauss, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    This article briefly summarizes central components of theories of sexual development and outlines that these components depend largely on socio-cultural factors. A cultural change of human sexuality is reflected by several phenomena such as the public debate about sexual violence and its consequences, a diminuation of gender differences and a turn away from monosexuality, tremendous changes within the world of partner relationships and a mediatization of sexuality. This mediatization is paralleled by a public sexualization as well as a de-sexualization of the private sphere together with an increase of a loss of sexual desire reflecting well-known problems of human sexuality. Finally, it has to be stated that sexuality has experienced a demystification as a consequence of socio-cultural changes following the sexual liberalization. PMID:17177103

  15. Developing Sexual Competence? Exploring Strategies for the Provision of Effective Sexualities and Relationships Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirst, Julia

    2008-01-01

    School-based sexualities and relationships education (SRE) offers one of the most promising means of improving young people's sexual health through developing "sexual competence". In the absence of evidence on whether the term holds the same meanings for young people and adults (e.g. teachers, researchers, policy-makers), the paper explores…

  16. Significance of Selective Predation and Development of Prey Protection Measures for Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs: Annual Report, February 1992-February 1993.

    SciTech Connect

    Poe, Thomas P.; Gadomski, Dena M.

    1994-09-01

    This document is the 1992 annual report of progress for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) research Project No. 82-003 conducted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), the Oregon Cooperative Fishery Research Unit (OCFRU), and the Idaho Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (ICFWRU). The approach was to present the progress achieved during 1992 in a series of separate reports for each major project task. Each report is prepared in the format of a scientific paper and is able to stand alone, whatever the state of progress or completion. Reports 1, 2, and 4 consist of the Abstract only (journal papers were submitted in lieu of reports). This project has two major goals. One is to understand the significance of selective predation and prey vulnerability by determining if substandard juvenile salmonids (dead, injured, stressed, diseased, or naive) are more vulnerable to predation by northern squawfish, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, than standard or normal juvenile salmonids. The second goal is to develop and test prey protection measures to control predation on juvenile salmonids by reducing predator-smolt encounters or predator capture efficiency. Separate abstracts have been submitted to the database for the seven articles in this report.

  17. Inhabiting the sexual landscape: toward an interpretive theory of the development of sexual orientation and identity.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Liahna E; Silva, Tony J

    2015-01-01

    Building on Paula Rust's (1996) concept of a sexual landscape, we propose an interpretive theory of the development of both sexual orientation and sexual identity. We seek to reconcile human agency with active and shifting influences in social context and to recognize the inherent complexity of environmental factors while acknowledging the role that biological potential plays. We ground our model in the insights of three compatible and related theoretical perspectives: social constructionism, symbolic interactionism, and scripting theory. Within this framework, we explain how sexual orientation and sexual identities develop and potentially change. PMID:25397814

  18. Development of an Index to Bird Predation of Juvenile Salmonids within the Yakima River, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Gassley, James M.; Grue, Christian E.

    2001-10-01

    Avian predation of fish is suspected to contribute to the loss of juvenile spring chinook salmon in the Yakima Basin, potentially constraining natural production. In 1997 and 1998, the Yakama/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW)--whose goal is to increase natural production historically present within the Yakima River--initiated investigations to assess the feasibility of developing an index to avian predation of juvenile salmon within the river. This research--conducted by Dr. Steve Mathews and David Phinney of the University of Washington--confirmed that Ring-billed Gulls and Common Mergansers were the primary avian predators of juvenile salmon, and that under certain conditions could significantly impact migrating smolt populations. Beginning in 1999, the Washington Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit was asked by the YKFP and the WDFW to continue development of avian consumption indices. Monitoring methods developed by Mathews and Phinney were adopted (with modifications) and monitoring of impacts to juvenile salmon along river reaches and at areas of high predator/prey concentrations (colloquially referred to as ''hotspots'') continued. New efforts initiated in 1999 included piscivorous bird surveys at smolt acclimation sites operated by the Yakama Nation, monitoring of the North Fork Teanaway River for changes in avian piscivore abundance associated with the installation of the Jack Creek acclimation facility, and aerial surveys seeking to identify avian piscivores along the length of the Yakima River. In 1999, piscivorous birds were counted from river banks at hotspots and from a raft or drift boat along river reaches. Consumption by gulls was based on direct observations of foraging success and modeled abundance; consumption by Common Mergansers (which forage underwater) was estimated using published dietary requirements and modeled abundance. A second-order polynomial equation was used to interpolate gull and Common Merganser abundance on days when surveys were not conducted. Seasonal patterns of avian piscivore abundance were identified, diurnal patterns of gull abundance at hotspots were identified, predation indices were calculated for hotspots and summer river reaches, and the efficacy of aerial surveys for estimating bird abundance within river reaches was evaluated. Primary avian predators were California and Ring-billed Gulls at hotspots and Common Mergansers within upper river reaches. Estimated take (presumed to be salmonids) by gulls at hotspots (22 April-30 May) was 4,084 fish at the Chandler Bypass Outfall and 12,636 fish at Horn Rapids Dam. Combined take was 2.65% of the salmonids passing over Chandler Dam or 0.89 % of all smolts estimated passing or being released from the Chandler Dam area during the 1999 smolt migration season. Estimated take by Common Mergansers within upper river reaches in summer was 4,092 kg between 7 May and 18 August 1999.

  19. Development of Sexual Orientation among Adolescent and Young Adult Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lisa M.

    1998-01-01

    Interviewed 16- to 23-year-old non-heterosexual women regarding development of their sexual orientation. Found that a majority failed to report at least one of following: childhood sexual orientation indicators, stability in same-sex attractions, or awareness of same-sex attractions prior to conscious sexual questioning. Lesbians reported greater…

  20. The experimental analysis of human sexual arousal: Some recent developments

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Bryan; Barnes, Dermot

    1998-01-01

    Experimental analyses of human sexual arousal have been decidedly sparse. Recent developments in the analysis of derived relational responding, however, have opened the way for a modern behavior-analytic treatment of complex or “novel” human behavior, including specific instances of human sexual arousal. The current article examines some of these developments and their relevance to the analysis of emotional behavior, with a focus on sexual arousal. Recent research that has examined the acquisition of sexual stimulus functions within a relational frame paradigm is then outlined. Finally, a series of relational frame interpretations of a variety of human sexual arousal phenomena is offered. PMID:22478296

  1. Development and Validation of the Sexual Agreement Investment Scale

    PubMed Central

    Neilands, Torsten B.; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Darbes, Lynae A.; Beougher, Sean C.; Hoff, Colleen C.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Sexual agreements are ubiquitous among gay men. Lower levels of investment in these agreements may be associated with breaking them or engaging in risky sexual behavior. We developed a scale to measure agreement investment levels among gay men. Methods We analyzed qualitative data from 78 gay men in committed relationships to inform item development, followed by quantitative analyses of two larger samples (n=380; n=1001) to assess construct, convergent, and discriminant validity. Results The Sexual Agreement Investment Scale (SAIS) is a psychometrically sound measure of level of the investment in sexual agreements among gay men in relationships. Men with higher agreement investment were less likely to break agreements and to engage in unprotected intercourse with outside partners. Discussion The SAIS can be used to measure investment in sexual agreements and its impact on sexual behavior in a wide variety of settings, including research on relationships, sexuality, couples therapy, and HIV-prevention. PMID:19396645

  2. Understanding normal development of adolescent sexuality: A bumpy ride

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Sujita Kumar; Choudhury, Ananya; Singh, Abhishek Pratap

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence, derived from the Latin word “adolescere” meaning “to grow up” is a critical developmental period. During adolescence, major biological as well as psychological developments take place. Development of sexuality is an important bio-psycho-social development, which takes an adult shape during this period. During adolescence, an individual's thought, perception as well as response gets colored sexually. Puberty is an important landmark of sexuality development that occurs in the adolescence. The myriad of changes that occurs in adolescents puts them under enormous stress, which may have adverse physical, as well as psychological consequences. Understanding adolescent sexuality has important clinical, legal, social, cultural, as well as educational implications. PMID:26157296

  3. Understanding normal development of adolescent sexuality: A bumpy ride.

    PubMed

    Kar, Sujita Kumar; Choudhury, Ananya; Singh, Abhishek Pratap

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence, derived from the Latin word "adolescere" meaning "to grow up" is a critical developmental period. During adolescence, major biological as well as psychological developments take place. Development of sexuality is an important bio-psycho-social development, which takes an adult shape during this period. During adolescence, an individual's thought, perception as well as response gets colored sexually. Puberty is an important landmark of sexuality development that occurs in the adolescence. The myriad of changes that occurs in adolescents puts them under enormous stress, which may have adverse physical, as well as psychological consequences. Understanding adolescent sexuality has important clinical, legal, social, cultural, as well as educational implications. PMID:26157296

  4. Persistence of Salmonid Redds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffington, J. M.; Buxton, T.; Fremier, A. K.; Hassan, M. A.; Yager, E.

    2013-12-01

    The construction of redds by spawning salmonids modifies fluvial processes in ways that are beneficial to egg and embryo survival. Redd topography induces hyporheic flow that oxygenates embryos incubating within the streambed and creates form drag that reduces bed mobility and scour of salmonid eggs. Winnowing of fine material during redd construction also coarsens the streambed, increasing bed porosity and hyporheic flow and reducing bed mobility. In addition to the biological benefits, redds may influence channel morphology by altering channel hydraulics and bed load transport rates depending on the size and extent of redds relative to the size of the channel. A key question is how long do the physical and biological effects of redds last? Field observations indicate that in some basins redds are ephemeral, with redd topography rapidly erased by subsequent floods, while in other basins, redds can persist for years. We hypothesize that redd persistence is a function of basin hydrology, sediment supply, and characteristics of the spawning fish. Hydrology controls the frequency and magnitude of bed mobilizing flows following spawning, while bed load supply (volume and caliber) controls the degree of textural fining and consequent bed mobility after spawning, as well as the potential for burial of redd features. The effectiveness of flows in terms of their magnitude and duration depend on hydroclimate (i.e., snowmelt, rainfall, or transitional hydrographs), while bed load supply depends on basin geology, land use, and natural disturbance regimes (e.g., wildfire). Location within the stream network may also influence redd persistence. In particular, lakes effectively trap sediment and regulate downstream flow, which may promote long-lived redds in stream reaches below lakes. These geomorphic controls are modulated by biological factors: fish species (size of fish controls size of redds and magnitude of streambed coarsening); life history (timing of spawning and incubation relative to high flows); and population size (density of redds and extent of streambed alteration within a given reach). Species and life history also control the location of spawning within the basin, dictating the flow and sediment supply regimes. A theoretical framework is developed for predicting redd persistence as a function of the above physical and biological factors. We expect that long-lived redds will indicate either that the river is not competent to re-work the effects of spawning or that spawning occurs after peak flow events that are capable of modifying redd features. The longevity of redds and their associated effects on fluvial processes also provides a measure of the degree of potential ecological conditioning for future generations of fish. Future work will test the framework in field and laboratory settings.

  5. An Ethnographic Analysis of Adolescent Sexual Minority Website Usage: Exploring Notions of Information Seeking and Sexual Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulfridge, Rocky M.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explores the website usage of adolescent sexual minorities, examining notions of information seeking and sexual identity development. Sexual information seeking is an important element within human information behavior and is uniquely problematic for young sexual minorities. Utilizing a contemporary gay teen website, this…

  6. Alcohol and Sexual Consent Scale: Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Rose Marie; Matthews, Molly R.; Weiner, Judith; Hogan, Kathryn M.; Popson, Halle C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish a short measure of attitudes toward sexual consent in the context of alcohol consumption. Methods: Using a multistage and systematic measurement development process, the investigators developed the Alcohol and Sexual Consent Scale using a sample of college students. Results: The resulting 12-item scale, the Alcohol and…

  7. Development of an Index to Bird Predation of Juvenile Salmonids within the Yakima River, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Major, III, Walter; Grue, Christian E.; Ryding, Kristen E.

    2002-08-01

    Avian predation of fish is suspected to contribute to the loss of out-migrating juvenile salmonids in the Yakima Basin, potentially constraining natural and artificial production. In 1997 and 1998, the Yakima/ Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP)--whose goal is increasing natural production within the Yakima River--initiated investigations to assess the feasibility of developing an index to avian predation of juvenile salmon within the river. This research confirmed that Ring-billed Gulls and Common Mergansers were the primary avian predators of juvenile salmon (Phinney et al. 1998), and that under certain conditions could significantly impact migrating smolt populations. Beginning in 1999, the Washington Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (WACFWRU) was asked by the YKFP to continue development of avian consumption indices. Monitoring methods developed by Phinney et al. (1998) were adopted (with modifications) and monitoring of impacts to juvenile salmon along river reaches and at areas of high predator/prey concentrations (colloquially referred to as ''hotspots'') has continued each year through 2001. In 2001, piscivorous birds were counted from river banks at hotspots and from a raft or drift boat along river reaches. Consumption by gulls at hotspots was based on direct observations of foraging success and modeled abundance; consumption by all other piscivorous birds was estimated using published dietary requirements and modeled abundance. Seasonal patterns of avian piscivore abundance were identified, diurnal patterns of gull abundance at hotspots were identified, and predation indices were calculated for hotspots and river reaches (for both spring and summer). Changes in survey methods in 2001 included the addition of surveys in the ''Canyon'' reach during spring and altering the method of directly measuring gull feeding rates at hotspots. Primary avian predators in 2001 were ''gulls'' (California and Ring-billed) at hotspots and Common Mergansers within upper river reaches. Consumption on the lower reaches was distributed among a number of species, with slightly more then half of all fish consumption being attributed to American White Pelicans. Estimated consumption by gulls at both hotspots combined (8 Apr-30 Jun) was 169,883 fish. Assuming a worst case scenario (all fish taken were smolts) this represented approximately 4.9% of all smolts estimated passing or being released from the Prosser Dam area during the 2001 smolt migration season. Total gull abundances and estimates of consumption between the two hotspot sites were opposite that seen in 2000. Foraging gulls at Horn Rapids Dam were regressed against flow for the 3 years and found to be significant (alpha = 0.1, P=0.081, r{sup 2} = .2589). A similar 3-year regression vs fish passage through the Chandler Juvenile Fish Facility, however, did not show a significant relationship (alpha = 0.1, P = 0.396, r{sup 2} = .3708). Total estimated take by Common Mergansers across all strata surveyed was 14,777 kg between 8 Apr and 31 Aug, 2001. Approximately 66 percent of that consumption was within the upper river reaches (Stratum 1) where there is a known breeding population of mergansers. Graphical comparisons of merganser abundances over the three years (1999-2001) in the upper reaches of the Yakima River suggest an increase in 2001 from the previous 2 years in both the spring and summer survey periods, but overlapping confidence intervals prevent assumptions regarding upward or downward trends in abundance.

  8. Examining the Development and Sexual Behavior of Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    A careful examination of young men's sexuality by health professionals in pediatrics, primary care and reproductive health is foundational to adolescent male sexual health and healthy development. Through a review of existing literature, this article provides background and a developmental framework for sexual health services for adolescent boys. The article first defines and provides an overview of adolescent boys’ sexual health, and then discusses developmentally focused research on the following topics: (1) early romantic relationships and the evolution of power and influence within these relationships; (2) developmental “readiness” for sex and curiosity; (3) boys’ need for closeness and intimacy; (4) adopting codes of masculinity; (5) boys’ communicating about sex; and (6) contextual influences from peers, families, and providers. This article concludes by examining the implications of these data for sexual health promotion efforts for adolescent males, including HPV vaccination. PMID:20307842

  9. Complications in the Development of a Female Sexual Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magagna, Jeanne; Pepper Goldsmith, Tara

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the struggle to develop a female sexual identity and the importance of the roles of the father and mother in this struggle. The clinical illustration is taken from the psychotherapy of an anorectic adolescent.

  10. The Role of Sexually Explicit Material (SEM) in the Sexual Development of Black Young Same-Sex-Attracted Men

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Anthony; Ogunbajo, Adedotun; Trent, Maria; Harper, Gary W.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Sexually explicit material (SEM) (including Internet, video, and print) may play a key role in the lives of Black same-sex sexually active youth by providing the only information to learn about sexual development. There is limited school-and/or family-based sex education to serve as models for sexual behaviors for Black youth. We describe the role SEM plays in the sexual development of a sample of Black same-sex attracted (SSA) young adolescent men ages 15–19. Adolescents recruited from clinics, social networking sites, and through snowball sampling were invited to participate in a 90-min, semi-structured qualitative interview. Most participants described using SEM prior to their first same-sex sexual experience. Participants described using SEM primarily for sexual development, including learning about sexual organs and function, the mechanics of same-gender sex, and to negotiate one’s sexual identity. Secondary functions were to determine readiness for sex; to learn about sexual performance, including understanding sexual roles and responsibilities (e.g., “top” or “bottom”); to introduce sexual performance scripts; and to develop models for how sex should feel (e.g., pleasure and pain). Youth also described engaging in sexual behaviors (including condom non-use and/or swallowing ejaculate) that were modeled on SEM. Comprehensive sexuality education programs should be designed to address the unmet needs of young, Black SSA young men, with explicit focus on sexual roles and behaviors that may be inaccurately portrayed and/or involve sexual risk-taking (such as unprotected anal intercourse and swallowing ejaculate) in SEM. This work also calls for development of Internet-based HIV/STI prevention strategies targeting young Black SSA men who maybe accessing SEM. PMID:25677334

  11. The role of sexually explicit material in the sexual development of same-sex-attracted Black adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Arrington-Sanders, Renata; Harper, Gary W; Morgan, Anthony; Ogunbajo, Adedotun; Trent, Maria; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2015-04-01

    Sexually explicit material (SEM) (including Internet, video, and print) may play a key role in the lives of Black same-sex sexually active youth by providing the only information to learn about sexual development. There is limited school- and/or family-based sex education to serve as models for sexual behaviors for Black youth. We describe the role SEM plays in the sexual development of a sample of Black same-sex attracted (SSA) young adolescent males ages 15-19. Adolescents recruited from clinics, social networking sites, and through snowball sampling were invited to participate in a 90-min, semi-structured qualitative interview. Most participants described using SEM prior to their first same-sex sexual experience. Participants described using SEM primarily for sexual development, including learning about sexual organs and function, the mechanics of same-gender sex, and to negotiate one's sexual identity. Secondary functions were to determine readiness for sex; to learn about sexual performance, including understanding sexual roles and responsibilities (e.g., "top" or "bottom"); to introduce sexual performance scripts; and to develop models for how sex should feel (e.g., pleasure and pain). Youth also described engaging in sexual behaviors (including condom non-use and/or swallowing ejaculate) that were modeled on SEM. Comprehensive sexuality education programs should be designed to address the unmet needs of young, Black SSA men, with explicit focus on sexual roles and behaviors that may be inaccurately portrayed and/or involve sexual risk-taking (such as unprotected anal intercourse and swallowing ejaculate) in SEM. This work also calls for development of Internet-based HIV/STI prevention strategies targeting young Black SSA men who may be accessing SEM. PMID:25677334

  12. ANADROMOUS SALMONID PASSAGE FACILITY DESIGN

    E-print Network

    ANADROMOUS SALMONID PASSAGE FACILITY DESIGN NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE NORTHWEST REGION www Marine Fisheries Service). 2011. Anadromous Salmonid Passage Facility Design. NMFS, Northwest Region.Nordlund@noaa.gov for consideration in updating this document. Assistance from NMFS fish passage specialists can be obtained

  13. Research on Sexual Orientation and Human Development: A Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Bonnie R.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of research over the past 25 years on sexual orientation and its effects on human development, concluding that gay and lesbian interests and behavior appear to result from a complex interplay of genetic, prenatal, and environmental influences. Notes that gender identity develops early, especially for males, and is difficult…

  14. Dmrt genes in the development and evolution of sexual dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, Artyom

    2012-01-01

    Most animals are sexually dimorphic, yet different taxa have different sex-specific traits. Despite major differences in the genetic control of sexual development among animal lineages, the Dmrt family of transcription factors has been shown to be involved in sex-specific differentiation in all animals studied so far. In recent years, the functions of Dmrt genes have been characterized in many animal groups, opening the way for a broad comparative perspective. In this review, I focus on the similarities and differences in the functions of Dmrt genes across the animal kingdom. I highlight a number of common themes in the sexual development of different taxa, discuss how Dmrt genes have acquired new roles during animal evolution, and show how they contributed to the origin of novel sex-specific traits. PMID:22425532

  15. Effects of feeding level and sexual maturation on fatty acid metabolism gene expression in muscle, liver, and visceral adipose tissue of diploid and triploid rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many cultured fish species, such as salmonids, gonadal development occurs at the expense of stored energy and nutrients, including lipids. However, mechanisms regulating nutrient repartitioning during sexual maturation are not well understood. This study investigated effects of ration level and s...

  16. Physiological levels of testosterone kill salmonid leukocytes in vitro

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slater, C.H.; Schreck, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    Adult spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) elaborate high plasma concentrations of testosterone during sexual maturation, and these levels of testosterone have been shown to reduce the salmonid immune response in vitro. Our search for the mechanism of testosterone's immunosuppressive action has led to the characterization of an androgen receptor in salmonid leukocytes. In the present study we examined the specific effects that testosterone had on salmonid leukocytes. Direct counts of viable leukocytes after incubation with and without physiological levels of testosterone demonstrate a significant loss of leukocytes in cultures exposed to testosterone. At least 5 days of contact with testosterone was required to produce significant immunosuppression and addition of a 'conditioned media' (supernatant from proliferating lymphocytes not exposed to testosterone) did not reverse the immunosuppressive effects of testosterone. These data lead us to conclude that testosterone may exert its immunosuppressive effects by direct action on salmonid leukocytes, through the androgen receptor described, and that this action leads to the death of a significant number of these leukocytes.

  17. Homosexuality as a consequence of epigenetically canalized sexual development.

    PubMed

    Rice, William R; Friberg, Urban; Gavrilets, Sergey

    2012-12-01

    Male and female homosexuality have substantial prevalence in humans. Pedigree and twin studies indicate that homosexuality has substantial heritability in both sexes, yet concordance between identical twins is low and molecular studies have failed to find associated DNA makers. This paradoxical pattern calls for an explanation. We use published data on fetal androgen signaling and gene regulation via nongenetic changes in DNA packaging (epigenetics) to develop a new model for homosexuality. It is well established that fetal androgen signaling strongly influences sexual development. We show that an unappreciated feature of this process is reduced androgen sensitivity in XX fetuses and enhanced sensitivity in XY fetuses, and that this difference is most feasibly mused by numerous sex-specific epigenetic modifications ("epi-marks") originating in embryonic stem cells. These epi-marks buffer XX fetuses from masculinization due to excess fetal androgen exposure and similarly buffer XY fetuses from androgen underexposure. Extant data indicates that individual epi-marks influence some but not other sexually dimorphic traits, vary in strength across individuals, and are produced during ontogeny and erased between generations. Those that escape erasure will steer development of the sexual phenotypes they influence in a gonad-discordant direction in opposite sex offspring, mosaically feminizing XY offspring and masculinizing XX offspring. Such sex-specific epi-marks are sexually antagonistic (SA-epi-marks) because they canalize sexual development in the parent that produced them, but contribute to gonad-trait discordances in opposite-sex offspring when unerased. In this model, homosexuality occurs when stronger-than-average SA-epi-marks (influencing sexual preference) from an opposite-sex parent escape erasure and are then paired with a weaker-than-average de novo sex-specific epi-marks produced in opposite-sex offspring. Our model predicts that homosexuality is part of a wider phenomenon in which recently evolved androgen-influenced traits commonly display gonad-trait discordances at substantial frequency, and that the molecular feature underlying most homosexuality is not DNA polymorphism(s), but epi-marks that evolved to canalize sexual dimorphic development that sometimes carryover across generations and contribute to gonad-trait discordances in opposite-sex descendants. PMID:23397798

  18. Significance of Selective Predation and Development of Prey Protection Measures for Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs: Annual Progress Report, February 1993-February 1994.

    SciTech Connect

    Poe, Thomas P.

    1994-08-01

    This report addresses the problem of predator-prey interactions of juvenile salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River. Six papers are included on selective predation and prey protection. Attention is focused on monitoring the movements, the distribution, and the behavior of juvenile chinook salmon and northern squawfish.

  19. Adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material and their sexual attitudes and behavior: Parallel development and directional effects.

    PubMed

    Doornwaard, Suzan M; Bickham, David S; Rich, Michael; ter Bogt, Tom F M; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M

    2015-10-01

    Although research has repeatedly demonstrated that adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) is related to their endorsement of permissive sexual attitudes and their experience with sexual behavior, it is not clear how linkages between these constructs unfold over time. This study combined 2 types of longitudinal modeling, mean-level development and cross-lagged panel modeling, to examine (a) developmental patterns in adolescents' SEIM use, permissive sexual attitudes, and experience with sexual behavior, as well as whether these developments are related; and (b) longitudinal directionality of associations between SEIM use on the 1 hand and permissive sexual attitudes and sexual behavior on the other hand. We used 4-wave longitudinal data from 1,132 7th through 10th grade Dutch adolescents (M(age) T1 = 13.95; 52.7% boys) and estimated multigroup models to test for moderation by gender. Mean-level developmental trajectories showed that boys occasionally and increasingly used SEIM over the 18-month study period, which co-occurred with increases in their permissive attitudes and their experience with sexual behavior. Cross-lagged panel models revealed unidirectional effects from boys' SEIM use on their subsequent endorsement of permissive attitudes, but no consistent directional effects between their SEIM use and sexual behavior. Girls showed a similar pattern of increases in experience with sexual behavior, but their SEIM use was consistently low and their endorsement of permissive sexual attitudes decreased over the 18-month study period. In contrast to boys, girls' SEIM use was not longitudinally related to their sexual attitudes and behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of these gender-specific findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26376287

  20. Girls' Sexual Development in the Inner City: From Compelled Childhood Sexual Contact to Sex-for-Things Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Eloise; Golub, Andrew; Johnson, Bruce D.

    2003-01-01

    Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) has been linked to a wide variety of adverse psychological and behavioral outcomes. This paper describes girls' sexual development in the inner city based on qualitative material from a long-term ethnographic (observational) study. For many inner-city girls, early and then continued experiences of being compelled to have…

  1. Microenterprise Development Interventions for Sexual Risk Reduction: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ramon; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Muessig, Kathryn E.; Tucker, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive interventions that address both individual and structural determinants associated with HIV/STI risk are gaining increasing attention over the past decade. Microenterprise development offers an appealing model for HIV prevention by addressing poverty and gender equality. This study systematically reviewed the effects of microenterprise development interventions on HIV/STI incidence and sexual risk behaviors. Microenterprise development was defined as developing small business capacity among individuals to alleviate poverty. Seven eligible research studies representing five interventions were identified and included in this review. All of the studies targeted women, and three focused on sex workers. None measured biomarker outcomes. All three sex worker studies showed significant reduction in sexual risk behaviors when compared to the control group. Non-sex worker studies showed limited changes in sexual risk behavior. This review indicates the potential utility of microenterprise development in HIV risk reduction programs. More research is needed to determine how microenterprise development can be effectively incorporated in comprehensive HIV control strategies. PMID:23963497

  2. Microenterprise development interventions for sexual risk reduction: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cui, Rosa R; Lee, Ramon; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Muessig, Kathryn E; Tucker, Joseph D

    2013-11-01

    Comprehensive interventions that address both individual and structural determinants associated with HIV/STI risk are gaining increasing attention over the past decade. Microenterprise development offers an appealing model for HIV prevention by addressing poverty and gender equality. This study systematically reviewed the effects of microenterprise development interventions on HIV/STI incidence and sexual risk behaviors. Microenterprise development was defined as developing small business capacity among individuals to alleviate poverty. Seven eligible research studies representing five interventions were identified and included in this review. All of the studies targeted women, and three focused on sex workers. None measured biomarker outcomes. All three sex worker studies showed significant reduction in sexual risk behaviors when compared to the control group. Non-sex worker studies showed limited changes in sexual risk behavior. This review indicates the potential utility of microenterprise development in HIV risk reduction programs. More research is needed to determine how microenterprise development can be effectively incorporated in comprehensive HIV control strategies. PMID:23963497

  3. Understanding Early Sexual Development (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Parent's Guide to Surviving the Teen Years Female Reproductive System Male Reproductive System All About Puberty When Can I "Go Out" With Someone? Help! Is This My Body? Male Reproductive System When Will I Start Developing? Everything You Wanted ...

  4. Evolutionary consequences of habitat loss for Pacific anadromous salmonids

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Michelle M; Carlson, Stephanie M; Beechie, Timothy J; Pess, George R; Jorgensen, Jeffrey C; Sogard, Susan M; Sultan, Sonia E; Holzer, Damon M; Travis, Joseph; Sanderson, Beth L; Power, Mary E; Carmichael, Richard W

    2008-01-01

    Large portions of anadromous salmonid habitat in the western United States has been lost because of dams and other blockages. This loss has the potential to affect salmonid evolution through natural selection if the loss is biased, affecting certain types of habitat differentially, and if phenotypic traits correlated with those habitat types are heritable. Habitat loss can also affect salmonid evolution indirectly, by reducing genetic variation and changing its distribution within and among populations. In this paper, we compare the characteristics of lost habitats with currently accessible habitats and review the heritability of traits which show correlations with habitat/environmental gradients. We find that although there is some regional variation, inaccessible habitats tend to be higher in elevation, wetter and both warmer in the summer and colder in the winter than habitats currently available to anadromous salmonids. We present several case studies that demonstrate either a change in phenotypic or life history expression or an apparent reduction in genetic variation associated with habitat blockages. These results suggest that loss of habitat will alter evolutionary trajectories in salmonid populations and Evolutionarily Significant Units. Changes in both selective regime and standing genetic diversity might affect the ability of these taxa to respond to subsequent environmental perturbations. Both natural and anthropogenic and should be considered seriously in developing management and conservation strategies. PMID:25567633

  5. Genetics of sexual development: an evolutionary playground for fish.

    PubMed

    Heule, Corina; Salzburger, Walter; Böhne, Astrid

    2014-03-01

    Teleost fishes are the most species-rich clade of vertebrates and feature an overwhelming diversity of sex-determining mechanisms, classically grouped into environmental and genetic systems. Here, we review the recent findings in the field of sex determination in fish. In the past few years, several new master regulators of sex determination and other factors involved in sexual development have been discovered in teleosts. These data point toward a greater genetic plasticity in generating the male and female sex than previously appreciated and implicate novel gene pathways in the initial regulation of the sexual fate. Overall, it seems that sex determination in fish does not resort to a single genetic cascade but is rather regulated along a continuum of environmental and heritable factors. PMID:24653206

  6. Genetics of Sexual Development: An Evolutionary Playground for Fish

    PubMed Central

    Heule, Corina; Salzburger, Walter; Böhne, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    Teleost fishes are the most species-rich clade of vertebrates and feature an overwhelming diversity of sex-determining mechanisms, classically grouped into environmental and genetic systems. Here, we review the recent findings in the field of sex determination in fish. In the past few years, several new master regulators of sex determination and other factors involved in sexual development have been discovered in teleosts. These data point toward a greater genetic plasticity in generating the male and female sex than previously appreciated and implicate novel gene pathways in the initial regulation of the sexual fate. Overall, it seems that sex determination in fish does not resort to a single genetic cascade but is rather regulated along a continuum of environmental and heritable factors. PMID:24653206

  7. Development of an Index to Bird Predation of Juvenile Salmonids within the Yakima River, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Grassley, James M.; Grue, Christian E.; Major, III, Walter

    2002-01-01

    Avian predation of fish is suspected to contribute to the loss of juvenile spring chinook salmon in the Yakima Basin, potentially constraining natural production. In 1997 and 1998, the Yakama/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW)--whose goal is to increase natural production historically present within the Yakima River--initiated investigations to assess the feasibility of developing an index to avian predation of juvenile salmon within the river. This research--conducted by Dr. Steve Mathews and David Phinney of the University of Washington--confirmed that Ring-billed Gulls and Common Mergansers were the primary avian predators of juvenile salmon, and that under certain conditions could impact migrating smolt populations. Beginning in 1999, the Washington Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (WACFWRU) was asked by the YKFP and the WDFW to continue development of avian consumption indices. Monitoring methods developed by Phinney et al. (1998) were adopted (with modifications) and monitoring of impacts to juvenile salmon along river reaches and at areas of high predator/prey concentrations (colloquially referred to as ''hotspots'') continued through 2000. In 2000, piscivorous birds were counted from river banks at hotspots and from a raft or drift boat along river reaches. Consumption by gulls at Hotspots was based on direct observations of foraging success and modeled abundance; consumption by all other piscivorous birds was estimated using published dietary requirements and modeled abundance. Further development of the avian consumption index model provided an estimation of smolt consumption for the 2000 survey season. Seasonal patterns of avian piscivore abundance were identified, diurnal patterns of gull abundance at hotspots were identified, predation indices were calculated for hotspots and spring and summer river reaches, and the efficacy of aerial surveys for estimating bird abundance within river reaches was evaluated. The only change in survey methods in 2000 was the shortening (in river miles) of surveys on the North Fork of the Teanaway River and the shifting of start and stop dates for river drifts and hotspot surveys. Primary avian predators in 2000 were ''gulls'' (California and Ring-billed) at hotspots and Common Mergansers within upper river reaches. Estimated consumption by gulls at both hotspots combined (10 April-30 June) was 163,475 fish. Assuming a worst case scenario (all fish taken were smolts) this represented 6.0% of all smolts estimated passing or being released from the Chandler Dam area during the 2000 smolt migration season. Total estimated take by Common Mergansers across all strata surveyed was 7,654 kg between 10 Apr and 30 Aug, 2000. Seventy-three percent of that consumption was within the upper river reaches (Stratum 1) where there is a known breeding population of mergansers.

  8. Retrospective Recall of Sexual Orientation Identity Development among Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Antonucci, Toni C.; Mays, Vickie M.; Cochran, Susan D.

    2011-01-01

    Although recent attention has focused on the likelihood that contemporary sexual minority youth (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual [GLB]) are "coming out" at younger ages, few studies have examined whether early sexual orientation identity development is also present in older GLB cohorts. We analyzed retrospective data on the timing of sexual

  9. Development of Populations 177 6.6 Growth of Populations with Sexual Reproduction

    E-print Network

    Alsmeyer, Gerold

    Development of Populations 177 6.6 Growth of Populations with Sexual Reproduction G. Alsmeyer In Section 5.9, we studied the effect of sexual reproduction on criticality and ex- tinction risk-negative Alsmeyer G (2005). Growth of Populations with Sexual Reproduction. In: Branching Processes: Variation

  10. Developing a Practical Parenting Workshop: A Case Study in Family Sexual Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croatt, Heidi S.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation discusses the development and assessment of a parent intervention and training program. Out of concern for the sexual health of adolescents in the United States, both parents and researchers have called for programs assisting parents in the sexual education of their children. Encouraging sexual communication and increasing the…

  11. Commit and Transmit: Molecular Players in Plasmodium Sexual Development and Zygote Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Guttery, David S; Roques, Magali; Holder, Anthony A; Tewari, Rita

    2015-12-01

    During each cycle of asexual endomitotic division in erythrocytes, the malaria parasite makes a fundamental and crucial decision: to continue to invade and proliferate or to differentiate into gametocytes ready for continuation of sexual development. The proteins and regulatory pathways involved in Plasmodium sexual development have been of great interest in recent years as targets for blocking malaria transmission. However, the 'Holy Grail', the master switch orchestrating asexual-to-sexual commitment and further differentiation, has remained elusive - until now. Here we highlight the recent studies identifying the epigenetic and transcriptional master regulators of sexual commitment and discuss the key players in reversible phosphorylation pathways involved in sexual and zygote differentiation. PMID:26440790

  12. Preliminary Estimates of Loss of Juvenile Anadromous Salmonids to Predators in John Day Reservoir and Development of a Predation Model : Interim Report, 1986.

    SciTech Connect

    Rieman, Bruce E.

    1986-03-01

    We made preliminary estimates of the loss of juvenile salmonids to predation by walleye, Stizostedion v. vitreum, and northern squawfish, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, in John Day Reservoir in 1984 and 1985 using estimates of predator abundance and daily prey consumption rates. Preliminary estimates may be biased and may be adjusted as much as 30%, but indications are that predation could account for the majority of unexplained loss of juvenile salmonids in John Day Reservoir. Total loss was estimated at 4.1 million in 1984 and 3.3 million in 1985. Northern squawfish consumed 76% and 92% of these totals, respectively. The majority of loss occurred in mid reservoir areas, but loss in a small area, the boat-restricted zone immediately below McNary Dam, was disproportionately large. Peaks in loss in May and July corresponded with peaks in availability of salmonids. Estimated mortality from predation for April through June in 1984 and 1985 was 9% and 7% respectively, for chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and 10% and 15% for steelhead, Salmogairdneri. Mortality was variable with time but tended to increase over the period of migration. Mortality of chinook was estimated at 26% to 55% during July and August. A model of predation in John Day Reservoir is outlined. The model includes a predation submodel that can calculate loss from predator number and consumption rate; a population submodel that can relate predator abundance and population structure to recruitment, exploitation, natural mortality and growth; and a distribution submodel that can apportion predators among areas of the reservoir over time. Applications of the model are discussed for projecting expected changes in predation over time and identifying management alternatives that might limit the impact of predation.

  13. Developing Respondent Based Multi-Media Measures of Exposure to Sexual Content.

    PubMed

    Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Hennessy, Michal; Jordan, Amy; Chernin, Ariel; Stevens, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Despite the interest in the effects of the media on sexual behavior, there is no single method for assessing exposure to a particular type of media content (e.g., sex). This paper discusses the development of six sexual content exposure measures based on adolescents' own subjective ratings of the sexual content in titles in 4 media (i.e., television, music, magazines, videogames). We assessed the construct and criterion validity of these measures by examining the associations among each of these measures of exposure to sexual content as well as their associations with adolescents' sexual activity. Data were collected in summer 2005 through a web-based survey using a quota sample of 547 youth aged 14-16 from the Philadelphia area. Adolescents rated how often they were exposed to specific television shows, magazine titles, etc. on 4-point never to often scales. They also rated the sexual content of those titles on 4-point no sexual content to a lot of sexual content scales. Sexual behavior was measured using an ordered index of lifetime pre-coital and coital sexual activity. The strength of association between exposure to sexual content and sexual activity varied by medium and measure. Based on our findings, we recommend the use of a multiple media weighted sum measure. This measure produces findings that are consistent with those of similar studies. PMID:20411048

  14. [Development of forensic medical expertise of sexual conditions in men].

    PubMed

    Dmitrieva, O A

    2005-01-01

    The necessity of new methodological approaches in forensic medical examination of sexual male conditions are discussed basing on the analysis of questionnaire surveys of isolated groups of men and forensic medical examinations of male victims accused of sexual crimes. How to update expertise of sexual male conditions including investigations of anorectal and erectile dysfunctions in shown. PMID:16078542

  15. Disorders of sexual development in a cultural context

    PubMed Central

    Özbey, Hüseyin; Etker, Seref

    2013-01-01

    Background Disorders of sexual development (DSD) are congenital conditions in which the development of the chromosomal, gonadal or anatomical sex can be deemed atypical. The external genitalia should appear ‘normal’ in size and shape from birth, with no question of abnormality, and the individual must receive appropriate social-environmental feedback in the course of the sexual maturation process. Methods We review regional differences in the variables considered important for gender assignment in individuals with DSD. Various approaches to certain forms of DSD are analysed within their cultural context. Results The decision to leave the sex of rearing undisturbed or to change it is difficult. It depends on the patient’s age and the extent to which the gender identity has been established with parental gender preference, social, cultural and religious factors. Severe forms of genetically female congenital adrenal hyperplasia, androgen insensitivity syndrome, 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-3, 5?-reductase and cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiencies are found to be the most difficult cases to diagnose and/or manage. Conclusion Gender assignment in children with DSD is a subject of intense debate. Each case of DSD must be evaluated individually and on its merits and potentials. Although early admission and appropriate diagnostic facilities could provide the correct diagnosis, this is not the case in some cultures. It is seen that ‘gender panic’, social and religious concepts affect the decision-making process in gender assignment, especially in delayed cases.

  16. On Early Starters and Late Bloomers: The Development of Sexual Behavior in Adolescence Across Personality Types

    PubMed Central

    Overbeek, Geertjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between personality and sexual development among mid-adolescents. In the current study, we used a person-centered approach to investigate the relation between personality types and the development of sexual behavior. We hypothesized that undercontrolling adolescents would engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior compared to their resilient and overcontrolling peers. Data were used from 407 mid-adolescents (Mage = 14.5) followed across four measurement waves spanning 18 months. Results from latent class analyses (LCA) identified the three classical personality types: resilients, undercontrollers, and overcontrollers. Controlling for perceived pubertal timing and biological sex, latent growth curve analyses in Mplus showed that, at baseline, undercontrollers were more sexually experienced and engaged in more casual and risky sexual behavior than resilients and overcontrollers. Although initial levels of sexual behavior differed by personality types, over time increases in sexual behavior occurred at a similar rate across the types. Overall, the current study showed that undercontrolling adolescents are early sexual developers who engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior than other adolescents. The implications of these findings for longer-term differences in sexual behavior between personality types in later adolescence are discussed. PMID:24007372

  17. Age of Minority Sexual Orientation Development and Risk of Childhood Maltreatment and Suicide Attempts in Women

    PubMed Central

    Corliss, Heather L.; Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.; Greenland, Sander; Seeman, Teresa E.

    2011-01-01

    Women with minority sexual orientations (e.g., lesbian, bisexual) are more likely than heterosexual women to report histories of childhood maltreatment and attempted suicide; however, the importance of the timing of minority sexual orientation development in contributing to this increased risk is uncertain. This study investigated relationships between self-reported ages of achieving minority sexual orientation development milestones (first awareness of same-gender attractions, disclosure of a minority sexual orientation to another person, and same-gender sexual contact), and childhood maltreatment and suicide attempt experiences in a sample of 2,001 women recruited from multiple-community sources. Younger age of minority sexual orientation development milestones was positively linked to self-reported recall of childhood maltreatment experiences, and to a childhood suicide attempt. After adjusting for differences in maltreatment, the odds of suicide attempt attributable to younger age of sexual orientation development milestones was reduced by 50 to 65%, suggesting that maltreatment may account for about half of the elevated risk for childhood suicide attempts among women with early minority sexual orientation development. Implications for services, interventions, and further research to address maltreatment disparities for sexual minorities are discussed. PMID:20099942

  18. Comparative Analysis of the Shared Sex-Determination Region (SDR) among Salmonid Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Faber-Hammond, Joshua J.; Phillips, Ruth B.; Brown, Kim H.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonids present an excellent model for studying evolution of young sex-chromosomes. Within the genus, Oncorhynchus, at least six independent sex-chromosome pairs have evolved, many unique to individual species. This variation results from the movement of the sex-determining gene, sdY, throughout the salmonid genome. While sdY is known to define sexual differentiation in salmonids, the mechanism of its movement throughout the genome has remained elusive due to high frequencies of repetitive elements, rDNA sequences, and transposons surrounding the sex-determining regions (SDR). Despite these difficulties, bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library clones from both rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon containing the sdY region have been reported. Here, we report the sequences for these BACs as well as the extended sequence for the known SDR in Chinook gained through genome walking methods. Comparative analysis allowed us to study the overlapping SDRs from three unique salmonid Y chromosomes to define the specific content, size, and variation present between the species. We found approximately 4.1 kb of orthologous sequence common to all three species, which contains the genetic content necessary for masculinization. The regions contain transposable elements that may be responsible for the translocations of the SDR throughout salmonid genomes and we examine potential mechanistic roles of each one. PMID:26112966

  19. The Role of Beliefs in Sexual Behavior of Adolescents: Development and Validation of an Adolescent Sexual Expectancies Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourdeau, Beth; Grube, Joel W.; Bersamin, Melina M.; Fisher, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the development and psychometric properties of the Adolescent Sexual Expectancies Scale (ASEXS). Data were obtained from three annual longitudinal surveys of youth aged 10-17 at the first administration (N = 932 at Wave 3). Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that 4 correlated factors corresponding to Social Risk, Social…

  20. A brief history of behavioral and cognitive behavioral approaches to sexual offenders: Part 1. Early developments.

    PubMed

    Laws, D R; Marshall, W L

    2003-04-01

    This is the first of two papers which briefly outline the development of behavioral and cognitive behavioral treatment of sexual offenders from the mid-1800s to 1969. We first consider the historic role of Sigmund Freud and note that a broad scientific interest in deviant sexual behaviour was well established by 1900. In the early to mid-20th century, two psychologies were prominent in the development of behaviorial approaches, those of John B. Watson and Alfred Kinsey. Behavior therapy for a variety of problems emerged in the 1950s and soon found application to deviant sexuality. The development of penile plethysmography helped to focus interest on deviant sexual preference and behavior. While nonbehavioral approaches to sexual offenders paralleled these developments, a combination of behavioral and cognitive behavioral treatments began to emerge in the late 1960s which ultimately developed into the approaches more commonly seen today. PMID:12731145

  1. Development and Validation of the Juvenile Sexual Offense Recidivism Risk Assessment Tool-II.

    PubMed

    Epperson, Douglas L; Ralston, Christopher A

    2015-12-01

    This article describes the development and initial validation of the Juvenile Sexual Offense Recidivism Risk Assessment Tool-II (JSORRAT-II). Potential predictor variables were extracted from case file information for an exhaustive sample of 636 juveniles in Utah who sexually offended between 1990 and 1992. Simultaneous and hierarchical logistic regression analyses were used to identify the group of variables that was most predictive of subsequent juvenile sexual recidivism. A simple categorical scoring system was applied to these variables without meaningful loss of accuracy in the development sample for any sexual (area under the curve [AUC] = .89) and sexually violent (AUC = .89) juvenile recidivism. The JSORRAT-II was cross-validated on an exhaustive sample of 566 juveniles who had sexually offended in Utah in 1996 and 1997. Reliability of scoring the tool across five coders was quite high (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = .96). Relative to the development sample, however, there was considerable shrinkage in the indices of predictive accuracy for any sexual (AUC = .65) and sexually violent (AUC = .65) juvenile recidivism. The reduced level of accuracy was not explained by severity of the index sexual offense, time at risk, or missing data. Capitalization on chance and other explanations for the possible reduction in predictive accuracy are explored, and potential uses and limitations of the tool are discussed. PMID:24492618

  2. Developing health leaders to combat sexual health disparities.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Carey Roth; Heiman, Harry J

    2012-05-01

    Health disparities, including sexual health disparities, remain pervasive in our society. The Satcher Health Leadership Institute at Morehouse School of Medicine, through its Sexual Health Scholars and Health Policy Leadership Fellowship Programs, is preparing the next generation of health leaders with the necessary knowledge and skills to combat health disparities. PMID:22643552

  3. Homosexuality as a Consequence of Epigenetically Canalized Sexual Development Author(s): William R. Rice, Urban Friberg and Sergey Gavrilets

    E-print Network

    Gavrilets, Sergey

    Homosexuality as a Consequence of Epigenetically Canalized Sexual Development Author(s): William R;HOMOSEXUALITY AS A CONSEQUENCE OF EPIGENETICALLY CANALIZED SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT William R. Rice Department homosexuality, androgen signaling, canalization, epigenetic, gonad-trait-discordance, Jost paradigm abstract

  4. Developing and Establishing School-Based Sexual Health Services: Issues for School Nursing Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayter, Mark; Owen, Jenny; Cooke, Jo

    2012-01-01

    School-based sexual health clinics are emerging as one of the key ways to promote sexual health among young people, and school nurses play an important role in developing and delivering these services. This study used a qualitative design to explore the experiences of health professionals and policy makers involved in setting up such services in…

  5. Development of Standardized Clinical Training Cases for Diagnosis of Sexual Abuse using a Secure Telehealth Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Lori D.; Thraen, Ioana; Kaplan, Rich; Goede, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The training of physicians, nurse examiners, social workers and other health professional on the evidentiary findings of sexual abuse in children is challenging. Our objective was to develop peer reviewed training cases for medical examiners of child sexual abuse, using a secure web based telehealth application (TeleCAM). Methods:…

  6. Developing a Scale of Perception of Sexual Abuse in Youth Sports (SPSAYS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Thomas A., III.; Byon, Kevin K.

    2014-01-01

    A scale was developed to measure perceptions of sexual abuse in youth sports by assessing (a) the perceived prevalence of sexual abuse committed by pedophilic youth sport coaches, (b) the perceived likelihood that a coach is a pedophile, (c) perceptions on how youth sport organizations should manage the risk of pedophilia, and (d) media influence…

  7. Sociosexual Identity Development and Sexual Risk Taking of Acculturating Collegiate Gay and Bisexual Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, J. Michael; Brooks, Ann K.; Ross, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    How collegiate gay and bisexual men acquire a sociosexual identity appears to affect their sexual health. Analysis of interview data from 25 self-identified collegiate gay or bisexual men resulted in the development of a collective sexual script for men acquiring a sociosexual identity. Changes in an individual's acting out of a cultural scenario…

  8. Development, Reliability, and Validity of the Measure of Sexual Identity Exploration and Commitment (MoSIEC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthington, Roger L.; Navarro, Rachel L.; Savoy, Holly Bielstein; Hampton, Dustin

    2008-01-01

    Four studies were conducted on the development and validation of the Measure of Sexual Identity Exploration and Commitment (MoSIEC). Exploratory factor analysis of an initial item pool yielded a 22-item measure with 4 distinct factors assessing commitment, exploration, sexual orientation identity uncertainty, and synthesis/integration. Exploratory…

  9. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Stigmatization, Internalizing Symptoms, and the Development of Sexual Difficulties and Dating Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A.; Cleland, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    Potential pathways from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to subsequent romantic intimacy problems were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 160 ethnically diverse youth with confirmed CSA histories. Participants were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery, when they were 8-15 years of age, and again 1-6 years later. Stigmatization…

  10. Varieties of male-sexual-identity development in clinical practice: a neuropsychoanalytic model

    PubMed Central

    Stortelder, Frans

    2014-01-01

    Variations of sexual identity development are present in all cultures, as well as in many animal species. Freud – founding father of psychoanalysis – believed that all men have an inherited, bisexual disposition, and that many varieties of love and desire are experienced as alternative pathways to intimacy. In the neuropsychoanalytic model, psychic development starts with the constitutional self. The constitutional self is comprised of the neurobiological factors which contribute to sexual identity development. These neurobiological factors are focused on biphasic sexual organization in the prenatal phase, based on variations in genes, sex hormones, and brain circuits. This psychosocial construction of sexual identity is determined through contingent mirroring by the parents and peers of the constitutional self. The development of the self—or personal identity—is linked with the development of sexual identity, gender-role identity, and procreative identity. Incongruent mirroring of the constitutional self causes alienation in the development of the self. Such alienation can be treated within the psychoanalytic relationship. This article presents a contemporary, neuropsychoanalytic, developmental theory of male-sexual identity relating to varieties in male-sexual-identity development, with implications for psychoanalytic treatment, and is illustrated with three vignettes from clinical practice. PMID:25566168

  11. Varieties of male-sexual-identity development in clinical practice: a neuropsychoanalytic model.

    PubMed

    Stortelder, Frans

    2014-01-01

    Variations of sexual identity development are present in all cultures, as well as in many animal species. Freud - founding father of psychoanalysis - believed that all men have an inherited, bisexual disposition, and that many varieties of love and desire are experienced as alternative pathways to intimacy. In the neuropsychoanalytic model, psychic development starts with the constitutional self. The constitutional self is comprised of the neurobiological factors which contribute to sexual identity development. These neurobiological factors are focused on biphasic sexual organization in the prenatal phase, based on variations in genes, sex hormones, and brain circuits. This psychosocial construction of sexual identity is determined through contingent mirroring by the parents and peers of the constitutional self. The development of the self-or personal identity-is linked with the development of sexual identity, gender-role identity, and procreative identity. Incongruent mirroring of the constitutional self causes alienation in the development of the self. Such alienation can be treated within the psychoanalytic relationship. This article presents a contemporary, neuropsychoanalytic, developmental theory of male-sexual identity relating to varieties in male-sexual-identity development, with implications for psychoanalytic treatment, and is illustrated with three vignettes from clinical practice. PMID:25566168

  12. What happened to Eric? The derailment of sexual development.

    PubMed

    Waisbrod, Nirit; Reicher, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    A variety of theoretical approaches, from the individual to ecological levels, was applied to the following clinical case in order to understand why a five-year-old boy demonstrated sexual behavior. Inappropriate sexual behavior in children is presented as symptomatic of problems in intrapersonal and interpersonal boundaries, relationship capabilities, and superego consolidation. The case material emphasizes that only when the child is helped to stop his sexual acting out can he access the sources of his emotional distress. The theoretical underpinnings that are relevant to this case will be shown as instrumental in the therapy of this child and his family. By integrating theory with practice, we hope to highlight this sensitive and prevalent issue as well as aid in the early identification and treatment of sexually problematic behavior. PMID:24393092

  13. Sexual and Ethnic Identity Development among Gay/Bisexual/Questioning (GBQ) Male Ethnic Minority Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, Omar B.; Harper, Gary W.; Fernandez, M. Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Identity development is a critical task of adolescence and occurs across multiple areas of self identification. Though research on the identity development process among individuals who are ethnic and sexual minorities has been conducted for individuals who have one minority status or the other, few studies have examined these processes in persons who are both ethnic and sexual minorities. This qualitative study examined the dual identity development processes related to ethnic and sexual identity among gay/bisexual/questioning (GBQ) Latino and African American male adolescents. Results indicated that the processes associated with the development of sexual orientation and ethnic identity occur concurrently. However, the actual processes involved with the development of each identity not only differed, but seemed to be independent of each other since neither process was referenced in the development of the other. Overall, the process of ethnic identity development involved the process of becoming aware of one’s ethnic and cultural heritage, while sexual identity development involved finding one’s own personally relevant sexual orientation label and connecting to that community. The implications of these findings for the development of interventions to assist in the healthy development of GBQ adolescents are discussed. PMID:19594249

  14. Reduced Treatment-Emergent Sexual Dysfunction as a Potential Target in the Development of New Antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, David S.; Palazzo, M. Carlotta; Masdrakis, Vasilios G.

    2013-01-01

    Pleasurable sexual activity is an essential component of many human relationships, providing a sense of physical, psychological, and social well-being. Epidemiological and clinical studies show that depressive symptoms and depressive illness are associated with impairments in sexual function and satisfaction, both in untreated and treated patients. The findings of randomized placebo-controlled trials demonstrate that most of the currently available antidepressant drugs are associated with the development or worsening of sexual dysfunction, in a substantial proportion of patients. Sexual difficulties during antidepressant treatment often resolve as depression lifts but can endure over long periods and may reduce self-esteem and affect mood and relationships adversely. Sexual dysfunction during antidepressant treatment is typically associated with many possible causes, but the risk and type of dysfunction vary with differing compounds and should be considered when making decisions about the relative merits and drawbacks of differing antidepressants. A range of interventions can be considered when managing patients with sexual dysfunction associated with antidepressants, including the prescription of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, but none of these approaches can be considered “ideal.” As treatment-emergent sexual dysfunction is less frequent with certain drugs, presumably related to differences in their pharmacological properties, and because current management approaches are less than ideal, a reduced burden of treatment-emergent sexual dysfunction represents a tolerability target in the development of novel antidepressants. PMID:23431429

  15. Apomictic and sexual germline development differ with respect to cell cycle, transcriptional, hormonal and epigenetic regulation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Anja; Schmid, Marc W; Klostermeier, Ulrich C; Qi, Weihong; Guthörl, Daniela; Sailer, Christian; Waller, Manuel; Rosenstiel, Philip; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2014-07-01

    Seeds of flowering plants can be formed sexually or asexually through apomixis. Apomixis occurs in about 400 species and is of great interest for agriculture as it produces clonal offspring. It differs from sexual reproduction in three major aspects: (1) While the sexual megaspore mother cell (MMC) undergoes meiosis, the apomictic initial cell (AIC) omits or aborts meiosis (apomeiosis); (2) the unreduced egg cell of apomicts forms an embryo without fertilization (parthenogenesis); and (3) the formation of functional endosperm requires specific developmental adaptations. Currently, our knowledge about the gene regulatory programs underlying apomixis is scarce. We used the apomict Boechera gunnisoniana, a close relative of Arabidopsis thaliana, to investigate the transcriptional basis underlying apomeiosis and parthenogenesis. Here, we present the first comprehensive reference transcriptome for reproductive development in an apomict. To compare sexual and apomictic development at the cellular level, we used laser-assisted microdissection combined with microarray and RNA-Seq analyses. Conservation of enriched gene ontologies between the AIC and the MMC likely reflects functions of importance to germline initiation, illustrating the close developmental relationship of sexuality and apomixis. However, several regulatory pathways differ between sexual and apomictic germlines, including cell cycle control, hormonal pathways, epigenetic and transcriptional regulation. Enrichment of specific signal transduction pathways are a feature of the apomictic germline, as is spermidine metabolism, which is associated with somatic embryogenesis in various plants. Our study provides a comprehensive reference dataset for apomictic development and yields important new insights into the transcriptional basis underlying apomixis in relation to sexual reproduction. PMID:25010342

  16. Apomictic and Sexual Germline Development Differ with Respect to Cell Cycle, Transcriptional, Hormonal and Epigenetic Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Anja; Schmid, Marc W.; Klostermeier, Ulrich C.; Qi, Weihong; Guthörl, Daniela; Sailer, Christian; Waller, Manuel; Rosenstiel, Philip; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2014-01-01

    Seeds of flowering plants can be formed sexually or asexually through apomixis. Apomixis occurs in about 400 species and is of great interest for agriculture as it produces clonal offspring. It differs from sexual reproduction in three major aspects: (1) While the sexual megaspore mother cell (MMC) undergoes meiosis, the apomictic initial cell (AIC) omits or aborts meiosis (apomeiosis); (2) the unreduced egg cell of apomicts forms an embryo without fertilization (parthenogenesis); and (3) the formation of functional endosperm requires specific developmental adaptations. Currently, our knowledge about the gene regulatory programs underlying apomixis is scarce. We used the apomict Boechera gunnisoniana, a close relative of Arabidopsis thaliana, to investigate the transcriptional basis underlying apomeiosis and parthenogenesis. Here, we present the first comprehensive reference transcriptome for reproductive development in an apomict. To compare sexual and apomictic development at the cellular level, we used laser-assisted microdissection combined with microarray and RNA-Seq analyses. Conservation of enriched gene ontologies between the AIC and the MMC likely reflects functions of importance to germline initiation, illustrating the close developmental relationship of sexuality and apomixis. However, several regulatory pathways differ between sexual and apomictic germlines, including cell cycle control, hormonal pathways, epigenetic and transcriptional regulation. Enrichment of specific signal transduction pathways are a feature of the apomictic germline, as is spermidine metabolism, which is associated with somatic embryogenesis in various plants. Our study provides a comprehensive reference dataset for apomictic development and yields important new insights into the transcriptional basis underlying apomixis in relation to sexual reproduction. PMID:25010342

  17. Measuring sexual prejudice against gay men and lesbian women: development of the Sexual Prejudice Scale (SPS).

    PubMed

    Chonody, Jill M

    2013-01-01

    The presence of bias against gay men and lesbian women remains an ongoing issue, and accurate measurement is essential to targeted intervention. A validation study of a new instrument, the Sexual Prejudice Scale, is reported. Students (N = 851) from 4 different universities participated in this study. An exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted, and results of these analyses indicated a 3-factor solution (affective - valuation, stereotyping, and social equality beliefs) for each of the sex-specific scales. Evidence of validity and the results of the reliability analysis are reported. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:23688314

  18. Context-dependent development of sexual ornamentation: implications for a trade-off between current and future breeding

    E-print Network

    Vleck, Carol

    Context-dependent development of sexual ornamentation: implications for a trade-off between current of sexual ornamentation, such as in birds with a yearly post-breeding moult, such a trade-off can of sexual ornaments should favour resolution of this trade-off through a modification of the ornaments

  19. Development of a nested polymerase chain reaction for amplification of a sequence of the p57 gene of Renibacterium salmoninarum that provides a highly sensitive method for detection of the bacterium in salmonid kidney

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chase, D.M.; Pascho, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Nucleic acid-based assays have shown promise for diagnosing Renibacterium salmoninarum in tissues and body fluids of salmonids. DeVelopment of a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to detect a 320 bp DNA segment of the gene encoding the p57 protein of R. salmoninarum is described. Whereas a conventional PCR for a 383 bp segment of the p57 gene reliably detected 1000 R. salmoninarum cells per reaction in kidney tissue, the nested PCR detected as few as 10 R. salmoninarum per reaction in kidney tissue. Two DNA extraction methods for the nested PCR were compared and the correlation between replicate samples was generally higher in samples extracted by the QIAamp system compared with those extracted by the phenol/chloroform method. The specificity of the nested PCR was confirmed by testing DNA extracts of common bacterial fish pathogens and a panel of bacterial species reported to cause false-positive reactions in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the fluorescent antibody test (FAT) for R. salmoninarum. Kidney samples from 74 naturally infected chinook Salmon were examined by the nested PCR, the ELISA, and the FAT, and the detected prevalences of R. salmoninarum were 61, 47, and 43%, respectively.

  20. Logic models as a tool for sexual violence prevention program development.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Stephanie R; Clinton-Sherrod, A Monique; Irvin, Neil; Hart, Laurie; Russell, Sarah Jane

    2009-01-01

    Sexual violence is a growing public health problem, and there is an urgent need to develop sexual violence prevention programs. Logic models have emerged as a vital tool in program development. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded an empowerment evaluation designed to work with programs focused on the prevention of first-time male perpetration of sexual violence, and it included as one of its goals, the development of program logic models. Two case studies are presented that describe how significant positive changes can be made to programs as a result of their developing logic models that accurately describe desired outcomes. The first case study describes how the logic model development process made an organization aware of the importance of a program's environmental context for program success; the second case study demonstrates how developing a program logic model can elucidate gaps in organizational programming and suggest ways to close those gaps. PMID:19136443

  1. Changing patterns of adolescent sexual behavior: consequences for health and development.

    PubMed

    Friedman, H L

    1992-07-01

    Sexuality is a fundamental quality of human life, important for health, happiness, individual development, and indeed for the preservation of the human race. During the dynamic period of adolescence in which the passage from childhood to maturity takes place, sexuality takes on new dimensions; feelings become more intense, relationships become more complex, and the consequences of sexual behavior are radically altered. This not only affects the behavior of young people but also of those who interact with them, their families and peers, and those who work in the health, education, youth, social welfare, and other sectors. In the contemporary world the conditions of life for many young people have also changed, and with it patterns of sexual behavior. In general, earlier puberty, later marriage, a decline in the family leading to less control and more autonomy, and intense exposure to sexual stimuli via the mass media and travel across cultural boundaries have made pre-marital adolescent sexual activity more common. This has added to traditional problems of early marriage, newer problems of early pregnancy, childbirth, and induced abortion outside of marriage, sexually transmitted diseases, and human immunodeficiency syndrome infection leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. But the work of the World Health Organization (WHO), along with many others in the field, strongly suggests that given appropriate information and services, trust and equity between the sexes, young people will behave responsibly and well. In this paper some of the findings from methods developed by WHO for research, training, advocacy, and evaluation, and findings in relation to patterns and determinants of sexual and reproductive health and development will be described, and future directions suggested. PMID:1390784

  2. Development and psychometric testing of a semantic differential scale of sexual attitude for the older person.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyojung; Shin, Sunhwa

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a semantic differential scale of sexual attitudes for older people in Korea. The scale was based on items derived from a literature review and focus group interviews. A methodological study was used to test the reliability and validity of the instrument. A total of 368 older men and women were recruited to complete the semantic differential scale. Fifteen pairs of adjective ratings were extracted through factor analysis. Total variance explained was 63.40%. To test for construct validity, group comparisons were implemented. The total score of sexual attitudes showed significant differences depending on gender and availability of sexual activity. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for internal consistency was 0.96. The findings of this study demonstrate that the semantic differential scale of sexual attitude is a reliable and valid instrument. PMID:26275235

  3. Teachers' Attitudes toward Reporting Child Sexual Abuse: Problems with Existing Research Leading to New Scale Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Mathews, Ben; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des

    2010-01-01

    This paper details a systematic literature review identifying problems in extant research relating to teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse and offers a model for new attitude scale development and testing. Scale development comprised a five-phase process grounded in contemporary attitude theories, including (a) developing the…

  4. Development, Validity and Reliability of Sexual Health Measures for Spinal Cord Injured Patients in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Merghati Khoei, Effat; Norouzi Javidan, Abbas; Abrishamkar, Mahboobeh; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Chaibakhsh, Samira; Emami-Razavi, Seyyed Hasan; Mansouri, Asie; Kamali, Koorosh; Shoja, Tannaz; Hajiaghababaei, Marzieh; Nikfallah, Abolghasem

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study developed and validated a questionnaire to measure the sexual health of patients with spinal cord injuries (SCI). Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at the Brain and Spinal Injury Research Center (BASIR), Tehran, Iran. Extensive review of literature, expert opinions, and encounters with SCI patients were used to develop and validate the questionnaires. There were 40 (32 males, 8 females) patients with SCI that presented for treatment at BASIR who enrolled in the study. Participants completed the questionnaires while they were admitted for medical care and during treatment follow-up visits. Participants completed the questionnaires twice, at a 2-4 week interval. Reliability testing for each measure was performed separately. Cronbach’s alpha was used for internal consistency and test-retest was used for reliability. Results: An expert committee approved the face and content validities of the questionnaires, Internal consistency of our questionnaires, was acceptable according to Cronbach’s alpha that ranged from 0.73 for the sexual activity measure to 0.90 for the sexual adjustment measure. Test-retest reliability was satisfactory. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) of measures ranged from 0.65 for sexual function to 0.84 for sexual activity. Conclusion: The sexual health measures has provided a valid assessment of sexualityrelated matters in this sample of patients with SCI, which suggests that evaluation of sexual well-being may be useful in clinical trials and practice settings. Overall, the sexual health measures shows good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. PMID:24520468

  5. The psychological measurement of childhood sexual development in Western societies: methodological challenges.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, Hanneke; Rademakers, Jany

    2011-03-01

    Children can display sexual behavior or have sexual experiences. Different psychological research methods are available for studying these kinds of behaviors and feelings, such as interviewing or observing children (direct methods), asking adolescents or adults to retrospectively report their childhood memories or using intermediaries to observe children (indirect methods). Each of these methods has its own advantages and limitations. Based on a review of the literature, this work answers three questions: (a) What research methods are generally used to study childhood sexual development? (b) What insight do these methods give into the sexual behaviors or feelings of children? and (c) What are the advantages and limitations of each of these research methods in this research domain? Almost all studies on childhood sexual behavior and feelings use either observational or retrospective methods. In both types of studies, only behavior that is considered to be sexual from an adult perspective is reported. To gain insight into the child's perspective, one has to rely on methods other than observations or retrospective research, such as interviews with children that match their developmental limitations and competencies. PMID:21409709

  6. Longitudinal Development of Secondary Sexual Characteristics in Girls and Boys Between Ages 9½ and 15½ Years

    PubMed Central

    Susman, Elizabeth J.; Houts, Renate M.; Steinberg, Laurence; Belsky, Jay; Cauffman, Elizabeth; DeHart, Ganie; Friedman, Sarah L.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To identify ages when adolescents were in sexual maturity stages 2 through 5; to explain the relations between breast (girls), genital (boys), and pubic hair (girls and boys) development between ages 9½ and 15½ years; and to evaluate synchrony of pubertal development across characteristics. Design Annual pubertal assessments. Setting Ten locations in the United States. Participants A total of 859 adolescents (427 boys [49.7%] and 432 girls [50.3%]; 737 white [85.8%] and 122 black [14.2%]). Main Outcome Measures Changes in the 5 stages of breast, genital, and pubic hair development. Results Girls were in breast maturity stages 2 and 3 earlier than comparable pubic hair stages. Although breast development in girls started earlier than pubic hair development, girls completed breast and pubic hair development at approximately the same age. Black girls were in all stages of breast and pubic hair development earlier than white girls. Boys were in stages 2, 3, 4, and 5 of genital development before the comparable pubic hair stage. In boys, genital development started earlier than pubic hair development, but pubic hair development was completed in less time. Black boys were in genital and pubic hair development about 7 months earlier than white boys. Black and white boys completed genital development in approximately 4½ years, but black boys took approximately 6 months longer than white boys to complete pubic hair development. At stage 2, for 66.2% of girls, breast development preceded their pubic hair development; for 91.1% of boys, genital development preceded their pubic hair development. Conclusions The results of this study are useful in understanding normative variation in the timing and change in the development of secondary sexual characteristics at puberty. They will help identify adolescents with atypical changes in sexual maturation and unusual progression of sexual maturation and growth disorders. PMID:20124146

  7. Evaluating and Refining the Construct of Sexual Quality With Item Response Theory: Development of the Quality of Sex Inventory.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Amanda M; Rogge, Ronald D

    2016-02-01

    This study took a critical look at the construct of sexual quality. The 65 items of four well-validated self-report measures of sexual satisfaction (the Index of Sexual Satisfaction [ISS], Hudson, Harrison, & Crosscup, 1981; the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction [GMSEX], Lawrance & Byers, 1995; the Pinney Sexual Satisfaction Inventory [PSSI], Pinney, Gerrard, & Denney, 1987; the Young Sexual Satisfaction Scale [YSSS], Young, Denny, Luquis, & Young, 1998) and an additional 74 potential sexual quality items were given to 3060 online participants. Using Item Response Theory (IRT), we demonstrated that the ISS, YSSS, and PSSI scales provided suboptimal levels of precision in assessing sexual quality, particularly given the length of those scales. Exploratory factor analyses, IRT, differential item functioning analyses, and longitudinal responsiveness analyses were used to develop and evaluate the Quality of Sex Inventory. Results suggested that, in comparison to existing scales, the QSI (1) offers investigators and clinicians more theoretically focused scales, (2) distinguishes sexual satisfaction from sexual dissatisfaction, and (3) offers greater precision and power for detecting differences with (4) comparably high levels of responsiveness for detecting change over time despite being notably shorter than most of the existing scales. The QSI-satisfaction subscales demonstrated strong convergent validity with other measures of sexual satisfaction and excellent construct validity with anchor scales from the nomological net surrounding that construct, suggesting that they continue to assess the same theoretical construct as prior scales. Implications for research are discussed. PMID:26728053

  8. Sexual predators, energy development, and conservation in greater Yellowstone.

    PubMed

    Berger, Joel; Beckmann, Jon P

    2010-06-01

    In the United States, as elsewhere, a growing debate pits national energy policy and homeland security against biological conservation. In rural communities the extraction of fossil fuels is often encouraged because of the employment opportunities it offers, although the concomitant itinerant workforce is often associated with increased wildlife poaching. We explored possible positive and negative factors associated with energy extraction in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), an area known for its national parks, intact biological diversity, and some of the New World's longest terrestrial migrations. Specifically, we asked whether counties with different economies-recreation (ski), agrarian (ranching or farming), and energy extractive (petroleum)-differed in healthcare (gauged by the abundance of hospital beds) and in the frequency of sexual predators. The absolute and relative frequency of registered sex offenders grew approximately two to three times faster in areas reliant on energy extraction. Healthcare among counties did not differ. The strong conflation of community dishevel, as reflected by in-migrant sexual predators, and ecological decay in Greater Yellowstone is consistent with patterns seen in similar systems from Ecuador to northern Canada, where social and environmental disarray exist around energy boomtowns. In our case, that groups (albeit with different aims) mobilized campaigns to help maintain the quality of rural livelihoods by protecting open space is a positive sign that conservation can matter, especially in the face of rampant and poorly executed energy extraction projects. Our findings further suggest that the public and industry need stronger regulatory action to instill greater vigilance when and where social factors and land conversion impact biological systems. PMID:20184654

  9. Sexual development in Plasmodium parasites: knowing when it's time to commit.

    PubMed

    Josling, Gabrielle A; Llinás, Manuel

    2015-09-01

    Malaria is a devastating infectious disease that is caused by blood-borne apicomplexan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. These pathogens have a complex lifecycle, which includes development in the anopheline mosquito vector and in the liver and red blood cells of mammalian hosts, a process which takes days to weeks, depending on the Plasmodium species. Productive transmission between the mammalian host and the mosquito requires transitioning between asexual and sexual forms of the parasite. Blood- stage parasites replicate cyclically and are mostly asexual, although a small fraction of these convert into male and female sexual forms (gametocytes) in each reproductive cycle. Despite many years of investigation, the molecular processes that elicit sexual differentiation have remained largely unknown. In this Review, we highlight several important recent discoveries that have identified epigenetic factors and specific transcriptional regulators of gametocyte commitment and development, providing crucial insights into this obligate cellular differentiation process. PMID:26272409

  10. COMPARATIVE MAPS OF SALMONID GENOMES: AN UPDATE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The construction of detailed comparative maps for salmonid fishes is an important goal that will help transfer genetic information between species, study chromosome evolution, and compare the genetic architecture of complex traits across taxa. In this poster, we report on consolidating comparative m...

  11. Some myxosporidia found in Pacific Northwest salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yasutake, W.T.; Wood, E.M.

    1957-01-01

    During the histological examination of a group of wild and hatchery salmonids undescribed sporazoans were frequently observed. This was not unexpected, since Myxosporidia are typical fish parasites (Kudo, 1920). Myxidium were observed in kidney tubules, Cholromyxum in glomeruli, and Myxobous in the spinal cord and on epidermal scales. The present paper will deal with the description and indentification of these unclassified Myxosporodia.

  12. The Maestro (Mro) Gene Is Dispensable for Normal Sexual Development and Fertility in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lee; Willan, John; Warr, Nick; Brook, Frances A.; Cheeseman, Michael; Sharpe, Richard; Siggers, Pam; Greenfield, Andy

    2008-01-01

    The mammalian gonad arises as a bipotential primordium from which a testis or ovary develops depending on the chromosomal sex of the individual. We have previously used DNA microarrays to screen for novel genes controlling the developmental fate of the indifferent embryonic mouse gonad. Maestro (Mro), which encodes a HEAT-repeat protein, was originally identified as a gene exhibiting sexually dimorphic expression during mouse gonad development. Wholemount in situ hybridisation analysis revealed Mro to be expressed in the embryonic male gonad from approximately 11.5 days post coitum, prior to overt sexual differentiation. No significant expression was detected in female gonads at the same developmental stage. In order to address its physiological function, we have generated mice lacking Maestro using gene targeting. Male and female mice homozygous for a Mro null allele are viable and fertile. We examined gonad development in homozygous male embryos in detail and observed no differences when compared to wild-type controls. Immunohistochemical analysis of homozygous mutant testes of adult mice revealed no overt abnormalities. Expression profiling using DNA microarrays also indicated no significant differences between homozygote embryonic male gonads and controls. We conclude that Maestro is dispensable for normal male sexual development and fertility in laboratory mice; however, the Mro locus itself does have utility as a site for insertion of transgenes for future studies in the fields of sexual development and Sertoli cell function. PMID:19116663

  13. Suzie's Mommy Is Having a Baby: Don't Freak out! Healthy Sexuality Development in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciaraffa, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Is it the teacher's job to assist children in developing a healthy sexual identity in early childhood? A healthy sexual identity is developed over the course of a lifetime through the "process of acquiring information and forming attitudes, beliefs, and values about such important topics as identity, relationships, and intimacy." Teachers may feel…

  14. Development of Muscularity and Weight Concerns in Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Males

    PubMed Central

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Corliss, Heather L.; Blood, Emily A.; Field, Alison E.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the development of muscularity and weight concerns among heterosexual and sexual minority males in adolescence. Method Participants were 5,868 males from the Growing Up Today Study, a US prospective cohort spanning ages 9–25 years. Generalized estimating equations were used to test sexual orientation differences in the development of muscularity concerns, weight gain attempts, and weight and shape concern. Results Desire for bigger muscles increased slightly each year across adolescence (? =.10, 95% C.I.= .09, .11) regardless of sexual orientation, but gay and bisexual participants reported greater desire for toned muscles than completely and mostly heterosexual males (?=.39, 95% C.I.=.21, .57). Desire for toned muscles did not change with age. Attempts to gain weight increased three-fold across adolescence, with up to 30% reporting weight gain attempts by age 16. Although underweight males (the smallest weight status class) were most likely to attempt to gain weight, most of the observed weight gain attempts were by healthy (69%) and overweight/obese (27%) males, suggesting that most attempts were medically unnecessary and could lead to overweight. Sexual minority participants were 20% less likely to report weight gain attempts than completely heterosexual participants. Weight and shape concern increased with age, with gay and bisexual participants experiencing a significantly greater increase than heterosexual males. Conclusions Sexual orientation modifies the development and expression of male weight and muscularity concerns. The findings have implications for early interventions for the prevention of obesity and eating disorder risk in heterosexual and sexual minority males. PMID:23316852

  15. "InFection Four": Development of a Youth-Informed Sexual Health Card Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, Melissa; Jagoda, Patrick; Heathcock, Stephen; Sutherland, Ainsley

    2014-01-01

    Games may be useful tools for learning and communicating about sexual and reproductive health. This article discusses the collaborative design and subsequent evaluation of a narrative-based card game. This game was created in a workshop based on positive youth development, which allowed youth to be involved as game designers and game players.…

  16. Population, sexual and reproductive health, rights and sustainable development: forging a common agenda.

    PubMed

    Newman, Karen; Fisher, Sarah; Mayhew, Susannah; Stephenson, Judith

    2014-05-01

    This article suggests that sexual and reproductive health and rights activists seeking to influence the post-2015 international development paradigm must work with sustainable development advocates concerned with a range of issues, including climate change, environmental issues, and food and water security, and that a way of building bridges with these communities is to demonstrate how sexual and reproductive health and rights are relevant for these issues. An understanding of population dynamics, including urbanization and migration, as well as population growth, can help to clarify these links. This article therefore suggests that whether or not sexual and reproductive health and rights activists can overcome resistance to discussing "population", become more knowledgeable about other sustainable development issues, and work with others in those fields to advance the global sustainable development agenda are crucial questions for the coming months. The article also contends that it is possible to care about population dynamics (including ageing and problems faced by countries with a high proportion of young people) and care about human rights at the same time. It expresses concern that, if sexual and reproductive health and rights advocates do not participate in the population dynamics discourse, the field will be left free for those for whom respecting and protecting rights may be less of a priority. PMID:24908456

  17. MAXIMIZING GROWTH AND SEXUAL MATURATION OF SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS IN SUPPORT OF MULTI-GENERATION TEST DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hemmer, R.L., G.M. Cripe and L.R. Goodman. In press. Maximizing Growth and Sexual Maturation of Sheepshead Minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) in Support of Multi-Generation Test Development (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November 2004, Portland...

  18. Let's Talk about Sex: Development of a Sexual Health Program for Nepali Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Michelle R.; Harman, Jennifer J.; Shrestha, Deepti Khati

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test the feasibility of conducting a sexual health intervention for women in Nepal, a country with high political and economic instability and strong patriarchal systems. Of the 88 women enrolled, 100% retention was obtained over three sessions, and 85% completed a 1-month follow-up. Recruitment was so…

  19. Discovering Sexual Health Conversations between Adolescents and Youth Development Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Niodita; Chandak, Aastha; Gilson, Glen; Pelster, Aja Kneip; Schober, Daniel J.; Goldsworthy, Richard; Baldwin, Kathleen; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Fisher, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Youth development professionals (YDPs) working at community-based organizations are in a unique position to interact with the adolescents because they are neither parents/guardians nor teachers. The objectives of this study were to explore qualitatively what sexual health issues adolescents discuss with YDPs and to describe those issues using the…

  20. Sexual reproduction and mating-typemediated strain development in the penicillin-producing fungus

    E-print Network

    Kück, Ulrich

    Sexual reproduction and mating-type­mediated strain development in the penicillin-producing fungus, being the original and present-day indus- trial source of the antibiotic penicillin. The species has to penicillin production. Furthermore, the MAT1-1­1 mating-type gene, known primarily for a role in govern- ing

  1. Late-stage clinical development in lower urogenital targets: sexual dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Usman

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, late-stage clinical drug development that primarily focuses on urogenital targets has centered around four areas of medical need (both unmet need and aiming to improve on existing therapies). These include male sexual dysfunction (MSD), female sexual dysfunction (FSD), prostatic pathology (neoplastic, pre-neoplasitic, and non-neoplastic), and improvement in lower urinary tract symptoms. Despite the regulatory approval of compounds to treat erectile dysfunction (ED), benign prostatic hyperplasia, a number of treatments for overactive bladder, and stress urinary incontinence, there remains a deficiency in addressing a number of conditions that arise out of pathophysiological dysfunction resulting in lower urogenital tract sexual conditions. In terms of late-stage clinical development, significant progress has most recently been made in MSD development, especially in understanding further a common and complex sexual dysfunction – that of premature ejaculation. The search also continues for compounds that improve ED in terms of better efficacy and superior safety profile compared to the currently marketed phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitors. Whilst there are no approved medications to treat the subtypes of FSD, there has been significant progress in attempting to better understand how to appropriately assess treatment benefit in clinical trial settings for this difficult to diagnose and treat condition. This review will focus on late-stage human clinical development pertaining to MSD and FSD. PMID:16465180

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PERIOD OF SENSITIVITY OF FETAL MALE SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT TO VINCLOZOLIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Characterization of the period of sensitivity of fetal male sexual development to vinclozolin.

    Wolf CJ, LeBlanc GA, Ostby JS, Gray LE Jr.

    Endocrinology Branch, MD 72, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U....

  3. A Dynamical Systems Approach to the Development and Expression of Female Same-Sex Sexuality.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Lisa M

    2007-06-01

    Researchers have documented substantial variability in the development and expression of same-sex sexuality, especially among women, posing challenges to traditional linear developmental models. In this article, I argue for a new approach to conceptualizing the development and expression of female same-sex sexuality over the life course, based in dynamical systems theory. Dynamical systems models seek to explain how complex patterns emerge, stabilize, change, and restabilize over time. Although originally developed by mathematicians and physicists to model complex physical phenomena in the natural world, they have increasingly been applied to social-behavioral phenomena, ranging from motor development to cognition to language. I demonstrate the utility of this approach for modeling change over time in female same-sex sexuality, reviewing extant published research and also introducing data collected from an ongoing, 10-year longitudinal study of young nonheterosexual women. I provide evidence that female same-sex sexuality demonstrates the emblematic features of a dynamical system: nonlinear change over time, spontaneous emergence of novel forms, and periodic reorganizations and phase transitions within the overall system. I highlight the specific contribution of a dynamical systems perspective for understanding such phenomena and suggest directions for future study. PMID:26151957

  4. Development and Validation of a Gender Expression Measure among Sexual Minority Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehavot, Keren; King, Kevin M.; Simoni, Jane M.

    2011-01-01

    Gender expression varies considerably among lesbian and bisexual women and may be related to various stressors and health outcomes. However, no current measure adequately assesses gender expression in this community. Thus, the authors conducted three studies to develop and validate the Gender Expression Measure among Sexual Minority Women…

  5. Development of the renal sexual segment in immature snakes: effect of sex steroid hormones

    E-print Network

    Mason, Robert T.

    snakes, kidney mass was not a reliable indicator of hormone treatment, whereas tubule diameter) of the reptilian kidney is a hypertrophied region of the nephron, described initially by Gampert (1866Development of the renal sexual segment in immature snakes: effect of sex steroid hormones Randolph

  6. Research on Adolescent Sexual Orientation: Development, Health Disparities, Stigma, and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saewyc, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    The decade between 1998 and 2008 saw rapid increases in research on adolescent sexual orientation development and related health issues, both in the quantity and in the quality of studies. While much of the research originated in North America, studies from other countries also contributed to emerging understanding of developmental trajectories…

  7. Pilot study in the development of an interactive multimedia learning environment for sexual health interventions: a focus group approach.

    PubMed

    Goold, P C; Bustard, S; Ferguson, E; Carlin, E M; Neal, K; Bowman, C A

    2006-02-01

    In the UK there are high rates of sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies amongst young people. There is limited and contradictory evidence that current sexual health education interventions are effective or that they improve access to appropriate sexual health services. This paper describes the outcome of focus group work with young people that was undertaken to inform the design of an Interactive Multimedia Learning Environment that incorporates message framing, intended for use in sexual health promotion. The focus group work addressed sexual attitudes, behaviour, risk perception, and knowledge of sexual health and sexual health services in Nottingham. The results provided new insights into young peoples' sexual behaviour, and their diversity of knowledge and beliefs. Common themes expressed regarding sexual health services included concerns about confidentiality, lack of confidence to access services and fear of the unknown. The results showed that while the adolescents are reasonably knowledgeable about infection, they do not know as much about the relevant services to treat it. This work emphasizes the need for user involvement throughout the design and development of a sexual health intervention, and will form the basis of the next part of the project. PMID:15972303

  8. Sexual differences in insect development time in relation

    E-print Network

    Kratochvíl, Lukas

    .3 Temperature and insect development time As ectotherms insects rely on external sources of heat. Consequently, we cannot say that ectotherms 205 #12;require a certain length of time for development. They require to measure the rate of development of ectotherms? (b) How to analyse differences in the rate of development

  9. Salmon lice – impact on wild salmonids and salmon aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Torrissen, O; Jones, S; Asche, F; Guttormsen, A; Skilbrei, O T; Nilsen, F; Horsberg, T E; Jackson, D

    2013-01-01

    Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, are naturally occurring parasites of salmon in sea water. Intensive salmon farming provides better conditions for parasite growth and transmission compared with natural conditions, creating problems for both the salmon farming industry and, under certain conditions, wild salmonids. Salmon lice originating from farms negatively impact wild stocks of salmonids, although the extent of the impact is a matter of debate. Estimates from Ireland and Norway indicate an odds ratio of 1.1:1-1.2:1 for sea lice treated Atlantic salmon smolt to survive sea migration compared to untreated smolts. This is considered to have a moderate population regulatory effect. The development of resistance against drugs most commonly used to treat salmon lice is a serious concern for both wild and farmed fish. Several large initiatives have been taken to encourage the development of new strategies, such as vaccines and novel drugs, for the treatment or removal of salmon lice from farmed fish. The newly sequenced salmon louse genome will be an important tool in this work. The use of cleaner fish has emerged as a robust method for controlling salmon lice, and aquaculture production of wrasse is important towards this aim. Salmon lice have large economic consequences for the salmon industry, both as direct costs for the prevention and treatment, but also indirectly through negative public opinion. PMID:23311858

  10. Predicting Different Patterns of Sexual Identity Development Over Time Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youths: A Cluster Analytic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that the sexual identity development of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths may not follow a single pattern, but may follow variety of pathways. Although some research documenting variability in identity development exists, unclear are the potential individual and social contexts that predict these different patterns, as well as the contexts that predict changes in identity integration over time. This report longitudinally examined these issues in an ethnically diverse sample of 156 LGB youths (ages 14–21) in New York City. Cluster analytic techniques identified two patterns of sexual identity formation (i.e., early and more recent), and three patterns of sexual identity integration (i.e., high, middling, and low). Gender, age, and sexual abuse were found to predict identity formation, and gay-related stress, social support, negative social relationships, sexual orientation, sexual identity, and gender were found to predict patterns of sexual identity integration and changes in integration over one year. These findings document different patterns of sexual identity development and identify potential contextual barriers and facilitating factors that may be used to develop interventions to promote healthy LGB identity development. PMID:18972204

  11. The impact of sexual abuse on female development: Lessons from a multigenerational, longitudinal research study

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2013-01-01

    This is a report on the research design and findings of a 23-year longitudinal study of the impact of intrafamilial sexual abuse on female development. The conceptual framework integrated concepts of psychological adjustment with theory regarding how psychobiological factors might impact development. Participants included 6- to 16-year-old females with substantiated sexual abuse and a demographically similar comparison group. A cross-sequential design was used and six assessments have taken place, with participants at median age 11 at the first assessment and median age 25 at the sixth assessment. Mothers of participants took part in the early assessments and offspring took part at the sixth assessment. Results of many analyses, both within circumscribed developmental stages and across development, indicated that sexually abused females (on average) showed deleterious sequelae across a host of biopsychosocial domains including: earlier onsets of puberty, cognitive deficits, depression, dissociative symptoms, maladaptive sexual development, hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal attenuation, asymmetrical stress responses, high rates of obesity, more major illnesses and healthcare utilization, dropping out of high school, persistent psottraumatic stress disorder, self-mutilation, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnoses, physical and sexual revictimization, premature deliveries, teen motherhood, drug and alcohol abuse, and domestic violence. Offspring born to abused mothers were at increased risk for child maltreatment and overall maldevelopment. There was also a pattern of considerable within group variability. Based on this complex network of findings, implications for optimal treatments are elucidated. Translational aspects of extending observational research into clinical practice are discussed in terms that will likely have a sustained impact on several major public health initiatives. PMID:23786689

  12. Transition to Adult Care in Persons With Disorders of Sexual Development: The Role of the Gynecologist.

    PubMed

    Amies Oelschlager, Anne-Marie; Muscarella, Miriam; Gomez-Lobo, Veronica

    2015-10-01

    Disorders of sexual development (DSD) are a spectrum of conditions diagnosed in infancy resulting from atypical development of the external genitalia, in adolescence resulting from atypical pubertal development, or in adulthood as a result of infertility. Obstetricians may be the first health care providers to identify a disorder of sexual development in the fetus or newborn and should be part of the interdisciplinary team assembled to best care for these patients. Gynecologists must be familiar with the diagnosis and management of these conditions in late adolescence and adulthood. The creation of DSD "centers of excellence" may provide optimal care for individuals with these conditions but many will live too far from such centers and need to be followed by local gynecologists. The purpose of this commentary is to emphasize important medical and psychological issues so gynecologists can provide optimal care for their patients with DSD conditions. PMID:26348185

  13. Homosexuality via canalized sexual development: a testing protocol for a new epigenetic model.

    PubMed

    Rice, William R; Friberg, Urban; Gavrilets, Sergey

    2013-09-01

    We recently synthesized and reinterpreted published studies to advance an epigenetic model for the development of homosexuality (HS). The model is based on epigenetic marks laid down in response to the XX vs. XY karyotype in embryonic stem cells. These marks boost sensitivity to testosterone in XY fetuses and lower it in XX fetuses, thereby canalizing sexual development. Our model predicts that a subset of these canalizing epigenetic marks stochastically carry over across generations and lead to mosaicism for sexual development in opposite-sex offspring--the homosexual phenotype being one such outcome. Here, we begin by outlining why HS has been under-appreciated as a commonplace phenomenon in nature, and how this trend is currently being reversed in the field of neurobiology. We next briefly describe our epigenetic model of HS, develop a set of predictions, and describe how epigenetic profiles of human stem cells can provide for a strong test of the model. PMID:23868698

  14. Homosexuality via canalized sexual development: A testing protocol for a new epigenetic model

    PubMed Central

    Rice, William R; Friberg, Urban; Gavrilets, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    We recently synthesized and reinterpreted published studies to advance an epigenetic model for the development of homosexuality (HS). The model is based on epigenetic marks laid down in response to the XX vs. XY karyotype in embryonic stem cells. These marks boost sensitivity to testosterone in XY fetuses and lower it in XX fetuses, thereby canalizing sexual development. Our model predicts that a subset of these canalizing epigenetic marks stochastically carry over across generations and lead to mosaicism for sexual development in opposite-sex offspring – the homosexual phenotype being one such outcome. Here, we begin by outlining why HS has been under-appreciated as a commonplace phenomenon in nature, and how this trend is currently being reversed in the field of neurobiology. We next briefly describe our epigenetic model of HS, develop a set of predictions, and describe how epigenetic profiles of human stem cells can provide for a strong test of the model. PMID:23868698

  15. Global transcriptional repression: An initial and essential step for Plasmodium sexual development.

    PubMed

    Yuda, Masao; Iwanaga, Shiroh; Kaneko, Izumi; Kato, Tomomi

    2015-10-13

    Gametocytes are nonreplicative sexual forms that mediate malaria transmission to a mosquito vector. They are generated from asexual blood-stage parasites that proliferate in the circulation. However, little is known about how this transition is genetically regulated. Here, we report that an Apetala2 (AP2) family transcription factor, AP2-G2, regulates this transition as a transcriptional repressor. Disruption of AP2-G2 in the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei did not prevent commitment to the sexual stage but did halt development before the appearance of sex-specific morphologies. ChIP-seq analysis revealed that AP2-G2 targeted ?1,500 genes and recognized a five-base motif in their promoters. Most of these target genes are required for asexual proliferation of the parasites in the blood, suggesting that AP2-G2 blocks the program that precedes asexual replication to promote conversion to the sexual stage. Microarray analysis showed that the identified targets constituted ?70% of the up-regulated genes in AP2-G2-depleted parasites, suggesting that AP2-G2 actually functions as a repressor in gametocytes. A promoter assay using a centromere plasmid demonstrated that the binding motif functions as a cis-acting negative regulatory element. These results suggest that global transcriptional repression, which occurs during the initial phase of gametocytogenesis, is an essential step in Plasmodium sexual development. PMID:26417110

  16. Implications of Our Developing Understanding of Risk and Protective Factors in the Treatment of Adult Male Sexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes our developing knowledge of factors that contribute added risk of sexual recidivism (risk factors) and factors that are associated with a reduced risk of sexual recidivism (protective factors). Specific implications for the design of future treatment programs are drawn. This information is contrasted with the common foci of…

  17. "You Want Me to Talk to Children about What?" Responding to the Subject of Sexuality Development in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciaraffa, Mary; Randolph, Theresa

    2011-01-01

    Many people think it is taboo to talk about sex with children. Adults reinforce this belief when, for example, they use substitute words rather than "vagina" or "penis". They may be embarrassed to learn about children's sexual development or ask others for assistance. Although most people in US society are open about sexuality now, the topic of…

  18. Expanding Our Reach: The Potential for Youth Development Professionals in Community-Based Organizations to Provide Sexuality Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Christopher M.; Reece, Michael; Dodge, Brian; Wright, Eric; Sherwood-Laughlin, Catherine; Baldwin, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents in the United States continue to face sexual health issues. While community-based organizations (CBOs) have a long history of addressing the sexual health needs of those they serve, little attention has been given to CBOs focused on adolescent populations and the role youth development professionals (YDPs) might play in the advancement…

  19. In ovo exposure to o,p -DDE affects sexual development but not sexual differentiation in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papoulias, D.M.; Villalobos, Sergio A.; Meadows, J.; Noltie, D.B.; Giesy, J.P.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    Despite being banned in many countries, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) continue to be found in fish tissues at concentrations of concern. Like o,p -DDT, o,p -DDE is estrogenic and is believed to exert its effects through binding to the estrogen receptor. The limited toxicologic data for o,p -DDE suggest that it decreases fecundity and fertility of fishes. We conducted an egg injection study using the d-rR strain of medaka and environmentally relevant concentrations of o,p -DDE to examine its effects on sexual differentiation and development. The gonads of exposed fish showed no evidence of sex reversal or intersex. However, other gonad abnormalities occurred in exposed individuals. Females exhibited few vitellogenic oocytes and increased atresia. Male testes appeared morphologically normal but were very small. Gonadosomatic index values for both sexes were lower for exposed fish. Our observations of abnormal female and very small male gonads after in ovo o,p -DDE exposure may be indicative of effects on early endocrine processes important for normal ovarian and testicular development.

  20. The White Collar Complex Is Involved in Sexual Development of Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seunghoon; Yun, Sung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Sexual spores (ascospores) of Fusarium graminearum, a homothallic ascomycetous fungus, are believed to be the primary inocula for epidemics of the diseases caused by this species in cereal crops. Based on the light requirement for the formation of fruiting bodies (perithecia) of F. graminearum under laboratory conditions, we explored whether photoreceptors play an important role in sexual development. Here, we evaluated the roles of three genes encoding putative photoreceptors [a phytochrome gene (FgFph) and two white collar genes (FgWc-1 and FgWc-2)] during sexual development in F. graminearum. For functional analyses, we generated transgenic strains lacking one or two genes from the self-fertile Z3643 strain. Unlike the wild-type (WT) and add-back strains, the single deletion strains (?FgWc-1 and ?FgWc-2) produced fertile perithecia under constant light on complete medium (CM, an unfavorable medium for sexual development) as well as on carrot agar (a perithecial induction condition). The expression of mating-type (MAT) genes increased significantly in the gene deletion strains compared to the WT under both conditions. Deletion of FgFph had no significant effect on sexual development or MAT gene expression. In contrast, all of the deletion strains examined did not show significant changes in other traits such as hyphal growth, mycotoxin production, and virulence. A split luciferase assay confirmed the in vivo protein-protein interactions among three photoreceptors along with FgLaeA, a global regulator of secondary metabolism and fungal development. Introduction of an intact copy of the A. nidulans LreA and LreB genes, which are homologs of FgWc-1 and FgWc-2, into the ?FgWc-1 and ?FgWc-2 strains, respectively, failed to repress perithecia formation on CM in the gene deletion strains. Taken together, these results demonstrate that FgWc-1 and FgWc-2, two central components of the blue-light sensing system, negatively regulate sexual development in F. graminearum, which differs from the regulation pattern in A. nidulans. PMID:25785736

  1. The white collar complex is involved in sexual development of Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hun; Kim, Hee-Kyoung; Lee, Seunghoon; Yun, Sung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Sexual spores (ascospores) of Fusarium graminearum, a homothallic ascomycetous fungus, are believed to be the primary inocula for epidemics of the diseases caused by this species in cereal crops. Based on the light requirement for the formation of fruiting bodies (perithecia) of F. graminearum under laboratory conditions, we explored whether photoreceptors play an important role in sexual development. Here, we evaluated the roles of three genes encoding putative photoreceptors [a phytochrome gene (FgFph) and two white collar genes (FgWc-1 and FgWc-2)] during sexual development in F. graminearum. For functional analyses, we generated transgenic strains lacking one or two genes from the self-fertile Z3643 strain. Unlike the wild-type (WT) and add-back strains, the single deletion strains (?FgWc-1 and ?FgWc-2) produced fertile perithecia under constant light on complete medium (CM, an unfavorable medium for sexual development) as well as on carrot agar (a perithecial induction condition). The expression of mating-type (MAT) genes increased significantly in the gene deletion strains compared to the WT under both conditions. Deletion of FgFph had no significant effect on sexual development or MAT gene expression. In contrast, all of the deletion strains examined did not show significant changes in other traits such as hyphal growth, mycotoxin production, and virulence. A split luciferase assay confirmed the in vivo protein-protein interactions among three photoreceptors along with FgLaeA, a global regulator of secondary metabolism and fungal development. Introduction of an intact copy of the A. nidulans LreA and LreB genes, which are homologs of FgWc-1 and FgWc-2, into the ?FgWc-1 and ?FgWc-2 strains, respectively, failed to repress perithecia formation on CM in the gene deletion strains. Taken together, these results demonstrate that FgWc-1 and FgWc-2, two central components of the blue-light sensing system, negatively regulate sexual development in F. graminearum, which differs from the regulation pattern in A. nidulans. PMID:25785736

  2. Housing sexuality: domestic space and the development of female sexuality in the fiction of Angela Carter and Jeanette Winterson 

    E-print Network

    Cantrell, Samantha E.

    2005-08-29

    A repeated theme in the fiction of Angela Carter and Jeanette Winterson is the use of domestic space as a tool for defining socially acceptable versions of female sexuality. Four novels that crystallize this theme are the ...

  3. Compulsory sexuality.

    PubMed

    Emens, Elizabeth F

    2014-02-01

    Asexuality is an emerging identity category that challenges the common assumption that everyone is defined by some type of sexual attraction. Asexuals--those who report feeling no sexual attraction to others--constitute one percent of the population, according to one prominent study. In recent years, some individuals have begun to identify as asexual and to connect around their experiences interacting with a sexual society. Asexuality has also become a protected classification under the antidiscrimination law of one state and several localities, but legal scholarship has thus far neglected the subject. This Article introduces asexuality to the legal literature as a category of analysis, an object of empirical study, and a phenomenon of medical science. It then offers a close examination of the growing community of self-identified asexuals. Asexual identity has revealing intersections with the more familiar categories of gender, sexual orientation, and disability, and inspires new models for understanding sexuality. Thinking about asexuality also sheds light on our legal system. Ours is arguably a sexual law, predicated on the assumption that sex is important. This Article uses asexuality to develop a framework for identifying the ways that law privileges sexuality. Across various fields, these interactions include legal requirements of sexual activity, special carve-outs to shield sexuality from law, legal protections from others' sexuality, and legal protections for sexual identity. Applying this framework, the Article traces several ways that our sexual law burdens, and occasionally benefits, asexuals. This Article concludes by closely examining asexuality's prospects for broader inclusion into federal, state, and local antidiscrimination laws. PMID:24654293

  4. Avian Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River: 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Roby, Daniel D.; Craig, David P.; Collis, Ken; Adamany, Stephanie L.

    1998-09-01

    The authors initiated a field study in 1997 to assess the impacts of fish-eating colonial waterbirds (i.e., terns, cormorants, and gulls) on the survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River. Here the authors present results from the 1998 breeding season, the second field season of work on this project. The research objectives in 1998 were to: (1) determine the location, size, nesting chronology, nesting success, and population trajectories of breeding colonies of fish-eating birds in the lower Columbia River; (2) determine diet composition of fish-eating birds, including taxonomic composition and energy content of various prey types; (3) estimate forage fish consumption rates, with special emphasis on juvenile salmonids, by breeding adults and their young; (4) determine the relative vulnerabilit2048 different groups of juvenile salmonids to bird predation; (5) identify foraging range, foraging strategies, and habitat utilization by piscivorous waterbirds; and (6) test the feasibility of various alternative methods for managing avian predation on juvenile salmonids and develop recommendations to reduce avian predation, if warranted by the results.

  5. Avian Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River: 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Collis, Ken; Adamany, Stephanie; Roby, Daniel D.; Craig, David P.; Lyons, Donald E.

    2000-04-01

    The authors initiated a field study in 1997 to assess the impacts of fish-eating colonial waterbirds (i.e., terns, cormorants, and gulls) on the survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River. Here the authors present results from the 1998 breeding season, the second field season of work on this project. The research objectives in 1998 were to: (1) determine the location, size, nesting chronology, nesting success, and population trajectories of breeding colonies of fish-eating birds in the lower Columbia River; (2) determine diet composition of fish-eating birds, including taxonomic composition and energy content of various prey types; (3) estimate forage fish consumption rates, with special emphasis on juvenile salmonids, by breeding adults and their young; (4) determine the relative vulnerability of different groups of juvenile salmonids to bird predation; (5) identify foraging range, foraging strategies, and habitat utilization by piscivorous waterbirds; and (6) test the feasibility of various alternative methods for managing avian predation on juvenile salmonids and develop recommendations to reduce avian predation, if warranted by the results.

  6. The Role of Sexual Orientation in Youth Development Theory 

    E-print Network

    Theriault, Daniel

    2013-05-08

    young people that identify as Lesbian, Bisexual, Gay, Transgender, and Queer (LBGTQ: cf. Torkelson, 2012). Existing research has focused on the causes and incidence of problem behaviors among LBGTQ youth. In particular, scholars have offered... in development for those who identify as Lesbian, Bisexual, Gay Transgender, and Queer (LBGTQ) versus those who identify as heterosexual. In particular, young people that identify as LBGTQ negotiate compulsory heterosexuality in their everyday lives, i.e., a...

  7. Cannabis Use Disorders Predispose to the Development of Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Youth

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Jack R.; Kirisci, Levent; Clark, Duncan B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous cross-sectional studies involving adults suggest that sexually transmitted diseases (STD) such as cocaine use disorders and opioid use disorders are associated with the development of sexually transmitted diseases (STD). However, it is less clear whether cannabis use disorders (CUD) are associated with the development of STDs, or whether those associations extend to adolescent populations. Longitudinal studies examining those associations are particularly scarce. The current report provides findings from a longitudinal study that examined the relationship between STD and CUD among youth transitioning to young adulthood. Method The subjects in this longitudinal study were initially recruited when the index sons of these fathers were 10-12 years of age, and subsequent assessments were conducted at age 12-14, 16, 19, and 22. Multivariate logistic regression and path analyses were conducted. Results At age 22, of the 345 subjects, 30 subjects were diagnosed with one or more STD, and 105 were diagnosed with a CUD. STDs were almost four times as common among those with a CUD as among those without a CUD, which was a significant difference. Path analyses demonstrated that peer deviance mediated the association between a measure of risk for SUD knows as the TLI and CUD, and that peer deviance mediated the association between TLI and STD. Risky sexual behaviors were common. Conclusions These finding suggest that cannabis use disorders (CUD) predispose to the development of sexually transmitted disorders (STD) among youth. These findings also suggest that peer deviance mediates the development of STD and of CUD among teenagers making the transition to young adulthood. PMID:25328372

  8. Sexual Violence: Sexual assault

    E-print Network

    Li, X. Rong

    Medical Options · Medical Care/Treatment & Evidence Collection · Student Health Services Reporting SexualSexual Violence: Sexual assault Sexual harassment Stalking Intimate partner abuse/domestic violence Resources FOR VICTIMS OF SEXUAL ASSAULT INFORMATION TO ASSIST MEMBERS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW ORLEANS

  9. From Millennium Development Goals to post-2015 sustainable development: sexual and reproductive health and rights in an evolving aid environment.

    PubMed

    Hill, Peter S; Huntington, Dale; Dodd, Rebecca; Buttsworth, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Using research from country case studies, this paper offers insights into the range of institutional and structural changes in development assistance between 2005 and 2011, and their impact on the inclusion of a sexual and reproductive health and rights agenda in national planning environments. At a global level during this period, donors supported more integrative modalities of aid - sector wide approaches, poverty reduction strategy papers, direct budgetary support - with greater use of economic frameworks in decision-making. The Millennium Development Goals brought heightened attention to maternal mortality, but at the expense of a broader sexual and reproductive health and rights agenda. Advocacy at the national planning level was not well linked to programme implementation; health officials were disadvantaged in economic arguments, and lacked financial and budgetary controls to ensure a connection between advocacy and action. With increasing competency in higher level planning processes, health officials are now refocusing the post-2015 development goals. If sexual and reproductive health and rights is to claim engagement across all its multiple elements, advocates need to link them to the key themes of sustainable development: inequalities in gender, education, growth and population, but also to urbanisation, migration, women in employment and climate change. PMID:24315068

  10. GENOMIC RESOURCES FOR STUDYING EARLY LIFE STAGE SALMONID HEALTH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic approaches are being used to study pathological and normal processes in early life stage salmonids. Early Mortality Syndrome (EMS), a disease associated with low egg thiamine levels, causes early life stage mortality and low recruitment of Great Lakes salmonids including lake trout. We use...

  11. Perceived "out of control" sexual behavior in a cohort of young adults from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study.

    PubMed

    Skegg, Keren; Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Dickson, Nigel; Paul, Charlotte

    2010-08-01

    Out of control sexual behavior, also known as compulsive sexual behavior or sexual addiction, has not been studied in a representative sample of the general population. At age 32 years, 940 (93%) of 1,015 members of the birth cohort of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study responded to a series of questions about sexual behavior, administered by computer. We enquired about sexual fantasies, urges or behavior that participants regarded as out of control during the previous year, and defined such experiences as out of control sexual experiences (OCSE). Nearly 13% of men and 7% of women reported OCSE in the past year. Women who reported such experiences were more likely than other women to have reported (elsewhere in the interview) having had high numbers of opposite sex partners, concurrent sexual relationships, or sex with a partner met on the internet, as well as a higher likelihood of same-sex attraction or behavior. Among men reporting OCSE, there was an association with having paid for heterosexual sex and with same-sex attraction and behavior. Few believed that OCSE had interfered with their lives (3.8% of all men and 1.7% of all women in the cohort). Only 0.8% of men and 0.6% of women reported that their actual sexual behavior had interfered with their lives. OCSE were also analyzed in relation to certain personality traits and to childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Some evidence of a link with impulsivity (women only) and negative affectivity was found. CSA was associated with OCSE among men. In conclusion, this population-based study has provided the first empirical estimations of the occurrence of OCSE and its relationship to a range of sexual behaviors in a representative sample. PMID:19421850

  12. Sexually transmitted diseases in Ethiopia. Social factors contributing to their spread and implications for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Plorde, D S

    1981-12-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases in developing countries are causing concern to those responsible for their control and eradication. To gain a better understanding of the problems involved in a country struggling with development, the economic and psychosocial factors influencing the spread of STD in Ethiopia have been studied. Increased migration and urbanisation and the changing role of women have led to a rise in prostitution. Thus changes in the social structure--particularly in relation to the education and employment of women--and improved medical services are essential for the long-term control of STD. PMID:6895708

  13. Modelling the effect of fine sediment on salmonid spawning habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattison, Ian; Sear, David; Collins, Adrian; Jones, Iwan; Naden, Pam

    2013-04-01

    Diffuse fine sediment delivery to rivers is recognised as a widespread problem in the UK. Furthermore, projections suggest that sediment pressures may increase in the future due to both climate change and land use changes. This fine sediment infiltrates into the bed and clogs up salmonid spawning gravels. Fine sediment has been found to reduce survival rates of salmonid eggs in both field and laboratory experiments, with the main hypotheses used to explain this being (a) fine sediment reduces gravel permeability and intra-gravel flow velocities; (b) intra-gravel O2 concentrations decrease due to reduced supply and increased consumption by organic sediments; and (c) clay particles block the exchange of O2 across the egg membrane. The SIDO (Sediment Intrusion and Dissolved Oxygen)-UK model is a physically based numerical model which stimulates the effect of fine sediment intrusion on the abiotic characteristics of the salmonid redd, along with the consequences for egg development and survival. The first 2 hypotheses above are represented, while the third is not yet included. Field observations from the River Ithon, Wales, have been used to calibrate the model using sediment accumulation data. The model was then used to assess the impact of varying sediment inputs upon the sediment intrusion rates, abiotic redd characteristics and fish egg survival rates. Results indicate that egg survival is highly sensitive to the discharge and the suspended sediment concentrations, particularly to changes in the supply rate of sand particles, rather than silt and clay. This can be explained by the increased likelihood of blocking of intra-gravel pores by larger sand particles, which reduce intra-gravel flow velocities and the supply of oxygen rich water. A doubling of the sand concentration results in a 51% increase in red infilling, which causes a 24% reduction in the average intra-gravel flow velocity. A corresponding 20% decrease of the average O2 concentration is evident which is a function of reduced supply of oxygen rich water and consumption by sediment within the redd. The results indicate that it is the former of these processes which is the most important, while the Sediment Oxygen Consumption (SOC), mainly associated with the silt and clay fractions, is considered to have a secondary effect on influencing the egg zone abiotic properties. These findings have implications for how we manage the sediment delivery problem.

  14. Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bulllying

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Snacking Losing Weight Safely Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying KidsHealth > Teens > Sexual Health > For Guys > Sexual Harassment ... being sexually harassed or bullied. What Are Sexual Bullying and Harassment? Just like other kinds of bullying, ...

  15. Regulation of sexual development in the basal termite Cryptotermes secundus: mutilation, pheromonal manipulation or honest signal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korb, Judith

    2005-01-01

    Social insect colonies are not the harmonious entities they were once considered. Considerable conflicts exist between colony members, as has been shown for Hymenoptera. For termites, similar studies are lacking, but aggressive manipulations have been claimed to regulate sexual development, and even to account for the evolution of workers. This study on a basal termite, Cryptotermes secundus (Kalotermitidae), suggests that the importance of aggressive manipulations in termites has been overemphasized. Wing-bud mutilations, a means proposed to regulate the development of dispersing sexuals (alates), seem to be artifacts of handling conditions that cause disturbance. Aggressive behaviors never occurred unless colonies were disturbed. Theoretical considerations further showed that the potential for intense conflict among termite nestmates is low compared to hymenopteran societies. Strong conflicts are only expected to occur over the replacement of natal reproductives that died, while less intense conflicts should exist over the development into alates when food in the colony becomes limiting. Accordingly, intracolonial aggressive interactions over replacement are common, whereas nestmates seem to manipulate alate development via proctodeal feeding when food resources decline. However, the latter is rather an honest signal than a manipulation because only the most competent prospective dispersers can impede the development of nestmates.

  16. Disorder of Sexual Development and Congenital Heart Defect in 47XYY: Clinical Disorder or Coincidence?

    PubMed Central

    Latrech, Hanane; Skikar, Imane; Gharbi, Mohammed El Hassan; Chraïbi, Abdelmjid; Gaouzi, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Background. 47XYY syndrome is a rare sex chromosome variation characterized by an additional Y chromosome. Most patients with 47XYY karyotype have normal phenotype. This disorder seems associated with a higher risk of developing behavioral and cognitive problems, tall stature, and infertility in adulthood. Sexual development disorder is a rare finding. We report a first case with an abnormal left coronary artery originating from the pulmonary artery in a 47XYY patient. Case. A one-month-old child was referred for ectopic testis and micropenis. Physical examination revealed facial dysmorphia, micropenis, and curvature of the penis with nonpalpable testis. Laboratory tests showed decreased total testosterone and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels. Blood karyotyping revealed a 47XYY chromosomal formula. At the age of 3 months, the patient developed dyspnea and tachycardia. Echocardiography revealed an anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery with left ventricular dysfunction requiring surgical revascularization by direct reimplantation of the left coronary artery system. Our second case was a 3-year-old child referred for hypospadias with nonpalpable left testicle. Physical examination showed hypertelorism. Blood karyotyping revealed a 47XYY chromosomal formula. Conclusion. To our knowledge, this is the first case of 47XYY syndrome associated with this congenital heart malformation and a sexual development disorder. PMID:26175918

  17. Sexual Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Parents can help their adolescent make healthy choices Sexual Health News & Information Understanding Sexual Health Public Health Reports ... infectious diseases, reproductive health and sexual violence prevention. Sexual Health Topics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Up-to-date information ...

  18. The Impact of Clergy-Perpetrated Sexual Abuse: The Role of Gender, Development, and Posttraumatic Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogler, Jason M.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Clarke, Stephanie; Jensen, Jennifer; Rowe, Erin

    2008-01-01

    The literature on clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse suggests that there are two modal populations of survivors: boys and adult women. We review what is known about trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder following sexual abuse and explore the different treatment needs for these two survivor groups. For children, clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse can…

  19. Physiological Assessment of Wild and Hatchery Juvenile Salmonids : Final Report, 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Donald A.; Beckman, Brian R.; Dickhoff, Walton W.

    2003-08-01

    It is generally held that hatchery-reared salmonids are of inferior quality and have lower smolt-to-adult survival compared to naturally-reared salmon. The overall objectives of the work performed under this contract were the following: (1) Characterize the physiology and development of naturally rearing juvenile salmonids to: (2) Allow for the design of effective rearing programs for producing wild-like smolts in supplementation and production hatchery programs. (3) Examine the relationship between growth rate and size on the physiology and migratory performance of fish reared in hatchery programs. (4) Examine the interaction of rearing temperature and feed rate on the growth and smoltification of salmon for use in producing a more wild-like smolt in hatchery programs.

  20. Exploring Client and Therapist Experiences of Sexual Offender Intervention: Developing a Model of "Significant Events"

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, David M; O' Reilly, Gary; Travers, Olive; Quinn, Paul; Stack, Jon; Cartin, Martin; Finnegan, Eileen; Ewart-Boyle, Shirley

    2014-05-26

    This research explored the therapeutic events both clients and therapists from community-based treatment interventions for perpetrators of sexual abuse identify as significant in their experience of psychological therapy. A qualitative design was utilized to address this research objective. The sample for the present research is comprised of three different treatment programs for sexual offending. Twenty-five clients and nine therapists participated in the study. Two qualitative measures were used to elicit client and therapist responses. Significant Aspects of Therapy Form was administered every second treatment session during each intervention program. The Significant Aspects Follow-Up Interview was conducted with a sub-sample of participants at the conclusion of each treatment module. Thematic analysis was used to identify significant themes noted by clients and therapists from forms and interviews. Thematic analysis resulted in a model of significant events in therapy. In this model, significant events were categorized into six domains. The six domains were as follows: (a) the process of therapy, (b) making changes and progress in therapy, (c) content and structure of therapy, (d) therapist contributions, (e) negative contributions to therapy, and (f) other factors. Each domain further contained between 6 and 18 themes, which are also reported. This study found much overlap and similarity in the experiences of therapy between clients of sexual offender therapy and general psychotherapy. Furthermore, there is overlap between therapists and clients in the aspects of therapy they identify as significant. The implications of these findings on effective service development and comprehensive service evaluations are discussed. PMID:24867417

  1. Sexual reproduction and mating-type–mediated strain development in the penicillin-producing fungus Penicillium chrysogenum

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Julia; Hoff, Birgit; O’Gorman, Céline M.; Wolfers, Simon; Klix, Volker; Binger, Danielle; Zadra, Ivo; Kürnsteiner, Hubert; Pöggeler, Stefanie; Dyer, Paul S.; Kück, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Penicillium chrysogenum is a filamentous fungus of major medical and historical importance, being the original and present-day industrial source of the antibiotic penicillin. The species has been considered asexual for more than 100 y, and despite concerted efforts, it has not been possible to induce sexual reproduction, which has prevented sexual crosses being used for strain improvement. However, using knowledge of mating-type (MAT) gene organization, we now describe conditions under which a sexual cycle can be induced leading to production of meiotic ascospores. Evidence of recombination was obtained using both molecular and phenotypic markers. The identified heterothallic sexual cycle was used for strain development purposes, generating offspring with novel combinations of traits relevant to penicillin production. Furthermore, the MAT1-1–1 mating-type gene, known primarily for a role in governing sexual identity, was also found to control transcription of a wide range of genes with biotechnological relevance including those regulating penicillin production, hyphal morphology, and conidial formation. These discoveries of a sexual cycle and MAT gene function are likely to be of broad relevance for manipulation of other asexual fungi of economic importance. PMID:23307807

  2. Language choice and sexual communication among Xhosa speakers in Cape Town, South Africa: implications for HIV prevention message development

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Demetria; Schensul, Stephen; Mlobeli, Regina

    2011-01-01

    Communicating about sex is a vital component of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and influences how HIV educators convey messages to communities and how couples negotiate safer sex practices. However, sexual communication inevitably confronts culturally based behavioral guidelines and linguistic taboos unique to diverse social contexts. The HIV interventionist needs to identify the appropriate language for sexual communication given the participants and the message. Ethnographic research can help facilitate the exploration of how sex terminology is chosen. A theoretical framework, developed to guide HIV interventionists, suggests that an individual's language choice for sexual communication is influenced by gender roles and power differentials. In-depth interviews, free listing and triadic comparisons were conducted with Xhosa men and women in Cape Town, South Africa, to determine the terms for male genitalia, female genitalia and sexual intercourse that are most appropriate for sexual communication. Results showed that sexual terms express cultural norms and role expectations where men should be powerful and resilient and women should be passive and virginal. For HIV prevention education, non-mother tongue (English and Zulu) terms were recommended as most appropriate because they are descriptive, but allow the speaker to communicate outside the restrictive limits of their mother tongue by reducing emotive cultural connotations. PMID:21059802

  3. Sexual Orientation (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... Pregnant? What to Expect Sexual Orientation KidsHealth > Parents > Emotions & Behavior > Feelings & Emotions > Sexual Orientation Print A A ...

  4. Adaptive landscapes and density-dependent selection in declining salmonid populations: going beyond numerical responses to human disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Einum, Sigurd; Robertsen, Grethe; Fleming, Ian A

    2008-01-01

    Theory suggests an important role for population density in shaping adaptive landscapes through density-dependent selection. Here, we identify five methodological approaches for studying such selection, review the existing empirical evidence for it, and ask whether current declines in abundance can be expected to trigger evolutionary responses in salmonid fishes. Across taxa we find substantial amounts of evidence for population density influencing the location of adaptive peaks for a range of traits, and, in the presence of frequency dependence, changing the shape of selection (stabilizing versus disruptive). For salmonids, biological and theoretical considerations suggest that the optimal value of a number of traits associated with juvenile competitive ability (e.g. egg size, timing of emergence from nests, dominance ability), may depend on population density. For adults, more direct experimental and comparative evidence suggest that secondary sexual traits can be subject to density-dependent selection. There is also evidence that density affects the frequency-dependent selection likely responsible for the expression of alternative male reproductive phenotypes in salmon. Less is known however about the role of density in maintaining genetic variation among juveniles. Further efforts are required to elucidate the indirect evolutionary effects of declining population abundances, both in salmonids and in other anthropogenically challenged organisms. PMID:25567629

  5. Testing Geomorphic Controls on Salmonid Spawning Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeiffer, A.; Finnegan, N. J.

    2014-12-01

    The physical architecture of a landscape, as recorded in topography, is a major factor driving the spatial distribution of river habitat within a catchment. For this reason, predictive geomorphic models for fluvial characteristics, particularly grain size, have been suggested as possible contributors to salmonid habitat identification efforts. However, to our knowledge, no work has been done to both implement geomorphic predictions of reach-scale grain size and then test those predictions with salmonid habitat use data. We present a physically-based, empirically calibrated approach to predicting grain size distributions from high resolution LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging)-derived topographic data. This approach builds on previous efforts in that it predicts the full grain size distribution, rather than just median grain size, and incorporates an empirically calibrated shear stress partitioning factor. We use the predicted grain size distributions to calculate the fraction of the bed area movable by salmon of a given size, which we then compare to 7 years of steelhead trout and coho salmon spawning survey data for a 77 km2 watershed along the central California Coast. We find that grain size explains the paucity of spawning in the upper reaches of the drainage, but does not explain variation within the mainstem. In order to explain the residuals in spawning within the mainstem, we turn to the spacing of riffle bedforms. Field surveys of riffle spacing explain 64% of the variation in spawning in these reaches, suggesting that spawning is ultimately limited by the availability of riffles. Because riffle spacing varies systematically with channel width, we show that predicting riffle spacing is feasible with LiDAR data. Taken together, these findings highlight both the value and limitations of a grain-size focused approach to habitat prediction, and suggest that such approaches should be used in concert with predictions of channel bed morphology.

  6. Gas Bubble Trauma Monitoring and Research of Juvenile Salmonids, 1994-1995 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hans, Karen M.

    1997-07-01

    This report describes laboratory and field monitoring studies of gas bubble trauma (GBT) in migrating juvenile salmonids in the Snake and Columbia rivers. The first chapter describes laboratory studies of the progression of GBT signs leading to mortality and the use of the signs for GBT assessment. The progression and severity of GBT signs in juvenile salmonids exposed to different levels of total dissolved gas (TDG) and temperatures was assessed and quantified. Next, the prevalence, severity, and individual variation of GBT signs was evaluated to attempt to relate them to mortality. Finally, methods for gill examination in fish exposed to high TDG were developed and evaluated. Primary findings were: (1) no single sign of GBT was clearly correlated with mortality, but many GBT signs progressively worsened; (2) both prevalence and severity of GBT signs in several tissues is necessary; (3) bubbles in the lateral line were the earliest sign of GBT, showed progressive worsening, and had low individual variation but may develop poorly during chronic exposures; (4) fin bubbles had high prevalence, progressively worsened, and may be a persistent sign of GBT; and (5) gill bubbles appear to be the proximate cause of death but may only be relevant at high TDG levels and are difficult to examine. Chapter Two describes monitoring results of juvenile salmonids for signs of GBT. Emigrating fish were collected and examined for bubbles in fins and lateral lines. Preliminary findings were: (1) few fish had signs of GBT, but prevalence and severity appeared to increase as fish migrated downstream; (2) there was no apparent correlation between GBT signs in the fins, lateral line, or gills; (3) prevalence and severity of GBT was suggestive of long-term, non-lethal exposure to relatively low level gas supersaturated water; and (4) it appeared that GBT was not a threat to migrating juvenile salmonids. 24 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Sexual Dimorphism in the Andromonoecious Euphorbia nicaeensis: Effects of Gender and Inflorescence Development

    PubMed Central

    Narbona, Eduardo; Ortiz, Pedro Luis; Arista, Montserrat

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims In andromonoecious taxa with separate floral types along the inflorescence, architectural or plastic effects can simulate floral sexual dimorphism. Both the primary and secondary sexual characteristics of the cyathia of the protogynous andromonoecious species Euphorbia nicaeensis were analysed according to their sex and arrangement on the inflorescence. Methods The production of male and hermaphrodite cyathia at each inflorescence level was surveyed in two natural populations. The longevity, size, pollen production and viability, and nectar secretion of both types of cyathia were checked between inflorescence levels and between sexes at the only level at which they occur together. This sampling method makes it possible to know whether differences between cyathia types are based on sex or are attributable to inflorescence development. Key Results Male cyathia were produced predominantly at the first and second inflorescence levels, whereas at levels 3–5, the cyathia were almost exclusively hermaphrodite. Viable pollen production by male cyathia at the second inflorescence level was higher than that of hermaphrodite cyathia at the third level but, when males and hermaphrodites at the same level were compared, their pollen production was similar. Male and hermaphrodite cyathia were similar in size, irrespective of the inflorescence level, although the exclusively hermaphrodite cyathia of the last level were smaller. Both cyathium types produced similar amounts of sugar. However, male cyathia produced nectar during their whole lifespans, whereas hermaphrodites produced it exclusively during their male phase. Moreover, the nectary activity of male cyathia started earlier in the day than that of hermaphrodites. Conclusions An apparent floral dimorphism exists in the primary sexual characteristics of Euphorbia nicaeensis because differences in pollen production between cyathium types are due to theirs positions. Similarly, differences affecting most secondary sexual characteristics are only apparent between the two cyathium types. However, E. nicaeensis shows a true but slight floral dimorphism in some of the secondary sex characters related to nectar secretion. The lack of nectar production by the female phase of the hermaphrodite cyathia of E. nicaeensis indicates that this is a deceit-pollinated species. PMID:18250109

  8. How Effective Is Peer Education in Addressing Young People's Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs in Developing Countries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Neil; Knibbs, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    This review article questions the assumptions at the core of peer education interventions adopted in young people's sexual and reproductive health programmes in developing countries. Peer education is a more complex and problematic approach than its popularity with development agencies and practitioners implies. Its rise to prominence is more…

  9. Resilience in community: a social ecological development model for young adult sexual minority women.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Lindsey; Darnell, Doyanne A; Rhew, Isaac C; Lee, Christine M; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-03-01

    Family support and rejection are associated with health outcomes among sexual minority women (SMW). We examined a social ecological development model among young adult SMW, testing whether identity risk factors or outness to family interacted with family rejection to predict community connectedness and collective self-esteem. Lesbian and bisexual women (N = 843; 57% bisexual) between the ages of 18-25 (M = 21.4; SD = 2.1) completed baseline and 12-month online surveys. The sample identified as White (54.2%), multiple racial backgrounds (16.6%), African American (9.6%) and Asian/Asian American (3.1%); 10.2% endorsed a Hispanic/Latina ethnicity. Rejection ranged from 18 to 41% across family relationships. Longitudinal regression indicated that when outness to family increased, SMW in highly rejecting families demonstrated resilience by finding connections and esteem in sexual minority communities to a greater extent than did non-rejected peers. But, when stigma concerns, concealment motivation, and other identity risk factors increased over the year, high family rejection did not impact community connectedness and SMW reported lower collective self-esteem. Racial minority SMW reported lower community connectedness, but not lower collective self-esteem. Families likely buffer or exacerbate societal risks for ill health. Findings highlight the protective role of LGBTQ communities and normative resilience among SMW and their families. PMID:25572956

  10. Resilience in Community: A Social Ecological Development Model for Young Adult Sexual Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Lindsey; Darnell, Doyanne A.; Rhew, Isaac C.; Lee, Christine M.; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Family support and rejection are associated with health outcomes among sexual minority women (SMW). We examined a social ecological development model among young adult SMW, testing whether identity risk factors or outness to family interacted with family rejection to predict community connectedness and collective self-esteem. Lesbian and bisexual women (N = 843; 57% bisexual) between the ages of 18–25 (M = 21.4; SD = 2.1) completed baseline and 12-month online surveys. The sample identified as White (54.2%), multiple racial backgrounds (16.6%), African American (9.6%) and Asian/Asian American (3.1%); 10.2% endorsed a Hispanic/Latina ethnicity. Rejection ranged from 18–41% across family relationships. Longitudinal regression indicated that when outness to family increased, SMW in highly rejecting families demonstrated resilience by finding connections and esteem in sexual minority communities to a greater extent than did non-rejected peers. But, when stigma concerns, concealment motivation, and other identity risk factors increased over the year, high family rejection did not impact community connectedness and SMW reported lower collective self-esteem. Racial minority SMW reported lower community connectedness, but not lower collective self-esteem. Families likely buffer or exacerbate societal risks for ill health. Findings highlight the protective role of LGBTQ communities and normative resilience among SMW and their families. PMID:25572956

  11. 'Popping the clutch': novel mechanisms regulating sexual development in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoon-Dong; Williamson, Peter R

    2012-06-01

    Sexual reproduction in fungal pathogens such as Cryptococcus provides natural selection and adaptation of the organisms to environmental conditions by allowing beneficial mutations to spread. However, successful mating in these fungi requires a time-critical induction of signaling pheromones when appropriate partners become available. Recently, it has been shown that the fungus uses the transcriptional equivalent of the racing technique: 'popping the clutch'-pushing in the clutch pedal, putting the car in gear, revving with the gas pedal, and then dropping the clutch pedal to accelerate rapidly. In the same way, Cryptococcus during vegetative growth constitutively matches a high rate of pheromone synthesis with a high rate of degradation to produce repressed levels of transcript. Then, when mating is required, the fungus drops the degradative machinery, resulting in a rapid induction of the pheromone. Pairing with this novel regulatory cycle is a host of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades, cyclic AMP-dependent, and calcium-calcineurin signaling pathways that maintain these high rates of pheromone synthesis and prime downstream pathways for an effective mating response. The intersection of a number of virulence-associated traits with sexual development such as the synthesis of an immune-disruptive laccase as well as a protective polysaccharide capsule makes these rapid regulatory strategies a formidable foe in the battle against human disease. PMID:21912854

  12. Seasonal Juvenile Salmonid Presence and Migratory Behavior in the Lower Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Jessica A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Welch, Ian D.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.

    2009-04-30

    To facilitate preparing Biological Assessments of proposed channel maintenance projects, the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers contracted the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to consolidate and synthesize available information about the use of the lower Columbia River and estuary by juvenile anadromous salmonids. The information to be synthesized included existing published documents as well as data from five years (2004-2008) of acoustic telemetry studies conducted in the Columbia River estuary using the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System. For this synthesis, the Columbia River estuary includes the section of the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam at river kilometer (Rkm) 235 downstream to the mouth where it enters the Pacific Ocean. In this report, we summarize the seasonal salmonid presence and migration patterns in the Columbia River estuary based on information from published studies as well as relevant data from acoustic telemetry studies conducted by NOAA Fisheries and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) between 2004 and 2008. Recent acoustic telemetry studies, conducted using the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS; developed by the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers), provided information on the migratory behavior of juvenile steelhead (O. mykiss) and Chinook salmon in the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam to the Pacific Ocean. In this report, Section 2 provides a summary of information from published literature on the seasonal presence and migratory behavior of juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River estuary and plume. Section 3 presents a detailed synthesis of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead migratory behavior based on use of the JSATS between 2004 and 2008. Section 4 provides a discussion of the information summarized in the report as well as information drawn from literature reviews on potential effects of channel maintenance activities to juvenile salmonids rearing in or migrating through the Columbia River estuary and plume.

  13. Fine sediment impacts on Salmonid spawning success: Relative effects of pore blockage and oxygen demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattison, I.; Sear, D.; Collins, A.; Jones, I.; Naden, P.

    2013-12-01

    Salmonids act as geomorphic agents constructing a spawning habitat (redd) with fine sediment being washed out of the bed, increasing porosity around the incubating eggs. However, during the incubation period fine sediment infiltrates back into the river bed and degrades the habitat quality. Fine sediment has been found to reduce survival rates of salmonid eggs in both field and laboratory experiments, with the main hypotheses used to explain this being (a) fine sediment reduces gravel permeability and intra-gravel flow velocities; (b) intra-gravel O2 concentrations decrease due to reduced supply and increased consumption by organic sediments; and (c) clay particles block the exchange of O2 across the egg membrane. The SIDO (Sediment Intrusion and Dissolved Oxygen)-UK model is a physically based numerical model which stimulates the effect of fine sediment intrusion on the abiotic characteristics of the salmonid redd, along with the consequences for egg development and survival. This has been used to assess the sensitivity of salmonid egg survival to changes in the quantity and composition of fine sediment, including particle size and sediment oxygen demand. Results indicate that egg survival is highly sensitive to the discharge and the suspended sediment concentrations, particularly to changes in the supply rate of sand particles, rather than silt and clay. This can be explained by the increased likelihood of blocking of intra-gravel pores by larger sand particles, which reduce intra-gravel flow velocities and the supply of oxygen rich water. Furthermore, this effect of sediment mass has been found to be more important than the sediment oxygen consumption process. These findings have implications for how we manage the sediment delivery problem, especially as future projections indicate increased sediment delivery under climate and land management change.

  14. Differential invasion success of salmonids in southern Chile: patterns and hypotheses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arismendi, Ivan; Penaluna, Brooke E.; Dunham, Jason B.; García de Leaniz, Carlos; Soto, Doris; Fleming, Ian A.; Gomez-Uchidam, Daniel; Gajardo, Gonzalo; Vargas, Pamela V.; León-Muñoz, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Biological invasions create complex ecological and societal issues worldwide. Most of the knowledge about invasions comes only from successful invaders, but less is known about which processes determine the differential success of invasions. In this review, we develop a framework to identify the main dimensions driving the success and failure of invaders, including human influences, characteristics of the invader, and biotic interactions. We apply this framework by contrasting hypotheses and available evidence to explain variability in invasion success for 12 salmonids introduced to Chile. The success of Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salmo trutta seems to be influenced by a context-specific combination of their phenotypic plasticity, low ecosystem resistance, and propagule pressure. These well-established invaders may limit the success of subsequently introduced salmonids, with the possible exception of O. tshawytscha, which has a short freshwater residency and limited spatial overlap with trout. Although propagule pressure is high for O. kisutch and S. salar due to their intensive use in aquaculture, their lack of success in Chile may be explained by environmental resistance, including earlier spawning times than in their native ranges, and interactions with previously established and resident Rainbow Trout. Other salmonids have also failed to establish, and they exhibit a suite of ecological traits, environmental resistance, and limited propagule pressure that are variably associated with their lack of success. Collectively, understanding how the various drivers of invasion success interact may explain the differential success of invaders and provide key guidance for managing both positive and negative outcomes associated with their presence.

  15. Human Sexuality: Responsible Life Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryder, Verdene; Smith, Peggy B.

    This book provides a complete course in human sexuality. It can also be used to supplement a family living course. Text content provides current information for teaching high school students about sexuality issues. The text offers basic information on growth and development, sexual development, pregnancy, and birth. It explains the sexual decision…

  16. [Legal developments--from taboo to sexual self-determination for handicapped patients?].

    PubMed

    Degener, Theresia

    2002-10-01

    The author describes the development in German law regarding the protection of sexual self-determination of disabled persons. Her analysis encompasses the last twenty years, starting from the "cripple-tribunal 1981", where disabled women first raised the subject in German public. As the main legal reforms for disabled persons in Germany, the author analysis the Thirty-First-Criminal-Law-Change-Act and the Sixth-Act-To-Reform-Criminal-Law of 1997/98 as well as the Ninth-Social-Law-Code of 2001. The author welcomes these legislative reforms but points to the fact that the judiciary has yet failed to implement particularly the criminal law reform. In addition she shows that the new criminal law does not fill all former protection gaps. She demands further reforms in other areas of law. Finally she emphasizes that comprehensive information and education for all those who are concerned by the subject are necessary. PMID:12425229

  17. Partial urorectal septum malformation sequence in a kitten with disorder of sexual development.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Brice S; Pain, Amélie; Meynaud-Collard, Patricia; Nowacka-Woszuk, Joanna; Szczerbal, Izabela; Switonski, Marek; Chastant-Maillard, Sylvie

    2014-12-01

    A 2-month-old kitten exhibited simultaneously an imperforate anus, hypospadias, rectourethral fistula and genital dysgenesis (penis restricted to the glans, absence of prepuce and bifid scrotum). Surgical correction consisted of separation of the urinary and digestive tracts, perineal urethrostomy and connection of the rectum to the newly made anal opening. Pathological examination of the testes, conventionally removed at 9 months of age, showed no mature spermatozoa and underdevelopment of germ and Leydig cells. In humans, the absence of an anal opening in association with abnormal sexual development defines the urorectal septum malformation sequence. Here, we describe the first case of this syndrome in a kitten with a normal male karyotype (38,XY) and a normal coding sequence for the SRY gene. Both the rectourethral fistula and observed genital abnormalities might have been induced by a disturbance in the hedgehog signalling pathway. However, although four polymorphic sites were identified by DHH gene sequencing, none cosegregated with the malformation. PMID:24718294

  18. Sexual development and reproductive demography of the green humphead parrotfish ( Bolbometopon muricatum) in the Solomon Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, R. J.; Adams, S.; Choat, J. H.

    2008-03-01

    An investigation of the reproductive biology of the green humphead parrotfish ( Bolbometopon muricatum) from three areas in the Western Province of the Solomon Islands revealed that B. muricatum exhibits several features that differ from the pattern of reproductive development observed in most parrotfishes. Unlike most parrotfishes, histological evidence suggests that the sexual pattern of B. muricatum is essentially gonochoristic with high incidences of anatomical but non-functional hermaphroditism. B. muricatum also differs from other parrotfishes in that all males pass through an immature female (or bisexual) phase as demonstrated by all adult testis retaining the ex-ovarian lumen and peripheral sperm sinuses in the gonad wall. However, a protogynous diandric reproductive strategy cannot be excluded given that sampling may have missed transitional individuals. Marked variation in the demography of male B. muricatum between the three locations examined is considered to reflect variation in historical fishing effort.

  19. The evolutionary ecology of alternative migratory tactics in salmonid fishes.

    PubMed

    Dodson, Julian J; Aubin-Horth, Nadia; Thériault, Véronique; Páez, David J

    2013-08-01

    Extensive individual variation in spatial behaviour is a common feature among species that exhibit migratory life cycles. Nowhere is this more evident than in salmonid fishes; individual fish may complete their entire life cycle in freshwater streams, others may migrate variable distances at sea and yet others limit their migrations to larger rivers or lakes before returning to freshwater streams to spawn. This review presents evidence that individual variation in migratory behaviour and physiology in salmonid fishes is controlled by developmental thresholds and that part of the variation in proximal traits activating the development of alternative migratory tactics is genetically based. We summarize evidence that alternative migratory tactics co-exist within populations and that all individuals may potentially adopt any of the alternative phenotypes. Even though intra-specific genetic divergence of migratory tactics is uncommon, it may occur if female competition for oviposition sites results in spawning segregation of alternative phenotypes. Because of their polygenic nature, alternative migratory tactics are considered as threshold traits. Threshold traits have two characteristics: an underlying 'liability' trait that varies in a continuous fashion, and a threshold value which is responsible for the discreetness observed in phenotypic distribution. We review evidence demonstrating that body size is an adequate proxy for the liability trait controlling the decision to migrate, but that the same phenotypic outcome (anadromy or residency) may be reached by different developmental pathways. The evidence suggesting a significant heritable component in the development of alternative migratory tactics is subsequently reviewed, leading us to conclude that alternative migratory tactics have considerable potential to respond to selection and evolve. We review what is known about the proximal physiological mechanisms mediating the translation of the continuous value of the liability trait into a discontinuous migratory tactic. We conclude by identifying several avenues for future research, including testing the frequency-dependent selection hypothesis, establishing the relative importance of adaptive phenotypic plasticity in explaining some geographic gradients in migratory behaviour and identifying the physiological and genetic basis of the switching mechanisms responsible for alternative migratory tactics. PMID:23347290

  20. Protein Composition of Infectious Spores Reveals Novel Sexual Development and Germination Factors in Cryptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Mingwei; Hebert, Alexander S.; Coon, Joshua J.; Hull, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    Spores are an essential cell type required for long-term survival across diverse organisms in the tree of life and are a hallmark of fungal reproduction, persistence, and dispersal. Among human fungal pathogens, spores are presumed infectious particles, but relatively little is known about this robust cell type. Here we used the meningitis-causing fungus Cryptococcus neoformans to determine the roles of spore-resident proteins in spore biology. Using highly sensitive nanoscale liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, we compared the proteomes of spores and vegetative cells (yeast) and identified eighteen proteins specifically enriched in spores. The genes encoding these proteins were deleted, and the resulting strains were evaluated for discernable phenotypes. We hypothesized that spore-enriched proteins would be preferentially involved in spore-specific processes such as dormancy, stress resistance, and germination. Surprisingly, however, the majority of the mutants harbored defects in sexual development, the process by which spores are formed. One mutant in the cohort was defective in the spore-specific process of germination, showing a delay specifically in the initiation of vegetative growth. Thus, by using this in-depth proteomics approach as a screening tool for cell type-specific proteins and combining it with molecular genetics, we successfully identified the first germination factor in C. neoformans. We also identified numerous proteins with previously unknown functions in both sexual development and spore composition. Our findings provide the first insights into the basic protein components of infectious spores and reveal unexpected molecular connections between infectious particle production and spore composition in a pathogenic eukaryote. PMID:26313153

  1. Safe-sex belief and sexual risk behaviours among adolescents from three developing countries: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Alfonso; Lopez-del Burgo, Cristina; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Carlos, Silvia; de Irala, Jokin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study intends to evaluate whether the belief that condoms are 100% effective in protecting against HIV infection is associated with sexual risk behaviours among youth. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in representative samples of high-school students in the Philippines, El Salvador and Peru. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. Students were asked about the risk of HIV transmission if one has sex using condoms. They were also asked to indicate whether they had ever had sexual relations and whether they used a condom in their first sexual relation. The sample was composed of 8994 students, aged 13–18. Results One out of seven adolescents believed condoms are 100% effective (safe-sex believers). Those adolescents were 82% more likely to have had sex than those without such belief, after adjusting for confounders (OR=1.82; 95% CI 1.51 to 2.21). On the contrary, no association was found between risk perception and condom use. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses produced similar results. Conclusions This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first study conducted specifically to evaluate this phenomenon and that has used the same questionnaire and the same data collection protocol in three different developing countries from Asia, Central and South America. These results reasonably suggest that there could be an association between safe sex beliefs and sexual initiation. Longitudinal studies are needed to better understand this possible association as it could influence how to better promote sexual health. PMID:25916489

  2. Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Yakima River Tributaries, 2001-2002 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Johnson, Christopher L.

    2003-04-01

    The benefits that marine derived nutrients from adult salmon carcasses provide to juvenile salmonids are increasingly being recognized. Current estimates suggest that only 6-7% of marine-derived nitrogen and phosphorus that were historically available to salmonids in the Pacific Northwest are currently available. Food limitation may be a major constraint limiting the restoration of salmonids. A variety of methods have been proposed to offset this nutrient deficit including: allowing greater salmon spawning escapement, stocking hatchery salmon carcasses, and stocking inorganic nutrients. Unfortunately, each of these methods has some ecological or socio-economic shortcoming. We intend to overcome many of these shortcomings by making and evaluating a pathogen free product that simulates a salmon carcass (analog). Abundant sources of marine derived nutrients are available such as fish offal from commercial fishing and salmon carcasses from hatcheries. However, a method for recycling these nutrients into a pathogen free analog that degrades at a similar rate as a natural salmon carcass has never been developed. We endeavored to (1) develop a salmon carcass analog that will increase the food available to salmonids, (2) determine the pathways that salmonids use to acquire food from analogs, and (3) determine the benefits to salmonids and the potential for application to salmonid restoration. We used a before-after-control-impact-paired design in six tributaries of the upper Yakima basin to determine the utility of stocking carcass analogs. Our preliminary results suggest that the introduction of carcass analogs into food-limited streams can be used to restore food pathways previously provided by anadromous salmon. The analogs probably reproduced both of the major food pathways that salmon carcasses produce: direct consumption and food chain enhancement. Trout and salmon fed directly on the carcass analogs during the late summer and presumably benefited from the increased invertebrate biomass later in the year. Future reports will analyze whether any benefits are statistically detectable. The risks of using carcass analogs also appear to be low. Pathogens appear to be killed in the manufacturing process of the analogs. In addition, preliminary results suggest that fish exposed to the analogs did not have higher incidences of pathogens. The water quality was also not degraded by the analog additions with the exception of a temporary surface film. Finally, our anecdotal observations, suggested that there was not an increase in the number of predators during the first year of analog distribution. In summary, the risks of analog placement appear to be low but the benefits appear to be high. All results should be considered preliminary until further analyses and field work are conducted.

  3. Relationships of Pubertal Development among Early Adolescents to Sexual and Nonsexual Risk Behaviors and Caregivers' Parenting Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo, Helen P.; Rose, Allison; Bhaskar, Brinda; Walker, Leslie R.

    2012-01-01

    Using a school-based sample of fifth graders (mean age = 10.38, SD = 0.66) and their parents (N = 408) from Washington, D.C., the authors examine associations of pubertal development with early adolescents' sexual and nonsexual risk behaviors and their caregivers' parenting behaviors and of these risk behaviors with parenting behaviors. Results…

  4. Uncommonly Good: Exploring How Mass Media May Be a Positive Influence on Young Women's Sexual Health and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, L. Monique; Day, Kyla M.; Epstein, Marina

    2006-01-01

    This chapter discusses several ways in which the media may serve as a positive force in young women's sexual health and development through the information and models they provide and the opportunities they offer for validation and self-expression. (Contains 1 table.)

  5. "Teacher Talk": The Problems, Perspectives and Possibilities of Developing a Comprehensive Sexual Health Education Curriculum for Australian Muslim Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanjakdar, Fida

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that examines how a group of teachers at a Victorian Islamic College deliberated on how to develop an appropriate sexual health education curriculum for their Muslim students. Teachers found themselves challenged by the current restrictive curriculum structures, policies and practices at their school. They also found…

  6. EFFECTS OF PRENATAL TESTOSTERONE PROPIONATE ON THE SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT OF MALE AND FEMALE RATS: A DOSE-RESPONSE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Prenatal Testosterone Propionate on the Sexual Development of Male and Female Rats: A Dose-Response Study
    Cynthia J. Wolf1,2, Andrew Hotchkiss3, Joseph S. Ostby1, Gerald A. LeBlanc2 and
    L. Earl Gray1,4, Jr.

    ABSTRACT
    Testosterone plays a major role in ...

  7. Building a scientific framework for studying hormonal effects on behavior and on the development of the sexually dimorphic nervous system

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been increasing concern that low-dose exposure to hormonally active chemicals disrupts sexual differentiation of the brain and peripheral nervous system. There also has been active drug development research on the therapeutic potential of hormone therapy on behaviors. T...

  8. A conserved haplotype controls parallel adaptation in geographically distant salmonid populations

    E-print Network

    Doe, Chris

    A conserved haplotype controls parallel adaptation in geographically distant salmonid populations extensive local adaptations owing to abundant environmental variation and precise natal homing. This extensive local adaptation makes conservation and restoration of salmonids a challenge. For example

  9. Density, aggregation, and body size of northern pikeminnow preying on juvenile salmonids in a large river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, J.H.

    2001-01-01

    Predation by northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis on juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. occurred probably during brief feeding bouts since diets were either dominated by salmonids (>80% by weight), or contained other prey types and few salmonids (<5%). In samples where salmonids had been consumed, large rather than small predators were more likely to have captured salmonids. Transects with higher catch-per-unit of effort of predators also had higher incidences of salmonids in predator guts. Predators in two of three reservoir areas were distributed more contagiously if they had preyed recently on salmonids. Spatial and temporal patchiness of salmonid prey may be generating differences in local density, aggregation, and body size of their predators in this large river.

  10. Sustainable development, demography and sexual and reproductive health: inseparable linkages and their policy implications.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The greatest challenge today is to meet the needs of current and future generations, of a large and growing world population, without imposing catastrophic pressures on the natural environment. Meeting this challenge depends on decisive policy changes in three areas: more inclusive economic growth, greener economic growth, and population policies. This article focuses on efforts to address and harness demographic changes for sustainable development, which are largely outside the purview of the current debate. Efforts to this end must be based on the recognition that demographic changes are the cumulative result of individual choices and opportunities, and that demographic changes are best addressed through policies that enlarge these choices and opportunities, with a focus on ensuring unrestricted and universal access to sexual and reproductive health information and services, empowering women to fully participate in social, economic and political life, and investing in the education of the younger generation beyond the primary level. The article provides a strong argument for why the Programme of Action that was agreed at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) 20 years ago continues to hold important implications and lessons for the formulation of the post-2015 development agenda, which is expected to supersede the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). PMID:24908454

  11. Early Life Emotional, Physical, and Sexual Abuse and the Development of Premenstrual Syndrome: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Whitcomb, Brian W.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Previous studies have suggested that violence victimization is prevalent among women with premenstrual syndrome (PMS). However, it is unclear whether early life abuse contributes directly to PMS or whether associations are explained by the high prevalence of PMS risk factors including smoking and obesity among women reporting childhood abuse. Methods: We have assessed the relation of early life abuse and the incidence of moderate-to-severe PMS in a study nested within the prospective Nurses' Health Study 2. Participants were aged 27–44 years and free from PMS at baseline, including 1,018 cases developing PMS over 14 years and 2,277 comparison women experiencing minimal menstrual symptoms. History of early life emotional, physical, and sexual abuse was self-reported in 2001. Results: After adjustment for obesity, smoking, and other factors, emotional abuse was strongly related to PMS (pTrend<0.0001); women reporting the highest level of emotional abuse had 2.6 times the risk of PMS as those reporting no emotional abuse (95% confidence interval, 1.7–3.9). Women reporting severe childhood physical abuse had an odds ratio of 2.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.5–2.9; pTrend<0.001) compared with those reporting no physical abuse. Sexual abuse was less strongly associated with risk. Adjustment for childhood social support minimally affected findings. Conclusions: Findings from this large prospective study suggest that early life emotional and physical abuse increase the risk of PMS in the middle-to-late reproductive years. The persistence of associations after control for potential confounders and mediators supports the hypothesis that early life abuse is importantly related to PMS. PMID:25098348

  12. Future directions for positive youth development as a strategy to promote adolescent sexual and reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Richard F; Gavin, Lorrie E; Markham, Christine M

    2010-03-01

    PYD has tremendous potential to promote not only ASRH but adolescent health more broadly. This review has identified 15 tested, effective models that have demonstrated impact on ASRH; most also affected other youth outcomes, and several produced long-lasting, sustainable effects. These model programs should be prepared for broader dissemination, replication, and effectiveness trials. Broader dissemination will entail investments in developing training, technical assistance, and monitoring models that will aid in ensuring and sustaining implementation with fidelity and tracking program adaptations in broad settings. Evaluations of existing national youth-serving organizations and existing PYD programs that are unevaluated should be encouraged if they are evaluable, address the most strongly supported PYD constructs, have a clearly developed logic model that connects program elements to youth development constructs and outcomes, and program manuals are developed. Support is also provided here for the impact of youth development constructs on later ASRH outcomes, suggesting that new PYD programs, especially those targeting PYD constructs with longitudinal evidence of promotive or protective effects, should be developed and evaluated to identify long-term results. There is much work to be done on examining the ability of PYD constructs to impact ASRH. While there is sufficient evidence for a number of PYD constructs, more longitudinal research is needed. We have argued here that investigation of existing longitudinal datasets may efficiently increase our understanding of the evidence for the promotive and protective effects of understudied constructs or those with mixed evidence. Further, there is a need for the development of standardized measures of PYD constructs and the development and use of measures of positive sexual and reproductive health outcomes. We also recommend that future studies compare the relative strength of the PYD constructs and devote more resources to understanding how these constructs work together to promote ASRH. PMID:20172463

  13. Development of an Attachment-Informed Measure of Sexual Behavior in Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szielasko, Alicia L.; Symons, Douglas K.; Price, E. Lisa

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable interest in relations between sexual behavior and romantic attachment styles in adolescence as attachment needs are increasingly met through intimate partners rather than parents. The objectives of this research were to organize a measure of sexual behavior within an attachment theory framework, and then show that this new…

  14. Toward a Sexual Ethics Curriculum: Bringing Philosophy and Society to Bear on Individual Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    For over a decade, battles have raged between conservative Abstinence Only Until Marriage (AOUM) sexuality education advocates and liberal Comprehensive Sexuality Education (CSE) advocates. While these battles have focused on the inclusion of health information about contraception and whether or not a curriculum must advocate abstinence as the…

  15. Development of a Clinical Instrument to Record Sexual Aggression in an Inpatient Psychiatric Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Nicole Tuomi; Sheitman, Brian; Hazelrigg, Mark; Carmel, Harold; Williams, Jim; Paesler, Betty

    2007-01-01

    While there are a number of instruments that assess historical factors related to sexual aggression for the purposes of risk assessment, there is a notable absence of measures that assess change in ongoing, sexually aggressive behaviours engaged in by people who reside in psychiatric hospitals. The purpose of this report is to describe the…

  16. Twenty years after International Conference on Population and Development: where are we with adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights?

    PubMed

    Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Svanemyr, Joar; Amin, Avni; Fogstad, Helga; Say, Lale; Girard, Françoise; Temmerman, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    The International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994 laid out a bold, clear, and comprehensive definition of reproductive health and called for nations to meet the educational and service needs of adolescents to enable them to deal in a positive and responsible way with their sexuality. In the context of the ongoing review of the International Conference on Population and Development Programme of Action and the considerations for a post-2015 development agenda, this article summarizes the findings of the articles presented in this volume and identifies key challenges and critical answers that need to be tackled in addressing adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights. The key recommendations are to link the provision of sexuality education and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services; build awareness, acceptance, and support for youth-friendly SRH education and services; address gender inequality in terms of beliefs, attitudes, and norms; and target the early adolescent period (10-14 years). The many knowledge gaps, however, point to the pressing need for further research on how to best design effective adolescent SRH intervention packages and how best to deliver them. PMID:25528975

  17. In utero exposure to chloroquine alters sexual development in the male fetal rat

    SciTech Connect

    Clewell, Rebecca A. Pluta, Linda; Thomas, Russell S.; Andersen, Melvin E.

    2009-06-15

    Chloroquine (CQ), a drug that has been used extensively for the prevention and treatment of malaria, is currently considered safe for use during pregnancy. However, CQ has been shown to disrupt steroid homeostasis in adult rats and similar compounds, such as quinacrine, inhibit steroid production in the Leydig cell in vitro. To explore the effect of in utero CQ exposure on fetal male sexual development, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given a daily dose of either water or chloroquine diphosphate from GD 16-18 by oral gavage. Chloroquine was administered as 200 mg/kg CQ base on GD 16, followed by two maintenance doses of 100 mg/kg CQ base on GD 16 and 18. Three days of CQ treatment resulted in reduced maternal and fetal weight on GD 19 and increased necrosis and steatosis in the maternal liver. Fetal livers also displayed mild lipid accumulation. Maternal serum progesterone was increased after CQ administration. Fetal testes testosterone, however, was significantly decreased. Examination of the fetal testes revealed significant alterations in vascularization and seminiferous tubule development after short-term CQ treatment. Anogenital distance was not altered. Microarray and RT-PCR showed down-regulation of several genes associated with cholesterol transport and steroid synthesis in the fetal testes. This study indicates that CQ inhibits testosterone synthesis and normal testis development in the rat fetus at human relevant doses.

  18. Drug resistance in sea lice: a threat to salmonid aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Aaen, Stian Mørch; Helgesen, Kari Olli; Bakke, Marit Jørgensen; Kaur, Kiranpreet; Horsberg, Tor Einar

    2015-02-01

    Sea lice are copepod ectoparasites with vast reproductive potential and affect a wide variety of fish species. The number of parasites causing morbidity is proportional to fish size. Natural low host density restricts massive parasite dispersal. However, expanded salmon farming has shifted the conditions in favor of the parasite. Salmon farms are often situated near wild salmonid migrating routes, with smolts being particularly vulnerable to sea lice infestation. In order to protect both farmed and wild salmonids passing or residing in the proximity of the farms, several measures are taken. Medicinal treatment of farmed fish has been the most predictable and efficacious, leading to extensive use of the available compounds. This has resulted in drug-resistant parasites occurring on farmed and possibly wild salmonids. PMID:25639521

  19. Individual and combined roles of malonichrome, ferricrocin, and TAFC siderophores in Fusarium graminearum pathogenic and sexual development

    PubMed Central

    Oide, Shinichi; Berthiller, Franz; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Adam, Gerhard; Turgeon, B. Gillian

    2015-01-01

    Intra- and extracellular iron-chelating siderophores produced by fungal non-ribosomal peptide synthetases have been shown to be involved in reproductive and pathogenic developmental processes and in iron and oxidative stress management. Here we report individual and combined contributions of three of these metabolites to developmental success of the destructive cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. In previous work, we determined that deletion of the NPS2 gene, responsible for intracellular siderophore biosynthesis, results in inability to produce sexual spores when mutants of this homothallic ascomycete are selfed. Deletion of the NPS6 gene, required for extracellular siderophore biosynthesis, does not affect sexual reproduction but results in sensitivity to iron starvation and oxidative stress and leads to reduced virulence to the host. Building on this, we report that double mutants lacking both NPS2 and NPS6 are augmented in all collective phenotypes of single deletion strains (i.e., abnormal sexual and pathogenic development, hypersensitivity to oxidative and iron-depletion stress), which suggests overlap of function. Using comparative biochemical analysis of wild-type and mutant strains, we show that NPS1, a third gene associated with siderophore biosynthesis, is responsible for biosynthesis of a second extracellular siderophore, malonichrome. nps1 mutants fail to produce this metabolite. Phenotypic characterization reveals that, although single nps1 mutants are like wild-type with respect to sexual development, hypersensitivity to ROS and iron-depletion stress, and virulence to the host, triple nps1nps2nps6 deletion strains, lacking all three siderophores, are even more impaired in these attributes than double nps2nps6 strains. Thus, combinatorial mutants lacking key iron-associated genes uncovered malonichrome function. The intimate connection between presence/absence of siderophores and resistance/sensitivity to ROS is central to sexual and pathogenic development. PMID:25628608

  20. Concepts and Updates in the Evaluation and Diagnosis of Common Disorders of Sexual Development.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Amar Y; Austin, Paul F

    2015-12-01

    Our understanding of disorders of sexual differentiation (DSD) has evolved from aberrations of human genital development to a broad group of complex disorders of etiological and functional significance. The unique challenge of DSD conditions is that they create a cause for significant angst and concern for both parents and physician, as they frequently lead to questions with regards to gender assignment, surgically corrective options, long-term outlook regarding gender identity, and reproductive potential. To further add to the burden, many patients who present with genital abnormalities do not have a clear explanation as to the underlying basis of their disorder. This review looks at DSD from a pediatric urology point of view with emphasis on evaluation, diagnosis, and algorithm for work-up. We also discuss novel genetic analysis techniques and their value in diagnosis. Overall, this is an all-encompassing review on a diagnostic approach to DSD, with inclusion of recent developments and controversies, which will benefit urologists and other physicians alike. PMID:26547422

  1. F-actin distribution and function during sexual development in Eimeria maxima.

    PubMed

    Frölich, Sonja; Wallach, Michael

    2015-06-01

    To determine the involvement of the actin cytoskeleton in macrogametocyte growth and oocyst wall formation, freshly purified macrogametocytes and oocysts were stained with Oregon Green 514 conjugated phalloidin to visualize F-actin microfilaments, while Evans blue staining was used to detect type 1 wall forming bodies (WFB1s) and the outer oocyst wall. The double-labelled parasites were then analysed at various stages of sexual development using three-dimensional confocal microscopy. The results showed F-actin filaments were distributed throughout the entire cytoplasm of mature Eimeria maxima macrogametocytes forming a web-like meshwork of actin filaments linking the type 1 WFBs together into structures resembling 'beads on a string'. At the early stages of oocyst wall formation, F-actin localization changed in alignment with the egg-shaped morphology of the forming oocysts with F-actin microfilaments making direct contact with the WFB1s. In tissue oocysts, the labelled actin cytoskeleton was situated underneath the forming outer layer of the oocyst wall. Treatment of macrogametocytes in vitro with the actin depolymerizing agents, Cytochalasin D and Latrunculin, led to a reduction in the numbers of mature WFB1s in the cytoplasm of the developing macrogametocytes, indicating that the actin plays an important role in WFB1 transport and oocyst wall formation in E. maxima. PMID:25800683

  2. Sustaining salmonid populations: A caring understanding of naturalness of taxa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, J.L.; Regier, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    Species of the family of Salmonidae occur naturally in Northern Hemisphere waters that remain clear and cool to cold in summer. For purposes of reproduction, salmonids generally behaviorally respond to the currents of streams and lakes in recently glaciated areas. For feeding and maturation, many larger species migrate into existing systems of large lakes, seas, and oceans. The subfamilies include Salmoninae, Coregoninae, and Thymallinae. In many locales and regions of the hemisphere, numerous species of these subfamilies evolved and self-organized into species flocks or taxocenes of bewildering complexity. For example, any individual species may play different or unique ecological roles in different taxocenes. The northern Pacific and Atlantic Ocean ecosystems, with their seas and tributaries, each contained a metacomplex of such taxocenes that, in their natural state some centuries ago, resembled each other but differed in many ways. Humans have valued all species of this family for subsistence, ceremonial, naturalist, gustatory, angling, and commercial reasons for centuries. Modern progressive humans (MPHs), whose industrial and commercial enterprises have gradually spread over this hemisphere in recent time, now affect aquatic ecosystems at all scales from local to global. These human effects mingle in complex ways that together induce uniquely natural salmonid taxocenes to disintegrate with the loss of species, including those groups least tolerant to human manipulations, but extending more recently to those taxa more adapted to anthropogenic change. As we leave the modern era, dominated by MPHs, will we find ways to live sustainably with salmonid taxocenes that still exhibit self-organizational integrity, or will only individual, isolated populations of salmonid species, derived from those most tolerant of MPHs, survive? To achieve future sustainability of salmonids, we suggest implementation of a search for intuitive knowledge based on faith in the wisdom of nature and a caring-sharing, behavioral structure based on "survival of the wisest" for both humans and salmonids. ?? 2004 by the American Fisheries Society.

  3. Characteristics of current international trade of live salmonid eggs.

    PubMed

    Jansen, M; McLeary, R

    1996-06-01

    World trade in live salmonid embryos (eyed eggs) has grown in response to increased global salmon production, particularly in South America, and parallels international trade in farmed salmonid products. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) are the most commercially important species. In 1992, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimated world production of rainbow trout at 300,000 tonnes, while the production of Atlantic salmon was estimated at 250,000 tonnes and coho salmon at 50,000 tonnes. One can estimate that roughly 3 billion, 150 million and 30 million eggs, respectively, were required to produce this yield. Broodstock are cultivated world-wide, using a wide variety of water sources, including the marine environment, riverine water containing anadromous fish, and ground water free of migrating fish. As many as 70% of all coho eggs are derived from feral fish. Approximately 50% of all commercial salmonid eyed eggs are produced in Europe, and approximately 15% are produced in the state of Washington, United States of America. Conditions which are ideal for commercial salmonid grow-out are not necessarily ideal for the cultivation of salmonid broodstock; this is one reason why international egg trade is necessary. The trend of current salmonid health regulations is towards facilitating egg commerce on a regional level, in an attempt to control disease transmission. Regulations controlling egg importation often include pathogens which are not vertically transmitted. This serves only to increase egg prices, in compensation for the cost of laboratory tests. Genetic improvements have been the cornerstone of increasing commercial production of all agricultural commodities. Fish health regulations are sometimes instituted in an effort to protect the local industry, but in fact they act more often to restrict the flow of genetic material and may actually serve to reduce industry productivity and profitability. PMID:8890373

  4. Peculiarities of sexual development and reproductive function in young women with childhood onset weight problems.

    PubMed

    Chikvaidze, N; Kristesashvili, J; Gegechkori, M

    2014-10-01

    The risks of reproductive problems are higher in underweight and overweight or obese women, especially in case of rapid weight gain or loss. But evidence is inconsistent especially in relation to the effect of age of body weight changes. The aim of the study was detection of peculiarities of sexual development and reproductive function in underweight and overweight/obese females with childhood thinness or childhood obesity. 103 young females (48 - with low BMI, 55 - with high BMI) with different reproductive problems were examined prospectively. In all investigated patients full clinical examination was held, including body mass index (BMI), type of body fat distribution (waist-to-hip ratio), age of body weight changes, assessment of hirsutism, acne, stretch marks and hyperpigmentation, menstrual disturbances and fertility problems were recorded and gynecological ultrasound was performed. There was no difference established according to the age of menarche and types of menstrual disturbances between the groups of low BMI and high BMI females (p>.05). The correlation was established between the onset of menstrual disruption and progression of changes in body mass (R=.448, p=.005). Hirsutism, stretch marks and acantosis nigricans (hyperpigmentation) were exhibited significantly more frequently in the patients with high BMI (p<.05), whilst distribution of acne was almost the same in the study groups (p>.05). 74.5% of overweight and obese patients had upper body fat distribution (waist-to-hip ratio > 0.8), whilst underweight patients had mostly equal (66.7%) or lower body fat distribution (31.3%) (p=.000). Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and metabolic syndrome (MS) was the most frequent in overweight and obese patients, whilst non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) and ovarian dysfunction prevailed in the underweight females (p<.05). Infertility was mostly observed in patients with high BMI (p<.05). In conclusion, the peculiarities of sexual development and menstrual function in young females with childhood thinness and obesity are related to their reproductive disorders, childhood BMI and progression of BMI changes. PMID:25416210

  5. A salmonid EST genomic study: genes, duplications, phylogeny and microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Koop, Ben F; von Schalburg, Kristian R; Leong, Jong; Walker, Neil; Lieph, Ryan; Cooper, Glenn A; Robb, Adrienne; Beetz-Sargent, Marianne; Holt, Robert A; Moore, Richard; Brahmbhatt, Sonal; Rosner, Jamie; Rexroad, Caird E; McGowan, Colin R; Davidson, William S

    2008-01-01

    Background Salmonids are of interest because of their relatively recent genome duplication, and their extensive use in wild fisheries and aquaculture. A comprehensive gene list and a comparison of genes in some of the different species provide valuable genomic information for one of the most widely studied groups of fish. Results 298,304 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from Atlantic salmon (69% of the total), 11,664 chinook, 10,813 sockeye, 10,051 brook trout, 10,975 grayling, 8,630 lake whitefish, and 3,624 northern pike ESTs were obtained in this study and have been deposited into the public databases. Contigs were built and putative full-length Atlantic salmon clones have been identified. A database containing ESTs, assemblies, consensus sequences, open reading frames, gene predictions and putative annotation is available. The overall similarity between Atlantic salmon ESTs and those of rainbow trout, chinook, sockeye, brook trout, grayling, lake whitefish, northern pike and rainbow smelt is 93.4, 94.2, 94.6, 94.4, 92.5, 91.7, 89.6, and 86.2% respectively. An analysis of 78 transcript sets show Salmo as a sister group to Oncorhynchus and Salvelinus within Salmoninae, and Thymallinae as a sister group to Salmoninae and Coregoninae within Salmonidae. Extensive gene duplication is consistent with a genome duplication in the common ancestor of salmonids. Using all of the available EST data, a new expanded salmonid cDNA microarray of 32,000 features was created. Cross-species hybridizations to this cDNA microarray indicate that this resource will be useful for studies of all 68 salmonid species. Conclusion An extensive collection and analysis of salmonid RNA putative transcripts indicate that Pacific salmon, Atlantic salmon and charr are 94–96% similar while the more distant whitefish, grayling, pike and smelt are 93, 92, 89 and 86% similar to salmon. The salmonid transcriptome reveals a complex history of gene duplication that is consistent with an ancestral salmonid genome duplication hypothesis. Genome resources, including a new 32 K microarray, provide valuable new tools to study salmonids. PMID:19014685

  6. THE ROLE OF ANDROGENS AND ESTROGENS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF BRAIN AND PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: APPROACHES TO DEVELOPING ANIMAL MODELS FOR SEXUALLY DIMORPHIC BEHAVIORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides an overview of research on the effects of hormonally active chemicals on sexual differentiation of the brain including (a) research on the role of androgens and estrogens in the development of the brain and peripheral nervous system, (b) approaches to d...

  7. A Meta-Analysis of Risky Sexual Behaviour among Male Youth in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Berhan, Asres

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the association between risky sexual behaviour and level of education and economic status in male youth. Previous tests of the association of risky sexual behaviour with levels of education and economic status have yielded inconsistent results. Using data from 26 countries, from both within and outside Africa, we performed a meta-analysis with a specific focus on male youths' risky sexual behaviour. We applied a random effects analytic model and calculated a pooled odds ratio. Out of 19,148 males aged 15–24 years who reported having sexual intercourse in the 12 months preceding the survey, 75% engaged in higher-risk sex. The proportion of higher-risk sex among male youth aged 15–19 years was nearly 90% in 21 of the 26 countries. The pooled odds ratio showed a statistically significant association of higher-risk sex with male youth younger than 20 years, living in urban centers, well educated, and of a high economic status. The overall proportion of condom use during youths' most recent higher-risk sexual encounter was 40% and 51% among 15–19-year-olds and 20–24-year-olds, respectively. Our findings suggest that male youth's socioeconomic status is directly related to the likelihood that they practice higher-risk sex. The relationship between income and sexual behaviour should be explored further. PMID:25709840

  8. Analysis of Historic Data for Juvenile and Adult Salmonid Production. Phase 1, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hilborn, Ray; Pascual, Miguel; Donnelly, Robert; Coronado-Hernadez, Claribel

    1993-11-01

    Survival of hatchery reared Columbia River chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) salmon from release to return is highly variable and thought to be related to river flow during juvenile outmigration in the spring. The purpose of this project is to examine the relationship between survival of coded-wire-tagged (CWT) Columbia River salmonids and in-river flow and other freshwater factors. This report covers Phase 1, in which two methods to estimate survival were developed and evaluated, and criteria for data selection were established.

  9. Maintaining sexuality in menopause.

    PubMed

    Nappi, Rossella E; Martini, Ellis; Martella, Silvia; Capuano, Francesca; Bosoni, David; Giacomini, Sonia; Beraghi, Matteo; Spinillo, Arsenio

    2014-03-13

    Sexual health in the menopause is a medical challenge because the progressive decline of sexual hormones interacts with the aging process and many psychosocial stressors modulate vulnerability for sexual symptoms (low sexual desire, poor arousal and lubrication, dyspareunia, orgasmic dysfunction and lack of satisfaction). In clinical practice, a coordinated approach is needed to optimally manage the risk for developing female sexual dysfunction (FSD), especially when chronic conditions are present. Biomedical and psychosocial interventions include general education, recognition of signs and symptoms, promotion of health, attention to the partner and individualization of treatment. Counselling to overcome personal and relational difficulties should be always combined with hormonal and non-hormonal strategies to maximize biological signals driving the sexual response. By enhancing women's abilities to cope with sexual changes at midlife, health care providers may significantly optimize healthy aging and partnership. PMID:24879777

  10. Anadromous salmonids, such as Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, use

    E-print Network

    472 Anadromous salmonids, such as Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, use freshwater stream habitats survival. The first year at sea, or the post- smolt year, for Atlantic salmon is poorly understood of the marine juvenile nursery for Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar Kevin D. Friedland UMass/NOAA CMER Program

  11. Evaluation of a Bypass System for Juvenile Salmonids

    E-print Network

    Evaluation of a Bypass System for Juvenile Salmonids at Little Goose Dam JERREL R. HARMON and DONN gate slot and operatlllg gate slot (~ee in~el) at Litllr Goose Dam. INTAKE OPERATING- GATE SLOT Goose Dam on the Snake Ri vel' (Fig. I), the majority of fingerlings entering the turbine intakes

  12. Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River, Estuary, and Plume in 2010

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Skalski, John R.; Deters, Katherine A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Townsend, Richard L.; Titzler, P. Scott; Hughes, Michael S.; Kim, Jin A.; Trott, Donna M.

    2011-09-01

    Uncertainty regarding the migratory behavior and survival of juvenile salmonids passing through the lower Columbia River and estuary after negotiating dams on the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) prompted the development and application of the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS). The JSATS has been used to investigate the survival of juvenile salmonid smolts between Bonneville Dam (river kilometer (rkm) 236) and the mouth of the Columbia River annually since 2004. In 2010, a total of 12,214 juvenile salmonids were implanted with both a passive integrated transponder (PIT) and a JSATS acoustic transmitter. Using detection information from JSATS receiver arrays deployed on dams and in the river, estuary, and plume, the survival probability of yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts tagged at John Day Dam was estimated form multiple reaches between rkm 153 and 8.3 during the spring. During summer, the survival probability of subyearling Chinook salmon was estimated for the same reaches. In addition, the influence of routes of passage (e.g., surface spill, deep spill, turbine, juvenile bypass system) through the lower three dams on the Columbia River (John Day, The Dalles, and Bonneville) on juvenile salmonid smolt survival probability from the dams to rkm 153 and then between rkm 153 and 8.3 was examined to increase understanding of the immediate and latent effects of dam passage on juvenile salmon survival. Similar to previous findings, survival probability was relatively high (>0.95) for most groups of juvenile salmonids from the Bonneville Dam tailrace to about rkm 50. Downstream of rkm 50 the survival probability of all species and run types we examined decreased markedly. Steelhead smolts suffered the highest mortality in this lower portion of the Columbia River estuary, with only an estimated 60% of the tagged fish surviving to the mouth of the river. In contrast, yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon smolts survived to the mouth of the river at higher rates, with estimated survival probabilities of 84% and 86%, respectively. The influence of route of passage at the lower three dams in the FCRPS on juvenile salmonid survival appeared to be relatively direct and immediate. Significant differences in estimated survival probabilities of juvenile salmonid smolts among groups with different dam passage experiences were often detected between the dams and rkm 153. In contrast, the influence of route of passage on survival to the mouth of the Columbia River was not apparent among the groups of tagged juvenile salmonids with different FCRPS passage experiences after they had already survived to a point about 80 km downstream of Bonneville Dam. Yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts that migrated through the lower estuary in off-channel habitats took two to three times longer to travel through these lower reaches and their estimated survival probabilities were not significantly different from that of their cohorts which migrated in or near the navigation channel. A large proportion of the tagged juvenile salmonids migrating in or near the navigation channel in the lower estuary crossed from the south side of the estuary near Astoria, Oregon and passed through relatively shallow expansive sand flats (Taylor Sands) to the North Channel along the Washington shore of the estuary. This migratory behavior may contribute to the avian predation losses observed on for fish (2 to 12% of fish in this study).

  13. Sexual Assault

    MedlinePLUS

    Sexual assault is any sexual activity to which you haven't freely given your consent. This includes completed ... trust, a friend, an acquaintance, or a stranger. Sexual assault can affect your health in many ways. It ...

  14. Pathways from parental AIDS to child psychological, educational and sexual risk: developing an empirically-based interactive theoretical model.

    PubMed

    Cluver, Lucie; Orkin, Mark; Boyes, Mark E; Sherr, Lorraine; Makasi, Daphne; Nikelo, Joy

    2013-06-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates negative psychological, health, and developmental outcomes for children associated with parental HIV/AIDS illness and death. However, little is known about how parental AIDS leads to negative child outcomes. This study used a structural equation modelling approach to develop an empirically-based theoretical model of interactive relationships between parental or primary caregiver AIDS-illness, AIDS-orphanhood and predicted intervening factors associated with children's psychological distress, educational access and sexual health. Cross-sectional data were collected in 2009-2011, from 6002 children aged 10-17 years in three provinces of South Africa using stratified random sampling. Comparison groups included children orphaned by AIDS, orphaned by other causes and non-orphans, and children whose parents or primary caregivers were unwell with AIDS, unwell with other causes or healthy. Participants reported on psychological symptoms, educational access, and sexual health risks, as well as hypothesized sociodemographic and intervening factors. In order to build an interactive theoretical model of multiple child outcomes, multivariate regression and structural equation models were developed for each individual outcome, and then combined into an overall model. Neither AIDS-orphanhood nor parental AIDS-illness were directly associated with psychological distress, educational access, or sexual health. Instead, significant indirect effects of AIDS-orphanhood and parental AIDS-illness were obtained on all measured outcomes. Child psychological, educational and sexual health risks share a common set of intervening variables including parental disability, poverty, community violence, stigma, and child abuse that together comprise chain effects. In all models, parental AIDS-illness had stronger effects and more risk pathways than AIDS-orphanhood, especially via poverty and parental disability. AIDS-orphanhood and parental AIDS-illness impact child outcomes through multiple, interlinked pathways. The interactive model developed in this study suggests key areas of focus for interventions with AIDS-affected children. PMID:23631794

  15. Expression and sequence evolution of aromatase cyp19a1 and other sexual development genes in East African cichlid fishes.

    PubMed

    Böhne, Astrid; Heule, Corina; Boileau, Nicolas; Salzburger, Walter

    2013-10-01

    Sex determination mechanisms are highly variable across teleost fishes and sexual development is often plastic. Nevertheless, downstream factors establishing the two sexes are presumably conserved. Here, we study sequence evolution and gene expression of core genes of sexual development in a prime model system in evolutionary biology, the East African cichlid fishes. Using the available five cichlid genomes, we test for signs of positive selection in 28 genes including duplicates from the teleost whole-genome duplication, and examine the expression of these candidate genes in three cichlid species. We then focus on a particularly striking case, the A- and B-copies of the aromatase cyp19a1, and detect different evolutionary trajectories: cyp19a1A evolved under strong positive selection, whereas cyp19a1B remained conserved at the protein level, yet is subject to regulatory changes at its transcription start sites. Importantly, we find shifts in gene expression in both copies. Cyp19a1 is considered the most conserved ovary-factor in vertebrates, and in all teleosts investigated so far, cyp19a1A and cyp19a1B are expressed in ovaries and the brain, respectively. This is not the case in cichlids, where we find new expression patterns in two derived lineages: the A-copy gained a novel testis-function in the Ectodine lineage, whereas the B-copy is overexpressed in the testis of the speciest-richest cichlid group, the Haplochromini. This suggests that even key factors of sexual development, including the sex steroid pathway, are not conserved in fish, supporting the idea that flexibility in sexual determination and differentiation may be a driving force of speciation. PMID:23883521

  16. Expression and Sequence Evolution of Aromatase cyp19a1 and Other Sexual Development Genes in East African Cichlid Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Böhne, Astrid; Heule, Corina; Boileau, Nicolas; Salzburger, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Sex determination mechanisms are highly variable across teleost fishes and sexual development is often plastic. Nevertheless, downstream factors establishing the two sexes are presumably conserved. Here, we study sequence evolution and gene expression of core genes of sexual development in a prime model system in evolutionary biology, the East African cichlid fishes. Using the available five cichlid genomes, we test for signs of positive selection in 28 genes including duplicates from the teleost whole-genome duplication, and examine the expression of these candidate genes in three cichlid species. We then focus on a particularly striking case, the A- and B-copies of the aromatase cyp19a1, and detect different evolutionary trajectories: cyp19a1A evolved under strong positive selection, whereas cyp19a1B remained conserved at the protein level, yet is subject to regulatory changes at its transcription start sites. Importantly, we find shifts in gene expression in both copies. Cyp19a1 is considered the most conserved ovary-factor in vertebrates, and in all teleosts investigated so far, cyp19a1A and cyp19a1B are expressed in ovaries and the brain, respectively. This is not the case in cichlids, where we find new expression patterns in two derived lineages: the A-copy gained a novel testis-function in the Ectodine lineage, whereas the B-copy is overexpressed in the testis of the speciest-richest cichlid group, the Haplochromini. This suggests that even key factors of sexual development, including the sex steroid pathway, are not conserved in fish, supporting the idea that flexibility in sexual determination and differentiation may be a driving force of speciation. PMID:23883521

  17. Gas Bubble Disease Monitoring and Research of Juvenile Salmonids : Annual Report 1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Maule, Alec G.; Beeman, John W.; Hans, Karen M.; Mesa, M.G.; Haner, P.; Warren, J.J.

    1997-10-01

    This document describes the project activities 1996--1997 contract year. This report is composed of three chapters which contain data and analyses of the three main elements of the project: field research to determine the vertical distribution of migrating juvenile salmonids, monitoring of juvenile migrants at dams on the Snake and Columbia rivers, and laboratory experiments to describe the progression of gas bubble disease signs leading to mortality. The major findings described in this report are: A miniature pressure-sensitive radio transmitter was found to be accurate and precise and, after compensation for water temperature, can be used to determine the depth of tagged-fish to within 0.32 m of the true depth (Chapter 1). Preliminary data from very few fish suggest that depth protects migrating juvenile steelhead from total dissolved gas supersaturation (Chapter 1). As in 1995, few fish had any signs of gas bubble disease, but it appeared that prevalence and severity increased as fish migrated downstream and in response to changing gas supersaturation (Chapter 2). It appeared to gas bubble disease was not a threat to migrating juvenile salmonids when total dissolved gas supersaturation was < 120% (Chapter 2). Laboratory studies suggest that external examinations are appropriate for determining the severity of gas bubble disease in juvenile salmonids (Chapter 3). The authors developed a new method for examining gill arches for intravascular bubbles by clamping the ventral aorta to reduce bleeding when arches were removed (Chapter 3). Despite an outbreak of bacterial kidney disease in the experimental fish, the data indicate that gas bubble disease is a progressive trauma that can be monitored (Chapter 3).

  18. Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Klickitat River Tributaries, 2001-2005 Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zendt, Joe; Sharp, Bill

    2006-09-01

    This report describes the work completed by the Yakama Nation Fisheries Program (YNFP) in the Klickitat subbasin in south-central Washington under BPA innovative project No.200105500--Influences of stocking salmon carcass analogs on salmonids in Columbia River Tributaries. Salmon carcasses historically provided a significant source of marine-derived nutrients to many stream systems in the Columbia basin, and decreased run sizes have led to a loss of this nutrient source in many streams. Partners in this project developed a pathogen-free carcass analog and stocked the analogs in streams with the following objectives: restoring food availability to streams with reduced anadromous salmon returns; mimicking the natural pathways and timing of food acquisition by salmonids; minimizing unintended negative ecological effects; and increasing the growth and survival of salmonids. In the Klickitat subbasin, carcass analogs were stocked in two streams in 2002 and 2003; a third stream was used as a control. Salmonid fish abundance, growth, and stomach contents were monitored in all three streams before and after carcass analog placement. Fish, invertebrate, and periphyton samples were also collected for stable isotope analysis (to determine if nutrients from carcass analogs were incorporated into the stream food web). Water quality samples were also collected to determine if nutrient overloading occurred in streams. Significant differences in growth were found between fish in treated and untreated stream reaches. Fish in treatment reaches exhibited higher instantaneous growth rates approximately one month after the first carcass analog stocking. Stomach contents sampling indicated that salmonid fish routinely consumed the carcass analog material directly, and that stomach fullness of fish in treatment reaches was higher than in untreated reaches in the first few weeks following carcass analog stockings. No significant differences were detected in fish abundance between treatment and control streams after carcass analog stocking. Stable isotope analysis provided some evidence that nutrients (primarily nitrogen) were incorporated into periphyton and invertebrates, although this evidence is not strong. No significant differences in water quality were observed between treatment and control streams after analog stocking. Although no significant changes were observed in fish abundance, this study does provide evidence that carcass analogs provide a viable and potentially useful alternative to stocking salmon carcasses. The analogs provide a direct food source to salmonids, and show some potential for providing nutrients for stream food webs. They can also increase stomach fullness and growth rates of individual fish. This nutrient source may very well improve individual fish condition sufficiently to improve overwintering or smolt survival. Further refinement of stocking densities and timing, treatment duration, and tailoring analog placement to individual stream characteristics (such as channel confinement and flow) will further improve the usefulness of carcass analogs.

  19. Epidemiology and Control of Infectious Diseases of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin, 1983 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, John L.

    1984-11-01

    The Department of Microbiology at Oregon State University with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration conducted a study relating to the epidemiology and control of three fish diseases of salmonids in the Columbia River Basin. These three diseases were ceratomyxosis which is caused by the myxosporidan parasite Ceratomyxa shasta, bacterial kidney disease, the etiological agent of which is Renibacterium salmoninarum, and infectious hematopoietic necrosis, which is caused by a rhabdovirus. Each of these diseases is highly destructive and difficult or impossible to treat with antimicrobial agents. The presence of ceratomyxosis in rainbow trout exposed at McNary and Little Goose Dams extends the range of this disease about 200 miles further up the Columbia River and into the Snake River drainage. Wallowa steelhead trout were less resistant to this disease than other upriver stocks tested. Juvenile salmonids entering the Columbia River estuary were collected periodically between May to September, 1983. Nine percent of the beach seined chinook salmon and 5, 11 and 12%, respectively, of the purse seined coho and chinook salmon and steelhead trout were infected with Ceratomyxa shasta. Experiments indicated ceratomyxosis progresses in salt water at the same rate as in fresh water once the fish have become infected. These data indicate a longer exposure to infective stages of C. shasta than previously identified and that approximately 10% of the migrating salmonids are infected and will probably die from this organism after entering salt water. Since sampling began in 1981 the bacterial kidney disease organism, Renibacterium salmoninarum, has been detected by the fluorescent antibody test in seven salmonid species caught in the open ocean off the coasts of Washington and Oregon. The bacterium has been found primarily in chinook salmon (11%) with lesions in 2.5% of these fish. This disease was also detected at levels ranging from 17% in coho salmon to 25% in chinook salmon seined from the Columbia River just before entering the estuary. Interpretation of these numbers suggests an even greater economic impact on Columbia River salmonid stocks than that proposed for C. shasta. Fertilized eggs from bacterial kidney disease infected parents examined after one month of incubation revealed the presence of bacteria with identical morphology to R. salmoninarum on or in the egg wall further reinforcing the proposed vertical transmission of this disease organism. Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus was recovered at the 67% level from seeded water samples supplemented with 1% fetal calf serum. Virus injected into unfertilized eggs survived for over two weeks; in eyed eggs the virus also replicated. Epizootics caused by IHNV occurred in two of the 8 separate groups of steelhead trout fingerlings held in LJV treated water at Round Butte Hatchery. Comparing these results to those in the vertical transmission experiment where none of the groups developed IHNV suggests that vertical transmission of IHNV, if it occurs, is a very infrequent or random event. On three occasions IHNV was detected in ovarian fluid samples after storage for 6--9 days at 4 C. No virus had been detected in these samples at spawning. This suggests the presence of an interfering substance, perhaps anti-IHNV antibody in ovarian fluid. This observation raises the possibility that IHNV is much more widespread throughout Columbia River Basin salmonid stocks than previously believed.

  20. Development and Evaluation of the Brief Sexual Openness Scale—A Construal Level Theory Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinguang; Wang, Yan; Li, Fang; Gong, Jie; Yan, Yaqiong

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining reliable and valid data on sensitive questions represents a longstanding challenge for public health, particularly HIV research. To overcome the challenge, we assessed a construal level theory (CLT)-based novel method. The method was previously established and pilot-tested using the Brief Sexual Openness Scale (BSOS). This scale consists of five items assessing attitudes toward premarital sex, multiple sexual partners, homosexuality, extramarital sex, and commercial sex, all rated on a standard 5-point Likert scale. In addition to self-assessment, the participants were asked to assess rural residents, urban residents, and foreigners. The self-assessment plus the assessment of the three other groups were all used as subconstructs of one latent construct: sexual openness. The method was validated with data from 1,132 rural-to-urban migrants (mean age = 32.5, SD = 7.9; 49.6% female) recruited in China. Consistent with CLT, the Cronbach alpha of the BSOS as a conventional tool increased with social distance, from .81 for self-assessment to .97 for assessing foreigners. In addition to a satisfactory fit of the data to a one-factor model (CFI = .94, TLI = .93, RMSEA = .08), a common factor was separated from the four perspective factors (i.e., migrants’ self-perspective and their perspectives of rural residents, urban residents and foreigners) through a trifactor modeling analysis (CFI = .95, TLI = .94, RMSEA = .08). Relative to its conventional form, CTL-based BSOS was more reliable (alpha: .96 vs .81) and valid in predicting sexual desire, frequency of dating, age of first sex, multiple sexual partners and STD history. This novel technique can be used to assess sexual openness, and possibly other sensitive questions among Chinese domestic migrants. PMID:26308336

  1. Sexual Dimorphisms of Adrenal Steroids, Sex Hormones, and Immunological Biomarkers and Possible Risk Factors for Developing Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Masi, Alfonse T.; Rehman, Azeem A.; Jorgenson, Laura C.; Smith, Jennifer M.; Aldag, Jean C.

    2015-01-01

    Innate immunity and immunological biomarkers are believed to be interrelated with sex hormones and other neuroendocrine factors. Sexual dimorphism mechanisms may be operating in certain rheumatic and inflammatory diseases which occur more frequently in women than men, as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Less data have been available on altered interrelations of the combined neuroendocrine and immune (NEI) systems as risk factors for development of certain diseases. In this study, serological interrelations of NEI biomarkers are analyzed before symptomatic onset of RA (pre-RA) versus control (CN) subjects, stratified by sex. Sexual dimorphism was found in serum levels of acute serum amyloid A (ASAA), soluble interleukin-2 receptor alpha (sIL-2R?), and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNF-R1). Multiple steroidal and hormonal (neuroendocrine) factors also showed highly (p < 0.001) significant sexual dimorphism in their assayed values, but less for cortisol (p = 0.012), and not for 17-hydroxyprogesterone (p = 0.176). After stratification by sex and risk of developing RA, differential NEI correlational patterns were observed in the interplay of the NEI systems between the pre-RA and CN groups, which deserve further investigation. PMID:26693225

  2. Ensuring the inclusion of sexual and reproductive health and rights under a sustainable development goal on health in the post-2015 human rights framework for development.

    PubMed

    Haslegrave, Marianne

    2013-11-01

    Since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo placed reproductive health and rights firmly on the international agenda, civil society and other advocates have worked ceaselessly to ensure that they remain central to women's empowerment and have taken all opportunities to expand the framework to include sexual health and rights. When the development process changed with the introduction of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2000, sexual and reproductive health and rights were excluded, and only in 2007 was universal access to reproductive health added back in. In 2014 and 2015, the future of ICPD Beyond 2014, the MDGs and the post-2015 development framework will be decided, following consultations and meetings across the globe. This paper takes stock of the key influences on efforts to achieve the ICPD agenda and summarises the past, current and planned future events, reports and processes between 1994 and 2014, leading up to the determination of the post-2015 development framework and sustainable development goals. It concludes that the one thing we cannot afford to allow is what happened with the MDGs in 2000. We must not leave the room empty-handed, but must instead ensure the inclusion of sexual and reproductive health and rights as a priority under a new health goal. PMID:24315064

  3. Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary in 2009

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Carter, Jessica A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Titzler, P. Scott; Hughes, Michael S.

    2010-08-01

    The study reported herein was funded as part of the Anadromous Fish Evaluation Program, which is managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The Anadromous Fish Evaluation Program study code is EST P 02 01: A Study of Salmonid Survival and Behavior through the Columbia River Estuary Using Acoustic Tags. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Fisheries for the USACE Portland District. Estimated survival of acoustic-tagged juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead through the lower Columbia River and estuary in 2009 was lowest in the final 50 km of the estuary. Probability of survival was relatively high (>0.90) for yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon from the Bonneville Dam forebay (rkm 236) to Three-tree Point (rkm 49.6). Survival of juvenile Chinook salmon declined sharply through the lower 50 km of the estuary. Acoustic-tagged steelhead smolts did not survive as well as juvenile Chinook salmon between Bonneville Dam and the mouth of the Columbia River. Steelhead survival began to decline farther upstream (at rkm 86) relative to that of the Chinook salmon stocks. Subyearling Chinook salmon survival decreased markedly as the season progressed. It remains to be determined whether later migrating subyearling Chinook salmon are suffering increasing mortality as the season progresses or whether some portion of the apparent loss is due to fish extending their freshwater residence. This study provided the first glimpse into what promises to be a very informative way to learn more about how juvenile salmonid passage experiences through the FCRPS may influence their subsequent survival after passing Bonneville Dam. New information regarding the influence of migration pathway through the lower 50 km of the Columbia River estuary on probability of survival of juvenile salmonids, combined with increased understanding regarding the foraging distances and time periods of avian predators should prove useful in developing or assessing management actions to reduce losses of juvenile salmonid smolts that attempt to pass through the estuary on their seaward migration.

  4. Developing Adolescents' Resistance to Sexual Coercion through Role-Playing Activities in a Virtual World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinn, Marion; Arnedillo-Sánchez, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the use of a three dimensional virtual world (3-DVW) to delivery assertiveness training to young adolescents. The case study aims to understand how a sense of presence in VWs facilitates and affect the performance of students role-playing activities to enhance their ability to resist sexual coercion. The results indicate that a…

  5. Fungal metabolic plasticity and sexual development mediate induced resistance to arthropod fungivory

    PubMed Central

    Döll, Katharina; Chatterjee, Subhankar; Scheu, Stefan; Karlovsky, Petr; Rohlfs, Marko

    2013-01-01

    Prey organisms do not tolerate predator attack passively but react with a multitude of inducible defensive strategies. Although inducible defence strategies are well known in plants attacked by herbivorous insects, induced resistance of fungi against fungivorous animals is largely unknown. Resistance to fungivory is thought to be mediated by chemical properties of fungal tissue, i.e. by production of toxic secondary metabolites. However, whether fungi change their secondary metabolite composition to increase resistance against arthropod fungivory is unknown. We demonstrate that grazing by a soil arthropod, Folsomia candida, on the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans induces a phenotype that repels future fungivores and retards fungivore growth. Arthropod-exposed colonies produced significantly higher amounts of toxic secondary metabolites and invested more in sexual reproduction relative to unchallenged fungi. Compared with vegetative tissue and asexual conidiospores, sexual fruiting bodies turned out to be highly resistant against fungivory in facultative sexual A. nidulans. This indicates that fungivore grazing triggers co-regulated allocation of resources to sexual reproduction and chemical defence in A. nidulans. Plastic investment in facultative sex and chemical defence may have evolved as a fungal strategy to escape from predation. PMID:24068353

  6. Sterilization and Training for Normal Sexual Development: Human Rights and Obligations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashman, Adrian F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper notes the lack of attention given to the sexuality of people with intellectual disabilities in both the literature and service delivery (in Australia). It discusses sterilization issues (such as authority to give consent and the "best interest" concept) and recommends approaches less intrusive on individual rights than sterilization.…

  7. Assessing the Roles of Striatin Orthologs in Fungal Morphogenesis, Sexual Development and Pathogenicity 

    E-print Network

    Wang, Chih-Li

    2012-10-19

    ), indicating that Fsr1 and Str1 are functionally conserved. Over-expression of StrA reveals its positive role in conidiation and the sexual production. StrA::eGFP localizes mainly to the endoplasmic reticulum. After comparing the results from these two species...

  8. Developing Guidelines for HIV Antibody Testing among Victims of Pediatric Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellert, George A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    An interim set of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing guidelines for victims of pediatric sexual abuse (PSA) is proposed. Guidelines are based on responses of 63 practitioners of PSA assessment to 7 hypothetical clinical profiles with 12 testing criteria. (Author/DB)

  9. Identification of genes differentially expressed during apomictic and sexual development in buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apomixis, an asexual method of reproduction through seeds with the absence of meiosis and fertilization holds great potential for plant breeding and hybrid seed production. Buffelgrass, an apomictic forage grass, has well characterized apomictic, facultative and sexual accessions to study apomictic...

  10. Implicit cognitive distortions and sexual offending.

    PubMed

    Mihailides, Stephen; Devilly, Grant J; Ward, Tony

    2004-10-01

    This work develops and tests the semantic-motivation hypothesis of sexual offenders' implicit cognitions. This hypothesis posits that sexual offenders' cognitive distortions emerge at the interface between implicit motivation and cognition. The semantic-motivation hypothesis is used to guide the development of 3 implicit association tests (IATs). These IATs were used to test for the existence of 3 expected child sexual offender implicit cognitive distortions in child sexual offenders ("children as sexual beings," "uncontrollability of sexuality," and "sexual entitlement-bias"). Results showed that child sexual offenders had larger IAT effects than did mainstream offenders and male and female nonoffenders for the "children as sexual beings" and the "uncontrollability of sexuality" implicit theories. Child sexual offenders also had a larger IAT effect than male and female nonoffenders for the "sexual entitlement-bias" implicit theory. Implications for the semantic-motivation hypothesis are discussed. PMID:15560415

  11. Childhood Sexual Abuse and the Development of Recurrent Major Depression in Chinese Women

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Cai, Yiyun; Cong, Enzhao; Liu, Ying; Gao, Jingfang; Li, Youhui; Tao, Ming; Zhang, Kerang; Wang, Xumei; Gao, Chengge; Yang, Lijun; Li, Kan; Shi, Jianguo; Wang, Gang; Liu, Lanfen; Zhang, Jinbei; Du, Bo; Jiang, Guoqing; Shen, Jianhua; Zhang, Zhen; Liang, Wei; Sun, Jing; Hu, Jian; Liu, Tiebang; Wang, Xueyi; Miao, Guodong; Meng, Huaqing; Li, Yi; Hu, Chunmei; Li, Yi; Huang, Guoping; Li, Gongying; Ha, Baowei; Deng, Hong; Mei, Qiyi; Zhong, Hui; Gao, Shugui; Sang, Hong; Zhang, Yutang; Fang, Xiang; Yu, Fengyu; Yang, Donglin; Liu, Tieqiao; Chen, Yunchun; Hong, Xiaohong; Wu, Wenyuan; Chen, Guibing; Cai, Min; Song, Yan; Pan, Jiyang; Dong, Jicheng; Pan, Runde; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Zhenming; Liu, Zhengrong; Gu, Danhua; Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Qiwen; Li, Yihan; Chen, Yiping; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Shi, Shenxun; Flint, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Background Our prior study in Han Chinese women has shown that women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are at increased risk for developing major depression (MD). Would this relationship be found in our whole data set? Method Three levels of CSA (non-genital, genital, and intercourse) were assessed by self-report in two groups of Han Chinese women: 6017 clinically ascertained with recurrent MD and 5983 matched controls. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression. Results We confirmed earlier results by replicating prior analyses in 3,950 new recurrent MD cases. There were no significant differences between the two data sets. Any form of CSA was significantly associated with recurrent MD (OR 4.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) [3.19–5.24]). This association strengthened with increasing CSA severity: non-genital (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.58–3.15), genital (OR 5.24, 95% CI 3.52–8.15) and intercourse (OR 10.65, 95% CI 5.56–23.71). Among the depressed women, those with CSA had an earlier age of onset, longer depressive episodes. Recurrent MD patients those with CSA had an increased risk for dysthymia (OR 1.60, 95%CI 1.11–2.27) and phobia (OR 1.41, 95%CI 1.09–1.80). Any form of CSA was significantly associated with suicidal ideation or attempt (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.20–1.89) and feelings of worthlessness or guilt (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.02–2.02). Intercourse (OR 3.47, 95%CI 1.66–8.22), use of force and threats (OR 1.95, 95%CI 1.05–3.82) and how strongly the victims were affected at the time (OR 1.39, 95%CI 1.20–1.64) were significantly associated with recurrent MD. Conclusions In Chinese women CSA is strongly associated with recurrent MD and this association increases with greater severity of CSA. Depressed women with CSA have some specific clinical traits. Some features of CSA were associated with greater likelihood of developing recurrent MD. PMID:24489940

  12. Sexual health and contraception.

    PubMed

    Straw, Fiona; Porter, Charlotte

    2012-10-01

    Sexual health encompasses 'sexual development and reproductive health, as well as the ability to develop and maintain meaningful interpersonal relationships; appreciate one's own body; interact with both genders in respectful and appropriate ways; express affection, love and intimacy in ways consistent with one's own values'. The 2008 WHO Consensus Statement additionally noted that 'responsible adolescent intimate relationships' should be 'consensual, non-exploitative, honest, pleasurable and protected against unintended pregnancy and STDs if any type of intercourse occurs'. Young people (YP) must, therefore, be able to access sexual health information and services that meet their needs. For most YP, interest in sexual activity begins with puberty, and this is associated with increasingly sexualised behaviour, including exploration of themselves and others. Most YP find this a confusing time, and so it is important that health professionals are able to offer advice regarding the wide range of sexual health issues, including sexuality, choice of partner, contraception, risk and management of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in a confident and approachable manner. YP have never had so much choice or information available to them, and this can be confusing for them. There is good evidence that YP who get information from their parents are likely to initiate sexual activity later than their peers who access information from their friends. However, there is also evidence that some YP would prefer to get sexual health information from health professionals. It is therefore imperative that all health professionals who see YP have an awareness of sexual health issues, and know where to signpost YP should they need more specialist sexual health advice and/or treatment. Where appropriate, one-to-one sexual health advice should be provided to YP on how to prevent and get tested for STIs, and how to prevent unwanted pregnancies. Advice should also be given on all methods of reversible contraception, including long-acting reversible contraception, emergency contraception and other reproductive issues. PMID:22983512

  13. Evaluating potential changes in salmonid rearing capacity from alternative sets of rehabilitation actions in the Trinity River, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beechie, T. J.; Pess, G. R.; Imaki, H.; Martin, A.; Alvarez, J.; Goodman, D.

    2013-12-01

    River restoration plans often propose numerous rehabilitation actions to address key habitat impairments for salmonids. However, restoration plans rarely propose alternative sets of actions or attempt to quantify the potential benefits to targeted biota. In this paper we use geomorphic and biological analyses to estimate restoration potential for each of 37 reaches in a 64-km section of Trinity River, California from the North Fork Trinity River to Lewiston Dam (the focus of habitat rehabilitation efforts under the Trinity River Restoration Program). We first predicted the channel pattern that might develop based in each reach on slope-discharge criteria, and then used these potential patterns along with floodplain width to estimate the maximum sinuosity that restoration actions could likely achieve, as well as a maximum side-channel length that might be created in each reach. For each scenario, we then used existing stream habitat and juvenile salmonid data from previous studies in the Trinity River and other watersheds to determine current and restored carrying capacity. Potential increases in Chinook and steelhead carrying capacity range from 39% for a relatively realistic estimate of increasing habitat quality (more low velocity areas with cover) to 67% for a more optimistic scenario that increases both sinuosity and habitat quality. Only the most optimistic scenario that increases habitat quality, increases sinuosity, and constructs tens of kilometers of side channels more than doubles potential juvenile salmonid production (140% increase). These quantitative predictions provide a frame of reference for evaluating alternative restoration options, and for setting measurable restoration goals.

  14. The Developmental Association of Sexual Self-Concept with Sexual Behavior among Adolescent Women

    PubMed Central

    Hensel, Devon J.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; O’Sullivan, Lucia F.; Orr, Donald P.

    2013-01-01

    Developing a sexual self-concept is an important developmental task of adolescence; however, little empirical evidence describes this development, nor how these changes are related to development in sexual behavior. Using longitudinal cohort data from adolescent women, we invoked latent growth curve analysis to: (1) examine reciprocal development in sexual self-concept (sexual openness, sexual esteem and sexual anxiety) over a four year time frame; (2) describe the relationship of these trajectories with changes in sexual behavior. We found significant transactional effects between these dimensions and behavior: sexual self-concept evolved during adolescence in a manner consistent with less reserve, less anxiety and greater personal comfort with sexuality and sexual behavior. Moreover, we found that sexual self-concept results from sexual behavior, as well as regulates future behavior. PMID:20970178

  15. Pathogenesis of experimental salmonid alphavirus infection in vivo: an ultrastructural insight.

    PubMed

    Herath, Tharangani K; Ferguson, Hugh W; Weidmann, Manfred W; Bron, James E; Thompson, Kimberly D; Adams, Alexandra; Muir, Katherine F; Richards, Randolph H

    2016-01-01

    Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) is an enveloped, single-stranded, positive sense RNA virus belonging to the family Togaviridae. It causes economically devastating disease in cultured salmonids. The characteristic features of SAV infection include severe histopathological changes in the heart, pancreas and skeletal muscles of diseased fish. Although the presence of virus has been reported in a wider range of tissues, the mechanisms responsible for viral tissue tropism and for lesion development during the disease are not clearly described or understood. Previously, we have described membrane-dependent morphogenesis of SAV and associated apoptosis-mediated cell death in vitro. The aims of the present study were to explore ultrastructural changes associated with SAV infection in vivo. Cytolytic changes were observed in heart, but not in gill and head-kidney of virus-infected fish, although they still exhibited signs of SAV morphogenesis. Ultrastructural changes associated with virus replication were also noted in leukocytes in the head kidney of virus-infected fish. These results further describe the presence of degenerative lesions in the heart as expected, but not in the gills and in the kidney. PMID:26743442

  16. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Premarital Sexual Behavior Assessment Scale for Young Women (PSAS-YW): an exploratory mixed method study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Premarital sexual behaviors are important issue for women’s health. The present study was designed to develop and examine the psychometric properties of a scale in order to identify young women who are at greater risk of premarital sexual behavior. Method This was an exploratory mixed method investigation. Indeed, the study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, qualitative methods (focus group discussion and individual interview) were applied to generate items and develop the questionnaire. In the second phase, psychometric properties (validity and reliability) of the questionnaire were assessed. Results In the first phase an item pool containing 53 statements related to premarital sexual behavior was generated. In the second phase item reduction was applied and the final version of the questionnaire containing 26 items was developed. The psychometric properties of this final version were assessed and the results showed that the instrument has a good structure, and reliability. The results from exploratory factory analysis indicated a 5-factor solution for the instrument that jointly accounted for the 57.4% of variance observed. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the instrument was found to be 0.87. Conclusion This study provided a valid and reliable scale to identify premarital sexual behavior in young women. Assessment of premarital sexual behavior might help to improve women’s sexual abstinence. PMID:24924696

  17. The virtual people set: developing computer-generated stimuli for the assessment of pedophilic sexual interest.

    PubMed

    Dombert, Beate; Mokros, Andreas; Brückner, Eva; Schlegl, Verena; Antfolk, Jan; Bäckström, Anna; Zappalà, Angelo; Osterheider, Michael; Santtila, Pekka

    2013-12-01

    The implicit assessment of pedophilic sexual interest through viewing-time methods necessitates visual stimuli. There are grave ethical and legal concerns against using pictures of real children, however. The present report is a summary of findings on a new set of 108 computer-generated stimuli. The images vary in terms of gender (female/male), explicitness (naked/clothed), and physical maturity (prepubescent, pubescent, and adult) of the persons depicted. A series of three studies tested the internal and external validity of the picture set. Studies 1 and 2 yielded good-to-high estimates of observer agreement with regard to stimulus maturity levels by two methods (categorization and paired comparison). Study 3 extended these findings with regard to judgments made by convicted child sexual offenders. PMID:23296092

  18. Smoothelin-like 1 Protein Regulates Myosin Phosphatase-targeting Subunit 1 Expression during Sexual Development and Pregnancy*

    PubMed Central

    Lontay, Beata; Bodoor, Khaldon; Weitzel, Douglas H.; Loiselle, David; Fortner, Christopher; Lengyel, Szabolcs; Zheng, Donghai; Devente, James; Hickner, Robert; Haystead, Timothy A. J.

    2010-01-01

    Pregnancy coordinately alters the contractile properties of both vascular and uterine smooth muscles reducing systemic blood pressure and maintaining uterine relaxation. The precise molecular mechanisms underlying these pregnancy-induced adaptations have yet to be fully defined but are likely to involve changes in the expression of proteins regulating myosin phosphorylation. Here we show that smoothelin like protein 1 (SMTNL1) is a key factor governing sexual development and pregnancy induced adaptations in smooth and striated muscle. A primary target gene of SMTNL1 in these muscles is myosin phosphatase-targeting subunit 1 (MYPT1). Deletion of SMTNL1 increases expression of MYPT1 30–40-fold in neonates and during development expression of both SMTNL1 and MYPT1 increases over 20-fold. Pregnancy also regulates SMTNL1 and MYPT1 expression, and deletion SMTNL1 greatly exaggerates expression of MYPT1 in vascular smooth muscle, producing a profound reduction in force development in response to phenylephrine as well as sensitizing the muscle to acetylcholine. We also show that MYPT1 is expressed in Type2a muscle fibers in mice and humans and its expression is regulated during pregnancy, suggesting unrecognized roles in mediating skeletal muscle plasticity in both species. Our findings define a new conserved pathway in which sexual development and pregnancy mediate smooth and striated muscle adaptations through SMTNL1 and MYPT1. PMID:20634291

  19. Development and Implementation of Mass Media Campaigns to Delay Sexual Initiation Among African American and White Youth

    PubMed Central

    NOAR, SETH M.; ZIMMERMAN, RICK S.; PALMGREEN, PHILIP; CUPP, PAMELA K.; FLOYD, BRENIKKI R.; MEHROTRA, PURNIMA

    2015-01-01

    Reducing new HIV/STD infections among at-risk adolescents requires developing and evaluating evidence-based health communication approaches. Research over-whelmingly supports the conclusion that early sexual initiation is associated with STDs and other negative outcomes in later years (e.g., unintended pregnancy). The authors’ research group secured funding from the National Institute of Mental Health to develop, implement, and rigorously evaluate televised mass media campaigns to delay initiation of sexual intercourse among African American and White adolescents in two cities in the Southeastern United States. The focus of the present study is on the development and implementation of the campaigns, including (a) rationale and theoretical underpinnings; (b) collection, screening, and assessment of existing public service announcements; (c) development of new public service announcements; (d) study design and campaign airing plan; and (e) message exposure achieved in the campaigns. Health communication campaigns hold much promise in reaching at-risk adolescent populations with targeted, timely, and relevant risk-reduction messages. PMID:24093220

  20. Modeling effects of climate change on Yakima River salmonid habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatten, James R.; Batt, Thomas R.; Connolly, Patrick J.; Maule, Alec G.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the potential effects of two climate change scenarios on salmonid habitats in the Yakima River by linking the outputs from a watershed model, a river operations model, a two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic model, and a geographic information system (GIS). The watershed model produced a discharge time series (hydrograph) in two study reaches under three climate scenarios: a baseline (1981–2005), a 1-°C increase in mean air temperature (plus one scenario), and a 2-°C increase (plus two scenario). A river operations model modified the discharge time series with Yakima River operational rules, a 2D model provided spatially explicit depth and velocity grids for two floodplain reaches, while an expert panel provided habitat criteria for four life stages of coho and fall Chinook salmon. We generated discharge-habitat functions for each salmonid life stage (e.g., spawning, rearing) in main stem and side channels, and habitat time series for baseline, plus one (P1) and plus two (P2) scenarios. The spatial and temporal patterns in salmonid habitats differed by reach, life stage, and climate scenario. Seventy-five percent of the 28 discharge-habitat responses exhibited a decrease in habitat quantity, with the P2 scenario producing the largest changes, followed by P1. Fry and spring/summer rearing habitats were the most sensitive to warming and flow modification for both species. Side channels generally produced more habitat than main stem and were more responsive to flow changes, demonstrating the importance of lateral connectivity in the floodplain. A discharge-habitat sensitivity analysis revealed that proactive management of regulated surface waters (i.e., increasing or decreasing flows) might lessen the impacts of climate change on salmonid habitats.

  1. The relationship between productivities of salmonids and forest stands in northern California watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frazey, S.L.; Wilzbach, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Productivities of resident salmonids and upland and riporian forests in 22 small watersheds of coastal northern California were estimated and compared to determine whether: 1) upland site productivity predicted riparian site productivity; 2) either upland or riparian site productivity predicted salmonid productivity; and 3) other parameters explained more of the variance in salmonid productivity. Upland and riparian site productivities were estimated using Site Index values for redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and red alder (Alnus rubra), respectively. Salmonid productivity was indexed by back-calculated length at age 1 of the largest individuals sampled and by total biomass. Upland and riparian site indices were correlated, but neither factor contributed to the best approximating models of salmonid productivity. Total salmonid biomass was best described by a positive relationship with drainage area. Length of dominant fish was best described by a positive relationship with percentage of hardwoods within riparian areas, which may result from nutrient and/or litter subsidies provided by red older. The inability of forest productivity to predict salmon productivity may reflect insufficient variation in independent variables, limitations of the indices, and the operation of other factors affecting salmonid production. The lack of an apparent relationship between upland conifer and salmonid productivity suggests that management of land for timber productivity and component streams for salmonid production in these sites will require separate, albeit integrated, management strategies.

  2. The "Right" Sexuality for Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Feminist researchers in psychology and education have been theorizing about the kind of sexuality girls ought to have. They are not afraid to investigate morality and what makes a good life. While they explore the meaning and cultural context of girls' sexual development, the good sexual life they describe may be an elusive ideal that, in the end,…

  3. Evolution and human sexuality.

    PubMed

    Gray, Peter B

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this review is to put core features of human sexuality in an evolutionary light. Toward that end, I address five topics concerning the evolution of human sexuality. First, I address theoretical foundations, including recent critiques and developments. While much traces back to Darwin and his view of sexual selection, more recent work helps refine the theoretical bases to sex differences and life history allocations to mating effort. Second, I consider central models attempting to specify the phylogenetic details regarding how hominin sexuality might have changed, with most of those models honing in on transitions from a possible chimpanzee-like ancestor to the slightly polygynous and long-term bonded sociosexual partnerships observed among most recently studied hunter-gatherers. Third, I address recent genetic and physiological data contributing to a refined understanding of human sexuality. As examples, the availability of rapidly increasing genomic information aids comparative approaches to discern signals of selection in sexuality-related phenotypes, and neuroendocrine studies of human responses to sexual stimuli provide insight into homologous and derived mechanisms. Fourth, I consider some of the most recent, large, and rigorous studies of human sexuality. These provide insights into sexual behavior across other national samples and on the Internet. Fifth, I discuss the relevance of a life course perspective to understanding the evolution of human sexuality. Most research on the evolution of human sexuality focuses on young adults. Yet humans are sexual beings from gestation to death, albeit in different ways across the life course, and in ways that can be theoretically couched within life history theory. PMID:24151100

  4. Using real-time PCR and Bayesian analysis to distinguish susceptible tubificid taxa important in the transmission of Myxobolus cerebralis, the cause of salmonid whirling disease.

    PubMed

    Fytilis, Nikolaos; Rizzo, Donna M; Lamb, Ryan D; Kerans, Billie L; Stevens, Lori

    2013-05-01

    Aquatic oligochaetes have long been appreciated for their value in assessing habitat quality because they are ubiquitous sediment-dwelling filter feeders. Many oligochaete taxa are also important in the transmission of fish diseases. Distinguishing resistant and susceptible taxa is important for managing fish disease, yet challenging in practice. Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaeta: Tubificidae) is the definitive host for the complex life-cycle parasite, Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of salmonid whirling disease. We developed two hydrolysis probe-based qualitative real-time PCR (qPCR) multiplex assays that distinguish among tubificid taxa collected from the Madison River, Montana, USA. The first assay distinguishes T. tubifex from Rhyacodrilus spp.; while the second classifies T. tubifex identified by the first assay into two genetic lineages (I and III). Specificity and sensitivity were optimized for each assay; the two assays showed specificity of 94.3% and 98.6% for the target oligochaetes, respectively. DNA sequencing verified the results. The development of these assays allowed us to more fully describe tubificid community composition (the taxa and their abundance at a site) and estimate the relative abundances of host taxa. To relate tubificid relative abundance to fish disease risk, we determined M. cerebralis infection prevalence in samples identified as T. tubifex using similar molecular techniques. Given prior information (i.e., morphological identification of sexually mature worms), Bayesian analysis inferred that the first qPCR assay improved taxonomic identification. Bayesian inference of the relative abundance of T. tubifex, combined with infection assay results, identified sites with a high prevalence of infected T. tubifex. To our knowledge, this study represents both the first assessment of oligochaete community composition using a qPCR assay based on fluorescent probes and the first use of Bayesian analysis to fully characterize the dominant infected taxa in streams where whirling disease is observed. PMID:23474394

  5. An in vivo model fish system to test chemical effects on sexual differentiation and development: exposure to ethinyl estradiol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papoulias, D.M.; Noltie, D.B.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    A model system was characterized which may be used as an in vivo screen for effects of chemicals or environmental mixtures on sexual differentiation and development of reproductive organs and gametes. We evaluated the effects of a model environmental estrogen, ethinyl estradiol (EE2), on the d-rR strain of medaka, Oryzias latipes, using a nano-injection exposure. Gonad histopathology indicated that a single injection of 0.5-2.5 ng EE2/egg can cause phenotypic sex-reversal of genetic males to females. Sex-reversals could be detected as early as 7 days post-hatch. Sex-reversed males had female-typical duct development and the secondary sex characteristics we measured were generally consistent with phenotype, with the exception of a few EE2-exposed XX and XY females which possessed ambiguous anal fins. Using discriminant analysis, we determined that the presence or absence of the secondary sex characteristic, a dorsal fin notch, was a very reliable indicator of gonadal sex. No instances of gonadal intersexes were observed. Ethinyl estradiol also appeared to reduce growth but not condition (weight-at-length) and exposed XX females appeared to have a higher incidence of atretic follicles relative to controls. Our results suggest that estrogenic chemicals may influence sexual differentiation and development and that the medaka model is well suited to assessing these effects. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  6. Internet Sexualities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döring, Nicola

    The term “internet sexuality” (or OSA, online sexual activities) refers to sexual-related content and activities observable on the internet (cf. Adams, Oye, & Parker, 2003; Cooper, McLoughlin, & Campbell, 2000; Leiblum & Döring, 2002). It designates a variety of sexual phenomena (e.g., pornography, sex education, sexual contacts) related to a wide spectrum of online services and applications (e.g., websites, online chat rooms, peer-to-peer networks). If an even broader range of computer networks - such as the Usenet or bulletin board systems - is included in this extensional definition, one speaks of “online sexuality” or “cybersexuality.”

  7. Pilot Study in the Development of an Interactive Multimedia Learning Environment for Sexual Health Interventions: A Focus Group Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goold, P. C.; Bustard, S.; Ferguson, E.; Carlin, E. M.; Neal, K.; Bowman, C. A.

    2006-01-01

    In the UK there are high rates of sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies amongst young people. There is limited and contradictory evidence that current sexual health education interventions are effective or that they improve access to appropriate sexual health services. This paper describes the outcome of focus group work with…

  8. Occurrence and significance of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida in non-salmonid and salmonid fish species: a review.

    PubMed

    Wiklund, T; Dalsgaard, I

    1998-02-26

    Bacterial strains of Aeromonas salmonicida included in the recognized subsp. acromogenes, subsp. masoucida, and subsp. smithia in addition to the large number of strains not included in any of the described subspecies are referred to as atypical A. salmonicida. The atypical strains form a very heterogeneous group with respect to biochemical characteristics, growth conditions, and production of extracellular proteasess. Consequently, the present taxonomy of the species A. salmonicida is rather ambiguous. Atypical A. salmonicida has been isolated from a wide range of cultivated and wild fish species, non-salmonids as well as salmonids, inhabiting fresh water, brackish water and marine environments in northern and central Europe, South Africa, North America, Japan and Australia. In non-salmonid fish species, infections with atypical strains often manifest themselves as superficial skin ulcerations. The best known diseases associated with atypical A. salmonicida are carp Cyprinus carpio erythrodermatitis, goldfish Carassius auratus ulcer disease, and ulcer disease of flounder Platichthys flesus, but atypical strains are apparently involved in more disease outbreaks than previously suspected. Macroscopical and microscopical studies of ulcerated fish indicate internal organs are infrequently invaded by atypical A. salmonicida. This view is supported by the fact that atypical strains are irregularly isolated from visceral organs of ulcerated fish. High mortality caused by atypical A. salmonicida has been observed in populations of wild non-salmonids and farmed salmonids, although the association between the mortality in the wild fish stocks and atypical A. salmonicida has not always been properly assessed. In injection experiments the pathogenicity of the atypical strains examined showed large variation. An extacellular A-layer has been detected in different atypical strains, but virulence mechanisms different from those described for (typical) A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, for example an extracellular metallo-protease and a different iron utilization mechanism, have been described. Limited information is available about the ecology, spread and survival of atypical strains in water. The commonly used therapeutic methods for the control of diseases in farmed fish caused by atypical A. salmonicida are generally effective against the atypical strains. Resistance to different antibiotics and transferable plasmid encoding multiple drug resistance have been observed in atpical A. salmonicida. Studies aimed at producing a vaccine against atypical strains are in progress. PMID:9696626

  9. Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePLUS

    ... form of non-consensual physical contact. It includes rape, molestation, or any sexual conduct with a person ... more? "Speaking the unspeakable: An interview about elder sexual assault with Holly Ramsey-Klawsnik, Ph.D" in nexus , ...

  10. Sexual Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & ... Snacking Losing Weight Safely Learn the facts about sexual health with articles about puberty, menstruation, infections, and just ...

  11. Positive and negative cognitions of sexual submission: relationship to sexual violence.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Cheryl A; Byers, Sandra E

    2006-08-01

    This study investigated gender differences in cognitions of sexual submission as well as their association with sexual violence. Participants were 292 heterosexual undergraduate students who completed a 56-item checklist assessing positive and negative sexual cognitions; they also completed measures assessing experiences of sexual abuse in childhood, experiences of sexual coercion in adulthood, and use of sexual coercion. Two 10-item sexual submission subscales were developed from the checklist. One reflected how often respondents had experienced the sexual submission items as positive. The other reflected how often these items were experienced as negative. When overall frequency of sexual cognitions was controlled, compared to the men, the women reported a significantly greater frequency of both positive and negative cognitions of sexual submission. Submission cognitions were more often negative for women and were more often positive for men. Men and women who had experienced sexual abuse in childhood reported more frequent positive sexual submission cognitions but not more negative sexual submission cognitions. Conversely, men and women who had experienced sexual coercion in adulthood reported more frequent negative sexual submission cognitions but not more positive sexual submission cognitions. Having used sexual coercion was associated with more frequent positive cognitions of sexual submission for both men and women. Implications for the proposed links between sexual violence and preferences for cognitions of sexual submission are discussed. PMID:16909319

  12. Development and validation of the Female Sexual Function Index adaptation for breast cancer patients (FSFI-BC).

    PubMed

    Bartula, Iris; Sherman, Kerry A

    2015-08-01

    Sexual dysfunction following breast cancer treatment is common and screening for this is recommended. This study determined the reliability, validity, and acceptability of a breast cancer-specific adaptation of the Female Sexual Function Index, the FSFI-BC. This new measure addresses limitations in the FSFI when assessing sexual dysfunction of women with breast cancer regarding applicability to non-sexually active women, measuring distress and changes after cancer. Female breast cancer survivors (n = 596; 429 sexually active, 166 non-sexually active) completed an online survey including demographic/medical information, the FSFI-BC, and scales measuring sexual functioning, fatigue, body image, physical and mental health, and relationship adjustment (Time 1). Three weeks later, 326 women (245 sexually active; 81 non-sexually active) completed the Time 2 survey including the FSFI-BC, and questions regarding its acceptability and perceived change in sexual functioning. Reliability, construct validity, and acceptability were examined using standard scale validation techniques. Exploratory factor analysis delineated seven factors: Changes after cancer, desire/arousal, lubrication, orgasm, pain, satisfaction, and distress, accounting for 79.98 % (sexually active) and 77.19 % (non-active) variance in responses. Acceptable internal consistencies (non-active: ? = 0.71-0.96; sexually active: ? = 0.89-0.96) and test-retest reliabilities (non-active: r = 0.63-0.86; sexually active: r = 0.71-0.88) were evident. Inter-scale correlations provided evidence for convergent and divergent validities of the FSFI-BC. Both sexually active and non-active women provided positive feedback about the FSFI-BC. The optional partner questions demonstrated clinical utility. With desirable psychometric properties and acceptability to participants, the FSFI-BC is suitable for screening for sexual dysfunction in women with breast cancer. PMID:26198992

  13. Associations between youth homelessness, sexual offenses, sexual victimization, and sexual risk behaviors: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Heerde, Jessica A; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A

    2015-01-01

    Homeless youth commonly report engaging in sexual risk behaviors. These vulnerable young people also frequently report being sexually victimized. This systematic review collates, summarizes, and appraises published studies of youth investigating relationships between homelessness, perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior. A systematic search of seventeen psychology, health, and social science electronic databases was conducted. Search terms included "homeless*," "youth," "offend*," "victimization," "crime," "rape," "victim*," and "sex crimes." Thirty-eight studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Findings showed homeless youth commonly report being raped and sexually assaulted, fear being sexually victimized, and engage in street prostitution and survival sex. Rates of victimization and sexual risk behavior were generally higher for females. Given the paucity of longitudinal studies and limitations of current studies, it is unclear whether homelessness is prospectively associated with sexual victimization or engagement in sexual risk behavior, and whether such associations vary cross nationally and as a function of time and place. Future prospective research examining the influence of the situational context of homelessness is necessary to develop a better understanding of how homelessness influences the perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior among homeless youth. PMID:25411128

  14. The mediating role of secrecy in the development of psychopathology in sexually abused children.

    PubMed

    van Delft, Ivanka; Finkenauer, Catrin; Clasien De Schipper, J; Lamers-Winkelman, Francien; Visser, Margreet M

    2015-08-01

    Although child sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with psychopathology, limited research examined mechanisms through which CSA leads to psychopathology in children. It is generally assumed that CSA is associated with secrecy among children, to our knowledge this assumption has not yet been empirically tested. This gap in our understanding of the aftermath of CSA is surprising in light of abundant evidence linking secrecy to psychopathology among children. The current study examined whether, as compared to children who have not experienced CSA, CSA victims have a greater tendency for secrecy as reported by mothers and children, and whether psychopathology in CSA victims may be explained by their tendency to keep secrets. Sixty-three non-offending mothers and their sexually abused children (68.3% female; M age=10.89) and 48 mothers and their non-abused children (62.5% female; M age=11.17) completed questionnaires on secrecy and psychopathology (i.e., internalizing and externalizing behavior problems). Mothers of abused children perceived higher levels of secrecy and psychopathology in their children as compared to mothers of non-abused children. There were no differences in child-reported secrecy between abused and non-abused children. Mediation analyses revealed that mother-reported secrecy mediated the association between CSA and psychopathology. These findings suggest that secrecy is a potential mechanism underlying psychopathology associated with CSA, which has important implications for treatment of abused children. PMID:25998867

  15. Sexual Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have or enjoy sex in both men and women. Factors that can affect sexual health include Fear of unplanned pregnancy Concerns about infertility Sexually transmitted diseases Chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease Medicines that affect sexual desire or performance

  16. Assessment of Native Salmonids Above Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho; 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Kevin A.

    1999-03-01

    Native resident salmonids in the western United States are in decline throughout much of their range. The purpose of the multi-phased project is to restore native salmonids in the upper Snake River basin to self-sustaining, harvestable levels.

  17. Suprasellar germinoma masquerading as lymphocytic hypophysitis associated with central diabetes insipidus, delayed sexual development, and subsequent hypopituitarism.

    PubMed

    Nishiuchi, Takamasa; Imachi, Hitomi; Murao, Koji; Fujiwara, Mako; Sato, Makoto; Nishiuchi, Yukiko; Kushida, Yoshio; Haba, Reiji; Shindo, Atsushi; Tamiya, Takashi; Ishida, Toshihiko

    2010-02-01

    We report the case of an 18-year-old woman with suprasellar germinoma masquerading as lymphocytic hypophysitis, which was associated with central diabetes insipidus, delayed sexual development, and hypopituitarism. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an enlarged pituitary gland, thickened pituitary stalk, and a mass lesion in the inferior hypothalamus; these findings are typical of lymphocytic hypophysitis. Despite the administration of prednisolone therapy for 3 months, an enlarged irregular cystic mass lesion developed in the pituitary stalk and inferior hypothalamus. Open cranial surgery of the posterior pituitary revealed the presence of a germinoma. Therefore, chemotherapy and stereotactic radiation therapy were administered, resulting in complete remission of the germinoma. This case illustrates that the presence of an intrasellar mass lesion in association with pituitary stalk thickening can often cause difficulties in differential diagnosis. We believe that lymphocytic hypophysitis in pubertal children may be the first sign of a host reaction to an occult germinoma. PMID:20051818

  18. Sex and the preimplantation embryo: implications of sexual dimorphism in the preimplantation period for maternal programming of embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Peter J; Dobbs, Kyle B; Denicol, Anna C; Siqueira, Luiz G B

    2016-01-01

    The developmental program of the embryo displays a plasticity that can result in long-acting effects that extend into postnatal life. In mammals, adult phenotype can be altered by changes in the maternal environment during the preimplantation period. One characteristic of developmental programming during this time is that the change in adult phenotype is often different for female offspring than for male offspring. In this paper, we propose the hypothesis that sexual dimorphism in preimplantation programming is mediated, at least in part, by sex-specific responses of embryos to maternal regulatory molecules whose secretion is dependent on the maternal environment. The strongest evidence for this idea comes from the study of colony-stimulating factor 2 (CSF2). Expression of CSF2 from the oviduct and endometrium is modified by environmental factors of the mother, in particular seminal plasma and obesity. Additionally, CSF2 alters several properties of the preimplantation embryo and has been shown to alleviate negative consequences of culture of mouse embryos on postnatal phenotype in a sex-dependent manner. In cattle, exposure of preimplantation bovine embryos to CSF2 causes sex-specific changes in gene expression, interferon-? secretion and DNA methylation later in pregnancy (day 15 of gestation). It is likely that several embryokines can alter postnatal phenotype through actions directed towards the preimplantation embryo. Identification of these molecules and elucidation of the mechanisms by which sexually-disparate programming is established will lead to new insights into the control and manipulation of embryonic development. PMID:26391275

  19. A morphological investigation of sexual and lateral dimorphism in the developing metanephric kidney

    PubMed Central

    Short, Kieran M.; Smyth, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism is a prominent feature of renal physiology and as a consequence, it differentially affects predisposition to many adult kidney diseases. Furthermore the left and right kidneys differ in terms of their position, size and involvement in congenital malformations of the urogenital tract. We set out to determine whether differences in the program of branching morphogenesis that establishes the basic architecture of the kidney were apparent with respect to either sex or laterality in mouse embryonic kidneys. This was achieved using a combination of optical projection tomography imaging and computational analysis of many spatial metrics describing the branched ureteric tree. We undertook a comprehensive assessment of twelve aspects of ureteric morphology across developmental time and we found no consistent differences between kidneys of different sexes or laterality. These results suggest that dimorphism is established after birth or at a physiological or cellular level that is not reflected in the morphology of the ureteric tree. PMID:26469293

  20. Examining key design decisions involved in developing a serious game for child sexual abuse prevention

    PubMed Central

    Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Jones, Christian M.; Rolfe, Ben; Pozzebon, Kay

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the key decisions made in the design of Orbit, a child sexual abuse prevention computer game targeted at school students between 8 and 10 years of age. Key decisions include providing supported delivery for the target age group, featuring adults in the program, not over-sanitizing game content, having a focus on building healthy self-concept of players, making the game engaging and relatable for all players and evaluating the program. This case study has implications for the design of Serious Games more generally, including that research should underpin game design decisions, game designers should consider ways of bridging the game to real life, the learning that arises from the game should go beyond rote-learning, designers should consider how the player can make the game-world their own and comprehensive evaluations of Serious Games should be undertaken. PMID:24550880

  1. Serious Games for Sexual Health.

    PubMed

    Shegog, Ross; Brown, Katherine; Bull, Sheana; Christensen, John L; Hieftje, Kimberly; Jozkowski, Kristen N; Ybarra, Michele L

    2015-04-01

    Program developers and researchers in the sexual health domain have increasingly embraced technological trends as they emerge. With the emergence of serious game applications to impact health behaviors, a natural step for research enquiry will be the investigation of serious games for sexual health education. We invited a panel of sexual health researchers who are working at the intersection of sexual health behavior change and technology applications to comment on the place of serious games in furthering the field of sexual health. The panel grappled with six questions. PMID:26181800

  2. Chitinases Are Essential for Sexual Development but Not Vegetative Growth in Cryptococcus neoformans? †

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Lorina G.; Specht, Charles A.; Lodge, Jennifer K.

    2009-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pathogen that mainly infects immunocompromised individuals. The fungal cell wall of C. neoformans is an excellent target for antifungal therapies since it is an essential organelle that provides cell structure and integrity. Importantly, it is needed for localization or attachment of known virulence factors, including melanin, phospholipase, and the polysaccharide capsule. The polysaccharide fraction of the cryptococcal cell wall is a complex structure composed of chitin, chitosan, and glucans. Chitin is an indispensable component of many fungal cell walls that contributes significantly to cell wall strength and integrity. Fungal cell walls are very dynamic, constantly changing during cell division and morphogenesis. Hydrolytic enzymes, such as chitinases, have been implicated in the maintenance of cell wall plasticity and separation of the mother and daughter cells at the bud neck during vegetative growth in yeast. In C. neoformans we identified four predicted endochitinases, CHI2, CHI21, CHI22, and CHI4, and a predicted exochitinase, hexosaminidase, HEX1. Enzymatic analysis indicated that Chi2, Chi22, and Hex1 actively degraded chitinoligomeric substrates. Chi2 and Hex1 activity was associated mostly with the cellular fraction, and Chi22 activity was more prominent in the supernatant. The enzymatic activity of Hex1 increased when grown in media containing only N-acetylglucosamine as a carbon source, suggesting that its activity may be inducible by chitin degradation products. Using a quadruple endochitinase deletion strain, we determined that the endochitinases do not affect the growth or morphology of C. neoformans during asexual reproduction. However, mating assays indicated that Chi2, Chi21, and Chi4 are each involved in sexual reproduction. In summary, the endochitinases were found to be dispensable for routine vegetative growth but not sexual reproduction. PMID:19734369

  3. Incorporating spatial context into the analysis of salmonid habitat relations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torgersen, Christian E.; Baxter, Colden V.; Ebersole, J.L.; Gresswell, Bob

    2012-01-01

    In this response to the chapter by Lapointe (this volume), we discuss the question of why it is so difficult to predict salmonid-habitat relations in gravel-bed rivers and streams. We acknowledge that this cannot be an exhaustive treatment of the subject and, thus, identify what we believe are several key issues that demonstrate the necessity of incorporating spatial context into the analysis of fish-habitat data. Our emphasis is on spatial context (i.e., scale and location), but it is important to note that the same principles may be applied with some modification to temporal context, which is beyond the scope of this chapter.

  4. Susceptibility of salmonid alphavirus to a range of chemical disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Graham, D A; Cherry, K; Wilson, C J; Rowley, H M

    2007-05-01

    A range of commercially available disinfectants were tested for efficacy against salmonid alphavirus under a range of different conditions including variations in concentration, temperature, contact time, water type and presence or absence of organic matter. Testing was based on the protocol defined in the draft European Standard prEN 14675, for which the effective standard is a 4 log(10) reduction in viral titre. All disinfectants were found to be effective under at least some of the conditions tested. However, the presence of organic matter in particular was shown to be detrimental in some cases, either through rendering some disinfectants ineffective, or by production of a visible inhomogeneity. PMID:17501737

  5. Global climate change and effects on Pacific Northwest salmonids: An exploratory case study

    SciTech Connect

    Shankle, S.A.

    1990-09-01

    Recently, a number of papers have addressed global warming and freshwater fisheries. The recent report to Congress by the US Environmental Protection Agency included an analysis of potential effects of global warming on fisheries of the Great Lakes, California, and the Southeast. In California, the report stated that salinity increases in the San Francisco Bay could enhance the abundance of marine fish species, while anadromous species could be adversely affected. This paper discusses global climate changes and the effects on Pacific Northwest Salmonids. The impacts of climate change or Spring Chinook production in the Yakima Sub-basin was simulated using a computer modeling system developed for the Northwest Power planning council. 35 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. Development, standardization and refinement of procedures for evaluating effects of endocrine active compounds on development and sexual differentiation of Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Kloas, Werner; Springer, Timothy A.; Holden, Larry R.; Wolf, Jeff C.; Krueger, Henry O.; Hosmer, Alan J.

    2008-01-01

    Xenopus laevis has been introduced as a model to study effects of endocrine-active compounds (EAC) on development and sexual differentiation. However, variable and inconsistent data have raised questions about the reliability of the test methods applied. The current study was conducted in two laboratories to develop, refine, and standardize procedures and protocols. Larvae were exposed in flow-through systems to 17?-estradiol (E2), at concentrations from 0.2 to 6.0 ?g E2 L?1 in Experiment 1A, and 0.015 to 2.0 ?g E2 L?1 in Experiment 1B. In both studies survival (92%, 99%) and percentage of animals that completed metamorphosis (97%, 99%) indicated reproducible biological performance. Furthermore, minor variations in husbandry led to significant differences in snout-to-vent length, weight, and gonad size. In Experiment 1A, almost complete feminization occurred in all E2 treatment groups whereas a concentration response was observed in Experiment 1B resulting in an EC50 of 0.12 ?g E2 L?1. The final verified protocol is suitable for determining effects of EAC on development and sexual differentiation in X. laevis. PMID:18327572

  7. Modeling the Association between Sexual Maturation, Transmissible Risk, and Peer Relationships During Childhood and Adolescence on Development of Substance Use Disorder in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Michelle S.; Tarter, Ralph; Kirisci, Levent; Clark, Duncan B.

    2013-01-01

    Background This prospective study investigated pubertal timing and transmissible risk in relation to affiliation with deviant peers on the development of substance use disorder (SUD). Methods Participants were boys (N = 500) ascertained through proband fathers with (N = 250) and without (N = 250) DSM-III-R lifetime diagnosis of SUD who were prospectively tracked from age 10–12 to 22. Transmissible liability index (TLI), Tanner stage, peer delinquency, and substance use were measured at ages 10–12 and 16. SUD diagnosis during early adulthood was determined. Results Structural equation modeling revealed two pathways in which transmissible risk and sexual maturation influenced development of SUD. In the first pathway, transmissible risk was correlated with and prospectively predicted affiliation with deviant peers and substance use presaging SUD. In the second pathway, advanced sexual maturation positively predicted affiliation with deviant peers and substance use, which in turn predicted SUD. However, transmissible risk was not associated with pubertal development. Conclusions These findings indicate that advanced sexual maturation and transmissible risk constitute unrelated facets of SUD liability; however, both factors bias development toward SUD via affiliation with deviant peers. Scientific Significance Youth with advanced sexual maturation and/or transmissible risk for SUD are at higher risk for developing SUD. Additional research is needed to determine if addressing these risk factors will contribute to advancements in SUD prevention. PMID:23952893

  8. Female sexuality.

    PubMed

    Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M

    2015-07-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  9. Female sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  10. Sexually dimorphic effects of NMDA receptor antagonism on brain-pituitary-gonad axis development in the platyfish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Katherine M.; Miller, Shelly A.; Sower, Stacia A.; Schreibman, Martin P.

    2002-01-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR) is found in hypothalamic nuclei involved in the regulation of reproduction in several species of mammals and fishes. NMDAR is believed to affect reproductive development and function by regulating gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)-producing cells. These pathways are likely to be sexually dimorphic, as are several other neurotransmitter systems involved in reproductive function. In this report, male and female platyfish received intraperitoneal injections of 0, 5, 10, 20, 40 or 60 microg/g body wt. of the non-competitive NMDAR antagonist MK-801. Injections began at 6 weeks of age and continued thrice weekly until control animals reached puberty, as evidenced by anal fin maturation. The percent of pubescent animals was significantly affected by sex and treatment, with fewer MK-801-injected females in puberty than control females at each dose (P<0.001), and fewer pubescent females than males at 10, 20 and 40 microg/g (P<0.05). There were no MK-801-related effects in males. Histological analyses revealed typical immature gonads and pituitary glands in treated females, and typical mature morphology in control females and all males. Immunocytochemical distribution of the R1 subunit of the NMDAR within the brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis was limited to GnRH-containing brain cells in all animals; however, NMDAR1 distribution was in an immature pattern in treated females and a mature pattern in all others. Neural concentrations of GnRH were unaffected by MK-801 treatment in both sexes. These data suggest that in the platyfish, NMDAR influence on reproductive development is sexually dimorphic and occurs at, or above, the level of GnRH-containing cells of the BPG axis.

  11. Changes in salmonid communities associated with pesticide runoff events.

    PubMed

    Gormley, Karen L; Teather, Kevin L; Guignion, Daryl L

    2005-10-01

    Two agricultural runoff events involving the pesticide azinphos-methyl occurred in July 2002 on the Wilmot River, Prince Edward Island, Canada, resulting in the death of thousands of fish. The fish communities from three sites on this river had been sampled in 2001, permitting comparisons of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations before and after the events. Samples taken immediately after the runoff events suggested that brook trout suffered higher mortality than rainbow trout. Young-of-the-year fish were more affected than older age classes for both species. Sampling in 2003, a year after the pesticide runoff events, revealed salmonid communities that were still skewed towards rainbow trout, and a decrease in the 1+ age class density (2002's young of the year) at affected sites. These results suggest a differential effect of the pesticide azinphos-methyl on salmonid species and age classes under natural conditions, and a subsequent change in population and community structure. The possibility of these pesticide runoff events selecting for rainbow trout, an exotic species, is a consideration in management of agriculturally impacted rivers. PMID:16151612

  12. Rape Myth Acceptance, Hypermasculinity, and SAT Scores as Correlates of Moral Development: Understanding Sexually Aggressive Attitudes in First-Year College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatum, Jerry L.; Foubert, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Male perpetrated sexual aggression has long been recognized as a serious problem on college campuses. The purpose of this multiple regression correlation study was to assess the relationship between levels of moral development (measured by the Defining Issues Test) and the degree to which first-year college men (N = 161) ascribed to rape…

  13. EFFECTS OF MIXTURES OF PHTHALATES, PESTICIDES AND TCDD ON SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATON IN RATS: A RISK FRAMEWORK BASED UPON DISRUPTION OF COMMON DEVELOPING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since humans are exposed to more than one chemical at a time, concern has arisen about the effects of mixtures of chemicals on human reproduction and development. We are conducting studies to determine the 1) classes of chemicals that disrupt sexual differentiation via different ...

  14. The Use of Sexually Explicit Material in Clinical, Educational and Research Settings in the United Kingdom and Its Relation to the Development of Psychosexual Therapy and Sex Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, Marnie; Wylie, Kevan R.

    2008-01-01

    The present review describes the development and use of sexually explicit material in sex education within UK psychosexual therapy clinics, medical schools and also in state-maintained secondary schools with reference to interests that have shaped the provision of sex education since the early twentieth century. A short summary of published books…

  15. Sexual Differentiation of the Copulatory Neuromuscular System in Green Anoles

    E-print Network

    Wade, Juli

    Sexual Differentiation of the Copulatory Neuromuscular System in Green Anoles (Anolis carolinensis system of green anoles is sexually dimorphic and differ- entiates during embryonic development, although

  16. [Adolescent's sexuality].

    PubMed

    Roynet, D

    2007-09-01

    Adolescence, period hinge between child and adulthood, is one period of great psychic and physiological vulnerability. The autonomisation, the sexualisation of feelings, the step to on active sexuality are potential situations of conflicts, dangers and various risks to reach and discover its own identity. Attacks against masculinity or femininity, sexual traumas, wounds in the relations (rejects, humiliation, abandon, ...) could have important consequences on sexual health of the adult in becoming. PMID:17958032

  17. "Saving Sex for Later": Developing a Parent-Child Communication Intervention to Delay Sexual Initiation among Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Lydia; Wilson-Simmons, Renee; Dash, Kim; Jeanbaptiste, Varzi; Myint-U, Athi; Moss, Jesse; Stueve, Ann

    2007-01-01

    Young adolescents in communities with high rates of early sexual initiation are at risk of multiple negative health outcomes. Although sex education programs for this age group are often controversial, surveys document that many mothers and fathers would appreciate guidance about how to discuss sexuality with their children. This paper presents an…

  18. The Development of Reproductive Strategy in Females: Early Maternal Harshness [right arrow] Earlier Menarche [right arrow] Increased Sexual Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; Steinberg, Laurence; Houts, Renate M.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2010-01-01

    To test a proposition central to J. Belsky, L. Steinberg, and P. Draper's (1991) evolutionary theory of socialization--that pubertal maturation plays a role in linking early rearing experience with adolescent sexual risk taking (i.e., frequency of sexual behavior) and, perhaps, other risk taking (e.g., alcohol, drugs, delinquency)--the authors…

  19. SEXUAL MISCONDUCT = Sexual harassment, gender discrimination or bias, sexual assault, rape, stalking or

    E-print Network

    Dennett, Daniel

    SEXUAL MISCONDUCT = Sexual harassment, gender discrimination or bias, sexual assault, rape. SEXUAL MISCONDUCT = Sexual harassment, gender discrimination or bias, sexual assault, rape, stalking inappropriate sexual materials in a location where others can view them. Sexual assault, rape, or attempted

  20. Determine the Influence of Time Held in “Knockdown” Anesthesia on Survival and Stress of Surgically Implanted Juvenile Salmonids

    SciTech Connect

    Woodley, Christa M.; Wagner, Katie A.; Knox, Kasey M.

    2012-01-31

    The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) was developed for the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers Portland District (USACE) to address questions related to survival and performance measures of juvenile salmonids as they pass through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). Researchers using JSATS acoustic transmitters (ATs) were tasked with standardizing the surgical implantation procedure to ensure that the stressors of handling and surgery on salmonids were consistent and less likely to cause effects of tagging in survival studies. Researchers questioned whether the exposure time in 'knockdown' anesthesia (or induction) to prepare fish for surgery could influence the survival of study fish (CBSPSC 2011). Currently, fish are held in knockdown anesthesia after they reach Stage 4 anesthesia until the completion of the surgical implantation of a transmitter, varies from 5 to 15 minutes for studies conducted in the Columbia Basin. The Columbia Basin Surgical Protocol Steering Committee (CBSPSC ) expressed concern that its currently recommended 10-minute maximum time limit during which fish are held in anesthetic - tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222, 80 mg L-1 water) - could increase behavioral and physiological costs, and/or decrease survival of outmigrating juvenile salmonids. In addition, the variability in the time fish are held at Stage 4 could affect the data intended for direct comparison of fish within or among survival studies. Under the current recommended protocol, if fish exceed the 10-minute time limit, they are to be released without surgical implantation, thereby increasing the number of fish handled and endangered species 'take' at the bypass systems for FCRPS survival studies.

  1. Comparative evaluation of molecular diagnostic tests for Nucleospora salmonis and prevalence in migrating juvenile salmonids from the Snake River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Badil, Samantha; Elliott, Diane G.; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Hedrick, Ronald P.; Clemens, Kathy; Blair, Marilyn; Purcell, Maureen K.

    2011-01-01

    Nucleospora salmonis is an intranuclear microsporidian that primarily infects lymphoblast cells and contributes to chronic lymphoblastosis and a leukemia-like condition in a range of salmonid species. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of N. salmonis in out-migrating juvenile hatchery and wild Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss from the Snake River in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. To achieve this goal, we first addressed the following concerns about current molecular diagnostic tests for N. salmonis: (1) nonspecific amplification patterns by the published nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) test, (2) incomplete validation of the published quantitative PCR (qPCR) test, and (3) whether N. salmonis can be detected reliably from nonlethal samples. Here, we present an optimized nPCR protocol that eliminates nonspecific amplification. During validation of the published qPCR test, our laboratory developed a second qPCR test that targeted a different gene sequence and used different probe chemistry for comparison purposes. We simultaneously evaluated the two different qPCR tests for N. salmonis and found that both assays were highly specific, sensitive, and repeatable. The nPCR and qPCR tests had good overall concordance when DNA samples derived from both apparently healthy and clinically diseased hatchery rainbow trout were tested. Finally, we demonstrated that gill snips were a suitable tissue for nonlethal detection of N. salmonis DNA in juvenile salmonids. Monitoring of juvenile salmonid fish in the Snake River over a 3-year period revealed low prevalence of N. salmonis in hatchery and wild Chinook salmon and wild steelhead but significantly higher prevalence in hatchery-derived steelhead. Routine monitoring of N. salmonis is not performed for all hatchery steelhead populations. At present, the possible contribution of this pathogen to delayed mortality of steelhead has not been determined.

  2. Comparative evaluation of molecular diagnostic tests for Nucleospora salmonis and prevalence in migrating juvenile salmonids from the Snake River, USA.

    PubMed

    Badil, Samantha; Elliott, Diane G; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Hedrick, Ronald P; Clemens, Kathy; Blair, Marilyn; Purcell, Maureen K

    2011-03-01

    Nucleospora salmonis is an intranuclear microsporidian that primarily infects lymphoblast cells and contributes to chronic lymphoblastosis and a leukemia-like condition in a range of salmonid species. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of N. salmonis in out-migrating juvenile hatchery and wild Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss from the Snake River in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. To achieve this goal, we first addressed the following concerns about current molecular diagnostic tests for N. salmonis: (1) nonspecific amplification patterns by the published nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) test, (2) incomplete validation of the published quantitative PCR (qPCR) test, and (3) whether N. salmonis can be detected reliably from nonlethal samples. Here, we present an optimized nPCR protocol that eliminates nonspecific amplification. During validation of the published qPCR test, our laboratory developed a second qPCR test that targeted a different gene sequence and used different probe chemistry for comparison purposes. We simultaneously evaluated the two different qPCR tests for N. salmonis and foundthat both assays were highly specific, sensitive, and repeatable. The nPCR and qPCR tests had good overall concordance when DNA samples derived from both apparently healthy and clinically diseased hatchery rainbow trout were tested. Finally, we demonstrated that gill snips were a suitable tissue for nonlethal detection of N. salmonis DNA in juvenile salmonids. Monitoring of juvenile salmonid fish in the Snake River over a 3-year period revealed low prevalence of N. salmonis in hatchery and wild Chinook salmon and wild steelhead but significantly higher prevalence in hatchery-derived steelhead. Routine monitoring of N. salmonis is not performed for all hatchery steelhead populations. At present, the possible contribution of this pathogen to delayed mortality of steelhead has not been determined. PMID:21699133

  3. Ras GTPase-Activating Protein Gap1 of the Homobasidiomycete Schizophyllum commune Regulates Hyphal Growth Orientation and Sexual Development

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Daniela; Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Knabe, Nicole; Kothe, Erika

    2006-01-01

    The white rot fungus Schizophyllum commune is used for the analysis of mating and sexual development in homobasidiomycete fungi. In this study, we isolated the gene gap1 encoding a GTPase-activating protein for Ras. Disruption of gap1 should therefore lead to strains accumulating Ras in its activated, GTP-bound state and to constitutive Ras signaling. Haploid ?gap1 monokaryons of different mating types did not show alterations in mating behavior in the four different mating interactions possible in fungi expressing a tetrapolar mating type system. Instead, the growth rate in ?gap1 monokaryons was reduced by ca. 25% and ca. 50% in homozygous ?gap1/?gap1 dikaryons. Monokaryons, as well as homozygous dikaryons, carrying the disrupted gap1 alleles exhibited a disorientated growth pattern. Dikaryons showed a strong phenotype during clamp formation since hook cells failed to fuse with the peg beside them. Instead, the dikaryotic character of the hyphae was rescued by fusion of the hooks with nearby developing branches. ?gap1/?gap1 dikaryons formed increased numbers of fruitbody primordia, whereas the amount of fruitbodies was not raised. Mature fruitbodies formed no or abnormal gills. No production of spores could be observed. The results suggest Ras involvement in growth, clamp formation, and fruitbody development. PMID:16607016

  4. Magnitude and Dynamics of Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs, Annual Report of Research, 1989-1990.

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, J.H.

    1990-07-01

    Three aspects of predation upon juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River are addressed in this report: (1) Indexing predator consumption. During 1989--1990, two indices of northern squawfish consumption upon juvenile salmonids were developed for use throughout the Columbia River Basin. The direct Consumption Index (CI) is based upon the concept of meal turnover time and takes into account number of salmonids, temperature, total gut content weight and predator weight. A Bioenergetics Index (BI) for consumption indexing was also developed to complement the direct CI. In the BI, growth, consumption, excretion/evacuation and respiration processes are modeled to predict the consumption required to produce an observed growth increment. (2) Studies on predator-smolt dynamics. Northern squawfish consumption data were collected in the McNary Dam tailrace during nine days in July 1988 to improve our understanding of the predator-smolt functional response. (3) Selective predation by northern squawfish. Laboratory and field protocols were developed to evaluate northern squawfish selection and prey vulnerability. Results from laboratory studies suggest that northern squawfish prefer dead over live prey and that descaled prey may be more vulnerable to predation than non-descaled prey. Stressed and unstressed prey were consumed in equal proportions when predation occurred for 6 or 24 h. Physiological and behavioral effects of stress on juvenile salmon are presented. 100 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs.

  5. Maternal Care Effects on the Development of a Sexually Dimorphic Motor System: The Role of Spinal Oxytocin

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, Kathryn M.; Sengelaub, Dale R.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal licking in rats affects the development of the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB), a sexually dimorphic motor nucleus that controls penile reflexes involved with copulation. Reduced maternal licking results in decreased motoneuron number, size, and dendritic length in the adult SNB, as well as deficits in adult male copulatory behavior. Our previous findings that licking-like tactile stimulation influences SNB dendritic development and upregulates Fos expression in the lumbosacral spinal cord suggest that afferent signaling is changed by differences in maternal stimulation. Oxytocin afferents from the hypothalamus are a possible candidate, given previous research that has shown oxytocin is released following sensory stimulation, oxytocin modulates excitability in the spinal cord, and is a pro-erectile modulator of male sex behavior. In this experiment, we used immunofluorescence and immediate early gene analysis to assess whether licking-like tactile stimulation of the perineum activated parvocellular oxytocinergic neurons in the hypothalamus in neonates. We also used enzyme immunoassay to determine whether this same stroking stimulation produced an increase in spinal oxytocin levels. We found that stroking increased Fos immunolabeling in small oxytocin-positive cells in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, in comparison to unstroked or handled control pups. In addition, sixty seconds of licking-like perineal stimulation produced a transient 89% increase in oxytocin levels in the lumbosacral spinal cord. Together, these results suggest that oxytocin afferent activity may contribute to the effects of early maternal care on the masculinization of the SNB and resultant male copulatory behavior. PMID:20688065

  6. Genomic and transcriptomic analyses of the medicinal fungus Antrodia cinnamomea for its metabolite biosynthesis and sexual development.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mei-Yeh Jade; Fan, Wen-Lang; Wang, Woei-Fuh; Chen, Tingchun; Tang, Yi-Ching; Chu, Fang-Hua; Chang, Tun-Tschu; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Li, Meng-yun; Chen, Yi-Hua; Lin, Ze-Shiang; Yang, Kai-Jung; Chen, Shih-May; Teng, Yu-Chuan; Lin, Yan-Liang; Shaw, Jei-Fu; Wang, Ting-Fang; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2014-11-01

    Antrodia cinnamomea, a polyporus mushroom of Taiwan, has long been used as a remedy for cancer, hypertension, and hangover, with an annual market of over $100 million (US) in Taiwan. We obtained a 32.15-Mb genome draft containing 9,254 genes. Genome ontology enrichment and pathway analyses shed light on sexual development and the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenoids, triterpenoids, ergostanes, antroquinonol, and antrocamphin. We identified genes differentially expressed between mycelium and fruiting body and 242 proteins in the mevalonate pathway, terpenoid pathways, cytochrome P450s, and polyketide synthases, which may contribute to the production of medicinal secondary metabolites. Genes of secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways showed expression enrichment for tissue-specific compounds, including 14-?-demethylase (CYP51F1) in fruiting body for converting lanostane to ergostane triterpenoids, coenzymes Q (COQ) for antroquinonol biosynthesis in mycelium, and polyketide synthase for antrocamphin biosynthesis in fruiting body. Our data will be useful for developing a strategy to increase the production of useful metabolites. PMID:25336756

  7. Genomic and transcriptomic analyses of the medicinal fungus Antrodia cinnamomea for its metabolite biosynthesis and sexual development

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Mei-Yeh Jade; Fan, Wen-Lang; Wang, Woei-Fuh; Chen, Tingchun; Tang, Yi-Ching; Chu, Fang-Hua; Chang, Tun-Tschu; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Li, Meng-yun; Chen, Yi-Hua; Lin, Ze-Shiang; Yang, Kai-Jung; Chen, Shih-May; Teng, Yu-Chuan; Lin, Yan-Liang; Shaw, Jei-Fu; Wang, Ting-Fang; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2014-01-01

    Antrodia cinnamomea, a polyporus mushroom of Taiwan, has long been used as a remedy for cancer, hypertension, and hangover, with an annual market of over $100 million (US) in Taiwan. We obtained a 32.15-Mb genome draft containing 9,254 genes. Genome ontology enrichment and pathway analyses shed light on sexual development and the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenoids, triterpenoids, ergostanes, antroquinonol, and antrocamphin. We identified genes differentially expressed between mycelium and fruiting body and 242 proteins in the mevalonate pathway, terpenoid pathways, cytochrome P450s, and polyketide synthases, which may contribute to the production of medicinal secondary metabolites. Genes of secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways showed expression enrichment for tissue-specific compounds, including 14-?-demethylase (CYP51F1) in fruiting body for converting lanostane to ergostane triterpenoids, coenzymes Q (COQ) for antroquinonol biosynthesis in mycelium, and polyketide synthase for antrocamphin biosynthesis in fruiting body. Our data will be useful for developing a strategy to increase the production of useful metabolites. PMID:25336756

  8. Sexual Dimorphisms in the Associations of BMI and Body Fat with Indices of Pubertal Development in Girls and Boys

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, Melissa K.; Stern, Elizabeth A.; Sedaka, Nicole M.; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Brady, Sheila M.; Ali, Asem H.; Shawker, Thomas H.; Hubbard, Van S.

    2014-01-01

    Context: The effect of obesity and concomitant insulin resistance on pubertal development is incompletely elucidated. Objective: To determine how measures of adiposity and insulin resistance are associated with pubertal maturation in boys and girls. Setting and Design: Breast and pubic hair Tanner stage and testicular volume by orchidometry were determined by physical examination in 1066 children. Ovarian volume was estimated by trans-abdominal ultrasound. Fat mass, skeletal age, and fasting serum for insulin and glucose, total T, estradiol, estrone, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, and androstenedione were measured at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Research Center. Convenience sample; 52% obese, 59% female. Results: Logistic regression identified a significant interaction between sex and obesity for prediction of pubertal development (P ? .01). There was a negative association between boys' testicular volume and body mass index (BMI)/fat mass but a positive association between girls' breast stage and BMI/fat mass. Ovarian volume in girls was positively associated with insulin resistance but not with BMI/fat mass. There was a positive association between obesity and measures of estrogen exposure (breast development and skeletal age) in both sexes. Positive correlations were seen for girls between BMI and pubic hair development and between insulin resistance and T production, whereas adiposity was negatively associated with pubic hair in boys. Conclusions: Significant sexual dimorphisms in the manifestations of pubertal development are seen in obese girls and boys. Two known effects of obesity, increased peripheral conversion of low-potency androgens to estrogens by adipose tissue-aromatase and increased insulin resistance, may be in large part responsible for these differences. PMID:24780051

  9. Transporting juvenile salmonids around dams impairs adult migration.

    PubMed

    Keefer, Matthew L; Caudill, Christopher C; Peery, Christopher A; Lee, Steven R

    2008-12-01

    Mitigation and ecosystem-restoration efforts may have unintended consequences on both target and nontarget populations. Important effects can be displaced in space and time, making them difficult to detect without monitoring at appropriate scales. Here, we examined the effects of a mitigation program for juvenile salmonids on subsequent adult migration behaviors and survival. Juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) were collected and uniquely tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags at Lower Granite Dam (Washington State, USA) on the Snake River and were then either transported downstream in barges in an effort to reduce out-migration mortality or returned to the river as a control group. Returning adults were collected and radio-tagged at Bonneville Dam (Washington-Oregon, USA) on the Columbia River 1-3 years later and then monitored during approximately 460 km of their homing migrations. The proportion of adults successfully homing was significantly lower, and unaccounted loss and permanent straying into non-natal rivers was higher, for barged fish of both species. On average, barged fish homed to Lower Granite Dam at rates about 10% lower than for in-river migrants. Barged fish were also 1.7-3.4 times more likely than in-river fish to fall back downstream past dams as adults, a behavior strongly associated with lower survival. These results suggest that juvenile transport impaired adult orientation or homing abilities, perhaps by disrupting sequential imprinting processes during juvenile out-migration. While juvenile transportation has clear short-term juvenile-survival benefits, the delayed effects that manifest in adult stages illustrate the need to assess mitigation success throughout the life cycle of target organisms, i.e., the use of fitness-based measures. In the case of Snake River salmonids listed under the Endangered Species Act, the increased straying and potential associated genetic and demographic effects may represent significant risks to successful recovery for both target and nontarget populations. PMID:19263886

  10. Child sexual abuse, links to later sexual exploitation/high-risk sexual behavior, and prevention/treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen

    2010-10-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly. PMID:20679329

  11. Effects of Exposure to WwTW Effluents over Two Generations on Sexual Development and Breeding in Roach Rutilus rutilus.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Patrick B; Lange, Anke; Nicol, Elizabeth; Bickley, Lisa K; De-Bastos, Eliane S R; Jobling, Susan; Tyler, Charles R

    2015-11-01

    Exposure to environmental estrogens in wastewater treatment works (WwTW) effluents induces feminized responses in male fish, including the development of eggs in male testes. However, the impacts on the offspring of exposed fish are not well understood. In this study, we examined whether roach (Rutilus rutilus) from mothers that had been exposed to an undiluted WwTW effluent from early life to sexual maturity had altered susceptibility to gonadal feminization and an impaired capacity to reproduce. For males from both WwTW effluent exposed mothers and dilution water exposed mothers, effluent exposure for up to 3 years and 9 months induced feminized male gonads, although the intersex condition was relatively mild. There was no difference in the severity of gonadal feminization in roach derived from either WwTW effluent exposed or dilution water exposed mothers. Furthermore, a breeding study revealed that roach with effluent-exposed mothers reproduced with an equal success as roach with mothers exposed to clean water. Roach exposed to the effluent for 3 years in this study were able to reproduce successfully. Our findings provide no evidence for impacts of WwTW effluent exposure on reproduction or gonadal disruption in roach down the female germ line and add to existing evidence that male roach with a mild intersex condition are able to breed competitively. PMID:26440068

  12. [Studies on sexual organs and embryological development morphology of Pterocypsela formosana].

    PubMed

    Hua, Long; Ma, Xue-ni; Huang, Heng-yu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the embryological characters of Pterocypsela formosana (Asteraceae) were investigated with the traditional paraffin section methods. The anther has 4 sporangiates, the anther wall development follows the dicotyledonous type and comprises of an epidermis, endothelium, a middle layer and a single-layered tapetum, the tapetum belongs to glandular type. Meiosis of the microspore mother cells is of the simultaneous type, for the formation of mostly tetrahedral tetrad, the mature pollen grains are 2 celled. The ovary is bicarpellate, unilocular, one ovule and basal placenta, the ovule is unitegmic, tenuinucellate, inverted campylotropous and with developed endothelium, archesporial cell of megaspore differentiates immediately below the nucellar epidermis and functions as megasporocyte after development and belongs to tenuinucellate ovule type. The megasporocyte undergoes meitotic to form a liner tetrad, only one chalazal megaspore becomes the functional megaspore which forms female gametophyte including 7-celled and 8-nucleated after three successive mitosis, the female gametophyte is of the Polygonum type. Two polar nuclei melt into a secondary nuclei before fertilization, the chalazal antipodal cells are ephemeral and degenerate shortly after forming. Fertilization is porogamous and belongs to premitotic type of syngamy. The division of the primary endosperm nucleus is earlier than the zygote, the endosperm is of the nuclear type with the presence of haustoria, and the embryogeny belongs to asterad type chicory variant. The developed suspensor on early stage has important significance to the embryo development. PMID:26080544

  13. Factors Affecting the Survival of Upstream Migrant Adult Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 9 of 11.

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, Dennis D.; Mueller, Robert P.

    1993-06-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is developing conservation planning documentation to support the National Marine Fisheries Service`s (NMFS) recovery plan for Columbia Basin salmonid stocks that are currently listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Information from the conservation planning documentation will be used as a partial scientific basis for identifying alternative conservation strategies and to make recommendations toward conserving, rebuilding, and ultimately removing these salmon stocks from the list of endangered species. This report describes the adult upstream survival study, a synthesis of biological analyses related to conditions affecting the survival of adult upstream migrant salmonids in the Columbia River system. The objective of the adult upstream survival study was to analyze existing data related to increasing the survival of adult migrant salmonids returning to the Snake River system. The fate and accountability of each stock during its upstream migration period and the uncertainties associated with measurements of escapement and survival were evaluated. Operational measures that affected the survival of adult salmon were evaluated including existing conditions, augmented flows from upstream storage release, and drawdown of mainstem reservoirs. The potential impacts and benefits of these measures to each ESA stock were, also described based on considerations of species behavior and run timing.

  14. Detection and quantification of Renibacterium salmoninarum DNA in salmonid tissues by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chase, D.M.; Elliott, D.G.; Pascho, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Renibacterium salmoninarum is an important salmonid pathogen that is difficult to culture. We developed and assessed a real-time, quantitative, polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for the detection and enumeration of R. salmoninarum. The qPCR is based on TaqMan technology and amplifies a 69-base pair (bp) region of the gene encoding the major soluble antigen (MSA) of R. salmoninarum. The qPCR assay consistently detected as few as 5 R. salmoninarum cells per reaction in kidney tissue. The specificity of the qPCR was confirmed by testing the DNA extracts from a panel of microorganisms that were either common fish pathogens or reported to cause false-positive reactions in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Kidney samples from 38 juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in a naturally infected population were examined by real-time qPCR, a nested PCR, and ELISA, and prevalences of R. salmoninarum detected were 71, 66, and 71%, respectively. The qPCR should be a valuable tool for evaluating the R. salmoninarum infection status of salmonids.

  15. Gonadal malignancy risk and prophylactic gonadectomy in disorders of sexual development.

    PubMed

    Abac?, Ayhan; Çatl?, Gönül; Berbero?lu, Merih

    2015-09-01

    Disorders of sex development (DSD) are a generic definition including any problem noted at birth where the genitalia are atypical in relation to the chromosomes or gonads. The most important clinical problems in DSD comprise physical and psychological disturbances and the risk of gonadal tumor development. Germ cell tumor risk is lowest (<5%) in patients with defects in androgene action or synthesis (such as complete androgen insensitivity syndrome, 5?-reductase deficiency), whereas the highest risk (15%-60%) is observed in 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis. The presence of Y chromosomal material in the karyotype increases the risk for the development of gonadal tumors. The reported age of tumor development varies based on the etiology of DSD (gonadal dysgenesis, androgen insensitivity syndrome, androgen synthesis defects, mixed gonadal dysgenesis, etc.). In the past, early gonadectomy was recommended for all cases of 46,XY DSD, however, according to current approaches, gonadal tumor risk is predicted based on the molecular diagnosis and the timing of the gonadectomy depends on the result of molecular analysis. Until now, optimal protocol in the management of DSD is still controversial. In addition to that, safe and well-accepted guidelines are needed. There is limited number of prospective studies on timing of a gonadectomy in childhood and adolescence. Therefore, evidence-based data on timing and indications of gonadectomy in patients with DSD are needed. In this review, recent data regarding gonadal malignancy risk in DSD and recommendations on timing of gonadectomy are presented. PMID:25879315

  16. Sexual Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Sexual Health Basic Facts & Information All adults, including older people, ... the opportunity to enjoy a satisfying and fulfilling sex life. In fact, most of them do, even ...

  17. Healthy Sexuality

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... viewing this embedded video, please click here . Transcript Sex and sexuality are important issues for many people, regardless of their age, sex, or gender. Although many people are embarrassed or ...

  18. Teenage Sexuality

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Driving Safety School Substance Abuse Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen > Dating & Sex > Teenage Sexuality Ages & Stages Listen Español Text Size ...

  19. A Study on the Effect of a Program Teaching Healthy Sexuality Values on Adolescent Sexual Awareness and Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Sang Huy

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the effectiveness of a program teaching healthy sexuality values on adolescent sexual awareness and sexual behavior. For this study, the present researcher, along with two other professors, developed a 4-h program on 4 different subjects, and conducted the full education program through four different 4-h…

  20. Sexuality, Television and Broadcast Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Melvin S.

    This monograph provides a rationale for contemporary guidelines for the television and broadcast network management of sexual content in proposed progam materials. Beginning with a brief outline of the professional practices and responsibilities of broadcast standards editors, it then explores the relationships between sexual development,…

  1. Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Hua; Li, Yun; Wang, Wei; Wu, Peng; Ru, Shaoguo

    2012-09-01

    Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine?disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi?static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long?term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17??estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine?disrupting action. -- Highlights: ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused an increase in 17??estradiol levels of male guppies. ? Monocrotophos pesticide induced vitellogenin synthesis of male guppies. ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused a decrease in testosterone levels of male guppies. ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused demasculinization of male sexual characteristics. ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused a reduction in reproductive success of male guppies.

  2. Treatment of sexually compulsive adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gerber, James

    2008-12-01

    We clarified the nature of sexual compulsivity in adolescence, addressed who is labeled as "sexually compulsive youth," conceptualized the underlying factors of sexual compulsivity, and outlined a treatment format. We focused on trauma, dissociation, attachment, and self-concept. We questioned the conventional perceptions of who is included in this group. We reiterated that the belief that sexually compulsive adolescents are abusive males is no longer considered accurate. The evolution and accessibility of the Internet only raises greater concerns about compulsive sexual behavior, as more adolescents are brought into therapy because of Internet use to seek sexual interaction or stimulation. The sexually compulsive youth is as likely to be the clean-cut, high-achieving, intelligent student as is the economically deprived, juvenile delinquent on the street. This article began with the observation that adolescents rarely receive any direct, accurate information about sexuality and intimacy. The messages taken in through music, television, movies, politicians, popular press, clergy, and school are polarizing and contradictory. Beyond this are the implications as to how we, as a society, treat the youths that do present with sexual behavior problems. We have tended to treat these youth (as well as adults) with disdain and to designate sexually abusive youth the same as adult offenders with harsher, more punitive treatment interventions. Research and clinical experience now strongly question this type of response. This article is consistent with this leaning. Early psychological injury, from sexual abuse, physical abuse, exposure to violence, attachment trauma, or early sexualization, is at the root of sexually compulsive behavior. While it is necessary to reign in out-of-control and destructive behaviors, if we acknowledge that the source of the behavior is psychological injury, then it is cruel and inconsistent to treat the individual with disdain or as a pariah. The same dilemma is present with adult sexual addicts and offenders. Our society must develop a response to sexually compulsive or offensive behavior that can protect those who need protection, while implementing a rational legal response and providing treatment options for the underlying injury. Perhaps even more importantly, our society must learn how to educate adolescents about sexuality with clear, accurate information that includes not only reproduction but sexual response and intimacy as well. PMID:18996305

  3. A critique of Bem's "exotic becomes erotic" theory of sexual orientation development.

    PubMed

    Nicolosi, Joseph; Byrd, A Dean

    2002-06-01

    A critique of Bem's "Exotic Becomes Erotic" theory (1996) on the development of male homosexuality was offered. Limitations were outlined in light of relevant research findings. The authors proposed an alternative model to explain male homosexuality, i.e., reparation of early boyhood trauma, which better accounts for significant psychodynamic elements and available research. Finally, comparisons were made between specific elements of the two models. PMID:12090531

  4. Sexually dimorphic development and binding characteristics of NMDA receptors in the brain of the platyfish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, K. M.; Schreibman, M. P.; Yablonsky-Alter, E.; Banerjee, S. P.

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated age- and gender-specific variations in properties of the glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in a freshwater teleost, the platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus). Prior localization of the immunoreactive (ir)-R1 subunit of the NMDAR protein (R1) in cells of the nucleus olfactoretinalis (NOR), a primary gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-containing brain nucleus in the platyfish, suggests that NMDAR, as in mammals, is involved in modulation of the platyfish brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis. The current study shows that the number of cells in the NOR displaying ir-R1 is significantly increased in pubescent and mature female platyfish when compared to immature and senescent animals. In males, there is no significant change in ir-R1 expression in the NOR at any time in their lifespan. The affinity of the noncompetitive antagonist ((3)H)MK-801 for the NMDAR is significantly increased in pubescent females while maximum binding of ((3)H)MK-801 to the receptor reaches a significant maximum in mature females. In males, both MK-801 affinity and maximum binding remain unchanged throughout development. This is the first report of gender differences in the association of NMDA receptors with neuroendocrine brain areas during development. It is also the first report to suggest NMDA receptor involvement in the development of the BPG axis in a nonmammalian vertebrate. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  5. Sexual sadism in sexual offenders and sexually motivated homicide.

    PubMed

    Briken, Peer; Bourget, Dominique; Dufour, Mathieu

    2014-06-01

    This article gives a clinically oriented overview of forensically relevant forms of sexual sadism disorder and its specific relationship to sexual homicide. In sexual homicide perpetrators, peculiar patterns of sexual sadism may be a motivational pathway to kill. Sexual sadism increases the risk for reoffending in sexual offenders. Through psychotherapy and pharmacological interventions, treatment of sadistic sex offenders has to consider special characteristics that may be different from those of nonsadistic sex offenders. Many of these offenders share a combination of sexual sadistic motives and an intact self-regulation, sometimes combined with a high level of sexual preoccupation. PMID:24877708

  6. SEXUAL MISCONDUCT/SEXUAL ASSAULT POLICY

    E-print Network

    Dennett, Daniel

    Sexual Misconduct to seek assistance from counseling or mental health services and/or to seek medicalSEXUAL MISCONDUCT/SEXUAL ASSAULT POLICY Office of Equal Opportunity Purpose: To establish a work and educational environment at Tufts University that is free from Sexual Misconduct, which includes sexual

  7. The Role of Pharmacists in Sexual Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Scott; Miederhoff, Patrick A.

    1984-01-01

    A study comparing a cross-sectional sample of pharmacy students to national norms for other student groups on the Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scale indicates that curriculum development in sexual health would be necessary to prepare pharmacists as consultants in birth control and sexual health, a gap currently existing in health care services.…

  8. Evaluating Sexual Behavior from Writing Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Leslie W.

    In discussing sexual behavior as part of and as a result of the total personality, it is appropriate to examine all aspects of a person's handwriting rather than examining only lower looped components in evaluating sexual disturbances. The development of sexual mores and sex roles in our culture from the early Greeks, Romans, and Hebrews through…

  9. Adolescent Sexual Education: Designing Curriculum That Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quincy, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper, "Adolescent Sexual Education: Designing Curriculum That Works", is to present some basic curriculum necessities for developing an in-school sexual education program that results in decreasing the number of teenagers initiating sex, thus reducing the number of teen pregnancies and cases of sexually transmitted…

  10. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Lookout Point Dam, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Trott, Donna M.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2011-07-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Lookout Point Dam (LOP) on the Middle Fork Willamette River. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). The goal of the study was to provide fish passage and distribution data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at LOP and others dams in USACE’s Willamette Valley Project in response to the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. During the year-long study period - February 1, 2010 to January 31, 2011the objectives of the hydroacoustic evaluation of fish passage and distribution at LOP were to: 1. Estimate passage rates, run timing, horizontal distribution, and diel distribution at turbine penstock intakes for smolt-size fish. 2. Estimate passage rates, run timing and diel distribution at turbine penstock intakes for small-size fish. 3. Estimate passage rates and run timing at the regulating outlets for smolt-size fish. 4. Estimate vertical distribution of smolt-size fish in the forebay near the upstream face of the dam. The fixed-location hydroacoustic technique was used to accomplish the objectives of this study. Transducers (420 kHz) were deployed in each penstock intake, above each RO entrance, and on the dam face; a total of nine transducers (2 single-beam and 7 split-beam) were used. We summarize the findings from the hydroacoustic evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at LOP during February 2010 through January 2011 as follows. • Fish passage rates for smolt-size fish (> ~90 mm) were highest during December-January and lowest in mid-summer through early fall. • During the entire study period, an estimated total of 142,463 fish ± 4,444 (95% confidence interval) smolt-size fish passed through turbine penstock intakes. • Diel periodicity of smolt-size fish showing crepuscular peaks was evident in fish passage into turbine penstock intakes. • Run timing for small-size fish (~65-90 mm) peaked (702 fish) on December 18. Downstream passage of small-size juvenile fish was variable, occurring on two days in the spring, eight days in the summer, and at times throughout late fall and winter. A total of 7,017 ± 690 small-size fish passed through the turbine penstock intakes during the study period. • Relatively few fish passed into the ROs when they were open in summer (2 fish/d) and winter (8 fish/d). • Fish were surface-oriented with 62-80% above 10 m deep. The highest percentage of fish (30-60%) was in the 5-10 m depth bin. We draw the following conclusions from the study. • The non-obtrusive hydroacoustic data from this study are reliable because passage estimates and patterns were similar with those observed in the direct capture data from the tailrace screw trap and were consistent with distribution patterns observed in other studies of juvenile salmonid passage at dams. • Fish passage at LOP was apparently affected but not dominated by dam operations and reservoir elevation. • The surface-oriented vertical distribution of fish we observed supports development of surface passage or collector devices. In summary, the high-resolution spatially and temporally data reported herein provide detailed estimates of vertical, horizontal, diel, daily, and seasonal passage and distributions at LOP during March 2010 through January 2011. This information is applicable to management decisions on design and development of surface passage and collections devices to help restore Chinook salmon populations in the Middle Fork Willamette River watershed above Lookout Point Dam.

  11. Trenbolone causes mortality and altered sexual differentiation in Xenopus tropicalis during larval development.

    PubMed

    Olmstead, Allen W; Kosian, Patricia A; Johnson, Rodney; Blackshear, Pamela E; Haselman, Jonathan; Blanksma, Chad; Korte, Joseph J; Holcombe, Gary W; Burgess, Emily; Lindberg-Livingston, Annelie; Bennett, Blake A; Woodis, Kacie K; Degitz, Sigmund J

    2012-10-01

    Trenbolone is an androgen agonist used in cattle production and has been measured in aquatic systems associated with concentrated animal-feeding operations. In this study, the authors characterized the effects of aqueous exposure to 17?-trenbolone during larval Xenopus tropicalis development. Trenbolone exposure resulted in increased mortality of post-Nieuwkoop-Faber stage 58 tadpoles at concentrations ?100?ng/L. Morphological observations and the timing of this mortality are consistent with hypertrophy of the larynx. Development of nuptial pads, a male secondary sex characteristic, was induced in tadpoles of both sexes at 100?ng/L. Effects on time to complete metamorphosis or body sizes were not observed; however, grow-outs placed in clean media for six weeks were significantly smaller in body size at 78?ng/L. Effects on sex ratios were equivocal, with the first experiment showing a significant shift in sex ratio toward males at 78?ng/L. In the second experiment, no significant effects were observed up to 100?ng/L, although overall sex ratios were similar. Histological assessment of gonads at metamorphosis showed half with normal male phenotypes and half that possessed a mixed-sex phenotype at 100?ng/L. Hypertrophy of the Wolffian ducts was also observed at this concentration. These results indicate that larval 17?-trenbolone exposure results in effects down to 78?ng/L, illustrating potential effects from exposure to androgenic compounds in anurans. PMID:22847831

  12. Sexual reproduction and early development of the solitary coral Fungia scutaria (Anthozoa: Scleractinia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupp, David A.

    1983-12-01

    Fungia scutaria spawned vigorously with a lunar beriodicity during the summer months of 1981 and 1982. Spawning activity declined in the fall of both years and was absent in winter and spring (1983). There was only one short spawning event per lunar cycle. Each event occurred in the evening between 1700 and 1900 hours 1 to 4 days following the full moon. Fungia scutaria exhibits gonochorism. Females ejected eggs through their mouths into the seawater above. Many of these negatively buoyant eggs settled onto the oral discs and were moved off the edge by ciliary-mucoid activity. Spermatoza from males were similarly expelled in a jet of gastrovascular fluid. Spawned eggs were small and lacked endosymbiotic zooxanthellae. Rapid development led to ciliated solid planulae by the next morning. Within 24 h a mouth had begun to develop. Planulae may have been able to feed within 39 h. Infection with zooxanthellae occurred 4 5 days following spawning. Planulae may have become competent for settlement by 7 days, but attempts to docment settlement produced ambiguous results.

  13. Choline incorporation by Schistosoma mansoni: distribution of choline metabolites during development and after sexual differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ancelin, M.L.; Torpier, G.; Vial, H.J.; Capron, A.

    1987-06-01

    Choline metabolism was investigated in Schistosoma mansoni during the main phases of its development, namely, schistosomula, 11- and 15-day-old worms, and adults. At the physiological choline concentration used in the assay (20 microM), betaine was, along with phosphatidylcholine, one of the most abundant choline metabolites, revealing considerable choline oxidation activity. Very little radioactivity was associated with CDP-choline, whereas a sustained incorporation into phosphocholine occurred. These results provide good evidence that CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase plays a regulatory role in the de novo pathway of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. During development, the incorporation of choline into its various metabolites was maximal in 11-day-old worms. At this stage, the oxidative pathway predominated over the Kennedy pathway, whereas at all other stages the de novo phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis was predominant. Furthermore, choline incorporation into betaine was much more important in the adult female worm than in the male, indicating a major difference in choline incorporation and distribution between the 2 sexes of the adult worms.

  14. Community perspectives on developing a sexual health agenda for gay and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Landers, Stewart; Pickett, Jim; Rennie, Leo; Wakefield, Steve

    2011-04-01

    Community mobilization around gay rights in the late 1960s and 1970s led to the first efforts to improve the health of gay and bisexual men. In the 1980s the deadly AIDS epidemic was responded to with fierce organizing and community activism, primarily led by gay men. Today, community involvement is crucial to many advocacy and organizing efforts for the health of gay and bisexual men. This article begins with the roots of this history and then describes how they are reflected in a number of key health initiatives for this community including the National Black Gay Men's Advocacy Coalition, the Legacy Project, International Rectal Microbicide Advocates and the Gay Men's Health Agenda. A path forward is described in terms of next steps for advocacy for gay men's health and the health of gay and bisexual men of color emphasizing cultural viability, development of new leaders, and strategic alliances. PMID:21336606

  15. Assessment of Salmonids and Their Habitat Conditions in the Walla Walla River Basin within Washington, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, Glen; Trump, Jeremy; Gembala, Mike

    2003-09-01

    This study began in 1998 to assess salmonid distribution, relative abundance, genetics, and the condition of salmonid habitats in the Walla Walla River basin. Stream flows in the Walla Walla Basin continue to show a general trend that begins with a sharp decline in discharge in late June, followed by low summer flows and then an increase in discharge in fall and winter. Manual stream flow measurements at Pepper bridge showed an increase in 2002 of 110-185% from July-September, over flows from 2001. This increase is apparently associated with a 2000 settlement agreement between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the irrigation districts to leave minimum flows in the river. Stream temperatures in the Walla Walla basin were similar to those in 2001. Upper montane tributaries maintained maximum summer temperatures below 65 F, while sites in mid and lower Touchet and Walla Walla rivers frequently had daily maximum temperatures well above 68 F (high enough to inhibit migration in adult and juvenile salmonids, and to sharply reduce survival of their embryos and fry). These high temperatures are possibly the most critical physiological barrier to salmonids in the Walla Walla basin, but other factors (available water, turbidity or sediment deposition, cover, lack of pools, etc.) also play a part in salmonid survival, migration, and breeding success. The increased flows in the Walla Walla, due to the 2000 settlement agreement, have not shown consistent improvements to stream temperatures. Rainbow/steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) trout represent the most common salmonid in the basin. Densities of Rainbow/steelhead in the Walla Walla River from the Washington/Oregon stateline to Mojonnier Rd. dropped slightly from 2001, but are still considerably higher than before the 2000 settlement agreement. Other salmonids including; bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), and brown trout (Salmo trutta) had low densities, and limited distribution throughout the basin. A large return of adult spring chinook to the Touchet River drainage in 2001 produced higher densities of juvenile chinook in 2002 than have been seen in recent years, especially in the Wolf Fork. The adult return in 2002 was substantially less than what was seen in 2001. Due to poor water conditions and trouble getting personnel hired, spawning surveys were limited in 2002. Surveyors found only one redd in four Walla Walla River tributaries (Cottonwood Ck., East Little Walla Walla, West Little Walla Walla, and Mill Ck.), and 59 redds in Touchet River tributaries (10 in the North Fork Touchet, 30 in the South Fork Touchet, and 19 in the Wolf Fork). Bull trout spawning surveys in the upper Touchet River tributaries found a total of 125 redds and 150 live fish (92 redds and 75 fish in the Wolf Fork, 2 redds and 1 fish in the Burnt Fork, 0 redds and 1 fish in the South Fork Touchet, 29 redds and 71 fish in the North Fork Touchet, and 2 redds and 2 fish in Lewis Ck.). A preliminary steelhead genetics analysis was completed as part of this project. Results indicate differences between naturally produced steelhead and those produced in the hatchery. There were also apparent genetic differences among the naturally produced fish from different areas of the basin. Detailed results are reported in Bumgarner et al. 2003. Recommendations for assessment activities in 2003 included: (1) continue to monitor the Walla Walla River (focusing from the stateline to McDonald Rd.), the Mill Ck system, and the Little Walla Walla System. (2) reevaluate Whiskey Ck. for abundance and distribution of salmonids, and Lewis Ck. for bull trout density and distribution. (3) select or develop a habitat survey protocol and begin to conduct habitat inventory and assessment surveys. (4) summarize bull trout data for Mill Ck, South Fork Touchet, and Lewis Ck. (5) begin to evaluate temperature and flow data to assess if the habitat conditions exist for spring chinook in the Touchet River.

  16. Healthy Aging -- Sexual Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) Sexual health More information on sexual health Many older women ... Protecting yourself Return to top More information on Sexual health Read more from womenshealth.gov Sexually Transmitted Infections ...

  17. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... link in the menu on the left. Common Names Sexually transmitted diseases STDs Sexually transmitted infections STIs Medical or Scientific Names Sexually transmitted diseases Sexually transmitted infections Last Reviewed: ...

  18. Using Experimental Paradigms to Examine Alcohol's Role in Men's Sexual Aggression: Opportunities and Challenges in Proxy Development.

    PubMed

    Abbey, Antonia; Wegner, Rhiana

    2015-08-01

    The goals of this article are to review the major findings from alcohol administration studies that use sexual aggression proxies and to encourage additional experimental research that evaluates hypotheses about the role of alcohol in the etiology of men's sexual aggression. Experiments allow participants to be randomly assigned to drink conditions, therefore ensuring that any differences between drinkers and nondrinkers can be attributed to their alcohol consumption. One of the biggest challenges faced by experimental researchers is the identification of valid operationalizations of key constructs. The tension between internal and external validity is particularly problematic for violence researchers because they cannot allow participants to engage in the target behavior in the laboratory. The strengths and limitations associated with written vignettes, audiotapes, videotapes, and confederate proxies for sexual aggression are described. Suggestions are made for future research to broaden the generalizability of the findings from experimental research. PMID:26048214

  19. Diverting victims of commercial sexual exploitation from juvenile detention: development of the InterCSECt screening protocol.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, Emily J; Dabney, Jonathan D; Russell, Kelli

    2015-04-01

    Identifying victims of commercial sexual exploitation in the juvenile justice system is a challenging complexity requiring concerted organizational commitment. Using a three-tiered, trauma-informed screening process, a 3½-month pilot intervention was implemented in Clark County Juvenile Court (Washington) to identify victims in an effort to connect them to community youth advocates and sexual assault resources. A total of 535 boys and girls ages 9 to 19 were screened during intake; 47 of these youth reported risk factors associated with commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) and were subsequently referred to community advocates. Six youth (all girls) were confirmed CSEC victims and were successfully diverted from juvenile detention. Study results suggest that despite the lack of reliable data surrounding the prevalence of CSEC, juvenile justice agencies need to become educated on the risk factors to triage victims to services. PMID:25038222

  20. The evolutionary dynamics of major regulators for sexual development among Hymenoptera species

    PubMed Central

    Biewer, Matthias; Schlesinger, Francisca; Hasselmann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    All hymenopteran species, such as bees, wasps and ants, are characterized by the common principle of haplodiploid sex determination in which haploid males arise from unfertilized eggs and females from fertilized eggs. The underlying molecular mechanism has been studied in detail in the western honey bee Apis mellifera, in which the gene complementary sex determiner (csd) acts as primary signal of the sex determining pathway, initiating female development by csd-heterozygotes. Csd arose from gene duplication of the feminizer (fem) gene, a transformer (tra) ortholog, and mediates in conjunction with transformer2 (tra2) sex-specific splicing of fem. Comparative molecular analyses identified fem/tra and its downstream target doublesex (dsx) as conserved unit within the sex determining pathway of holometabolous insects. In this study, we aim to examine evolutionary differences among these key regulators. Our main hypothesis is that sex determining key regulators in Hymenoptera species show signs of coevolution within single phylogenetic lineages. We take advantage of several newly sequenced genomes of bee species to test this hypothesis using bioinformatic approaches. We found evidences that duplications of fem are restricted to certain bee lineages and notable amino acid differences of tra2 between Apis and non-Apis species propose structural changes in Tra2 protein affecting co-regulatory function on target genes. These findings may help to gain deeper insights into the ancestral mode of hymenopteran sex determination and support the common view of the remarkable evolutionary flexibility in this regulatory pathway. PMID:25914717

  1. The evolutionary dynamics of major regulators for sexual development among Hymenoptera species.

    PubMed

    Biewer, Matthias; Schlesinger, Francisca; Hasselmann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    All hymenopteran species, such as bees, wasps and ants, are characterized by the common principle of haplodiploid sex determination in which haploid males arise from unfertilized eggs and females from fertilized eggs. The underlying molecular mechanism has been studied in detail in the western honey bee Apis mellifera, in which the gene complementary sex determiner (csd) acts as primary signal of the sex determining pathway, initiating female development by csd-heterozygotes. Csd arose from gene duplication of the feminizer (fem) gene, a transformer (tra) ortholog, and mediates in conjunction with transformer2 (tra2) sex-specific splicing of fem. Comparative molecular analyses identified fem/tra and its downstream target doublesex (dsx) as conserved unit within the sex determining pathway of holometabolous insects. In this study, we aim to examine evolutionary differences among these key regulators. Our main hypothesis is that sex determining key regulators in Hymenoptera species show signs of coevolution within single phylogenetic lineages. We take advantage of several newly sequenced genomes of bee species to test this hypothesis using bioinformatic approaches. We found evidences that duplications of fem are restricted to certain bee lineages and notable amino acid differences of tra2 between Apis and non-Apis species propose structural changes in Tra2 protein affecting co-regulatory function on target genes. These findings may help to gain deeper insights into the ancestral mode of hymenopteran sex determination and support the common view of the remarkable evolutionary flexibility in this regulatory pathway. PMID:25914717

  2. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage at The Dalles Dam Sluiceway, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Hedgepeth, J; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.; Skalski, John R.

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District engaged the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate fish passage at The Dalles Dam powerhouse in 2005. The goal of the study was to provide information on smolt passage that will inform decisions on long-term measures and operations to enhance sluiceway passage and reduce turbine passage to improve smolt survival at the dam. The study addressed one of the main programs dedicated to improving juvenile salmonid survival at The Dalles Dam: Surface Flow Bypass. The study objectives (see below) were met using a combination of hydroacoustic and hydraulic data. The study incorporated fixed-location hydroacoustic methods across the entire powerhouse, with especially intense sampling using multiple split-beam transducers at all sluiceway portals. We did not sample fish passage at the spillway in 2005. In the sluiceway nearfield, we used an acoustic camera to track fish movements. The fish data were interpreted with hydraulic data from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Fish passage data were collected in the framework of an “experiment” using a randomized block design (3-day treatments; two treatments) to compare two sluiceway operational configurations: Sluice 2+5 and Sluice 2+19 (six gates open for each configuration). Total project outflow was 76% of the 10-year average for spring and 71% of the 10-year average for summer. Based on these findings, we make the following recommendations: 1) The sluice should be operated 24 h/d from April until November. 2) Open six rather than three sluice gates to take advantage of the maximum hydraulic capacity of the sluiceway. 3) Open the three gates above the western-most operating main turbine unit and the three gates at MU 8 where turbine passage rates are relatively high. 4) Operate the turbine units below open sluice gates as a standard fish operations procedure. 5) Develop hydraulic and entrance enhancements to the sluiceway to tap the potential of The Dalles Dam sluiceway to be highly efficient and effective at passing juvenile salmonids. 6) Consider the following elements for surface flow bypasses during design of any sluiceway enhancements at The Dalles Dam: Form an extensive surface flow bypass flow net (surface bypass discharge greater than ~7% of total project discharge) at both west and east ends of the dam; Create a gradual increase in water velocity approaching the surface flow bypass (ideally, acceleration < 1 m/s per meter); Make water velocities at an entrance high enough (> 3 m/s) to entrain the subject juvenile fishes, e.g., 10,000 cfs or so; Adapt the shape and orientation of the surface entrance(s) to fit site-specific features, i.e., test a Removable Sluiceway Weir. 7)The Dalles Dam sluiceway has potential to be highly efficient and effective at passing juvenile salmonids. We recommend tapping this potential with enhancements to the sluiceway.

  3. An online database for IHN virus in Pacific Salmonid fish: MEAP-IHNV

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, Gael

    2012-01-01

    The MEAP-IHNV database provides access to detailed data for anyone interested in IHNV molecular epidemiology, such as fish health professionals, fish culture facility managers, and academic researchers. The flexible search capabilities enable the user to generate various output formats, including tables and maps, which should assist users in developing and testing hypotheses about how IHNV moves across landscapes and changes over time. The MEAP-IHNV database is available online at http://gis.nacse.org/ihnv/ (fig. 1). The database contains records that provide background information and genetic sequencing data for more than 1,000 individual field isolates of the fish virus Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), and is updated approximately annually. It focuses on IHNV isolates collected throughout western North America from 1966 to the present. The database also includes a small number of IHNV isolates from Eastern Russia. By engaging the expertise of the broader community of colleagues interested in IHNV, our goal is to enhance the overall understanding of IHNV epidemiology, including defining sources of disease outbreaks and viral emergence events, identifying virus traffic patterns and potential reservoirs, and understanding how human management of salmonid fish culture affects disease. Ultimately, this knowledge can be used to develop new strategies to reduce the effect of IHN disease in cultured and wild fish.

  4. Surface Flow Outlets to Protect Juvenile Salmonids Passing through Hydropower Dams

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Dauble, Dennis D.

    2006-10-27

    We reviewed results of research conducted by engineers and biologists over the past 50 years related to development of surface flow outlets (SFOs) for juvenile salmonids that migrate downstream past hydropower dams. An SFO is a non-turbine, water-efficient passage route with an overflow structure through which flow and fish pass over a dam. Our review covered 69 SFOs in Europe and North America. We identified five main types of SFOs ? low-flow bypass/sluices, high-flow sluices, forebay collectors, powerhouse retrofits, and surface spills. Most low-flow bypass/sluices are sited in Europe and on the east coast of North America, where mean annual project discharge and hydropower production for the dams we reviewed were 95 m3/s and 15 MW, respectively. The other four SFO types are found at dams on the west coast of North America with 2184 m3/s mean annual discharge and 788 MW mean output. A conceptual framework based on fish behavior and hydraulics for different regions of a hydropower project was developed to evaluate SFO performance. For all SFO types, fish collection efficiency averaged 54%, with an average effectiveness ratio of 17:1 (fish to inflow). Surface flow outlet technology can meet the goal of concurrent anadromous fish protection and hydropower generation.

  5. Web-based forums for clients of female sex workers: development of a German internet approach to HIV/STD-related sexual safety.

    PubMed

    Langanke, H; Ross, M W

    2009-01-01

    Clients of sex workers in Germany used to be unapproachable for issues of sexual health. Thus, prevention of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases used to focus on sex workers only, even though many sex workers accuse clients preferring unprotected sex. When prostitution was decriminalized in Germany in 2002, a till then unknown platform emerged on the German internet. Clients set up forums for themselves and their peers. These community forums were primarily meant to serve as platforms for the exchange of information, e.g. on the quality of services. We describe the development and expansion of these web-sites for clients of female commercial sex workers, and the clientele and operation of such sites. To study and to describe the sites, a close cooperation with their webmasters and administrators was crucial. The clients' community forums mark a change in paradigm, as clients became an accessible and addressable target group for sexual health and prevention issues on the internet. The Sexsicher sites have been developed to adequately target this group. PMID:19103884

  6. Comparative Performance of Acoustic-tagged and PIT-tagged Juvenile Salmonids

    SciTech Connect

    Hockersmith, Eric E.; Brown, Richard S.; Liedtke, Theresa L.

    2008-02-01

    Numerous research tools and technologies are currently being used to evaluate fish passage and survival to determine the impacts of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) on endangered and threatened juvenile salmonids, including PIT tags, balloon tags, hydroacoustic evaluations, radio telemetry, and acoustic telemetry. Each has advantages and disadvantages, but options are restricted in some situations because of limited capabilities of a specific technology, lack of detection capability downstream, or availability of adequate numbers of fish. However, there remains concern about the comparative effects of the tag or the tagging procedure on fish performance. The recently developed Juvenile Salmonid Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) acoustic transmitter is the smallest active acoustic tag currently available. The goal of this study was to determine whether fish tagged with the JSATS acoustic-telemetry tag can provide unbiased estimates of passage behavior and survival within the performance life of the tag. We conducted both field and laboratory studies to assess tag effects. For the field evaluation we released a total of 996 acoustic-tagged fish in conjunction with 21,026 PIT-tagged fish into the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam on 6 and 13 May. Travel times between release and downstream dams were not significantly different for the majority of the reaches between acoustic-tagged and PIT-tagged fish. In addition to the field evaluation, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted to determine if growth and survival of juvenile Chinook salmon surgically implanted with acoustic transmitters is different than untagged or PIT tagged juvenile Chinook salmon. Only yearling fish with integrated and non-integrated transmitters experienced mortalities, and these were low (<4.5%). Mortality among sub-yearling control and PIT-tag treatments ranged up to 7.7% while integrated and non-integrated treatments had slightly higher rates (up to 8.3% and 7.9% respectively). No acoustic transmitters were shed by yearling fish during the course of the 90 day study. Up to 7.8% of subyearling fish expelled transmitters. Tags were expelled from 5 to 63 days post-surgery. The average time to expulsion was 27 days; few fish expelled transmitters within 14 days of implantation or less. Histological results suggest that inflammation associated with implantation of an acoustic transmitter can produce fibrous tissue which can invade and possibly damage internal organs soon after implantation. Reactions severe enough to damage organs however, were limited to only ~20% of subyearling Chinook salmon, all of which were under 101mm and 12g at tagging. The infiltration of the fibrous tissue into organs was observed most often in fish held for 21 days and appeared to decrease in subsequent holding times.

  7. Removal of small dams and its influence on physical habitat for salmonids in a Norwegian river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fjeldstad, Hans-Petter; Barlaup, Bjørn; Stickler, Morten; Alfredsen, Knut; Gabrielsen, Sven-Erik

    2010-05-01

    While research and implementation of upstream migration solutions is extensive, and indeed often successful, full scale restoration projects and investigations of their influence on fish biology are rare in Norway. Acid deposition in Norwegian catchments peaked in the 1980's and resulted in both chronically and episodically acidified rivers and Salmonids in River Nidelva, one of the largest cathments in southern Norway, where extinct for decades. During this period hydropower development in the river paid limited attention to aquatic ecology. Weirs were constructed for esthetic purposes in the late 1970's and turned a 3 km stretch into a lake habitat, well suited for lake dwelling fish species, but unsuited for migration, spawning and juvenile habitat for salmonids. Since 2005, continuous liming to mitigate acidification has improved the water quality and a program for reintroduction of Atlantic salmon has been implemented. We used hydraulic modeling to plan the removal of two weirs on a bypass reach of the river. The 50 meters wide concrete weirs were blasted and removed in 2007, and ecological monitoring has been carried out in the river to assess the effect of weir removal. Topographic mapping, hydraulic measurements and modeling, in combination with biological surveys before and after the removal of the weirs, has proved to represent a powerful method for design of physical habitat adjustments and assessing their influence on fish biology. The model results also supported a rapid progress of planning and executing of the works. While telemetry studies before weir removal suggested that adult migration past the weirs was delayed with several weeks the fish can now pass the reach with minor obstacles. Spawning sites were discovered in the old bed substrate and were occupied already the first season after water velocities increased to suitable levels for spawning. Accordingly, the densities of Atlantic salmon juveniles have shown a marked increased after the conclusion of the project. Catches of pike and cyprinids on the reach is reduced, indicating that their habitat is no longer suitable, while salmon anglers have found new favorite spots in the restored pools and runs.

  8. Genital Appearance Dissatisfaction: Implications for Women’s Genital Image Self-Consciousness, Sexual Esteem, Sexual Satisfaction, and Sexual Risk

    PubMed Central

    Schick, Vanessa R.; Calabrese, Sarah K.; Rima, Brandi N.; Zucker, Alyssa N.

    2010-01-01

    Findings regarding the link between body image and sexuality have been equivocal, possibly because of the insensitivity of many of body image measures to potential variability across sensory aspects of the body (e.g., appearance versus odor), individual body parts (e.g., genitalia versus thighs), and social settings (e.g., public versus intimate). The current study refined existing methods of evaluating women’s body image in the context of sexuality by focusing upon two highly specified dimensions: satisfaction with the visual appearance of the genitalia and self-consciousness about the genitalia during a sexual encounter. Genital appearance dissatisfaction, genital image self-consciousness, and multiple facets of sexuality were examined with a sample of 217 undergraduate women using an online survey. Path analysis revealed that greater dissatisfaction with genital appearance was associated with higher genital image self-consciousness during physical intimacy, which, in turn, was associated with lower sexual esteem, sexual satisfaction, and motivation to avoid risky sexual behavior. These findings underscore the detrimental impact of negative genital perceptions on young women’s sexual wellbeing, which is of particular concern given their vulnerability at this stage of sexual development as well as the high rates of sexually transmitted infections within this age group. Interventions that enhance satisfaction with the natural appearance of their genitalia could facilitate the development of a healthy sexual self-concept and provide long-term benefits in terms of sexual safety and satisfaction. PMID:20824180

  9. Measuring Iranian women's sexual behaviors: Expert opinion

    PubMed Central

    Ghorashi, Zohreh; Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Yousefy, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    The cultural compatibility of sexually related instruments is problematic because the contexts from which the concepts and meanings were extracted may be significantly different from related contexts in a different society. This paper describes the instruments that have been used to assess sexual behaviors, primarily in Western contexts. Then, based on the instruments’ working definition of ‘sexual behavior’ and their theoretical frameworks, we will (1) discuss the applicability or cultural compatibility of existing instruments targeting women's sexual behaviors within an Iranian context, and (2) suggest criteria for sexually related tools applicable in Iranian settings. Iranian women's sexual scripts may compromise the existing instruments’ compatibility. Suggested criteria are as follows: understanding, language of sexuality, ethics and morality. Therefore, developing a culturally comprehensive measure that can adequately examine Iranian women's sexual behaviors is needed. PMID:25250346

  10. Sexual Education and Morality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiecker, Ben

    1992-01-01

    Distinguishes five interpretations of sexual education including factual knowledge; self-control; stressing love; sexual training; and sexual morality. Suggests that sexual education should be understood as teaching children the moral tendencies relevant to sexual conduct. Argues that infantile sexual desire is based on a contradiction in terms…

  11. Healthy sex and sexual health: new directions for studying outcomes of sexual health.

    PubMed

    Lefkowitz, Eva S; Vasilenko, Sara A

    2014-01-01

    Sexual behavior is an important aspect of adolescent development with implications for well-being. These chapters highlight important perspectives on studying sexual health from a normative, developmental perspective, such as viewing a range of sexual behaviors as life events; considering potentially positive physical health, mental health, social health, and identity outcomes; examining both intraindividual and interindividual differences in outcomes; recognizing the romantic relationship context of sexual behavior; and understanding how sexual media may impact sexual health outcomes. We suggest new directions for studying sexual health outcomes, such as studying behaviors beyond vaginal sex and condom use, new methodologies such as latent class analysis, sophisticated longitudinal designs, and collection and analysis of dyadic data. We recommend research on populations underrepresented in sexual health research such as late adolescents who do not attend traditional universities and adolescents from ethnic/racial minorities. Finally, we consider future directions for sexuality education and prevention efforts. PMID:24962364

  12. NonNon--native Species Impacts on Nativenative Species Impacts on Native Salmonids in the Columbia River BasinSalmonids in the Columbia River BasinNon-native Species Impacts on Native

    E-print Network

    introductions and current status in theintroductions and current status in the Columbia River Basin River BasinSalmonids in the Columbia River BasinNon-native Species Impacts on Native Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin Including Recommendations for Evaluating the Use of Non-native Species in Resident

  13. Rescheduling Child Sexual Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuill, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The author comments on Diederik Janssen's essay "ReQueering Queer Youth Development: A Post-Developmental Approach to Childhood and Pedagogy," commenting that Janssen's analysis can inform both both materialist and post-structuralist understandings of children's sexuality by shifting focus from children as fetishized objects or as a group…

  14. SEXUAL ASSAULT, SEXUAL HARASSMENT, STALKING OR RELATIONSHIP VIOLENCE POLICY

    E-print Network

    McConnell, Terry

    ,domestic or dating violence,stalking,sexual coercion and non-contact sexual abuse such as voyeurism,and sexual and other forms of sexual assault, sexual coercion and non- contact sexual abuse such as voyeurism

  15. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder caused by antiepileptic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Singh, M.; Bathla, Manish; Martin, A.; Aneja, J.

    2015-01-01

    Female sexual dysfunction is common but poorly understood sexual problem in women. Sexual dysfunction in female is multi-factorial in origin and also observed with intake of drug acting on central nervous system. This case report describes a female epileptic patient who developed sexual dysfunction with intake of antiepileptic drugs. PMID:26157303

  16. Medical Commentary on the National Institute of Child Health and Development Consensus Statement on the Investigation of Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerns, David L.

    1994-01-01

    The statement's principle medical research recommendations address the need for a longitudinal study of the healing of anogenital injuries and for the expansion and refinement of the understanding of normal anogenital anatomy. Four areas for additional medical research are described: uniform terminology, patient triage, sexually transmitted…

  17. Involving the Hard to Reach: Developing and Evaluating a Sexual Health Programme for Early School Leavers in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, William C. W.; Holroyd, Eleanor A.; Lee, Albert; Wong, Jonathan C. P.; Leung, Phil W. S.

    2011-01-01

    Early school leavers cannot access school-based sex education programmes, increasing their vulnerability to sexual health issues. This study evaluated a culturally-sensitive and target-orientated sex education programme involving this group. Early school leavers were recruited from two branches of the Chinese Young Men's Christian Association in…

  18. Language Choice and Sexual Communication among Xhosa Speakers in Cape Town, South Africa: Implications for HIV Prevention Message Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Demetria; Schensul, Stephen; Mlobeli, Regina

    2011-01-01

    Communicating about sex is a vital component of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and influences how HIV educators convey messages to communities and how couples negotiate safer sex practices. However, sexual communication inevitably confronts culturally based behavioral guidelines and linguistic taboos unique to diverse social…

  19. SALMOD: a population model for salmonids: user's manual. Version W3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholow, John; Heasley, John; Laake, Jeff; Sandelin, Jeff; Coughlan, Beth A.K.; Moos, Alan

    2002-01-01

    SALMOD is a computer model that simulates the dynamics of freshwater salmonid populations, both anadromous and resident. The conceptual model was developed in a workshop setting (Williamson et al. 1993) using fish experts concerned with Trinity River chinook restoration. The model builds on the foundation laid by similar models (see Cheslak and Jacobson 1990). The model’s premise that that egg and fish mortality are directly related to spatially and temporally variable micro- and macrohabitat limitations, which themselves are related to the timing and amount of streamflow and other meteorological variables. Habitat quality and capacity are characterized by the hydraulic and thermal properties of individual mesohabitats, which we use as spatial “computation units” in the model. The model tracks a population of spatially distinct cohorts that originate as gees and grow from one life stage to another as a function of local water temperature. Individual cohorts either remain in the computational unit in which they emerged or move, in whole or in part, to nearby units (see McCormick et al. 1998). Model processes include spawning (with red superimposition and incubation losses), growth (including egg maturation), mortality, and movement (freshet-induced, habitat-induced, and seasonal). Model processes are implemented such that the user (modeler) has the ability to more-or-less program the model on the fly to create the dynamics thought to animate the population. SALMOD then tabulates the various causes of mortality and the whereabouts of fish.

  20. Vertical transmission of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa), the causative agent of salmonid proliferative kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Abd-Elfattah, Ahmed; Fontes, Inês; Kumar, Gokhlesh; Soliman, Hatem; Hartikainen, Hanna; Okamura, Beth; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2014-04-01

    The freshwater bryozoan, Fredericella sultana, is the main primary host of the myxozoan endoparasite, Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae which causes proliferative kidney disease (PKD) of salmonid fish. Because spores that develop in bryozoan colonies are infectious to fish, bryozoans represent the ultimate source of PKD. Bryozoans produce numerous seed-like dormant stages called statoblasts that enable persistence during unfavourable conditions and achieve long-distance dispersal. The possibility that T. bryosalmonae may undergo vertical transmission via infection of statoblasts has been the subject of much speculation since this is observed in close relatives. This study provides the first evidence that such vertical transmission of T. bryosalmonae is extensive by examining the proportions of infected statoblasts in populations of F. sultana on two different rivers systems and confirms its effectiveness by demonstrating transmission from material derived from infected statoblasts to fish hosts. Vertical transmission in statoblasts is likely to play an important role in the infection dynamics of both bryozoan and fish hosts and may substantially contribute to the widespread distribution of PKD. PMID:24229733

  1. Measurement and Design Issues in the Study of Adolescent Sexual Behavior and the Evaluation of Adolescent Sexual Health Behavior Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael; Palacios, Rebecca; Penhollow, Tina M.

    2012-01-01

    To improve the quality of research and commentary concerning adolescent sexuality and evaluation of both comprehensive sexuality education and abstinence education programs, this article aims to help readers (1) select appropriate measures to study adolescent sexual behavior, (2) develop appropriate study designs to evaluate adolescent sexual

  2. Marine effect of introduced salmonids: Prey consumption by exotic steelhead and anadromous brown trout in the Patagonian Continental Shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ciancio, J.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Pascual, M.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of stable isotope analysis, we estimated the marine diet of the most abundant anadromous salmonid species in Patagonian Atlantic basins. The results were coupled with bioenergetic and population models to estimate the consumption of food by salmonids and was compared with that by seabirds, the most abundant top predators in the area. Amphipods were the main salmonid prey, followed by sprat, silversides, squid, and euphausiids. The total consumption, even assuming large anadromous salmonid populations, represented <5% of the total consumption by seabirds. We also identified the particular seabird colonies and artisanal fisheries with which salmonid trophic interactions at a more local scale could be significant. ?? 2010, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  3. Ensuring youth's right to participation and promotion of youth leadership in the development of sexual and reproductive health policies and programs.

    PubMed

    Villa-Torres, Laura; Svanemyr, Joar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to reflect on the concepts of adolescence and youth, summarize models and frameworks developed to conceptualize youth participation, and assess research that has attempted to evaluate the implementation and impact of youth participation in the field of sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR). We searched and critically reviewed relevant published reports and "gray literature" from the period 2000-2013. "Young people" are commonly defined as those between the ages of 10 and 24 years, but what it means to be a young person varies largely across cultures and depends on a range of socioeconomic factors. Several conceptual frameworks have been developed to better understand youth participation, and some frameworks are designed to monitor youth development programs that have youth participation as a key component. Although none of them are SRHR specific, they have the potential to be adapted and applied also for adolescents' SRHR programs. The most monitored and evaluated intervention type is peer education programs, but the effectiveness of the approach is questioned. There are few attempts to systematically evaluate youth participation, and clear indicators and better methodologies still need to be developed. More research and documentation as well as the adoption of innovative practices for involving youth in sexual and reproductive health programs are needed. Participation is a right and should not only be evaluated in terms of effectiveness and impact. Youth participation in program and policy development should still be a priority. PMID:25528979

  4. Harvard University Sexual Harassment and

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yiling

    , humiliating, or sexually offensive working environment. Workplace sexual harassment includes behavior or sexually suggestive comments, jokes, innuendoes or gestures; Displaying sexually suggestive objects

  5. Healthy Sex and Sexual Health: New Directions for Studying Outcomes of Sexual Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Vasilenko, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual behavior is an important aspect of adolescent development with implications for well-being. These chapters highlight important perspectives on studying sexual health from a normative, developmental perspective, such as viewing a range of sexual behaviors as life events; considering potentially positive physical health, mental health, social…

  6. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin; 1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Suzanne M.; Cameron, William A.; Shapleigh, Stacey L.

    1995-12-01

    This is the first year report of a multi-year project that monitors the outmigration and survival of hatchery and naturally produced juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River. This project supplements and complements ongoing or completed fisheries projects in the Umatilla river basin. Knowledge gained on outmigration and survival will assist researchers and managers in adapting hatchery practices, flow enhancement strategies, canal operations, and supplementation and enhancement efforts for natural fish populations. This project also completed tasks related to evaluating juvenile salmonid passage at Three Mile Falls Dam and West Extension Canal.

  7. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin; 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Suzanne M.; Kern, J. Chris; Carmichael, Richard W.

    1997-01-01

    This is the second year report of a multi-year project that monitors the outmigration and survival of hatchery and naturally-produced juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River. This project supplements and complements ongoing or completed fisheries projects in the Umatilla River basin. Knowledge gained on outmigration and survival will assist researchers and managers in adapting hatchery practices, flow enhancement strategies, canal operations, and supplementation and enhancement efforts for natural and restored fish populations. The authors also report on tasks related to evaluating juvenile salmonid passage at Three Mile Falls Dam and West Extension Canal.

  8. Effects of Hatchery Rearing on the Structure and Function of Salmonid Mechanosensory Systems.

    PubMed

    Brown, Andrew D; Sisneros, Joseph A; Jurasin, Tyler; Coffin, Allison B

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews recent studies on the effects of hatchery rearing on the auditory and lateral line systems of salmonid fishes. Major conclusions are that (1) hatchery-reared juveniles exhibit abnormal lateral line morphology (relative to wild-origin conspecifics), suggesting that the hatchery environment affects lateral line structure, perhaps due to differences in the hydrodynamic conditions of hatcheries versus natural rearing environments, and (2) hatchery-reared salmonids have a high proportion of abnormal otoliths, a condition associated with reduced auditory sensitivity and suggestive of inner ear dysfunction. PMID:26610951

  9. Advancing sexual and reproductive health and rights in low- and middle-income countries: implications for the post-2015 global development agenda.

    PubMed

    Germain, Adrienne; Sen, Gita; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia; Shankar, Mridula

    2015-01-01

    The papers and commentaries in this special issue illuminate progress made by low- and middle-income countries towards implementation of the Programme of Action (PoA) agreed by 179 countries during the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994. The PoA presents a path-breaking sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) framework for global and national population and health policies. While progress towards implementation has been made at global, regional and national levels, continuing and new challenges require that high priority be given to SRHR for all, particularly women and girls, during the remaining months of the millennium development goals and in the United Nations post-2015 development agenda. This paper highlights three critical gaps, raised in other papers: inequalities in access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information and services; the widespread need to improve SRH services to meet public health, human rights and medical ethics standards for quality of care; and the absence or inadequate use of accountability mechanisms to track and remedy the other two. We discuss priority actions to achieve equality, quality and accountability in SRHR policies, programmes and services, especially those that should be included in the post-2015 development agenda. PMID:25628182

  10. Advancing sexual and reproductive health and rights in low- and middle-income countries: Implications for the post-2015 global development agenda

    PubMed Central

    Germain, Adrienne; Sen, Gita; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia; Shankar, Mridula

    2015-01-01

    The papers and commentaries in this special issue illuminate progress made by low- and middle-income countries towards implementation of the Programme of Action (PoA) agreed by 179 countries during the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994. The PoA presents a path-breaking sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) framework for global and national population and health policies. While progress towards implementation has been made at global, regional and national levels, continuing and new challenges require that high priority be given to SRHR for all, particularly women and girls, during the remaining months of the millennium development goals and in the United Nations post-2015 development agenda. This paper highlights three critical gaps, raised in other papers: inequalities in access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information and services; the widespread need to improve SRH services to meet public health, human rights and medical ethics standards for quality of care; and the absence or inadequate use of accountability mechanisms to track and remedy the other two. We discuss priority actions to achieve equality, quality and accountability in SRHR policies, programmes and services, especially those that should be included in the post-2015 development agenda. PMID:25628182

  11. ESPR Uroradiology Taskforce-imaging recommendations in paediatric uroradiology, part VIII: retrograde urethrography, imaging disorder of sexual development and imaging childhood testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Riccabona, Michael; Darge, Kassa; Lobo, Maria-Luisa; Ording-Muller, Lil-Sophie; Augdal, Thomas A; Avni, Fred E; Blickman, Johan; Damasio, Beatrice M; Ntoulia, Aikaterini; Papadopoulou, Frederika; Vivier, Pierre-Hughes; Willi, Ulrich

    2015-12-01

    Three new consensus-based recommendations of the European Society of Paediatric Radiology Uroradiology Taskforce and the European Society of Urogenital Radiology Paediatric Working Group on paediatric uroradiology are presented. One deals with indications and technique for retrograde urethrography, one with imaging in the work-up for disorders of sexual development and one with imaging workflow in suspected testicular torsion. The latter is subdivided to suggest a distinct algorithm to deal with testicular torsion in neonates. These proposals aim to outline effective imaging algorithms to optimise diagnostic accuracy and to harmonize diagnostic imaging among institutions and practitioners. PMID:26626757

  12. The sexual cascade and the rise of pre-ejaculatory (Darwinian) sexual selection, sex roles, and sexual conflict.

    PubMed

    Parker, Geoff A

    2014-10-01

    After brief historic overviews of sexual selection and sexual conflict, I argue that pre-ejaculatory sexual selection (the form of sexual selection discussed by Darwin) arose at a late stage in an inevitable succession of transitions flowing from the early evolution of syngamy to the evolution of copulation and sex roles. If certain conditions were met, this "sexual cascade" progressed inevitably, if not, sexual strategy remained fixed at a given stage. Prolonged evolutionary history of intense sperm competition/selection under external fertilization preceded the rise of advanced mobility, which generated pre-ejaculatory sexual selection, followed on land by internal fertilization and reduced sperm competition in the form of postcopulatory sexual selection. I develop a prospective model of the early evolution of mobility, which, as Darwin realized, was the catalyst for pre-ejaculatory sexual selection. Stages in the cascade should be regarded as consequential rather than separate phenomena and, as such, invalidate much current opposition to Darwin-Bateman sex roles. Potential for sexual conflict occurs throughout, greatly increasing later in the cascade, reaching its peak under precopulatory sexual selection when sex roles become highly differentiated. PMID:25147177

  13. Storying childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna S

    2008-08-01

    A theoretical framework that explains how survivors of childhood sexual abuse tell others about their abuse experiences is presented. Data are drawn from open-ended interviews conducted with 74 individuals who experienced ongoing childhood sexual abuse by a family member or close acquaintance. Grounded theory methods were used to develop the framework. The psychosocial problem shared by the participants is that childhood sexual abuse both demands and defies explanation. The core psychosocial process used in response to this problem is storying childhood sexual abuse. The framework includes five processes, and the stories associated with each process vary in their nature and function. The processes and associated stories are (a) starting the story: the story-not-yet-told, (b) coming out with the story: the story-first-told, (c) shielding the story: the story-as-secret, (d) revising the story: the story-as-account, and (e) sharing the story: the story-as-message. Clinical applications of the framework are discussed. PMID:18650560

  14. [The sexuality by Marañón].

    PubMed

    Clavero Núñez, José Antonio

    2010-01-01

    It is noticeable that he always had an interest in sexuality Marañón. It must be noted that at the time this included a series of processes that now have become separated from it, as all human reproduction, both from a social standpoint as a scientist or political issues and problems in speaking so very active. But specifically, referring to the current concept of sexuality, much to Marañón investigated because, following the ideas of Freud, then in vogue, I wanted to know the importance that the hormones, newly discovered, had on the brain and the human personality. It is quite possible to believe that there is a brain chemistry that modulate the individual's character, against the prevailing idea among psychiatrists of his time. So his research with adrenaline on the behavior had a huge impact. Interested in the morphological evolution of sex and sexuality from birth to old age, remain valid provided knowledge about the process of sexual maturation and decline, menopause, or rather the climacteric, as rightly he called that period of time. He also made a deep study and systematization of the pathology adel origin and evolution of sex, in which he listed as intersex, both anatomically and functionally and psychic. Because he was always interested in the relationship of human behavior, the development of your body or endocrine constitution and personality. This is reflected in their psychobiographies as the paradigm "Bioassay of Henry IV of Castile and his time". PMID:21877403

  15. [Adolescent sexuality].

    PubMed

    Calero, Juan del Rey

    2010-01-01

    The social Adolescent features are insecurity, narcissism, eroticism, more impetuosity than reason. 1/3 of adolescents have risk behaviour for health. The pregnancy rate in adolescent are 9/1,000 (11,720, the abort about 50 %). The total abort (2009) were 114,480. Increase the rate of 8,4 (1990) to 14,6/ 1,000 (2009). The sexual education fails. The consulting about contraceptives get pregnancy of the OR 3,2, condom OR 2,7. The adolescent are influenced in his matter: oeer have 70-75 % of influence, mother 30-40 %, father 15 %, for yhe environment and education Cyberspace access to information: 33 % exposed to unwanted sexual materials, 1 in 7 solicited sexual online. The argument have 4 central topic: Morality and Responsibility, Desire (responsibility vs gratification), Danger (fear related to pregnancy and STD/VIH), and Victimization. The prevention of STD: so called safe sex, delayed, and abstinence, Prevention HPV vaccine. The information is not enough, are necessary personal integral formation in values as self control, abstinence, mutual respect, responsibility, reasonable decisions. PMID:21877398

  16. An epidemic model for the interactions between thermal regime of rivers and transmission of Proliferative Kidney Disease in salmonid fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carraro, Luca; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Mari, Lorenzo; Gatto, Marino; Strepparava, Nicole; Hartikainen, Hanna; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) affects salmonid populations in European and North-American rivers. It is caused by the endoparasitic myxozoan Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, which exploits freshwater bryozoans (Fredericella sultana) and salmonids as primary and secondary hosts, respectively. Incidence and mortality, which can reach up to 90-100%, are known to be strongly related to water temperature. PKD has been present in brown trout population for a long time but has recently increased rapidly in incidence and severity causing a decline in fish catches in many countries. In addition, environmental changes are feared to cause PKD outbreaks at higher latitude and altitude regions as warmer temperatures promote disease development. This calls for a better comprehension of the interactions between disease dynamics and the thermal regime of rivers, in order to possibly devise strategies for disease management. In this perspective, a spatially explicit model of PKD epidemiology in riverine host metacommunities is proposed. The model aims at summarizing the knowledge on the modes of transmission of the disease and the life-cycle of the parasite, making the connection between temperature and epidemiological parameters explicit. The model accounts for both local population and disease dynamics of bryozoans and fish and hydrodynamic dispersion of the parasite spores and hosts along the river network. The model is time-hybrid, coupling inter-seasonal and intra-seasonal dynamics, the former being described in a continuous time domain, the latter seen as time steps of a discrete time domain. In order to test the model, a case study is conducted in river Wigger (Cantons of Aargau and Lucerne, Switzerland), where data about water temperature, brown trout and bryozoan populations and PKD prevalence are being collected.

  17. Influence of Habitat Modifications on Habitat Composition and Anadromous Salmonid Populations in Fish Creek, Oregon, 1983-1988 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, Gordon H.; Everest, Fred H.; Hohler, David B.

    1990-05-01

    Modification of degraded habitats to increase populations of anadromous salmonids is a major focus of management agencies throughout the Pacific Northwest. Millions of dollars are spent annually on such efforts. Inherent in implementing habitat improvements is the need for quantitative evaluation of the biological and physical effects of such work. Reeves et al. (in press), however, noted that such evaluations are rare, making it difficult to assess the true results of habitat work. While it is not economically possible to thoroughly evaluate every habitat project, it is essential that intensive evaluations be done on selected representative projects. One such evaluation program has been underway since 1982 on Fish Creek, a tributary of the Clackamas River near Estacada, OR. Habitat modification has been done by the USDA Forest Service, Estacada Ranger District, Mt. Hood National Forest with funding provided in part by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The USDA Forest Service, Anadromous Fish Habitat Research Unit, Pacific Northwest Research Station (PNW), Corvallis, OR is charged with: (1) evaluating the biological and physical responses to habitat modifications on a basin scale; and (2) developing a cost-benefit analysis of the program. Preliminary results have been reported in a series of annual publications, Everest and Sedell 1983, 1984 and Everest et al. 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988. The objectives of this paper are to: (1) report 1988 observations of biological and physical changes in habitat, salmonid populations, and smolt production in Fish Creek, and (2) examine preliminary trends in fish habitat and populations related to habitat improvement over the period 1983-1988. We have prefaced the trends in the latter objective as preliminary because we believe it could take a minimum of 10 years before the full biological and physical responses to habitat work are realized. We therefore urge caution in interpreting these preliminary results.

  18. Timing matters: species-specific interactions between spawning time, substrate quality, and recruitment success in three salmonid species

    PubMed Central

    Sternecker, Katharina; Denic, Marco; Geist, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Substratum quality and oxygen supply to the interstitial zone are crucial for the reproductive success of salmonid fishes. At present, degradation of spawning grounds due to fine sediment deposition and colmation are recognized as main factors for reproductive failure. In addition, changes in water temperatures due to climate change, damming, and cooling water inlets are predicted to reduce hatching success. We tested the hypothesis that the biological effects of habitat degradation depend strongly on the species-specific spawning seasons and life-history strategies (e.g., fall- vs. spring-spawners, migratory vs. resident species) and assessed temperature as an important species-specific factor for hatching success within river substratum. We studied the species-specific differences in their responses to such disturbances using egg-to-fry survival of Danube Salmon (Hucho hucho), resident brown trout (Salmo trutta fario), and migratory brown trout (Salmo trutta lacustris) as biological endpoint. The egg incubation and hatching success of the salmonids and their dependence on temperature and stream substratum quality were compared. Hatching rates of Danube salmon were lower than of brown trout, probably due to higher oxygen demands and increased interstitial respiration in spring. Increases in maximum water temperature reduced hatching rates of resident and migratory brown trout (both fall-spawners) but were positively correlated with hatching rates of Danube salmon (a spring-spawner). Significantly longer incubation periods of resident and migratory brown trout coincided with relatively low stream substratum quality at the end of the egg incubation. Danube salmon seem to avoid low oxygen concentrations in the hyporheic zone by faster egg development favored by higher water temperatures. Consequently, the prediction of effects of temperature changes and altered stream substratum properties on gravel-spawning fishes and biological communities should consider the observed species-specific variances in life-history strategies to increase conservation success. PMID:25077024

  19. Flibanserin for female sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Reviriego, C

    2014-08-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most commonly described form of female sexual dysfunction. There is currently no pharmacological therapy approved to treat HSDD, and therefore, there is an unmet medical need for the development of efficacious treatment alternatives. Flibanserin is a novel, non-hormonal drug for the treatment of HSDD in pre- and postmenopausal women, although the application submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration by Sprout Pharmaceuticals is only for premenopausal women. Flibanserin works by correcting an imbalance of the levels of the neurotransmitters that affect sexual desire. More specifically, flibanserin increases dopamine and norepinephrine, both responsible for sexual excitement, and decreases serotonin, responsible for sexual inhibition. Clinically, flibanserin has exhibited some encouraging results in terms of its ability to increase the frequency of satisfying sexual events, and the intensity of sexual desire. However, adverse events such as dizziness, nausea, fatigue and somnolence, typical of a centrally acting drug, are also frequently related to flibanserin treatment. PMID:25187905

  20. Sexual dimorphism in flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Spencer C H; Hough, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Among dioecious flowering plants, females and males often differ in a range of morphological, physiological, and life-history traits. This is referred to as sexual dimorphism, and understanding why it occurs is a central question in evolutionary biology. Our review documents a range of sexually dimorphic traits in angiosperm species, discusses their ecological consequences, and details the genetic and evolutionary processes that drive divergence between female and male phenotypes. We consider why sexual dimorphism in plants is generally less well developed than in many animal groups, and also the importance of sexual and natural selection in contributing to differences between the sexes. Many sexually dimorphic characters, including both vegetative and flowering traits, are associated with differences in the costs of reproduction, which are usually greater in females, particularly in longer-lived species. These differences can influence the frequency and distribution of females and males across resource gradients and within heterogeneous environments, causing niche differences and the spatial segregation of the sexes. The interplay between sex-specific adaptation and the breakdown of between-sex genetic correlations allows for the independent evolution of female and male traits, and this is influenced in some species by the presence of sex chromosomes. We conclude by providing suggestions for future work on sexual dimorphism in plants, including investigations of the ecological and genetic basis of intraspecific variation, and genetic mapping and expression studies aimed at understanding the genetic architecture of sexually dimorphic trait variation. PMID:23183260

  1. Selective advantage for sexual reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2006-06-01

    This paper develops a simplified model for sexual reproduction within the quasispecies formalism. The model assumes a diploid genome consisting of two chromosomes, where the fitness is determined by the number of chromosomes that are identical to a given master sequence. We also assume that there is a cost to sexual reproduction, given by a characteristic time ?seek during which haploid cells seek out a mate with which to recombine. If the mating strategy is such that only viable haploids can mate, then when ?seek=0 , it is possible to show that sexual reproduction will always out compete asexual reproduction. However, as ?seek increases, sexual reproduction only becomes advantageous at progressively higher mutation rates. Once the time cost for sex reaches a critical threshold, the selective advantage for sexual reproduction disappears entirely. The results of this paper suggest that sexual reproduction is not advantageous in small populations per se, but rather in populations with low replication rates. In this regime, the cost for sex is sufficiently low that the selective advantage obtained through recombination leads to the dominance of the strategy. In fact, at a given replication rate and for a fixed environment volume, sexual reproduction is selected for in high populations because of the reduced time spent finding a reproductive partner.

  2. Selective advantage for sexual reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2006-03-01

    We develop a simplified model for sexual replication within the quasispecies formalism. We assume that the genomes of the replicating organisms are two-chromosomed and diploid, and that the fitness is determined by the number of chromosomes that are identical to a given master sequence. We also assume that there is a cost to sexual replication, given by a characteristic time ?seek during which haploid cells seek out a mate with which to recombine. If the mating strategy is such that only viable haploids can mate, then when ?seek= 0 , it is possible to show that sexual replication will always outcompete asexual replication. However, as ?seek increases, sexual replication only becomes advantageous at progressively higher mutation rates. Once the time cost for sex reaches a critical threshold, the selective advantage for sexual replication disappears entirely. The results of this talk suggest that sexual replication is not advantageous in small populations per se, but rather in populations with low replication rates. In this regime, the cost for sex is sufficiently low that the selective advantage obtained through recombination leads to the dominance of the strategy. In fact, at a given replication rate and for a fixed environment volume, sexual replication is selected for in high populations because of the reduced time spent finding a reproductive partner.

  3. Characterizing the distribution of an endangered salmonid using environmental DNA analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laramie, Matthew B.; Pilliod, David S.; Goldberg, Caren S.

    2015-01-01

    Determining species distributions accurately is crucial to developing conservation and management strategies for imperiled species, but a challenging task for small populations. We evaluated the efficacy of environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis for improving detection and thus potentially refining the known distribution of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Methow and Okanogan Subbasins of the Upper Columbia River, which span the border between Washington, USA and British Columbia, Canada. We developed an assay to target a 90 base pair sequence of Chinook DNA and used quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to quantify the amount of Chinook eDNA in triplicate 1-L water samples collected at 48 stream locations in June and again in August 2012. The overall probability of detecting Chinook with our eDNA method in areas within the known distribution was 0.77 (±0.05 SE). Detection probability was lower in June (0.62, ±0.08 SE) during high flows and at the beginning of spring Chinook migration than during base flows in August (0.93, ±0.04 SE). In the Methow subbasin, mean eDNA concentration was higher in August compared to June, especially in smaller tributaries, probably resulting from the arrival of spring Chinook adults, reduced discharge, or both. Chinook eDNA concentrations did not appear to change in the Okanogan subbasin from June to August. Contrary to our expectations about downstream eDNA accumulation, Chinook eDNA did not decrease in concentration in upstream reaches (0–120 km). Further examination of factors influencing spatial distribution of eDNA in lotic systems may allow for greater inference of local population densities along stream networks or watersheds. These results demonstrate the potential effectiveness of eDNA detection methods for determining landscape-level distribution of anadromous salmonids in large river systems.

  4. Assessment of Native Salmonids Above Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Lamansky, Jr., James A.

    2004-03-01

    We assessed the relationships between specific stream attributes and Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri distribution and biomass at 773 stream reaches (averaging 100 m in length) throughout the Upper Snake River Basin in Idaho, in an effort to identify possible limiting factors. Because limiting factors were expected to vary across the range of cutthroat trout distribution in Idaho, separate logistic and multiple regression models were developed for each of the nine major river drainages to relate stream conditions to occurrence and biomass of cutthroat trout. Adequate stream flow to measure fish and habitat existed at 566 sites, and of those, Yellowstone cutthroat trout were present at 322 sites, while rainbow trout O. mykiss (or rainbow x cutthroat hybrids) and brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis occurred at 108 and 181 sites, respectively. In general, cutthroat trout presence at a specific site within a drainage was associated with a higher percentage of public property, higher elevation, more gravel and less fine substrate, and more upright riparian vegetation. However, there was much variation between drainages in the direction and magnitude of the relationships between stream characteristics and Yellowstone cutthroat trout occurrence and biomass, and in model strength. This was especially true for biomass models, in which we were able to develop models for only five drainages that explained more than 50% of the variation in cutthroat trout biomass. Sample size appeared to affect the strength of the biomass models, with a higher explanation of biomass variation in drainages with lower sample sizes. The occurrence of nonnative salmonids was not strongly related to cutthroat trout occurrence, but their widespread distribution and apparent ability to displace native cutthroat trout suggest they may nevertheless pose the largest threat to long-term cutthroat trout persistence in the Upper Snake River Basin.

  5. Predation by seals on salmonids in two Scottish T . J . C A R T E R

    E-print Network

    Pierce, Graham

    Predation by seals on salmonids in two Scottish estuaries T . J . C A R T E R Department of Life of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK Abstract Detailed observations of the behaviour of harbour seals, Phoca vitulina L years between 1993 and 1996. Small numbers of grey seals, Halichoerus grypus Fab., were also present

  6. Columbia River Basin Accords -Narrative Proposal Form 1 Influence of Environment and Landscape on Salmonid Genetics

    E-print Network

    and Landscape on Salmonid Genetics Table 1. Proposal Metadata Project Number 2009-005-00 Proposer Columbia River Genetics Province(s) Basinwide Subbasin(s) Basinwide Contact Name Shawn Narum Contact email nars from the Fish & Wildlife Program Accords with the following objectives: 1) Landscape Genetics

  7. Spatial Distribution of Juvenile Salmonids in the Hanford Reach, Columbia River

    E-print Network

    Spatial Distribution of Juvenile Salmonids in the Hanford Reach, Columbia River Dennis D. Dauble salmon, sockeye salmon. and steelhead was determined in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River from July-age fall chinook salmon occurred primarily in shoreline areas of reduced current velocity but were present

  8. Growth and Survival of Columbia River basin juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River

    E-print Network

    : survival and growth in the Columbia River Plume and northern California Current". - BPA not sole fundingGrowth and Survival of Columbia River basin juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River Plume and Northern California Current Kym Jacobson, Bill Peterson, Cheryl Morgan, Kurt Fresh and "30 others" 14

  9. Going and Coming: Survival and Timing of PIT-Tagged Juvenile and Adult Salmonids

    E-print Network

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    90 m 122 m Matrix Antenna Pile Dike Array (RKM 70) Bonneville Dam (RKM 234) #12;0 20 40 60 80 100 survival estimates to Bonneville Dam · 2011: Estuarine PIT detection of returning adult salmonids begins ­ Purpose: Document timing and estimate survival upstream to Bonneville Dam #12;Outline · Highlight 15 years

  10. The Marine Ecology of Juvenile Columbia River Basin Salmonids: A Synthesis of Research 1998-2011

    E-print Network

    , the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded three multi-year research, monitoring, and evaluation projectsThe Marine Ecology of Juvenile Columbia River Basin Salmonids: A Synthesis of Research 1998 Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries and Oceans Canada Kintama Research

  11. The influence of non-native salmonids on circulating hormone concentrations in juvenile Atlantic salmon

    E-print Network

    Neff, Bryan D.

    The influence of non-native salmonids on circulating hormone concentrations in juvenile Atlantic strains, as well as the relationship between these hormones and social dominance and growth. Basal hormone levels and the hormonal response to the presence of the trouts varied among the strains. Cortisol

  12. Osmoregulatory actions of the GH/IGF axis in non-salmonid teleosts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mancera, J.M.; McCormick, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    Salmonid fishes provided the first findings on the influence of the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) axis on osmoregulation in teleost fishes. Recent studies on non-salmonid species, however, indicate that this physiological action of the GH/IGF-I axis is not restricted to salmonids or anadromous fishes. GH-producing cells in the pituitary of fish acclimated to different salinities show different degrees of activation depending on the species studied. Plasma GH levels either increase or do not change after transfer of fish from freshwater to seawater. Treatment with GH or IGF-I increases salinity tolerance and/or increases gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity of killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus), tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus and Oreochromis niloticus) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis). As in salmonids, a positive interaction between GH and cortisol for improving hypoosmoregulatory capacity has been described in tilapia (O. mossambicus). Research on the osmoregulatory role of the GH/IGF-I axis is derived from a small number of teleost species. The study of more species with different osmoregulary patterns will be necessary to fully clarify the osmoregulatory role of GH/IGF-I axis in fish. The available data does suggest, however, that the influence of the GH/IGF-I axis on osmoregulation may be a common feature of euryhalinity in teleosts. Copyright (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Inc.

  13. VARIABILITY IN DIMENSIONS OF SALMONID OTOLITH NUCLEI: IMPLICATIONS FOR STOCK IDENTIFICATION AND

    E-print Network

    VARIABILITY IN DIMENSIONS OF SALMONID OTOLITH NUCLEI: IMPLICATIONS FOR STOCK IDENTIFICATION AND MICROSTRUCTURE INTERPRETATION JOHN D. NEILSON,t GLEN H. GEEN,2 AND BRIAN CHANs ABSTRACT Sagittal otoliths in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, and chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, arise by fusion of otolith

  14. The physiological effects of exhaustive swimming in the white muscle of salmonids have been studied extensively,

    E-print Network

    Hinch, Scott G.

    and phosphocreatine in muscle tissue following swimming. Although increased lactate concentrations within the whiteThe physiological effects of exhaustive swimming in the white muscle of salmonids have been studied muscle fibres are recruited (Hudson, 1973; Bone et al. 1978; Brill and Dizon, 1979; Rome et al. 1985

  15. Comparison of growth and metabolic regulation between wild, domesticated and transgenic salmonids.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To gain a better understanding of the aspects underlying normal and growth hormone enhanced growth in salmonids, quantitative expression analysis was performed for a number of genes related to muscle growth, metabolism, immunology and energy regulation. This analysis was performed in liver and musc...

  16. Barge Transportation of Juvenile Salmonids on the Columbia and Snake Rivers, 1977

    E-print Network

    Barge Transportation of Juvenile Salmonids on the Columbia and Snake Rivers, 1977 GEORGE T. Mc by dams on the Columbia and Snake Rivers. Dams are responsible for three major causes of fingerling. Tanonaka. 1975. The Snake River salmon and steel head crisis. Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Center

  17. LINKING GEOMORPHIC CHANGES TO SALMONID HABITAT AT A SCALE RELEVANT TO FISH

    E-print Network

    Wheaton, Joseph

    LINKING GEOMORPHIC CHANGES TO SALMONID HABITAT AT A SCALE RELEVANT TO FISH JOSEPH M. WHEATON and documenting spatial patterns of net erosion and net deposition. Using a case study from a spawning habitat in designing SHR projects were producing self-sustaining spawning habitat when subjected to competent flows

  18. Minimally Invasive Detection of Piscirickettsia salmonis in Cultivated Salmonids via the PCR

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Sergio; Heath, Sekou; Henríquez, Vitalia; Orrego, Cristián

    1998-01-01

    The attributes of the PCR allowed implementation of an assay for specific detection of Piscirickettsia salmonis from a few microliters of fish serum. This opens the way to less invasive modes of sampling for this microbial pathogen in salmonids. PMID:9687475

  19. Pair-Trawl Detection of PIT-Tagged Juvenile Salmonids Migrating in the Columbia River Estuary, 2008 Report of Research.

    SciTech Connect

    Magie, Robert J.; Morris, Matthew S.; Ledgerwood, Richard D.

    2009-06-03

    In 2008, we sampled migrating juvenile Pacific salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags using a surface pair trawl in the upper Columbia River estuary (rkm 61-83). The cod-end of the trawl was replaced with a cylindrical PIT-tag detection antenna with an 86-cm-diameter fish-passage opening and two detection coils connected in series. The pair trawl was 105 m long with a 91.5-m opening between the wings and a sample depth of 4.9 m. Also during 2008, we finalized the development of a prototype 'matrix' antenna, which was larger than previous antennas by a considerable magnitude. The matrix antenna consisted of 6 coils: a 3-coil front component and a 3-coil rear component, which were separated by 1.5-m of net mesh. The fish-passage opening was 2.5 m wide by 3.0 m tall and was attached to a standard-size pair trawl net. Intermittent sampling with a single crew began on 7 March and targeted yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss. Daily sampling using two crews began on 30 April and continued through 14 June; during this period we detected 2.7% of all juvenile salmonids previously detected at Bonneville Dam--a measure of sample efficiency. Sampling with a single crew continued through 20 August and targeted subyearling Chinook salmon. We detected 7,397 yearling Chinook salmon, 2,735 subyearling Chinook salmon, 291 coho salmon O. kisutch, 5,950 steelhead, and 122 sockeye salmon O. nerka in the upper estuary. We deployed the matrix antenna system and the older, cylindrical antenna system (86-cm-diameter fish-passage opening) simultaneously in mid-May 2008 to test matrix detection efficiency. The cylindrical antenna system had been used successfully in 2007 and early 2008. Because distribution of migrating salmonids in the estuary changes rapidly, we felt that a tandem sampling effort between the two systems was the only way to truly evaluate comparative detection efficiency. We deployed both systems within 1 km of each other during a period of high fish densities on 13, 14, and 15 May. Detections of the matrix system surpassed those of the cylindrical system by 53% in 14 h of simultaneous sampling (total detections 716 and 339, respectively). We believe that the higher detection rate observed with the matrix system was due to fewer smolts escaping the trawl entrance and to more smolts readily passing through the larger fish-passage opening. After tandem sampling, we continued exclusive use of the matrix system for the remainder of the 2008 juvenile migration season. Mean survival rates from Lower Granite to Bonneville Dam for yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead were 42% (SE = 3.7%) and 46% (SE = 1.5%), respectively. Over 358,000 PIT-tagged salmonids were transported, and we detected 4,619 of these fish.

  20. Mitochondrial Carnitine-Dependent Acetyl Coenzyme A Transport Is Required for Normal Sexual and Asexual Development of the Ascomycete Gibberella zeae

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hokyoung; Min, Kyunghun; Lee, Jungkwan; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol

    2012-01-01

    Fungi have evolved efficient metabolic mechanisms for the exact temporal (developmental stages) and spatial (organelles) production of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA). We previously demonstrated mechanistic roles of several acetyl-CoA synthetic enzymes, namely, ATP citrate lyase and acetyl-CoA synthetases (ACSs), in the plant-pathogenic fungus Gibberella zeae. In this study, we characterized two carnitine acetyltransferases (CATs; CAT1 and CAT2) to obtain a better understanding of the metabolic processes occurring in G. zeae. We found that CAT1 functioned as an alternative source of acetyl-CoA required for lipid accumulation in an ACS1 deletion mutant. Moreover, deletion of CAT1 and/or CAT2 resulted in various defects, including changes to vegetative growth, asexual/sexual development, trichothecene production, and virulence. Although CAT1 is associated primarily with peroxisomal CAT function, mislocalization experiments showed that the role of CAT1 in acetyl-CoA transport between the mitochondria and cytosol is important for sexual and asexual development in G. zeae. Taking these data together, we concluded that G. zeae CATs are responsible for facilitating the exchange of acetyl-CoA across intracellular membranes, particularly between the mitochondria and the cytosol, during various developmental stages. PMID:22798392

  1. Toddlers and Sexual Behavior

    MedlinePLUS

    Pediatrics Common Questions, Quick Answers Toddlers and Sexual Behavior Donna D'Alessandro, M.D. Lindsay Huth, B. ... problem or sexual abuse. What kind of sexual behaviors are okay? Masturbation in toddlers is usually nothing ...

  2. Sexuality and Down Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Down Syndrome Managing Behavior Sexuality Sexuality & Down Syndrome Social and Sexual Education Recreation & Friendship Education Education & Down Syndrome Schooling from Preschool to Age 21 Implementing Inclusion College & Postsecondary Options Looking for Postsecondary Education O' ...

  3. Your Sexual Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ072 WOMEN’S HEALTH Your Sexual Health • What causes sexual problems in women? • What are ... another term for interest in and desire for sex) and sexual activity sometimes decrease with age. This ...

  4. Clinicians' perspective of the relational processes for family and individual development during the mediation of religious and sexual identity disclosure.

    PubMed

    Etengoff, Chana; Daiute, Colette

    2015-01-01

    Although the psychological literature regarding gay men from religious families is continually expanding, it is also limited in that few studies focus on the use of therapy in the negotiation of the interrelated systems of religion, sexuality, and family. Utilizing a cultural historical activity theory-based process of analysis, this study focuses on the narratives of 12 clinicians discussing 230 conflicts and how those conflicts are mediated in both productive (e.g., seeking secular support) and unproductive ways (e.g., bringing one's son to an exorcist) by gay men and their religious families independent of and at the advice of their therapists. PMID:25364980

  5. Influence of intermittent stream connectivity on water quality and salmonid survivorship.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrand, J.; Woelfle-Erskine, C. A.; Larsen, L.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic stress and climate change are causing an increasing number of California streams to become intermittent and are driving earlier and more severe summertime drying. The extent to which emerging water conservation alternatives impact flows or habitat quality (e.g. temperature, DO) for salmonids remains poorly understood. Here, we investigate the proximal drivers of salmonid mortality over a range of connectivity conditions during summertime intermittency in Salmon Creek watershed, Sonoma County, CA. Through extensive sampling in paired subwatersheds over a period of two years, we tested the hypothesis that accumulation of readily bioavailable DOC in poorly flushed pools drives DO decline associated with loss of salmonids. We then traced the origin and flow pathways of DOC throughout the watershed using Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC). We obtained samples for DOC and stable isotope analyses at monthly intervals from 20 piezometers and surface water in the study reaches and from private wells and springs distributed throughout the watersheds. We also obtained in situ DO, conductivity and pH readings within stream study reaches. We determined DOC quality by SUVA (specific UV absorbance) and fluorescence index. We calculated stream metabolism rates using the single station method. In pools instrumented with DO sensors, we compared changing DOC quality during the summer months to changes in DO concentrations and stream metabolism. Our results show that the duration of complete disconnection of pools during the summer months and stream metabolic rates are positively correlated with salmonid mortality. Furthermore, our results indicate that salmonid mortality is greatest in disconnected pools with low DOC fluorescence indices and high SUVA values, indicative of terrestrially derived DOC and little or no groundwater inflow. Conversely low salmonid mortality was found in disconnected pools with high fluorescence index and low SUVA, indicative of microbially derived DOC. These pools showed clear signs of hyporheic inflow during summertime drying despite complete surficial disconnection. PARAFAC analysis pinpointed groundwater sources of hyporheic flow in the watershed, suggesting that targeted aquifer recharge may contribute to salmonid recovery by augmenting flow in summer refugia.

  6. Relating Sexual Sadism and Psychopathy to One Another, Non-Sexual Violence, and Sexual Crime Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Carrie A.; Knight, Raymond A.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual sadism and psychopathy have been theoretically, clinically, and empirically linked to violence. Although both constructs are linked to predatory violence, few studies have sought to explore the covariation of the two constructs, and even fewer have sought to conceptualize the similarities of violence prediction in each. The current study considered all four Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) facets and employed well-defined, validated measures of sadism to elucidate the relation between sadism and psychopathy, as well as to determine the role of each in the prediction of non-sexual violence and sexual crime behaviors. Study 1 assessed 314 adult, male sex offenders using archival ratings, as well as the self-report Multidimensional Inventory of Development, Sex, and Aggression (the MIDSA). Study 2 used archival ratings to assess 599 adult, male sex offenders. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of crime scene descriptions yielded four sexual crime behavior factors: Violence, Physical Control, Sexual Behavior, and Paraphilic. Sadism and psychopathy covaried, but were not coextensive; sadism correlated with Total PCL-R, Facet 1, and Facet 4 scores. The constructs predicted all non-sexual violence measures, but predicted different sexual crime behavior factors. The PCL-R facets collectively predicted the Violence and Paraphilic factors, whereas sadism only predicted the Violence factor. PMID:24019144

  7. Sexually dimorphic effects of gestational endocrine-disrupting chemicals on microRNA expression in the developing rat hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Topper, Viktoria Y; Walker, Deena M; Gore, Andrea C

    2015-10-15

    This study examined developmental changes and sexual dimorphisms in hypothalamic microRNAs, and whether gestational exposures to environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) altered their expression patterns. Pregnant rat dams were treated on gestational days 16 and 18 with vehicle, estradiol benzoate, or a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls. Male and female offspring were euthanized on postnatal days (P) 15, 30, 45, or 90, and microRNA and mRNA targets were quantified in the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN) and ventromedial nucleus (VMN) of the hypothalamus. MicroRNAs showed robust developmental changes in both regions, and were sexually dimorphic in the MPN, but not VMN. Importantly, microRNAs in females were up-regulated by EDCs at P30, and down-regulated in males at P90. Few changes in mRNAs were found. Thus, hypothalamic microRNAs are sensitive to prenatal EDC treatment in a sex-, developmental age-, and brain region-specific manner. PMID:26190835

  8. of sexual harassment and discrimination

    E-print Network

    , Gender, Religion, Color, Nation Origin, Age, Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, Gender Expressionof sexual harassment and discrimination Equal Opportunity & Title IX Office University of Nevada, Reno #12;Today's Conversation will Include the Following: Sexual Content Sexual Harassment Sexual

  9. SEXUAL MISCONDUCT = Sexual harassment, gender discrimination or bias, sexual assault, rape, stalking or

    E-print Network

    Dennett, Daniel

    SEXUAL MISCONDUCT = Sexual harassment, gender discrimination or bias, sexual assault, rape. SEXUAL MISCONDUCT = Sexual harassment, gender discrimination or bias, sexual assault, rape, stalking materials in a location where others can view them. Sexual assault, rape, or attempted rape. 3 #12;4 Sexual

  10. A rapid solid-phase extraction fluorometric method for thiamine and riboflavin in salmonid eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zajicek, J.L.; Tillitt, D.E.; Brown, S.B.; Brown, L.R.; Honeyfield, D.C.; Fitzsimons, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    A new method has been developed and successfully applied to the selective measurement of thiamine (nonphosphorylated), total thiamine (sum of thiamine, thiamine monophosphate [TMP], thiamine diphosphate [TDP], and thiamine triphosphate [TTP]), and potentially interfering riboflavin in acidic (2% trichloroacetic acid) extracts of selected salmonid and walleye egg samples. Acidic extracts of eggs were applied directly to end-capped C18, reversed-phase solid-phase extraction (SPE) columns and separated into three fractions by elution with mixtures of PO4 buffer (pH 2), methanol (10%), and acetonitrile (20%). All thiamine compounds recovered in the first two fractions were oxidized to their corresponding thiochromes with alkaline potassium hexacyanoferrate, and we measured the thiochrome fluorescence (excitation at 360 nm, emission at 460 nm) in a 96-well microplate reader. Riboflavin, recovered in third fraction (eluted with pH 2, 20% acetonitrile), was analyzed directly by measuring the fluorescence of this fraction (excitation at 450 nm, emission at 530 nm). Significant portions of the phosphate esters of thiamine (TMP, TDP, and presumably TTP), when present at low concentrations (< 10 nmol of total -thiamine per gram of egg), were not retained by the 100-mg SPE column, and were collected directly during sample loading and in a subsequent phosphoric acid rinse as fraction 1. Free thiamine (nonphosphorylated) and remaining portions of the TDP and TMP were then eluted in the second fraction with 10% methanol/PO4 buffer, whereas the un-ionized, relatively nonpolar riboflavin was eluted in the third fraction with 20% acetonitrile. This new method uses a traditional sample homogenization of egg tissue to extract thiamine compounds into 2% trichlororacetic acid solution; an inexpensive, commercially available SPE column; small amounts of sample (0.5-1 g); microliter volumes of solvents per sample; a traditional, relatively nonhazardous, oxidation of thiamine compounds to fluorescent thiochromes; and an ultraviolet-visible-wavelength-filter fluorometer for the measurements. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  11. Effect of multiple turbine passage on juvenile Snake River salmonid survival

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, K. D.; Anderson, J. J.; Vucellck, J. A.

    2005-09-01

    Juvenile salmonids originating in the Snake River upstream of Lower Granite Dam must pass up to eight hydroelectric projects during their downstream migration to the Pacific Ocean. Fish may pass a project through a turbine or a spillbay or be screened into a bypass system that either collects fish into a barge or releases them downstream of the project. Previous reviews of studies of downstream passage for salmon at hydroelectric projects in the Columbia River basin found higher mean mortality at turbines than for spillways or bypass systems. The potential mechanisms of mortality during turbine passage may include pressure changes, cavitation, shear, turbulence, strike, or grinding. Observing those mechanisms is challenging in the field, but laboratory studies have demonstrated that a single exposure to shear or pressure changes similar to turbine passage conditions can result in injury for some individuals. Because fish pass several dams along their migration, individuals experience a series of passage events. If estimates of surviving the passage of a single project are applied to each passage event, then the underlying assumption is that the mortality at each project is independent of previous exposure. If individuals approaching a project were already sub-lethally stressed, higher than expected mortality rates might occur upon subsequent passage events. Report presents the hypothesis that fish passing more than one turbine will experience a greater than expected rate of mortality. Because measuring an incremental increase in mortality would be challenging in the field, scientists developed an approach to first assess whether such an increment has any potential to influence a fish population. This approach identified populations at risk and will help design laboratory or field experiments to address those risks.

  12. Sub-lethal plasma ammonia accumulation and the exercise performance of salmonids.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, D J; Shingles, A; Taylor, E W

    2003-08-01

    The proposal that plasma ammonia accumulation might impair the swimming performance of fish was first made over a decade ago, and has now proven to be the case for a number of salmonid species. The first experimental evidence was indirect, when a negative linear relationship between plasma ammonia concentrations and maximum sustainable swimming speed (U(crit)) was found following the exposure of brown trout (Salmo trutta) to sub-lethal concentrations of copper in soft acidic water. Since then, negative linear relationships between plasma ammonia concentration and U(crit) have been demonstrated following exposure of brown trout, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to elevated water ammonia. For brown trout, the relationships between plasma ammonia and U(crit) were remarkably similar following either exposure to elevated water ammonia or to sub-lethal copper. This indicates that the impairment of swimming performance resulting from exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of heavy metals may be attributable in large part to an accumulation of endogenous ammonia. The negative relationship between plasma ammonia concentration and U(crit) was similar in size-matched rainbow and brown trout but, under similar regimes of ammonia exposure, rainbow trout were able to maintain a significantly lower plasma ammonia concentration, revealing inter-specific differences in ammonia permeability and/or transport. One primary mechanism by which ammonia accumulation may impair exercise performance is a partial depolarisation of membrane potential in tissues such as the brain and white muscle. This may prejudice the co-ordination of swimming movements and reduce or abolish the development of muscle tension, thus, compromising swimming efficiency and performance at the top end of the range. PMID:12890542

  13. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) muscle satellite cells are targets of salmonid alphavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Biacchesi, Stéphane; Jouvion, Grégory; Mérour, Emilie; Boukadiri, Abdelhak; Desdouits, Marion; Ozden, Simona; Huerre, Michel; Ceccaldi, Pierre-Emmanuel; Brémont, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Sleeping disease in rainbow trout is characterized by an abnormal swimming behaviour of the fish which stay on their side at the bottom of the tanks. This sign is due to extensive necrosis and atrophy of red skeletal muscle induced by the sleeping disease virus (SDV), also called salmonid alphavirus 2. Infections of humans with arthritogenic alphaviruses, such as Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), are global causes of debilitating musculoskeletal diseases. The mechanisms by which the virus causes these pathologies are poorly understood due to the restrictive availability of animal models capable of reproducing the full spectrum of the disease. Nevertheless, it has been shown that CHIKV exhibits a particular tropism for muscle stem cells also known as satellite cells. Thus, SDV and its host constitute a relevant model to study in details the virus-induced muscle atrophy, the pathophysiological consequences of the infection of a particular cell-type in the skeletal muscle, and the regeneration of the muscle tissue in survivors together with the possible virus persistence. To study a putative SDV tropism for that particular cell type, we established an in vivo and ex vivo rainbow trout model of SDV-induced atrophy of the skeletal muscle. This experimental model allows reproducing the full panel of clinical signs observed during a natural infection since the transmission of the virus is arthropod-borne independent. The virus tropism in the muscle tissue was studied by immunohistochemistry together with the kinetics of the muscle atrophy, and the muscle regeneration post-infection was observed. In parallel, an ex vivo model of SDV infection of rainbow trout satellite cells was developed and virus replication and persistence in that particular cell type was followed up to 73 days post-infection. These results constitute the first observation of a specific SDV tropism for the muscle satellite cells. PMID:26743565

  14. PREVENTION OF SEXUAL ASSAULT IN NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    Eze, U.O.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual assault occurs commonly worldwide and is particularly pervasive in the developing world. The background to sexual violence is important in the understanding of the ramifications of the problem. Some elements that offer the means to the prevention of sexual assault in the community are important highlights especially where the means - expertise and facilities - for managing cases of sexual assault is grossly inadequate. These concepts, though are applicable universally, are however discussed in the context of the developing world and with particular emphasis on the Nigerian situation. Their applicability in sexual assault prevention is derived from previous studies in different parts of the world that highlight the viability of these interventions. Therefore if one posits that sexual assault can be prevented, certain responsibilities are imperative; some challenges must be anticipated; and special needs/circumstances should be catered for. PMID:25161422

  15. Toward personalized sexual medicine (part 1): integrating the "dual control model" into differential drug treatments for hypoactive sexual desire disorder and female sexual arousal disorder.

    PubMed

    Bloemers, Jos; van Rooij, Kim; Poels, Saskia; Goldstein, Irwin; Everaerd, Walter; Koppeschaar, Hans; Chivers, Meredith; Gerritsen, Jeroen; van Ham, Diana; Olivier, Berend; Tuiten, Adriaan

    2013-03-01

    In three related manuscripts we describe our drug development program for the treatment of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD). In this first theoretical article we will defend the hypothesis that different causal mechanisms are responsible for the emergence of HSDD: low sexual desire in women (with HSDD) could be due to either a relative insensitive brain system for sexual cues or to enhanced activity of sexual inhibitory mechanisms. This distinction in etiological background was taken into account when designing and developing new pharmacotherapies for this disorder. Irrespective of circulating plasma levels of testosterone, administration of sublingual 0.5 mg testosterone increases the sensitivity of the brain to sexual cues. The effects of an increase in sexual sensitivity of the brain depend on the motivational state of an individual. It might activate sexual excitatory mechanisms in low sensitive women, while it could evoke (or strengthen) sexual inhibitory mechanisms in women prone to sexual inhibition. Sexual stimulation in the brain is necessary for phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5i)-mediated increase in genital sexual response. Accordingly, a single dose of T+PDE5i might enhance sexual responsiveness, especially in women with low sensitivity to sexual cues. In other women sexual stimulation might elicit a prefrontal cortex (PFC)-mediated phasic increase in sexual inhibition, in which activity of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) is involved. We hypothesize that a single dose of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor agonist (5-HT(1A)ra) will reduce the sexual-stimulation-induced PFC-mediated sexual inhibition during a short period after administration. Consequently, treatment with T+5-HT(1A)ra will be more effective, in particular in women exhibiting sexual inhibition. Based on the results of our efficacy studies described in parts 2 and 3 of the series, we conclude that tailoring on-demand therapeutics to different underlying etiologies might be a useful approach to treat common symptoms in subgroups of women with HSDD. PMID:23130782

  16. The Olfactory Transcriptome and Progression of Sexual Maturation in Homing Chum Salmon Oncorhynchus keta

    PubMed Central

    Palstra, Arjan P.; Fukaya, Kosuke; Chiba, Hiroaki; Dirks, Ron P.; Planas, Josep V.; Ueda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive homing migration of salmonids requires accurate interaction between the reception of external olfactory cues for navigation to the spawning grounds and the regulation of sexual maturation processes. This study aimed at providing insights into the hypothesized functional link between olfactory sensing of the spawning ground and final sexual maturation. We have therefore assessed the presence and expression levels of olfactory genes by RNA sequencing (RNAseq) of the olfactory rosettes in homing chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta Walbaum from the coastal sea to 75 km upstream the rivers at the pre-spawning ground. The progression of sexual maturation along the brain-pituitary-gonadal axis was assessed through determination of plasma steroid levels by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassays (TR-FIA), pituitary gonadotropin subunit expression and salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sgnrh) expression in the brain by quantitative real-time PCR. RNAseq revealed the expression of 75 known and 27 unknown salmonid olfactory genes of which 13 genes were differentially expressed between fish from the pre-spawning area and from the coastal area, suggesting an important role of these genes in homing. A clear progression towards final maturation was characterised by higher plasma 17?,20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) levels, increased pituitary luteinizing hormone ? subunit (lh?) expression and sgnrh expression in the post brain, and lower plasma testosterone (T) and 17?-estradiol (E2) levels. Olfactomedins and ependymin are candidates among the differentially expressed genes that may connect olfactory reception to the expression of sgnrh to regulate final maturation. PMID:26397372

  17. Prevalence of dating violence among sexual minority youth: variation across gender, sexual minority identity and gender of sexual partners.

    PubMed

    Martin-Storey, Alexa

    2015-01-01

    Dating violence during adolescence negatively influences concurrent psychosocial functioning, and has been linked with an increased likelihood of later intimate partner violence. Identifying who is most vulnerable for this negative outcome can inform the development of intervention practices addressing this problem. The two goals of this study were to assess variations in the prevalence of dating violence across different measures of sexual minority status (e.g., sexual minority identity or same-sex sexual behavior), and to assess whether this association was mediated by bullying, the number of sexual partners, binge drinking or aggressive behaviors. These goals were assessed by employing the Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey (N = 12,984), a regionally representative sample of youth ages 14-18. In this sample, a total of 540 girls and 323 boys reported a non-heterosexual identity, and 429 girls and 230 boys reported having had one or more same-sex sexual partners. The results generally supported a higher prevalence of dating violence among sexual minority youth. This vulnerability varied considerably across gender, sexual minority identity and the gender of sexual partners, but generally persisted when accounting for the mediating variables. The findings support investigating dating violence as a mechanism in the disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual youth, and the importance of addressing sexual minority youth specifically in interventions targeting dating violence. PMID:24407932

  18. A standard operating procedure for the surgical implantation of transmitters in juvenile salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liedtke, T.L.; Beeman, J.W.; Gee, L.P.

    2012-01-01

    Biotelemetry is a useful tool to monitor the movements of animals and is widely applied in fisheries research. Radio or acoustic technology can be used, depending on the study design and the environmental conditions in the study area. A broad definition of telemetry also includes the use of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags, either separately or with a radio or acoustic transmitter. To use telemetry, fish must be equipped with a transmitter. Although there are several attachment procedures available, surgical implantation of transmitters in the abdominal cavity is recognized as the best technique for long-term telemetry studies in general (Stasko and Pincock, 1977; Winter, 1996; Jepsen, 2003), and specifically for juvenile salmonids, Oncorhynchus spp. (Adams and others, 1998a, 1998b; Martinelli and others, 1998; Hall and others, 2009). Studies that use telemetry assume that the processes by which the animals are captured, handled, and tagged, as well as the act of carrying the transmitter, will have minimal effect on their behavior and performance. This assumption, commonly stated as a lack of transmitter effects, must be valid if telemetry studies are to describe accurately the movements and behavior of an entire population of interest, rather than the subset of that population that carries transmitters. This document describes a standard operating procedure (SOP) for surgical implantation of radio or acoustic transmitters in juvenile salmonids. The procedures were developed from a broad base of published information, laboratory experiments, and practical experience in tagging thousands of fish for numerous studies of juvenile salmon movements near Columbia River and Snake River hydroelectric dams. Staff from the Western Fisheries Research Center's Columbia River Research Laboratory (CRRL) frequently have used telemetry studies to evaluate new structures or operations at hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River Basin, and these evaluations typically require large numbers of tagged fish. For example, a study conducted at the dams on the Columbia River and funded by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers required tagging and monitoring of 40,000 juvenile salmon during a 3-month migration period (Counihan and others, 2006a, 2006b; Perry and others, 2006). To meet the demands of such a large study, the authors and CRRL staff refined the SOP to increase efficiency in the tagging process while maintaining high standards of fish care. The SOP has been used in laboratory and field settings for more than 15 years, and consistently has produced low mortality rates (<1 percent) and transmitter loss rates (<0.01 percent) in the 24-36 hours after tagging. In addition to describing the detailed surgical procedures required for transmitter implantation, this document provides guidance on fish collection, handling and holding, and the release of tagged fish. Although often overlooked, or at least underemphasized, these processes can have a large impact on the outcome of the tagging procedure. Stress associated with the individual steps in handling and tagging can be cumulative and lethal (Maule and others, 1988; Wedemeyer and others, 1990; Portz and others, 2006), so the goal is to provide the best possible fish care at every step in order to manage the overall effect on study fish.

  19. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Lookout Point Dam, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Trott, Donna M.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2012-05-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Lookout Point Dam (LOP) on the Middle Fork Willamette River for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE), to provide data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at LOP and others dams in USACE's Willamette Valley Project. This study was conducted in response to the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. We conducted a hydroacoustic evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at LOP during February 2010 through January 2011. Findings from this 1 year of study should be applied carefully because annual variation can be expected due to variability in adult salmon escapement, egg-to-fry and fry-to-smolt survival rates, reservoir rearing and predation, dam operations, and weather. Fish passage rates for smolt-size fish (> {approx}90 mm and < 300 mm) were highest during December-January and lowest in mid-summer through early fall. Passage peaks were also evident in early spring, early summer, and late fall. During the entire study period, an estimated total of 142,463 fish {+-} 4,444 (95% confidence interval) smolt-size fish passed through turbine penstock intakes. Of this total, 84% passed during December-January. Run timing for small-size fish ({approx}65-90 mm) peaked (702 fish) on December 18. Diel periodicity of smolt-size fish showing crepuscular peaks was evident in fish passage into turbine penstock intakes. Relatively few fish passed into the Regulating Outlets (ROs) when they were open in summer (2 fish/d) and winter (8 fish/d). Overall, when the ROs were open, RO efficiency (RO passage divided by total project passage) was 0.004. In linear regression analyses, daily fish passage (turbines and ROs combined) for smolt-size fish was significantly related to project discharge (P<0.001). This relationship was positive, but there was no relationship between total project passage and forebay elevation (P=0.48) or forebay elevation delta, i.e., day-to-day change in forebay elevation (P=0.16). In multiple regression analyses, a relatively parsimonious model was selected that predicted the observed data well. The multiple regression model indicates a positive trend between expected daily fish passage and each of the three variables in the model-Julian day, log(discharge), and log(abs(forebay delta)); i.e., as any of the environmental variables increase, expected daily fish passage increases. For vertical distribution of fish at the face of the dam, fish were surface-oriented with 62%-80% occurring above 10 m deep. The highest percentage of fish (30%-60%) was found between 5-10-m-deep. During spring and summer, mean target strengths for the analysis periods ranged from -44.2 to -42.1 dB. These values are indicative of yearling-sized juvenile salmon. In contrast, mean target strengths in fall and winter were about -49.0 dB, which are representative of subyearling-sized fish. The high-resolution spatial and temporal data reported herein provide detailed information about vertical, horizontal, diel, daily, and seasonal fish passage rates and distributions at LOP from March 2010 through January 2011. This information will support management decisions on design and development of surface passage and collection devices to help restore Chinook salmon populations in the Middle Fork Willamette River watershed above LOP.

  20. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Detroit Dam, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fenton; Royer, Ida M.; Johnson, Gary E.; Ham, Kenneth D.

    2012-11-15

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Detroit Dam (DET) on the North Santiam River, Oregon for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to provide data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at DET and others dams in USACE’s Willamette Valley Project. This study was conducted in response to regulatory requirements necessitated by the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. The goal of the study was to provide information of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at DET from February 2011 through February 2012. The results of the hydroacoustic study provide new and, in some cases, first-ever data on passage estimates, run timing, distributions, and relationships between fish passage and environmental variables at the dam. This information will inform management decisions on the design and development of surface passage and collection devices to help restore Chinook salmon populations in the North Santiam River watershed above DET. During the entire study period, an estimated total of 182,526 smolt-size fish (±4,660 fish, 95% CI) passed through turbine penstock intakes. Run timing peaked in winter and early spring months. Passage rates were highest during late fall, winter and early spring months and low during summer. Horizontal distribution for hours when both turbine units were operated simultaneously indicated Unit 2 passed almost twice as much fish as Unit 1. Diel distribution for smolt-size fish during the study period was fairly uniform, indicating fish were passing the turbines at all times of the day. A total of 5,083 smolt-size fish (± 312 fish, 95% CI) were estimated passed via the spillway when it was open between June 23 and September 27, 2011. Daily passage was low at the spillway during the June-August period, and increased somewhat in September 2011. When the spillway was operated simultaneously with the turbines, spillway efficiency (efficiency is estimated as spillway passage divided by total project passage) was 0.72 and effectiveness (fish:flow ratio—proportion fish passage at a route (e.g., spillway) divided by proportion water through that route out of the total project) was 2.69. That is, when the spillway was open, 72% of the fish passing the dam used the spillway and 28% passed into the turbine penstocks. Diel distribution for smolt-size fish at the spillway shows a distinct peak in passage between mid-morning and mid-afternoon and low passage at night. We estimated that 23,339 smolt-size fish (± 572 fish, 95% CI) passed via the Regulating Outlet (RO) when it was open from October 29 through November 12, 2011, January 2-6, and January 20 through February 3, 2012. During the October–November period, RO passage peaked at 1,086 fish on November 5, with a second peak on November 7 (1,075 fish). When the RO was operated simultaneously with the turbines, RO efficiency was 0.33 and effectiveness was 0.89. In multiple regression analyses, a relatively parsimonious model was selected that predicted the observed fish passage data well. The best model included forebay temperature at depth, forebay elevation, total discharge, hours of daylight, and the operation period. The vertical distribution of fish in the forebay near the face of the dam where the transducers sampled showed fish were generally distributed throughout the water column during all four operational periods. During the refill and full pool periods, vertical distribution was bi-modal with surface-layer and mid-water modes. Patterns for day and night distributions were variable. Fish were distributed above and below the thermocline when it was present (full pool and drawdown periods).

  1. Lect. 15: Sexual selection Sexual dimorphism

    E-print Network

    with reproduction) Selection for sexual dimorphism? · Fitness under natural selection: typically same for both sexes Survival ReproductionFitness Selection for sexual dimorphism? · Must act on sexes differently · Process Fitness Sexual selection · Differential reproductive success due to variation among individuals in ability

  2. Changes in Gas Bubble Disease Signs for Migrating Juvenile Salmonids Experimentally Exposed to Supersaturated Gasses, 1996-1997 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Absolon, Randall F.

    1999-03-01

    This study was designed to answer the question of whether gas bubble disease (GBD) signs change as a result of the hydrostatic conditions juvenile salmonids encounter when they enter the turbine intake of hydroelectric projects during their downstream migration.

  3. Sexuality in the brain.

    PubMed

    Doell, R G

    1995-01-01

    Research on the biological "causes" of homosexuality focuses primarily upon the hypothesis that hormonal influences during fetal life "organize" certain parts of the brain which thus become centers for sexual orientation and behavior later in life. This paper briefly summarizes criticisms of this research that demonstrate little evidence for the operation of such centers and emphasizes alternative scenarios for the development of sexual orientation and behavior which have been slighted by the biological and medical communities. Finally, I suggest that commitment to a belief in a biological mechanism which supports the hierarchy of power by those who benefit from that power maintains the viability of the hypothesis in the face of negative evidence. PMID:7560935

  4. Sexual Differences in Cell Loss during the Post-Hatch Development of Song Control Nuclei in the Bengalese Finch

    PubMed Central

    Lu, XiaoHua; Zuo, MingXue; Zhang, XinWen; Zeng, ShaoJu

    2015-01-01

    Birdsongs and the regions of their brain that control song exhibit obvious sexual differences. However, the mechanisms underlying these sexual dimorphisms remain unknown. To address this issue, we first examined apoptotic cells labeled with caspase-3 or TUNEL in Bengalese finch song control nuclei - the robust nucleus of the archopallium (RA), the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (LMAN), the high vocal center (HVC) and Area X from post-hatch day (P) 15 to 120. Next, we investigated the expression dynamics of pro-apoptotic (Bid, Bad and Bax) and anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL) genes in the aforementioned nuclei. Our results revealed that the female RA at P45 exhibited marked cell apoptosis, confirmed by low densities of Bcl-xL and Bcl-2. Both the male and female LMAN exhibited apoptotic peaks at P35 and P45, respectively, and the observed cell loss was more extensive in males. A corresponding sharp decrease in the density of Bcl-2 after P35 was observed in both sexes, and a greater density of Bid was noted at P45 in males. In addition, we observed that RA volume and the total number of BDNF-expressing cells decreased significantly after unilateral lesion of the LMAN or HVC (two areas that innervate the RA) and that greater numbers of RA-projecting cells were immunoreactive for BDNF in the LMAN than in the HVC. We reasoned that a decrease in the amount of BDNF transported via HVC afferent fibers might result in an increase in cell apoptosis in the female RA. Our data indicate that cell apoptosis resulting from different pro- and anti-apoptotic agents is involved in generating the differences between male and female song control nuclei. PMID:25938674

  5. A Large-Scale Functional Analysis of Putative Target Genes of Mating-Type Loci Provides Insight into the Regulation of Sexual Development of the Cereal Pathogen Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Kyoung; Jo, Seong-Mi; Kim, Gi-Yong; Kim, Da-Woon; Kim, Yeon-Ki; Yun, Sung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight in cereal crops, produces sexual progeny (ascospore) as an important overwintering and dissemination strategy for completing the disease cycle. This homothallic ascomycetous species does not require a partner for sexual mating; instead, it carries two opposite mating-type (MAT) loci in a single nucleus to control sexual development. To gain a comprehensive understanding of the regulation of sexual development in F. graminearum, we used in-depth and high-throughput analyses to examine the target genes controlled transcriptionally by two-linked MAT loci (MAT1-1, MAT1-2). We hybridized a genome-wide microarray with total RNAs from F. graminearum mutants that lacked each MAT locus individually or together, and overexpressed MAT1-2-1, as well as their wild-type progenitor, at an early stage of sexual development. A comparison of the gene expression levels revealed a total of 1,245 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) among all of the mutants examined. Among these, genes involved in metabolism, cell wall organization, cellular response to stimuli, cell adhesion, fertilization, development, chromatin silencing, and signal transduction, were significantly enriched. Protein binding microarray analysis revealed the presence of putative core DNA binding sequences (ATTAAT or ATTGTT) for the HMG (high mobility group)-box motif in the MAT1-2-1 protein. Targeted deletion of 106 DEGs revealed 25 genes that were specifically required for sexual development, most of which were regulated transcriptionally by both the MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 loci. Taken together with the expression patterns of key target genes, we propose a regulatory pathway for MAT-mediated sexual development, in which both MAT loci may be activated by several environmental cues via chromatin remodeling and/or signaling pathways, and then control the expression of at least 1,245 target genes during sexual development via regulatory cascades and/or networks involving several downstream transcription factors and a putative RNA interference pathway. PMID:26334536

  6. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  7. Sexuality and the law.

    PubMed

    Portelli, C J

    1998-01-01

    Federal, state, and local laws in the US now govern almost every aspect of sexuality. This includes sexuality at the workplace, sexuality education, adolescent sexuality, access to sexuality information and sexually explicit materials, sexual orientation, and sexually transmitted disease(STD)/HIV transmission. Almost 33% of the US Supreme Court's docket this past term concerned sexuality issues. In contrast to 50 years ago, when sexuality law was confined to the criminal arena, contemporary "sex crimes" primarily relate to nonconsensual and exploitative behaviors. It is time for lawmakers, judges, lawyers, policy analysts, lobbyists, and advocates to realize they cannot legislate or litigate how, when, or why people fall in love. Rather, the role of the law should be to create and preserve models of justice and equality that seek to preserve one's individual rights to privacy and freedom to choose in matters related to one's sexuality. This includes free access to age-appropriate sexuality information, the right to marriage and children regardless of sexual orientation, comprehensive sexuality education that encompasses information about avoiding unwanted pregnancies and HIV/STDs, access to contraception and abortion, protection from sexually abusive or exploitative relationships, and access to sexual health care. PMID:12295182

  8. [Adolescents engaging in sexually offending behavior].

    PubMed

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Työläjärvi, Marja; Eronen, Markku

    2015-01-01

    Sexually offending behavior by adolescents may be directed towards children, age-mates and adults. Neurocognitive and psychiatric disorders and the associated inability to age-related interpersonal relationships and inability to control the sexual desires activated during adolescence may lead a young person to seek inappropriate sexual satisfaction from children. Sometimes the offenses are part of antisocial development. Interventions should be focused on the distorted cognitions and attitudes maintaining the injurious sexual behavior, and on the risk of criminal behavior in general. Pharmacological therapy, mainly with SSRI drugs, has also been tested in adolescents. PMID:26233982

  9. An STE12 homolog from the asexual, dimorphic fungus Penicillium marneffei complements the defect in sexual development of an Aspergillus nidulans steA mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Borneman, A R; Hynes, M J; Andrianopoulos, A

    2001-01-01

    Penicillium marneffei is an opportunistic fungal pathogen of humans and the only dimorphic species identified in its genus. At 25 degrees P. marneffei exhibits true filamentous growth, while at 37 degrees P. marneffei undergoes a dimorphic transition to produce uninucleate yeast cells that divide by fission. Members of the STE12 family of regulators are involved in controlling mating and yeast-hyphal transitions in a number of fungi. We have cloned a homolog of the S. cerevisiae STE12 gene from P. marneffei, stlA, which is highly conserved. The stlA gene, along with the A. nidulans steA and Cryptococcus neoformans STE12alpha genes, form a distinct subclass of STE12 homologs that have a C2H2 zinc-finger motif in addition to the homeobox domain that defines STE12 genes. To examine the function of stlA in P. marneffei, we isolated a number of mutants in the P. marneffei-type strain and, in combination with selectable markers, developed a highly efficient DNA-mediated transformation procedure and gene deletion strategy. Deletion of the stlA gene had no detectable effect on vegetative growth, asexual development, or dimorphic switching in P. marneffei. Despite the lack of a detectable function, the P. marneffei stlA gene complemented the sexual defect of an A. nidulans steA mutant. In addition, substitution rate estimates indicate that there is a significant bias against nonsynonymous substitutions. These data suggest that P. marneffei may have a previously unidentified cryptic sexual cycle. PMID:11238390

  10. Military sexual trauma.

    PubMed

    Wieland, Diane M; Haley, Jenna L; Bouder, Michelle

    2011-12-01

    Nurses' awareness of MST as a specific type of sexual assault within the military culture and sensitivity to the physical and psychological symptoms are important aspects of care. Nurses must treat the physical and emotional components of sexual assault in all settings; however, referral to the veterans administration programs and resources is key for the woman veteran to receive the specialized care developed by the healthcare system. Women veterans who have PTSD from MST and combat exposure are prone to depression, suicide and substance use/abuse. Nurses must not fear asking the woman if she is having suicidal thoughts or has a plan and intent to follow through with the plan. MST and PTSD may result in internalized anger, shame, self-blame, helplessness, hopelessness and powerlessness. Patient safety is of utmost importance. Assessing Patients for Sexual Violence, A Guide for Health Care Providers (2009) is a useful resource for nurses. The National Center for PTSD (2009) newsletter on the topic of MST includes a list of research studies. The work of Benedict (2007) and Corbett (2007) provide additional personal accounts of women soldiers who were in the Middle East conflicts. The nurse's referral to specialized services to treat MST and PTSD with evidence-based therapies is a crucial first step in the resiliency and well-being of these brave women who have served in all branches of the U.S. military. PMID:22359967

  11. Characterization of Gatewell Orifice Lighting at the Bonneville Dam Second Powerhouse and Compendium of Research on Light Guidance with Juvenile Salmonids

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Robert P.; Simmons, Mary Ann

    2007-12-29

    The goal of the study described in this report is to provide U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) biologists and engineers with general design guidelines for using artificial lighting to enhance the passage of juvenile salmonids into the collection channel at the Bonneville Dam second powerhouse (B2). During fall 2007, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers measured light levels in the field at one powerhouse orifice through which fish must pass to reach the collection channel. Two light types were evaluated—light-emitting diode (LED) lights and halogen spot lights. Additional measurements with mercury lamps were made at the PNNL Aquatic Research Laboratory to determine baseline intensity of the current lighting. A separate chapter synthesizes the relevant literature related to light and fish guidance for both field and laboratory studies. PNNL will also review the Corps plans for existing lighting protocol at all of the Portland District projects and help develop a uniform lighting scheme which could be implemented. The specific objectives for this study are to 1. Create a synthesis report of existing lighting data for juvenile salmonid attraction and deterrence and how the data are used at fish bypass facilities. 2. Evaluate current B2 orifice lighting conditions with both LED and halogen sources. 3. Make recommendations as to what lighting intensity, source, and configuration would improve passage at the B2 orifices. 4. Review USACE plans for retrofit of existing systems (to be assessed at a later date).

  12. Acoustic Telemetry Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Survival at John Day Dam with Emphasis on the Prototype Surface Flow Outlet, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, Mark A.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hughes, James S.; Deng, Zhiqun; Fu, Tao; Monter, Tyrell J.; Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Faber, Derrek M.; Durham, Robin E.; Townsend, Richard L.; Skalski, John R.; Kim, Jina; Fischer, Eric S.; Meyer, Matthew M.

    2009-12-01

    The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the performance of Top Spill Weirs installed at two spillbays at John Day Dam and evaluate the effectiveness of these surface flow outlets at attracting juvenile salmon away from the powerhouse and reducing turbine passage. The Juvenile Salmonid Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) was used to estimate survival of juvenile salmonids passing the dam and also for calculating performance metrics used to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of the dam at passing juvenile salmonids.

  13. Sexuality and Islam.

    PubMed

    Dialmy, Abdessamad

    2010-06-01

    This paper deals with three major questions: (1) What are the sexual norms defined by the sacred texts (Koran and Sunna)? (2) What are the sexual practices currently observed among Moslems? (3) To which extent are current sexual practices of Moslems dissociated from Islamic sexual norms? Sexual standards in Islam are paradoxical: on the one hand, they allow and actually are an enticement to the exercise of sexuality but, on the other hand, they discriminate between male and female sexuality, between marital and pre- or extramarital sexuality, and between heterosexuality and homosexuality. Men are given more rights with regard to the expression of their sexuality; women are forbidden to have extramarital sex (with their slaves) and both genders to have homosexual relationships. The combination of these paradoxical standards with modernisation leads to the current back and forth swing of sexual practices between repression and openness. Partial modernisation leads to greater sexual tolerance. But restrictive sexual standards have gathered strength and have become idealised as a result of the current radicalisation of Islam. This swing of the pendulum between repression and openness is illustrated by phenomena such as public harassment, premarital sexuality, female pleasure, prostitution, and homosexuality. Currently, Islam is not any more the only reference which provides guidance concerning sexual practices but secularisation of sexual laws is still politically unthinkable today. So the only solution is to achieve reform in the name of Islam, through the reinterpretation of repressive holy texts. PMID:20441406

  14. A simple method for in situ monitoring of water temperature in substrates used by spawning salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Christian E.; Finn, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Interstitial water temperature within spawning habitats of salmonids may differ from surface-water temperature depending on intragravel flow paths, geomorphic setting, or presence of groundwater. Because survival and developmental timing of salmon are partly controlled by temperature, monitoring temperature within gravels used by spawning salmonids is required to adequately describe the environment experienced by incubating eggs and embryos. Here we describe a simple method of deploying electronic data loggers within gravel substrates with minimal alteration of the natural gravel structure and composition. Using data collected in spawning sites used by summer and fall chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta from two streams within the Yukon River watershed, we compare contrasting thermal regimes to demonstrate the utility of this method.

  15. Effect of Multiple Turbine Passage on Juvenile Snake River Salmonid Survival

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, Kenneth D.; Anderson, James J.; Vucelick, Jessica A.

    2005-10-14

    This report describes a study conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to identify populations of migrating juvenile salmonids with a potential to be impacted by repeated exposure to turbine passage conditions. This study is part of a research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Wind/Hydropower Program. The program's goal is to increase hydropower generation and capacity while enhancing environmental performance. Our study objective is to determine whether the incremental effects of turbine passage during downstream migration impact populations of salmonids. When such a potential is found to exist, a secondary objective is to determine what level of effect of passing multiple turbines is required to decrease the number of successful migrants by 10%. This information will help identify whether future laboratory or field studies are feasible and design those studies to address conditions that present the greatest potential to improve dam survival and thus benefit fish and power generation.

  16. Changes in Snowmelt Runoff Timing: Potential Implications for Stream Temperature and Native Salmonid Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, R.; Boon, S.; Byrne, J. M.; Silins, U.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric warming is expected to maintain the trend towards an earlier onset of spring snowmelt across western North America in the future. An advanced spring streamflow peak has important implications for aquatic ecosystems, particularly cold-water salmonids that are sensitive to changes in stream hydrological and thermal regimes. We tested stream temperature sensitivity to atmospheric warming scenarios in a headwater catchment on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains by applying a process-based hydrometeorological and stream temperature model. We used a field study in three thermally and hydrologically distinct catchments to provide context for modelling. Results indicate that stream temperature sensitivity to atmospheric warming is variable and corresponds with changes in streamflow. Predictions of lower spring, higher summer and fall, and lower winter stream temperatures are consistent with field study results. This analysis suggests the thermal habitat of native salmonids could become less suitable under future climatic conditions, favouring non-native species.

  17. Sexual Attitudes and Behaviours: A Review of the Literature. Bibliography Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Bruce, Comp.

    This bibliography and review of the literature on sexual behaviors and attitudes toward sexual behavior was developed to contribute to an understanding of changes in attitudes toward sexual behaviors and in community patterns of sexual behaviors, and to assist in the development of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education programs. It…

  18. Predictors of Sexual Intercourse among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryu, Eunjung; Kim, Kyunghee; Kwon, Hyejin

    2007-01-01

    Background: The proportion of adolescents experiencing unwanted pregnancy and abortion caused by the premature initiation of sexual intercourse is increasing at an alarming rate in Korea. This study aimed at developing a theoretical model for identifying individual and environmental risk factors affecting the initiation of sexual intercourse by…

  19. Sexual Harassment on Campus: A Legal Compendium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Tol, Joan E., Ed.

    Law review and journal articles on sexual harassment in higher education are presented along with policies and procedures from selected universities and organizations, guidance on drafting policies, and a selected bibliography. The following law review and journal articles are presented: "Recent Legal Developments in Sexual Harassment" (Elsa…

  20. Sexual Attraction and Harassment: Management's New Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Jeanne Bosson

    1981-01-01

    Both sexual attraction and harassment must be dealt with if men and women are to develop truly productive working relationships. Key issues include policies on sexual attraction and harassment, availability of professional resources on the subjects, training, and the role of personnel specialists. (CT)

  1. Male-Female Sexuality: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Janice

    This annotated bibliography contains over 500 sources on the historical and contemporary development and expression of male and female sexuality. There are 68 topic headings which provide easy access for subject areas. A major portion of the bibliography is devoted to contemporary male-female sexuality. These materials consist of research findings…

  2. Peer Regulation of Teenage Sexual Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Deborah; Tincknell, Estella; Van Loon, Joost

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the teenage policing of heterosexuality in schools and contributes to debates about teenage sexual moralities and heterosexual male agency. It reports on a qualitative study in England of the collective sexual values of 12- to 13-year-olds and 14- to 15-year-olds. Focus group interviews indicated that pupils developed a…

  3. A Synthesis of Tagging Studies Examining the Behaviour and Survival of Anadromous Salmonids in Marine Environments

    PubMed Central

    Drenner, S. Matthew; Clark, Timothy D.; Whitney, Charlotte K.; Martins, Eduardo G.; Cooke, Steven J.; Hinch, Scott G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper synthesizes tagging studies to highlight the current state of knowledge concerning the behaviour and survival of anadromous salmonids in the marine environment. Scientific literature was reviewed to quantify the number and type of studies that have investigated behaviour and survival of anadromous forms of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), brown trout (Salmo trutta), steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii). We examined three categories of tags including electronic (e.g. acoustic, radio, archival), passive (e.g. external marks, Carlin, coded wire, passive integrated transponder [PIT]), and biological (e.g. otolith, genetic, scale, parasites). Based on 207 papers, survival rates and behaviour in marine environments were found to be extremely variable spatially and temporally, with some of the most influential factors being temperature, population, physiological state, and fish size. Salmonids at all life stages were consistently found to swim at an average speed of approximately one body length per second, which likely corresponds with the speed at which transport costs are minimal. We found that there is relatively little research conducted on open-ocean migrating salmonids, and some species (e.g. masu [O. masou] and amago [O. rhodurus]) are underrepresented in the literature. The most common forms of tagging used across life stages were various forms of external tags, coded wire tags, and acoustic tags, however, the majority of studies did not measure tagging/handling effects on the fish, tag loss/failure, or tag detection probabilities when estimating survival. Through the interdisciplinary application of existing and novel technologies, future research examining the behaviour and survival of anadromous salmonids could incorporate important drivers such as oceanography, tagging/handling effects, predation, and physiology. PMID:22431962

  4. Lunar Phasing of the Thyroxine Surge Preparatory to Seaward Migration of Salmonid Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grau, E. Gordon; Dickhoff, Walton W.; Nishioka, Richard S.; Bern, Howard A.; Folmar, Leroy C.

    1981-02-01

    Anadromous salmonid fish show a distinct surge in plasma thyroxine during the smoltification period prior to their migration to the sea. Analysis of 27 groups of hatchery-reared salmon and anadromous trout indicates that thyroxine levels peak coincident with the new moon. The ability to predict migratory readiness by lunar calendar would have substantial implications for the efficient culture of this economically important protein resource.

  5. Sluiceway Operations to Pass Juvenile Salmonids at The Dalles Dam, Columbia River, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Skalski, J. R.; Klatte, Bernard A.

    2013-11-20

    Existing ice and trash sluiceways are commonly used to pass juvenile salmonids downstream at hydropower dams through a benign, non-turbine route. At The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River, managers undertook optimizing operations of sluiceway weirs to maximize survival of juvenile salmonids at the powerhouse. We applied fixed-location hydroacoustic methods to compare fish passage rates and sluiceway efficiencies for two weir configurations during 2004 and 2005: three weirs versus six weirs, located at the mid- versus east powerhouse, respectively. We also analyzed horizontal distributions of passage at the sluiceway and turbines and the effects of operating turbines beneath open sluiceway gates to provide supporting data relevant to operations optimization. Based on the findings, we recommend the following for long-term operations for the sluiceway at The Dalles Dam: open six rather than three sluiceway weirs to take advantage of the maximum hydraulic capacity of the sluiceway; open the three weirs above the western-most operating main turbine unit (MU) and the three weirs at MU 8 where turbine passage rates are relatively high; operate the turbine units below open sluiceway weirs as a standard procedure; operate the sluiceway 24 h/d year-round to maximize its benefits to juvenile salmonids; and use the same operations for spring and summer emigrants. These operational concepts are transferable to dams where sluiceway surface flow outlets are used protect downstream migrating fishes.

  6. Detection of salmonid alphavirus RNA in Celtic and Irish Sea flatfish.

    PubMed

    McCleary, S; Giltrap, M; Henshilwood, K; Ruane, N M

    2014-04-23

    Pancreas disease (PD) caused by the salmonid alphavirus (SAV) has been the most significant cause of mortalities in Irish farmed salmon Salmo salar L. over the past decade. SAV is a single-strand positive-sense RNA virus, originally thought to be unique to salmonids, but has recently been detected using real-time RT-PCR in a number of wild non-salmonid fish. In the present report, 610 wild flatfish (common dab Limanda limanda, plaice Pleuronectes platessa and megrim Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis) were caught from the Irish and Celtic Seas and screened for SAV using real-time RT-PCR and sequencing. In general, a very low prevalence was recorded in common dab and plaice, except for 1 haul in Dublin Bay where 25% of common dab were SAV-positive. SAV sequence analysis supported the fact that real-time RT-PCR detections were specific and further characterised the detected viruses within SAV Subtype I, the predominant subtype found in farmed salmon in Ireland. PMID:24781791

  7. Lake Michigan: effects of exploitation, introductions, and eutrophication on the salmonid community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, LaRue; McLain, Alberton L.

    1972-01-01

    Lake Michigan surface area is 22,400 square miles and its main depth is 276 ft. Its fauna is generally typical of North American oligotrophic lakes. The original fish populations included 10 coregonines and one salmonine. The lake whitefish, the lake herring, and the lake trout were most abundant. Man's activities have caused great changes in the lake in the past 120 years. Although changes in water chemistry and in the lower biota have been generally modest (except locally), those in salmonid communities have been vast. Exploitation, exotic fish species (especially the sea lamprey and alewife), and accelerated eutrophication and other pollution, all have played a role in bringing about the modifications (mostly marked declines in abundance) in salmonid communities. Commercial exploitation was largely responsible for the changes in the salmonid communities before the invasion of the lamprey (1936), although eutrophication and other pollution, and alterations of spawning streams, also were important. The lamprey and alewife (first reported in 1949), however, have exerted a greater impact than the other factors in recent decades.

  8. Piscine reovirus in wild and farmed salmonids in British Columbia, Canada: 1974-2013.

    PubMed

    Marty, G D; Morrison, D B; Bidulka, J; Joseph, T; Siah, A

    2015-08-01

    Piscine reovirus (PRV) was common among wild and farmed salmonids in British Columbia, western Canada, from 1987 to 2013. Salmonid tissues tested for PRV by real-time rRT-PCR included sections from archived paraffin blocks from 1974 to 2008 (n = 363) and fresh-frozen hearts from 2013 (n = 916). The earliest PRV-positive sample was from a wild-source steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), from 1977. By histopathology (n = 404), no fish had lesions diagnostic for heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI). In some groups, lymphohistiocytic endocarditis affected a greater proportion of fish with PRV than fish without PRV, but the range of Ct values among affected fish was within the range of Ct values among unaffected fish. Also, fish with the lowest PRV Ct values (18.4-21.7) lacked endocarditis or any other consistent lesion. From 1987 to 1994, the proportion of PRV positives was not significantly different between farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. (44% of 48), and wild-source salmonids (31% of 45). In 2013, the proportion of PRV positives was not significantly different between wild coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum), sampled from British Columbia (5.0% of 60) or the reference region, Alaska, USA (10% of 58). PMID:25048977

  9. Testing bioassessment metrics: macroinvertebrate, sculpin, and salmonid responses to stream habitat, sediment, and metals.

    PubMed

    Mebane, C A

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to report on the testing of responses of multimetric macroinvertebrate and habitat indices to common disturbances to streams: stream habitat alteration, excessive sediment, and elevated metals concentrations. Seven macroinvertebrate community metrics were combined into a macroinvertebrate biotic index (MBI), and 11 channel morphology, riparian, and substrate features were combined into a habitat index. Indices were evaluated by comparing the habitat results to fish population surveys and comparing the macroinvertebrate results to habitat ratings, percent fine sediments measured by Wolman pebble counts, and copper concentrations. Macroinvertebrate scores decreased with increasing percentages of fine sediments measured either across the bankfull or instream channel widths. Macroinvertebrate scores decreased with increasing copper. One metric, richness of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) taxa, was more responsive to both copper and sediment than was the multimetric MBI. Habitat scores corresponded well with the age class structure of salmonids, but not with that of benthic sculpins. Both salmonid and sculpin age classes declined with increasing percentages of fine sediments. The decline was graded with the sculpin age classes, whether fine sediments were measured across the instream or bankfull channel, whereas salmonids consistently responded only to the instream fine sediments. PMID:11334445

  10. Pubertal Timing and Adolescent Sexual Behavior in Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sarah R.; Harden, K. Paige; Mendle, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Girls who experience earlier pubertal timing relative to peers also exhibit earlier timing of sexual intercourse and more unstable sexual relationships. Although pubertal development initiates feelings of physical desire, the transition into romantic and sexual relationships involves complex biological and social processes contributing both to…

  11. The Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin : Volume II: Experiment Salmonid Survival with Combined PIT-CWT Tagging.

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, Ken

    1997-06-01

    Experiment designs to estimate the effect of transportation on survival and return rates of Columbia River system salmonids are discussed along with statistical modeling techniques. Besides transportation, river flow and dam spill are necessary components in the design and analysis otherwise questions as to the effects of reservoir drawdowns and increased dam spill may never be satisfactorily answered. Four criteria for comparing different experiment designs are: (1) feasibility, (2) clarity of results, (3) scope of inference, and (4) time to learn. In this report, alternative designs for conducting experimental manipulations of smolt tagging studies to study effects of river operations such as flow levels, spill fractions, and transporting outmigrating salmonids around dams in the Columbia River system are presented. The principles of study design discussed in this report have broad implications for the many studies proposed to investigate both smolt and adult survival relationships. The concepts are illustrated for the case of the design and analysis of smolt transportation experiments. The merits of proposed transportation studies should be measured relative to these principles of proper statistical design and analysis.

  12. Sexual selection: lessons from hermaphrodite mating systems.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Janet L

    2006-08-01

    Over the last 130 years, research has established that (a) sexual selection exists and is widespread in the plant and animal kingdoms; (b) it does not necessarily entail sexual dimorphism; even hermaphrodites have it; (c) it does not require intelligence or a sophisticated sense of esthetics; even tapeworms and plants choose mates; and (d) it does not require brawn or even mobility for competition; plants may compete for pollinators, and broadcast spawning invertebrates may also compete for matings. Although discussions of sexual selection often focus on sexual dimorphism, several phenomena that are commonly associated with sexual selection are widespread and highly developed in hermaphrodites. These phenomena include (a) bizarre and expensive courtship and copulatory behavior, (b) multiple mating and sperm competition, (c) rapid evolution of genitalia, (d) special structures associated with courtship, and (e) sexual polymorphism. The skewed breeding sex ratios associated with sequential hermaphroditism have long been recognized as contributory to sexual selection. In many simultaneous hermaphrodites, although the sex ratio at mating may be one to one, the actual reproductive sex ratio may also be skewed, creating a high potential for sexual selection. Reproductive biology in hermaphroditic taxa also involves a lot of complexity unknown in dioecious taxa, such as sex change, facultative sex allocation and conditional reciprocity that offers opportunities to enrich our understanding of sexual selection and to test the assumptions and predictions of theory. PMID:21672747

  13. Schizosaccharomyces pombe atf1+ encodes a transcription factor required for sexual development and entry into stationary phase.

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, T; Toda, T; Kominami, K; Kohnosu, A; Yanagida, M; Jones, N

    1995-01-01

    We describe the identification and characterization of a transcription factor encoded by the atf1+ gene of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The factor Atf1, contains a bZIP domain at its C-terminus with strong homology to members of the ATF/CREB family of mammalian factors and in vitro binds specifically to ATF/CRE recognition sites. Furthermore the ATF-like binding activity detected in extracts from fission yeast cells is entirely lost upon deletion of the atf1+ gene. Upon growth to saturation, fission yeast cells exit the mitotic cycle and enter a G0-like stationary phase. However, on rich medium, entry of atf1- cells into stationary phase is restricted and they rapidly lose viability; this does not occur on minimal medium unless cAMP levels are raised. Thus stationary phase entry appears to be regulated negatively by cAMP and positively by Atf1. atf1- cells are also sterile and this sterility appears to be due to a combination of two defects: first, upon nitrogen starvation the majority of atf1- cells fail to arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and second, the induction of ste11+ expression is lost. Thus expression of ste11+ represents a second example of an event that is negatively regulated by the cAMP pathway and positively regulated by Atf1. Despite their close association however, these two regulatory pathways function independently and Atf1 activity is not directly modulated by cAMP levels or mutations that alter the activity of components of the cAMP signalling pathway. Thus Atf1 is a transcription factor that plays an important role in the response of cells to adverse environmental conditions, which is to exit the mitotic cell cycle and either sexually differentiate or enter a resting state. Images PMID:8557039

  14. Androgen regulates development of the sexually dimorphic gastrin-releasing peptide neuron system in the lumbar spinal cord: evidence from a mouse line lacking androgen receptor in the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Hirotaka; Saito, Kazuhiro; Marie-Luce, Clarisse; Raskin, Kalina; Oti, Takumi; Satoh, Keita; Tamura, Kei; Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Mhaouty-Kodja, Sakina

    2014-01-13

    Androgens including testosterone, organize the nervous system as well as masculine external and internal genitalia during the perinatal period. Androgen organization involves promotion of masculine body features, usually by acting through androgen receptors (ARs). We have recently demonstrated that the gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) system in the lumbar spinal cord also mediates spinal centers promoting penile reflexes during male sexual behavior in rats. Testosterone may induce sexual differentiation of this spinal GRP system during development and maintain its activation in adulthood. In the present study, we examined the role of ARs in the nervous system regulating the development of the sexually dimorphic GRP system. For this purpose, we used a conditional mouse line selectively lacking the AR gene in the nervous system. AR floxed males carrying (mutants) or not (controls) the nestin-Cre transgene were castrated in adulthood and supplemented with physiological amounts of testosterone. Loss of AR expression in the nervous system resulted in a significant decrease in the number of GRP neurons compared to control littermates. Consequently, the intensity of GRP axonal projections onto the lower lumbar and upper sacral spinal cord was greater in control males than in mutant males. These results suggest that ARs expressed in the nervous system play a significant role in the development of the GRP system in the male lumbar spinal cord. The AR-deletion mutation may attenuate sexual behavior and activity of mutant males via spinal GRP system-mediated neural mechanisms. PMID:24211692

  15. Comprehensive Sexuality Education, Culture and Gender: The Effect of the Cultural Setting on a Sexuality Education Programme in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browes, Natalie C.

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) is recognised as an effective method of sexual health education, with the school identified as a fitting site of implementation. Its holistic and participatory nature endeavours to develop the knowledge, attitudes and life-skills of students to help them secure their sexual and reproductive health and rights…

  16. ACES Human Sexuality Training Network Handbook. A Compilation of Sexuality Course Syllabi and Audio-Visual Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Counseling and Development, Alexandria, VA.

    This handbook contains a compilation of human sexuality course syllabi and audio-visual materials. It was developed to enable sex educators to identify and contact one another, to compile Human Sexuality Course Syllabi from across the country, and to bring to attention audio-visual materials which are available for teaching Human Sexuality

  17. Sexual conflict and speciation.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, G A; Partridge, L

    1998-01-01

    We review the significance of two forms of sexual conflict (different evolutionary interests of the two sexes) for genetic differentiation of populations and the evolution of reproductive isolation. Conflicting selection on the alleles at a single locus can occur in males and females if the sexes have different optima for a trait, and there are pleiotropic genetic correlations between the sexes for it. There will then be selection for sex limitation and hence sexual dimorphism. This sex limitation could break down in hybrids and reduce their fitness. Pleiotropic genetic correlations between the sexes could also affect the likelihood of mating in interpopulation encounters. Conflict can also occur between (sex-limited) loci that determine behaviour in males and those that determine behaviour in females. Reproductive isolation may occur by rapid coevolution of male trait and female mating preference. This would tend to generate assortative mating on secondary contact, hence promoting speciation. Sexual conflict resulting from sensory exploitation, polyspermy and the cost of mating could result in high levels of interpopulation mating. If females evolve resistance to make pre- and postmating manipulation, males from one population could be more successful with females from the other, because females would have evolved resistance to their own (but not to the allopatric) males. Between-locus sexual conflict could also occur as a result of conflict between males and females of different populations over the production of unfit hybrids. We develop models which show that females are in general selected to resist such matings and males to persist, and this could have a bearing on both the initial level of interpopulation matings and the likelihood that reinforcement will occur. In effect, selection on males usually acts to promote gene flow and to restrict premating isolation, whereas selection on females usually acts in the reverse direction. We review theoretical models relevant to resolution of this conflict. The winning role depends on a balance between the 'value of winning' and 'power' (relating to contest or armament costs): the winning role is likely to correlate with high value of winning and low costs. Sperm-ovum (or sperm-female tract) conflicts (and their plant parallels) are likely to obey the same principles. Males may typically have higher values of winning, but it is difficult to quantify 'power', and females may often be able to resist mating more cheaply than males can force it. We tentatively predict that sexual conflict will typically result in a higher rate of speciation in 'female-win' clades, that females will be responsible for premating isolation through reinforcement, and that 'female-win' populations will be less genetically diverse. PMID:9533125

  18. Selection of film clips and development of a video for the investigation of sexual decision making among men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Woolf-King, Sarah E; Maisto, Stephen; Carey, Michael; Vanable, Peter

    2010-11-01

    Experimental research on sexual decision making is limited, despite the public health importance of such work. We describe formative work conducted in advance of an experimental study designed to evaluate the effects of alcohol intoxication and sexual arousal on risky sexual decision making among men who have sex with men. In Study 1, we describe the procedures for selecting and validating erotic film clips (to be used for the experimental manipulation of arousal). In Study 2, we describe the tailoring of two interactive role-play videos to be used to measure risk perception and communication skills in an analog risky sex situation. Together, these studies illustrate a method for creating experimental stimuli to investigate sexual decision making in a laboratory setting. Research using this approach will support experimental research that affords a stronger basis for drawing causal inferences regarding sexual decision making. PMID:19760530

  19. Indian concepts on sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

    2013-01-01

    India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality. PMID:23858263

  20. Causes of sexual dysfunction (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Female sexual dysfunction describes women who are indifferent or hostile to sexual intercourse, who have no response to sexual advances or stimulation, or who are unable to have an orgasm during sexual intercourse.

  1. ORIGINAL PAPER Sexual Victimization, Alcohol Intoxication, Sexual-Emotional

    E-print Network

    combine to exacerbate their sexual risks. Keywords Child sexual abuse Á Sexual assault Á Alcohol Á Sexual in the past year, completed childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent/adult sexual assault(ASA) measures, Gender, and Reproduction, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA J. Norris Alcohol and Drug Abuse

  2. Regulation and expression of sexual differentiation factors in embryonic and extragonadal tissues of Atlantic salmon

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The products of cyp19, dax, foxl2, mis, sf1 and sox9 have each been associated with sex-determining processes among vertebrates. We provide evidence for expression of these regulators very early in salmonid development and in tissues outside of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal/gonadal (HPAG) axis. Although the function of these factors in sexual differentiation have been defined, their roles in early development before sexual fate decisions and in tissues beyond the brain or gonad are essentially unknown. Results Bacterial artificial chromosomes containing salmon dax1 and dax2, foxl2b and mis were isolated and the regulatory regions that control their expression were characterized. Transposon integrations are implicated in the shaping of the dax and foxl2 loci. Splice variants for cyp19b1 and mis in both embryonic and adult tissues were detected and characterized. We found that cyp19b1 transcripts are generated that contain 5'-untranslated regions of different lengths due to cryptic splicing of the 3'-end of intron 1. We also demonstrate that salmon mis transcripts can encode prodomain products that present different C-termini and terminate before translation of the MIS hormone. Regulatory differences in the expression of two distinct aromatases cyp19a and cyp19b1 are exerted, despite transcription of their transactivators (ie; dax1, foxl2, sf1) occurring much earlier during embryonic development. Conclusions We report the embryonic and extragonadal expression of dax, foxl2, mis and other differentiation factors that indicate that they have functions that are more general and not restricted to steroidogenesis and gonadogenesis. Spliced cyp19b1 and mis transcripts are generated that may provide regulatory controls for tissue- or development-specific activities. Selection of cyp19b1 transcripts may be regulated by DAX-1, FOXL2 and SF-1 complexes that bind motifs in intron 1, or by signals within exon 2 that recruit splicing factors, or both. The potential translation of proteins bearing only the N-terminal MIS prodomain may modulate the functions of other TGF ? family members in different tissues. The expression patterns of dax1 early in salmon embryogenesis implicate its role as a lineage determination factor. Other roles for these factors during embryogenesis and outside the HPAG axis are discussed. PMID:21232142

  3. Sexual selection: Another Darwinian process.

    PubMed

    Gayon, Jean

    2010-02-01

    Why was sexual selection so important to Darwin? And why was it de-emphasized by almost all of Darwin's followers until the second half of the 20th century? These two questions shed light on the complexity of the scientific tradition named "Darwinism". Darwin's interest in sexual selection was almost as old as his discovery of the principle of natural selection. From the beginning, sexual selection was just another "natural means of selection", although different from standard "natural selection" in its mechanism. But it took Darwin 30 years to fully develop his theory, from the early notebooks to the 1871 book The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. Although there is a remarkable continuity in his basic ideas about sexual selection, he emphasized increasingly the idea that sexual selection could oppose the action of natural selection and be non adaptive. In time, he also gave more weight to mate choice (especially female choice), giving explicit arguments in favor of psychological notions such as "choice" and "aesthetic sense". But he also argued that there was no strict demarcation line between natural and sexual selection, a major difficulty of the theory from the beginning. Female choice was the main reason why Alfred Russel Wallace, the co-discoverer of the principle of natural selection, engaged in a major controversy with Darwin about sexual selection. Wallace was suspicious about sexual selection in general, trying to minimize it by all sorts of arguments. And he denied entirely the existence of female choice, because he thought that it was both unnecessary and an anthropomorphic notion. This had something to do with his spiritualist convictions, but also with his conception of natural selection as a sufficient principle for the evolutionary explanation of all biological phenomena (except for the origin of mind). This is why Wallace proposed to redefine Darwinism in a way that excluded Darwin's principle of sexual selection. The main result of the Darwin-Wallace controversy was that most Darwinian biologists avoided the subject of sexual selection until at least the 1950s, Ronald Fisher being a major exception. This controversy still deserves attention from modern evolutionary biologists, because the modern approach inherits from both Darwin and Wallace. The modern approach tends to present sexual selection as a special aspect of the theory of natural selection, although it also recognizes the big difficulties resulting from the inevitable interaction between these two natural processes of selection. And contra Wallace, it considers mate choice as a major process that deserves a proper evolutionary treatment. The paper's conclusion explains why sexual selection can be taken as a test case for a proper assessment of "Darwinism" as a scientific tradition. Darwin's and Wallace's attitudes towards sexual selection reveal two different interpretations of the principle of natural selection: Wallace's had an environmentalist conception of natural selection, whereas Darwin was primarily sensitive to the element of competition involved in the intimate mechanism of any natural process of selection. Sexual selection, which can lack adaptive significance, reveals this exemplarily. PMID:20338530

  4. "Children are sexually innocent": Iranian parents' understanding of children's sexuality.

    PubMed

    Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Abolghasemi, Naria; Smith, Thomas G

    2014-04-01

    Sexuality education (SE) is hotly contested in the West and there is much abstinence-only education; however, it remains controversial in a variety of contexts, including in Iran. The lack of consensus about children's SE in Muslim societies obliges us to explore different aspects of this topic systematically. The qualitative research presented here was about how Iranian parents perceived children's sexuality. Data from parents of 26 children were collected during four focus group sessions. Informants were selected from Area 5 in West Tehran. This area included 72 primary schools for girls and 82 for boys. The sessions were facilitated by using a semi-structured focus group guide. Content analysis was adopted using combined free and analytical coding to reduce data, to extract meanings, and to categorize domains. One of the three main domains identified, family management of child sexuality, is comprised of the following: (1) understanding of child sexuality, (2) family rules, (3) parent-child interactions, and (4) opposite sex interactions. Parental misinformation, accumulated myths, and ignorance about children's sexual development were evident. Strict family rules and a lack of consistent policy and instruction for SE were also identified. Parents said they were neither well-prepared nor competent to educate their children about sexuality. In fact, a majority of mothers raised "incompetence" as an important determinant in their own parent-child interactions. Societal changes as well as children's socialization patterns have forced parents to accept their children's opposite sex friendships as a reality. Results suggest a community need for developing comprehensive and culturally sensitive SE for schools and parental use. PMID:24343162

  5. An Overview of Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stier, William F., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Sexual harassment, according to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), is when any unwelcome sexual advances for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature takes place. For sexual harassment to take place there must be some type of behavior, language, or material of a sexual nature, which is offensive.…

  6. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin : Evaluating Wetland Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary using Hydroacoustic Telemetry Arrays to Estimate Movement, Survival, and Residence Times of Juvenile Salmonids, Volume XXII (22).

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Russell W.; Skalski, John R.

    2008-08-01

    Wetlands in the Columbia River estuary are actively being restored by reconnecting these habitats to the estuary, making more wetland habitats available to rearing and migrating juvenile salmon. Concurrently, thousands of acoustically tagged juvenile salmonids are released into the Columbia River to estimate their survival as they migrate through the estuary. Here, we develop a release-recapture model that makes use of these tagged fish to measure the success of wetland restoration projects in terms of their contribution to populations of juvenile salmon. Specifically, our model estimates the fraction of the population that enter the wetland, survival within the wetland, and the mean residence time of fish within the wetland. Furthermore, survival in mainstem Columbia River downstream of the wetland can be compared between fish that remained the mainstem and entered the wetland. These conditional survival estimates provide a means of testing whether the wetland improves the subsequent survival of juvenile salmon by fostering growth or improving their condition. Implementing such a study requires little additional cost because it takes advantage of fish already released to estimate survival through the estuary. Thus, such a study extracts the maximum information at minimum cost from research projects that typically cost millions of dollars annually.

  7. BARNARD COLLEGE SEXUAL VIOLENCE

    E-print Network

    nature. Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal, nonverbal or physical of consent involves explicit communication and mutual approval for the act in which the parties are

  8. Teen Sexual Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sex puts you at risk of getting a sexually transmitted disease, such as herpes or genital warts, or HIV, ... however, latex condoms are the best protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Condoms are also a form of birth ...

  9. Sexual Problems in Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... results from past sexual trauma. Occasional problems with sexual function are common. If problems last more than a few months or cause distress for you or your partner, you should see your health care provider.

  10. Sexuality in Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... feel good about yourself. As you age, your sexual health will change. But growing older doesn’t have ... life at any age. How does aging affect sexual health? Changes for women: As a woman approaches menopause, ...

  11. Children and Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Susan Miller

    1991-01-01

    Presents a newsletter that discusses methods parents can use to handle sexual questions or behavior in young children. An accompanying letter to parents addresses young children's sexual behavior and ways parents can respond to this behavior. (GH)

  12. Sexual Assault against Females

    MedlinePLUS

    ... give her consent because she is under the influence of alcohol or drugs threatened to be hurt ... do sexual assaults happen? Estimating rates of sexual violence against women is a difficult task. Many factors ...

  13. Notes on sexuality & space

    E-print Network

    Jacobson, Samuel Ray

    2013-01-01

    Very little has been written on sexuality in architectural scholarship. Sexuality & Space (Princeton Architectural Press, 1992) contains the proceedings of an eponymous 1990 conference at Princeton University, and was both ...

  14. Sexuality during and after Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Still, Hereford

    1986-01-01

    Most standard obstetrical and gynecological textbooks ignore the subject of sexuality during and after pregnancy, and physicians who practise obstetrics tend to pay scant attention to this aspect of their patients' well-being. Since 1966, when Masters and Johnson's studies were published, relatively little information about pregnancy and sexuality has appeared in the medical literature. A comprehensive survey of the feelings and opinions of some 300 couples, published in 1977, indicates patients' desire and need to discuss sexual concerns with their doctor during and after pregnancy. This article summarizes the relevant literature and discusses the author's own experience of counselling his maternity patients. It also addresses problems which may develop in the marital relationship when a baby enters the pre-existing marital dyad. PMID:21267320

  15. A well-constrained estimate for the timing of the salmonid whole genome duplication reveals major decoupling from species diversification

    PubMed Central

    Macqueen, Daniel J.; Johnston, Ian A.

    2014-01-01

    Whole genome duplication (WGD) is often considered to be mechanistically associated with species diversification. Such ideas have been anecdotally attached to a WGD at the stem of the salmonid fish family, but remain untested. Here, we characterized an extensive set of gene paralogues retained from the salmonid WGD, in species covering the major lineages (subfamilies Salmoninae, Thymallinae and Coregoninae). By combining the data in calibrated relaxed molecular clock analyses, we provide the first well-constrained and direct estimate for the timing of the salmonid WGD. Our results suggest that the event occurred no later in time than 88 Ma and that 40–50 Myr passed subsequently until the subfamilies diverged. We also recovered a Thymallinae–Coregoninae sister relationship with maximal support. Comparative phylogenetic tests demonstrated that salmonid diversification patterns are closely allied in time with the continuous climatic cooling that followed the Eocene–Oligocene transition, with the highest diversification rates coinciding with recent ice ages. Further tests revealed considerably higher speciation rates in lineages that evolved anadromy—the physiological capacity to migrate between fresh and seawater—than in sister groups that retained the ancestral state of freshwater residency. Anadromy, which probably evolved in response to climatic cooling, is an established catalyst of genetic isolation, particularly during environmental perturbations (for example, glaciation cycles). We thus conclude that climate-linked ecophysiological factors, rather than WGD, were the primary drivers of salmonid diversification. PMID:24452024

  16. Development of a computer-based risk-reduction counseling intervention: acceptability and preferences among low-income patients at an urban sexually transmitted infection clinic.

    PubMed

    Weinhardt, Lance S; Mosack, Katie E; Swain, Geoffrey R

    2007-07-01

    In preparation for the development of an individually tailored, multimedia, computerized sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV-risk reduction intervention software application for use in publicly funded STI clinics, we conducted a waiting-room survey among 583 inner-city patients (67% male; 79% African American; mean age = 30.3) at an STI clinic in Milwaukee, Wisconsin regarding their computer experience and opinions related to a computerized approach to HIV/STI-risk reduction counseling. A substantial minority of respondents indicated they would prefer having either a combined computerized and human counseling intervention (30%) or preferred a computerized intervention alone (13%). Perceived benefits of computerized counseling included impartiality of the response, privacy, accuracy of the information, convenience, and being able to control the dissemination of information. Perceived disadvantages included lack of human contact, inability to obtain necessary information, technical problems, threats to privacy, and failure to take information from a computer seriously. Despite their limited economic resources, participants reported relatively high levels of computer experience overall and a willingness to use an individually tailored computerized risk-reduction counseling approach. We discuss how participants' responses were used to inform the development of such an intervention. PMID:17028993

  17. Getting to the Good Stuff: Adopting a Pleasure Framework for Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deFur, Kirsten M.

    2012-01-01

    Sexuality professionals have consistently identified the need to incorporate the topics of pleasure and desire into sexuality education programs; however, that has yet to be realized in most settings. Sexuality education has traditionally been rooted in preventing disease and pregnancy rather than promoting healthy sexual development. There is a…

  18. The Problem... ! Sexual Assault & Sexual Harassment are

    E-print Network

    Berdichevsky, Victor

    on college campuses. ! FBI statistics indicate that 1 out of 4 women and 1 out of 10 men will be a survivor, guilt) $ Date rape, a form of sexual assault, is rape by someone the victim is dating. $ Acquaintance rape, a form of sexual assault, is rape by a non-stranger, such as a friend #12;Defining the Terms

  19. Evaluation of juvenile salmonid behavior near a prototype weir box at Cowlitz Falls Dam, Washington, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kock, Tobias J.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Ekstrom, Brian K.; Tomka, Ryan G.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2014-01-01

    Collection of juvenile salmonids at Cowlitz Falls Dam is a critical part of the effort to restore salmon in the upper Cowlitz River because the majority of fish that are not collected at the dam pass downstream and enter a large reservoir where they become landlocked and lost to the anadromous fish population. However, the juvenile fish collection system at Cowlitz Falls Dam has failed to achieve annual collection goals since it first began operating in 1996. Since that time, numerous modifications to the fish collection system have been made and several prototype collection structures have been developed and tested, but these efforts have not substantially increased juvenile fish collection. Studies have shown that juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), and Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) tend to locate the collection entrances effectively, but many of these fish are not collected and eventually pass the dam through turbines or spillways. Tacoma Power developed a prototype weir box in 2009 to increase capture rates of juvenile salmonids at the collection entrances, and this device proved to be successful at retaining those fish that entered the weir. However, because of safety concerns at the dam, the weir box could not be deployed near a spillway gate where the prototype was tested, so the device was altered and re-deployed at a different location, where it was evaluated during 2013. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an evaluation using radiotelemetry to monitor fish behavior near the weir box and collection flumes. The evaluation was conducted during April–June 2013. Juvenile steelhead and coho salmon (45 per species) were tagged with a radio transmitter and passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag, and released upstream of the dam. All tagged fish moved downstream and entered the forebay of Cowlitz Falls Dam. Median travel times from the release site to the forebay were 0.8 d for steelhead and 1.2 d for coho salmon. Most fish spent several days in the dam forebay; median forebay residence times were 4.4 d for juvenile steelhead and 5.7 d for juvenile coho salmon. A new radio transmitter model was used during the study period. The transmitter had low detection probabilities on underwater antennas located within the collection system, which prevented us from reporting performance metrics (discovery efficiency, entrance efficiency, retention efficiency) that are traditionally used to evaluate fish collection systems. Most tagged steelhead (98 percent) and coho salmon (84 percent) were detected near the weir box or collection flume entrances during the study period; 39 percent of tagged steelhead and 55 percent of tagged coho salmon were detected at both entrances. Sixty-three percent of the tagged steelhead that were detected at both entrances were first detected at the weir box, compared to 52 percent of the coho salmon. Twelve steelhead and 15 coho salmon detected inside the weir box eventually left the device and were collected in collection flumes or passed the dam. Overall, collection rates were relatively high during the study period. Sixty-five percent of the steelhead and 80 percent of the coho salmon were collected during the study, and most of the remaining fish passed the dam and entered the tailrace (24 percent of steelhead; 13 percent of coho salmon). The remaining 11 percent of steelhead and 7 percent of coho salmon did not pass the dam while their transmitters were operating. We were able to confirm collection of tagged fish at the fish facility using three approaches: (1) detection of radio transmitters in study fish; (2) detection of PIT-tags in study fish; (3) observation of study fish by staff at the fish facility. Data from all three methods were used to develop a multistate mark-recapture model that estimated detection probabilities for the various monitoring methods. These estimates then were used to describe the percent of tagged fish that were collected through the weir box and collection flumes. Detection probabilities of PIT-tag antennas in

  20. Sexual Communication in the Drosophila Genus

    PubMed Central

    Bontonou, Gwénaëlle; Wicker-Thomas, Claude

    2014-01-01

    In insects, sexual behavior depends on chemical and non-chemical cues that might play an important role in sexual isolation. In this review, we present current knowledge about sexual behavior in the Drosophila genus. We describe courtship and signals involved in sexual communication, with a special focus on sex pheromones. We examine the role of cuticular hydrocarbons as sex pheromones, their implication in sexual isolation, and their evolution. Finally, we discuss the roles of male cuticular non-hydrocarbon pheromones that act after mating: cis-vaccenyl acetate, developing on its controversial role in courtship behavior and long-chain acetyldienylacetates and triacylglycerides, which act as anti-aphrodisiacs in mated females. PMID:26462693

  1. Changes in Gas Bubble Disease Signs and Survival of Migrating Juvenile Salmonids Experimentally Exposed to Supersaturated Gasses, 1995-1996 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Absolon, Randall F.

    1997-11-01

    Research conducted in 1996 to evaluate (1) changes in GBD signs in juvenile salmonids resulting from passage through turbine intakes and bypass systems, and (2) relative survival during migration through the lower Snake River for juvenile salmonids experimentally exposed to supersaturation of dissolved gas.

  2. Sexual health innovations in undergraduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, E; Pugnaire, M P; Jonassen, J A; O'Dell, K; Clay, M; Hatem, D; Carlin, M

    2003-10-01

    Recent national and global initiatives have drawn attention to the importance of sexual health to individuals' well-being. These initiatives advocate enhancement of efforts to address this under-represented topic in health professions curricula. University of Massachusetts Medical School (UMMS) has undertaken a comprehensive effort to develop an integrated curriculum in sexual health. The UMMS project draws upon the expertise of a multidisciplinary faculty of clinicians, basic scientists, a medical ethicist, and educators. This article describes the project's genesis and development at UMMS, and reports on three innovations in sexual health education implemented as part of this endeavor. PMID:14551577

  3. Sexual Intimacy After Sexual Assault or Sexual Abuse1

    E-print Network

    Machel, Hans

    are not permanent, they can be very frustrating as they can decrease the enjoyment of one's sexual life and intimacy fearing losing control of their body or feeling vulnerable to someone else. Others may react by having

  4. Sexual Fluidity and Related Attitudes and Beliefs Among Young Adults with a Same-Gender Orientation.

    PubMed

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Hyde, Janet S

    2015-07-01

    Little research has examined whether experiencing sexual fluidity--changes over time in attractions and sexual orientation identity--is related to specific cognitions. This study explored attitudes and beliefs among sexually fluid and non-sexually fluid individuals and developed two new measures of sexuality beliefs based on Diamond's sexual fluidity research and Dweck's psychological theory of intelligence beliefs. Participants were 188 female and male young adults in the United States with a same-gender orientation, ages 18-26 years. Participants completed an online questionnaire which assessed sexual fluidity in attractions and sexual orientation identity, attitudes toward bisexuality, sexuality beliefs, and demographics. Sexual fluidity in attractions was reported by 63 % of females and 50 % of males, with 48 % of those females and 34 % of those males reporting fluidity in sexual orientation identity. No significant gender differences in frequency of sexual fluidity were observed. Sexually fluid females had more positive attitudes toward bisexuality than non-sexually fluid females; however, no significant difference was observed for males. Females were more likely than males to endorse sexual fluidity beliefs and to believe that sexuality is changeable; and sexually fluid persons were more likely than non-sexually fluid persons to hold those two beliefs. Among males, non-sexually fluid individuals were more likely than sexually fluid individuals to believe that sexuality is something an individual is born with. Females were more likely than males to endorse the belief that sexuality is influenced by the environment. Findings from this research link sexual fluidity with specific cognitions. PMID:25378265

  5. The Impact of Sexual Abuse on Sexual Identity Formation in Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Emerging data suggests that as children, gay males have an increased risk for physical and sexual abuse. Anecdotal evidence suggests that a significant subset of children abused by clergy identify as gay as adults. However, we know very little about the impact of clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse in childhood on the development and psychosocial…

  6. Improving Sexual Health for Young People: Making Sexuality Education a Priority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmer, Janet; Senior, Kate; Davison, Belinda; Vodic, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    How well do young people understand their developing sexuality and what this means? This paper reports on findings from the Our Lives: Culture, Context and Risk project, which investigated sexual behaviour and decision-making in the context of the everyday life experience and aspirations of Indigenous and non-Indigenous young people (16-25 years)…

  7. Sexuality Education Goes Viral: What We Know about Online Sexual Health Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holstrom, Amelia M.

    2015-01-01

    Internet use among young people in the United States is nearly ubiquitous; they are online from home computers, from school computers, and from mobile devices. This offers incredible opportunity for sexual health educators to access individuals who are at a critical time in sexual development over the life course. Currently, the research base on…

  8. Complete genome sequence of Piscirickettsia salmonis LF-89 (ATCC VR-1361) a major pathogen of farmed salmonid fish.

    PubMed

    Pulgar, Rodrigo; Travisany, Dante; Zuñiga, Alejandro; Maass, Alejandro; Cambiazo, Verónica

    2015-10-20

    Piscirickettsia salmonis, the causative agent of salmonid rickettsial septicemia (SRS), is a significant threat to the healthy and sustainable production of salmonid farming industry. This Gram-negative bacterium, originally isolated from a coho salmon in Southern Chile, produces a systemic infection characterized by colonization of several fish organs. P. salmonis is able to infect, survive, and replicate inside salmonid macrophages however little is known about its mechanisms of pathogenesis. Here, we present the whole genome sequence and annotation of the P. salmonis reference strain LF-89 (ATCC VR-1361). The genome contains one circular chromosome of 3,184,851 bp and three plasmids, pPSLF89-1 (180,124 bp), pPSLF89-2 (33,516 bp) and pPSLF89-3 (51,573 bp). A total of 2850 protein-coding genes, 56 tRNAs and six copies of 5S-16S-23S rRNA. PMID:26220311

  9. Necrophilia and sexual homicide.

    PubMed

    Stein, Michelle L; Schlesinger, Louis B; Pinizzotto, Anthony J

    2010-03-01

    A closed case-file review of 211 sexual homicides identified 16 cases of necrophilia. The results of this unique descriptive study of necrophilia associated with sexual homicide provide information on crime-scene locations, methods of killing, body disposition, premortem sexual assault, specifics of the necrophilic acts, methods of victim abduction, and motivational dynamics. The findings suggest that the most common explanation for necrophilia-the offender's desire to have an unresisting partner-may not always be applicable in cases where this rare paraphilia is connected to sexual murder. The possibility of using crime-scene behaviors in these cases to investigate serial sexual murders is offered. PMID:20102474

  10. Young people and sexual agency in rural Uganda.

    PubMed

    Bell, Stephen A

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers an analysis of young people's sexual agency in rural Uganda. Drawing on definitions of agency from within the international development literature, it focuses on: decision-making processes leading to young people's involvement in relationships; actions undertaken to maintain 'secret' relationships in contexts where young people's sexual agency is generally prohibited; transactional and gendered negotiations between young people involved within a relationship; and a range of outcomes arising from young people's sexual activity. An understanding of the dynamics and temporal nature of young people's sexual agency, and the consequences that follow from it, challenges the widely held view that young people do not know what they are doing in relation to their sexual health. This should enable practitioners to identify avenues for developing HIV prevention and sexual health programmes that are more fully based in, and driven by, the realities of young people's sexual lives. PMID:22118492

  11. Does Maltreatment in Childhood Affect Sexual Orientation in Adulthood?

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Andrea L.; Glymour, M. Maria; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies find a positive association between physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and witnessing violence in childhood and same-sex sexuality in adulthood, but studies directly assessing the association between these diverse types of maltreatment and sexuality cannot disentangle the causal direction because the sequencing of maltreatment and emerging sexuality is difficult to ascertain. Nascent same-sex orientation may increase risk of maltreatment; alternatively, maltreatment may shape sexual orientation. Our study used instrumental variable models based on family characteristics that predict maltreatment but are not plausibly influenced by sexual orientation (e.g., having a stepparent) as natural experiments to investigate whether maltreatment might increase the likelihood of same-sex sexuality in a nationally representative sample (n = 34,653). In instrumental variable models, history of sexual abuse predicted increased prevalence of same-sex attraction by 2.0 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4, 2.5), any same-sex partners by 1.4 percentage points (95% CI = 1.0, 1.9), and same-sex identity by 0.7 percentage points (95% CI = 0.4, 0.9). Effects of sexual abuse on men’s sexual orientation were substantially larger than on women’s. Effects of non-sexual maltreatment were significant only for men and women’s sexual identity and women’s same-sex partners. While point estimates suggest much of the association between maltreatment and sexual orientation may be due to the effects of maltreatment on sexual orientation, confidence intervals were wide. Our results suggest that causal relationships driving the association between sexual orientation and childhood abuse may be bidirectional, may differ by type of abuse, and may differ by sex. Better understanding of this potentially complex causal structure is critical to developing targeted strategies to reduce sexual orientation disparities in exposure to abuse. PMID:22976519

  12. Synthesis of Juvenile Salmonid Passage Studies at The Dalles Dam, Volume II, 2001-05

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Beeman, John W.; Duran, Ian; Puls, Andrew

    2007-08-15

    The overall goal of juvenile salmonid research at The Dalles Dam is to provide data to inform decisions on strategies to improve smolt survival rates at the project. Survival improvement strategies address the three primary passage routes at The Dalles Dam -- spillway, sluiceway, and turbines – with the general intent to increase spill and sluice passage and decrease turbine passage. Since the review by Ploskey et al. (2001a) of research during 1982-2000 at The Dalles Dam, the Corps funded over $20M of research in at least 39 studies during 2001-2006. The purpose of the current review is to synthesize juvenile salmonid passage data at The Dalles Dam (TDA) collected from 2001 through 2006. The data we synthesize comes from numerous research techniques employed to address particular study objectives at The Dalles Dam. The suite of techniques includes acoustic and radio telemetry, acoustic cameras, acoustic Doppler current profilers, balloon tags, computational fluid dynamics models, drogues, fixed and mobile hydroacoustics, fyke nets, physical scale models, PIT-tags, sensor fish, sonar trackers, and underwater video. Hydraulic data involves flow patterns and water velocities. Biological data involve forebay approach paths and residence times, horizontal and diel distributions, passage efficiencies and effectiveness, fish behaviors, tailrace egress and predation rates, and route-specific and total project survival rates. Data for 2001-2006 are synthesized in this report to provide, in conjunction with Ploskey et al. (2001a), resources for engineers, biologists, and dam operators to use when making decisions about fish protection measures for juvenile salmonids at The Dalles Dam. This review covers the major fish passage research efforts during 2001-2006 and includes sections on the Environmental Setting, Forebay and Project Passage Studies, Spill Studies, Sluiceway Studies, Turbine Studies, Smolt Survival Studies, and a Discussion.

  13. Predicted redistribution of Ceratomyxa shasta genotypes with salmonid passage in the Deschutes River, Oregon.

    PubMed

    Stinson, Matthew E T; Bartholomew, Jerri L

    2012-12-01

    A series of dams on the Deschutes River, Oregon, act as migration barriers that segregate the river system into upper and lower basins. Proposed fish passage between basins would reunite populations of native potamodromous fish and allow anadromous fish of Deschutes River origin access to the upper basin. We assessed the potential redistribution of host-species-specific genotypes (O, I, II, III) of the myxozoan parasite Ceratomyxa shasta that could occur with fish passage and examined the influence of nonnative fish on genotype composition. To determine the present distribution of the parasite genotypes, we exposed eight salmonid species-three native and five stocked for sport fishing-in present and predicted anadromous salmonid habitats. We monitored fish for infection by C. shasta and sequenced a section of the parasite ribosomal DNA gene from fish and water samples to determine parasite genotype. Genotype O was present in both upper and lower basins and detected only in steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss. Genotype I was spatially limited to the lower basin, isolated predominantly from Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha, and lethal for this species only. Genotype II was detected in both basins and in multiple species, but only as a minor component of the infection. Genotype III was also present in both basins, had a wide host range, and caused mortality in native steelhead and multiple nonnative species. Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and kokanee O. nerka were the least susceptible to infection by any genotype of C. shasta. Our findings confirmed the host-specific patterns of C. shasta infections and indicated that passage of Chinook salmon would probably spread genotype I into the upper Deschutes River basin, but with little risk to native salmonid populations. PMID:23146111

  14. Comparing visual prey detection among species of piscivorous salmonids: effects of light and low turbidities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazur, Michael M.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2003-01-01

    Differences in reaction distance to prey fish by piscivorous salmonids can alter predator–prey interactions under different visual conditions. We compared reaction distances of three piscivorous salmonids commonly found in western lakes: cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarki utah, rainbow trout, O. mykiss, and the nonnative lake char, Salvelinus namaycush. Reaction distances to salmonid prey were measured as functions of light and turbidity in a controlled laboratory setting. In addition, predation rates and swimming speeds of lake char preying on juvenile cutthroat trout were measured experimentally under a range of light levels. Reaction distances for cutthroat trout and rainbow trout increased rapidly as light levels increased, reaching relatively constant reaction distances at higher light levels. Reaction distances for lake char were similar to cutthroat trout and rainbow trout at the lower light levels; however, lake char reaction distances continued to increase with increasing light intensity to asymptote at distances 65% higher than those for both cutthroat and rainbow trout. Predation rates by lake char were low for the darkest light levels, increased rapidly under low light levels (0.50–0.75?lx), and then declined to an intermediate rate at all higher light levels. Swimming speeds by lake char also increased rapidly from extremely low light conditions to a peak and declined to an intermediate level at light levels above 1.00?lx. These results suggest that, above the saturation intensity threshold, piscivorous lake char react to fish prey at greater distances than do cutthroat trout and rainbow trout. These differences may help explain the decline of native trout following the introductions of nonnative lake char in lakes and reservoirs of western North America.

  15. Juvenile anadromous salmonid production in upper Columbia River side channels with different levels of hydrological connection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martens, Kyle D.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the contribution of three types of side channels based on their hydrologic connectivity (seasonally disconnected, partially connected, and connected) to production of juvenile anadromous salmonids. Juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss and Chinook Salmon O. tshawytscha were found in all three of these side channel types and in each year of the study. Upon connection with the main stem at high flows, the seasonally disconnected side channels experienced an emptying out of the previous year's fish while filling with young-of-year fish during the 2- to 4-month period of hydrologic connection. There were no differences between the densities of juvenile steelhead and Chinook Salmon and the rate of smolts produced among the three types of side channels. Recently reintroduced Coho Salmon O. kisutch had sporadic presence and abundance in partially and connected side channels, but the smolt production rate was over two times that of steelhead and Chinook Salmon in seasonally disconnected side channels. Within seasonally disconnected side channels, young-of-year salmonids in deep pools (?100 cm) had greater survival than those in shallow pools (<100 cm). Densities of juvenile steelhead in all side channel types were similar to those in tributaries and were higher than in main-stem lateral margins. Juvenile Chinook Salmon densities were higher in side channels than in both tributary and main-stem lateral margins. Our results suggest that improving quality of pool habitat within seasonally disconnected side channels can result in improved survival for juvenile anadromous salmonids during the period of disconnection. Habitat improvement in these seasonally disconnected side channels should be recognized as a worthy restoration strategy, especially when full connectivity of side channels may not be a feasible target (e.g., through lack of water availability) or when full connectivity may present too high a risk (e.g., flooding, stream capture, bank destabilization).

  16. Flavobacterium psychrophilum Infections in Salmonid Broodstock and Hatchery-Propagated Stocks of the Great Lakes Basin.

    PubMed

    Van Vliet, Danielle; Loch, Thomas P; Faisal, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial coldwater disease (BCWD), caused by Flavobacterium psychrophilum, threatens wild and propagated salmonids worldwide and leads to substantial economic losses. In addition to being horizontally transmitted, F. psychrophilum can be passed from infected parents to their progeny, furthering the negative impacts of this pathogen. In Michigan, both feral and captive salmonid broodstocks are the gamete sources used in fishery propagation efforts. A 5-year study was initiated to follow the prevalence of systemic F. psychrophilum infections in feral broodstocks of four species (steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss [potadromous Rainbow Trout]; Coho Salmon O. kisutch; Chinook Salmon O. tshawytscha; and Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar) residing in three Great Lakes watersheds. Additionally, captive broodstocks of four species (Rainbow Trout, Brown Trout Salmo trutta, Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush, and Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis) maintained at two facilities were assessed for the presence of F. psychrophilum. The resultant offspring from each broodstock population were sampled for F. psychrophilum infections multiple times throughout hatchery residency. Using selective flavobacterial culture and PCR confirmation, F. psychrophilum was detected in all broodstocks except the captive Lake Trout and Brook Trout. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that among the infected feral broodstocks, Chinook Salmon from the Lake Michigan watershed had the highest prevalence of systemic F. psychrophilum infection (mean = 63.2%). Among the captive broodstocks, the Gilchrist Creek strain of Brown Trout had the highest infection prevalence (mean = 5%). Collectively, the captive broodstocks were found to have significantly lower infection prevalence than the feral broodstocks. Despite the high prevalence of systemic F. psychrophilum infections in many broodstock populations, the bacterium was rarely detected in their progeny during hatchery rearing. However, heavy losses associated with clinical BCWD outbreaks did occur. Collectively, our results reinforce that BCWD continues to threaten Great Lakes basin salmonids. Received April 6, 2015; accepted August 25, 2015. PMID:26636411

  17. Effects of Catch-and-Release Angling on Salmonids at Elevated Water Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, James W.; Guy, Christopher S.; Horton, Travis; Leathe, Steven A.

    2010-08-01

    Few studies have assessed catch and release mortality of salmonids at water temperatures ?23°C, despite predictions of warming stream temperatures due to climate change. In addition, the effects of diel temperature fluctuations on salmonid mortality have largely been ignored in catch and release angling studies. The primary objective of this study was to measure catch and release mortality of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, brown trout Salmo trutta, and mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni in three water temperature treatments; when daily maximum water temperatures were cool (<20°C), warm (20 to 22.9°C), and hot ( 23°C). A secondary objective was to assess catch and release mortality of salmonids angled in morning and evening within water-temperature treatments. These objectives were related to Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks’ Drought Fishing Closure Policy (DFCP). Angling (fly-fishing only) occurred in the Gallatin and Smith rivers. All angled fish were confined to in-stream holding cages and monitored for mortality for 72 h. Mortality of rainbow trout peaked at 16% in the Gallatin River and 9% in the Smith River during the hot treatment. Mortality of brown trout was less than 5% in all water-temperature treatments in both rivers. Mountain whitefish mortality peaked at 28% in the hot treatment in the Smith River. No mortality for any species occurred in either river when daily maximum water temperatures were <20°C. Mortality of rainbow trout peaked at 16% in the evening hot treatment in the Smith River. Mortality of brown trout and mountain whitefish was not related to time of day. The catch and release mortality values presented here likely represent fishing mortality given that most anglers in southwest Montana practice catch and release angling. The mortality values we observed were lower than predicted (< 30%), given reports in the literature. The difference is likely related to the in situ nature of the study and periods of cooler water temperatures between peaks facilitating recovery from thermal stress.

  18. The role of emergent wetlands as potential rearing habitats for juvenile salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henning, Julie A.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Flemming, Ian A.

    2006-01-01

    A recent trend of enhancing freshwater emergent wetlands for waterfowl and other wildlife has raised concern about the effects of such measures on juvenile salmonids. We undertook this study to quantify the degree and extent of juvenile Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. utilization of enhanced and unenhanced emergent wetlands within the floodplain of the lower Chehalis River, Washington, and to determine the fate of the salmon using them. Enhanced emergent wetlands contained water control structures that provided an outlet for fish emigration and a longer hydroperiod for rearing than unenhanced wetlands. Age-0 and age-1 coho salmon O. kisutch were the most common salmonid at all sites, enhanced wetlands having significantly higher age-1 abundance than unenhanced wetlands that were a similar distance from the main-stem river. Yearling coho salmon benefited from rearing in two enhanced wetland habitats, where their specific growth rate and minimum estimates of survival (1.43%/d by weight and 30%; 1.37%/d and 57%) were comparable to those in other side-channel rearing studies. Dissolved oxygen concentrations decreased in emergent wetlands throughout the season and approached the limits lethal to juvenile salmon by May or June each year. Emigration patterns suggested that age-0 and age-1 coho salmon emigrated as habitat conditions declined. This observation was further supported by the results of an experimental release of coho salmon. Survival of fish utilizing emergent wetlands was dependent on movement to the river before water quality decreased or stranding occurred from wetland desiccation. Thus, our results suggest that enhancing freshwater wetlands via water control structures can benefit juvenile salmonids, at least in the short term, by providing conditions for greater growth, survival, and emigration.

  19. Juvenile salmonid use of freshwater emergent wetlands in the floodplain and its implications for conservation management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henning, J.A.; Gresswell, R.E.; Fleming, I.A.

    2006-01-01

    A recent trend of enhancing freshwater emergent wetlands for waterfowl and other wildlife has raised concern about the effects of such measures on juvenile salmonids. We undertook this study to quantify the degree and extent of juvenile Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. utilization of enhanced and unenhanced emergent wetlands within the floodplain of the lower Chehalis River, Washington, and to determine the fate of the salmon using them. Enhanced emergent wetlands contained water control structures that provided an outlet for fish emigration and a longer hydroperiod for rearing than unenhanced wetlands. Age-0 and age-1 coho salmon O. kisutch were the most common salmonid at all sites, enhanced wetlands having significantly higher age-1 abundance than unenhanced wetlands that were a similar distance from the main-stem river. Yearling coho salmon benefited from rearing in two enhanced wetland habitats, where their specific growth rate and minimum estimates of survival (1.43%/d by weight and 30%; 1.37%/d and 57%) were comparable to those in other side-channel rearing studies. Dissolved oxygen concentrations decreased in emergent wetlands throughout the season and approached the limits lethal to juvenile salmon by May or June each year. Emigration patterns suggested that age-0 and age-1 coho salmon emigrated as habitat conditions declined. This observation was further supported by the results of an experimental release of coho salmon. Survival of fish utilizing emergent wetlands was dependent on movement to the river before water quality decreased or stranding occurred from wetland desiccation. Thus, our results suggest that enhancing freshwater wetlands via water control structures can benefit juvenile salmonids, at least in the short term, by providing conditions for greater growth, survival, and emigration. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  20. Are Sexual and Reproductive Health Policies Designed for All? Vulnerable Groups in Policy Documents of Four European Countries and Their Involvement in Policy Development

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Olena; Dræbel, Tania; Tellier, Siri

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health policies are important instruments for improving population health. However, experience suggests that policies designed for the whole population do not always benefit the most vulnerable. Participation of vulnerable groups in the policy-making process provides an opportunity for them to influence decisions related to their health, and also to exercise their rights. This paper presents the findings from a study that explored how vulnerable groups and principles of human rights are incorporated into national sexual and reproductive health (SRH) policies of 4 selected countries (Spain, Scotland, Republic of Moldova, and Ukraine). It also aimed at discussing the involvement of vulnerable groups in SRH policy development from the perspective of policy-makers. Methods: Literature review, health policy analysis and 5 semi-structured interviews with policy-makers were carried out in this study. Content analysis of SRH policies was performed using the EquiFrame analytical framework. Results: The study revealed that vulnerable groups and core principles of human rights are differently addressed in SRH policies within 4 studied countries. The opinions of policy-makers on the importance of mentioning vulnerable groups in policy documents and the way they ought to be mentioned varied, but they agreed that a clear definition of vulnerability, practical examples, and evidences on health status of these groups have to be included. In addition, different approaches to vulnerable group’s involvement in policy development were identified during the interviews and the range of obstacles to this process was discussed by respondents. Conclusion: Incorporation of vulnerable groups in the SRH policies and their involvement in policy development were found to be important in addressing SRH of these groups and providing an opportunity for them to advocate for equal access to healthcare and exercise their rights. Future research on this topic should include representatives of vulnerable communities which could help to build a dialogue and present the problem from multiple perspectives. PMID:26673176

  1. The ecology of sexual health of sexual minorities in Guatemala City.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Downs, Mario; Andrade, Mario; Wilks, Cindy; Simán, Florence M; Martinez, Omar; Abraham, Claire; Villatoro, Guillermo R; Bachmann, Laura H

    2015-12-01

    Guatemalan gay and bisexual men, men who have sex with men (MSM), and transgender persons carry disproportionate burden of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections compared with other Guatemalan subgroups. However, little is known about the determinants of sexual health to inform health promotion and disease prevention interventions among these sexual minorities. We sought to explore sexual health and HIV risk among Guatemalan sexual minorities, using a community-based participatory research approach. We conducted 8 focus groups (n = 87 participants total) and 10 individual in-depth interviews with gay and bisexual men, MSM, and transgender persons. Using constant comparison, an approach to grounded theory, we analyzed verbatim transcripts and identified 24 themes that we organized into five ecological factors influencing sexual health: intrapersonal (e.g. misconceptions about HIV transmission, low perceived susceptibility and lack of condoms use skills); interpersonal (e.g. family rejection and condom use as a barrier to intimacy); community (e.g. discrimination and stigma); institutional (e.g. limited access to health promotion resources); and public policy (e.g. perceived lack of provider confidentiality and anti-gay rhetoric). There is profound need for multiple-level interventions to ensure that Guatemalan sexual minorities have the knowledge and skills needed to reduce sexual risk. Interventions are warranted to increase social support among sexual minorities, reduce negative perspectives about sexual minorities, develop institutional resources to meet the needs of sexual minorities and reduce harmful anti-gay rhetoric. Understanding and intervening on the identified factors is especially important given that the health of Guatemalan sexual minorities has been to-date neglected. PMID:24688113

  2. Shrinking fish: comparisons of prehistoric and contemporary salmonids indicate decreasing size at age across millennia

    PubMed Central

    Turrero, Pablo; García-Vázquez, Eva; de Leaniz, Carlos Garcia

    2014-01-01

    A comparison of Upper Palaeolithic and contemporary salmonid vertebrae from the Iberian Peninsula indicates that there has been a significant decrease in the mean body size for a given age among Atlantic salmon and brown trout inhabiting the southernmost range of their endemic distribution. Mean size at age was greater in prehistoric specimens for all age classes during the freshwater phase of their life histories. Fisheries-induced evolution (selection for smaller sizes) is an obvious explanation for the observed reduction in fish body size, but recent changes in the aquatic habitat affecting density-dependent growth cannot be ruled out. PMID:26064529

  3. Endocrine regulation and sexual differentiation of avian copulatory sexually selected characters.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Patricia L R; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2014-10-01

    Reproductive specializations in birds have provided intriguing model systems to better understand the role of endocrine mechanisms that regulate phenotype expression and the action of sexual selection. A comparative approach can elucidate how endocrine systems associated with control of sexual differentiation, sexual maturation, and reproductive physiology and behavior have diversified. Here we compare the copulatory sexually selected traits of two members of the galloanseriform superfamily: quail and ducks. Japanese quail have a non-intromittent penis, and they have evolved a unique foam gland that is known to be involved in post-copulatory sexual selection. In contrast, ducks have maintained a large intromittent penis that has evolved via copulatory male-male competition and has been elaborated in a sexually antagonistic race due to sexual conflict with females over mating. These adaptations function in concert with sex-specific and, in part, species-specific behaviors. Although the approaches to study these traits have been different, exploring the differences in neuroendocrine regulation of sexual behavior, development and seasonality of the foam gland and the penis side by side, allow us to suggest some areas where future research would be productive to better understand the evolution of novelty in sexually selected traits. PMID:25179524

  4. Ecology of Juvenile Salmonids in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta, Lower Columbia River, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Storch, Adam; Jones, Tucker A.; Mallette, Christine; Dawley, Earl M.; Skalski, John R.; Teel, David; Moran, Paul

    2008-03-18

    This document is the first annual report for the study titled “Ecology of Juvenile Salmonids in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta in the Lower Columbia River.” Hereafter, we refer to this research as the Tidal Freshwater Monitoring (TFM) Study. The study is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation effort developed by the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The project is performed under the auspices of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council’s Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program.

  5. [Sexual delinquency and Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Berger, Ch; Mehrhoff, F W; Beier, K M; Meinck, H-M

    2003-04-01

    The risk of aberrant sexual behaviour such as hypersexuality, exhibitionism, or pederasty may be underestimated in Parkinson's disease and its therapy with high-dosage L-dopa or dopamine agonists. We describe two legal cases which are representative of the forensic assessment of these side effects. The first case brought to court was a 45-year-old man suffering for 20 years from Parkinson's disease who developed hypersexuality and exhibitionism under high-dose therapy with ropinirol. The second patient, a 57-year-old man with an 11-year history of Parkinson's disease, developed increased libido and pederasty under therapy with L-dopa and bromocriptine. We discuss the present literature concerning hypersexuality and sexually deviant behaviour in Parkinson's disease and dopaminergic therapy in the German legal context. Doctors treating Parkinson patients should be aware of increased sexual impulses or reduced behavioural control and ask specifically about them during anamnesis, and counteractive therapeutic strategies should be considered to prevent the occurrence of illegal sexually aberrant behavioural disorders. PMID:12707708

  6. “Sexting” and its relation to sexual activity and sexual risk behavior in a national survey of adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ybarra, Michele L.; Mitchell, Kimberly J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relation between “sexting,” (sending and sharing sexual photos online via text messaging and in-person) with sexual risk behaviors and psychosocial challenge in adolescence. Methods Data were collected online between 2010 and 2011 with 3,715 randomly selected 13- to 18-year-old youth across the United States. Results Seven percent of youth reported sending or showing someone sexual pictures of themselves, where they were nude or nearly nude, online, via text messaging, or in-person, during the past year. Although females and older youth were more likely to share sexual photos than males and younger youth, the profile of psychosocial challenge and sexual behavior was similar for all youth. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, sharing sexual photos was associated with all types of sexual behaviors assessed (e.g., oral sex, vaginal sex) as well as some of the risky sexual behaviors examined—particularly having concurrent sexual partners and having more past-year sexual partners. Adolescents who shared sexual photos also were more likely to use substances and less likely to have high self-esteem than their demographically similar peers. Conclusions While the media has portrayed “sexting” as a problem caused by new technology, health professionals may be more effective by approaching it as an aspect of adolescent sexual development and exploration and, in some cases, risk-taking and psychosocial challenge. PMID:25266148

  7. Does Sexual Satisfaction Change With Relationship Duration?

    PubMed

    Schmiedeberg, Claudia; Schröder, Jette

    2016-01-01

    Despite a large body of empirical literature on sexual satisfaction, its development over the course of a relationship is still unclear. Only a small number of studies, most of which have relied on cross-sectional data of convenience samples, have explicitly focused on relationship duration, and empirical evidence is mixed. We analyzed how sexual satisfaction changes over the course of a relationship using three waves of the German Family Panel study (pairfam). We concentrated our analyses on young and middle-aged heterosexual individuals in committed relationships (N = 2,814) and applied fixed effects regression models, which have the advantage of estimations based on changes within individuals over time. We found a positive development of sexual satisfaction in the first year of a relationship, followed by a steady decline. This pattern persisted even when controlling for the frequency of intercourse, although the effects were, in part, mediated by intercourse frequency. We explained the non-linear effect of relationship duration on sexual satisfaction with an initial learning effect regarding partner-specific sexual skills, which is then outweighed by a decline in passion at later stages of a relationship. Moreover, we found significant effects for the control variables of health status, intimacy in couple communication, and conflict style, as expected. In contrast to past research, however, cohabitation and marriage were not found to play a role for sexual satisfaction in our data. Further research is required to deepen the understanding of the reasons why sexual satisfaction changes with relationship duration. PMID:26246315

  8. The relationship between eating disorders and sexual trauma.

    PubMed

    Madowitz, Jennifer; Matheson, Brittany E; Liang, June

    2015-09-01

    Research aimed at understanding the causes and comorbidities of eating disorders (ED) identifies sexual trauma as one potential pathway to the development and maintenance of eating disorders. Based on current literature, there are two main etiological pathways between sexual trauma and ED-body perceptions and psychological difficulties. However, previously published reviews on this topic are outdated and have not yielded consistent findings. Therefore, authors completed a literature review covering years 2004-2014 to examine the relationship between sexual trauma and ED according to both proposed pathway models. Authors utilized PubMed, GoogleScholar, and PsychINFO as search engines. Search terms included "sexual assault", "sexual abuse", "sexual trauma", and "rape" in conjunction with relevant ED terminology. Thirty-two studies met inclusion criteria for this review. Current data indicate an increased prevalence of sexual trauma for individuals with ED. Although limited, recent evidence suggests that sexual trauma precedes and contributes to the development of ED. Existing literature indicates that the body perceptions pathway may impact ED through body dissatisfaction, shame, sexual dysfunction, and fear of future sexual trauma. The psychological difficulties pathway indicates a link between ED and the desire to cope with the failure of the average expected environment, psychological diagnoses, the need for control, and the regulation of emotions. However, further research is needed to assess the potential causal role that sexual trauma may play in the etiology of ED. PMID:25976911

  9. Differential gene expression patterns in developing sexually dimorphic rat brain regions exposed to antiandrogenic, estrogenic, or complex endocrine disruptor mixtures: glutamatergic synapses as target.

    PubMed

    Lichtensteiger, Walter; Bassetti-Gaille, Catherine; Faass, Oliver; Axelstad, Marta; Boberg, Julie; Christiansen, Sofie; Rehrauer, Hubert; Georgijevic, Jelena Kühn; Hass, Ulla; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Schlumpf, Margret

    2015-04-01

    The study addressed the question whether gene expression patterns induced by different mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) administered in a higher dose range, corresponding to 450×, 200×, and 100× high-end human exposure levels, could be characterized in developing brain with respect to endocrine activity of mixture components, and which developmental processes were preferentially targeted. Three EDC mixtures, A-Mix (anti-androgenic mixture) with 8 antiandrogenic chemicals (di-n-butylphthalate, diethylhexylphthalate, vinclozolin, prochloraz, procymidone, linuron, epoxiconazole, and DDE), E-Mix (estrogenic mixture) with 4 estrogenic chemicals (bisphenol A, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate, and butylparaben), a complex mixture, AEP-Mix, containing the components of A-Mix and E-Mix plus paracetamol, and paracetamol alone, were administered by oral gavage to rat dams from gestation day 7 until weaning. General developmental endpoints were not affected by EDC mixtures or paracetamol. Gene expression was analyzed on postnatal day 6, during sexual brain differentiation, by exon microarray in medial preoptic area in the high-dose group, and by real-time RT-PCR in medial preoptic area and ventromedial hypothalamus in all dose groups. Expression patterns were mixture, sex, and region specific. Effects of the analgesic drug paracetamol, which exhibits antiandrogenic activity in peripheral systems, differed from those of A-Mix. All mixtures had a strong, mixture-specific impact on genes encoding for components of excitatory glutamatergic synapses and genes controlling migration and pathfinding of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons, as well as genes linked with increased risk of autism spectrum disorders. Because development of glutamatergic synapses is regulated by sex steroids also in hippocampus, this may represent a general target of ECD mixtures. PMID:25607892

  10. Cc.snf5, a gene encoding a putative component of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, is essential for sexual development in the agaricomycete Coprinopsis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Ando, Yuki; Nakazawa, Takehito; Oka, Kunihiko; Nakahori, Kiyoshi; Kamada, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    We characterized a Coprinopsis cinerea mutant strain, Spe20, defective in fruiting initiation, which was isolated after restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) mutagenesis of a homokaryotic fruiting strain, 326. A plasmid rescue followed by complementation experiments, RACE, and cDNA analyses revealed that the gene, a mutation of which is responsible for the phenotype, is predicted to encode a protein that exhibits a high similarity to yeast Snf5p, a key component of the chromatin remodeling complex SWI/SNF, and named Cc.snf5. Cc.Snf5 is, however, different from Snf5p in that the former has, in addition to an Snf5 domain comprising N-terminal repeat1 (rp1) and C-terminal repeat2 (rp2) subdomains in a middle region, a GATA Zn-finger domain in a C-terminal region. In strain Spe20, plasmid pPHT1 used for REMI is inserted in the ORF encoding rp2. This raised the possibility that in strain Spe20, the disrupted Cc.Snf5 is functionally active albeit incompletely because it retains rp1. Thus, we disrupted the whole SNF5 domain and its downstream peptide and found that the disruption results in inhibition of not only fruiting initiation but also dikaryon development, a prerequisite for fruiting. We also found that specific disruption of the Zn-finger domain results in inhibition of fruiting initiation. These results indicate that Cc.Snf5 plays an essential role in sexual development of C. cinerea. PMID:23078835

  11. Developing Capacities of Community Health Workers in Sexual and Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, Child, and Adolescent Health: A Mapping and Review of Training Resources

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Nguyen Toan; Portela, Anayda; de Bernis, Luc; Beek, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Background Given country demands for support in the training of community health workers (CHWs) to accelerate progress towards reaching the Millennium Development Goals in sexual and reproductive health and maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health (SR/MNCAH), the United Nations Health Agencies conducted a synthesis of existing training resource packages for CHWs in different components of SR/MNCAH to identify gaps and opportunities and inform efforts to harmonize approaches to developing the capacity of CHWs. Methods A mapping of training resource packages for CHWs was undertaken with documents retrieved online and from key informants. Materials were classified by health themes and analysed using agreed parameters. Ways forward were informed by a subsequent expert consultation. Results We identified 31 relevant packages. They covered different components of the SR/MNCAH continuum in varying breadth (integrated packages) and depth (focused packages), including family planning, antenatal and childbirth care (mainly postpartum haemorrhage), newborn care, and childhood care, and HIV. There is no or limited coverage of interventions related to safe abortion, adolescent health, and gender-based violence. There is no training package addressing the range of evidence-based interventions that can be delivered by CHWs as per World Health Organization guidance. Gaps include weakness in the assessment of competencies of trainees, in supportive supervision, and in impact assessment of packages. Many packages represent individual programme efforts rather than national programme materials, which could reflect weak integration into national health systems. Conclusions There is a wealth of training packages on SR/MNCAH for CHWs which reflects interest in strengthening the capacity of CHWs. This offers an opportunity for governments and partners to mount a synergistic response to address the gaps and ensure an evidence-based comprehensive package of interventions to be delivered by CHWs. Packages with defined competencies and methods for assessing competencies and supervision are considered best practices but remain a gap. PMID:24736623

  12. Initial Design of Culturally Informed Behavioral Intervention Technologies: Developing an mHealth Intervention for Young Sexual Minority Men With Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Montague, Enid; Mohr, David C

    2013-01-01

    Background To our knowledge, there is no well-articulated process for the design of culturally informed behavioral intervention technologies. Objective This paper describes the early stages of such a process, illustrated by the methodology for the ongoing development of a behavioral intervention technology targeting generalized anxiety disorder and major depression among young sexual minority men. Methods We integrated instructional design for Internet behavioral intervention technologies with greater detail on information sources that can identify user needs in understudied populations, as well as advances in the understanding of technology-specific behavioral intervention technology dimensions that may need to be culturally tailored. Results General psychological theory describing how to effect change in the clinical target is first integrated with theory describing potentially malleable factors that help explain the clinical problem within the population. Additional information sources are then used to (1) evaluate the theory, (2) identify population-specific factors that may affect users’ ability to relate to and benefit from the behavioral intervention technology, and (3) establish specific skills, attitudes, knowledge, etc, required to change malleable factors posited in the theory. User needs result from synthesis of this information. Product requirements are then generated through application of the user needs to specific behavioral intervention technology dimensions (eg, technology platform). We provide examples of considerations relevant to each stage of this process and how they were applied. Conclusions This process can guide the initial design of other culturally informed behavioral intervention technologies. This first attempt to create a systematic design process can spur development of guidelines for design of behavioral intervention technologies aimed to reduce health disparities. PMID:24311444

  13. Youth Who Sexual Offended

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Li Lian; Zeng, Gerald; Teoh, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increased focus on understanding youth sexual offending in recent years, but there has been limited empirical research on the causes, pathways, and treatment of youth who have sexually offended—especially within a non-Western context. The Good Lives and Self-Regulation Models have often been used to understand and rehabilitate adult sexual offenders, but (unfortunately) there is scant research on youth who sexually offended using these models. The present study aims to describe the different primary goods that are associated with youth sexual offending behaviors in an Asian context. In addition, the study sought to explore whether the age of victim (child vs. nonchild) and nature of sexual offense (penetrative vs. nonpenetrative) influenced the youth’s engagement in offense pathways. The results suggest that pleasure, relatedness, and inner peace were the primary human goods that were most sought after by a sample of 168 youth who sexually offended in Singapore. In addition, offender classification (in relation to the age of victim and nature of sexual offense) influenced the pathways to sexual offending. Therefore, these findings have important clinical implications for assessment, management, and intervention planning for youth who sexually offended. PMID:24048701

  14. [Gender identity disorder and related sexual behavior problems in children and adolescents: from the perspective of development and child psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The present paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literature on children and adolescents with gender identity disorder. The organizational framework underlying this review is one that presents gender behavior in children and adolescents as a continuum rather than as a dichotomy of normal versus abnormal categories. Theories of normative gender development, prevalence, assessment, developmental trajectories, and comorbidity were investigated. There is a greater fluidity and likelihood of change in the pre-pubertal period. It was reported that the majority of affected children had been eventually developing a homosexual orientation. As an approach to determine the prevalence of GID in clinical samples in our child psychiatry clinic, screening instruments that include items on cross-gender or cross-sex identification were used. We applied the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Of the 113 items in the Japanese version of the CBCL, there are two measures of cross-gender identification: "behaves like opposite sex" and "wishes to be opposite sex." Like the other items, they are scored on a 3-point scale of: 0-not true, 1- somewhat true, and 2-very true. Our study of 323 clinically-referred children aged 4-15 years reported that, among the boys, 9.6% assigned a score of 1 (somewhat true) or a score of 2 (very true) to the two items. The corresponding rates for the clinically-referred girls were 24.5%. The item of diagnosis of GID in our clinical sample was significantly higher than in non-referred children, reported as 2-5% using the same method. Two clinical case histories of screened children are also presented. Both of them were diagnosed with PDDNOS. Together with the literature review, most of the gender-related symptoms in autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) could be related to the behavioral and psychological characteristics of autism as shown in case histories. ASD subjects in adolescence can sometimes develop a unique confusion of identity that occasionally exaggerates to gender-related problems. However, these views do not explain all cases; true comorbidity of ASD and GID should be considered. A full assessment including evaluation of the family, school, and social environment is essential as other emotional and behavioral problems are very common and unresolved issues in the child's environment are often present e. g., loss. Separation problems are particularly common in the younger group. Intervention should aim to assist development, particularly that of gender identity. It should focus on ameliorating the comorbid problems and difficulties in the child's life and reducing the distress experienced by the child. PMID:23691817

  15. The Neurospora crassa DCC-1 protein, a putative histidine kinase, is required for normal sexual and asexual development and carotenogenesis.

    PubMed

    Barba-Ostria, Carlos; Lledías, Fernando; Georgellis, Dimitris

    2011-12-01

    Two-component signaling pathways based on phosphoryl group transfer between histidine kinase and response regulator proteins regulate environmental responses in bacteria, archaea, plants, slime molds, and fungi. Here we characterize a mutant form of DCC-1, a putative histidine kinase encoded by the NCU00939 gene of the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. We show that this protein participates in the regulation of processes such as conidiation, perithecial development, and, to a certain degree, carotenogenesis. Furthermore, DCC-1 is suggested to exert its effect by promoting cyclic AMP production, thereby placing this protein within the context of a signaling pathway. PMID:22058142

  16. Adverse effects on sexual development in rat offspring after low dose exposure to a mixture of endocrine disrupting pesticides.

    PubMed

    Hass, Ulla; Boberg, Julie; Christiansen, Sofie; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Taxvig, Camilla; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Herrmann, Susan Strange; Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Clemmensen, Line Harder; Axelstad, Marta

    2012-09-01

    The present study investigated whether a mixture of low doses of five environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting pesticides, epoxiconazole, mancozeb, prochloraz, tebuconazole and procymidone, would cause adverse developmental toxicity effects in rats. In rat dams, a significant increase in gestation length was seen, while in male offspring increased nipple retention and increased incidence and severity of genital malformations were observed. Severe mixture effects on gestation length, nipple retention and genital malformations were seen at dose levels where the individual pesticides caused no or smaller effects when given alone. Generally, the mixture effect predictions based on dose-additivity were in good agreement with the observed effects. The results indicate that there is a need for modification of risk assessment procedures for pesticides, in order to take account of the mixture effects and cumulative intake, because of the potentially serious impact of mixed exposure on development and reproduction in humans. PMID:22659286

  17. Genetic stability within the Norwegian subtype of salmonid alphavirus (family Togaviridae).

    PubMed

    Karlsen, M; Hodneland, K; Endresen, C; Nylund, A

    2006-05-01

    Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) (family Togaviridae) causes mortality in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W.) in Norway, France, UK, and Ireland. At least three subtypes of SAV exist: SPDV in UK/Ireland, SDV in France/UK, and the recently reported Norwegian salmonid alphavirus (NSAV) in western Norway. During 2003 and 2004, disease caused by NSAV was reported for the first time in northern Norway, more than 800 km away from the enzootic area in western Norway. The present study has investigated the phylogenetic relationships among 20 NSAV isolates, based on a 1221-nt-long segment covering part of the capsid gene, E3, and part of the E2 gene, collected over a period of eight years. The results revealed genetic homogeneity among NSAV isolates, including those from northern Norway. The SDV or SPDV subtypes were not found in diseased Norwegian fish. A substitution rate of 1.70 (+/-1.03) x 10(-4) nt subst/site/year was obtained for the NSAV subtype by maximum likelihood analysis. The second aim of this study was to clarify whether NSAV changes genotypically in cell culture by culturing a NSAV isolate through 20 passages in CHSE-214 cells. Sequencing of almost the entire genome (11530 nt) after 20 passages revealed four nucleotide substitutions, all resulting in amino acid substitutions. One of these substitutions, serine to proline in E2 position 206, was also found to have occurred in field isolates. PMID:16362641

  18. Holding of juvenile salmonids for surgical implantation of electronic tags: a review and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Eric W.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Brown, Richard S.; Eppard, M. B.

    2011-01-01

    Many telemetry based studies require that fish be sampled from the wild and then held for some amount of time both prior to and after the implantation of a transmitter. However, the effects of such holding (or the lack thereof) are often overlooked. Pre-surgical holding often occurs to facilitate logistical needs of research projects and as an attempt to minimize negative physiological effects due to capture and handling stress. Further, post-surgical holding time and conditions greatly influence the physiological state of fish prior to being returned to the wild. This paper reviews pertinent studies pertaining to the effects of surgical holding on the behavior, physiology, and survival of fishes, with particular emphasis on juvenile salmonids. The effects of individual aspects of surgical holding such as stressors, time, holding conditions and water quality are also examined. Recommendations regarding certain aspects of surgical holding (e.g., holding duration) are offered with a goal of reducing bias related to the surgical process. Pre- and post-surgical holding times of 18–36 h are suggested as a general guideline for juvenile salmonids.

  19. Dam Effects on Sediment Transport and Channel Form in the Klamath River: Implications for Salmonid Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tompkins, M. R.; Kondolf, G. M.

    2009-12-01

    By virtue of the historical importance of its salmonid fishery and recent controversies over agricultural water diversions and fish mortality, the Klamath River (California and Oregon) has attracted significant attention from the public and federal agencies, including reports by two committees of the National Research Council since 2000. One proposal under consideration to restore Klamath River salmonid fisheries is to remove four hydroelectric dams that influence hydrology, sediment transport, and fish passage. The Klamath River is unusual in many respects, including the fact that its upper reaches are low-gradient, lake and bedrock-sill-controlled, with small sediment yields but large influxes of natural and anthropogenic nutrients. The river’s gradient and sediment load increase downstream as it passes through the steep Klamath Mountains and Coast Range. Therefore, the impact of the four dams proposed for removal on downstream geomorphic conditions varies with location in the watershed. Thus, some expectations of downstream dam effects based on observations on other rivers may not be directly applicable to the Klamath dams. We conducted a two-year study of reservoir sedimentation, bed material size, bed mobility, sediment transport, and channel form between Klamath Falls, Oregon and Seiad Valley, California. Based on our results, we identified geomorphically distinct reaches, and quantified bed mobility and sensitivity to channel change, as a basis to evaluate dam effects on downstream channel morphology. Our findings could be used to inform future dam removal approaches for the Klamath River.

  20. Elements of a cost-benefit analysis for improving salmonid spawning habitat in the River Wye.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Rhodri H; Blakemore, F Brian

    2007-03-01

    Contingent valuation methods were used to derive an economic value for salmonid spawning habitat restoration. Anglers' willingness to pay for such restoration and farmers' willingness to accept compensation for lost productivity due to the restoration were investigated using questionnaire and face-to-face surveys, respectively. These elements were combined with the Wye Habitat Improvement Project (WHIP) budget into a cost-benefit analysis (CBA) based upon direct use values only. The CBA assumed that the WHIP will improve salmonid stock. Different levels of investment were considered and the CBA gave a positive net present value indicating an economically viable project and benefit-to-cost ratios greater than one for minor projects. However, the number of anglers using the Wye would need to double or triple in order to justify the full WHIP budget. Management of an environmental resource must consider users' and stakeholders' needs and opinions. It was found that anglers on the Wye value habitat/scenery in its own right and that this played an important part in the activity. Farmers' agreement regarding involvement in such projects was more likely to be determined by their political and ethical views than receiving an economic compensation. PMID:16682113

  1. Breeding salmonids for feed efficiency in current fishmeal and future plant-based diet environments

    PubMed Central

    Quinton, Cheryl D; Kause, Antti; Koskela, Juha; Ritola, Ossi

    2007-01-01

    The aquaculture industry is increasingly replacing fishmeal in feeds for carnivorous fish with soybean meal (SBM). This diet change presents a potential for genotype-environment (G × E) interactions. We tested whether current salmonid breeding programmes that evaluate and select within fishmeal diets also improve growth and efficiency on potential future SBM diets. A total of 1680 European whitefish from 70 families were reared with either fishmeal- or SBM-based diets in a split-family design. Individual daily gain (DG), daily feed intake (DFI) and feed efficiency (FE) were recorded. Traits displayed only weak G × E interactions as variances and heritabilities did not differ substantially between the diets, and cross-diet genetic correlations were near unity. In both diets, DFI exhibited moderate heritability and had very high genetic correlation with DG whereas FE had low heritability. Predicted genetic responses demonstrated that selection to increase DG and FE on the fishmeal diet lead to favourable responses on the SBM diet. Selection for FE based on an index including DG and DFI achieved at least double FE gain versus selection on DG alone. Therefore, current breeding programmes are improving the biological ability of salmonids to use novel plant-based diets, and aiding the aquaculture industry to reduce fishmeal use. PMID:17612482

  2. Changes in the expression of genetic characteristics across cohorts in skeletal deformations of farmed salmonids

    PubMed Central

    Kause, Antti; Ritola, Ossi; Paananen, Tuija

    2007-01-01

    Genetic analysis of disorder incidence in farmed animals is challenged by two factors. Disorders in different cohorts and environments could be caused by different factors, leading to changes in heritability and to less than unity genetic correlations across cohorts. Moreover, due to computational limitations, liability scale heritabilities at very low incidence may differ from those estimated at higher incidence. We tested whether these two dilemmas occur in skeletal deformations of farmed salmonids using multigeneration data from the Finnish rainbow trout breeding programme and previous salmonid studies. The results showed that heritability was close to zero in cohorts in which management practices maintained incidence at a low level. When there was a management failure and incidence was unusually high, heritability was elevated. This may be due to computational limitations at very low incidence and/or because deformations are induced by different factors in different cohorts. Most genetic correlations between deformations recorded in different generations were weakly to strongly positive. However, also negative correlations between generations were present, showing that high liability at one time can be genetically connected to low liability at another time. The results emphasise that genetic architecture of binary traits can be influenced by trait expression. PMID:17897595

  3. Efficacy, fate, and potential effects on salmonids of mosquito larvicides in catch basins in Seattle, Washington.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Morgan; Grue, Christian; Conquest, Loveday; Grassley, James; King, Kerensa

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the efficacy, fate, and potential for direct effects on salmonids of 4 common mosquito larvicides (Mosquito Dunks and Bits (AI: Bacillis thuringiensis var. israelensis, [Bti]), VectoLex WSP (AI: Bacillus sphaericus [Bs], VectoLex CG [AI: Bs], and Altosid Briquets [AI: s-methoprene]) in Seattle, WA, during 3 summers. During efficacy trials in 2006, all treatments resulted in a rapid reduction in number of mosquito pupae (Mosquito Dunks and Bits and VectoLex WSP) or emergence success (Altosid Briquets). VectoLex CG was chosen for city-wide application in 2007 and 2008. The average counts of pupae within round-top basins remained significantly below the control average for 11 wk in 2007, whereas efficacy in grated-top basins was short-lived. In 2008 the average counts of pupae within grated-top basins remained significantly below the control average for 10 wk. Altosid XR was also effective in reducing adult emergence within grated basins in 2008. In 2007 and 2008, frequent precipitation events made the evaluation of efficacy difficult due to reductions in pupae across control and treated basins. Four separate analyses of VectoLex products revealed that the product was a combination of Bs and Bti. Both Bs and Bti were detected in 3 urban creeks connected to treated basins in 2007 and 2008. Laboratory toxicity test results suggest that concentrations of Bs and Bti detected in each of the watersheds pose little direct hazard to juvenile salmonids. PMID:23833901

  4. Relationship of otolith strontium-to-calcium ratios and salinity: Experimental validation for juvenile salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, C.E.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of otolith strontium (Sr) or strontium-to-calcium (Sr:Ca) ratios provides a powerful tool to reconstruct the chronology of migration among salinity environments for diadromous salmonids. Although use of this method has been validated by examination of known individuals and translocation experiments, it has never been validated under controlled experimental conditions. In this study, incorporation of otolith Sr was tested across a range of salinities and resulting levels of ambient Sr and Ca concentrations in juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus rnykiss), and Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus). Experimental water was mixed, using stream water and seawater as end members, to create experimental salinities of 0.1, 6.3, 12.7, 18.6, 25.5, and 33.0 psu. Otolith Sr and Sr:Ca ratios were significantly related to salinity for all species (r2 range: 0.80-0.91) but provide only enough predictive resolution to discriminate among fresh water, brackish water, and saltwater residency. These results validate the use of otolith Sr:Ca ratios to broadly discriminate salinity histories encountered by salmonids but highlight the need for further research concerning the influence of osmoregulation and physiological changes associated with smoking on otolith microchemistry. ?? 2005 NRC Canada.

  5. Microhabitat preference of Anisakis simplex in three salmonid species: immunological implications.

    PubMed

    Bahlool, Qusay Z M; Skovgaard, Alf; Kania, Per; Haarder, Simon; Buchmann, Kurt

    2012-12-21

    Three salmonid fish species, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Salmo salar and Salmo trutta, were infected experimentally with the parasitic nematode Anisakis simplex (A. simplex) and the difference between in vivo behaviour of the nematode in the three fish species was investigated. Infection success rate differed between species. S. salar (Baltic salmon) showed the highest number of successfully established nematodes, whereas S. trutta (brown trout) and O. mykiss (rainbow trout) had a higher natural resistance. Microhabitat selection of nematodes differed according to fish species. In brown trout, A. simplex larvae were attached to the digestive tract (stomach, pyloric caeca, intestine), while the majority of larvae found in rainbow trout were located between the pyloric caeca. In Baltic salmon, nematodes were dispersed in and on spleen, head kidney, liver, swim bladder and musculature. Encapsulation and inflammatory cellular reactions differed accordingly. Histopathological and immunohistochemical studies using monoclonal antibodies raised against salmonid IgM, CD8 and MHCII were performed to detect the presence of immune cells around the infecting nematodes. None of the three fish species showed positive reactions for IgM-bearing cells in the inflammatory tissue connected with nematodes. CD8+ cells were detected in all three species and MHCII-bearing cells were found associated with encapsulated A. simplex in rainbow trout and brown trout, but not in Baltic salmon. Physiological, immunological and pathological implications of microhabitat differences are discussed. PMID:22858638

  6. Tradeoffs for Efficiently Passing Juvenile Salmonids through Bonneville Dam on the Lower Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Kim, Jina

    2008-12-01

    We analyzed five years of route-specific fish-passage data acquired by fixed-aspect hydroacoustic sampling of juvenile salmonids passing downstream through Bonneville Dam. High passage effectiveness of surface-flow outlets relative to the spillway and turbines suggests that juvenile salmonids are preferentially selecting surface outlets over adjacent turbines. Seasonal estimates showed that median combined effectiveness of surface-flow outlets (7.8) was 7.1 times higher than that of the spillway (1.1) and 9.8 times higher than that of turbines (0.8). Islands prevent the spillway from attracting fish from either powerhouse, something that may occur at other projects. Regressions indicated that percent flow passing a specific route explained from 50 to 97% of fish-passage variation, and relations were useful for evaluating fish-passage alternatives. Fitted curves for surface-passage routes, including the sluiceway at Powerhouse 1 (B1) and Powerhouse 2 (B2) were much steeper at low percent low (2-15%) than were curves for the spillway or turbines. Regressions indicate that increasing surface-flow percentages of B1 flow from 1% to 10% could increase B1 sluiceway-passage efficiency from 40% to 83%. Increasing B2 flow to the B2 sluiceway from 4% to 15% could increase fish passage from 31% to 62%. Without spill, about 50% of fish passed by non-turbine routes.

  7. Efficacy, fate, and potential effects on salmonids of mosquito larvicides in catch basins in Seattle, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sternberg, Morgan; Grue, Christian; Conquest, Loveday; Grassley, James; King, Kerensa

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy, fate, and potential for direct effects on salmonids of 4 common mosquito larvicides (Mosquito Dunks® and Bits® (AI: Bacillis thuringiensis var. israelensis, [Bti]), VectoLex® WSP (AI: Bacillus sphaericus [Bs], VectoLex CG [AI: Bs], and Altosid® Briquets [AI: s-methoprene]) in Seattle, WA, during 3 summers. During efficacy trials in 2006, all treatments resulted in a rapid reduction in number of mosquito pupae (Mosquito Dunks and Bits and VectoLex WSP) or emergence success (Altosid Briquets). VectoLex CG was chosen for city-wide application in 2007 and 2008. The average counts of pupae within round-top basins remained significantly below the control average for 11 wk in 2007, whereas efficacy in grated-top basins was short-lived. In 2008 the average counts of pupae within grated-top basins remained significantly below the control average for 10 wk. Altosid XR was also effective in reducing adult emergence within grated basins in 2008. In 2007 and 2008, frequent precipitation events made the evaluation of efficacy difficult due to reductions in pupae across control and treated basins. Four separate analyses of VectoLex products revealed that the product was a combination of Bs and Bti. Both Bs and Bti were detected in 3 urban creeks connected to treated basins in 2007 and 2008. Laboratory toxicity test results suggest that concentrations of Bs and Bti detected in each of the watersheds pose little direct hazard to juvenile salmonids.

  8. Somnambulistic sexual behaviour (sexsomnia).

    PubMed

    Ebrahim, Irshaad Osman

    2006-05-01

    Somnambulism or sleepwalking is a viable defence on the basis of automatism. The behaviours that occur during sleepwalking can be highly complex and include sexual behaviour of all types. Somnambulistic sexual behaviour (also called sexsomnia, sleep sex) is considered a variant of sleepwalking disorder as the overwhelming majority of people with Sexsomnia have a history of parasomnia and a family history of sleepwalking. Sexual behaviour during a sleep automatism can vary from explicit sexual vocalisations, to violent masturbation, to complex sexual acts including anal, oral and vaginal penetration. A recent case in England is reported where the defendant was acquitted on 3 charges of rape on the basis of automatism due to somnambulistic sexual behaviour. PMID:16564199

  9. Sexuality and headache.

    PubMed

    Del Bene, E; Conti, C; Poggioni, M; Sicuteri, F

    1982-01-01

    Ten percent of 362 headache sufferers reported sexual arousal during migraine attack. Clinical investigations on sexuality in 16 headache sufferers, according to some studies showing correlations between idiopathic headache and sexual behavior, were performed. Patients responding by questionnaire listed each sexual experience, headache attack, and number of sleeping hours every day for 1 month. In both men and women, the number of coiti, erotic dreams, and sleeping hours were similar in headache sufferers and controls, while the frequency of masturbation was significantly reduced in the former. Sexual excitement and fantasies appeared more often in female headache sufferers than in controls, while the opposite occurred in the male group. Among the clinical analogies between the crises of migraine and morphine abstinence, sexual arousal may be included. PMID:7054999

  10. Sexually dimorphic effects of postnatal treatment on the development of activity-based anorexia in adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Stephanie D; Grant, Virginia L

    2009-12-01

    Hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a marked feature of anorexia nervosa. Using a modified version of the activity-based animal model of anorexia nervosa, we examine whether factors known to affect HPA axis activity influence the development of activity-based anorexia (ABA). Male and female rats were subjected to maternal separation or handling procedures during the first two postnatal weeks and tested in a mild version of the ABA paradigm, comprised of 2-hr daily running wheel access followed by 1-hr food access, either in adolescence or adulthood. Compared to handled females, maternally separated females demonstrated greater increases in wheel running and a more pronounced running-induced suppression of food intake during adolescence, but not in adulthood. In contrast, it was only in adulthood that wheel running produced more prolonged anorexic effects in maternally separated than in handled males. These findings highlight the interplay between early postnatal treatment, sex of the animal, and developmental age on running, food intake, and rate of body weight loss in a mild version of the ABA paradigm. PMID:19757457

  11. Predicting recolonization patterns and interactions between potamodromous and anadromous salmonids in response to dam removal in the Elwha River, Washington State, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brenkman, S.J.; Pess, G.R.; Torgersen, C.E.; Kloehn, K.K.; Duda, J.J.; Corbett, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    The restoration of salmonids in the Elwha River following dam removal will cause interactions between anadromous and potamodromous forms as recolonization occurs in upstream and downstream directions. Anadromous salmonids are expected to recolonize historic habitats, and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) isolated above the dams for 90 years are expected to reestablish anadromy. We summarized the distribution and abundance of potamodromous salmonids, determined locations of spawning areas, and mapped natural barriers to fish migration at the watershed scale based on data collected from 1993 to 2006. Rainbow trout were far more abundant than bull trout throughout the watershed and both species were distributed up to river km 71. Spawning locations for bull trout and rainbow trout occurred in areas where we anticipate returning anadromous fish to spawn. Nonnative brook trout were confined to areas between and below the dams, and seasonal velocity barriers are expected to prevent their upstream movements. We hypothesize that the extent of interaction between potamodromous and anadromous salmonids will vary spatially due to natural barriers that will limit upstream-directed recolonization for some species of salmonids. Consequently, most competitive interactions will occur in the main stem and floodplain downstream of river km 25 and in larger tributaries. Understanding future responses of Pacific salmonids after dam removal in the Elwha River depends upon an understanding of existing conditions of the salmonid community upstream of the dams prior to dam removal.

  12. Characterizing sexual health resources on college campuses.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Lechner, Kate E; Frerich, Ellen A; Lust, Katherine A; Garcia, Carolyn M

    2012-10-01

    This observational study describes the development of the college resources and sexual health inventory, the profile of sexual health promotion resources at participating colleges, and comparisons of resources across several college characteristics. 28 diverse college campuses in one Midwestern state participated. 10 domains were assessed, including characteristics of campus health services (e.g. convenience), condom programs, sexual health information, communication about resources, sexual violence resources and gay/lesbian/bisexual student resources. Scores for each measure reflected the presence or extent of each resource. Summary scores were created for the overall level of sexual health resources and for each domain. T tests and ANOVAs were used to compare resources at 2-year versus 4-year colleges, public versus private sectors, metro versus non-metro locations, and across enrollment size. Inventory scores ranged from 6 to 53. 4-year colleges offered significantly more resources than 2-year; resource levels were statistically similar across location and enrollment size. Subsequent analyses comparing campuses with and without a health center indicated that several resources which were not inherently tied to a clinic nonetheless differed significantly with having a health center. Colleges without this resource could position sexual health resources in other offices or departments or provide referrals to sexual health resources in the broader community. PMID:22231578

  13. Female sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jennifer J; O'Connor, Kim M

    2015-05-01

    Female sexual dysfunction is a common patient concern. After providing an overview regarding the various types of female sexual dysfunction, we will focus on history taking and treatment options for desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain disorders. Testosterone therapy and management of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-associated sexual dysfunction are reviewed. Treatments for atrophic vaginitis are appraised. Patient cases lead the discussion, providing the reader with clinically relevant information. PMID:25841603

  14. Sexual morality of Christianity.

    PubMed

    Runkel, G

    1998-01-01

    After discussing the origin of religion, functions of religion, and the construction of meaning by religion, the author focuses on the connection between religion and anxiety. The permanent anxiety in religion is determined by guilt feelings that arise for example from the violation of norms in the area of sexuality. In a religion at enmity with sexuality, such as Christianity, the satisfaction of sexual desires is considered bad and sinful; the permanent production of anxiety and a guilty conscience are the result of it. Christian sexual suppression leads to the propagation of asceticism as the taming of corrupt sensuality that only religious virtuosi can maintain. One result of asceticism is celibacy, although passages from the Bible demand monogamy for bishops without prohibiting celibacy. In Catholicism, celibacy institutionalizes the enmity with sexuality and causes a permanent depreciation of real sexuality in favor of one projected onto the mother church and the Virgin Mary. A further consequence of asceticism is the reduction of sexuality to reproduction. In the section about the factual consequences of Christian sexual morality, the author connects sexual instinctual gratification with religious affiliation on the basis of an analysis of the sexual behavior of Germans. The weekly frequency rate of sexual intercourse amounts to 3.1 with male and female nondenominationals, 2.6 with Protestants, and 2.3 with Catholics; 39% of nondenominational men, 20% of Protestant men, and 12% of Catholic men in Germany use condoms. The connection of religion and aggression is empirically significant as well. The religiously most active men feel more inclined to use aggression to reach sexual goals than religiously indifferent ones. PMID:9611690

  15. Effects of the environmental estrogenic contaminants bisphenol A and 17?-ethinyl estradiol on sexual development and adult behaviors in aquatic wildlife species.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Ramji K; Deem, Sharon L; Holliday, Dawn K; Jandegian, Caitlin M; Kassotis, Christopher D; Nagel, Susan C; Tillitt, Donald E; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S

    2015-04-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including the mass-produced component of plastics, bisphenol A (BPA) are widely prevalent in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Many aquatic species, such as fish, amphibians, aquatic reptiles and mammals, are exposed daily to high concentrations of BPA and ethinyl estradiol (EE2), estrogen in birth control pills. In this review, we will predominantly focus on BPA and EE2, well-described estrogenic EDCs. First, the evidence that BPA and EE2 are detectable in almost all bodies of water will be discussed. We will consider how BPA affects sexual and neural development in these species, as these effects have been the best characterized across taxa. For instance, such chemicals have been in many cases reported to cause sex-reversal of males to females. Even if these chemicals do not overtly alter the gonadal sex, there are indications that several EDCs might demasculinize male-specific behaviors that are essential for attracting a mate. In so doing, these chemicals may reduce the likelihood that these males reproduce. If exposed males do reproduce, the concern is that they will then be passing on compromised genetic fitness to their offspring and transmitting potential transgenerational effects through their sperm epigenome. We will thus consider how diverse epigenetic changes might be a unifying mechanism of how BPA and EE2 disrupt several processes across species. Such changes might also serve as universal species diagnostic biomarkers of BPA and other EDCs exposure. Lastly, the evidence that estrogenic EDCs-induced effects in aquatic species might translate to humans will be considered. PMID:25277515

  16. Effects of the environmental estrogenic contaminants bisphenol A and 17?-ethinyl estradiol on sexual development and adult behaviors in aquatic wildlife species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bhandari, Ramji K.; Deem, Sharon L.; Holliday, Dawn K.; Jandegian, Caitlin M.; Kassotis, Christopher D.; Nagel, Susan C.; Tillitt, Donald E.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including the mass-produced component of plastics, bisphenol A (BPA) are widely prevalent in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Many aquatic species, such as fish, amphibians, aquatic reptiles and mammals, are exposed daily to high concentrations of BPA and ethinyl estradiol (EE2), estrogen in birth control pills. In this review, we will predominantly focus on BPA and EE2, well-described estrogenic EDCs. First, the evidence that BPA and EE2 are detectable in almost all bodies of water will be discussed. We will consider how BPA affects sexual and neural development in these species, as these effects have been the best characterized across taxa. For instance, such chemicals have been in many cases reported to cause sex-reversal of males to females. Even if these chemicals do not overtly alter the gonadal sex, there are indications that several EDCs might demasculinize male-specific behaviors that are essential for attracting a mate. In so doing, these chemicals may reduce the likelihood that these males reproduce. If exposed males do reproduce, the concern is that they will then be passing on compromised genetic fitness to their offspring and transmitting potential transgenerational effects through their sperm epigenome. We will thus consider how diverse epigenetic changes might be a unifying mechanism of how BPA and EE2 disrupt several processes across species. Such changes might also serve as universal species diagnostic biomarkers of BPA and other EDCs exposure. Lastly, the evidence that estrogenic EDCs-induced effects in aquatic species might translate to humans will be considered.

  17. Application of neural networks to prediction of fish diversity and salmonid production in the Lake Ontario basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenna, James E., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Diversity and fish productivity are important measures of the health and status of aquatic systems. Being able to predict the values of these indices as a function of environmental variables would be valuable to management. Diversity and productivity have been related to environmental conditions by multiple linear regression and discriminant analysis, but such methods have several shortcomings. In an effort to predict fish species diversity and estimate salmonid production for streams in the eastern basin of Lake Ontario, I constructed neural networks and trained them on a data set containing abiotic information and either fish diversity or juvenile salmonid abundance. Twenty percent of the original data were retained as a test data set and used in the training. The ability to extend these neural networks to conditions throughout the streams was tested with data not involved in the network training. The resulting neural networks were able to predict the number of salmonids with more than 84% accuracy and diversity with more than 73% accuracy, which was far superior to the performance of multiple regression. The networks also identified the environmental variables with the greatest predictive power, namely, those describing water movement, stream size, and water chemistry. Thirteen input variables were used to predict diversity and 17 to predict salmonid abundance.

  18. Predicting the Total Abundance of Resident Salmonids within the Willamette River Basin, Oregon - a Macroecological Modeling Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    I present a simple, macroecological model of fish abundance that was used to estimate the total number of non-migratory salmonids within the Willamette River Basin (western Oregon). The model begins with empirical point estimates of net primary production (NPP in g C/m2) in fore...

  19. IMPACT OF SURFACE WATER ACIDIFICATION ON COMMERCIALLY AND RECREATIONALLY IMPORTANT SALMONID FISHES: EFFECTS ON REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS AND RECRUITMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reproduction of salmonid fishes in acidic water was studied, using the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) as a model. Adult trout were exposed to pH levels 4.5, 5.0, 5.5 and control (6.5 to 7.1) during the final 6 weeks of reproductive maturation. Reduced survival rates of the proge...

  20. Rearing unit-level factors associated with bacterial gill disease treatment in two Ontario, Canada government salmonid hatcheries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early-rearing salmonids in Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR)fish hatcheries have been consistently affected by bacterial gill disease (BGD)(causative agent: Flavobacterium branchiophilum) for many years. Separate retrospective epidemiological investigations of BGD treatments at two OMNR f...