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1

Influence of Waterway Development on Migrational Characteristics of Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Willamette River, Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of Portland Harbor development in the lower Willamette River on the migration and behavior of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.), the habitat occupied by juvenile salmonids, and predation on juvenile salmonids by northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis. Juvenile salmonids were abundant in the lower Willamette River during spring; radio-tagged juvenile steelhead O. mykiss and yearling chinook salmon O.

David L. Ward; Anthony A. Nigro; Ruth A. Farr; Christopher J. Knutsen

1994-01-01

2

The sexually dimorphic on the Y-chromosome gene (sdY) is a conserved male-specific Y-chromosome sequence in many salmonids  

PubMed Central

All salmonid species investigated to date have been characterized with a male heterogametic sex-determination system. However, as these species do not share any Y-chromosome conserved synteny, there remains a debate on whether they share a common master sex-determining gene. In this study, we investigated the extent of conservation and evolution of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) master sex-determining gene, sdY (sexually dimorphic on the Y-chromosome), in 15 different species of salmonids. We found that the sdY sequence is highly conserved in all salmonids and that sdY is a male-specific Y-chromosome gene in the majority of these species. These findings demonstrate that most salmonids share a conserved sex-determining locus and also strongly suggest that sdY may be this conserved master sex-determining gene. However, in two whitefish species (subfamily Coregoninae), sdY was found both in males and females, suggesting that alternative sex-determination systems may have also evolved in this family. Based on the wide conservation of sdY as a male-specific Y-chromosome gene, efficient and easy molecular sexing techniques can now be developed that will be of great interest for studying these economically and environmentally important species.

Yano, Ayaka; Nicol, Barbara; Jouanno, Elodie; Quillet, Edwige; Fostier, Alexis; Guyomard, Rene; Guiguen, Yann

2013-01-01

3

Development of DNA vaccines for salmonid fish.  

PubMed

Vaccination of fish against many different pathogenic organisms has made it possible to rear Atlantic salmon in net pen cages and produce fish commercially around the world. In fact, vaccine use is critical for the continued growth of the aquaculture industry and researchers are continually looking to develop new and improved vaccines for a wide variety of fish pathogens. Fish vaccines have been formulated from killed or attenuated pathogens, recombinant viral proteins or peptides, and most recently, plasmid DNA encoding viral proteins (1-7). The use of DNA vaccines for the control of viral diseases of fish is particularly appealing since this type of vaccine eliminates the need to purify the viral pathogen or immunoprotective antigen. Other advantages are the elimination of any possibility of reversion to virulence since the DNA vaccine encodes only a portion of the viral genome, the relative stability of the DNA preparation; the ease of DNA preparation; and, importantly, the elicitation of a robust immune response in fish. PMID:21374314

Anderson, E D; Leong, J A

2000-01-01

4

Human sexual development.  

PubMed

Empirical research by scholars from several disciplines provides the basis for an outline of the process of sexual development. The process of achieving sexual maturity begins at conception and ends at death. It is influenced by biological maturation/aging, by progression through the socially-defined stages of childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and later life, and by the person s relationships with others, including family members, intimate partners, and friends. These forces shape the person's gender and sexual identities, sexual attitudes and sexual behavior. Adults display their sexuality in a variety of lifestyles, with heterosexual marriage being the most common. This diversity contributes to the vitality of society. Although changes in sexual functioning in later life are common, sexual interest and desire may continue until death. PMID:12476250

DeLamater, John; Friedrich, William N

2002-02-01

5

Developing a Predation Index and Evaluating Ways to Reduce Salmonid Losses to Predation in the Columbia River Basin, Final Report August 1988September 1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report our results of studies to develop a predation index and evaluate ways to reduce juvenile salmonid losses to predation in the Columbia River Basin. Study objectives of each were: develop an index to estimate predation losses of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp) in reservoirs throughout the Columbia River Basin, describe the relationships among predator-caused mortality of juvenile salmonids and

Nigro; Anthony A

1990-01-01

6

The integrated development and application of controlled reproduction techniques in Pacific salmonid aquaculture.  

PubMed

During the last several years there has been rapid progress in the development and application of controlled reproduction and associated biotechnologies to the culture of salmonids. This review focuses on the development of those techniques for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus species) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). These include methodologies for the induction of ovulation, storage of gametes, chromosome set manipulation, i.e., induced gynogenesis and triploidy, hormonal feminization, hormonal sterilization and hormonal masculinization of genotypic females to produce milt containing only female spermatozoa.The current and future applications of these methodologies to the commercial mariculture of salmonids and to the enhancement and management of ocean and fresh water stocks are described. The implementation of each individual methodology for the control of reproduction can in itself have a significant impact on the efficiency of culture systems. It is, however, from the combination of specific complementary methods in production systems that the greatest gains will ultimately be made.It is concluded that the utilization of single or paired controlled reproduction techniques by themselves or in combination with other biotechnologies (e.g. sterilization plus growth acceleration) offer significant advantages for both the commercial mariculture of salmonids and the rearing of salmonids by government agencies for release into the oceanic or lacustrine environment. PMID:24233164

Donaldson, E M

1986-10-01

7

Sexual Identity Development among Ethnic Sexual-Minority Male Youths.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored how ethnicity influenced sexual identity development in 139 sexual-minority males. Findings demonstrated that participants, regardless of ethnicity, experienced most identity milestones at developmentally appropriate ages, had moderately low internalized homophobia, and became romantically and sexually involved with other males…

Dube, Eric M.; Savin-Williams, Ritch C.

1999-01-01

8

[Psychosexual development and sexual education].  

PubMed

The bio-environmental influence on the sexual development and ripeness includes to the morality as the essential element of the behavioral expression. There are few studies directed to the interface between the healthy sexual development and the early intervention destined for the child-youth sexual risky behaviors. A suitable development sociomoral waits that every individual genuine participant and healthily in his sexuality to share it with another human being, without moving away from his expression. Some behavioral differences between the genders are described; goals of development; importance of assigning sexual education to the child-youth population, its vectors and preventive recommendations in domestic and/or school ambiences, directed to the personnel of health, as the avoidance of not wished pregnancy, the prevention of STD and other behaviors of risk. It is invited to the revaluation of the welfare services; supervision of programs, familiar participation; increase of the education in means of information, with personal and social responsibility. Such a consolidation requires from the health personnel the fulfillment of the educational-preventive recommendations of the professional performance to the advantage of a responsible practice. PMID:15587823

Souza y Machorro, Mario

2004-09-01

9

DEVELOPMENT OF FIELD-BASED EMPIRICAL MODELS OF SUITABLE TEMPERATURE REGIMES FOR INTERIOR SALMONIDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Interior salmonids are species of growing interest and concern in the Pacific Northwest. Evidence of population declines associated with habitat loss and fragmentation have culminate in every species being listed, or proposed or petitioned for listing under he Endangered Species...

10

Influence of salmonid gill bacteria on development and severity of amoebic gill disease.  

PubMed

The relationship between salmonid gill bacteria and Neoparamoeba sp., the aetiological agent of amoebic gill disease (AGD) was determined in vivo. Fish were divided into 4 groups and were subjected to following experimental infections: Group 1, amoebae only; Group 2, Staphylococcus sp. and amoebae; Group 3, Winogradskyella sp. and amoebae; Group 4, no treatment (control). Fish (Groups 1, 2 and 3) were exposed to potassium permanganate to remove the natural gill microflora prior to either bacterial or amoebae exposure. AGD severity was quantified by histological analysis of gill sections to determine the percentage of lesioned filaments and the number of affected lamellae within each lesion. All amoebae infected groups developed AGD, with fish in Group 3 showing significantly more filaments with lesions than other groups. Typically lesion size averaged between 2 to 4 interlamellar units in all AGD infected groups. The results suggest that the ability of Neoparamoeba sp. to infect filaments and cause lesions might be enhanced in the presence of Winogradskyella sp. The possibility is proposed that the prevalence of more severe AGD is due to the occurrence of Winogradskyella sp. at high concentrations on the gills. PMID:16385808

Embar-Gopinath, Sridevi; Butler, Rick; Nowak, Barbara

2005-11-01

11

Recent Legal Developments in Sexual Harassment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Changes in sexual harassment theory, including those in the Supreme Court decision of Meritor Savings Bank v. Vinson, are discussed. The use of the equal protection clause, Title IX, and tort law are described. Policies and complaint procedures that colleges should develop to encourage the reporting of sexual harassment are outlined. (Author/MLW)

Cole, Elsa Kircher

1986-01-01

12

Significance of Selective Predation and Development of Prey Protection Measures for Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs: Annual Progress Report, February 1991-February 1992.  

SciTech Connect

This document is the 1991 annual report of progress for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) research Project conducted by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). Our approach was to present the progress achieved during 1991 in a series of separate reports for each major project task. Each report is prepared in the format of a scientific paper and is able to stand alone, whatever the state of progress or completion. This project has two major goals. One is to understand the significance of selective predation and prey vulnerability by determining if substandard juvenile salmonids (dead, injured, stressed, diseased, or naive) are more vulnerable to predation by northern squawfish, than standard or normal juvenile salmonids. The second goal is to develop and test prey protection measures to control predation on juvenile salmonids by reducing predator-smolt encounters or predator capture efficiency.

Poe, Thomas P.

1992-12-31

13

Viruses and viral diseases of salmonids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salmonid fishes are one of the most important aquatic resources in the world, and since salmonid fish culture was initiated many years ago, it has been developing with the times in several countries. In particular, the intensive culture of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, has developed over the past 30 years in the USA, Europe, Japan and elsewhere. However, the successes

Tokuo Sano

1995-01-01

14

Assessing Juvenile Salmonid Passage Through Culverts: Field Research in Support of Protocol Development  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of our research this spring/ summer was to refine techniques and examine scenarios under which a standardized protocol could be applied to assess juvenile coho salmon (O. kisutch) passage through road culverts. Field evaluations focused on capture-mark- recapture methods that allowed analysis of fish movement patterns, estimates of culvert passability, and potential identification of cues inducing these movements. At this stage, 0+ age coho salmon fry 30 mm to 65 mm long (fork length) were the species and age class of interest. Ultimately, the protocol will provide rapid, statistically rigorous methods for trained personnel to perform standardized biological assessments of culvert passability to a number of juvenile salmon species. Questions to be addressed by the research include the following: ? Do hydraulic structures such as culverts restrict habitat for juvenile salmonids? ? How do existing culverts and retrofits perform relative to juvenile salmonid passage? ? Do some culvert characteristics and hydraulic conditions provide better passage than others? ? Does the culvert represent a barrier to certain size classes of fish? Recommendations addressed issues of study site selection, initial capture, marking, recapture/observations, and estimating movement.

Williams, Greg D.; Evans, Nathan R.; Pearson, Walter H.; Southard, John A.

2001-10-30

15

Triggers and tricks of Plasmodium sexual development.  

PubMed

Irrespective of the tremendous suffering caused by malaria, a Plasmodium infection by pathogenic blood stages is only transient and an obligate step toward the Anopheles vector where sexual reproduction and genetic recombination of the unicellular parasite takes place. Recent expression profiling studies identified the molecular make-up of female and male gametocytes. Differential promoters and translational repression through mRNA binding by a female-specific helicase help to fine-tune the expression of these sexual stage-specific genes. However, we are only just beginning to discover the triggers that initiate gametocytogenesis and the developmental programs that drive sexual development. PMID:18006365

Kooij, Taco Wa; Matuschewski, Kai

2007-12-01

16

A Prospective Investigation of the Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on the Development of Sexuality  

PubMed Central

The sexual attitudes and activities of 77 sexually abused and 89 comparison women (mean age = 20.41, SD = 3.38) were assessed 10 years after disclosure in a longitudinal, prospective study of the long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse. Abused participants were more preoccupied with sex, younger at first voluntary intercourse, more likely to have been teen mothers, and endorsed lower birth control efficacy than comparison participants. When psychological functioning earlier in development was examined, sexual preoccupation was predicted by anxiety, sexual aversion was predicted by childhood sexual behavior problems, and sexual ambivalence (simultaneous sexual preoccupation and sexual aversion) was predicted by pathological dissociation. Findings also indicate that biological father abuse may be associated with greater sexual aversion and sexual ambivalence.

Noll, Jennie G.; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.

2010-01-01

17

Peroxisomes and sexual development in fungi.  

PubMed

Peroxisomes are versatile and dynamic organelles that are essential for the development of most eukaryotic organisms. In fungi, many developmental processes, such as sexual development, require the activity of peroxisomes. Sexual reproduction in fungi involves the formation of meiotic-derived sexual spores, often takes place inside multicellular fruiting bodies and requires precise coordination between the differentiation of multiple cell types and the progression of karyogamy and meiosis. Different peroxisomal functions contribute to the orchestration of this complex developmental process. Peroxisomes are required to sustain the formation of fruiting bodies and the maturation and germination of sexual spores. They facilitate the mobilization of reserve compounds via fatty acid ?-oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle, allowing the generation of energy and biosynthetic precursors. Additionally, peroxisomes are implicated in the progression of meiotic development. During meiotic development in Podospora anserina, there is a precise modulation of peroxisome assembly and dynamics. This modulation includes changes in peroxisome size, number and localization, and involves a differential activity of the protein-machinery that drives the import of proteins into peroxisomes. Furthermore, karyogamy, entry into meiosis and sorting of meiotic-derived nuclei into sexual spores all require the activity of peroxisomes. These processes rely on different peroxisomal functions and likely depend on different pathways for peroxisome assembly. Indeed, emerging studies support the existence of distinct import channels for peroxisomal proteins that contribute to different developmental stages. PMID:24046747

Peraza-Reyes, Leonardo; Berteaux-Lecellier, Véronique

2013-01-01

18

Peroxisomes and sexual development in fungi  

PubMed Central

Peroxisomes are versatile and dynamic organelles that are essential for the development of most eukaryotic organisms. In fungi, many developmental processes, such as sexual development, require the activity of peroxisomes. Sexual reproduction in fungi involves the formation of meiotic-derived sexual spores, often takes place inside multicellular fruiting bodies and requires precise coordination between the differentiation of multiple cell types and the progression of karyogamy and meiosis. Different peroxisomal functions contribute to the orchestration of this complex developmental process. Peroxisomes are required to sustain the formation of fruiting bodies and the maturation and germination of sexual spores. They facilitate the mobilization of reserve compounds via fatty acid ?-oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle, allowing the generation of energy and biosynthetic precursors. Additionally, peroxisomes are implicated in the progression of meiotic development. During meiotic development in Podospora anserina, there is a precise modulation of peroxisome assembly and dynamics. This modulation includes changes in peroxisome size, number and localization, and involves a differential activity of the protein-machinery that drives the import of proteins into peroxisomes. Furthermore, karyogamy, entry into meiosis and sorting of meiotic-derived nuclei into sexual spores all require the activity of peroxisomes. These processes rely on different peroxisomal functions and likely depend on different pathways for peroxisome assembly. Indeed, emerging studies support the existence of distinct import channels for peroxisomal proteins that contribute to different developmental stages.

Peraza-Reyes, Leonardo; Berteaux-Lecellier, Veronique

2013-01-01

19

Effects of phytoestrogen on sexual development  

PubMed Central

Phytoestrogen is an estrogenic compound that occurs naturally in plants. The most common sources of phytoestrogen are soybean products, which contain high levels of isoflavones. This compound, which has structural similarity with estrogen, can act as an estrogen receptor agonist or antagonist. Animal studies provide evidence of the significant effects of phytoestrogen on sexual development, including altered pubertal timing, impaired estrous cycling and ovarian function, and altered hypothalamus and pituitary functions. Although human studies examining the effects of phytoestrogen on sexual development are extremely limited, the results of some studies agree with those of the animal studies. In this paper, we review the possible mechanism of phytoestrogen action and the evidence showing the effects of phytoestrogen on sexual development in animal and human studies.

Kim, Shin Hye

2012-01-01

20

The hormonal control of sexual development.  

PubMed

The formation of the testis or ovary is a critical step in development. The pioneering studies of Professor Alfred Jost showed that the hormones produced by the embryonic rabbit testis are essential for development of the male phenotype. Sexually dimorphic hormones play a key role in the transition from an undifferentiated gonad into the mature testis and ovary. Marsupials, with their altricial young, provide an accessible model for the study of sexual differentiation because most of these events occur postnatally, while the young are attached to teats within their mothers' pouches. The relatively long time-course for the marsupial sexual differentiation has provided an excellent opportunity to correlate morphological changes with the genes and hormones that control them. Using this model species we have demonstrated that not all sexual dimorphisms are controlled by hormones. Virilization of the prostate and phallus is androgen dependent but appears to rely on circulating 5alpha-androstane-3alpha, 17beta-diol which is converted to dihydrotestosterone in these target tissues. Collectively these studies have led to the development of new paradigms to explain the hormonal mechanisms mediating sexual differentiation. PMID:11990788

Renfree, Marilyn B; Wilson, Jean D; Shaw, Geoffrey

2002-01-01

21

Water quality in Salmonid culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the relationship between salmonid aquaculture, both in fresh and saltwater, and water quality, focusing on the effects of bad water quality at the lethal and sublethal level, water quality assessment using physicochemical parameters, and new developments for water quality estimations: from mathematical indices and models for the interpretation and\\/or prediction of analytical results, to the assessment of

Jose V. Tarazona; Maria J. Muñoz

1995-01-01

22

Improving Sexuality Education: The Development of Teacher-Preparation Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Teaching sexuality education to support young people's sexual development and overall sexual health is both needed and supported. Data continue to highlight the high rates of teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted disease, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, among young people in the United States as well as the…

Barr, Elissa M.; Goldfarb, Eva S.; Russell, Susan; Seabert, Denise; Wallen, Michele; Wilson, Kelly L.

2014-01-01

23

Developing a Predation Index and Evaluating Ways to Reduce Salmonid Losses to Predation in the Columbia River Basin, Final Report August 1988-September 1990.  

SciTech Connect

We report our results of studies to develop a predation index and evaluate ways to reduce juvenile salmonid losses to predation in the Columbia River Basin. Study objectives of each were: develop an index to estimate predation losses of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp) in reservoirs throughout the Columbia River Basin, describe the relationships among predator-caused mortality of juvenile salmonids and physical and biological variables, examine the feasibility of developing bounty, commercial or recreational fisheries on northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) and develop a plan to evaluate the efficacy of predator control fisheries; determine the economic feasibility of developing bounty and commercial fisheries for northern squawfish, assist ODFW with evaluating the economic feasibility of recreational fisheries for northern squawfish and assess the economic feasibility of utilizing northern squawfish, carp (Cyprinus carpio) and suckers (Castostomus spp) in multispecies fisheries; evaluate commercial technology of various fishing methods for harvesting northern squawfish in Columbia River reservoirs and field test the effectiveness of selected harvesting systems, holding facilities and transportation systems; and modify the existing Columbia River Ecosystem Model (CREM) to include processes necessary to evaluate effects of removing northern squawfish on their population size structure and abundance, document the ecological processes, mathematical equations and computer (FORTRAN) programming of the revised version of CREM and conduct systematic analyses of various predator removal scenarios, using revised CREM to generate the simulations. Individual reports are indexed separately.

Nigro, Anthony A.

1990-12-01

24

Development of a Sexual Ethics Continuum Teaching Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents and young adults are likely to be sexually active and interested in sexual ethics. In order to tap into this interest and assist in their intellectual development, a sexual ethics continuum teaching strategy was developed during four semesters with six sections of two different college courses. A total of 52 behaviors of interest to…

Broadbear, James T.

2005-01-01

25

Significance of Selective Predation and Development of Prey Protection Measures for Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs: Annual Report, February 1992-February 1993.  

SciTech Connect

This document is the 1992 annual report of progress for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) research Project No. 82-003 conducted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), the Oregon Cooperative Fishery Research Unit (OCFRU), and the Idaho Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (ICFWRU). The approach was to present the progress achieved during 1992 in a series of separate reports for each major project task. Each report is prepared in the format of a scientific paper and is able to stand alone, whatever the state of progress or completion. Reports 1, 2, and 4 consist of the Abstract only (journal papers were submitted in lieu of reports). This project has two major goals. One is to understand the significance of selective predation and prey vulnerability by determining if substandard juvenile salmonids (dead, injured, stressed, diseased, or naive) are more vulnerable to predation by northern squawfish, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, than standard or normal juvenile salmonids. The second goal is to develop and test prey protection measures to control predation on juvenile salmonids by reducing predator-smolt encounters or predator capture efficiency. Separate abstracts have been submitted to the database for the seven articles in this report.

Poe, Thomas P.; Gadomski, Dena M.

1994-09-01

26

Specific detection by the polymerase chain reaction of potentially allergenic salmonid fish residues in processed foods.  

PubMed

Salmonid fish is one of the allergenic items that are recommended to be labeled in the Japanese allergen-labeling system. This study develops a salmonid-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. A new primer pair, SKE-F/SKE-R, was designed to specifically detect the salmonid fish gene encoding mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b. Genomic DNAs extracted from 58 kinds of seafood and 11 kinds of processed food were individually subjected to PCR by using the primer pair, and a salmonid-specific fragment of 212 bp was only amplified in the salmonid samples and salmonid-containing processed foods. The detection limit of the PCR method was as low as 0.02 fg/µL of salmonid fish DNA (corresponding to 10 copies). There is no ELISA method for salmonid fish, making our PCR method the only reliable measure for detecting salmonid fish in processed foods. PMID:22738970

Ishizaki, Shoichiro; Sakai, Yumiko; Yano, Takeo; Nakano, Shigeru; Yamada, Toshihiro; Nagashima, Yuji; Shiomi, Kazuo; Nakao, Yoshiki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

2012-01-01

27

Identity Development Among Sexual-Minority Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Sexual identity is the name and meaning individuals assign to themselves based on the most salient sexual aspects of their life – such as\\u000a sexual attractions, fantasies, desires, and behaviors. Sexual identities usually fall within existing social categories, such\\u000a as straight, bisexual, or lesbian\\/gay, and are historically and culturally specific. Youth in today’s cohort have expanded\\u000a the list of sexual

Ritch C. Savin-Williams

28

Salmonid Whirling Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper provides the latest scientific and technical advances in the management of salmonid whirling disease caused by the myxosporean Myxobolus cerebralis (Syn. Myxosoma cerebralis). The complete life cycle of the parasite and the biology of the infect...

M. E. Markiw

1992-01-01

29

Sexual Self-Concept and Sexually Abused Males: Early Data on the Development of a Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the early development and psychometric piloting of the Sexual Self-Concept Scale for Sexually Abused Males, a one-dimensional measure assessing the gender-based self-perceptions of males with histories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). A sample of 459 males with histories of CSA completed a demographic survey and responded to a pool of items using a Likert-type scale. Strong and

Jozef Wawrzyniec Spychala Spiegel

2008-01-01

30

Transcriptional evolution underlying vertebrate sexual development.  

PubMed

Explaining the diversity of vertebrate sex-determining mechanisms ranging from genotypic (GSD) to temperature-dependent (TSD) remains a developmental and evolutionary conundrum. Using a phylogenetic framework, we explore the transcriptional evolution during gonadogenesis of several genes involved in sexual development, combining novel data from Chrysemys picta turtles (TSD) and published data from other TSD and GSD vertebrates. Our novel C. picta dataset underscores Sf1 and Wt1 as potential activators of the thermosensitive period and uncovered the first evidence of Dax1 involvement in male development in a TSD vertebrate. Contrasting transcriptional profiles revealed male-biased Wt1 expression in fish while monomorphic expression is found in tetrapods but absent in turtles. Sf1 expression appears highly labile with transitions among testicular, ovarian, and non-sex-specific gonadal formation patterns among and within lineages. Dax1's dual role in ovarian and testicular formation is found in fish and mammals but is dosage-sensitive exclusively in eutherian mammals due to its X-linkage in this group. Contrastingly, Sox9 male-biased and Aromatase female-biased expression appear ancestral and virtually conserved throughout vertebrates despite significant heterochronic changes in expression as other elements likely replaced their function in early gonadogenesis. Finally, research avenues are highlighted to further study the evolution of the regulatory network of sexual development. PMID:23108853

Valenzuela, Nicole; Neuwald, Jennifer L; Literman, Robert

2013-04-01

31

New developments in education and training in sexual medicine.  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION.: The past 12 months have been historic ones for the field of Sexual Medicine in that we have seen the creation of the European Board examination in Sexual Medicine with the title of "Fellow of the European Committee on Sexual Medicine" (FECSM) offered to successful candidates. AIM.: The study aims to promote a high standard of care in Sexual Medicine. METHODS.: An important way of promoting high standards of care is by the development of training, regulation, and assessment framework. The background to these developments and the recent educational activities of the European Society for Sexual Medicine (ESSM) are described in this article. RESULTS.: The creation of the Multidisciplinary Joint Committee on Sexual Medicine (MJCSM) under the auspices of the European Union of Medical Specialists, with the primary purpose to develop the highest possible standards of training in Sexual Medicine in Europe, made it possible to create a process for qualification in Sexual Medicine. The ESSM educational activities created opportunities to support trainees in Sexual Medicine and the first MJCSM exam was held in Amsterdam with a high overall success rate. CONCLUSION.: These activities are intended to improve quality. The FECSM examination is the first of its type and provides a real opportunity for Sexual Medicine physicians to demonstrate and document their knowledge. PMID:23551541

Reisman, Yacov; Eardley, Ian; Porst, Hartmut

2013-04-01

32

From Best to Pest: changing perspectives on the impact of exotic salmonids in the southern hemisphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exotic salmonids were deliberately introduced to the southern hemisphere during the last part of the 20th century, initially to boost sport fishing and later to develop an aquaculture industry. Early introductions were justified by governments on purely utilitarian arguments as it was felt that translocated salmonids would capitalize on otherwise ‘underutilized’ aquatic niches. A century later, exotic salmonids are established

C. GARCIA DE LEANIZ; G. GAJARDO; S. CONSUEGRA

2010-01-01

33

Sexual development and life of women with gonadal dysgenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sexual development and behavior of 37 women suffering from the gonadal dysgenesis syndrome were investigated. It was found that their sexual development was significantly retarded compared with a control group of 50 fertile patients of the same age. This retardation was greater in a subgroup of 19 women with the Turner syndrome than in a subgroup of 18 women

Ji?í Raboch; Jitka Kobilková; Jan Ho?ejší; Luboslav Stárka; Jan Raboch

1987-01-01

34

Sexual Consent in Heterosexual Relationships: Development of a New Measure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extensive research on date rape attitudes and experiences has left sexual consent itself largely unexamined. The objective\\u000a of this study was to develop a measure to assess women’s and men’s attitudes and behaviors regarding sexual consent. Using\\u000a both focus groups (N?=?18) and a mail survey (N?=?514) of undergraduate students at a Canadian university, two scales of sexual consent were

Terry Humphreys; Ed Herold

2007-01-01

35

Development and psychometric evaluation of the sexual intent scale.  

PubMed

Men have been found to attribute more sexual meaning to cross-gender interactions than women do-a finding that has come to be known as the oversexualization effect. Despite the large body of research supporting the notion that men are more biased in their perceptions than women, researchers are moving beyond gender differences and examining personality variables to identify factors that can explain and predict the oversexualization effect. However, results have been mixed. Thus, the goal of this study was to develop a measurement tool, the Sexual Intent Scale, which assesses individual differences in attributing sexual intent. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the Sexual Intent Scale revealed the scale has three components we termed Sexual Facility, Friendship Facility, and Sexual Empathy. Temporal reliability and convergent and construct validity as well as norms and subscale correlations are presented. Results are discussed in terms of the scale's utility and directions for future research are explored. PMID:23742020

Harnish, Richard J; Bridges, K Robert; Rottschaefer, Karen M

2014-01-01

36

Development of an Index to Bird Predation of Juvenile Salmonids within the Yakima River, 2001 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Avian predation of fish is suspected to contribute to the loss of out-migrating juvenile salmonids in the Yakima Basin, potentially constraining natural and artificial production. In 1997 and 1998, the Yakima/ Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP)--whose goal is increasing natural production within the Yakima River--initiated investigations to assess the feasibility of developing an index to avian predation of juvenile salmon within the river. This research confirmed that Ring-billed Gulls and Common Mergansers were the primary avian predators of juvenile salmon (Phinney et al. 1998), and that under certain conditions could significantly impact migrating smolt populations. Beginning in 1999, the Washington Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (WACFWRU) was asked by the YKFP to continue development of avian consumption indices. Monitoring methods developed by Phinney et al. (1998) were adopted (with modifications) and monitoring of impacts to juvenile salmon along river reaches and at areas of high predator/prey concentrations (colloquially referred to as ''hotspots'') has continued each year through 2001. In 2001, piscivorous birds were counted from river banks at hotspots and from a raft or drift boat along river reaches. Consumption by gulls at hotspots was based on direct observations of foraging success and modeled abundance; consumption by all other piscivorous birds was estimated using published dietary requirements and modeled abundance. Seasonal patterns of avian piscivore abundance were identified, diurnal patterns of gull abundance at hotspots were identified, and predation indices were calculated for hotspots and river reaches (for both spring and summer). Changes in survey methods in 2001 included the addition of surveys in the ''Canyon'' reach during spring and altering the method of directly measuring gull feeding rates at hotspots. Primary avian predators in 2001 were ''gulls'' (California and Ring-billed) at hotspots and Common Mergansers within upper river reaches. Consumption on the lower reaches was distributed among a number of species, with slightly more then half of all fish consumption being attributed to American White Pelicans. Estimated consumption by gulls at both hotspots combined (8 Apr-30 Jun) was 169,883 fish. Assuming a worst case scenario (all fish taken were smolts) this represented approximately 4.9% of all smolts estimated passing or being released from the Prosser Dam area during the 2001 smolt migration season. Total gull abundances and estimates of consumption between the two hotspot sites were opposite that seen in 2000. Foraging gulls at Horn Rapids Dam were regressed against flow for the 3 years and found to be significant (alpha = 0.1, P=0.081, r{sup 2} = .2589). A similar 3-year regression vs fish passage through the Chandler Juvenile Fish Facility, however, did not show a significant relationship (alpha = 0.1, P = 0.396, r{sup 2} = .3708). Total estimated take by Common Mergansers across all strata surveyed was 14,777 kg between 8 Apr and 31 Aug, 2001. Approximately 66 percent of that consumption was within the upper river reaches (Stratum 1) where there is a known breeding population of mergansers. Graphical comparisons of merganser abundances over the three years (1999-2001) in the upper reaches of the Yakima River suggest an increase in 2001 from the previous 2 years in both the spring and summer survey periods, but overlapping confidence intervals prevent assumptions regarding upward or downward trends in abundance.

Major, III, Walter; Grue, Christian E.; Ryding, Kristen E. (University of Washington, School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, Seattle, WA)

2002-08-01

37

Development of sexual dimorphism in the Drosophila testis  

PubMed Central

The creation of sexual dimorphism in the gonads is essential for producing the male and female gametes required for sexual reproduction. Sexual development of the gonads involves both somatic cells and germ cells, which often undergo sex determination by different mechanisms. While many sex-specific characteristics evolve rapidly and are very different between animal species, gonad function and the formation of sperm and eggs appear more similar and may be more conserved. Consistent with this, the doublesex/mab3 Related Transcription factors (DMRTs) are important for gonad sexual dimorphism in a wide range of animals, including flies, worms and mammals. Here we explore how sexual dimorphism is regulated in the Drosophila gonad, focusing on recent discoveries relating to testis development. We will discuss how sex determination in both the germline and the soma are utilized to create a testis, including the role of the key somatic sex determination factor doublesex.

Whitworth, Cale; Jimenez, Erin; Van Doren, Mark

2012-01-01

38

Disorders of sexual development in the dog and cat.  

PubMed

Normal sexual differentiation occurs in three sequential steps--establishment of chromosomal (genetic) sex, development of gonadal sex, and development of phenotypic sex. Errors in the establishment of chromosomal, gonadal, or phenotypic sex cause abnormal sexual differentiation. Affected individuals are identified with a wide variety of patterns from ambiguous genitalia, to apparently normal genitalia with sterility or infertility. When a patient is suspected of having a disorder of sexual development, analysis of the chromosomal constitution and complete gross and histopathologic description of the gonads, internal and external genitalia are required to correctly categorize the type of disorder. PMID:17482251

Lyle, S K

2007-08-01

39

Complications in the Development of a Female Sexual Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the struggle to develop a female sexual identity and the importance of the roles of the father and mother in this struggle. The clinical illustration is taken from the psychotherapy of an anorectic adolescent.

Magagna, Jeanne; Pepper Goldsmith, Tara

2009-01-01

40

A Cytogenetic Study of Abnormal Sexual Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nineteen patients associated with sexual anomalies were studied for chromosome abnormalities. Five cases (26.3 per cent) were found to be chromosomally abnormal. They were one case of mixed gonadal dysgenesis with an XY/XO mosaicism, two cases of Klinefel...

C. C. Lin K. S. W. Kim P. Y. Wei

1969-01-01

41

Sexual development and life of women with gonadal dysgenesis.  

PubMed

The sexual development and behavior of 37 women suffering from the gonadal dysgenesis syndrome were investigated. It was found that their sexual development was significantly retarded compared with a control group of 50 fertile patients of the same age. This retardation was greater in a subgroup of 19 women with the Turner syndrome than in a subgroup of 18 women with pure gonadal dysgenesis. The levels of gonadotrophins LH and FSH, estradiol, progesterone and testosterone in blood were similar in these two subgroups. In two-thirds of the gonadal dysgenesis syndrome patients, the estradiol level was mostly at the low end of normal. The assessment of their sexual life using the Sexual Activity of Women (SAW) and Sexual Function of Women (SFW) questionnaires indicated a lower sexual desire, a reduced orgastic capacity, and a weaker sexual activity in the pathological group. However, 24 patients living in a permanent and stable partner relationship at the time of the examination, did not significantly differ from the control group in their responses to the SFW questionnaire. The patients with gonadal dysgenesis syndrome were surprisingly well adapted to their shortcomings. The occurrence and intensity of most neurotic symptoms assessed by the N5 Questionnaire were scored lower by the patients with gonadal dysgenesis syndrome than by the control group. PMID:3612822

Raboch, J; Kobilková, J; Horejsí, J; Stárka, L; Raboch, J

1987-01-01

42

VelC positively controls sexual development in Aspergillus nidulans.  

PubMed

Fungal development and secondary metabolism is intimately associated via activities of the fungi-specific velvet family proteins including VeA, VosA, VelB and VelC. Among these, VelC has not been characterized in Aspergillus nidulans. In this study, we characterize the role of VelC in asexual and sexual development in A. nidulans. The velC mRNA specifically accumulates during the early phase of sexual development. The deletion of velC leads to increased number of conidia and reduced production of sexual fruiting bodies (cleistothecia). In the velC deletion mutant, mRNA levels of the brlA, abaA, wetA and vosA genes that control sequential activation of asexual sporulation increase. Overexpression of velC causes increased formation of cleistothecia. These results suggest that VelC functions as a positive regulator of sexual development. VelC is one of the five proteins that physically interact with VosA in yeast two-hybrid and GST pull down analyses. The ?velC ?vosA double mutant produced fewer cleistothecia and behaved similar to the ?vosA mutant, suggesting that VosA is epistatic to VelC in sexual development, and that VelC might mediate control of sex through interacting with VosA at specific life stages for sexual fruiting. PMID:24587098

Park, Hee-Soo; Nam, Tae-Young; Han, Kap-Hoon; Kim, Sun Chang; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

2014-01-01

43

Development of a new antibody for detecting natural killer enhancing factor (NKEF)-like protein in infected salmonids.  

PubMed

The main cellular responses of innate immunity are phagocytic activity and the respiratory burst, which produces a high amount of reactive oxygen species. Natural killer enhancing factor (NKEF) belongs to the peroxiredoxin family that has an antioxidant function and enhances cytotoxic cell activity. This molecule may play a key role in macrophage and cytotoxic cell communication during the innate immune response of fish against pathogens. In fish, the NKEF gene has been characterized in some species as showing an up-regulation in infected fish, suggesting a trigger effect upon NK-like cells. To detect and localize this molecule in salmonids at protein level, a monospecific polyclonal antibody was generated. A probable NKEF-like protein epitope region was identified and characterized using bioinformatic tools, and the sequence was chemically synthesized using Fmoc strategy, analysed by RP-HPLC and its molecular weight confirmed by mass spectrometry. The synthetic peptide was immunized and antibodies from ascitic fluid were obtained. The resulting antibody is a versatile tool for detecting NKEF by different immune techniques such as ELISA, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Analysis of NKEF-like protein is a useful method for characterizing immune properties of this molecule in fish during response to pathogens. PMID:22458735

Bethke, J; Rojas, V; Berendsen, J; Cárdenas, C; Guzmán, F; Gallardo, J A; Mercado, L

2012-05-01

44

Adolescent sexually transmitted diseases: Recent developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescents and young adults continue to have the highest rates of sexually transmitted diseases. New chlamydia and gonorrhea\\u000a diagnostic tests are being used in innovative ways to increase the number of infections that are detected. Nevertheless, challenges\\u000a such as gonorrhea resistance and partner notification and treatment continue to hinder efforts to reduce the prevalence of\\u000a these two bacterial infections. Although

Diane R. Blake

2004-01-01

45

Observations on the Efficacy of Chloramine-T Treatment to Control Mortality in a Variety of Salmonids. Developments in Fish Culture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results and observations from 120 chloramine-T treatment trials to control mortality in a variety of salmonids caused by bacterial gill disease and columnaris are provided to aid fish culturists in determining more effective treatment regimes. When chlora...

J. D. Bowker D. A. Erdahl

1997-01-01

46

Research on Sexual Orientation and Human Development: A Commentary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 25 years, dramatic advances have occurred in the understanding of the development of sexual orientation. Gay and lesbian interests and behavior appear to result from a complex interplay of genetic, prenatal, and environmental influences. Gender identity develops early, especially for males, and is difficult to change. Homosexuality is less likely to be characterized as pathological, although discrimination

Bonnie R. Strickland

1995-01-01

47

Developing Sexual Health Software Incorporating User Feedback: A British Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes an interactive prototyping model for development of four computer software modules for British youth on sexual issues. An iterative cycle of development, user review and feedback, and subsequent modification and retesting was used with approximately 150 young adults, with particular attention to presentation style, screen design, usability, relevance of material, enjoyment, and learning. The software was designed

Ann Turner; Nicola Singleton; Sarah Easterbrook

1997-01-01

48

New Insights into Placozoan Sexual Reproduction and Development  

PubMed Central

Unraveling animal life cycles and embryonic development is basic to understanding animal biology and often sheds light on phylogenetic relationships. A key group for understanding the evolution of the Metazoa is the early branching phylum Placozoa, which has attracted rapidly increasing attention. Despite over a hundred years of placozoan research the life cycle of this enigmatic phylum remains unknown. Placozoa are a unique model system for which the nuclear genome was published before the basic biology (i.e. life cycle and development) has been unraveled. Four organismal studies have reported the development of oocytes and one genetic study has nourished the hypothesis of sexual reproduction in natural populations at least in the past. Here we report new observations on sexual reproduction and embryonic development in the Placozoa and support the hypothesis of current sexual reproduction. The regular observation of oocytes and expressed sperm markers provide support that placozoans reproduce sexually in the field. Using whole genome and EST sequences and additional cDNA cloning we identified five conserved sperm markers, characteristic for different stages in spermatogenesis. We also report details on the embryonic development up to a 128-cell stage and new ultrastructural features occurring during early development. These results suggest that sperm and oocyte generation and maturation occur in different placozoans and that clonal lineages reproduce bisexually in addition to the standard mode of vegetative reproduction. The sum of observations is best congruent with the hypothesis of a simple life cycle with an alternation of reproductive modes between bisexual and vegetative reproduction.

Eitel, Michael; Guidi, Loretta; Hadrys, Heike; Balsamo, Maria; Schierwater, Bernd

2011-01-01

49

Does Positive Youth Development Predict Adolescent Attitudes about Sexuality?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among individual factors, parental factors, involvement in activities, and adolescent attitudes regarding sex (the outcome variable). We suggest that Positive Youth Development (PYD) research and programming should include promoting healthy sexuality as an important developmental outcome…

Chapman, Erin N.; Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay

2008-01-01

50

Sexual reproduction, development and larval biology in scleractinian corals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper brings together widely scattered information on sexual reproduction in scleractinian corals. It includes a review of information and ideas on sex determination, gametogenesis, gametogenic cycles, fertilization and embryonic development, spawning and planula release, larval behavior, settlement and metamorphosis. The review deals with corals from different habitats and organismic assemblages, including tropical reef corals, temperate water corals, solitary and

Yusef H. Fadlallah

1983-01-01

51

Magnitude and dynamics of predation on juvenile salmonids in Columbia and Snake River reservoirs. Annual report of research, 1989-1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three aspects of predation upon juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River are addressed in this report: (1) Indexing predator consumption. During 1989--1990, two indices of northern squawfish consumption upon juvenile salmonids were developed for use throu...

J. H. Petersen M. G. Mesa J. Hall-Griswold W. C. Schrader G. W. Short

1990-01-01

52

Homosexuality as a consequence of epigenetically canalized sexual development.  

PubMed

Male and female homosexuality have substantial prevalence in humans. Pedigree and twin studies indicate that homosexuality has substantial heritability in both sexes, yet concordance between identical twins is low and molecular studies have failed to find associated DNA makers. This paradoxical pattern calls for an explanation. We use published data on fetal androgen signaling and gene regulation via nongenetic changes in DNA packaging (epigenetics) to develop a new model for homosexuality. It is well established that fetal androgen signaling strongly influences sexual development. We show that an unappreciated feature of this process is reduced androgen sensitivity in XX fetuses and enhanced sensitivity in XY fetuses, and that this difference is most feasibly mused by numerous sex-specific epigenetic modifications ("epi-marks") originating in embryonic stem cells. These epi-marks buffer XX fetuses from masculinization due to excess fetal androgen exposure and similarly buffer XY fetuses from androgen underexposure. Extant data indicates that individual epi-marks influence some but not other sexually dimorphic traits, vary in strength across individuals, and are produced during ontogeny and erased between generations. Those that escape erasure will steer development of the sexual phenotypes they influence in a gonad-discordant direction in opposite sex offspring, mosaically feminizing XY offspring and masculinizing XX offspring. Such sex-specific epi-marks are sexually antagonistic (SA-epi-marks) because they canalize sexual development in the parent that produced them, but contribute to gonad-trait discordances in opposite-sex offspring when unerased. In this model, homosexuality occurs when stronger-than-average SA-epi-marks (influencing sexual preference) from an opposite-sex parent escape erasure and are then paired with a weaker-than-average de novo sex-specific epi-marks produced in opposite-sex offspring. Our model predicts that homosexuality is part of a wider phenomenon in which recently evolved androgen-influenced traits commonly display gonad-trait discordances at substantial frequency, and that the molecular feature underlying most homosexuality is not DNA polymorphism(s), but epi-marks that evolved to canalize sexual dimorphic development that sometimes carryover across generations and contribute to gonad-trait discordances in opposite-sex descendants. PMID:23397798

Rice, William R; Friberg, Urban; Gavrilets, Sergey

2012-12-01

53

Development of a Curriculum on Sexual Exploitation and Self-Protection for Handicapped Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assist handicapped persons in preventing sexual exploitation, the Curriculum for Developing an Awareness of Sexual Exploitation and Teaching Self Protection Techniques was developed and pilot tested with 13 special education teachers in Seattle, Washington. (SB)

Ryerson, Ellen; Sundem, Jennifer McGilvray

1981-01-01

54

Introduction: New Developments in the Area of Sexual Dysfunction(s)  

Microsoft Academic Search

New developments in the area of sexual dysfunction, e.g. epidemiology and pharmacological treatment, are reviewed. Areas where new developments\\/changes are needed, such as diagnosis of sexual dysfunction and research methodology, are also briefly discussed.

Richard Balon

2008-01-01

55

Girls' Sexual Development in the Inner City: From Compelled Childhood Sexual Contact to Sex-for-Things Exchanges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) has been linked to a wide variety of adverse psychological and behavioral outcomes. This paper describes girls' sexual development in the inner city based on qualitative material from a long-term ethnographic (observational) study. For many inner-city girls, early and then continued experiences of being compelled to have…

Dunlap, Eloise; Golub, Andrew; Johnson, Bruce D.

2003-01-01

56

Significance of Selective Predation and Development of Prey Protection Measures for Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs: Annual Progress Report, February 1993-February 1994.  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the problem of predator-prey interactions of juvenile salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River. Six papers are included on selective predation and prey protection. Attention is focused on monitoring the movements, the distribution, and the behavior of juvenile chinook salmon and northern squawfish.

Poe, Thomas P.

1994-08-01

57

Disorders of sexual development in the domestic horse, Equus caballus.  

PubMed

Abnormalities of sexual development causing infertility in horses have been investigated since the early 1970's. Conventional cytogenetic analysis by karyotyping has been the primary tool used to investigate these horses. Abnormalities have a broad range, from a phenotypically normal mare with gonadal dysgenesis to a horse with ambiguous external genitalia and internal male and female organs. Cytogenetic analysis can determine genetic sex but cannot identify mutations or deletions of genes involved in the sex determination pathway. Molecular technologies have been developed to confirm cytogenetic results and to aid in identifying the genetic causes of abnormal sex determination in horses. In this paper, we review the historical development of methods used to understand abnormal sexual development in the horse as well as summarize cases reported over the last 40-50 years. PMID:22095202

Lear, T L; McGee, R B

2012-01-01

58

Salmonid Pharmacology and Toxicology (Chapter 41).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The pharmacology and toxicology of salmonids are described. The authors also document territorial behavior of salmonids and their response to effects of drugs, chemicals or pollutants. Current literature is cited as the best source of information regardin...

D. P. Anderson F. L. Mayer

1992-01-01

59

Understanding Early Sexual Development (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... this age start to understand the difference between boys and girls, and can identify themselves as one or the ... have developed a strong sense of being a boy or girl, and continue to explore their bodies even more ...

60

A Prospective Investigation of the Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on the Development of Sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sexual attitudes and activities of 77 sexually abused and 89 comparison women (mean age = 20.41, SD = 3.38) were assessed 10 years after disclosure in a longitudinal, prospective study of the long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse. Abused participants were more preoccupied with sex, younger at first voluntary intercourse, more likely to have been teen mothers, and endorsed

Jennie G. Noll; Penelope K. Trickett; Frank W. Putnam

2003-01-01

61

Evolutionary consequences of habitat loss for Pacific anadromous salmonids  

PubMed Central

Large portions of anadromous salmonid habitat in the western United States has been lost because of dams and other blockages. This loss has the potential to affect salmonid evolution through natural selection if the loss is biased, affecting certain types of habitat differentially, and if phenotypic traits correlated with those habitat types are heritable. Habitat loss can also affect salmonid evolution indirectly, by reducing genetic variation and changing its distribution within and among populations. In this paper, we compare the characteristics of lost habitats with currently accessible habitats and review the heritability of traits which show correlations with habitat/environmental gradients. We find that although there is some regional variation, inaccessible habitats tend to be higher in elevation, wetter and both warmer in the summer and colder in the winter than habitats currently available to anadromous salmonids. We present several case studies that demonstrate either a change in phenotypic or life history expression or an apparent reduction in genetic variation associated with habitat blockages. These results suggest that loss of habitat will alter evolutionary trajectories in salmonid populations and Evolutionarily Significant Units. Changes in both selective regime and standing genetic diversity might affect the ability of these taxa to respond to subsequent environmental perturbations. Both natural and anthropogenic and should be considered seriously in developing management and conservation strategies.

McClure, Michelle M; Carlson, Stephanie M; Beechie, Timothy J; Pess, George R; Jorgensen, Jeffrey C; Sogard, Susan M; Sultan, Sonia E; Holzer, Damon M; Travis, Joseph; Sanderson, Beth L; Power, Mary E; Carmichael, Richard W

2008-01-01

62

Retrospective Recall of Sexual Orientation Identity Development among Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although recent attention has focused on the likelihood that contemporary sexual minority youth (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual [GLB]) are "coming out" at younger ages, few studies have examined whether early sexual orientation identity development is also present in older GLB cohorts. We analyzed retrospective data on the timing of sexual

Calzo, Jerel P.; Antonucci, Toni C.; Mays, Vickie M.; Cochran, Susan D.

2011-01-01

63

Development of an Index to Bird Predation of Juvenile Salmonids within the Yakima River, 2000 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Avian predation of fish is suspected to contribute to the loss of juvenile spring chinook salmon in the Yakima Basin, potentially constraining natural production. In 1997 and 1998, the Yakama/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW)--whose goal is to increase natural production historically present within the Yakima River--initiated investigations to assess the feasibility of developing an index to avian predation of juvenile salmon within the river. This research--conducted by Dr. Steve Mathews and David Phinney of the University of Washington--confirmed that Ring-billed Gulls and Common Mergansers were the primary avian predators of juvenile salmon, and that under certain conditions could impact migrating smolt populations. Beginning in 1999, the Washington Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (WACFWRU) was asked by the YKFP and the WDFW to continue development of avian consumption indices. Monitoring methods developed by Phinney et al. (1998) were adopted (with modifications) and monitoring of impacts to juvenile salmon along river reaches and at areas of high predator/prey concentrations (colloquially referred to as ''hotspots'') continued through 2000. In 2000, piscivorous birds were counted from river banks at hotspots and from a raft or drift boat along river reaches. Consumption by gulls at Hotspots was based on direct observations of foraging success and modeled abundance; consumption by all other piscivorous birds was estimated using published dietary requirements and modeled abundance. Further development of the avian consumption index model provided an estimation of smolt consumption for the 2000 survey season. Seasonal patterns of avian piscivore abundance were identified, diurnal patterns of gull abundance at hotspots were identified, predation indices were calculated for hotspots and spring and summer river reaches, and the efficacy of aerial surveys for estimating bird abundance within river reaches was evaluated. The only change in survey methods in 2000 was the shortening (in river miles) of surveys on the North Fork of the Teanaway River and the shifting of start and stop dates for river drifts and hotspot surveys. Primary avian predators in 2000 were ''gulls'' (California and Ring-billed) at hotspots and Common Mergansers within upper river reaches. Estimated consumption by gulls at both hotspots combined (10 April-30 June) was 163,475 fish. Assuming a worst case scenario (all fish taken were smolts) this represented 6.0% of all smolts estimated passing or being released from the Chandler Dam area during the 2000 smolt migration season. Total estimated take by Common Mergansers across all strata surveyed was 7,654 kg between 10 Apr and 30 Aug, 2000. Seventy-three percent of that consumption was within the upper river reaches (Stratum 1) where there is a known breeding population of mergansers.

Grassley, James M.; Grue, Christian E.; Major, III, Walter (University of Washington, School of Aquatic and Fishery Science, Seattle, WA)

2002-01-01

64

Preliminary Estimates of Loss of Juvenile Anadromous Salmonids to Predators in John Day Reservoir and Development of a Predation Model : Interim Report, 1986.  

SciTech Connect

We made preliminary estimates of the loss of juvenile salmonids to predation by walleye, Stizostedion v. vitreum, and northern squawfish, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, in John Day Reservoir in 1984 and 1985 using estimates of predator abundance and daily prey consumption rates. Preliminary estimates may be biased and may be adjusted as much as 30%, but indications are that predation could account for the majority of unexplained loss of juvenile salmonids in John Day Reservoir. Total loss was estimated at 4.1 million in 1984 and 3.3 million in 1985. Northern squawfish consumed 76% and 92% of these totals, respectively. The majority of loss occurred in mid reservoir areas, but loss in a small area, the boat-restricted zone immediately below McNary Dam, was disproportionately large. Peaks in loss in May and July corresponded with peaks in availability of salmonids. Estimated mortality from predation for April through June in 1984 and 1985 was 9% and 7% respectively, for chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and 10% and 15% for steelhead, Salmogairdneri. Mortality was variable with time but tended to increase over the period of migration. Mortality of chinook was estimated at 26% to 55% during July and August. A model of predation in John Day Reservoir is outlined. The model includes a predation submodel that can calculate loss from predator number and consumption rate; a population submodel that can relate predator abundance and population structure to recruitment, exploitation, natural mortality and growth; and a distribution submodel that can apportion predators among areas of the reservoir over time. Applications of the model are discussed for projecting expected changes in predation over time and identifying management alternatives that might limit the impact of predation.

Rieman, Bruce E.

1986-03-01

65

Population Viability Assessment of Salmonids by Using Probabilistic Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public agencies are being asked to quantitatively assess the impact of land manage- ment activities on sensitive populations of salmonids. To aid in these assessments, we developed a Bayesian viability assessment procedure (BayVAM) to help characterize land use risks to salmo- nids in the Pacific Northwest. This procedure incorporates a hybrid approach to viability analysis that blends qualitative, professional judgment

DANNY C. LEE; BRUCE E. RIEMAN

1997-01-01

66

Formulation of a Defined V8 Medium for Induction of Sexual Development of Cryptococcus neoformans?  

PubMed Central

For over 3 decades, sexual development in the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans and other fungi has been initiated by growing compatible mating partners on V8 juice medium. Although this medium is an efficient inducer of sexual development, the mechanism by which it promotes the process is unknown. To understand how V8 juice medium induces sexual development, we attempted to purify inducing factors from V8 juice, and we carried out a complete compositional analysis of V8 juice. We discovered that no single factor is responsible for the effects of V8 juice medium. Rather, the unique composition of V8 juice medium provides the proper nutrient composition for inducing and sustaining complete sexual development. Utilizing these findings, we developed a defined V8 (DV8) medium that mimics V8 juice medium in sexual development assays. Then, using DV8 as a tool, we explored the roles that specific molecules play in enhancing sexual development. Surprisingly, we discovered that copper is a key factor, leading to an upregulation of the mating pheromone genes MFa and MF?, both required for the initial steps in sexual development. The utilization of DV8 to investigate the effects of copper on sexual development presented here is an example of how defining the conditions that induce sexual development will advance the study of C. neoformans.

Kent, Cory R.; Ortiz-Bermudez, Patricia; Giles, Steven S.; Hull, Christina M.

2008-01-01

67

Perceptions of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors: Development and Initial Validation of a New Scale to Measure Stereotypes of Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale was developed to assess stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Scale items were derived from two studies that elicited cultural and personal beliefs about, and emotions experienced towards adult childhood sexual abuse survivors among university undergraduates. Two scales, Emotions and…

Zafar, Sadia; Ross, Erin C.

2013-01-01

68

Developing countries use music videos to promote teen sexual restraint.  

PubMed

The Center for Communications Programs of the Johns Hopkins University has successfully produced and aired songs and music videos promoting teenage sexual restraint in developing countries. Entertaining music videos convey accurate messages to target audiences more effectively than teachers and doctors are able. In addition to successes in the Philippines and Nigeria, overwhelming success has been met with Wait, a video with Latin American pop start Tatiana and Johnny. A hit in 11 Latin American countries reaching 1 in Mexico, the video received 1 million hour s free air time. Passionate, powerful, and persuasive, these videos have prompted increased contraceptive use in countries where they have been aired. The Center's videos and songs have proved popular and profitable in a competitive market of ideas, earning 3-4 times their production costs. Accordingly, health experts from Johns Hopkins University recognize the potential role of these productions in preventing AIDS and unwanted pregnancies in other settings. Where Baltimore leads the U.S. in teen pregnancies, the Center would like to air soap opera on sexual responsibility. Production costs in the U.S. are, however, 10 times higher than in developing countries. With the collaboration of media executives, significant financial and social rewards could result from such a production. PMID:12343465

Pemberton, M

1991-12-15

69

Development of Sexual Expectancies among Adolescents: Contributions by Parents, Peers and the Media.  

PubMed

To expand the scant research on sexual expectancies development among non-sexually active adolescents, we examined the relationship between adolescents' exposure to four socializing agents-mother/female guardian, father/male guardian, peers, and television programs with high sexual content-and their endorsement of four sexual expectancies: social benefit, pleasure, social risk, and health risk. Data are from Waves 2 and 3 of a three-wave annual longitudinal study conducted among California adolescents, the majority of whom were not sexually active (N = 914, 84%). Structural equation models were conducted to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the socializing agents and the sexual expectancies. Cross-sectional results indicate associations between peer sexual communication and social benefit, pleasure, and social risk expectancies. A positive association was found between exposure to music videos and social benefit expectancies, and a negative association was found between exposure to music videos and health risk expectancies. Longitudinal results suggest that communication with peers positively predicted pleasure expectancies and negatively predicted social risk expectancies. No other socializing agents were associated with any sexual expectancies. An invariance test found that significant correlations were similar across the different age groups. Results suggest that efforts to support positive sexual decision making among non-sexually active adolescents should target peer sexual communication. PMID:23631710

Ragsdale, Kathleen; Bersamin, Melina M; Schwartz, Seth J; Zamboanga, Byron L; Kerrick, Madeleine R; Grube, Joel W

2014-07-01

70

On early starters and late bloomers: the development of sexual behavior in adolescence across personality types.  

PubMed

Little is known about the relationship between personality and sexual development among mid-adolescents. In the current study, we used a person-centered approach to investigate the relation between personality types and the development of sexual behavior. We hypothesized that undercontrolling adolescents would engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior compared to their resilient and overcontrolling peers. Data were used from 407 mid-adolescents (M age = 14.5) followed across four measurement waves spanning 18 months. Results from latent class analyses (LCA) identified the three classical personality types: resilients, undercontrollers, and overcontrollers. Controlling for perceived pubertal timing and biological sex, latent growth curve analyses in Mplus showed that, at baseline, undercontrollers were more sexually experienced and engaged in more casual and risky sexual behavior than resilients and overcontrollers. Although initial levels of sexual behavior differed by personality types, over time increases in sexual behavior occurred at a similar rate across the types. Overall, the current study showed that undercontrolling adolescents are early sexual developers who engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior than other adolescents. The implications of these findings for longer-term differences in sexual behavior between personality types in later adolescence are discussed. PMID:24007372

Baams, Laura; Overbeek, Geertjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; van Aken, Marcel A G

2014-10-01

71

Practical applications of insects' sexual development for pest control.  

PubMed

Elucidation of the sex differentiation pathway in insects offers an opportunity to understand key aspects of evolutionary developmental biology. In addition, it provides the understanding necessary to manipulate insects in order to develop new synthetic genetics-based tools for the control of pest insects. Considerable progress has been made in this, especially in improvements to the sterile insect technique (SIT). Large scale sex separation is considered highly desirable or essential for most SIT targets. This separation can be provided by genetic methods based on sex-specific gene expression. Investigation of sex determination by many groups has provided molecular components and methods for this. Though the primary sex determination signal varies considerably, key regulatory genes and mechanisms remain surprisingly similar. In most cases studied so far, a primary signal is transmitted to a basal gene at the bottom of the hierarchy (dsx) through an alternative splicing cascade; dsx is itself differentially spliced in males and females. A sex-specific alternative splicing system therefore offers an attractive route to achieve female-specific expression. Experience has shown that alternative splicing modules can be developed with cross-species function; modularity and standardisation and re-use of parts are key principles of synthetic biology. Both female-killing and sex reversal (XX females to phenotypic males) can in principle also be used as efficient alternatives to sterilisation in SIT-like methods. Sexual maturity is yet another area where understanding of sexual development may be applied to insect control programmes. Further detailed understanding of this crucial aspect of insect biology will undoubtedly continue to underpin innovative practical applications. PMID:24401199

Koukidou, M; Alphey, L

2014-01-01

72

Summary of PCR Primers for Salmonid Genetic Studies. Alaska Fisheries Progress Report, Number 99-1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Population genetic studies conducted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services Fish Genetics Laboratory, have led to the testing and development of genetic markers for salmonid fishes. This report summarizes preliminary results from our ongoing work on micro...

S. J. Miller W. Buchholz W. J. Spearman

1999-01-01

73

Age of Minority Sexual Orientation Development and Risk of Childhood Maltreatment and Suicide Attempts in Women  

PubMed Central

Women with minority sexual orientations (e.g., lesbian, bisexual) are more likely than heterosexual women to report histories of childhood maltreatment and attempted suicide; however, the importance of the timing of minority sexual orientation development in contributing to this increased risk is uncertain. This study investigated relationships between self-reported ages of achieving minority sexual orientation development milestones (first awareness of same-gender attractions, disclosure of a minority sexual orientation to another person, and same-gender sexual contact), and childhood maltreatment and suicide attempt experiences in a sample of 2,001 women recruited from multiple-community sources. Younger age of minority sexual orientation development milestones was positively linked to self-reported recall of childhood maltreatment experiences, and to a childhood suicide attempt. After adjusting for differences in maltreatment, the odds of suicide attempt attributable to younger age of sexual orientation development milestones was reduced by 50 to 65%, suggesting that maltreatment may account for about half of the elevated risk for childhood suicide attempts among women with early minority sexual orientation development. Implications for services, interventions, and further research to address maltreatment disparities for sexual minorities are discussed.

Corliss, Heather L.; Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.; Greenland, Sander; Seeman, Teresa E.

2011-01-01

74

The Role of Beliefs in Sexual Behavior of Adolescents: Development and Validation of an Adolescent Sexual Expectancies Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on the development and psychometric properties of the Adolescent Sexual Expectancies Scale (ASEXS). Data were obtained from three annual longitudinal surveys of youth aged 10-17 at the first administration (N = 932 at Wave 3). Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that 4 correlated factors corresponding to Social Risk, Social…

Bourdeau, Beth; Grube, Joel W.; Bersamin, Melina M.; Fisher, Deborah A.

2011-01-01

75

Size Matters: Experiences of Atypical Genital and Sexual Development in Males  

Microsoft Academic Search

The psychological, emotional and social consequences of disrupted reproductive and sexual development in men are poorly understood. Interview data from eight men who had experienced gender atypical sexual development were analysed using the framework of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The concept of ‘discreditment’ appeared to dominate these men’s experience of themselves and others. Emotional distress was most keenly felt when doubt

Paul M. Chadwick; Lih-Mei Liao; Mary E. Boyle

2005-01-01

76

Sexual and Ethnic Identity Development Among Gay–Bisexual–Questioning (GBQ) Male Ethnic Minority Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identity development is a critical task of adolescence and occurs across multiple areas of self-identification. Although research on the identity development process among individuals who are ethnic and sexual minorities has been conducted for individuals who have 1 minority status or the other, few studies have examined these processes in people who are both ethnic and sexual minorities. In this

Omar B. Jamil; Gary W. Harper; M. Isabel Fernandez

2009-01-01

77

Sexual Harassment: Development of a University's Policy and Educational Programming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In late 1988 the University of Florida began the process of revising and updating its policy and educational programs on sexual harassment. At that time a task force was formed which reviewed the current policy and procedures and drafted a revised brochure on sexual harassment. This brochure was reviewed and redrafted and distributed to every…

Longstreth, Catherine; And Others

78

Childhood Sexual Abuse, Stigmatization, Internalizing Symptoms, and the Development of Sexual Difficulties and Dating Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Potential pathways from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to subsequent romantic intimacy problems were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 160 ethnically diverse youth with confirmed CSA histories. Participants were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery, when they were 8-15 years of age, and again 1-6 years later. Stigmatization…

Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A.; Cleland, Charles M.

2009-01-01

79

Childhood Sexuality: A Decade of Study. Part I-Research and Curriculum Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the child sexual abuse literature which was available in the 1980s, as well as several new sources of information, and describes a curriculum which was developed to provide a model for immediate evaluation of sexual behaviors observed among children in schools and child care settings. (CR)

Ryan, Gail

2000-01-01

80

Development, Reliability, and Validity of the Measure of Sexual Identity Exploration and Commitment (MoSIEC)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four studies were conducted on the development and validation of the Measure of Sexual Identity Exploration and Commitment (MoSIEC). Exploratory factor analysis of an initial item pool yielded a 22-item measure with 4 distinct factors assessing commitment, exploration, sexual orientation identity uncertainty, and synthesis/integration. Exploratory…

Worthington, Roger L.; Navarro, Rachel L.; Savoy, Holly Bielstein; Hampton, Dustin

2008-01-01

81

Development and Validation of Questionnaire Measuring Attitudes towards Sexual Health among University Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop a questionnaire on attitudes towards sexual health and validate it on a sample of medical and non-medical students and adult women. Methods For the purpose of constructing a Likert-type scale, four medical students generated 130 statements re- flecting clearly positive or negative attitudes towards sexual health. The scale had five scoring points (1 - strongly disagree, 2 -

Nina Nemèiæ; Sandra Novak; Ivana Novosel; Ozren Kronja; Darko Hren

82

Development of Computer-Assisted Instruction Program for Child Sexual Abuse Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study describes the development of an interactive, educational computer-assisted instruction (CAI) program using a multimedia CD-ROM for child sexual abuse prevention. Needs assessment was conducted through qualitative and quantitative studies on randomly selected parents, teachers, and lower grade- schoolers in Korea. Assessment results revealed a high number of children having insufficient knowledge on child sexual abuse and a

Jeongyee Bae; Rosel L. Panuncio

83

Development of Standardized Clinical Training Cases for Diagnosis of Sexual Abuse using a Secure Telehealth Application  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The training of physicians, nurse examiners, social workers and other health professional on the evidentiary findings of sexual abuse in children is challenging. Our objective was to develop peer reviewed training cases for medical examiners of child sexual abuse, using a secure web based telehealth application (TeleCAM). Methods:…

Frasier, Lori D.; Thraen, Ioana; Kaplan, Rich; Goede, Patricia

2012-01-01

84

The Aspergillus nidulans esdC (early sexual development) gene is necessary for sexual development and is controlled by veA and a heterotrimeric G protein.  

PubMed

The esdC (early sexual development) gene was isolated by using an expressed sequence tag (EST) as a probe from a genomic library of the early sexual developmental stage mycelia of Aspergillus nidulans. The sequence analysis revealed that the esdC gene contains a 59bp intron and encodes a 266 amino acid polypeptide with a calculated molecular weight of 29.4kDa. The EsdC protein is conserved among filamentous fungi and has a domain with similarity to a glycogen binding domain conserved in the beta subunit of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) complex. Although the esdD gene was expressed during asexual development, the expression reached its maximum at 10h and decreased thereafter up to 50h after the end of the induction of sexual development. In an esdC-null mutant under a veA(+) background, no sexual structures were formed at any condition examined. However, esdC overexpression did not lead to an induction of sexual development. In addition, to the effect of the esdC mutation on the sexual development, more conidiophores were formed in the esdC-null mutant than in a wild type. These results indicate that the esdC gene is necessary for sexual structure formation but its overexpression is not sufficient to enhance this process. Expression of the esdC gene throughout development was positively regulated by the veA gene. In addition, very little and no esdC transcript, respectively, was observed in an flbA-null mutant and in a fadA(G42R) mutant, and the esdC transcript level was higher in a fadA-null mutant and in a sfaD-null mutant than in a wild type, indicating that inactivation of FadA is necessary for positive regulation of esdC expression. PMID:17977758

Han, Kap-Hoon; Kim, Jong Hwa; Moon, Hosun; Kim, Serha; Lee, Sung-Suk; Han, Dong-Min; Jahng, Kwang-Yeop; Chae, Keon-Sang

2008-03-01

85

Rapid sexually transmitted disease assessment in two developing countries.  

PubMed

Two rapid assessment studies of the magnitude of sexually transmitted disease (STD) were performed in Senegal and Uganda in 1989 and 1990. The study objectives were: to develop and validate STD indicators for the "rapid" assessment of the frequency of STD in populations; and to develop a standardized survey methodology to assess STD prevalence using these indicators. The World Bank, World Health Organization (WHO), and Senegal and Ugandan government officials desired a product similar to the WHO/UNICEF immunization coverage survey instrument, which is an accepted and proven methodology, implemented by national programs and donors worldwide. Three indicators were used: 1) past or present signs of selected STD; 2) symptoms as noted by a clinician; and 3) simple laboratory tests performed and results obtained at examination. Each indicator was validated against a confirmatory laboratory test considered the gold standard in indicating the presence or absence of an STD. Male military members, women seeking prenatal care, and female prostitutes were the three population groups chosen. With the exception of the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test for syphilis, symptoms, signs, and simple laboratory tests failed to accurately predict STD in individuals in all three of these population groups. Indicators for the major STD other than syphilis among populations not seeking STD care will have to be the "gold standard laboratory tests" until easy-to-perform and low-cost alternatives are found. PMID:8042125

Roseberry, W L; Heymann, D L; Ndoye, I; Nsubuga, P S

1994-01-01

86

Development and sexual dimorphism of the pituitary gland  

PubMed Central

The pituitary gland plays a central role in sexual development and brain function. Therefore, we examined the effect of age and gender on pituitary volume in a large sample of healthy children and adults. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was conducted in one hundred and fifty four (77 males and 77 females) healthy participants. Males were between the ages of 7 to 35 years (16.91 ± 5.89 years) and females were 7 to 35 years of age (16.75 ± 5.75 years). Subjects were divided into subgroups of age (7 to 9, 10 to 13, 14 to 17, 18 to 21, 22 and older) and sex (male/female). Pituitary gland volume differed between sexes when comparing the age groups (F = 3.55, df = 2, 143, p = 0.03). Females demonstrated larger pituitary glands than males in the age 14 to 17 year old groups (p = 0.04). Young (19 years and under) and old (20 years and older) females demonstrated a correlation between pituitary volume and age. Males did not show this relationship. These findings provide additional evidence for gender differences in the normative anatomy of the pituitary and may have relevance for the study of various childhood onset neuropsychiatric disorders in which pituitary dysfunction has been implicated.

MacMaster, Frank P.; Keshavan, Matcheri; Mirza, Yousha; Carrey, Normand; Upadhyaya, Ameet R.; El-Sheikh, Rhonda; Buhagiar, Christian J; Taormina, S. Preeya; Boyd, Courtney; Lynch, Michelle; Rose, Michelle; Ivey, Jennifer; Moore, Gregory J.; Rosenberg, David R.

2007-01-01

87

The development of sexuality and eroticism in humankind.  

PubMed

Sexuality includes eroticism. Though its determinants are multivariate and developmentally sequential, most current biological theories arbitrarily exclude social determinants, and vice versa. Developmentally, masculinization is not necessarily synonymous with defeminization, nor feminization with demasculinization. In the development of brain and behavior, behavior that appears to be either male or female may actually be sex-shared but sex-different in the threshold for its expression. Parent-child bonding is a precursor of subsequent erotosexual pair-bonding. Suppression of erotosexual rehearsal play in childhood is a precursor of postpubertal and adult erotosexual pathology. The criterion defining the heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexual conditions is the sex of the partner with whom a limerent (falling-in-love) pairbond is possible; and there is no evidence that pubertal sex steroids, per se, are responsible for which of the three it will be. The phases of an erotosexual encounter are proception, acception, and conception. The disorders of proception, manifested in both imagery and practice, are the paraphilic syndromes (formerly known as perversions). The disorders of acception may be either hypophilic deficiencies, or hyperphilic increases. The disorders of conception are those of infertility. There is a nonsystematic relationship of erotosexualism to the hormonal cycle of the menses and to gerontological hormonal changes. PMID:7031748

Money, J

1981-12-01

88

Reduced Treatment-Emergent Sexual Dysfunction as a Potential Target in the Development of New Antidepressants  

PubMed Central

Pleasurable sexual activity is an essential component of many human relationships, providing a sense of physical, psychological, and social well-being. Epidemiological and clinical studies show that depressive symptoms and depressive illness are associated with impairments in sexual function and satisfaction, both in untreated and treated patients. The findings of randomized placebo-controlled trials demonstrate that most of the currently available antidepressant drugs are associated with the development or worsening of sexual dysfunction, in a substantial proportion of patients. Sexual difficulties during antidepressant treatment often resolve as depression lifts but can endure over long periods and may reduce self-esteem and affect mood and relationships adversely. Sexual dysfunction during antidepressant treatment is typically associated with many possible causes, but the risk and type of dysfunction vary with differing compounds and should be considered when making decisions about the relative merits and drawbacks of differing antidepressants. A range of interventions can be considered when managing patients with sexual dysfunction associated with antidepressants, including the prescription of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, but none of these approaches can be considered “ideal.” As treatment-emergent sexual dysfunction is less frequent with certain drugs, presumably related to differences in their pharmacological properties, and because current management approaches are less than ideal, a reduced burden of treatment-emergent sexual dysfunction represents a tolerability target in the development of novel antidepressants.

Baldwin, David S.; Palazzo, M. Carlotta; Masdrakis, Vasilios G.

2013-01-01

89

Sexual and Ethnic Identity Development among Gay/Bisexual/Questioning (GBQ) Male Ethnic Minority Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Identity development is a critical task of adolescence and occurs across multiple areas of self identification. Though research on the identity development process among individuals who are ethnic and sexual minorities has been conducted for individuals who have one minority status or the other, few studies have examined these processes in persons who are both ethnic and sexual minorities. This qualitative study examined the dual identity development processes related to ethnic and sexual identity among gay/bisexual/questioning (GBQ) Latino and African American male adolescents. Results indicated that the processes associated with the development of sexual orientation and ethnic identity occur concurrently. However, the actual processes involved with the development of each identity not only differed, but seemed to be independent of each other since neither process was referenced in the development of the other. Overall, the process of ethnic identity development involved the process of becoming aware of one’s ethnic and cultural heritage, while sexual identity development involved finding one’s own personally relevant sexual orientation label and connecting to that community. The implications of these findings for the development of interventions to assist in the healthy development of GBQ adolescents are discussed.

Jamil, Omar B.; Harper, Gary W.; Fernandez, M. Isabel

2010-01-01

90

Anticipation of the sexual and gender development of children adopted by same-sex couples.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to characterize beliefs surrounding the sexual and gender development of children adopted by lesbian and gay couples. Participants were 768 Portuguese university students. Using a quasiexperimental design, participants were presented with identical descriptions of a couple interested in adopting a child, manipulating couple sexual orientation and child gender. Participants were then asked to anticipate three aspects of the sexual and gender development of the adopted child: sexual orientation, gender role behavior, and gender identity. MANOVAs and follow-up ANOVAs were conducted in order to analyze the data. Results indicated that participants, particularly males, considered children adopted by either lesbian or gay couples to have a lower probability of developing a normative sexual and gender identity than children adopted by heterosexual couples. Both men and women considered that children would emulate the sexual orientation of their same-sex parents, and that a boy's gender role behavior was more at risk if he was adopted by a lesbian couple. Moreover, men were apprehensive about the gender role behavior of a boy adopted by a gay male couple. Overall, these results indicate persistence of biased evaluations of the sexual and gender development of children adopted by lesbian and gay parents. Furthermore, both gender of the participant and gender of the child play an important role in these evaluations. Results are discussed and interpreted as a way of "doing gender" in the context of hegemonic masculinity. PMID:23837556

Gato, Jorge; Fontaine, Anne Marie

2013-01-01

91

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PERIOD OF SENSITIVITY OF FETAL MALE SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT TO VINCLOZOLIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Characterization of the period of sensitivity of fetal male sexual development to vinclozolin. Wolf CJ, LeBlanc GA, Ostby JS, Gray LE Jr. Endocrinology Branch, MD 72, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U....

92

Apomictic and Sexual Germline Development Differ with Respect to Cell Cycle, Transcriptional, Hormonal and Epigenetic Regulation  

PubMed Central

Seeds of flowering plants can be formed sexually or asexually through apomixis. Apomixis occurs in about 400 species and is of great interest for agriculture as it produces clonal offspring. It differs from sexual reproduction in three major aspects: (1) While the sexual megaspore mother cell (MMC) undergoes meiosis, the apomictic initial cell (AIC) omits or aborts meiosis (apomeiosis); (2) the unreduced egg cell of apomicts forms an embryo without fertilization (parthenogenesis); and (3) the formation of functional endosperm requires specific developmental adaptations. Currently, our knowledge about the gene regulatory programs underlying apomixis is scarce. We used the apomict Boechera gunnisoniana, a close relative of Arabidopsis thaliana, to investigate the transcriptional basis underlying apomeiosis and parthenogenesis. Here, we present the first comprehensive reference transcriptome for reproductive development in an apomict. To compare sexual and apomictic development at the cellular level, we used laser-assisted microdissection combined with microarray and RNA-Seq analyses. Conservation of enriched gene ontologies between the AIC and the MMC likely reflects functions of importance to germline initiation, illustrating the close developmental relationship of sexuality and apomixis. However, several regulatory pathways differ between sexual and apomictic germlines, including cell cycle control, hormonal pathways, epigenetic and transcriptional regulation. Enrichment of specific signal transduction pathways are a feature of the apomictic germline, as is spermidine metabolism, which is associated with somatic embryogenesis in various plants. Our study provides a comprehensive reference dataset for apomictic development and yields important new insights into the transcriptional basis underlying apomixis in relation to sexual reproduction.

Schmidt, Anja; Schmid, Marc W.; Klostermeier, Ulrich C.; Qi, Weihong; Guthorl, Daniela; Sailer, Christian; Waller, Manuel; Rosenstiel, Philip; Grossniklaus, Ueli

2014-01-01

93

Apomictic and sexual germline development differ with respect to cell cycle, transcriptional, hormonal and epigenetic regulation.  

PubMed

Seeds of flowering plants can be formed sexually or asexually through apomixis. Apomixis occurs in about 400 species and is of great interest for agriculture as it produces clonal offspring. It differs from sexual reproduction in three major aspects: (1) While the sexual megaspore mother cell (MMC) undergoes meiosis, the apomictic initial cell (AIC) omits or aborts meiosis (apomeiosis); (2) the unreduced egg cell of apomicts forms an embryo without fertilization (parthenogenesis); and (3) the formation of functional endosperm requires specific developmental adaptations. Currently, our knowledge about the gene regulatory programs underlying apomixis is scarce. We used the apomict Boechera gunnisoniana, a close relative of Arabidopsis thaliana, to investigate the transcriptional basis underlying apomeiosis and parthenogenesis. Here, we present the first comprehensive reference transcriptome for reproductive development in an apomict. To compare sexual and apomictic development at the cellular level, we used laser-assisted microdissection combined with microarray and RNA-Seq analyses. Conservation of enriched gene ontologies between the AIC and the MMC likely reflects functions of importance to germline initiation, illustrating the close developmental relationship of sexuality and apomixis. However, several regulatory pathways differ between sexual and apomictic germlines, including cell cycle control, hormonal pathways, epigenetic and transcriptional regulation. Enrichment of specific signal transduction pathways are a feature of the apomictic germline, as is spermidine metabolism, which is associated with somatic embryogenesis in various plants. Our study provides a comprehensive reference dataset for apomictic development and yields important new insights into the transcriptional basis underlying apomixis in relation to sexual reproduction. PMID:25010342

Schmidt, Anja; Schmid, Marc W; Klostermeier, Ulrich C; Qi, Weihong; Guthörl, Daniela; Sailer, Christian; Waller, Manuel; Rosenstiel, Philip; Grossniklaus, Ueli

2014-07-01

94

The Development of a Sexual Abuse Severity Score: Characteristics of Childhood Sexual Abuse Associated with Trauma Symptomatology, Somatization, and Alcohol Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and is associated with both mental and physical health problems in adulthood. Using data from an age- and sex-stratified population survey of 600 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents, a Sexual Abuse Severity Score was developed. The abuse characteristics of 156 CSA respondents were associated with…

Zink, Therese; Klesges, Lisa; Stevens, Susanna; Decker, Paul

2009-01-01

95

Temporal evaluation of commitment to sexual development in Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

Background The production of gametocytes is essential for transmission of malaria parasites from the mammalian host to the mosquito vector. However the process by which the asexual blood-stage parasite undergoes commitment to sexual development is not well understood. This process is known to be sensitive to environmental stimuli and it has been suggested that a G protein dependent system may mediate the switch, but there is little evidence that the Plasmodium falciparum genome encodes heterotrimeric G proteins. Previous studies have indicated that the malaria parasite can interact with endogenous erythrocyte G proteins, and other components of the cyclic nucleotide pathway have been identified in P. falciparum. Also, the polypeptide cholera toxin, which induces commitment to gametocytogenesis is known to catalyze the ADP-ribosylation of the ?s class of heterotrimeric G protein ? subunits in mammalian systems has been reported to detect a number of G? subunits in P. falciparum-infected red cells. Methods Cholera toxin and Mas 7 (a structural analogue of Mastoparan) were used to assess the role played by putative G protein signalling in the commitment process, both are reported to interact with different components of classical G?s and G?i/o signalling pathways. Their ability to induce gametocyte production in the transgenic P. falciparum line Pfs16-GFP was determined and downstream effects on the secondary messenger cAMP measured. Results Treatment of parasite cultures with either cholera toxin or MAS 7 resulted in increased gametocyte production, but only treatment with MAS 7 resulted in a significant increase in cAMP levels. This indicates that MAS 7 acts either directly or indirectly on the P. falciparum adenylyl cyclase. Conclusion The observation that cholera toxin treatment did not affect cAMP levels indicates that while addition of cholera toxin does increase gametocytogenesis the method by which it induces increased commitment is not immediately obvious, except that is unlikely to be via heterotrimeric G proteins.

2013-01-01

96

British Association for Sexual Health and HIV: framework for guideline development and assessment.  

PubMed

This article has been prepared by the Clinical Effectiveness Group (CEG) of the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) to specify the methodology BASHH requires for guideline development and the process of guideline evaluation by the CEG. This replaces the specifications for the development of UK guidelines on the management of sexually transmitted infections and closely related conditions previously published in this journal in 2004 and updated in 2005. PMID:20852192

Kingston, M; Radcliffe, K; Daniels, D; FitzGerald, M; Lazaro, N; McCarthy, G; Sullivan, A

2010-07-01

97

[Studies on sexual development, sexual behavior and ability to experience sex of young women with Ullrich-Turner syndrome].  

PubMed

In this investigation 25 female patients were included with the Turner syndrome (TS). From the 25 patients 6 had spontaneous menstruations, 19 had menstruations only after a hormonal stimulation. In a semi-structured interview the patients were questioned about their sexual activities, behavior and orgastic capacity. The findings were related to a matched normal female population. Moreover an analysis of personality traits by means of the Freiburger Persönlichkeitsinventar [FPI], the Giessen Test [GT], and a questionnaire on education styles of parents [EMBU] has been undertaken. The endocrine profile of the patients with induced menarche showed an elevated value of LH and FSH in serum, and a low level of estradiol. The sexual development of all patients was normal during the prepubertal phase. However the biological puberty was delayed by three years in the study patients, in relation to a normal population. Each of these women had a normal female identity and was heterosexual oriented. In concordance with the literature, patients who were substituted too late, showed defined deficits in their psychic well being, as well as in their social and psychosexual functioning. These deficits only were significant in relation to delayed menarche, but not to chronological age, gynecological age, karyotype, body height or parental education style. Therefore, an early and adequately dosed hormonal intervention and a consequently and regularly performed substitution therapy with sexual steroids has to be undertaken beside the well known intervention with growth hormone. PMID:7892677

Hettmer, E; Hoepffner, W; Keller, E; Brähler, E

1995-02-01

98

Sexually Transmitted Diseases Among Adolescents in Developed Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are responsible for a variety of health problems, and can have especially serious consequences for adolescents and young adults. An interna- tional comparison of levels and trends in STDs would be useful to identify countries that are rel- atively successful in controlling the incidence of STDs, as a first step toward improving policies and programs

Christine Panchaud; Susheela Singh; Dina Feivelson; Jacqueline E. Darroch

99

Taking ICPD beyond 2015: Negotiating sexual and reproductive rights in the next development agenda.  

PubMed

On the twentieth anniversary of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), activists, governments and diplomats engaged in the fight for sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) are anxious to ensure that these issues are fully reflected in the development agenda to succeed the Millennium Development Goals after 2015. In inter-governmental negotiations since 1994 and particularly in the period 2012-2014, governments have shown that they have significantly expanded their understanding of a number of so-called 'controversial' issues in the ICPD agenda, whether safe abortion, adolescent sexual and reproductive health services, comprehensive sexuality education or sexual rights. As in the past and in spite of an increasingly complex and difficult multilateral environment, countering the highly organised conservative opposition to SRHR has required a well-planned and determined mobilisation by progressive forces from North and South. PMID:24889877

Girard, Françoise

2014-07-01

100

Perceptions of childhood sexual abuse survivors: development and initial validation of a new scale to measure stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse.  

PubMed

The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale was developed to assess stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Scale items were derived from two studies that elicited cultural and personal beliefs about, and emotions experienced towards adult childhood sexual abuse survivors among university undergraduates. Two scales, Emotions and Characteristics, were developed and administered online to 182 participants. Exploratory factor analysis produced 7 factors, 4 for the Emotions Scale and 3 for the Characteristics Scale. Study 2 replicated this factor structure using confirmatory factor analysis (N?=?457). Reliability and validity analyses suggest that the Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale has satisfactory psychometric properties. The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale can be used to examine stereotypes of legal and health care professionals likely to work with survivors as well as in stereotyping research. PMID:23590355

Zafar, Sadia; Ross, Erin C

2013-01-01

101

Retrospective Recall of Sexual Orientation Identity Development Among Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Adults  

PubMed Central

Although recent attention has focused on the likelihood that contemporary sexual minority youth (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual [GLB]) are “coming out” at younger ages, few studies have examined if early sexual orientation identity development is also present in older GLB cohorts. We analyze retrospective data on the timing of sexual orientation milestones in a sample of sexual minorities drawn from the California Quality of Life Surveys. Latent profile analysis of 1,260 GLB adults, ages 18-84 years identified three trajectories of development: Early (n = 951, milestones spanning ages 12 to 20), Middle (n = 239, milestones spanning ages 18 to 31), and Late (n = 70, milestones spanning ages 32 to 43). Motivated by previous research on variability in adolescent developmental trajectories, post-hoc analyses of the Early Profile group identified two sub-groups: Child-Onset (n = 284, milestones spanning ages 8 to 18), and Teen-Onset (n = 667, milestones spanning ages 14 to 22). Nearly all patterns of development were identity-centered, with average age of self-identification as GLB preceding average age of first same-sex sexual activity. Overall, younger participants and the majority of older participants were classified to the Early Profile, suggesting that early development is common regardless of age cohort. The additional gender differences observed in the onset and pace of sexual orientation identity development warrant future research.

Calzo, Jerel P.; Antonucci, Toni C.; Mays, Vickie M.; Cochran, Susan D.

2011-01-01

102

Retrospective recall of sexual orientation identity development among gay, lesbian, and bisexual adults.  

PubMed

Although recent attention has focused on the likelihood that contemporary sexual minority youth (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual [GLB]) are "coming out" at younger ages, few studies have examined whether early sexual orientation identity development is also present in older GLB cohorts. We analyzed retrospective data on the timing of sexual orientation milestones in a sample of sexual minorities drawn from the California Quality of Life Surveys. Latent profile analysis of 1,260 GLB adults, ages 18-84 years, identified 3 trajectories of development: early (n = 951; milestones spanning ages 12-20), middle (n = 239; milestones spanning ages 18-31), and late (n = 70; milestones spanning ages 32-43). Motivated by previous research on variability in adolescent developmental trajectories, we identified 2 subgroups in post hoc analyses of the early profile group: child onset (n = 284; milestones spanning ages 8-18) and teen onset (n = 667; milestones spanning ages 14-22). Nearly all patterns of development were identity centered, with average age of self-identification as GLB preceding average age of first same-sex sexual activity. Overall, younger participants and the majority of older participants were classified to the early profile, suggesting that early development is common regardless of age cohort. The additional gender differences observed in the onset and pace of sexual orientation identity development warrant future research. PMID:21942662

Calzo, Jerel P; Antonucci, Toni C; Mays, Vickie M; Cochran, Susan D

2011-11-01

103

Development of the NIH PROMIS® Sexual Function and Satisfaction Measures in Patients with Cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction We describe the development and validation of the PROMIS Sexual Function and Satisfaction (PROMIS SexFS) measures version 1.0 for cancer populations. Aim To develop a customizable self-report measure of sexual function and satisfaction as part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health PROMIS® Network. Methods Our multidisciplinary working group followed a comprehensive protocol for developing psychometrically robust patient reported outcome (PRO) measures including qualitative (scale development) and quantitative (psychometric evaluation) development. We performed an extensive literature review, conducted 16 focus groups with cancer patients and multiple discussions with clinicians, and evaluated candidate items in cognitive testing with patients. We administered items to 819 cancer patients. Items were calibrated using item response theory and evaluated for reliability and validity. Main Outcome Measures The PROMIS Sexual Function and Satisfaction (PROMIS SexFS) measures version 1.0 include 79 items in 11 domains: interest in sexual activity, lubrication, vaginal discomfort, erectile function, global satisfaction with sex life, orgasm, anal discomfort, therapeutic aids, sexual activities, interfering factors, and screener questions. Results In addition to content validity (patients indicate that items cover important aspects of their experiences) and face validity (patients indicate that items measure sexual function and satisfaction), the measure shows evidence for discriminant validity (domains discriminate between groups expected to be different), convergent validity (strong correlations between scores on PROMIS and scores on conceptually-similar older measures of sexual function), as well as favorable test-retest reliability among people not expected to change (inter-class correlations from 2 administrations of the instrument, 1 month apart). Conclusions The PROMIS SexFS offers researchers a reliable and valid set of tools to measure self-reported sexual function and satisfaction among diverse men and women. The measures are customizable; researchers can select the relevant domains and items comprising those domains for their study.

Flynn, Kathryn E.; Lin, Li; Cyranowski, Jill M.; Reeve, Bryce B.; Reese, Jennifer Barsky; Jeffery, Diana D.; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Porter, Laura S.; Dombeck, Carrie B.; Bruner, Deborah Watkins; Keefe, Francis J.; Weinfurt, Kevin P.

2013-01-01

104

Development of the Greek Sexuality Attitudes Questionnaire–Learning Disabilities (GSAQ-LD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Greek Sexuality Attitudes Questionnaire–Learning Disabilities (GSAQ-LD) was developed as a research instrument for use with a Greek sample in order to assess its attitudes towards the sexuality of people with and without learning disabilities (LD). The 45-item, Likert-type questionnaire consists of four different scales, each of which indicated satisfactory item characteristics, adequate reliability and homogeneity, and preliminary support for

Joanna Karellou

2003-01-01

105

The Role of Masturbation in Healthy Sexual Development: Perceptions of Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite efforts to identify masturbation as a strategy to improve sexual health, promote relational intimacy, and reduce unwanted\\u000a pregnancy, STIs, and HIV transmission, masturbation as a context for healthy sexual development has been met with silence\\u000a or trepidation in the scientific and educational communities. Relegated to the realm of commercial media, rather than rational\\u000a discourse in families, schools, and the

Christine E. KaestleKatherine; Katherine R. Allen

106

Promoting the successful development of sexual and gender minority youths.  

PubMed

Because of societal discomfort with atypical expressions of sexual orientation and gender identity, lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youths have experienced enhanced developmental challenges compared with their heterosexual peers. A recent special issue of the American Journal of Public Health delineated how social stigma affecting LGBT youths has resulted in a wide range of health disparities, ranging from increased prevalence of depression and substance use to downstream effects, such as an increased risk for cancer and cardiovascular disease when older. We review the clinical significance of these findings for health care professionals, who need to become informed about these associations to provide better care for their sexual and gender minority youth patients, and to be able to educate their parents and other caregivers. PMID:24825194

Mayer, Kenneth H; Garofalo, Robert; Makadon, Harvey J

2014-06-01

107

Changing patterns of adolescent sexual behavior: consequences for health and development.  

PubMed

Sexuality is a fundamental quality of human life, important for health, happiness, individual development, and indeed for the preservation of the human race. During the dynamic period of adolescence in which the passage from childhood to maturity takes place, sexuality takes on new dimensions; feelings become more intense, relationships become more complex, and the consequences of sexual behavior are radically altered. This not only affects the behavior of young people but also of those who interact with them, their families and peers, and those who work in the health, education, youth, social welfare, and other sectors. In the contemporary world the conditions of life for many young people have also changed, and with it patterns of sexual behavior. In general, earlier puberty, later marriage, a decline in the family leading to less control and more autonomy, and intense exposure to sexual stimuli via the mass media and travel across cultural boundaries have made pre-marital adolescent sexual activity more common. This has added to traditional problems of early marriage, newer problems of early pregnancy, childbirth, and induced abortion outside of marriage, sexually transmitted diseases, and human immunodeficiency syndrome infection leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. But the work of the World Health Organization (WHO), along with many others in the field, strongly suggests that given appropriate information and services, trust and equity between the sexes, young people will behave responsibly and well. In this paper some of the findings from methods developed by WHO for research, training, advocacy, and evaluation, and findings in relation to patterns and determinants of sexual and reproductive health and development will be described, and future directions suggested. PMID:1390784

Friedman, H L

1992-07-01

108

Development, Validity and Reliability of Sexual Health Measures for Spinal Cord Injured Patients in Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: This study developed and validated a questionnaire to measure the sexual health of patients with spinal cord injuries (SCI). Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at the Brain and Spinal Injury Research Center (BASIR), Tehran, Iran. Extensive review of literature, expert opinions, and encounters with SCI patients were used to develop and validate the questionnaires. There were 40 (32 males, 8 females) patients with SCI that presented for treatment at BASIR who enrolled in the study. Participants completed the questionnaires while they were admitted for medical care and during treatment follow-up visits. Participants completed the questionnaires twice, at a 2-4 week interval. Reliability testing for each measure was performed separately. Cronbach’s alpha was used for internal consistency and test-retest was used for reliability. Results: An expert committee approved the face and content validities of the questionnaires, Internal consistency of our questionnaires, was acceptable according to Cronbach’s alpha that ranged from 0.73 for the sexual activity measure to 0.90 for the sexual adjustment measure. Test-retest reliability was satisfactory. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) of measures ranged from 0.65 for sexual function to 0.84 for sexual activity. Conclusion: The sexual health measures has provided a valid assessment of sexualityrelated matters in this sample of patients with SCI, which suggests that evaluation of sexual well-being may be useful in clinical trials and practice settings. Overall, the sexual health measures shows good internal consistency and test-retest reliability.

Merghati Khoei, Effat; Norouzi Javidan, Abbas; Abrishamkar, Mahboobeh; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Chaibakhsh, Samira; Emami-Razavi, Seyyed Hasan; Mansouri, Asie; Kamali, Koorosh; Shoja, Tannaz; Hajiaghababaei, Marzieh; Nikfallah, Abolghasem

2013-01-01

109

Sea lice infections of salmonids farmed in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea lice cause significant issues in the mariculture of salmonids. However, there have been no reports about sea lice from salmonid farming in Australia. Here, we investigated the presence of sea lice on salmonids in Australian mariculture. Caligus longirostris was present on Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout (archival samples only) farmed in Tasmania. C. longirostris was found on salmon only

B. F. Nowak; C. J. Hayward; L. González; N. J. Bott; R. J. G. Lester

2011-01-01

110

Teachers' Attitudes toward Reporting Child Sexual Abuse: Problems with Existing Research Leading to New Scale Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper details a systematic literature review identifying problems in extant research relating to teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse and offers a model for new attitude scale development and testing. Scale development comprised a five-phase process grounded in contemporary attitude theories, including (a) developing the…

Walsh, Kerryann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Mathews, Ben; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des

2010-01-01

111

The psychological measurement of childhood sexual development in Western societies: methodological challenges.  

PubMed

Children can display sexual behavior or have sexual experiences. Different psychological research methods are available for studying these kinds of behaviors and feelings, such as interviewing or observing children (direct methods), asking adolescents or adults to retrospectively report their childhood memories or using intermediaries to observe children (indirect methods). Each of these methods has its own advantages and limitations. Based on a review of the literature, this work answers three questions: (a) What research methods are generally used to study childhood sexual development? (b) What insight do these methods give into the sexual behaviors or feelings of children? and (c) What are the advantages and limitations of each of these research methods in this research domain? Almost all studies on childhood sexual behavior and feelings use either observational or retrospective methods. In both types of studies, only behavior that is considered to be sexual from an adult perspective is reported. To gain insight into the child's perspective, one has to rely on methods other than observations or retrospective research, such as interviews with children that match their developmental limitations and competencies. PMID:21409709

de Graaf, Hanneke; Rademakers, Jany

2011-03-01

112

Testing for sexually transmitted infections in a population-based sexual health survey: development of an acceptable ethical approach  

PubMed Central

Population-based research is enhanced by biological measures, but biological sampling raises complex ethical issues. The third British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) will estimate the population prevalence of five sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, human papillomavirus (HPV), HIV and Mycoplasma genitalium) in a probability sample aged 16–44?years. The present work describes the development of an ethical approach to urine testing for STIs, including the process of reaching consensus on whether to return results. The following issues were considered: (1) testing for some STIs that are treatable and for which appropriate settings to obtain free testing and advice are widely available (Natsal-3 provides all respondents with STI and healthcare access information), (2) limits on test accuracy and timeliness imposed by survey conditions and sample type, (3) testing for some STIs with unknown clinical and public health implications, (4) how a uniform approach is easier to explain and understand, (5) practical difficulties in returning results and cost efficiency, such as enabling wider STI testing by not returning results. The agreed approach, to perform voluntary anonymous testing with specific consent for five STIs without returning results, was approved by stakeholders and a research ethics committee. Overall, this was acceptable to respondents in developmental piloting; 61% (68 of 111) of respondents agreed to provide a sample. The experiences reported here may inform the ethical decision making of researchers, research ethics committees and funders considering population-based biological sampling.

Tanton, Clare; Mercer, Catherine H; Nicholson, Soazig; Soldan, Kate; Beddows, Simon; Ison, Catherine; Johnson, Anne M; Sonnenberg, Pam

2012-01-01

113

Testing for sexually transmitted infections in a population-based sexual health survey: development of an acceptable ethical approach.  

PubMed

Population-based research is enhanced by biological measures, but biological sampling raises complex ethical issues. The third British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) will estimate the population prevalence of five sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, human papillomavirus (HPV), HIV and Mycoplasma genitalium) in a probability sample aged 16-44 years. The present work describes the development of an ethical approach to urine testing for STIs, including the process of reaching consensus on whether to return results. The following issues were considered: (1) testing for some STIs that are treatable and for which appropriate settings to obtain free testing and advice are widely available (Natsal-3 provides all respondents with STI and healthcare access information), (2) limits on test accuracy and timeliness imposed by survey conditions and sample type, (3) testing for some STIs with unknown clinical and public health implications, (4) how a uniform approach is easier to explain and understand, (5) practical difficulties in returning results and cost efficiency, such as enabling wider STI testing by not returning results. The agreed approach, to perform voluntary anonymous testing with specific consent for five STIs without returning results, was approved by stakeholders and a research ethics committee. Overall, this was acceptable to respondents in developmental piloting; 61% (68 of 111) of respondents agreed to provide a sample. The experiences reported here may inform the ethical decision making of researchers, research ethics committees and funders considering population-based biological sampling. PMID:22252417

Field, Nigel; Tanton, Clare; Mercer, Catherine H; Nicholson, Soazig; Soldan, Kate; Beddows, Simon; Ison, Catherine; Johnson, Anne M; Sonnenberg, Pam

2012-06-01

114

Freshwater aspects of anadromous salmonid enhancement  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Freshwater enhancement of anadromous salmonid populations has been practiced in the United States and Canada since the late 1800's. Reduction of natural spawning habitat and increasing fishing pressure make artificial enhancement a possible alternative to declining populations. Enhancement of anadromous salmonids involved improvement of the natural environment and reducing natural mortality. Methods of enhancement include fishways, spawning and rearing channels, stream rehabilitation, lake fertilization, environmental management, and artificial propagation techniques. Five Pacific salmon species and steelhead trout are commonly enhanced, primarily in watershed entering the Pacific Ocean and Great Lakes. Enhancement efforts contribute heavily to a commercial and sport industry realizing over $1.5 billion.

Gould, Rowan W.

1982-01-01

115

Cadmium and lead in Lake Ontario salmonids  

SciTech Connect

Currently, there are data documenting the existence of cadmium and lead in Lake Ontario salmonids. Investigators recently reported the absence of detectable residues of either element in edible fillets of coho and chinook salmon from Michigan tributaries to the other four laurention Great Lakes. However, flame atomic absorption spectrometry was used and the reported detectability limit (10 ppm) was greater than the trace levels that may likely have been present. The present investigation was initiated to (1) establish the existence and magnitude of cadmium and lead content of Lake Ontario salmonids, and (2) to assess the potential impact of their consumption on human dietary cadmium and lead intake.

Cappon, C.J.

1987-04-01

116

Laboratory selection for an accelerated mosquito sexual development rate  

PubMed Central

Background Separating males and females at the early adult stage did not ensure the virginity of females of Anopheles arabiensis (Dongola laboratory strain), whereas two years earlier this method had been successful. In most mosquito species, newly emerged males and females are not able to mate successfully. For anopheline species, a period of 24 h post-emergence is generally required for the completion of sexual maturation, which in males includes a 180° rotation of the genitalia. In this study, the possibility of an unusually shortened sexual maturity period in the laboratory-reared colony was investigated. Methods The effect of two different sex-separation methods on the virginity of females was tested: females separated as pupae or less than 16 h post-emergence were mated with males subjected to various doses of radiation. T-tests were performed to compare the two sex-separation methods. The rate of genitalia rotation was compared for laboratory-reared and wild males collected as pupae in Dongola, Sudan, and analysed by Z-tests. Spermatheca dissections were performed on females mated with laboratory-reared males to determine their insemination status. Results When the sex-separation was performed when adults were less than 16 h post-emergence, expected sterility was never reached for females mated with radio-sterilized males. Expected sterility was accomplished only when sexes were separated at the pupal stage. Observation of genitalia rotation showed that some males from the laboratory strain Dongola were able to successfully mate only 11 h after emergence and 42% of the males had already completed rotation. A small proportion of the same age females were inseminated. Wild males showed a much slower genitalia rotation rate. At 17 h post-emergence, 96% of the laboratory-reared males had completed genitalia rotation whereas none of the wild males had. Conclusion This colony has been cultured in the laboratory for over one hundred generations, and now has accelerated sexual maturation when compared with the wild strain. This outcome demonstrates the kinds of selection that can be expected during insect colonization and maintenance, particularly when generations are non-overlapping and similar-age males must compete for mates.

2011-01-01

117

The pharmaceuticalization of sexual risk: vaccine development and the new politics of cancer prevention.  

PubMed

Vaccine development is a core component of pharmaceutical industry activity and a key site for studying pharmaceuticalization processes. In recent decades, two so-called cancer vaccines have entered the U.S. medical marketplace: a vaccine targeting hepatitis B virus (HBV) to prevent liver cancers and a vaccine targeting human papillomavirus (HPV) to prevent cervical and other cancers. These viruses are two of six sexually transmissible infectious agents (STIs) that are causally linked to the development of cancers; collectively they reference an expanding approach to apprehending cancer that focuses attention simultaneously "inward" toward biomolecular processes and "outward" toward risk behaviors, sexual practices, and lifestyles. This paper juxtaposes the cases of HBV and HPV and their vaccine trajectories to analyze how vaccines, like pharmaceuticals more generally, are emblematic of contemporary pharmaceuticalization processes. We argue that individualized risk, in this case sexual risk, is produced and treated by scientific claims of links between STIs and cancers and through pharmaceutical company and biomedical practices. Simultaneous processes of sexualization and pharmaceuticalization mark these cases. Our comparison demonstrates that these processes are not uniform, and that the production of risks, subjects, and bodies depends not only on the specificities of vaccine development but also on the broader political and cultural frames within which sexuality is understood. PMID:24560236

Mamo, Laura; Epstein, Steven

2014-01-01

118

Sexual predators, energy development, and conservation in greater Yellowstone.  

PubMed

In the United States, as elsewhere, a growing debate pits national energy policy and homeland security against biological conservation. In rural communities the extraction of fossil fuels is often encouraged because of the employment opportunities it offers, although the concomitant itinerant workforce is often associated with increased wildlife poaching. We explored possible positive and negative factors associated with energy extraction in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), an area known for its national parks, intact biological diversity, and some of the New World's longest terrestrial migrations. Specifically, we asked whether counties with different economies-recreation (ski), agrarian (ranching or farming), and energy extractive (petroleum)-differed in healthcare (gauged by the abundance of hospital beds) and in the frequency of sexual predators. The absolute and relative frequency of registered sex offenders grew approximately two to three times faster in areas reliant on energy extraction. Healthcare among counties did not differ. The strong conflation of community dishevel, as reflected by in-migrant sexual predators, and ecological decay in Greater Yellowstone is consistent with patterns seen in similar systems from Ecuador to northern Canada, where social and environmental disarray exist around energy boomtowns. In our case, that groups (albeit with different aims) mobilized campaigns to help maintain the quality of rural livelihoods by protecting open space is a positive sign that conservation can matter, especially in the face of rampant and poorly executed energy extraction projects. Our findings further suggest that the public and industry need stronger regulatory action to instill greater vigilance when and where social factors and land conversion impact biological systems. PMID:20184654

Berger, Joel; Beckmann, Jon P

2010-06-01

119

Puberty and adolescent sexuality.  

PubMed

This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Sexuality emerges as a major developmental element of puberty and the adolescent years that follow. However, connecting the sexuality that emerges with puberty and elements of adult sexuality is difficult because much adolescent sexuality research addresses the transition to partnered sexual behaviors (primarily coitus) and consequences such as unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This review proposes a framework of an expanded understanding of puberty and adolescent sexuality from the perspective of four hallmarks of adult sexuality: sexual desire; sexual arousal; sexual behaviors; and, sexual function. This approach thus addresses important gaps in understanding of the ontogeny of sex and the continuum of sexuality development from adolescence through the adult lifespan. PMID:23998672

Fortenberry, J Dennis

2013-07-01

120

Development of Muscularity and Weight Concerns in Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Males  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the development of muscularity and weight concerns among heterosexual and sexual minority males in adolescence. Method Participants were 5,868 males from the Growing Up Today Study, a US prospective cohort spanning ages 9–25 years. Generalized estimating equations were used to test sexual orientation differences in the development of muscularity concerns, weight gain attempts, and weight and shape concern. Results Desire for bigger muscles increased slightly each year across adolescence (? =.10, 95% C.I.= .09, .11) regardless of sexual orientation, but gay and bisexual participants reported greater desire for toned muscles than completely and mostly heterosexual males (?=.39, 95% C.I.=.21, .57). Desire for toned muscles did not change with age. Attempts to gain weight increased three-fold across adolescence, with up to 30% reporting weight gain attempts by age 16. Although underweight males (the smallest weight status class) were most likely to attempt to gain weight, most of the observed weight gain attempts were by healthy (69%) and overweight/obese (27%) males, suggesting that most attempts were medically unnecessary and could lead to overweight. Sexual minority participants were 20% less likely to report weight gain attempts than completely heterosexual participants. Weight and shape concern increased with age, with gay and bisexual participants experiencing a significantly greater increase than heterosexual males. Conclusions Sexual orientation modifies the development and expression of male weight and muscularity concerns. The findings have implications for early interventions for the prevention of obesity and eating disorder risk in heterosexual and sexual minority males.

Calzo, Jerel P.; Corliss, Heather L.; Blood, Emily A.; Field, Alison E.; Austin, S. Bryn

2013-01-01

121

The Maestro (Mro) Gene Is Dispensable for Normal Sexual Development and Fertility in Mice  

PubMed Central

The mammalian gonad arises as a bipotential primordium from which a testis or ovary develops depending on the chromosomal sex of the individual. We have previously used DNA microarrays to screen for novel genes controlling the developmental fate of the indifferent embryonic mouse gonad. Maestro (Mro), which encodes a HEAT-repeat protein, was originally identified as a gene exhibiting sexually dimorphic expression during mouse gonad development. Wholemount in situ hybridisation analysis revealed Mro to be expressed in the embryonic male gonad from approximately 11.5 days post coitum, prior to overt sexual differentiation. No significant expression was detected in female gonads at the same developmental stage. In order to address its physiological function, we have generated mice lacking Maestro using gene targeting. Male and female mice homozygous for a Mro null allele are viable and fertile. We examined gonad development in homozygous male embryos in detail and observed no differences when compared to wild-type controls. Immunohistochemical analysis of homozygous mutant testes of adult mice revealed no overt abnormalities. Expression profiling using DNA microarrays also indicated no significant differences between homozygote embryonic male gonads and controls. We conclude that Maestro is dispensable for normal male sexual development and fertility in laboratory mice; however, the Mro locus itself does have utility as a site for insertion of transgenes for future studies in the fields of sexual development and Sertoli cell function.

Smith, Lee; Willan, John; Warr, Nick; Brook, Frances A.; Cheeseman, Michael; Sharpe, Richard; Siggers, Pam; Greenfield, Andy

2008-01-01

122

On the Road to Well-Being: The Development of a Communication Framework for Sexual Health  

PubMed Central

Objectives Recognizing the need to work with all partners who have an interest in addressing sexual health issues, we explored values held by diverse stakeholders in the United States. Based on these findings, we developed a framework for use in communicating about sexual health issues and potential solutions. Methods Our methods included an environmental scan, small-group metaphor elicitation and message framing assessments, interviews, and online surveys with diverse members of the public and health professionals. Results Of four overarching value-based themes, two were best accepted across audiences: the first theme emphasized the importance of protecting health along the road of life through enabling good choices, and the second called for adding health promotion approaches to traditional disease prevention control. Nearly all supporting statements evaluated were effective and can be used to support either of the two best accepted overarching themes. Conclusions Although there is a great diversity of opinion regarding how to address sexual health issues in the U.S., among diverse stakeholders we found some common values in our exploratory work. These common values were translated into message frameworks. In particular, the idea of broadening sexual health programs to include wellness-related approaches to help expand disease control and prevention efforts resonated with stakeholders across the political spectrum. These findings show promise for improved sexual health communication and a foundation on which to build support across various audiences, key opinion leaders, and stakeholders.

Robinson, Susan J.; Stellato, Adam; Stephens, Jennifer; Kirby, Susan; Forsythe, Ann; Ivankovich, Megan B.

2013-01-01

123

Suzie's Mommy Is Having a Baby: Don't Freak out! Healthy Sexuality Development in Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Is it the teacher's job to assist children in developing a healthy sexual identity in early childhood? A healthy sexual identity is developed over the course of a lifetime through the "process of acquiring information and forming attitudes, beliefs, and values about such important topics as identity, relationships, and intimacy." Teachers may feel…

Sciaraffa, Mary

2012-01-01

124

Gay and Bisexual Identity Development Among Female-to-Male Transsexuals in North America: Emergence of a Transgender Sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied a North American sample of female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals sexually attracted to men, aiming to understand their\\u000a identity and sexuality in the context of a culture of transgender empowerment. Sex-reassigned FtM transsexuals, 18 years or\\u000a older and attracted to men, were recruited via an FtM community conference and listserv. Participants (N = 25) responded to open-ended questions about identity development, sexual behavior,

Walter Bockting; Autumn Benner; Eli Coleman

2009-01-01

125

The influence of brain abnormalities on psychosocial development, criminal history and paraphilias in sexual murderers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the number and type of brain abnormalities and their influence on psychosocial development, criminal history and paraphilias in sexual murderers. We analyzed psychiatric court reports of 166 sexual murderers and compared a group with notable signs of brain abnormalities (N = 50) with those without any signs (N = 116). Sexual murderers with brain abnormalities suffered more from early behavior problems. They were less likely to cohabitate with the victim at the time of the homicide and had more victims at the age of six years or younger. Psychiatric diagnoses revealed a higher total number of paraphilias: Transvestic fetishism and paraphilias not otherwise specified were more frequent in offenders with brain abnormalities. A binary logistic regression identified five predictors that accounted for 46.8% of the variance explaining the presence of brain abnormalities. Our results suggest the importance of a comprehensive neurological and psychological examination of this special offender group. PMID:16225232

Briken, Peer; Habermann, Niels; Berner, Wolfgang; Hill, Andreas

2005-09-01

126

Development and Validation of a Gender Expression Measure among Sexual Minority Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender expression varies considerably among lesbian and bisexual women and may be related to various stressors and health outcomes. However, no current measure adequately assesses gender expression in this community. Thus, the authors conducted three studies to develop and validate the Gender Expression Measure among Sexual Minority Women…

Lehavot, Keren; King, Kevin M.; Simoni, Jane M.

2011-01-01

127

Research on Adolescent Sexual Orientation: Development, Health Disparities, Stigma, and Resilience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The decade between 1998 and 2008 saw rapid increases in research on adolescent sexual orientation development and related health issues, both in the quantity and in the quality of studies. While much of the research originated in North America, studies from other countries also contributed to emerging understanding of developmental trajectories…

Saewyc, Elizabeth M.

2011-01-01

128

Influence of cadmium, copper, and pentachlorophenol on growth and sexual development of Eisenia andrei (Oligochaeta; Annelida)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the existing guidelines for earthworm toxicity testing, mortality is the only test criterion. Mortality is, however, not a very sensitive parameter, and from an ecological point of view growth and reproduction are more important for a proper risk assessment of chemicals in soil. In this study the growth and sexual development of juvenile earthworms were considered as test criteria

C. A. M. Gestel; W. A. Dis; E. M. Dirven-van Breemen; P. M. Sparenburg; R. Baerselman

1991-01-01

129

Population, sexual and reproductive health, rights and sustainable development: forging a common agenda.  

PubMed

This article suggests that sexual and reproductive health and rights activists seeking to influence the post-2015 international development paradigm must work with sustainable development advocates concerned with a range of issues, including climate change, environmental issues, and food and water security, and that a way of building bridges with these communities is to demonstrate how sexual and reproductive health and rights are relevant for these issues. An understanding of population dynamics, including urbanization and migration, as well as population growth, can help to clarify these links. This article therefore suggests that whether or not sexual and reproductive health and rights activists can overcome resistance to discussing "population", become more knowledgeable about other sustainable development issues, and work with others in those fields to advance the global sustainable development agenda are crucial questions for the coming months. The article also contends that it is possible to care about population dynamics (including ageing and problems faced by countries with a high proportion of young people) and care about human rights at the same time. It expresses concern that, if sexual and reproductive health and rights advocates do not participate in the population dynamics discourse, the field will be left free for those for whom respecting and protecting rights may be less of a priority. PMID:24908456

Newman, Karen; Fisher, Sarah; Mayhew, Susannah; Stephenson, Judith

2014-06-01

130

The Development and Psychometric Assessment of the Adolescent Sexual Coercion Risk Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to develop a psychometric measure of risk for sexual victimization from adolescent peers. Items were generated on the basis of the literature and on consultations with a multidisciplinary group of key informants. The items were administered to a sample of 327 female Grade-9 students and examined using exploratory…

Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Lasgaard, Mathias; Elklit, Ask; Koss, Mary P.

2011-01-01

131

Attitudes to Sexuality Questionnaire (Individuals with an Intellectual Disability): Scale Development and Community Norms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Attitudes to the sexual expression of adults with an intellectual disability (ID) are one reflection of the inclusiveness of a community. Our capacity to measure attitudes towards this important aspect of adult life is limited by the lack of an appropriate instrument. The aim of this study was to continue the development of a recently…

Cuskelly, Monica; Gilmore, Linda

2007-01-01

132

Normal Sexual Development of Rats Exposed to Butyl Benzyl Phthalate from Conception to Weaning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) has been administered in drinking water (1000 ?g\\/liter) to pregnant AP rats during gestation and lactation. The sexual development of the pups was then monitored until their termination at postnatal day 90 (pnd 90). Pups derived from animals exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES) in drinking water (50 ?g\\/liter) acted as a positive control group. Glass drinking bottles

J Ashby; H Tinwell; P. A Lefevre; J Odum; D Paton; S. W Millward; S Tittensor; A. N Brooks

1997-01-01

133

Knowledge of personal and sexual development amongst young people in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pakistan has one of the largest cohorts of young people in its history, yet research on their circumstances and needs is still relatively new. In this study, twenty four focus group discussions were conducted to explore young peoples' experiences of gaining knowledge of personal and sexual development. Young women typically gained information from a limited number of sources within the

MONIQUE HENNINK; IMRAN RANA; ROBINA IQBAL

2004-01-01

134

MAXIMIZING GROWTH AND SEXUAL MATURATION OF SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS IN SUPPORT OF MULTI-GENERATION TEST DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Hemmer, R.L., G.M. Cripe and L.R. Goodman. In press. Maximizing Growth and Sexual Maturation of Sheepshead Minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) in Support of Multi-Generation Test Development (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November 2004, Portland...

135

Effect of temperature on pupa development and sexual maturity of laboratory Anastrepha obliqua adults.  

PubMed

The effect of four temperatures (18, 20, 25 and 30°C) on pupa development and sexual maturity of Anastrepha obliqua adults was investigated under laboratory conditions. The results showed that the duration of the pupal stage decreased with an increase in temperature (29, 25, 13 and 12 days, respectively), and maintaining the pupae at 18°C and 20°C results in a low percentage of pupation, pupa weight loss and lesser flying ability. However, it significantly favored sexual behavior, a higher proportion of sexual calls and matings. While enhanced pupa development was observed at a temperature of 30°C, adults had low sexual efficiency, as well as a lower proportion of calls and matings. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of male volatiles showed that the amount of (Z,E)-?-farnesene did not vary among males from pupae reared at different temperatures; however, less (E,E)-?-farnesene was emitted by males obtain from pupa reared at 30°C. Male flies kept at 30°C during their larval stage had more (Z)-3-nonenol and, also, an unknown compound was detected. The fecundity of the females was higher at low temperatures. Regarding fertility, no significant differences were found between temperatures. The optimal temperature on pupa development was 25°C when males displayed ideal attributes for rearing purposes. PMID:21473797

Telles-Romero, R; Toledo, J; Hernández, E; Quintero-Fong, J L; Cruz-López, L

2011-10-01

136

Surface Flow Outlets to Protect Juvenile Salmonids Passing Through Hydropower Dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reviewed results of research conducted by engineers and biologists over the past 50 years related to development of surface flow outlets (SFOs) for juvenile salmonids that migrate downstream past hydropower dams. An SFO is a nonturbine, water-efficient passage route with an overflow structure through which flow and fish pass over a dam. Our review covered 69 SFOs in Europe

Gary E. Johnson; Dennis D. Dauble

2006-01-01

137

Histone Deacetylation during Brain Development Is Essential for Permanent Masculinization of Sexual Behavior  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic histone modifications are emerging as important mechanisms for conveyance of and maintenance of effects of the hormonal milieu to the developing brain. We hypothesized that alteration of histone acetylation status early in development by sex steroid hormones is important for sexual differentiation of the brain. It was found that during the critical period for sexual differentiation, histones associated with promoters of essential genes in masculinization of the brain (estrogen receptor ? and aromatase) in the medial preoptic area, an area necessary for male sexual behavior, were differentially acetylated between the sexes. Consistent with these findings, binding of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 2 and 4 to the promoters was higher in males than in females. To examine the involvement of histone deacetylation on masculinization of the brain at the behavioral level, we inhibited HDAC in vivo by intracerebroventricular infusion of the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A or antisense oligodeoxynucleotide directed against the mRNA for HDAC2 and -4 in newborn male rats. Aspects of male sexual behavior in adulthood were significantly reduced by administration of either trichostatin A or antisense oligodeoxynucleotide. These results demonstrate that HDAC activity during the early postnatal period plays a crucial role in the masculinization of the brain via modifications of histone acetylation status.

Mori, Hiroko; Nugent, Bridget M.; Pfaff, Donald W.; McCarthy, Margaret M.; Kawata, Mitsuhiro

2011-01-01

138

In ovo exposure to o,p -DDE affects sexual development but not sexual differentiation in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Despite being banned in many countries, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) continue to be found in fish tissues at concentrations of concern. Like o,p -DDT, o,p -DDE is estrogenic and is believed to exert its effects through binding to the estrogen receptor. The limited toxicologic data for o,p -DDE suggest that it decreases fecundity and fertility of fishes. We conducted an egg injection study using the d-rR strain of medaka and environmentally relevant concentrations of o,p -DDE to examine its effects on sexual differentiation and development. The gonads of exposed fish showed no evidence of sex reversal or intersex. However, other gonad abnormalities occurred in exposed individuals. Females exhibited few vitellogenic oocytes and increased atresia. Male testes appeared morphologically normal but were very small. Gonadosomatic index values for both sexes were lower for exposed fish. Our observations of abnormal female and very small male gonads after in ovo o,p -DDE exposure may be indicative of effects on early endocrine processes important for normal ovarian and testicular development.

Papoulias, D. M.; Villalobos, S. A.; Meadows, J.; Noltie, D. B.; Giesy, J. P.; Tillitt, D. E.

2003-01-01

139

Sexual Harassment in the United States Military: The Development of the DoD (Department of Defense) Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the development of a survey instrument to assess the incidence and causes of sexual harassment in the United States Military. The report begins with a general description of the scope of the problem of sexual harassment across differ...

J. B. Pryor

1988-01-01

140

Development of Parents' Own Child Scale of the Greek Sexuality Attitudes Questionnaire - Learning Disabilities (GSAQ-LD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of sexuality is a major concern for parents of children with learning disability and causes them great anxiety. Due to the lack of large-scale studies examining parental attitudes towards the sexuality of people with learning disability in Greece, it was decided to develop and evaluate a culturally appropriate instrument to use with Greek parents. Thus, the Parents' Own

Joanna Karellou

141

"You Want Me to Talk to Children about What?" Responding to the Subject of Sexuality Development in Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many people think it is taboo to talk about sex with children. Adults reinforce this belief when, for example, they use substitute words rather than "vagina" or "penis". They may be embarrassed to learn about children's sexual development or ask others for assistance. Although most people in US society are open about sexuality now, the topic of…

Sciaraffa, Mary; Randolph, Theresa

2011-01-01

142

78 FR 14117 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for Yolo Bypass Salmonid Habitat...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Report for Yolo Bypass Salmonid Habitat Restoration and Fish Passage, California AGENCY...actions consist of salmonid habitat restoration efforts within the lower Sacramento...1 and I.7 address salmonid habitat restoration actions in the lower Sacramento...

2013-03-04

143

Homosexuality via canalized sexual development: A testing protocol for a new epigenetic model  

PubMed Central

We recently synthesized and reinterpreted published studies to advance an epigenetic model for the development of homosexuality (HS). The model is based on epigenetic marks laid down in response to the XX vs. XY karyotype in embryonic stem cells. These marks boost sensitivity to testosterone in XY fetuses and lower it in XX fetuses, thereby canalizing sexual development. Our model predicts that a subset of these canalizing epigenetic marks stochastically carry over across generations and lead to mosaicism for sexual development in opposite-sex offspring – the homosexual phenotype being one such outcome. Here, we begin by outlining why HS has been under-appreciated as a commonplace phenomenon in nature, and how this trend is currently being reversed in the field of neurobiology. We next briefly describe our epigenetic model of HS, develop a set of predictions, and describe how epigenetic profiles of human stem cells can provide for a strong test of the model.

Rice, William R; Friberg, Urban; Gavrilets, Sergey

2013-01-01

144

Homosexuality via canalized sexual development: a testing protocol for a new epigenetic model.  

PubMed

We recently synthesized and reinterpreted published studies to advance an epigenetic model for the development of homosexuality (HS). The model is based on epigenetic marks laid down in response to the XX vs. XY karyotype in embryonic stem cells. These marks boost sensitivity to testosterone in XY fetuses and lower it in XX fetuses, thereby canalizing sexual development. Our model predicts that a subset of these canalizing epigenetic marks stochastically carry over across generations and lead to mosaicism for sexual development in opposite-sex offspring--the homosexual phenotype being one such outcome. Here, we begin by outlining why HS has been under-appreciated as a commonplace phenomenon in nature, and how this trend is currently being reversed in the field of neurobiology. We next briefly describe our epigenetic model of HS, develop a set of predictions, and describe how epigenetic profiles of human stem cells can provide for a strong test of the model. PMID:23868698

Rice, William R; Friberg, Urban; Gavrilets, Sergey

2013-09-01

145

Developing a Predation Index and Evaluating Ways to Reduce Salmonid Losses to Predation in the Columbia River Basin, Annual Progress Report August 1988-September 1989.  

SciTech Connect

We are reporting progress on the predator-prey study for the period August 28, 1988 to September 1, 1989. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the feasibility of an index for assessment of predation in various reservoirs throughout the Columbia River basin, to describe the relationships among predator-caused mortality of smolts and physical and biological variables; to examine the feasibility of developing bounty, commercial or recreational fisheries on northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonesis); and to develop a plan to evaluate the efficacy of predator control fisheries. Literature searches on predator abundance indexing and factors regulating fish population dynamics have been conducted; selected references have been summarized, and compiled in a key-word bibliography format. The feasibility of various types of predator abundance indices is being assessed; existing data relevant to mark-recapture, catch per unit effort (CPUE), physical and chemical variables, and reservoir morphology have been compiled, reviewed, and summarized. In cases where sufficient data exist, preliminary implementation of predator abundance indices has been demonstrated. Field sampling in John Day Reservoir was conducted during May to August, 1989 -- to continue time series data bases on northern squawfish CPUE and growth, and to evaluate the possibility of year class strength determinations of northern squawfish and walleyes using restricted sampling. Development of plans has begun for fishery implementation and evaluation. 184 refs., 33 figs., 35 tabs.

Nigro, Anthony A.

1989-12-01

146

Sexual stage development of cryptosporidia in the Caco-2 cell line.  

PubMed Central

We used the spontaneously differentiated human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2 to develop an in vitro model of Cryptosporidium sp. infection. The mean cell infection rate was 3% +/- 2%. Asexual stages of cryptosporidia were observed on day 2 postinoculation. Transmission electron microscopy showed the presence of macrogametes at day 5. This cell line appears to be suited to the study of the mechanisms by which biological agents inhibit both sexual and asexual development of cryptosporidia. Images

Buraud, M; Forget, E; Favennec, L; Bizet, J; Gobert, J G; Deluol, A M

1991-01-01

147

The development of the external sexual characters of Nephrops norvegicus (L.) (Decapoda: Nephropidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. (1) Large numbers of early post-larval stages of Nephrops norvegicus have been obtained using a fine-meshed beam trawl. It appears that difficulty experienced in obtaining these stages in the past has been mainly due to inadequate fishing gear.2. (2) The sexual development of the early stages is described. The appearance and development of the first pleopods and the appendix

A. S. Farmer

1974-01-01

148

Quantitative Assessment of Salmonid Escapement Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most reviews of salmonid escapement estimation techniques have been based on logistical considerations or site-specific applications and not on statistical first principles. We reviewed six categories of salmon escapement techniques: area-under-the-curve, carcass abundance, mark-recapture, passage count, peak count, and redd count methods, based on statistical accuracy (i.e., unbiasedness), precision, and the ability to meet model assumptions. Within each of these

Amber L. Parsons; John R. Skalski

2010-01-01

149

Old wine in new bottles: reaction norms in salmonid fishes  

PubMed Central

Genetic variability in reaction norms reflects differences in the ability of individuals, populations and ultimately species to respond to environmental change. By increasing our understanding of how genotype × environment interactions influence evolution, studies of genetic variation in phenotypic plasticity serve to refine our capacity to predict how populations will respond to natural and anthropogenic environmental variability, including climate change. Given the extraordinary variability in morphology, behaviour and life history in salmonids, one might anticipate the research milieu on reaction norms in these fishes to be empirically rich and intellectually engaging. Here, I undertake a review of genetic variability in continuous and discontinuous (threshold) norms of reaction in salmonid fishes, as determined primarily (but not exclusively) by common-garden experiments. Although in its infancy from a numerical publication perspective, there is taxonomically broad evidence of genetic differentiation in continuous, threshold and bivariate reaction norms among individuals, families and populations (including inter-population hybrids and backcrosses) for traits as divergent as embryonic development, age and size at maturity, and gene expression. There is compelling inferential evidence that plasticity is heritable and that population differences in reaction norms can reflect adaptive responses, by natural selection, to local environments. As a stimulus for future work, a series of 20 research questions are identified that focus on reaction-norm variability, selection, costs and constraints, demographic and conservation consequences, and genetic markers and correlates of phenotypic plasticity.

Hutchings, J A

2011-01-01

150

Apilarnil reduces fear and advances sexual development in male broilers but has no effect on growth.  

PubMed

1. An experiment was conducted to determine the possibility of stimulating sexual development at an early age in male and female broiler chickens by administration of apilarnil, a natural bee product, in the pre-pubertal period. 2. From 28 to 55 d of age, birds were given apilarnil orally. The effects of low (2.5 g/bird) and high (7.5 g/bird) doses of apilarnil on growth performance, testicular weight, secondary sexual characteristics, blood lipids, testosterone and fearful behaviour were evaluated. 3. Apilarnil administration did not cause a positive effect on growth performance of male and female broilers suggesting that apilarnil did not have an anabolic effect. 4. Apilarnil administration suppressed blood glucose and cholesterol. 5. Birds receiving apilarnil remained immobile for a shorter period in a tonic imobiliy test and showed less home-cage avoidance responses suggesting a lower level of fearfulness. 6. Increases in testicular weight, testosterone concentration and comb growth in males receiving apilarnil implied that it stimulates the sexual maturation at an early age. However, a similar stimulation of secondary sexual characteristics was not observed in females. PMID:23796118

Altan, O; Yücel, B; Açikgöz, Z; Seremet, C; Köso?lu, M; Turgan, N; Ozgönül, A M

2013-06-01

151

Developing a realistic sexual network model of chlamydia transmission in Britain  

PubMed Central

Background A national chlamydia screening programme is currently being rolled out in the UK and other countries. However, much of the epidemiology remains poorly understood. In this paper we present a stochastic, individual based, dynamic sexual network model of chlamydia transmission and its parameterisation. Mathematical models provide a theoretical framework for understanding the key epidemiological features of chlamydia: sexual behaviour, health care seeking and transmission dynamics. Results The model parameters were estimated either directly or by systematic fitting to a variety of appropriate data sources. The fitted model was representative of sexual behaviour, chlamydia epidemiology and health care use in England. We were able to recapture the observed age distribution of chlamydia prevalence. Conclusion Estimating parameters for models of sexual behaviour and transmission of chlamydia is complex. Most of the parameter values are highly correlated, highly variable and there is little empirical evidence to inform estimates. We used a novel approach to estimate the rate of active treatment seeking, by combining data sources, which improved the credibility of the model results. The model structure is flexible and is broadly applicable to other developed world settings and provides a practical tool for public health decision makers.

Turner, Katherine ME; Adams, Elisabeth J; Gay, Nigel; Ghani, Azra C; Mercer, Catherine; Edmunds, W John

2006-01-01

152

Beyond Cairo: Sexual and reproductive rights of young people in the new development agenda.  

PubMed

At the 1994 United Nations International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), women's rights advocates fundamentally shifted the way the global development community views poverty, gender equality and reproductive rights. While the ICPD's call to action led to a marked improvement in reproductive health, more remains to be done to secure the sexual and reproductive rights and health of all, particularly for young people. As we approach the 20-year anniversary of Cairo, several global processes are happening concurrently that have implications for the future of the sexual and reproductive health and rights agenda, including the 20-year review of progress towards achieving the Cairo Programme of Action, the review of the Millennium Development Goals, and the open group discussions about the sustainable development goals and the new development agenda post-2015. There are five key areas of action where significant investment is needed moving forward to ensure young people's access and safeguard their rights: repeal outdated laws and create new policies that safeguard young people's health and rights; provide youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health services; guarantee young people's access to information and education; end gender discrimination and ensure government accountability. PMID:24922347

Barroso, Carmen

2014-07-01

153

Sexual trauma increases the risk of developing psychosis in an ultra high-risk "prodromal" population.  

PubMed

Studies indicate a high prevalence of childhood trauma in patient cohorts with established psychotic disorder and in those at risk of developing psychosis. A causal link between childhood trauma and development of psychosis has been proposed. We aimed to examine the association between experience of childhood trauma and the development of a psychotic disorder in a large "Ultra High Risk" (UHR) for psychosis cohort. The data were collected as part of a longitudinal cohort study of all UHR patients recruited to research studies at the Personal Assessment and Clinical Evaluation clinic between 1993 and 2006. Baseline data were collected at recruitment to these studies. The participants completed a comprehensive follow-up assessment battery (mean time to follow-up 7.5 years, range 2.4-14.9 years), which included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), a self-report questionnaire that assesses experience of childhood trauma. The outcome of interest was transition to a psychotic disorder during the follow-up period. Data were available on 233 individuals. Total CTQ trauma score was not associated with transition to psychosis. Of the individual trauma types, only sexual abuse was associated with transition to psychosis (P = .02). The association remained when adjusting for potential confounding factors. Those with high sexual abuse scores were estimated to have a transition risk 2-4 times that of those with low scores. The findings suggest that sexual trauma may be an important contributing factor in development of psychosis for some individuals. PMID:23455040

Thompson, Andrew D; Nelson, Barnaby; Yuen, Hok Pan; Lin, Ashleigh; Amminger, Günter Paul; McGorry, Patrick D; Wood, Stephen J; Yung, Alison R

2014-05-01

154

A conserved haplotype controls parallel adaptation in geographically distant salmonid populations  

PubMed Central

Salmonid fishes exhibit extensive local adaptations owing to abundant environmental variation and precise natal homing. This extensive local adaptation makes conservation and restoration of salmonids a challenge. For example, defining unambiguous units of conservation is difficult, and restoration attempts often fail owing to inadequate adaptive matching of translocated populations. A better understanding of the genetic architecture of local adaptation in salmonids could provide valuable information to assist in conserving and restoring natural populations of these important species. Here, we use a combination of laboratory crosses and next-generation sequencing to investigate the genetic architecture of the parallel adaptation of rapid development rate in two geographically and genetically distant populations of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Strikingly, we find that not only is a parallel genetic mechanism used but that a conserved haplotype is responsible for this intriguing adaptation. The repeated use of adaptive genetic variation across distant geographical areas could be a general theme in salmonids and have important implications for conservation and restoration.

MILLER, MICHAEL R; BRUNELLI, JOSEPH P; WHEELER, PAUL A; LIU, SIXIN; REXROAD, CAIRD E; PALTI, YNIV; DOE, CHRIS Q; THORGAARD, GARY H

2012-01-01

155

Avian Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River: 1998 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The authors initiated a field study in 1997 to assess the impacts of fish-eating colonial waterbirds (i.e., terns, cormorants, and gulls) on the survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River. Here the authors present results from the 1998 breeding season, the second field season of work on this project. The research objectives in 1998 were to: (1) determine the location, size, nesting chronology, nesting success, and population trajectories of breeding colonies of fish-eating birds in the lower Columbia River; (2) determine diet composition of fish-eating birds, including taxonomic composition and energy content of various prey types; (3) estimate forage fish consumption rates, with special emphasis on juvenile salmonids, by breeding adults and their young; (4) determine the relative vulnerability of different groups of juvenile salmonids to bird predation; (5) identify foraging range, foraging strategies, and habitat utilization by piscivorous waterbirds; and (6) test the feasibility of various alternative methods for managing avian predation on juvenile salmonids and develop recommendations to reduce avian predation, if warranted by the results.

Collis, Ken; Adamany, Stephanie; Roby, Daniel D.; Craig, David P.; Lyons, Donald E.

2000-04-01

156

Low summer water temperatures influence occurrence of naturalized salmonids across a mountain watershed  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We investigated relationships between the absence of salmonids and low summer water temperatures across a 150-km2 Rocky Mountain watershed. A model predicting maximum July water temperature (MJT) from measurements of perennial stream length, wetted width, and midrange basin elevation was developed from temperature data obtained at 20 sites across the watershed. The model was used to predict MJT in 75 reaches across the watershed where salmonids were sampled. The lowest predicted MJT in reaches where age-0 and juvenile-adult brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis were observed was 9??C. The lowest predicted MJT in reaches where age-0 progeny of the genus Oncorhynchus spp. (i.e., rainbow trout O. mykiss or cutthroat trout O. clarkii) were observed was 13??C and where Oncorhynchus spp. adults where observed was 12??C. The probability of occurrence of both age-0 and adult brook trout and Oncorhynchus spp. increased as MJT increased above these thresholds. Our results indicate that low MJT in some portions of a mountain watershed can be related to the absence of salmonids. Consequently, data on MJT may provide managers with a means of assessing where summer water temperatures are not suitable for establishment of naturalized salmonid populations. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

Mullner, S. A.; Hubert, W. A.

2005-01-01

157

Avian Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River: 1997 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The authors initiated a field study in 1997 to assess the impacts of fish-eating colonial waterbirds (i.e., terns, cormorants, and gulls) on the survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River. Here the authors present results from the 1998 breeding season, the second field season of work on this project. The research objectives in 1998 were to: (1) determine the location, size, nesting chronology, nesting success, and population trajectories of breeding colonies of fish-eating birds in the lower Columbia River; (2) determine diet composition of fish-eating birds, including taxonomic composition and energy content of various prey types; (3) estimate forage fish consumption rates, with special emphasis on juvenile salmonids, by breeding adults and their young; (4) determine the relative vulnerabilit2048 different groups of juvenile salmonids to bird predation; (5) identify foraging range, foraging strategies, and habitat utilization by piscivorous waterbirds; and (6) test the feasibility of various alternative methods for managing avian predation on juvenile salmonids and develop recommendations to reduce avian predation, if warranted by the results.

Roby, Daniel D.; Craig, David P.; Collis, Ken; Adamany, Stephanie L.

1998-09-01

158

Genetic and molecular insights into the development and evolution of sexual dimorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual dimorphism is common throughout the animal kingdom. However, a molecular understanding of how sex-specific traits develop and evolve has been elusive. Recently, substantial progress has been made in elucidating how diverse sex-determination systems are integrated into developmental gene networks. One common theme from these studies is that sex-limited traits and gene expression are produced by the combined action of

Thomas M. Williams; Sean B. Carroll

2009-01-01

159

Heterogeneity in sexual bipotentiality and plasticity of granulosa cells in developing mouse ovaries.  

PubMed

In mammalian sex determination, SRY directly upregulates the expression of SOX9, the master regulatory transcription factor in Sertoli cell differentiation, leading to testis formation. Without SRY action, the bipotential gonadal cells become pre-granulosa cells, which results in ovarian follicle development. When, where and how pre-granulosa cells are determined to differentiate into developing ovaries, however, remains unclear. By monitoring SRY-dependent SOX9 inducibility (SDSI) in an Sry-inducible mouse system, we were able to identify spatiotemporal changes in the sexual bipotentiality/plasticity of ovarian somatic cells throughout life. The early pre-granulosa cells maintain the SDSI until 11.5 d.p.c., after which most pre-granulosa cells rapidly lose this ability by 12.0 d.p.c. Unexpectedly, we found a subpopulation of the pre-granulosa cells near the mesonephric tissue that continuously retains SDSI throughout fetal and early postnatal stages. After birth, these SDSI-positive pre-granulosa cells contribute to the initial round of folliculogenesis by the secondary follicle stage. In experimental sex reversal of 13.5-d.p.c. ovaries grafted into adult male nude mice, the differentiated granulosa cells re-acquire the SDSI before other signs of masculinization. Our data provide direct evidence of an unexpectedly high sexual heterogeneity of granulosa cells in developing mouse ovaries in a stage- and region-specific manner. Discovery of such sexually bipotential granulosa cells provides a novel entry point to the understanding of masculinization in various cases of XX disorders of sexual development in mammalian ovaries. PMID:23613466

Harikae, Kyoko; Miura, Kento; Shinomura, Mai; Matoba, Shogo; Hiramatsu, Ryuji; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Kanai-Azuma, Masami; Kurohmaru, Masamichi; Morohashi, Ken-Ichirou; Kanai, Yoshiakira

2013-07-01

160

A cascade of DNA-binding proteins for sexual commitment and development in Plasmodium.  

PubMed

Commitment to and completion of sexual development are essential for malaria parasites (protists of the genus Plasmodium) to be transmitted through mosquitoes. The molecular mechanism(s) responsible for commitment have been hitherto unknown. Here we show that PbAP2-G, a conserved member of the apicomplexan AP2 (ApiAP2) family of DNA-binding proteins, is essential for the commitment of asexually replicating forms to sexual development in Plasmodium berghei, a malaria parasite of rodents. PbAP2-G was identified from mutations in its encoding gene, PBANKA_143750, which account for the loss of sexual development frequently observed in parasites transmitted artificially by blood passage. Systematic gene deletion of conserved ApiAP2 genes in Plasmodium confirmed the role of PbAP2-G and revealed a second ApiAP2 member (PBANKA_103430, here termed PbAP2-G2) that significantly modulates but does not abolish gametocytogenesis, indicating that a cascade of ApiAP2 proteins are involved in commitment to the production and maturation of gametocytes. The data suggest a mechanism of commitment to gametocytogenesis in Plasmodium consistent with a positive feedback loop involving PbAP2-G that could be exploited to prevent the transmission of this pernicious parasite. PMID:24572359

Sinha, Abhinav; Hughes, Katie R; Modrzynska, Katarzyna K; Otto, Thomas D; Pfander, Claudia; Dickens, Nicholas J; Religa, Agnieszka A; Bushell, Ellen; Graham, Anne L; Cameron, Rachael; Kafsack, Bjorn F C; Williams, April E; Llinás, Manuel; Berriman, Matthew; Billker, Oliver; Waters, Andrew P

2014-03-13

161

Sexual and reproductive health and rights in the post-2015 development agenda.  

PubMed

Women's health is currently shaped by the confluence of two important policy trends - the evolution of health system reform policies and from the early 1990s onwards, a strong articulation of a human rights-based approach to health that has emphasised laws and policies to advance gender equality and sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR). The drive for sexual and reproductive rights represents an inclusive trend towards human rights to health that goes beyond the right to health services, directing attention to girls' and women's rights to bodily autonomy, integrity and choice in relation to sexuality and reproduction. Such an expanded concept of the right to health is essential if laws, policies and programmes are to respect, protect and fulfil the health of girls and women. However, this expanded understanding has been ghettoised from the more mainstream debates on the right to health and was only partially included in the Millennium Development Goals. The paper argues in favour of a twofold approach in placing SRHR effectively in the context of the post-2015 development agenda: first, firmly ground it in an inclusive approach to the right to health; and second, drawing on two decades of national-level implementation, propose a forward-looking agenda focusing on quality, equality and accountability in policies and in programmes. This can build on good practice while addressing critical challenges central to the development framework itself. PMID:25010845

Sen, Gita

2014-07-01

162

Healthy Early-Adolescent Development (11-13 Year Olds): Implementing a Human Sexuality Curriculum for Seventh Graders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes development and implementation of human sexual curriculum course for seventh graders in a rural school district. Claims student participation rates substantiate community acceptance of program, and after the first year of the program the pregnancy rate dropped. (ABL)

Dycus, Sandra; Costner, Gwyn M.

1990-01-01

163

Management of habitat for rehabilitation and enhancement of salmonid stocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the river systems in the British Isles have been subjected to anthropogenic influence to varying degrees over recent times, in many instances leading to deleterious impacts on salmonid habitat to the detriment of populations. This paper considers the range of management options that can be utilised to overcome habitat degradation. When examining salmonid habitat management three areas need

K Hendry; D Cragg-Hine; M O’Grady; H Sambrook; A Stephen

2003-01-01

164

bZIP transcription factors affecting secondary metabolism, sexual development and stress responses in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

The eukaryotic basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors play critical roles in the organismal response to the environment. Recently, a novel YAP-like bZIP, restorer of secondary metabolism A (RsmA), was found in a suppressor screen of an Aspergillus nidulans secondary metabolism (SM) mutant in which overexpression of rsmA was found to partially remediate loss of SM in Velvet Complex mutants. The Velvet Complex is a conserved fungal transcriptional heteromer that couples SM with sexual development in fungi. Here we characterized and contrasted SM in mutants of RsmA and four other A. nidulans bZIP proteins (NapA, ZipA, ZipB and ZipC) with predicted DNA binding motifs similar to RsmA. Only two overexpression mutants exhibited both SM and sexual abnormalities that were noteworthy: OE?:?:?rsmA resulted in a 100-fold increase in sterigmatocystin and a near loss of meiotic spore production. OE?:?:?napA displayed decreased production of sterigmatocystin, emericellin, asperthecin, shamixanthone and epishamixanthone, coupled with a shift from sexual to asexual development. Quantification of bZIP homodimer and heterodimer formation using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) suggested that these proteins preferentially self-associate.

Yin, Wen-Bing; Reinke, Aaron W.; Szilagyi, Melinda; Emri, Tamas; Chiang, Yi-Ming; Keating, Amy E.; Pocsi, Istvan; Wang, Clay C. C.

2013-01-01

165

bZIP transcription factors affecting secondary metabolism, sexual development and stress responses in Aspergillus nidulans.  

PubMed

The eukaryotic basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors play critical roles in the organismal response to the environment. Recently, a novel YAP-like bZIP, restorer of secondary metabolism A (RsmA), was found in a suppressor screen of an Aspergillus nidulans secondary metabolism (SM) mutant in which overexpression of rsmA was found to partially remediate loss of SM in Velvet Complex mutants. The Velvet Complex is a conserved fungal transcriptional heteromer that couples SM with sexual development in fungi. Here we characterized and contrasted SM in mutants of RsmA and four other A. nidulans bZIP proteins (NapA, ZipA, ZipB and ZipC) with predicted DNA binding motifs similar to RsmA. Only two overexpression mutants exhibited both SM and sexual abnormalities that were noteworthy: OE : : rsmA resulted in a 100-fold increase in sterigmatocystin and a near loss of meiotic spore production. OE : : napA displayed decreased production of sterigmatocystin, emericellin, asperthecin, shamixanthone and epishamixanthone, coupled with a shift from sexual to asexual development. Quantification of bZIP homodimer and heterodimer formation using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) suggested that these proteins preferentially self-associate. PMID:23154967

Yin, Wen-Bing; Reinke, Aaron W; Szilágyi, Melinda; Emri, Tamás; Chiang, Yi-Ming; Keating, Amy E; Pócsi, István; Wang, Clay C C; Keller, Nancy P

2013-01-01

166

REPORT OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONSENSUS DEVELOPMENT CONFERENCE ON FEMALE SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION: DEFINITIONS AND CLASSIFICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Female sexual dysfunction is highly prevalent but not well defined or understood. We evaluated and revised existing definitions and classifications of female sexual dysfunction. Materials and Methods: An interdisciplinary consensus conference panel consisting of 19 experts in female sexual dysfunction selected from 5 countries was convened by the Sexual Function Health Council of the American Foundation for Urologic Disease.

ROSEMARY BASSON; JENNIFER BERMAN; ARTHUR BURNETT; LEONARD DEROGATIS; DAVID FERGUSON; JEAN FOURCROY; IRWIN GOLDSTEIN; ALESSANDRA GRAZIOTTIN; JULIA HEIMAN; ELLEN LAAN; SANDRA LEIBLUM; HARIN PADMA-NATHAN; RAYMOND ROSEN; KATHLEEN SEGRAVES; R. TAYLOR SEGRAVES; RIDWAN SHABSIGH; MARCALEE SIPSKI; GORM WAGNER; BEVERLY WHIPPLE

2000-01-01

167

Problematic Sexual Behaviour in a Secure Psychiatric Setting: Challenges and Developing Solutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexually abusive behaviours are common in a forensic psychiatric population, both before admission and while hospitalized. A survey of our medium security facility found that 41% of patients had a history of sexually abusive behaviours, ranging from convictions for sexual assault through to current episodes of sexual harassment. Most forensic…

Hughes, Gareth V.; Hebb, Jo

2005-01-01

168

Early postnatal development of the arcuate nucleus in normal and sexually reversed male and female rats.  

PubMed Central

The ultrastructural characteristics of the arcuate nucleus in the rat were examined at days 2, 5, 10 and 15 postpartum in order to evaluate the cytological development of the nucleus during sexual differentiation of the hypothalamus. In an effort to accentuate potential steroid-dependent structural features, the nucleus in normal male and female rats was compared with that of rats in which sexual differentiation had been reversed, by subcutaneous injection of testosterone proprionate in neonatal female rats, and by bilateral castration of neonatal male rats. The arcuate nucleus did not reveal any evidence of sexual dimorphism nor any effects of neonatal castration or androgenisation. The nuclei of any animals exhibited an increase, with age, in morphologically mature neurons and synapses. At day 15, however, the nuclei still possessed features indicative of an immature neural system, including organelle-poor profiles of young neurons, growth cones, focal points of cellular degeneration, and a lack of myelinated axons and morphologically mature macroglial cells. Of particular interest was the observation that neonatally-castrated male rats failed to exhibit a quantitative increase in whorl bodies by day 15 post partum, in contrast to the characteristic increase in whorl bodies observed in male rats that were castrated in adulthood. The results indicate that the arcuate nucleus undergoes progressive structural maturation during sexual differentiation of the hypothalamus and that this development is not altered ultrastructurally by changes in the steroid environment. At day 15 postpartum, an age at which sexual differentiation is irreversibly fixed, the nucleus remains a partially developed neural system. Further structural maturation, both neuronal and glial, will undoubtedly contribute to changes in hypothalamic regulation of the pituitary-gonad axis which occur with age. The lack of whorl body proliferation in neonatally-castrated males indicates that the arcuate nucleus of developing animals does not respond morphologically to negative steroid feedback mechanisms in a manner comparable to that of adults. The proliferation of whorl bodies in response to steroid withdrawal is thus an age-dependent phenomenon. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6

Walsh, R J; Brawer, J R; Naftolin, F

1982-01-01

169

The footprint of salmonids on river morphology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Female salmonids dig a pit in the streambed where they lay their eggs, which then cover with sediment from a second pit forming an egg nest call redd. This formation results in a shape resembling a dune with an amplitude, which is the vertical difference between bottom of the pit and crest of the hump, varying from few centimetres (for small fish, chum or sockeye salmon) to tenths of a meter (for large fish, Chinook salmon). During redd construction, salmonids alter streambed topography, winnow away fine sediment and mix streambed material within a layer as thick as 50 cm, for the large chinook salmon. The spawning activities may result in additional roughness at the local scale due to redds. However, redd construction may smooth large-scale topography reducing roughness due the macro-bedform. These topographical changes vary streambed roughness, which in turn may affect shear stress distribution. Redds have been suggested to increase the overall flow resistance due to form drag resulting in lower grain shear stress and less particle mobility. However, the mixing of the sediment could prevent armouring of the streambed surface allowing higher than with armouring sediment transport. Here, we use detailed pre- and post-spawning bathymetries coupled with accurate 2-dimensional hydraulic numerical modelling to test which of these two effects has potentially more impact on sediment transport. Our results show that topographical roughness added by sockeye salmons, which build small redds with 15cm amplitude and 1 meter wavelength (longitudinal length of a redd), has negligible effect on shear stress at the reach-scale and limited at the local scale. Conversely, sediment mixing has an important effect on reducing armouring, increasing sediment mobility, which results in potentially more sediment transport in reaches with than without redds. Consequently, salmonid bioturbation due to mass-spawning fish can be a dominant element for sediment transport in mountain drainage basins

Hassan, M. A.; Tonina, D.

2012-12-01

170

Development of Topical Microbicides to Prevent the Sexual Transmission of HIV  

PubMed Central

Women comprise almost 50% of the population of people living with HIV and the majority of these women contracted the virus through sexual transmission in monogamous relationships in the developing world. In these environments, where women are not empowered to protect themselves through the negotiation of condom use, effective means of preventing HIV transmission are urgently needed. In the absence of an approved and effective vaccine, microbicides have become the strategy of choice to provide women with the ability to prevent HIV transmission from their infected partners. Topical microbicides are agents specifically developed and formulated for use in either the vaginal or rectal environment that prevent infection by sexually transmitted infectious organisms, including pathogenic viruses, bacteria and fungi. Although a microbicidal product will have many of the same properties as other anti-infective agents and would be similarly developed through human clinical trials, microbicide development bears its own challenges related to formulation and delivery and the unique environment in which the product must act, as well as the requirement to develop a product that is acceptable to the user. Herein, perspectives based on preclinical and clinical microbicide development experience, which have led to an evolving microbicide development algorithm, will be discussed. This article forms part of a special issue of Antiviral Research marking the 25th anniversary of antiretroviral drug discovery and development, Vol 85, issue 1, 2010”.

Buckheit, Robert W.; Watson, Karen M.; Morrow, Kathleen M.; Ham, Anthony S.

2009-01-01

171

Introduced northern pike predation on salmonids in southcentral Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Northern pike (Esox lucius) are opportunistic predators that can switch to alternative prey species after preferred prey have declined. This trophic adaptability allows invasive pike to have negative effects on aquatic food webs. In Southcentral Alaska, invasive pike are a substantial concern because they have spread to important spawning and rearing habitat for salmonids and are hypothesised to be responsible for recent salmonid declines. We described the relative importance of salmonids and other prey species to pike diets in the Deshka River and Alexander Creek in Southcentral Alaska. Salmonids were once abundant in both rivers, but they are now rare in Alexander Creek. In the Deshka River, we found that juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) dominated pike diets and that small pike consumed more of these salmonids than large pike. In Alexander Creek, pike diets reflected the distribution of spawning salmonids, which decrease with distance upstream. Although salmonids dominated pike diets in the lowest reach of the stream, Arctic lamprey (Lampetra camtschatica) and slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) dominated pike diets in the middle and upper reaches. In both rivers, pike density did not influence diet and pike consumed smaller prey items than predicted by their gape-width. Our data suggest that (1) juvenile salmonids are a dominant prey item for pike, (2) small pike are the primary consumers of juvenile salmonids and (3) pike consume other native fish species when juvenile salmonids are less abundant. Implications of this trophic adaptability are that invasive pike can continue to increase while driving multiple species to low abundance.

Sepulveda, Adam J.; Rutz, David S.; Ivey, Sam S.; Dunker, Kristine J.; Gross, Jackson A.

2013-01-01

172

Descriptive Links between Childhood Sexual Abuse during the First Five Eriksonian Stages and the Development of the Last Four Stages: A Review of the Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The empirical literature regarding the descriptive links between childhood sexual abuse and adult development is reviewed from an Eriksonian perspective. The problems with studying the developmental effects of childhood sexual abuse are discussed. These include the following problems: the lack of differentiation between sexual abuse cases,…

Berendt, Elizabeth Ann

173

Development and initial validation of The Sexual Orientation Beliefs Scale (SOBS).  

PubMed

The purpose of these studies was to develop and validate a measure of beliefs about sexual orientation (SO) that incorporates essentialist, social constructionist, and constructivist themes. The Sexual Orientation Beliefs Scale (SOBS) is offered as a multidimensional instrument with which to assess a broad range of beliefs about SO, which evidence suggests are highly correlated with positive and negative attitudes about sexual minorities. An initial exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted in the general population with a lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender-identified (LGBT) sample (n = 323) and suggested a 4-factor structure of naturalness (? = .86), discreetness (? = .82), entitativity (? = .75), and personal and social importance (? = .68); this 4-factor structure was supported by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with an independent LGBT sample (n = 330; "Form 1"). Additional EFA (n = 183) and CFA (n = 201) in a college student, mostly heterosexual-identified population suggest a slightly different factor structure, whereby group homogeneity (? = .84) and informativeness (? = .77) are salient themes ("Form 2"), and this structure was replicated across SO groups. Finally, a study of test-retest reliability in an undergraduate, mostly heterosexual-identified sample (n = 45) demonstrated strong temporal stability for the SOBS. PMID:23668729

Arseneau, Julie R; Grzanka, Patrick R; Miles, Joseph R; Fassinger, Ruth E

2013-07-01

174

Modelling the effect of fine sediment on salmonid spawning habitat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffuse fine sediment delivery to rivers is recognised as a widespread problem in the UK. Furthermore, projections suggest that sediment pressures may increase in the future due to both climate change and land use changes. This fine sediment infiltrates into the bed and clogs up salmonid spawning gravels. Fine sediment has been found to reduce survival rates of salmonid eggs in both field and laboratory experiments, with the main hypotheses used to explain this being (a) fine sediment reduces gravel permeability and intra-gravel flow velocities; (b) intra-gravel O2 concentrations decrease due to reduced supply and increased consumption by organic sediments; and (c) clay particles block the exchange of O2 across the egg membrane. The SIDO (Sediment Intrusion and Dissolved Oxygen)-UK model is a physically based numerical model which stimulates the effect of fine sediment intrusion on the abiotic characteristics of the salmonid redd, along with the consequences for egg development and survival. The first 2 hypotheses above are represented, while the third is not yet included. Field observations from the River Ithon, Wales, have been used to calibrate the model using sediment accumulation data. The model was then used to assess the impact of varying sediment inputs upon the sediment intrusion rates, abiotic redd characteristics and fish egg survival rates. Results indicate that egg survival is highly sensitive to the discharge and the suspended sediment concentrations, particularly to changes in the supply rate of sand particles, rather than silt and clay. This can be explained by the increased likelihood of blocking of intra-gravel pores by larger sand particles, which reduce intra-gravel flow velocities and the supply of oxygen rich water. A doubling of the sand concentration results in a 51% increase in red infilling, which causes a 24% reduction in the average intra-gravel flow velocity. A corresponding 20% decrease of the average O2 concentration is evident which is a function of reduced supply of oxygen rich water and consumption by sediment within the redd. The results indicate that it is the former of these processes which is the most important, while the Sediment Oxygen Consumption (SOC), mainly associated with the silt and clay fractions, is considered to have a secondary effect on influencing the egg zone abiotic properties. These findings have implications for how we manage the sediment delivery problem.

Pattison, Ian; Sear, David; Collins, Adrian; Jones, Iwan; Naden, Pam

2013-04-01

175

Plasmodium male development gene-1 ( mdv-1) is important for female sexual development and identifies a polarised plasma membrane during zygote development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful development of Plasmodium sexual stages is essential for parasite survival, but the genes involved are poorly understood. We ‘knocked out’ the male development gene-1 (mdv-1) locus in Plasmodium berghei and found it to be important in female gametocyte activation. Indirect immunofluoresence assays show MDV-1 has a punctate cytoplasmic distribution in gametocytes. After activation of both females and males, MDV-1

Kalpana Lal; Michael J. Delves; Elizabeth Bromley; Jonathan M. Wastling; Fiona M. Tomley; Robert E. Sinden

2009-01-01

176

Sexual Assault  

MedlinePLUS

... Sexual Assault Share This Page: Sexual Assault Resources Sexual Assault Sexual assault is a significant problem affecting American ... National Network at 1-800-656-HOPE (4673). Sexual Assault Examinations It is important to know that a ...

177

The Interplay of Sexual and Religious Identity Development in LGBTQ Adolescents and Young Adults: A Qualitative Inquiry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight sexual-minority adolescents (15–18 years old) and 11 young adults (19–24 years old) participated in individual interviews, journal writing, and focus groups to provide greater insight into the interplay of religious and sexual identity development in lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer youth. The majority of the sample identified as being raised in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day

Angie Dahl; Renee V. Galliher

2012-01-01

178

Regulation of sexual development in the basal termite Cryptotermes secundus: mutilation, pheromonal manipulation or honest signal?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social insect colonies are not the harmonious entities they were once considered. Considerable conflicts exist between colony members, as has been shown for Hymenoptera. For termites, similar studies are lacking, but aggressive manipulations have been claimed to regulate sexual development, and even to account for the evolution of workers. This study on a basal termite, Cryptotermes secundus (Kalotermitidae), suggests that the importance of aggressive manipulations in termites has been overemphasized. Wing-bud mutilations, a means proposed to regulate the development of dispersing sexuals (alates), seem to be artifacts of handling conditions that cause disturbance. Aggressive behaviors never occurred unless colonies were disturbed. Theoretical considerations further showed that the potential for intense conflict among termite nestmates is low compared to hymenopteran societies. Strong conflicts are only expected to occur over the replacement of natal reproductives that died, while less intense conflicts should exist over the development into alates when food in the colony becomes limiting. Accordingly, intracolonial aggressive interactions over replacement are common, whereas nestmates seem to manipulate alate development via proctodeal feeding when food resources decline. However, the latter is rather an honest signal than a manipulation because only the most competent prospective dispersers can impede the development of nestmates.

Korb, Judith

2005-01-01

179

The effect of the Kn gene of the sexual development of cockerels.  

PubMed

The sexual development of cockerels of three feather growth rate genotypes, k+/k+, Kn/k+, and Kn/Kn, was studied at 2-week intervals from ages 1 to 31 weeks. Body, testis, and comb weights were collected. Histologic evaluation of testes and semen fertility tests were also made. The Kn gene, when homozygous, delayed body growth, and testis growth and development in homozygous males, thus delaying their sexual maturity 2 to 3 weeks. Body weights, relative testis weights, and seminiferous tubule diameters were similar for the k+/k+ and Kn/k+ males but significantly different from the Kn/Kn males. Stages of spermatozoic development were not significantly different between males of any of the genotypes. Regressions of relative testis weight on body weight and of seminiferous tubule size and stage of spermatozoic development on relative testis weight were not different for any of the genotypes. Relative comb size was significantly different between males of all three genotypes. When regressed against relative testis weight, the Kn/Kn males were significantly different from the other two groups of males. The Kn gene exerted an influence, directly or indirectly, which appeared to reduce testosterone production in the Kn/Kn males. The nature of the Kn gene's action was not evident from these data, nor was it clear whether it was acting on the Leydig cells of the testes or on the lutinizing hormone producing cells of the pituitary. PMID:7465505

Somes, R G; Weigh, L A

1980-11-01

180

Fear, food and sexual ornamentation: plasticity of colour development in Trinidadian guppies  

PubMed Central

The evolution of male ornamentation often reflects compromises between sexual and natural selection, but it may also be influenced by phenotypic plasticity. We investigated the developmental plasticity of male colour ornamentation in Trinidadian guppies in response to two environmental variables that covary in nature: predation risk and food availability. We found that exposure to chemical predator cues delayed the development of pigment-based colour elements, which are conspicuous to visual-oriented predators. Predator cues also reduced the size of colour elements at the time of maturity and caused adult males to be less colourful. To the best of our knowledge, these findings provide the first example of a plastic reduction in the development of a sexually selected male ornament in response to predator cues. The influence of predator cues on ornamentation probably affects individual fitness by reducing conspicuousness to predators, but could reduce attractiveness to females. Reduced food availability during development caused males to delay the development of colour elements and mature later, probably reflecting a physiological constraint, but their coloration at maturity and later in adulthood was largely unaffected, suggesting that variation in food quantity without variation in quality does not contribute to condition dependence of the trait.

Ruell, E. W.; Handelsman, C. A.; Hawkins, C. L.; Sofaer, H. R.; Ghalambor, C. K.; Angeloni, L.

2013-01-01

181

Issues in the diagnosis and management of disorders of sexual development.  

PubMed

Disorders of sexual development (DSD) are a complex group of disorders to manage, not only because the diagnosis is difficult, but also because it involves many factors related to the psychosexual well being, the social stigma associated with the disorder, confusion and reluctance on the part of medical professionals in dealing with this issue, catastrophic experience of parents of these children and difficult interpersonal relationships between parents and children born with this disorder. This brief review attempts to throw light on the recent advances in understanding and management of these disorders to help improve immediate and long term care of these patients and their families. PMID:24052180

Khadilkar, Vaman V; Phanse-Gupte, Supriya

2014-01-01

182

Sexual differentiation in the developing mouse brain: contributions of sex chromosome genes  

PubMed Central

Neural sexual differentiation begins during embryogenesis and continues after birth for a variable amount of time depending on the species and brain region. Because gonadal hormones were the first factors identified in neural sexual differentiation, their role in this process has eclipsed investigation of other factors. Here, we use a mouse with a spontaneous translocation that produces four different unique sets of sex chromosomes. Each genotype has one normal X-chromosome, and a unique second sex chromosome, creating the following genotypes: XY*x, XX, XY*, XXY*. This Y* mouse line is used by several laboratories to study two human aneuploid conditions: Turner and Klinefelter syndromes. Since sex chromosome number affects behavior and brain morphology, we surveyed brain gene expression at embryonic days 11.5 and 18.5 to isolate X-chromosome dose effects in the developing brain as possible mechanistic changes underlying the phenotypes. We compared gene expression differences between gonadal males and females as well as individuals with one versus two X-chromosomes. We present data showing, in addition to genes reported to escape X-inactivation, a number of autosomal genes are differentially expressed between the sexes and in mice with different numbers of X-chromosomes. Based on our results, we can now identify the genes present in the region around the chromosomal break point that produces the Y* model. Our results also indicate an interaction between gonadal development and sex chromosome number that could further elucidate the role of sex chromosome genes and hormones in the sexual differentiation of behavior.

Wolstenholme, Jennifer T.; Rissman, Emilie F.; Bekiranov, Stefan

2012-01-01

183

Ethical parenting of sexually active youth: ensuring safety while enabling development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protection of children from harm is commonly accepted as the cardinal duty of parents. In the USA, where young people's sexuality is often regarded with anxiety, attempts to restrict adolescent sexual behaviour are seen as ethically justified and even required of ‘good’ parents. Running counter to popular anxiety surrounding young people's sexuality is a mounting argument that a degree

Laina Y. Bay-Cheng

2012-01-01

184

The Impact of Clergy-Perpetrated Sexual Abuse: The Role of Gender, Development, and Posttraumatic Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The literature on clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse suggests that there are two modal populations of survivors: boys and adult women. We review what is known about trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder following sexual abuse and explore the different treatment needs for these two survivor groups. For children, clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse can…

Fogler, Jason M.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Clarke, Stephanie; Jensen, Jennifer; Rowe, Erin

2008-01-01

185

Language choice and sexual communication among Xhosa speakers in Cape Town, South Africa: implications for HIV prevention message development  

PubMed Central

Communicating about sex is a vital component of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and influences how HIV educators convey messages to communities and how couples negotiate safer sex practices. However, sexual communication inevitably confronts culturally based behavioral guidelines and linguistic taboos unique to diverse social contexts. The HIV interventionist needs to identify the appropriate language for sexual communication given the participants and the message. Ethnographic research can help facilitate the exploration of how sex terminology is chosen. A theoretical framework, developed to guide HIV interventionists, suggests that an individual's language choice for sexual communication is influenced by gender roles and power differentials. In-depth interviews, free listing and triadic comparisons were conducted with Xhosa men and women in Cape Town, South Africa, to determine the terms for male genitalia, female genitalia and sexual intercourse that are most appropriate for sexual communication. Results showed that sexual terms express cultural norms and role expectations where men should be powerful and resilient and women should be passive and virginal. For HIV prevention education, non-mother tongue (English and Zulu) terms were recommended as most appropriate because they are descriptive, but allow the speaker to communicate outside the restrictive limits of their mother tongue by reducing emotive cultural connotations.

Cain, Demetria; Schensul, Stephen; Mlobeli, Regina

2011-01-01

186

STREAM SYSTEM EVALUATION WITH EMPHASIS ON SPAWNING HABITAT FOR SALMONIDS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents a comprehensive procedure for evaluating sedimentation impact on the streambed gravels used for spawning by salmonids. It establishes a relationship between embryo survival of incubating eggs and the geometric mean diameter of the substrate. It outlines simple...

187

Sexual Dimorphism in the Andromonoecious Euphorbia nicaeensis: Effects of Gender and Inflorescence Development  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims In andromonoecious taxa with separate floral types along the inflorescence, architectural or plastic effects can simulate floral sexual dimorphism. Both the primary and secondary sexual characteristics of the cyathia of the protogynous andromonoecious species Euphorbia nicaeensis were analysed according to their sex and arrangement on the inflorescence. Methods The production of male and hermaphrodite cyathia at each inflorescence level was surveyed in two natural populations. The longevity, size, pollen production and viability, and nectar secretion of both types of cyathia were checked between inflorescence levels and between sexes at the only level at which they occur together. This sampling method makes it possible to know whether differences between cyathia types are based on sex or are attributable to inflorescence development. Key Results Male cyathia were produced predominantly at the first and second inflorescence levels, whereas at levels 3–5, the cyathia were almost exclusively hermaphrodite. Viable pollen production by male cyathia at the second inflorescence level was higher than that of hermaphrodite cyathia at the third level but, when males and hermaphrodites at the same level were compared, their pollen production was similar. Male and hermaphrodite cyathia were similar in size, irrespective of the inflorescence level, although the exclusively hermaphrodite cyathia of the last level were smaller. Both cyathium types produced similar amounts of sugar. However, male cyathia produced nectar during their whole lifespans, whereas hermaphrodites produced it exclusively during their male phase. Moreover, the nectary activity of male cyathia started earlier in the day than that of hermaphrodites. Conclusions An apparent floral dimorphism exists in the primary sexual characteristics of Euphorbia nicaeensis because differences in pollen production between cyathium types are due to theirs positions. Similarly, differences affecting most secondary sexual characteristics are only apparent between the two cyathium types. However, E. nicaeensis shows a true but slight floral dimorphism in some of the secondary sex characters related to nectar secretion. The lack of nectar production by the female phase of the hermaphrodite cyathia of E. nicaeensis indicates that this is a deceit-pollinated species.

Narbona, Eduardo; Ortiz, Pedro Luis; Arista, Montserrat

2008-01-01

188

Determine the Influence of Time Held in Knockdown Anesthesia on Survival and Stress of Surgically Implanted Juvenile Salmonids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) was developed for the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers Portland District (USACE) to address questions related to survival and performance measures of juvenile salmonids as they pass through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). Researchers using JSATS acoustic transmitters (ATs) were tasked with standardizing the surgical implantation procedure to ensure that the

Christa M. Woodley; Katie A. Wagner; Kasey M. Knox

2012-01-01

189

Gas Bubble Trauma Monitoring and Research of Juvenile Salmonids, 1994-1995 Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes laboratory and field monitoring studies of gas bubble trauma (GBT) in migrating juvenile salmonids in the Snake and Columbia rivers. The first chapter describes laboratory studies of the progression of GBT signs leading to mortality and the use of the signs for GBT assessment. The progression and severity of GBT signs in juvenile salmonids exposed to different levels of total dissolved gas (TDG) and temperatures was assessed and quantified. Next, the prevalence, severity, and individual variation of GBT signs was evaluated to attempt to relate them to mortality. Finally, methods for gill examination in fish exposed to high TDG were developed and evaluated. Primary findings were: (1) no single sign of GBT was clearly correlated with mortality, but many GBT signs progressively worsened; (2) both prevalence and severity of GBT signs in several tissues is necessary; (3) bubbles in the lateral line were the earliest sign of GBT, showed progressive worsening, and had low individual variation but may develop poorly during chronic exposures; (4) fin bubbles had high prevalence, progressively worsened, and may be a persistent sign of GBT; and (5) gill bubbles appear to be the proximate cause of death but may only be relevant at high TDG levels and are difficult to examine. Chapter Two describes monitoring results of juvenile salmonids for signs of GBT. Emigrating fish were collected and examined for bubbles in fins and lateral lines. Preliminary findings were: (1) few fish had signs of GBT, but prevalence and severity appeared to increase as fish migrated downstream; (2) there was no apparent correlation between GBT signs in the fins, lateral line, or gills; (3) prevalence and severity of GBT was suggestive of long-term, non-lethal exposure to relatively low level gas supersaturated water; and (4) it appeared that GBT was not a threat to migrating juvenile salmonids. 24 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

Hans, Karen M.

1997-07-01

190

'Popping the Clutch': Novel Mechanisms Regulating Sexual Development in Cryptococcus neoformans  

PubMed Central

Sexual reproduction in fungal pathogens such as Cryptococcus provides natural selection and adaptation of the organisms to environmental conditions by allowing beneficial mutations to spread. However, successful mating in these fungi requires a time-critical induction of signaling pheromones when appropriate partners become available. Recently, it has been shown that the fungus uses the transcriptional equivalent of the racing technique: ‘popping the clutch’-- pushing in the clutch pedal, putting the car in gear, revving with the gas pedal and then dropping the clutch pedal to accelerate rapidly. In the same way, Cryptococcus during vegetative growth constitutively matches a high rate of pheromone synthesis with a high rate of degradation to produce repressed levels of transcript. Then, when mating is required, the fungus drops the degradative machinery, resulting in a rapid induction of the pheromone. Pairing with this novel regulatory cycle are a host of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades, cyclic AMP (cAMP) dependent, and calcium-calcineurin signaling pathways that maintain these high rates of pheromone synthesis and prime downstream pathways for an effective mating response. The intersection of a number of virulence-associated traits with sexual development such as the synthesis of an immune-disruptive laccase as well as a protective polysaccharide capsule makes these rapid regulatory strategies a formidable foe in the battle against human disease.

Park, Yoon-Dong; Williamson, Peter R.

2014-01-01

191

Quantitative assessment of Plasmodium falciparum sexual development reveals potent transmission-blocking activity by methylene blue.  

PubMed

Clinical studies and mathematical models predict that, to achieve malaria elimination, combination therapies will need to incorporate drugs that block the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum sexual stage parasites to mosquito vectors. Efforts to measure the activity of existing antimalarials on intraerythrocytic sexual stage gametocytes and identify transmission-blocking agents have, until now, been hindered by a lack of quantitative assays. Here, we report an experimental system using P. falciparum lines that stably express gametocyte-specific GFP-luciferase reporters, which enable the assessment of dose- and time-dependent drug action on gametocyte maturation and transmission. These studies reveal activity of the first-line antimalarial dihydroartemisinin and the partner drugs lumefantrine and pyronaridine against early gametocyte stages, along with moderate inhibition of mature gametocyte transmission to Anopheles mosquitoes. The other partner agents monodesethyl-amodiaquine and piperaquine showed activity only against immature gametocytes. Our data also identify methylene blue as a potent inhibitor of gametocyte development across all stages. This thiazine dye almost fully abolishes P. falciparum transmission to mosquitoes at concentrations readily achievable in humans, highlighting the potential of this chemical class to reduce the spread of malaria. PMID:22042867

Adjalley, Sophie H; Johnston, Geoffrey L; Li, Tao; Eastman, Richard T; Ekland, Eric H; Eappen, Abraham G; Richman, Adam; Sim, B Kim Lee; Lee, Marcus C S; Hoffman, Stephen L; Fidock, David A

2011-11-22

192

Human Sexuality: Responsible Life Choices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides a complete course in human sexuality. It can also be used to supplement a family living course. Text content provides current information for teaching high school students about sexuality issues. The text offers basic information on growth and development, sexual development, pregnancy, and birth. It explains the sexual decision…

Ryder, Verdene; Smith, Peggy B.

193

How queer!--the development of gender identity and sexual orientation in LGBTQ-headed families.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on the impact of heteronormativity on research and clinical theory, utilizing the case of a lesbian couple with a young gender dysphoric child as a backdrop to discuss the contextual unfolding of gender development within a lesbian parented family. The extant research on LGBTQ-headed families has minimized the complexity of children's developing gender identity and sexual orientation living in queer families, and has been guided by heteronormative assumptions that presume a less optimal outcome if the children of LGBTQ parents are gay or transgender themselves. This article challenges family therapists to recognize the enormous societal pressure on LGBTQ parents to produce heterosexual, gender-normative children, and the expectations on their children, especially those questioning their own sex or gender identities. PMID:20831761

Istar Lev, Arlene

2010-09-01

194

Sexual Identity Development and Self-Esteem as Predictors of Body Image in a Racially Diverse Sample of Gay Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined the relationship between sexual identity development and body image, as well as the potential mediating effect of self-esteem, in a community sample of gay men. A diverse group of participants (N = 172), recruited through listservs and flyers, completed an online survey. Regression analyses were conducted to assess the relationships between identity development and self-esteem, identity

Dana Udall-Weiner

2009-01-01

195

Abnormalities of Sexual Development in Male Rats with in Utero and Lactational Exposure to the Antiandrogenic Plasticizer Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several members of the phthalate ester family have antiandrogenic properties, yet little is known about how exposure to these ubiquitous environmental contaminants early in development may affect sexual development. We conducted experiments to determine effects of in utero and lacta- tional exposure to the most prevalent phthalate ester, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), on male reproductive system development and sexual behavior. Sprague-Dawley

Robert W. Moore; Thomas A. Rudy; Tien-Min Lin; Kinarm Ko; Richard E. Peterson

196

Teenage Sexuality  

MedlinePLUS

... Sexuality Ages & Stages Listen Teenage Sexuality Article Body Sex and sexuality During this time, many young people ... be ready to have sexual intercourse? Will having sex help my relationship? If I am attracted to ...

197

Sexual Health  

MedlinePLUS

... experiences, free of coercion, discrimination and violence. [1] Sexual Health News & Information HHS Statement on LGBT Health Awareness ... infectious diseases, reproductive health and sexual violence prevention. Sexual Health Topics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Up-to-date information ...

198

Sexual assault prevention programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current problems facing the primary prevention of sexual assault are reviewed. Effective sexual assault prevention programs for both males and females have been slow to develop due to the fact that the etiologies of sexual assault have not been identified. Although dissemination of prevention programs has become increasingly popular in recent years, few programs have evaluated the extent to which

Elizabeth A. Yeater; William O'Donohue

1999-01-01

199

Preliminary development of a scale to measure stigma relating to sexually transmitted infections among women in a high risk neighbourhood  

PubMed Central

Background As stigma is a socially constructed concept, it would follow that stigma related to sexual behaviours and sexually transmitted infections would carry with it many of the gender-based morals that are entrenched in social constructs of sexuality. In many societies, women tend to be judged more harshly with respect to sexual morals, and would therefore have a different experience of stigma related to sexual behaviours as compared to men. While a variety of stigma scales exist for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in general; none incorporate these female-specific aspects. The objective of this study was to develop a scale to measure the unique experience of STI-related stigma among women. Methods A pool of items was identified from qualitative and quantitative literature on sexual behaviour and STIs among women. Women attending a social evening program at a local community health clinic in a low-income neighbourhood with high prevalence of substance use were passively recruited to take part in a cross-sectional structured interview, including questions on sexual behaviour, sexual health and STI-related stigma. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify stigma scales, and descriptive statistics were used to assess the associations of demographics, sexual and drug-related risk behaviours with the emerging scales. Results Three scales emerged from exploratory factor analysis – female-specific moral stigma, social stigma (judgement by others) and internal stigma (self-judgement) – with alpha co-efficients of 0.737, 0.705 and 0.729, respectively. In this population of women, internal stigma and social stigma carried higher scores than female-specific moral stigma. Aboriginal ethnicity was associated with higher internal and female-specific moral stigma scores, while older age (>30 years) was associated with higher female-specific moral stigma scores. Conclusion Descriptive statistics indicated an important influence of culture and age on specific types of stigma. Quantitative researchers examining STI-stigma should consider incorporating these female-specific factors in order to tailor scales for women.

Rusch, Melanie LA; Shoveller, Jean A; Burgess, Susan; Stancer, Karen; Patrick, David M; Tyndall, Mark W

2008-01-01

200

Differential invasion success of salmonids in southern Chile: patterns and hypotheses  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Biological invasions create complex ecological and societal issues worldwide. Most of the knowledge about invasions comes only from successful invaders, but less is known about which processes determine the differential success of invasions. In this review, we develop a framework to identify the main dimensions driving the success and failure of invaders, including human influences, characteristics of the invader, and biotic interactions. We apply this framework by contrasting hypotheses and available evidence to explain variability in invasion success for 12 salmonids introduced to Chile. The success of Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salmo trutta seems to be influenced by a context-specific combination of their phenotypic plasticity, low ecosystem resistance, and propagule pressure. These well-established invaders may limit the success of subsequently introduced salmonids, with the possible exception of O. tshawytscha, which has a short freshwater residency and limited spatial overlap with trout. Although propagule pressure is high for O. kisutch and S. salar due to their intensive use in aquaculture, their lack of success in Chile may be explained by environmental resistance, including earlier spawning times than in their native ranges, and interactions with previously established and resident Rainbow Trout. Other salmonids have also failed to establish, and they exhibit a suite of ecological traits, environmental resistance, and limited propagule pressure that are variably associated with their lack of success. Collectively, understanding how the various drivers of invasion success interact may explain the differential success of invaders and provide key guidance for managing both positive and negative outcomes associated with their presence.

Arismendi, Ivan;Penaluna, Brooke E.;Dunham, Jason;García de Leaniz, Carlos;Soto, Doris;Fleming, Ian A.;Gomez-Uchidam, Daniel;Gajardo, Gonzalo;Vargas, Pamela V.;León-Muñoz, Jorge

2014-01-01

201

Assessing the reliability and validity of the Chinese Sexual Assault Symptom Scale (C-SASS): scale development and validation.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research is to establish and verify the psychometric and structural properties of the self-report Chinese Sexual Assault Symptom Scale (C-SASS) to assess the trauma experienced by Chinese victims of sexual assault. An earlier version of the C-SASS was constructed using a modified list of the same trauma symptoms administered to an American sample and used to develop and validate the Sexual Assault Symptom Scale II (SASS II). The rationale of this study is to revise the earlier version of the C-SASS, using a larger and more representative sample and more robust statistical analysis than in earlier research, to permit a more thorough examination of the instrument and further confirm the dimensions of sexual assault trauma in Chinese victims of rape. In this study, a sample of 418 victims from northern Taiwan was collected to confirm the reliability and validity of the C-SASS. Exploratory factor analysis yielded five common factors: Safety Fears, Self-Blame, Health Fears, Anger and Emotional Lability, and Fears About the Criminal Justice System. Further tests of the validity and composite reliability of the C-SASS were provided by the structural equation modeling (SEM). The results indicated that the C-SASS was a brief, valid, and reliable instrument for assessing sexual assault trauma among Chinese victims in Taiwan. The scale can be used to evaluate victims in sexual assault treatment centers around Taiwan, as well as to capture the characteristics of sexual assault trauma among Chinese victims. PMID:24128426

Wang, Chang-Hwai; Lee, Jin-Chuan; Yuan, Yu-Hsi

2014-01-01

202

Sexual Fantasy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the research literature on sexual fantasy, a central aspect of human sexual behavior. Topics include (a) gender similarities and differences in the incidence, frequency, and content of sexual fantasies and how they relate to sociocultural and sociobiological theories of sexual behavior; (b) the association between frequency or content of sexual fantasies and variables such as age, sexual

Harold Leitenberg; Kris Henning

1995-01-01

203

The coming-out process of young lesbian and bisexual women: are there butch/femme differences in sexual identity development?  

PubMed

Research on lesbian and bisexual women has documented various biological and behavioral differences between butch and femme women. However, little research has examined whether differences exist in sexual identity development (i.e., the coming-out process). The present study examined longitudinally potential butch/femme differences in sexual identity formation and integration among an ethnically diverse sample of 76 self-identified lesbian and bisexual young women (ages 14-21 years). A composite measure of butch/femme identity classified 43% as butch and 51% as femme. Initial comparisons found butch/femme differences in sexual identity (i.e., nearly all butches identified as lesbian, but about half of femmes identified as bisexual), suggesting the need to examine this confound. Comparisons of lesbian butches, lesbian femmes, and bisexual femmes found that lesbian butches and femmes generally did not differ on sexual identity formation, but they differed from bisexual femmes. Lesbian butches and femmes had sexual behaviors and a cognitive sexual orientation that were more centered on women than those of bisexual femmes. With respect to sexual identity integration, lesbian butches were involved in more gay social activities, were more comfortable with others knowing about their homosexuality, and were more certain, comfortable, and accepting of their sexual identity than were bisexual femmes. Fewer differences were found between lesbian femmes and bisexual femmes or between lesbian butches and lesbian femmes. The findings suggest that sexual identity formation does not differ between butch or femme women, but differences are linked to sexual identity as lesbian or bisexual. Further, the findings that lesbian femmes sometimes differed from lesbian butches and at other times from bisexual femmes on sexual identity integration suggest that neither sexual identity nor butch/femme alone may explain sexual identity integration. Research examining the intersection between sexual identity and butch/ femme is needed. PMID:17896173

Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Hunter, Joyce; Levy-Warren, Anna

2009-02-01

204

Cell Differentiation during Sexual Development of the Fungus Sordaria macrospora Requires ATP Citrate Lyase Activity  

PubMed Central

During sexual development, mycelial cells from most filamentous fungi differentiate into typical fruiting bodies. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of the Sordaria macrospora developmental mutant per5, which exhibits a sterile phenotype with defects in fruiting body maturation. Cytological investigations revealed that the mutant strain forms only ascus precursors without any mature spores. Using an indexed cosmid library, we were able to complement the mutant to fertility by DNA-mediated transformation. A single cosmid clone, carrying a 3.5-kb region able to complement the mutant phenotype, has been identified. Sequencing of the 3.5-kb region revealed an open reading frame of 2.1 kb interrupted by a 66-bp intron. The predicted polypeptide (674 amino acids) shows significant homology to eukaryotic ATP citrate lyases (ACLs), with 62 to 65% amino acid identity, and the gene was named acl1. The molecular mass of the S. macrospora ACL1 polypeptide is 73 kDa, as was verified by Western blot analysis with a hemagglutinin (HA) epitope-tagged ACL1 polypeptide. Immunological in situ detection of the HA-tagged polypeptide demonstrated that ACL is located within the cytosol. Sequencing of the mutant acl1 gene revealed a 1-nucleotide transition within the coding region, resulting in an amino acid substitution within the predicted polypeptide. Further evidence that ACL1 is essential for fruiting body maturation comes from experiments in which truncated and mutated versions of the acl1 gene were used for transformation. None of these copies was able to reconstitute the fertile phenotype in transformed per5 recipient strains. ACLs are usually involved in the formation of cytosolic acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), which is used for the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols. Protein extracts from the mutant strain showed a drastic reduction in enzymatic activity compared to values obtained from the wild-type strain. Investigation of the time course of ACL expression suggests that ACL is specifically induced at the beginning of the sexual cycle and produces acetyl-CoA, which most probably is a prerequisite for fruiting body formation during later stages of sexual development. We discuss the contribution of ACL activity to the life cycle of S. macrospora.

Nowrousian, Minou; Masloff, Sandra; Poggeler, Stefanie; Kuck, Ulrich

1999-01-01

205

Adolescent sexuality.  

PubMed

Sex education is almost mandated in the United States. The data reviewing sexual activity in the adolescent population indicates that large numbers of women under the age of 19 who have unintended pregnancies are at risk for an increased frequency of sexually transmitted diseases which will affect their future. It is essential that good educational programs and preventive service programs be developed and mandated for the adolescent population. Experience in Western Europe demonstrates that the adolescent who has a proper education concerning sexual activity, sexually transmitted disease, and contraception is at lower risk for the many problems that we see in the United States. There must be cross-cultural data that can be translated for use in the entire world. As the population of this world ages, we must protect those who are entering adulthood from being exposed to the STDs and undertaking the responsibility of parenting without having reached full maturity. The cost in dollars of the sequelae of adolescent pregnancies are great. These costs are not only financial, but also emotional and social, and they have a negative impact on the country in which the adolescent lives. We have a heavy responsibility as physicians and health care professionals to see that the adolescents of the world are given the knowledge and models to use to reduce the risk for pregnancy and the acquisition of a sexually transmitted disease. PMID:9238294

Goldfarb, A F

1997-06-17

206

Sexual orientations in perspective.  

PubMed

This article presents a new paradigm for understanding the complexity of human sexual, affectional, and erotic attractions--commonly known as sexual orientation. This new paradigm recognizes that there is great diversity among sexual orientations, erotic and emotional attractions, behaviors, and identities and that there are complex interrelations among these dimensions. Sexual orientation is determined by multiple influences, including a wide range of sociocultural factors. The development of sexual orientation is arrived at through multiple pathways. Individuals with the same sexual orientation may have little else in common. Thus, a model of sexual orientation is presented that is based on multiplicity, not sameness, and that examines the overlapping identities and statuses of culture, gender, age, race, ethnicity, class, disability, and sexuality. PMID:11987589

Garnets, Linda D

2002-05-01

207

Sexual development and reproductive demography of the green humphead parrotfish ( Bolbometopon muricatum) in the Solomon Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation of the reproductive biology of the green humphead parrotfish ( Bolbometopon muricatum) from three areas in the Western Province of the Solomon Islands revealed that B. muricatum exhibits several features that differ from the pattern of reproductive development observed in most parrotfishes. Unlike most parrotfishes, histological evidence suggests that the sexual pattern of B. muricatum is essentially gonochoristic with high incidences of anatomical but non-functional hermaphroditism. B. muricatum also differs from other parrotfishes in that all males pass through an immature female (or bisexual) phase as demonstrated by all adult testis retaining the ex-ovarian lumen and peripheral sperm sinuses in the gonad wall. However, a protogynous diandric reproductive strategy cannot be excluded given that sampling may have missed transitional individuals. Marked variation in the demography of male B. muricatum between the three locations examined is considered to reflect variation in historical fishing effort.

Hamilton, R. J.; Adams, S.; Choat, J. H.

2008-03-01

208

Sexual Identity as a Universal Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter summarizes advances in current theoretical and empirical literature on sexual identity development. It proposes\\u000a a model of sexual identity that offers a more global (i.e., non-sexual identity group specific) perspective in comparison\\u000a to existing sexual identity group-specific sexual identity models. Attention to commonalities in sexual identity development\\u000a across sexual identity subgroups can offer a more global perspective that

Frank R. Dillon; Roger L. Worthington; Bonnie Moradi

209

Sexual Health for America's Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Commission on Adolescent Sexual Health developed a professional consensus statement about adolescent sexual health. Its report for policymakers recommends that adults face the facts about adolescent sexuality and that public policies on adolescent sexual health be based on appropriate knowledge, accurate data, current theory, ongoing…

Haffner, Debra W.

1996-01-01

210

Relationships of Pubertal Development among Early Adolescents to Sexual and Nonsexual Risk Behaviors and Caregivers' Parenting Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a school-based sample of fifth graders (mean age = 10.38, SD = 0.66) and their parents (N = 408) from Washington, D.C., the authors examine associations of pubertal development with early adolescents' sexual and nonsexual risk behaviors and their caregivers' parenting behaviors and of these risk behaviors with parenting behaviors. Results…

Koo, Helen P.; Rose, Allison; Bhaskar, Brinda; Walker, Leslie R.

2012-01-01

211

Building a scientific framework for studying hormonal effects on behavior and on the development of the sexually dimorphic nervous system  

EPA Science Inventory

There has been increasing concern that low-dose exposure to hormonally active chemicals disrupts sexual differentiation of the brain and peripheral nervous system. There also has been active drug development research on the therapeutic potential of hormone therapy on behaviors. T...

212

DEVELOPMENT OF THE PRIMARY GONADS AND DIFFEREN TIATION OF SEXUALITY IN TEREDO NAVALIS AND OTHER PELECYPOD MOLLUSKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In connection with studies on the sexual differentiation and changes of sex' in several genera of bivalve mollusks the writer has observed certain morpho logical characteristics of the gonads which seem not to have been reported previously. These concern particularly the types of cells which compose the gonads in the early stages of development and the provisions for the nourishment

WESLEY R. COE

213

EFFECTS OF PRENATAL TESTOSTERONE PROPIONATE ON SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT OF MALE AND FEMALE RATS: A DOSE-RESPONSE STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Effects of Prenatal Testosterone Propionate on Sexual Development of Male and Female Rats: A Dose-Response Study Cynthia Wolf1,2, Joe Ostby1*, Andrew Hotchkiss3, Gerald LeBlanc2, and L. Earl Gray, Jr.1 1USEPA, NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, RTP, NC; 2Dept. of To...

214

EFFECTS OF PRENATAL TESTOSTERONE PROPIONATE ON THE SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT OF MALE AND FEMALE RATS: A DOSE-RESPONSE STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Effects of Prenatal Testosterone Propionate on the Sexual Development of Male and Female Rats: A Dose-Response Study Cynthia J. Wolf1,2, Andrew Hotchkiss3, Joseph S. Ostby1, Gerald A. LeBlanc2 and L. Earl Gray1,4, Jr. ABSTRACT Testosterone plays a major role in ...

215

Uncommonly Good: Exploring How Mass Media May Be a Positive Influence on Young Women's Sexual Health and Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter discusses several ways in which the media may serve as a positive force in young women's sexual health and development through the information and models they provide and the opportunities they offer for validation and self-expression. (Contains 1 table.)

Ward, L. Monique; Day, Kyla M.; Epstein, Marina

2006-01-01

216

Rescue of synthetic salmonid rhabdovirus minigenomes.  

PubMed

Synthetic T7-driven cDNA minigenomes containing the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene as a reporter were derived from the genome of two salmonid novirhabdoviruses, infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). We showed that an exogenous IHNV RNA minigenome transfected into fish cells could be rescued following IHNV infection as it was replicated, encapsidated and transcribed. When cells were infected with a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing T7 RNA polymerase (vTF7-3), transfected with the plasmid carrying the IHNV minigenome (genomic- and antigenomic-sense) and superinfected with IHNV, rescue of the minigenome was more efficient. Heterologous VHSV/IHNV rescue experiments failed. Finally, when the IHNV N, P and L proteins were expressed from cDNAs in cells, the minigenome was also successfully rescued, indicating that the nucleocapsid proteins were biologically functional. These data represent the first example of rescue experiments for non-mammalian rhabdoviruses replicating at a low temperature. PMID:10900031

Biacchesi, S; Yu, Y X; Béarzotti, M; Tafalla, C; Fernandez-Alonso, M; Brémont, M

2000-08-01

217

Development of an Attachment-Informed Measure of Sexual Behavior in Late Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is considerable interest in relations between sexual behavior and romantic attachment styles in adolescence as attachment needs are increasingly met through intimate partners rather than parents. The objectives of this research were to organize a measure of sexual behavior within an attachment theory framework, and then show that this new…

Szielasko, Alicia L.; Symons, Douglas K.; Price, E. Lisa

2013-01-01

218

Ethical Parenting of Sexually Active Youth: Ensuring Safety While Enabling Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The protection of children from harm is commonly accepted as the cardinal duty of parents. In the USA, where young people's sexuality is often regarded with anxiety, attempts to restrict adolescent sexual behaviour are seen as ethically justified and even required of "good" parents. Running counter to popular anxiety surrounding…

Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.

2013-01-01

219

The Development of Conventional Sexual Partner Trajectories among African American Male Adolescents  

PubMed Central

African American male youth disproportionately report involvement with multiple sexual partners, which increases their risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and initiation of unplanned pregnancies. Little is known about the developmental precursors of sexual partner trajectories among African American male youth. Moreover, few studies focus on the many African American youth who evince highly conventional sexual partner trajectories, i.e., youth who have only one partner or abstain from sexual activity across time. Using four waves of data from a longitudinal study, we hypothesized that an accumulation of social and economic disadvantages in early adolescence would negatively influence youths’ conventional sexual partner trajectories in late adolescence. We expected these disadvantages to affect youths’ receipt of protective family processes and their reports of a set of intrapersonal processes (self-regulation, hope, and low levels of anger) linked to generally conventional behavior. Hypotheses were tested with data from 315 African American male youth from 11 to 18.5 years of age and their primary caregivers. Our results supported the hypotheses. Socioeconomic disadvantages during preadolescence predicted less involvement in conventional sexual partner trajectories from ages 16 to 18.5 years. This association was mediated by protective family processes and a set of interrelated intrapersonal protective processes. Preventive interventions designed to promote protective parenting and intrapersonal processes can be expected to promote sexual behavior trajectories characterized by abstinence or relations with very few partners.

Kogan, Steven M.; Yu, Tianyi; Brody, Gene H.; Allen, Kimberly A.

2012-01-01

220

Sexual Harassment and the Developing Sense of Self among Adolescent Girls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents findings from a national action study focusing on sexual harassment as it is experienced and understood by girls. Findings reveal that sexual harassment occurs in a highly public manner; is supported and condoned in subtle and explicit ways; and through its enactment, girls' sense of selves diminished. Discusses implications for…

Berman, Helene; Izumi, Janet; Arnold, Carrie Traher

2002-01-01

221

Development of a Clinical Instrument to Record Sexual Aggression in an Inpatient Psychiatric Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While there are a number of instruments that assess historical factors related to sexual aggression for the purposes of risk assessment, there is a notable absence of measures that assess change in ongoing, sexually aggressive behaviours engaged in by people who reside in psychiatric hospitals. The purpose of this report is to describe the…

Jones, Nicole Tuomi; Sheitman, Brian; Hazelrigg, Mark; Carmel, Harold; Williams, Jim; Paesler, Betty

2007-01-01

222

SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT AND BEHAVIOUR ISSUES IN POLISH TEENAGE MAGAzINES  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaRy Introduction: Adolescents often look to mass media for information regarding issues of sexuality. As one form of media, teenage magazines have long constituted a pervasive and effective element of adolescent media exposure. Teenage magazines discuss a number of aspects concerning adolescent sexuality. Considering their potential impact on health related behaviors, the information they provide and the message(s) they send

S. Kopacz

223

Toward a Sexual Ethics Curriculum: Bringing Philosophy and Society to Bear on Individual Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For over a decade, battles have raged between conservative Abstinence Only Until Marriage (AOUM) sexuality education advocates and liberal Comprehensive Sexuality Education (CSE) advocates. While these battles have focused on the inclusion of health information about contraception and whether or not a curriculum must advocate abstinence as the…

Lamb, Sharon

2010-01-01

224

A transcriptional switch underlies commitment to sexual development in malaria parasites.  

PubMed

The life cycles of many parasites involve transitions between disparate host species, requiring these parasites to go through multiple developmental stages adapted to each of these specialized niches. Transmission of malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) from humans to the mosquito vector requires differentiation from asexual stages replicating within red blood cells into non-dividing male and female gametocytes. Although gametocytes were first described in 1880, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in commitment to gametocyte formation is extremely limited, and disrupting this critical developmental transition remains a long-standing goal. Here we show that expression levels of the DNA-binding protein PfAP2-G correlate strongly with levels of gametocyte formation. Using independent forward and reverse genetics approaches, we demonstrate that PfAP2-G function is essential for parasite sexual differentiation. By combining genome-wide PfAP2-G cognate motif occurrence with global transcriptional changes resulting from PfAP2-G ablation, we identify early gametocyte genes as probable targets of PfAP2-G and show that their regulation by PfAP2-G is critical for their wild-type level expression. In the asexual blood-stage parasites pfap2-g appears to be among a set of epigenetically silenced loci prone to spontaneous activation. Stochastic activation presents a simple mechanism for a low baseline of gametocyte production. Overall, these findings identify PfAP2-G as a master regulator of sexual-stage development in malaria parasites and mark the first discovery of a transcriptional switch controlling a differentiation decision in protozoan parasites. PMID:24572369

Kafsack, Björn F C; Rovira-Graells, Núria; Clark, Taane G; Bancells, Cristina; Crowley, Valerie M; Campino, Susana G; Williams, April E; Drought, Laura G; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P; Baker, David A; Cortés, Alfred; Llinás, Manuel

2014-03-13

225

Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Yakima River Tributaries, 2001-2002 Technical Report.  

SciTech Connect

The benefits that marine derived nutrients from adult salmon carcasses provide to juvenile salmonids are increasingly being recognized. Current estimates suggest that only 6-7% of marine-derived nitrogen and phosphorus that were historically available to salmonids in the Pacific Northwest are currently available. Food limitation may be a major constraint limiting the restoration of salmonids. A variety of methods have been proposed to offset this nutrient deficit including: allowing greater salmon spawning escapement, stocking hatchery salmon carcasses, and stocking inorganic nutrients. Unfortunately, each of these methods has some ecological or socio-economic shortcoming. We intend to overcome many of these shortcomings by making and evaluating a pathogen free product that simulates a salmon carcass (analog). Abundant sources of marine derived nutrients are available such as fish offal from commercial fishing and salmon carcasses from hatcheries. However, a method for recycling these nutrients into a pathogen free analog that degrades at a similar rate as a natural salmon carcass has never been developed. We endeavored to (1) develop a salmon carcass analog that will increase the food available to salmonids, (2) determine the pathways that salmonids use to acquire food from analogs, and (3) determine the benefits to salmonids and the potential for application to salmonid restoration. We used a before-after-control-impact-paired design in six tributaries of the upper Yakima basin to determine the utility of stocking carcass analogs. Our preliminary results suggest that the introduction of carcass analogs into food-limited streams can be used to restore food pathways previously provided by anadromous salmon. The analogs probably reproduced both of the major food pathways that salmon carcasses produce: direct consumption and food chain enhancement. Trout and salmon fed directly on the carcass analogs during the late summer and presumably benefited from the increased invertebrate biomass later in the year. Future reports will analyze whether any benefits are statistically detectable. The risks of using carcass analogs also appear to be low. Pathogens appear to be killed in the manufacturing process of the analogs. In addition, preliminary results suggest that fish exposed to the analogs did not have higher incidences of pathogens. The water quality was also not degraded by the analog additions with the exception of a temporary surface film. Finally, our anecdotal observations, suggested that there was not an increase in the number of predators during the first year of analog distribution. In summary, the risks of analog placement appear to be low but the benefits appear to be high. All results should be considered preliminary until further analyses and field work are conducted.

Pearsons, Todd N.; Johnson, Christopher L. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

2003-04-01

226

Partner notification for sexually transmitted infections in developing countries: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background The feasibility and acceptability of partner notification (PN) for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in developing countries was assessed through a comprehensive literature review, to help identify future intervention needs. Methods The Medline, Embase, and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify studies published between January 1995 and December 2007 on STI PN in developing countries. A systematic review of the research extracted information on: (1) willingness of index patients to notify partners; (2) the proportion of partners notified or referred; (3) client-reported barriers in notifying partners; (4) infrastructure barriers in notifying partners; and (5) PN approaches that were evaluated in developing countries. Results Out of 609 screened articles, 39 met our criteria. PN outcome varied widely and was implemented more often for spousal partners than for casual or commercial partners. Reported barriers included sociocultural factors such as stigma, fear of abuse for having an STI, and infrastructural factors related to the limited number of STD clinics, and trained providers and reliable diagnostic methods. Client-oriented counselling was found to be effective in improving partner referral outcomes. Conclusions STD clinics can improve PN with client-oriented counselling, which should help clients to overcome perceived barriers. The authors speculate that well-designed PN interventions to evaluate the impact on STI prevalence and incidence along with cost-effectiveness components will motivate policy makers in developing countries to allocate more resources towards STI management.

2010-01-01

227

Sustainable development, demography and sexual and reproductive health: inseparable linkages and their policy implications.  

PubMed

The greatest challenge today is to meet the needs of current and future generations, of a large and growing world population, without imposing catastrophic pressures on the natural environment. Meeting this challenge depends on decisive policy changes in three areas: more inclusive economic growth, greener economic growth, and population policies. This article focuses on efforts to address and harness demographic changes for sustainable development, which are largely outside the purview of the current debate. Efforts to this end must be based on the recognition that demographic changes are the cumulative result of individual choices and opportunities, and that demographic changes are best addressed through policies that enlarge these choices and opportunities, with a focus on ensuring unrestricted and universal access to sexual and reproductive health information and services, empowering women to fully participate in social, economic and political life, and investing in the education of the younger generation beyond the primary level. The article provides a strong argument for why the Programme of Action that was agreed at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) 20 years ago continues to hold important implications and lessons for the formulation of the post-2015 development agenda, which is expected to supersede the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). PMID:24908454

Herrmann, Michael

2014-06-01

228

Heterochronic expression of sexual reproductive programs during apomictic development in Tripsacum.  

PubMed Central

Some angiosperms reproduce by apomixis, a natural way of cloning through seeds. Apomictic plants bypass both meiosis and egg cell fertilization, producing progeny that are genetic replicas of the mother plant. In this report, we analyze reproductive development in Tripsacum dactyloides, an apomictic relative of maize, and in experimental apomictic hybrids between maize and Tripsacum. We show that apomictic reproduction is characterized by an alteration of developmental timing of both sporogenesis and early embryo development. The absence of female meiosis in apomictic Tripsacum results from an early termination of female meiosis. Similarly, parthenogenetic development of a maternal embryo in apomicts results from precocious induction of early embryogenesis events. We also show that male meiosis in apomicts is characterized by comparable asynchronous expression of developmental stages. Apomixis thus results in an array of possible phenotypes, including wild-type sexual development. Overall, our observations suggest that apomixis in Tripsacum is a heterochronic phenotype; i.e., it relies on a deregulation of the timing of reproductive events, rather than on the alteration of a specific component of the reproductive pathway.

Grimanelli, Daniel; Garcia, Marcelina; Kaszas, Etienne; Perotti, Enrico; Leblanc, Olivier

2003-01-01

229

Salmonid gill bacteria and their relationship to amoebic gill disease.  

PubMed

16S ribosomal RNA gene analysis was used to assess the bacterial community associated with Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., gills which were either affected by amoebic gill disease (AGD) or were AGD-negative, in order to determine the role that bacteria may play in the development of AGD. AGD-positive specimens were either infected in the laboratory with Neoparamoeba pemaquidensis, the causative agent of AGD, or were obtained from commercial salmon cages. Samples from laboratory fish maintained in sea water possessed a marine-type community while field samples which had been treated by a series of freshwater baths possessed a more diverse community which included variable proportions of different bacterial ecotypes, including groups typically associated with soil, skin surfaces and faeces. Samples from fish infected with AGD in the laboratory and a sample from one of two salmon cage fish specimens were dominated by a phylotype belonging to the strictly marine bacterial genus Psychroserpens (family Flavobacteriaceae, phylum Bacteroidetes). The phylotype was not detected in any of the AGD-negative samples or in one of two AGD-positive samples obtained from fish subjected to temporary freshwater immersion. The possibility of certain Psychroserpens species as potential opportunistic pathogens associated with salmonid AGD is proposed. PMID:15291790

Bowman, J P; Nowak, B

2004-08-01

230

Nonmyocytic androgen receptor regulates the sexually dimorphic development of the embryonic bulbocavernosus muscle.  

PubMed

The bulbocavernosus (BC) is a sexually dimorphic muscle observed only in males. Androgen receptor knockout mouse studies show the loss of BC formation. This suggests that androgen signaling plays a vital role in its development. Androgen has been known to induce muscle hypertrophy through satellite cell activation and myonuclei accretion during muscle regeneration and growth. Whether the same mechanism is present during embryonic development is not yet elucidated. To identify the mechanism of sexual dimorphism during BC development, the timing of morphological differences was first established. It was revealed that the BC was morphologically different between male and female mice at embryonic day (E) 16.5. Differences in the myogenic process were detected at E15.5. The male BC possesses a higher number of proliferating undifferentiated myoblasts. To identify the role of androgen signaling in this process, muscle-specific androgen receptor (AR) mutation was introduced, which resulted in no observable phenotypes. Hence, the expression of AR in the BC was examined and found that the AR did not colocalize with any muscle markers such as Myogenic differentiation 1, Myogenin, and paired box transcription factor 7. It was revealed that the mesenchyme surrounding the BC expressed AR and the BC started to express AR at E15.5. AR mutation on the nonmyocytic cells using spalt-like transcription factor 1 (Sall1) Cre driver mouse was performed, which resulted in defective BC formation. It was revealed that the number of proliferating undifferentiated myoblasts was reduced in the Sall1 Cre:AR(L-/Y) mutant embryos, and the adult mutants were devoid of BC. The transition of myoblasts from proliferation to differentiation is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. An increased expression of p21 was observed in the BC myoblast of the Sall1 Cre:AR(L-/Y) mutant and wild-type female. Altogether this study suggests that the nonmyocytic AR may paracrinely regulate the proliferation of myoblast possibly through inhibiting p21 expression in myoblasts of the BC. PMID:24742196

Ipulan, Lerrie Ann; Suzuki, Kentaro; Sakamoto, Yuki; Murashima, Aki; Imai, Yuuki; Omori, Akiko; Nakagata, Naomi; Nishinakamura, Ryuichi; Valasek, Petr; Yamada, Gen

2014-07-01

231

Stirring It up or Stirring It in? Perspectives on the Development of Sexualities Equality in a Faith-Based Primary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines what happened within one Church of England primary school during an action research project concerning sexualities. "No Outsiders" aimed at exploring how teachers developed classroom practices that promoted greater inclusion of sexual minorities, at the same time as working to eradicate homophobic bullying and heterosexism.…

Nixon, David; East, Sue

2010-01-01

232

Sustaining salmonid populations: A caring understanding of naturalness of taxa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Species of the family of Salmonidae occur naturally in Northern Hemisphere waters that remain clear and cool to cold in summer. For purposes of reproduction, salmonids generally behaviorally respond to the currents of streams and lakes in recently glaciated areas. For feeding and maturation, many larger species migrate into existing systems of large lakes, seas, and oceans. The subfamilies include Salmoninae, Coregoninae, and Thymallinae. In many locales and regions of the hemisphere, numerous species of these subfamilies evolved and self-organized into species flocks or taxocenes of bewildering complexity. For example, any individual species may play different or unique ecological roles in different taxocenes. The northern Pacific and Atlantic Ocean ecosystems, with their seas and tributaries, each contained a metacomplex of such taxocenes that, in their natural state some centuries ago, resembled each other but differed in many ways. Humans have valued all species of this family for subsistence, ceremonial, naturalist, gustatory, angling, and commercial reasons for centuries. Modern progressive humans (MPHs), whose industrial and commercial enterprises have gradually spread over this hemisphere in recent time, now affect aquatic ecosystems at all scales from local to global. These human effects mingle in complex ways that together induce uniquely natural salmonid taxocenes to disintegrate with the loss of species, including those groups least tolerant to human manipulations, but extending more recently to those taxa more adapted to anthropogenic change. As we leave the modern era, dominated by MPHs, will we find ways to live sustainably with salmonid taxocenes that still exhibit self-organizational integrity, or will only individual, isolated populations of salmonid species, derived from those most tolerant of MPHs, survive? To achieve future sustainability of salmonids, we suggest implementation of a search for intuitive knowledge based on faith in the wisdom of nature and a caring-sharing, behavioral structure based on "survival of the wisest" for both humans and salmonids. ?? 2004 by the American Fisheries Society.

Nielsen, J. L.; Regier, H. A.

2004-01-01

233

Sexuality in older women.  

PubMed

A host of biological and psychosocial factors play an important role in age-related changes of female sexuality. The most important of these are the availability of a sexually active partner and presence of concurrent illnesses. Some of the age-related changes in physiological indicators of sexual function, such as vaginal blood flow, are the result of estrogen deficiency, and as such are essentially reversible. Despite the inherent limitations of many studies in female sexuality, a significant degree of objective measurements has been reported in the literature. Future research should focus on developing appropriate techniques for quantitative estimation of sexual response in women. The need for love and sexual intimacy does not diminish with age, and sexual history should be part of the clinical evaluation of older patients. PMID:2331184

Mooradian, A D; Greiff, V

1990-05-01

234

Predicting Different Patterns of Sexual Identity Development Over Time Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youths: A Cluster Analytic Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has suggested that the sexual identity development of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths may not follow\\u000a a single pattern, but may follow a variety of pathways. Although some research documenting variability in identity development\\u000a exists, unclear are the potential individual and social contexts that predict these different patterns, as well as the contexts\\u000a that predict changes in

Margaret Rosario; Eric W. Schrimshaw; Joyce Hunter

2008-01-01

235

Revisiting Healthy Sexuality & Sexual Violence Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article will profile two programs using a healthy sexuality approach, and will also report on key policy and practice developments that have come to light since the original healthy sexuality articles were published. The two programs, the Canadian-based \\

Brad Perry

2008-01-01

236

A salmonid EST genomic study: genes, duplications, phylogeny and microarrays  

PubMed Central

Background Salmonids are of interest because of their relatively recent genome duplication, and their extensive use in wild fisheries and aquaculture. A comprehensive gene list and a comparison of genes in some of the different species provide valuable genomic information for one of the most widely studied groups of fish. Results 298,304 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from Atlantic salmon (69% of the total), 11,664 chinook, 10,813 sockeye, 10,051 brook trout, 10,975 grayling, 8,630 lake whitefish, and 3,624 northern pike ESTs were obtained in this study and have been deposited into the public databases. Contigs were built and putative full-length Atlantic salmon clones have been identified. A database containing ESTs, assemblies, consensus sequences, open reading frames, gene predictions and putative annotation is available. The overall similarity between Atlantic salmon ESTs and those of rainbow trout, chinook, sockeye, brook trout, grayling, lake whitefish, northern pike and rainbow smelt is 93.4, 94.2, 94.6, 94.4, 92.5, 91.7, 89.6, and 86.2% respectively. An analysis of 78 transcript sets show Salmo as a sister group to Oncorhynchus and Salvelinus within Salmoninae, and Thymallinae as a sister group to Salmoninae and Coregoninae within Salmonidae. Extensive gene duplication is consistent with a genome duplication in the common ancestor of salmonids. Using all of the available EST data, a new expanded salmonid cDNA microarray of 32,000 features was created. Cross-species hybridizations to this cDNA microarray indicate that this resource will be useful for studies of all 68 salmonid species. Conclusion An extensive collection and analysis of salmonid RNA putative transcripts indicate that Pacific salmon, Atlantic salmon and charr are 94–96% similar while the more distant whitefish, grayling, pike and smelt are 93, 92, 89 and 86% similar to salmon. The salmonid transcriptome reveals a complex history of gene duplication that is consistent with an ancestral salmonid genome duplication hypothesis. Genome resources, including a new 32 K microarray, provide valuable new tools to study salmonids.

Koop, Ben F; von Schalburg, Kristian R; Leong, Jong; Walker, Neil; Lieph, Ryan; Cooper, Glenn A; Robb, Adrienne; Beetz-Sargent, Marianne; Holt, Robert A; Moore, Richard; Brahmbhatt, Sonal; Rosner, Jamie; Rexroad, Caird E; McGowan, Colin R; Davidson, William S

2008-01-01

237

The development of a brief acceptance and mindfulness-based program aimed at reducing sexual revictimization among college women with a history of childhood sexual abuse.  

PubMed

Women with a history of childhood sexual assault (CSA) are more likely to be revictimized; however, most existing programs aimed at reducing sexual victimization do not expressly address the issue of revictimization. The present study examined the efficacy of a brief mindfulness-based program in reducing rates of sexual assault and revictimization in college women over the course of an academic semester. Although the results were not statistically significant, a large-magnitude effect was noted, whereby women with a history of CSA who participated in the program were less likely to be sexually assaulted and raped at 2-month follow-up. PMID:21544818

Hill, Justin M; Vernig, Peter M; Lee, Jonathan K; Brown, Cynthia; Orsillo, Susan M

2011-09-01

238

Sexual Health  

MedlinePLUS

... PDF En Español Guys' Version C ollege Health: Sexual Health Knowing About My Health Eating Disorders First Aid Supplies Alcohol and Drugs Health Services Sexual Health How to Stay Healthy Sexual Assault/Rape Common ...

239

Sexual Assault  

MedlinePLUS

Sexual assault is any sexual activity to which you haven't freely given your consent. This includes completed ... trust, a friend, an acquaintance, or a stranger. Sexual assault can affect your health in many ways. It ...

240

Analytical developments in toxicological investigation of drug-facilitated sexual assault  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a general overview of the drug-facilitated sexual assault phenomenon. Sexual assault perpetrated on both women and men, while incapacitated by so-called date-rape drugs, recently became the focus of many investigations conducted by law enforcement agencies in the US throughout the 1990s; an alarming increase in reports of this crime as well as in the number of scientific

Adam Negrusz; R. E. Gaensslen

2003-01-01

241

Sexual Experiences in Childhood: Young Adults' Recollections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood sexuality and children's sexual experiences have become increasingly important to study because our knowledge on the impact of sexually abusive experiences on children's developing sexuality has increased. The main aim of this paper was to study aspects of young adults' recollections of their sexual experiences before the age of 13, solitary and shared, mutual as well as coercive. Anonymous

IngBeth Larsson; Carl-Göran Svedin

2002-01-01

242

Direct targets of the D. melanogaster DSXF protein and the evolution of sexual development  

PubMed Central

Uncovering the direct regulatory targets of doublesex (dsx) and fruitless (fru) is crucial for an understanding of how they regulate sexual development, morphogenesis, differentiation and adult functions (including behavior) in Drosophila melanogaster. Using a modified DamID approach, we identified 650 DSX-binding regions in the genome from which we then extracted an optimal palindromic 13 bp DSX-binding sequence. This sequence is functional in vivo, and the base identity at each position is important for DSX binding in vitro. In addition, this sequence is enriched in the genomes of D. melanogaster (58 copies versus approximately the three expected from random) and in the 11 other sequenced Drosophila species, as well as in some other Dipterans. Twenty-three genes are associated with both an in vivo peak in DSX binding and an optimal DSX-binding sequence, and thus are almost certainly direct DSX targets. The association of these 23 genes with optimum DSX binding sites was used to examine the evolutionary changes occurring in DSX and its targets in insects.

Luo, Shengzhan D.; Shi, Guang W.; Baker, Bruce S.

2011-01-01

243

Disorder of sexual development in a Yorkshire terrier (78, XY; SRY-positive).  

PubMed

A 9-month-old Yorkshire terrier was admitted to the clinic because of abnormal sexual behaviour and clitoral hypertrophy. External examination confirmed standard development of caudal genital organs: vagina, vulva and cervix uteri. Serum profile of gonadotropin hormones 17 ?-estradiol (<10.0 pg.ml(-1)) and testosterone (9.1 ng.ml(-1)) revealed the presence of testicular tissue. A midline laparotomy was performed to detect the cranial parts of the genital system. Gonads resembling testicles, structures indicating epididymis and rudimentary deferent ducts were resected, along with adherent part of the uterus. Cytogenetic analysis showed a male chromosomal complement 78, XY in all metaphases of the studied Yorkshire terrier dog. The chromosomal constitution was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with whole-chromosome painting probes specific for chromosomes X and Y, as well as by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the 271-bp Y-linked fragment of SRY (the sex-determining region on the Y chromosome) gene. Sequencing of the dog's SRY gene coding region did not reveal any mutation. To search for potential mutation in the SOX9 gene (Sry-box containing gene 9), which is considered to be one of the key genes involved in the sex determination process, the PCR fragments of exons 1, 2 and 3 originating from the canine patient were sequenced in order to compare with both male and female healthy control dogs. In the analysed regions of the SOX9 gene, no mutation was found. PMID:23378246

Dianovský, Ján; Hole?ková, Beáta; Hajurka, Jaroslav; Šiviková, Katarina; Cigánková, Viera

2013-05-01

244

Ovotesticular disorder of sexual development and a rare 46,XX/47,XXY karyotype.  

PubMed

Ovotesticular disorder of sexual development (DSD) is characterized by the presence of both ovarian and testicular tissues in the same individual. The most common karyotype is 46,XX. Here, we report the case of a boy with a 46,XX/47,XXY karyotype diagnosed as ovotesticular DSD by gonadal biopsy. A 5-month-old boy presented with hypospadias, unilateral cryptorchidism, and a micropenis. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging revealed a suspicious gonad tissue that is solid in structure in the right scrotum and a suspicious gonad that is cystic in structure in the left inguinal canal. He underwent a diagnostic laparoscopy. Cytogenetic analysis of peripheral blood revealed a 46,XX/47,XXY karyotype. Histopathologic examination of the left gonad showed ovarian tissue containing primordial follicles with ipsilateral undifferentiated tuba uterina. The right gonad showed immature testis tissue. He underwent left gonadectomy and hypospadias repair, and was raised as a male. Through this rare case, we highlight the importance of histological and cytogenetic investigation in DSD. PMID:23612643

Ozsu, Elif; Mutlu, Gul Yesiltepe; Cizmecioglu, Filiz M; Ekingen, Gülsen; Muezzinoglu, Bahar; Hatun, Sukru

2013-01-01

245

Sequence variations in equine candidate genes For XX and XY inherited disorders of sexual development.  

PubMed

Inherited disorders of sexual development (DSD) cause sterility and infertility in horses. Mutations causing such disorders have been identified in other mammals, but there is little information on the molecular causes in horses. While the equine genome sequence has made it possible to identify candidate genes, additional tools are needed to routinely screen them for causative mutations. In this study, we designed a screening panel of polymerase chain reaction primer pairs for 15 equine genes. These are the candidate genes for testicular or ovotesticular XX DSD and XY DSD, the latter of which includes gonadal dysgenesis, androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), persistent Mullerian duct syndrome and isolated cryptorchidism. Six horses with testicular or ovotesticular XX DSD and controls were screened. In addition, candidate genes for androgen insensitivity syndrome, persistent Mullerian duct syndrome and isolated cryptorchidism were screened in normal horses. While no sequence variants were uniquely associated with XX DSD, the 38 sequence variants identified can serve as intragenic markers in genome-wide association studies or linkage studies to hasten mutation identification in equine XX DSD and XY DSD. PMID:22239239

Pujar, S; Meyers-Wallen, V N

2012-10-01

246

Disorders of Sexual Development and Abnormal Early Development in Domestic Food-Producing Mammals: The Role of Chromosome Abnormalities, Environment and Stress Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management of disorders of sexual development (DSD) in humans and domestic animals has been the subject of intense interest for decades. The association between abnormal chromosome constitutions and DSDs in domestic animals has been recorded since the beginnings of conventional cytogenetic analysis. Deviated karyotypes consisting of abnormal sex chromosome sets and\\/or the coexistence of cells with different sex chromosome

L. A. Favetta; D. A. F. Villagómez; L. Iannuzzi; G. Di Meo; A. Webb; S. Crain; W. A. King

2012-01-01

247

From chronic feed-induced intestinal inflammation to adenocarcinoma with metastases in salmonid fish.  

PubMed

Neoplasms in fish normally show poor abilities for metastasis, and there are no reports on intestinal cancer with metastasis to other organs. In aquaculture production, carnivorous salmonids in Northern Europe receive commercial feeds with plant ingredients. Such contents have been shown to cause chronic intestinal inflammation. Inflammation provokes carcinogenesis in the human gut, and here, we report a similar pathologic progression in salmonids. Nine commercially farmed groups of Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout (n = 39,160) and one experimental positive group (n = 789) fed the same commercial feed and two negative control groups (n = 3009) were investigated for the occurrence of intestinal tumors and metastases. Exposure period, gender, and sexual maturation were registered. Autopsy revealed an overall intestinal tumor occurrence of 10.62%, of which liver metastasis varied from 0% to 11.35% between the groups. Intestinal cancer prevalence increased from 0.50% to 14.81% during 4 months of feeding in the experimental group. A significant gender effect was registered in the commercially farmed groups but not in the experimental group. Histologic examination showed adenocarcinomas evolving through progressive epithelial dysplasia associated with severe chronic inflammation. One intestinal tumor was registered in one individual in the negative control groups. This is the first report on feed-induced intestinal carcinogenesis and metastasizing adenocarcinomas in fish fed an approved commercial diet. The pathogenesis was associated with a certain commercial diet provoking the inflammation-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence. The histologic progression was analogous to that of human colorectal cancer associated with inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:19417130

Dale, Ole B; Tørud, Brit; Kvellestad, Agnar; Koppang, Hanna S; Koppang, Erling O

2009-05-15

248

Rainmap Database: Mapping the Salmonids (Rainbow Trout) Genome  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Institut National de Recherche Agronomique (France) provides online databases of genomes for several organisms, including Salmonids (Rainbow Trout). The database is updated as more data becomes available, and provide records on loci, genes, microsatellites, polymorphisms, probes, enzymes, homologue loci, alleles, primers, references, and links to external databases. Instructions for submitting data to the databases are provided on-site.

249

INFORMATION Bibliography of Salmonids Published in Japan (8) 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

This current salmonid bibliography, distributed yearly since 1988, covers scientific publica- tions in Japan. The former seven issues were published in Technical Reports of Hokkaido Salmon Hatchery (Fish and Eggs), No.157-163. Titles are given in English for all articles. A reprint of article may be available from the author. An author's address is shown in square brack- ets following the

Shigehiko Urawa; Teruo Amma

250

Differential sensitivity to adrenergic stimulation underlies the sexual dimorphism in the development of diabetes caused by Irs-2 deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diabetic phenotype caused by the deletion of insulin receptor substrate-2 (Irs-2) in mice displays a sexual dimorphism. Whereas the majority of male Irs-2?\\/? mice are overtly diabetic by 12 weeks of age, female Irs-2?\\/? animals develop mild obesity and progress less rapidly to diabetes. Here we investigated ?-cell function and lipolysis as potential explanations for the gender-related differences in

Maria Jose Garcia-Barrado; Maria Carmen Iglesias-Osma; Veronica Moreno-Viedma; Maria Francisca Pastor Mansilla; Silvia Sanz Gonzalez; Jose Carretero; Julio Moratinos; Deborah J. Burks

2011-01-01

251

Burden of non-sexually transmitted infections on adolescent growth and development in the developing world.  

PubMed

A vast majority of children living in developing countries face their teen years following a childhood of malnutrition and limited access to education and health care. In this environment of disadvantages, exposure to old and reemerging infections become a significant determinant of their likelihood to overcome poverty: tuberculosis and its rapid progression during adolescence may anticipate a premature death; malaria, as well as its debilitating recurrent febrile episodes and anemia, is responsible for most of their lost time at school or work. Furthermore, the burden of anemia and malnutrition is aggravated by infestation with common intestinal worms such as with hookworms, Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides. These parasites compete for iron and nutrients and produce mucosal damage and inflammation causing anorexia and worsening the intake and absorption of their marginal diets. Other infections among the many neglected tropical infectious diseases, many others common to adolescents in developed countries, and some that could be controlled by access to vaccines, add scores against the physical and intellectual fitness of millions of teens in tropical developing countries. PMID:20653210

Di Pentima, Cecilia

2009-12-01

252

Female Sexual Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this book is men and their sexual function and dysfunction, however, many women will also develop some degree\\u000a of sexual health problems concerned with sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and\\/or pain. The goal is to make relevant evidence-based\\u000a clinical information to help identify and treat specific biologically based pathophysiologies available to the motivated health\\u000a care professional. The prevalence

Irwin Goldstein

253

Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River, Estuary, and Plume in 2010  

SciTech Connect

Uncertainty regarding the migratory behavior and survival of juvenile salmonids passing through the lower Columbia River and estuary after negotiating dams on the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) prompted the development and application of the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS). The JSATS has been used to investigate the survival of juvenile salmonid smolts between Bonneville Dam (river kilometer (rkm) 236) and the mouth of the Columbia River annually since 2004. In 2010, a total of 12,214 juvenile salmonids were implanted with both a passive integrated transponder (PIT) and a JSATS acoustic transmitter. Using detection information from JSATS receiver arrays deployed on dams and in the river, estuary, and plume, the survival probability of yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts tagged at John Day Dam was estimated form multiple reaches between rkm 153 and 8.3 during the spring. During summer, the survival probability of subyearling Chinook salmon was estimated for the same reaches. In addition, the influence of routes of passage (e.g., surface spill, deep spill, turbine, juvenile bypass system) through the lower three dams on the Columbia River (John Day, The Dalles, and Bonneville) on juvenile salmonid smolt survival probability from the dams to rkm 153 and then between rkm 153 and 8.3 was examined to increase understanding of the immediate and latent effects of dam passage on juvenile salmon survival. Similar to previous findings, survival probability was relatively high (>0.95) for most groups of juvenile salmonids from the Bonneville Dam tailrace to about rkm 50. Downstream of rkm 50 the survival probability of all species and run types we examined decreased markedly. Steelhead smolts suffered the highest mortality in this lower portion of the Columbia River estuary, with only an estimated 60% of the tagged fish surviving to the mouth of the river. In contrast, yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon smolts survived to the mouth of the river at higher rates, with estimated survival probabilities of 84% and 86%, respectively. The influence of route of passage at the lower three dams in the FCRPS on juvenile salmonid survival appeared to be relatively direct and immediate. Significant differences in estimated survival probabilities of juvenile salmonid smolts among groups with different dam passage experiences were often detected between the dams and rkm 153. In contrast, the influence of route of passage on survival to the mouth of the Columbia River was not apparent among the groups of tagged juvenile salmonids with different FCRPS passage experiences after they had already survived to a point about 80 km downstream of Bonneville Dam. Yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts that migrated through the lower estuary in off-channel habitats took two to three times longer to travel through these lower reaches and their estimated survival probabilities were not significantly different from that of their cohorts which migrated in or near the navigation channel. A large proportion of the tagged juvenile salmonids migrating in or near the navigation channel in the lower estuary crossed from the south side of the estuary near Astoria, Oregon and passed through relatively shallow expansive sand flats (Taylor Sands) to the North Channel along the Washington shore of the estuary. This migratory behavior may contribute to the avian predation losses observed on for fish (2 to 12% of fish in this study).

McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Skalski, John R.; Deters, Katherine A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Townsend, Richard L.; Titzler, P. Scott; Hughes, Michael S.; Kim, Jin A.; Trott, Donna M.

2011-09-01

254

Nonautonomous sex determination controls sexually dimorphic development of the Drosophila gonad.  

PubMed

Sex determination in Drosophila is commonly thought to be a cell-autonomous process, where each cell decides its own sexual fate based on its sex chromosome constitution (XX versus XY). This is in contrast to sex determination in mammals, which largely acts nonautonomously through cell-cell signaling. Here we examine how sexual dimorphism is created in the Drosophila gonad by investigating the formation of the pigment cell precursors, a male-specific cell type in the embryonic gonad. Surprisingly, we find that sex determination in the pigment cell precursors, as well as the male-specific somatic gonadal precursors, is non-cell autonomous. Male-specific expression of Wnt2 within the somatic gonad triggers pigment cell precursor formation from surrounding cells. Our results indicate that nonautonomous sex determination is important for creating sexual dimorphism in the Drosophila gonad, similar to the manner in which sex-specific gonad formation is controlled in mammals. PMID:18267095

DeFalco, Tony; Camara, Nicole; Le Bras, Stéphanie; Van Doren, Mark

2008-02-01

255

Expression and Sequence Evolution of Aromatase cyp19a1 and Other Sexual Development Genes in East African Cichlid Fishes  

PubMed Central

Sex determination mechanisms are highly variable across teleost fishes and sexual development is often plastic. Nevertheless, downstream factors establishing the two sexes are presumably conserved. Here, we study sequence evolution and gene expression of core genes of sexual development in a prime model system in evolutionary biology, the East African cichlid fishes. Using the available five cichlid genomes, we test for signs of positive selection in 28 genes including duplicates from the teleost whole-genome duplication, and examine the expression of these candidate genes in three cichlid species. We then focus on a particularly striking case, the A- and B-copies of the aromatase cyp19a1, and detect different evolutionary trajectories: cyp19a1A evolved under strong positive selection, whereas cyp19a1B remained conserved at the protein level, yet is subject to regulatory changes at its transcription start sites. Importantly, we find shifts in gene expression in both copies. Cyp19a1 is considered the most conserved ovary-factor in vertebrates, and in all teleosts investigated so far, cyp19a1A and cyp19a1B are expressed in ovaries and the brain, respectively. This is not the case in cichlids, where we find new expression patterns in two derived lineages: the A-copy gained a novel testis-function in the Ectodine lineage, whereas the B-copy is overexpressed in the testis of the speciest-richest cichlid group, the Haplochromini. This suggests that even key factors of sexual development, including the sex steroid pathway, are not conserved in fish, supporting the idea that flexibility in sexual determination and differentiation may be a driving force of speciation.

Bohne, Astrid; Heule, Corina; Boileau, Nicolas; Salzburger, Walter

2013-01-01

256

Pathways from parental AIDS to child psychological, educational and sexual risk: developing an empirically-based interactive theoretical model.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence demonstrates negative psychological, health, and developmental outcomes for children associated with parental HIV/AIDS illness and death. However, little is known about how parental AIDS leads to negative child outcomes. This study used a structural equation modelling approach to develop an empirically-based theoretical model of interactive relationships between parental or primary caregiver AIDS-illness, AIDS-orphanhood and predicted intervening factors associated with children's psychological distress, educational access and sexual health. Cross-sectional data were collected in 2009-2011, from 6002 children aged 10-17 years in three provinces of South Africa using stratified random sampling. Comparison groups included children orphaned by AIDS, orphaned by other causes and non-orphans, and children whose parents or primary caregivers were unwell with AIDS, unwell with other causes or healthy. Participants reported on psychological symptoms, educational access, and sexual health risks, as well as hypothesized sociodemographic and intervening factors. In order to build an interactive theoretical model of multiple child outcomes, multivariate regression and structural equation models were developed for each individual outcome, and then combined into an overall model. Neither AIDS-orphanhood nor parental AIDS-illness were directly associated with psychological distress, educational access, or sexual health. Instead, significant indirect effects of AIDS-orphanhood and parental AIDS-illness were obtained on all measured outcomes. Child psychological, educational and sexual health risks share a common set of intervening variables including parental disability, poverty, community violence, stigma, and child abuse that together comprise chain effects. In all models, parental AIDS-illness had stronger effects and more risk pathways than AIDS-orphanhood, especially via poverty and parental disability. AIDS-orphanhood and parental AIDS-illness impact child outcomes through multiple, interlinked pathways. The interactive model developed in this study suggests key areas of focus for interventions with AIDS-affected children. PMID:23631794

Cluver, Lucie; Orkin, Mark; Boyes, Mark E; Sherr, Lorraine; Makasi, Daphne; Nikelo, Joy

2013-06-01

257

Sexual Harassment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper sets out the legal grounds for sexual harassment claims in education settings, and notes a number of pertinent cases that are illustrative of common legal and factual issues. Sexual harassment, including sexual abuse, is prohibited by federal and state statutes. Sexual harassment in the context of employment constitutes employment…

Uerling, Donald F.

258

Gas Bubble Disease Monitoring and Research of Juvenile Salmonids : Annual Report 1996.  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the project activities 1996--1997 contract year. This report is composed of three chapters which contain data and analyses of the three main elements of the project: field research to determine the vertical distribution of migrating juvenile salmonids, monitoring of juvenile migrants at dams on the Snake and Columbia rivers, and laboratory experiments to describe the progression of gas bubble disease signs leading to mortality. The major findings described in this report are: A miniature pressure-sensitive radio transmitter was found to be accurate and precise and, after compensation for water temperature, can be used to determine the depth of tagged-fish to within 0.32 m of the true depth (Chapter 1). Preliminary data from very few fish suggest that depth protects migrating juvenile steelhead from total dissolved gas supersaturation (Chapter 1). As in 1995, few fish had any signs of gas bubble disease, but it appeared that prevalence and severity increased as fish migrated downstream and in response to changing gas supersaturation (Chapter 2). It appeared to gas bubble disease was not a threat to migrating juvenile salmonids when total dissolved gas supersaturation was < 120% (Chapter 2). Laboratory studies suggest that external examinations are appropriate for determining the severity of gas bubble disease in juvenile salmonids (Chapter 3). The authors developed a new method for examining gill arches for intravascular bubbles by clamping the ventral aorta to reduce bleeding when arches were removed (Chapter 3). Despite an outbreak of bacterial kidney disease in the experimental fish, the data indicate that gas bubble disease is a progressive trauma that can be monitored (Chapter 3).

Maule, Alec G.; Beeman, John W.; Hans, Karen M.; Mesa, M.G.; Haner, P.; Warren, J.J. [Geological Survey, Cook, WA (United States). Columbia River Research Lab.

1997-10-01

259

Development and Evaluation of Korean Version of Quality of Sexual Function (QSF-K) in Healthy Korean Women.  

PubMed

This study was done to develop a Korean version of the Quality of Sexual Function (QSF-K) and evaluate the validity and reliability of the QSF-K. The participants were 220 women who visited the Center for Uterine Cancer at the National Cancer Center in Korea. Participants completed the scale once and then again at a two to four week interval. The QSF-K, Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC-QLQ-C30) were used in this study. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve, area under the ROC curve (AUC), intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), and Cronbach's alpha were analyzed. In the analysis of the reliability, Cronbach's alpha was 0.83 and the ICC was 0.70. The validity measured with the AUC of the QSF-K comparing the FSFI and Global Health/QOL of the EORTC-QLQ-C30 was 0.717 and 0.728, respectively. Specifically, the AUC of the sexual activity level of the QSF-K was 0.838 in the FSFI comparison. The AUC of the psycho-somatic QOL of the QSF-K was 0.758 in the Global Health/QOL of the EORTC-QLQ-C30 comparison. Approximately half of the women (51.8%) had mild complaints/problems. The Korean version of the QSF was developed and validated. PMID:24932074

Lee, Yumi; Lim, Myong Cheol; Son, Yedong; Joo, Jungnam; Park, KiByung; Kim, Jung-Sup; Lee, Dong Ock; Park, Sang-Yoon

2014-06-01

260

Environmental pollutants and diseases of sexual development in humans and wildlife in South Africa: harbingers of impact on overall health?  

PubMed

This study deals with disorders of sexual development in humans, wildlife and animals in an urban nature reserve (RNR) and a currently DDT-sprayed malarial area. High levels of oestrogenic chemical residues in water, sediment and tissue; skewed sex ratios; reduced biodiversity; gonadal malformations in sharptooth catfish and freshwater snails; intersex in catfish; and impaired spermatogenesis in catfish and striped mouse are of serious concern in the RNR. Persistent eggshell thinning in African darter eggs, intersex in male Mozambican tilapia, follicular atresia in females and impaired spermatogenesis in males following laboratory exposure of parent fish to environmentally relevant DDT and DDE concentrations, and abnormalities in freshwater snails were found in the DDT-sprayed area. Human studies related to DDT exposure indicated impaired semen quality, a weak association with sperm chromatin defects and higher risks for external urogenital birth defects in those who were born to mothers whose houses were sprayed and those who were homemakers (stay at home mother) instead of being employed. These findings indicate that diseases of sexual development occurred in both human and wildlife populations exposed to environmental endocrine disruptor chemicals in South Africa. The chemical mixtures, possibly related to disorders of sexual differentiation (DSD), were very different between the two. However, DSD occurred concurrently in the malarial area, possibly indicating that humans and wildlife shared exposures. Moreover, it emphasizes the importance of suspecting disease in the other when disease is found in either human or wildlife populations. PMID:22827388

Riana Bornman, M S; Bouwman, Hindrik

2012-08-01

261

Preliminary development of a scale to measure stigma relating to sexually transmitted infections among women in a high risk neighbourhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: As stigma is a socially constructed concept, it would follow that stigma related to sexual behaviours and sexually transmitted infections would carry with it many of the gender-based morals that are entrenched in social constructs of sexuality. In many societies, women tend to be judged more harshly with respect to sexual morals, and would therefore have a different experience

Melanie LA Rusch; Jean A Shoveller; Susan Burgess; Karen Stancer; David M Patrick; Mark W Tyndall

2008-01-01

262

Epidemiology and Control of Infectious Diseases of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin, 1983 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Microbiology at Oregon State University with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration conducted a study relating to the epidemiology and control of three fish diseases of salmonids in the Columbia River Basin. These three diseases were ceratomyxosis which is caused by the myxosporidan parasite Ceratomyxa shasta, bacterial kidney disease, the etiological agent of which is Renibacterium salmoninarum, and infectious hematopoietic necrosis, which is caused by a rhabdovirus. Each of these diseases is highly destructive and difficult or impossible to treat with antimicrobial agents. The presence of ceratomyxosis in rainbow trout exposed at McNary and Little Goose Dams extends the range of this disease about 200 miles further up the Columbia River and into the Snake River drainage. Wallowa steelhead trout were less resistant to this disease than other upriver stocks tested. Juvenile salmonids entering the Columbia River estuary were collected periodically between May to September, 1983. Nine percent of the beach seined chinook salmon and 5, 11 and 12%, respectively, of the purse seined coho and chinook salmon and steelhead trout were infected with Ceratomyxa shasta. Experiments indicated ceratomyxosis progresses in salt water at the same rate as in fresh water once the fish have become infected. These data indicate a longer exposure to infective stages of C. shasta than previously identified and that approximately 10% of the migrating salmonids are infected and will probably die from this organism after entering salt water. Since sampling began in 1981 the bacterial kidney disease organism, Renibacterium salmoninarum, has been detected by the fluorescent antibody test in seven salmonid species caught in the open ocean off the coasts of Washington and Oregon. The bacterium has been found primarily in chinook salmon (11%) with lesions in 2.5% of these fish. This disease was also detected at levels ranging from 17% in coho salmon to 25% in chinook salmon seined from the Columbia River just before entering the estuary. Interpretation of these numbers suggests an even greater economic impact on Columbia River salmonid stocks than that proposed for C. shasta. Fertilized eggs from bacterial kidney disease infected parents examined after one month of incubation revealed the presence of bacteria with identical morphology to R. salmoninarum on or in the egg wall further reinforcing the proposed vertical transmission of this disease organism. Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus was recovered at the 67% level from seeded water samples supplemented with 1% fetal calf serum. Virus injected into unfertilized eggs survived for over two weeks; in eyed eggs the virus also replicated. Epizootics caused by IHNV occurred in two of the 8 separate groups of steelhead trout fingerlings held in LJV treated water at Round Butte Hatchery. Comparing these results to those in the vertical transmission experiment where none of the groups developed IHNV suggests that vertical transmission of IHNV, if it occurs, is a very infrequent or random event. On three occasions IHNV was detected in ovarian fluid samples after storage for 6--9 days at 4 C. No virus had been detected in these samples at spawning. This suggests the presence of an interfering substance, perhaps anti-IHNV antibody in ovarian fluid. This observation raises the possibility that IHNV is much more widespread throughout Columbia River Basin salmonid stocks than previously believed.

Fryer, John L.

1984-11-01

263

Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Klickitat River Tributaries, 2001-2005 Completion Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the work completed by the Yakama Nation Fisheries Program (YNFP) in the Klickitat subbasin in south-central Washington under BPA innovative project No.200105500--Influences of stocking salmon carcass analogs on salmonids in Columbia River Tributaries. Salmon carcasses historically provided a significant source of marine-derived nutrients to many stream systems in the Columbia basin, and decreased run sizes have led to a loss of this nutrient source in many streams. Partners in this project developed a pathogen-free carcass analog and stocked the analogs in streams with the following objectives: restoring food availability to streams with reduced anadromous salmon returns; mimicking the natural pathways and timing of food acquisition by salmonids; minimizing unintended negative ecological effects; and increasing the growth and survival of salmonids. In the Klickitat subbasin, carcass analogs were stocked in two streams in 2002 and 2003; a third stream was used as a control. Salmonid fish abundance, growth, and stomach contents were monitored in all three streams before and after carcass analog placement. Fish, invertebrate, and periphyton samples were also collected for stable isotope analysis (to determine if nutrients from carcass analogs were incorporated into the stream food web). Water quality samples were also collected to determine if nutrient overloading occurred in streams. Significant differences in growth were found between fish in treated and untreated stream reaches. Fish in treatment reaches exhibited higher instantaneous growth rates approximately one month after the first carcass analog stocking. Stomach contents sampling indicated that salmonid fish routinely consumed the carcass analog material directly, and that stomach fullness of fish in treatment reaches was higher than in untreated reaches in the first few weeks following carcass analog stockings. No significant differences were detected in fish abundance between treatment and control streams after carcass analog stocking. Stable isotope analysis provided some evidence that nutrients (primarily nitrogen) were incorporated into periphyton and invertebrates, although this evidence is not strong. No significant differences in water quality were observed between treatment and control streams after analog stocking. Although no significant changes were observed in fish abundance, this study does provide evidence that carcass analogs provide a viable and potentially useful alternative to stocking salmon carcasses. The analogs provide a direct food source to salmonids, and show some potential for providing nutrients for stream food webs. They can also increase stomach fullness and growth rates of individual fish. This nutrient source may very well improve individual fish condition sufficiently to improve overwintering or smolt survival. Further refinement of stocking densities and timing, treatment duration, and tailoring analog placement to individual stream characteristics (such as channel confinement and flow) will further improve the usefulness of carcass analogs.

Zendt, Joe; Sharp, Bill (Yakama Nation Fisheries, Toppenish, WA)

2006-09-01

264

Sexuality and Down Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Home » Resources » Wellness » Sexuality » Sexuality & Down Syndrome Sexuality & Down Syndrome Human sexuality encompasses an individual's self-esteem, ... problems related to sexual function. Do Individuals with Down Syndrome Have Sexual Feelings? In the past, sexuality ...

265

Employee Sexual Harassment and Abuse of Students in Schools: Recent Developments in Federal Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines 12 federal court decisions, 2 state-level appellate decisions, and 8 Letters of Finding from the U.S. Office for Civil Rights regarding the actual or alleged sexual harassment or abuse of school-age children by a school employee. Discusses litigation under Title IX and Section 1983, two federal statutes that provide students with tools…

Sorenson, Gail

1995-01-01

266

Sexually Harassing Behavior against Adolescent Girls in Rural Bangladesh: Implications for Achieving Millennium Development Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the extent and type of sexually harassing behavior or intimidations unmarried adolescent girls experienced on their way to school, college or social visits and type of perpetrators in victims' view in rural Bangladesh using data of the 2004 National Nutrition Programme baseline survey. The survey collected self-reported data on…

Alam, Nurul; Roy, Swapan K.; Ahmed, Tahmeed

2010-01-01

267

Fungal metabolic plasticity and sexual development mediate induced resistance to arthropod fungivory.  

PubMed

Prey organisms do not tolerate predator attack passively but react with a multitude of inducible defensive strategies. Although inducible defence strategies are well known in plants attacked by herbivorous insects, induced resistance of fungi against fungivorous animals is largely unknown. Resistance to fungivory is thought to be mediated by chemical properties of fungal tissue, i.e. by production of toxic secondary metabolites. However, whether fungi change their secondary metabolite composition to increase resistance against arthropod fungivory is unknown. We demonstrate that grazing by a soil arthropod, Folsomia candida, on the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans induces a phenotype that repels future fungivores and retards fungivore growth. Arthropod-exposed colonies produced significantly higher amounts of toxic secondary metabolites and invested more in sexual reproduction relative to unchallenged fungi. Compared with vegetative tissue and asexual conidiospores, sexual fruiting bodies turned out to be highly resistant against fungivory in facultative sexual A. nidulans. This indicates that fungivore grazing triggers co-regulated allocation of resources to sexual reproduction and chemical defence in A. nidulans. Plastic investment in facultative sex and chemical defence may have evolved as a fungal strategy to escape from predation. PMID:24068353

Döll, Katharina; Chatterjee, Subhankar; Scheu, Stefan; Karlovsky, Petr; Rohlfs, Marko

2013-11-22

268

Diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections in developing nations using syndromic management: Is it working?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a major public health problem, and controlling their spread is a priority. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there are 340 million new cases of treatable STIs among 15–49 year olds that occur yearly around the world (1). Infection with STIs can lead to several complications such as pelvic inflammatory disorder (PID), cervical cancer,

Betiel K Fesseha

2008-01-01

269

Developing Guidelines for HIV Antibody Testing among Victims of Pediatric Sexual Abuse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interim set of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing guidelines for victims of pediatric sexual abuse (PSA) is proposed. Guidelines are based on responses of 63 practitioners of PSA assessment to 7 hypothetical clinical profiles with 12 testing criteria. (Author/DB)

Gellert, George A.; And Others

1990-01-01

270

Non-autonomous sex determination controls sexually dimorphic development of the Drosophila gonad  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Sex determination in Drosophila is commonly thought to be a cell-autonomous process, where each cell decides its own sexual fate based on its sex chromosome constitution (XX vs. XY). This is in contrast to sex determination in mammals, which largely acts non-autonomously through cell-cell signaling. Here we examine how sexual dimorphism is created in the Drosophila gonad. We have identified a novel male-specific cell type in the embryonic gonad, the pigment cell precursors. Surprisingly, using sexually mosaic embryos, we find that sex determination in both the pigment cell precursors and the male-specific somatic gonadal precursors is non-cell autonomous. Male-specific expression of Wnt2 in the embryonic gonad is necessary and sufficient for pigment cell precursor formation. Our results indicate that non-autonomous sex determination is important for creating sexual dimorphism in the Drosophila gonad, similar to the manner in which sex-specific gonad formation is controlled in mammals.

DeFalco, Tony; Camara, Nicole; Le Bras, Stephanie; Van Doren, Mark

2008-01-01

271

Male Adolescents' View on Sexual Activity as Basis for the Development of Aids-Prevention Programmes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The world regards AIDS as the most disastrous health threat in the world. HIV/AIDS- related issues amongst adolescents were initially neglected due to the visible impact of this pandemic on babies and adults. Adolescents' behavior is however regarded as high-risk because of their involvement in sexual activities from a young age. The purpose of…

Steyn, Hester; Myburgh, Chris P.H.; Poggenpoel, Marie

2005-01-01

272

Gonad morphology, sexual development, and colony composition in the obligate coral-dwelling damselfish Dascyllus aruanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gonad morphology and colony composition support the existing supposition that the obligate coral-dwelling damselfish Dascyllus aruanus has a protogynous hermaphroditic sexual pattern. Adults had either an active ovary containing vitellogenic oocytes, an ovotestis, or a spermiated testis and were classified as adult female, hermaphrodite, or adult male, respectively. Among individuals having male function, the testis (or testis portion of the

K. S. Cole

2002-01-01

273

Development of a High-Throughput Method to Isolate Sperm DNA in Sexual Assault Cases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the large number of sexual assault cases, the need for a fast and efficient method to process the more than 500,000 reported backlogged evidentiary cases is critical: (1) Currently, the Federal Bureau of Investigations national CODIS (Combined DNA In...

A. Crumbie A. Garvin C. Ladd E. Carita E. Pagliaro

2006-01-01

274

Ensuring the inclusion of sexual and reproductive health and rights under a sustainable development goal on health in the post-2015 human rights framework for development.  

PubMed

Since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo placed reproductive health and rights firmly on the international agenda, civil society and other advocates have worked ceaselessly to ensure that they remain central to women's empowerment and have taken all opportunities to expand the framework to include sexual health and rights. When the development process changed with the introduction of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2000, sexual and reproductive health and rights were excluded, and only in 2007 was universal access to reproductive health added back in. In 2014 and 2015, the future of ICPD Beyond 2014, the MDGs and the post-2015 development framework will be decided, following consultations and meetings across the globe. This paper takes stock of the key influences on efforts to achieve the ICPD agenda and summarises the past, current and planned future events, reports and processes between 1994 and 2014, leading up to the determination of the post-2015 development framework and sustainable development goals. It concludes that the one thing we cannot afford to allow is what happened with the MDGs in 2000. We must not leave the room empty-handed, but must instead ensure the inclusion of sexual and reproductive health and rights as a priority under a new health goal. PMID:24315064

Haslegrave, Marianne

2013-11-01

275

Polyphasic characterization of Aeromonas salmonicida isolates recovered from salmonid and non-salmonid fish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Michigan's fisheries rely primarily upon the hatchery propagation of salmonid fish for release in public waters. One limitation on the success of these efforts is the presence of bacterial pathogens, including Aeromonas salmonicida, the causative agent of furunculosis. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of A. salmonicida in Michigan fish, as well as to determine whether biochemical or gene sequence variability exists among Michigan isolates. A total of 2202 wild, feral and hatchery-propagated fish from Michigan were examined for the presence of A. salmonicida. The examined fish included Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), coho salmon, O. kisutcha (Walbaum), steelhead trout, O. mykiss (Walbaum), Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill), and yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill). Among these, 234 fish yielded a brown pigment-producing bacterium that was presumptively identified as A. salmonicida. Further phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses identified representative isolates as Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and revealed some genetic and biochemical variability. Logistic regression analyses showed that infection prevalence varied according to fish species/strain, year and gender, whereby Chinook salmon and females had the highest infection prevalence. Moreover, this pathogen was found in six fish species from eight sites, demonstrating its widespread nature within Michigan.

Diamanka, A.; Loch, T. P.; Cipriano, R. C.; Faisal, M.

2013-01-01

276

Polyphasic characterization of Aeromonas salmonicida isolates recovered from salmonid and non-salmonid fish.  

PubMed

Michigan's fisheries rely primarily upon the hatchery propagation of salmonid fish for release in public waters. One limitation on the success of these efforts is the presence of bacterial pathogens, including Aeromonas salmonicida, the causative agent of furunculosis. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of A. salmonicida in Michigan fish, as well as to determine whether biochemical or gene sequence variability exists among Michigan isolates. A total of 2202 wild, feral and hatchery-propagated fish from Michigan were examined for the presence of A. salmonicida. The examined fish included Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), coho salmon, O. kisutcha (Walbaum), steelhead trout, O. mykiss (Walbaum), Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill), and yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill). Among these, 234 fish yielded a brown pigment-producing bacterium that was presumptively identified as A. salmonicida. Further phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses identified representative isolates as Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and revealed some genetic and biochemical variability. Logistic regression analyses showed that infection prevalence varied according to fish species/strain, year and gender, whereby Chinook salmon and females had the highest infection prevalence. Moreover, this pathogen was found in six fish species from eight sites, demonstrating its widespread nature within Michigan. PMID:23444966

Diamanka, A; Loch, T P; Cipriano, R C; Faisal, M

2013-11-01

277

Seventy-five EST-linked Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) microsatellite markers and their cross-amplification in five salmonid species  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) expressed sequence tag (EST) database consisting of 58 146 ESTs was screened for microsatellite sequences. Subsequent development of 75 polymorphic EST-associated microsatellite markers in this species is described together with cross-species amplification results of 133 gene-associated tandem repeat markers in five salmonid species ( Salmo trutta, Oncorhynchus mykiss , Salvelinus aplinus , Thymallus

ANTI VASEMÄGI; JAN NILSSON; CRAIG R. P RIMMER

278

Ecology of Juvenile Salmonids in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta, Lower Columbia River, 2007 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document is the first annual report for the study titled 'Ecology of Juvenile Salmonids in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta in the Lower Columbia River'. Hereafter, we refer to this research as the Tidal Freshwater Monitoring (TFM) Study. The study is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation effort developed by the

Kathryn Sobocinski; Gary Johnson; Nichole Sather

2008-01-01

279

Ecology of Juvenile Salmonids in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta, Lower Columbia River, 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document is the first annual report for the study titled Ecology of Juvenile Salmonids in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta in the Lower Columbia River. Hereafter, we refer to this research as the Tidal Freshwater Monitoring (TFM) Study. The study is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation effort developed by the

Kathryn L. Sobocinski; Gary E. Johnson; Nichole K. Sather; Adam Storch; Tucker A. Jones; Christine Mallette; Earl M. Dawley; John R. Skalski; David Teel; Paul Moran

2008-01-01

280

A 6K-Deletion Variant of Salmonid Alphavirus Is Non-Viable but Can Be Rescued through RNA Recombination  

PubMed Central

Pancreas disease (PD) of Atlantic salmon is an emerging disease caused by Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) which mainly affects salmonid aquaculture in Western Europe. Although genome structure of SAV has been characterized and each individual viral protein has been identified, the role of 6K protein in viral replication and infectivity remains undefined. The 6K protein of alphaviruses is a small and hydrophobic protein which is involved in membrane permeabilization, protein processing and virus budding. Because these common features are shared across many viral species, they have been named viroporins. In the present study, we applied reverse genetics to generate SAV3 6K-deleted (?6K) variant and investigate the role of 6K protein. Our findings show that the 6K-deletion variant of salmonid alphavirus is non-viable. Despite viral proteins of ?6K variant are detected in the cytoplasm by immunostaining, they are not found on the cell surface. Further, analysis of viral proteins produced in ?6K cDNA clone transfected cells using radioimmunoprecipitation (RIPA) and western blot showed a protein band of larger size than E2 of wild-type SAV3. When ?6K cDNA was co-transfected with SAV3 helper cDNA encoding the whole structural genes including 6K, the infectivity was rescued. The development of CPE after co-transfection and resolved genome sequence of rescued virus confirmed full-length viral genome being generated through RNA recombination. The discovery of the important role of the 6K protein in virus production provides a new possibility for the development of antiviral intervention which is highly needed to control SAV infection in salmonids.

Guo, Tz-Chun; Johansson, Daniel X.; Haugland, ?yvind; Liljestrom, Peter; Evensen, ?ystein

2014-01-01

281

River profile controls on channel morphology, debris flow disturbance, and the spatial extent of salmonids in steep mountain streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the geologically and topographically diverse mountain ranges of the Pacific Northwest, a broad-scale means of prioritizing salmonid habitat conservation areas based on geomorphic process domains is examined. We propose that steepness and concavity indices derived from the relation between drainage area and channel slope provide a means of identifying basins that express different reach-scale morphologies, fish habitat capacity, and risk of episodic disturbance. Strongly concave river profiles that develop in mountainous terrain indicate that almost all of the relief in the drainage network occurs in headwater streams. In these basins a large proportion of the channel network has low-gradient morphologies, which provide favorable habitat for many salmonid species. The severity of pulse disturbances is also reduced because low-gradient main stem channels inhibit debris flow conveyance, and in these networks the distribution of fish can expand into tributaries, allowing for a spatial spreading of risk. In contrast, rivers with poorly concave or steeper profiles have a greater abundance of high gradient reaches that limit the distribution of fish to a small portion of the channel network and facilitate debris flow-passage. The combined influence of a limited spatial distribution of fish and an increased risk of debris flows may cause populations in these basins to be less resilient to pulse disturbances. A case example from the Klamath Mountains, an area with broad variation in the steepness and concavity of river profiles, was used to develop this approach and aid conservation planning for imperiled populations of anadromous salmonids.

May, Christine L.; Lisle, Thomas E.

2012-12-01

282

Sexual dimorphic floral development in dioecious plants revealed by transcriptome, phytohormone, and DNA methylation analysis in Populus tomentosa.  

PubMed

Dioecious plants have evolved sex-specific floral development mechanisms. However, the precise gene expression patterns in dioecious plant flower development remain unclear. Here, we used andromonoecious poplar, an exceptional model system, to eliminate the confounding effects of genetic background of dioecious plants. Comparative transcriptome and physiological analysis allowed us to characterize sex-specific development of female and male flowers. Transcriptome analysis identified genes significantly differentially expressed between the sexes, including genes related to floral development, phytohormone synthesis and metabolism, and DNA methylation. Correlation analysis revealed a significant correlation between phytohormone signaling and gene expression, identifying specific phytohormone-responsive genes and their cis-regulatory elements. Two genes related to DNA methylation, METHYLTRANSFERASE1 (MET1) and DECREASED DNA METHYLATION 1 (DDM1), which are located in the sex determination region of Chromosome XIX, have differential expression between female and male flowers. A time-course analysis revealed that MET1 and DDM1 expression may produce different DNA methylation levels in female and male flowers. Understanding the interactions of phytohormone signaling, DNA methylation and target gene expression should lead to a better understanding of sexual differences in floral development. Thus, this study identifies a set of candidate genes for further studies of poplar sexual dimorphism and relates sex-specific floral development to physiological and epigenetic changes. PMID:23860796

Song, Yuepeng; Ma, Kaifeng; Ci, Dong; Chen, Qingqing; Tian, Jiaxing; Zhang, Deqiang

2013-12-01

283

Evolution and human sexuality.  

PubMed

The aim of this review is to put core features of human sexuality in an evolutionary light. Toward that end, I address five topics concerning the evolution of human sexuality. First, I address theoretical foundations, including recent critiques and developments. While much traces back to Darwin and his view of sexual selection, more recent work helps refine the theoretical bases to sex differences and life history allocations to mating effort. Second, I consider central models attempting to specify the phylogenetic details regarding how hominin sexuality might have changed, with most of those models honing in on transitions from a possible chimpanzee-like ancestor to the slightly polygynous and long-term bonded sociosexual partnerships observed among most recently studied hunter-gatherers. Third, I address recent genetic and physiological data contributing to a refined understanding of human sexuality. As examples, the availability of rapidly increasing genomic information aids comparative approaches to discern signals of selection in sexuality-related phenotypes, and neuroendocrine studies of human responses to sexual stimuli provide insight into homologous and derived mechanisms. Fourth, I consider some of the most recent, large, and rigorous studies of human sexuality. These provide insights into sexual behavior across other national samples and on the Internet. Fifth, I discuss the relevance of a life course perspective to understanding the evolution of human sexuality. Most research on the evolution of human sexuality focuses on young adults. Yet humans are sexual beings from gestation to death, albeit in different ways across the life course, and in ways that can be theoretically couched within life history theory. PMID:24151100

Gray, Peter B

2013-12-01

284

Exposure of prepubertal beef bulls to cycling females does not enhance sexual development.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine whether continuous, long-term, fenceline exposure of prepubertal beef bulls to cycling beef females reduced age at puberty and influenced the percentage of bulls that passed an initial breeding soundness examination (BSE). Bulls (Angus, n = 37; Simmental, n = 22; Hereford, n = 10; Simmental × Angus, n = 8) at an average age of 202 ± 21.5 days were given either continuous fenceline and visual exposure to cycling females (exposed, n = 41) or no exposure (control, n = 36). Estrus was induced in cycling beef females so at least three females were in standing estrus each week during the 182 days of exposure to bulls. Scrotal circumference (SC), body weight, and blood samples were collected every 28 days. When bulls had SC of 26 cm or more, semen samples were obtained monthly via electroejaculation until puberty was achieved (?50 × 10(6) sperm/mL with at least 10% progressive motility). Behavioral observations were conducted twice monthly: once when females were in estrus and once during diestrus. Homosexual mounting, flehmen responses, and number of times near penned females were recorded for each observation period. Breeding soundness examinations were conducted when the average age of bulls was 364 ± 21.5 days. Normal sperm morphology of at least 70% and sperm motility of at least 30% were required to pass the BSE. Age, body weight, and SC at puberty did not differ between exposed and control bulls (320 ± 28 and 311 ± 29 days; 466.2 ± 12.2 and 437.7 ± 13.5 kg; and 34.4 ± 2.5 and 34.9 ± 2.5 cm, respectively). Percentage of bulls passing their initial BSE did not differ between treatments (exposed, 87.8%; control, 75.0%). Treatment, month, and female estrous stage interacted (P = 0.05) to affect the number of mount attempts and flehmen responses. Exposed bulls entered the cow area more times (P < 0.001) during estrus than diestrus in Months 1, 2, and 3. We concluded that bulls given continuous, long-term, fenceline exposure to cycling beef females do not have enhanced sexual development. PMID:24888685

Miller, N A; Fike, K E

2014-08-01

285

The virtual people set: developing computer-generated stimuli for the assessment of pedophilic sexual interest.  

PubMed

The implicit assessment of pedophilic sexual interest through viewing-time methods necessitates visual stimuli. There are grave ethical and legal concerns against using pictures of real children, however. The present report is a summary of findings on a new set of 108 computer-generated stimuli. The images vary in terms of gender (female/male), explicitness (naked/clothed), and physical maturity (prepubescent, pubescent, and adult) of the persons depicted. A series of three studies tested the internal and external validity of the picture set. Studies 1 and 2 yielded good-to-high estimates of observer agreement with regard to stimulus maturity levels by two methods (categorization and paired comparison). Study 3 extended these findings with regard to judgments made by convicted child sexual offenders. PMID:23296092

Dombert, Beate; Mokros, Andreas; Brückner, Eva; Schlegl, Verena; Antfolk, Jan; Bäckström, Anna; Zappalà, Angelo; Osterheider, Michael; Santtila, Pekka

2013-12-01

286

Osmoregulatory actions of the GH\\/IGF axis in non-salmonid teleosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salmonid fishes provided the first findings on the influence of the growth hormone (GH)\\/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) axis on osmoregulation in teleost fishes. Recent studies on non-salmonid species, however, indicate that this physiological action of the GH\\/IGF-I axis is not restricted to salmonids or anadromous fishes. GH-producing cells in the pituitary of fish acclimated to different salinities show different

Juan Miguel Mancera; Stephen D. McCormick

1998-01-01

287

Adolescent Sexual Activity and the Development of Delinquent Behavior: The Role of Relationship Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the well-established association between adolescent sexual activity and delinquent behavior, little research has examined\\u000a the potential importance of relationship contexts in moderating this association. The current study used longitudinal, behavioral\\u000a genetic data on 519 same-sex twin pairs (48.6% female) divided into two age cohorts (13–15 and 16–18 years olds) drawn from\\u000a the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Analyses tested

K. Paige Harden; Jane Mendle

2011-01-01

288

Gender Atypicality and Sexual Orientation Development Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 528 self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth aged 15 to 19 were recruited from three community-based organizations. Sexual orientation milestones and events related to youths' childhood gender atypicality were examined and compared to current self-esteem and internalized homophobia. Three-quarters felt different from other youth as they were growing up. Two-thirds were considered gender atypical by others, at

Anthony R. Daugelli; Arnold H. Grossman; Michael T. Starks

2008-01-01

289

Asymmetric competition drives lake use of coexisting salmonids  

Microsoft Academic Search

To what degree are population differences in resource use caused by competition and the occupation of adjacent positions along\\u000a environmental gradients evidence of competition? Habitat use may be the result of a competitive lottery, or restricted by\\u000a competition. We tested to what extent population differences in habitat use of two salmonids, cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) and Dolly Varden charr (Salvelinus

B. Jonsson; N. Jonsson; Kjetil Hindar; T. G. Northcote; S. Engen

2008-01-01

290

Development and psychometric evaluation of the Premarital Sexual Behavior Assessment Scale for Young Women (PSAS-YW): an exploratory mixed method study  

PubMed Central

Background Premarital sexual behaviors are important issue for women’s health. The present study was designed to develop and examine the psychometric properties of a scale in order to identify young women who are at greater risk of premarital sexual behavior. Method This was an exploratory mixed method investigation. Indeed, the study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, qualitative methods (focus group discussion and individual interview) were applied to generate items and develop the questionnaire. In the second phase, psychometric properties (validity and reliability) of the questionnaire were assessed. Results In the first phase an item pool containing 53 statements related to premarital sexual behavior was generated. In the second phase item reduction was applied and the final version of the questionnaire containing 26 items was developed. The psychometric properties of this final version were assessed and the results showed that the instrument has a good structure, and reliability. The results from exploratory factory analysis indicated a 5-factor solution for the instrument that jointly accounted for the 57.4% of variance observed. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the instrument was found to be 0.87. Conclusion This study provided a valid and reliable scale to identify premarital sexual behavior in young women. Assessment of premarital sexual behavior might help to improve women’s sexual abstinence.

2014-01-01

291

Evaluating potential changes in salmonid rearing capacity from alternative sets of rehabilitation actions in the Trinity River, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River restoration plans often propose numerous rehabilitation actions to address key habitat impairments for salmonids. However, restoration plans rarely propose alternative sets of actions or attempt to quantify the potential benefits to targeted biota. In this paper we use geomorphic and biological analyses to estimate restoration potential for each of 37 reaches in a 64-km section of Trinity River, California from the North Fork Trinity River to Lewiston Dam (the focus of habitat rehabilitation efforts under the Trinity River Restoration Program). We first predicted the channel pattern that might develop based in each reach on slope-discharge criteria, and then used these potential patterns along with floodplain width to estimate the maximum sinuosity that restoration actions could likely achieve, as well as a maximum side-channel length that might be created in each reach. For each scenario, we then used existing stream habitat and juvenile salmonid data from previous studies in the Trinity River and other watersheds to determine current and restored carrying capacity. Potential increases in Chinook and steelhead carrying capacity range from 39% for a relatively realistic estimate of increasing habitat quality (more low velocity areas with cover) to 67% for a more optimistic scenario that increases both sinuosity and habitat quality. Only the most optimistic scenario that increases habitat quality, increases sinuosity, and constructs tens of kilometers of side channels more than doubles potential juvenile salmonid production (140% increase). These quantitative predictions provide a frame of reference for evaluating alternative restoration options, and for setting measurable restoration goals.

Beechie, T. J.; Pess, G. R.; Imaki, H.; Martin, A.; Alvarez, J.; Goodman, D.

2013-12-01

292

Antigenic characterization of the salmonid pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis.  

PubMed

Piscirickettsia salmonis, the etiological agent of salmonid rickettsial septicemia, was purified from infected immortal chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) embryo cells by a combination of differential and Percoll density gradient centrifugation. Immune sera from rabbits immunized with purified whole cells of P. salmonis reacted with four protein antigens and two carbohydrate antigens with relative molecular sizes of 65, 60, 54, 51, 16, and approximately 11 kDa, respectively. The carbohydrate antigens appear to be mainly core region lipo-oligosaccharide with lesser amounts of lipopolysaccharide. Serum from convalescent rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) reacted with several minor immunoreactive protein antigens between 10 and 70 kDa in size and a carbohydrate antigen with a relative molecular size of approximately 11 kDa. The salmonid immune system did not appear to elicit a strong humoral response against this intracellular pathogen. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, immunogold transmission electron microscopy, and biotin labeling of intact P. salmonis cells suggest that the immunoreactive antigens identified with rabbit antisera are surface exposed and differ significantly from those identified with salmonid antisera. PMID:8945567

Kuzyk, M A; Thorton, J C; Kay, W W

1996-12-01

293

Linkage Relationships Reflecting Ancestral Tetraploidy in Salmonid Fish  

PubMed Central

Fifteen classical linkage groups were identified in two salmonid species (Salmo trutta and Salmo gairdneri) and three fertile, interspecific hybrids (S. gairdneri x Salmo clarki, Salvelinus fontinalis x Salvelinus namaycush and S. fontinalis x Salvelinus alpinus) by backcrossing multiply heterozygous individuals. These linkage relationships of electrophoretically detected, protein coding loci were highly conserved among species. The loci encoding the enzymes appeared to be randomly distributed among the salmonid chromosomes. Recombination frequencies were generally greater in females than in males. In males, certain linkage groups were pseudolinked with other linkage groups, presumably because of facultative multivalent pairing and directed disjunction of chromosomes. Five such pseudolinkage groups were identified and they also appeared to be common among species and hybrids. Duplicate loci were never classically linked with each other, although some exhibited pseudolinkage and some showed evidence of exchanging alleles. Gene-centromere recombination frequencies estimated from genotypic distributions of gynogenetic offspring were consistent with map locations inferred from female intergenic recombination frequencies. These linkage relationships support the contention that all extant salmonids arose from a common tetraploid progenitor and that this progenitor may have been a segmental allotetraploid.

Johnson, K. R.; Wright, J. E.; May, B.

1987-01-01

294

Ceratomyxa shasta genotypes cause differential mortality in their salmonid hosts.  

PubMed

Ceratomyxa shasta is a myxozoan parasite of salmonid fish. In natural communities, distinct genotypes of the parasite are associated with different salmonid hosts. To test the hypothesis that genotypes of C. shasta cause differential mortality, the polychaete host was experimentally infected with different parasite genotypes. Genotype I was obtained from Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and genotype II from either coho salmon, O. kisutch, or rainbow trout, O. mykiss, We then challenged four salmonid strains: Chinook and coho salmon that occur in sympatry with the parasite and allopatric Chinook salmon and rainbow trout. Parasite genotype I caused mortality only in Chinook strains, although mortality in the allopatric strain also occurred from exposure to genotype II. A second experiment demonstrated that genotype II could be separated into two biotypes based on differential mortality in rainbow trout and coho salmon. These differential patterns of mortality as a result of infection by certain genotypes of C. shasta support field observations and suggest a co-evolutionary relationship between these parasites and their hosts. PMID:22808922

Hurst, C N; Bartholomew, J L

2012-10-01

295

Antigenic characterization of the salmonid pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis.  

PubMed Central

Piscirickettsia salmonis, the etiological agent of salmonid rickettsial septicemia, was purified from infected immortal chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) embryo cells by a combination of differential and Percoll density gradient centrifugation. Immune sera from rabbits immunized with purified whole cells of P. salmonis reacted with four protein antigens and two carbohydrate antigens with relative molecular sizes of 65, 60, 54, 51, 16, and approximately 11 kDa, respectively. The carbohydrate antigens appear to be mainly core region lipo-oligosaccharide with lesser amounts of lipopolysaccharide. Serum from convalescent rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) reacted with several minor immunoreactive protein antigens between 10 and 70 kDa in size and a carbohydrate antigen with a relative molecular size of approximately 11 kDa. The salmonid immune system did not appear to elicit a strong humoral response against this intracellular pathogen. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, immunogold transmission electron microscopy, and biotin labeling of intact P. salmonis cells suggest that the immunoreactive antigens identified with rabbit antisera are surface exposed and differ significantly from those identified with salmonid antisera.

Kuzyk, M A; Thorton, J C; Kay, W W

1996-01-01

296

Sexual Health  

MedlinePLUS

... for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & ... Reaction Quiz: Baseball Injuries Learn the facts about sexual health with articles about puberty, menstruation, infections, and just ...

297

Sexuality Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the state of sexuality education in the United States. After concerted efforts in the 1960s to stop sex education, interest in sexuality education resurged in the 1980s, largely as a result of AIDS fears. There is now a broad-based consensus on the necessity of sexuality education, but there are still few effective programs. (SLD)

Haffner, Debra W.

1998-01-01

298

Assessing Success of Instream Structures for Salmonid Stream Restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stream restoration is a billion dollar industry in North America; despite this expenditure there remain questions regarding the effectiveness of current techniques such as the installation of instream structures. Assessing the effect that such structures have on physical habitat and on salmonid density are key ways of determining project success. The objectives of this research were to assess the impact of instream structures on physical habitat in the Nicolet River (Quebec) and to analyze physical habitat and fish density data from many stream restoration projects in North America. Results of intensive surveys of the Nicolet River show that the installation of weirs and deflectors results in a greater frequency of pools. These pools have significantly greater depths, lower velocities, larger sediment size and higher percent cover than those without structures. Meta analysis of data from 187 stream restoration projects in North America also show significant increases in percent pool area, average depth, and percent cover as well as decreases in channel width following the installation of structures. The physical changes observed in the Nicolet River resulted in improved trout habitat, as measured by applying habitat preference curves, but uneven stocking practices and fishing pressure confounded attempts to verify differences in trout density based on presence or absence of structures. The meta analysis, however, shows significant increases in salmonid density, measured as fish/m2, following the installation of structures. On average, density increased by 161%. Different structure types result in significantly different changes in physical habitat, with weir structures providing the largest density increase. Multiple linear regression analysis reveals that the combination of change in relative pool area and in width is the best predictor of change in salmonid density (r2=0.511). Instream structures are significantly more successful at increasing brook trout density than cutthroat and steelhead trout or coho salmon. Furthermore, salmonids over 15cm in length show significantly higher increases in density than smaller fish. These results highlight that restoration structures can play an important role in creating better habitat for salmonids and increasing their densities, but much work is needed to determine the best way to rehabilitate disturbed streams for various species.

Whiteway, S.; Biron, P.

2009-05-01

299

Functional roles of FgLaeA in controlling secondary metabolism, sexual development, and virulence in Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight in cereal crops, produces mycotoxins such as trichothecenes and zearalenone in infected plants. Here, we focused on the function of FgLaeA in F. graminearum, a homolog of Aspergillus nidulans LaeA encoding the global regulator for both secondary metabolism and sexual development. Prior to gene analysis, we constructed a novel luciferase reporter system consisting of a transgenic F. graminearum strain expressing a firefly luciferase gene under control of the promoter for either TRI6 or ZEB2 controlling the biosynthesis of these mycotoxins. Targeted deletion of FgLaeA led to a dramatic reduction of luminescence in reporter strains, indicating that FgLaeA controls the expression of these transcription factors in F. graminearum; reduced toxin accumulation was further confirmed by GC-MS analysis. Overexpression of FgLaeA caused the increased production of trichothecenes and additional metabolites. RNA seq-analysis revealed that gene member(s) belonging to ~70% of total tentative gene clusters, which were previously proposed, were differentially expressed in the ?FgLaeA strain. In addition, ?FgLaeA strains exhibited an earlier induction of sexual fruiting body (perithecia) formation and drastically reduced disease symptoms in wheat, indicating that FgLaeA seems to negatively control perithecial induction, but positively control virulence toward the host plant. FgLaeA was constitutively expressed under both mycotoxin production and sexual development conditions. Overexpression of a GFP-FgLaeA fusion construct in the ?FgLaeA strain restored all phenotypic changes to wild-type levels and led to constitutive expression of GFP in both nuclei and cytoplasm at different developmental stages. A split luciferase assay demonstrated that FgLaeA was able to interact with FgVeA, a homolog of A. nidulans veA. Taken together, these results demonstrate that FgLaeA, a member of putative FgVeA complex, controls secondary metabolism, sexual development, and virulence in F. graminearum, although the specific regulation pattern differs from that of LaeA in A. nidulans. PMID:23874628

Kim, Hee-Kyoung; Lee, Seunghoon; Jo, Seong-Mi; McCormick, Susan P; Butchko, Robert A E; Proctor, Robert H; Yun, Sung-Hwan

2013-01-01

300

Functional Roles of FgLaeA in Controlling Secondary Metabolism, Sexual Development, and Virulence in Fusarium graminearum  

PubMed Central

Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight in cereal crops, produces mycotoxins such as trichothecenes and zearalenone in infected plants. Here, we focused on the function of FgLaeA in F. graminearum, a homolog of Aspergillus nidulans LaeA encoding the global regulator for both secondary metabolism and sexual development. Prior to gene analysis, we constructed a novel luciferase reporter system consisting of a transgenic F. graminearum strain expressing a firefly luciferase gene under control of the promoter for either TRI6 or ZEB2 controlling the biosynthesis of these mycotoxins. Targeted deletion of FgLaeA led to a dramatic reduction of luminescence in reporter strains, indicating that FgLaeA controls the expression of these transcription factors in F. graminearum; reduced toxin accumulation was further confirmed by GC-MS analysis. Overexpression of FgLaeA caused the increased production of trichothecenes and additional metabolites. RNA seq-analysis revealed that gene member(s) belonging to ?70% of total tentative gene clusters, which were previously proposed, were differentially expressed in the ?FgLaeA strain. In addition, ?FgLaeA strains exhibited an earlier induction of sexual fruiting body (perithecia) formation and drastically reduced disease symptoms in wheat, indicating that FgLaeA seems to negatively control perithecial induction, but positively control virulence toward the host plant. FgLaeA was constitutively expressed under both mycotoxin production and sexual development conditions. Overexpression of a GFP-FgLaeA fusion construct in the ?FgLaeA strain restored all phenotypic changes to wild-type levels and led to constitutive expression of GFP in both nuclei and cytoplasm at different developmental stages. A split luciferase assay demonstrated that FgLaeA was able to interact with FgVeA, a homolog of A. nidulans veA. Taken together, these results demonstrate that FgLaeA, a member of putative FgVeA complex, controls secondary metabolism, sexual development, and virulence in F. graminearum, although the specific regulation pattern differs from that of LaeA in A. nidulans.

Jo, Seong-Mi; McCormick, Susan P.; Butchko, Robert A. E.; Proctor, Robert H.; Yun, Sung-Hwan

2013-01-01

301

Early age at first sexual intercourse and early pregnancy are risk factors for cervical cancer in developing countries  

PubMed Central

Early age at first sexual intercourse (AFSI) has long been associated with an increased risk of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC). Age at first pregnancy (AFP) and ICC have been investigated less, although AFSI and AFP are strongly interrelated in most developing countries. A pooled analysis of case–control studies on ICC from eight developing countries with 1864 cases and 1719 controls investigated the roles of AFSI, AFP, and ICC risk. Age at first sexual intercourse, AFP and age at first marriage (AFM) were highly interrelated and had similar ICC risk estimates. Compared with women with AFSI ?21 years, the odds ratio (OR) of ICC was 1.80 (95% CI: 1.50–2.39) among women with AFSI 17–20 years and 2.31 (95% CI: 1.85–2.87) for AFSI ?16 years (P-trend <0.001). No statistical interaction was detected between AFSI and any established risk factors for ICC. The ICC risk was 2.4-fold among those who reported AFSI and AFP at ?16 years compared with those with AFSI and AFP at ?21 years. These data confirm AFSI and AFB as risk factors for ICC in eight developing countries, but any independent effects of these two events could not be distinguished.

Louie, K S; de Sanjose, S; Diaz, M; Castellsague, X; Herrero, R; Meijer, C J; Shah, K; Franceschi, S; Munoz, N; Bosch, F X

2009-01-01

302

An in vivo model fish system to test chemical effects on sexual differentiation and development: exposure to ethinyl estradiol  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A model system was characterized which may be used as an in vivo screen for effects of chemicals or environmental mixtures on sexual differentiation and development of reproductive organs and gametes. We evaluated the effects of a model environmental estrogen, ethinyl estradiol (EE2), on the d-rR strain of medaka, Oryzias latipes, using a nano-injection exposure. Gonad histopathology indicated that a single injection of 0.5-2.5 ng EE2/egg can cause phenotypic sex-reversal of genetic males to females. Sex-reversals could be detected as early as 7 days post-hatch. Sex-reversed males had female-typical duct development and the secondary sex characteristics we measured were generally consistent with phenotype, with the exception of a few EE2-exposed XX and XY females which possessed ambiguous anal fins. Using discriminant analysis, we determined that the presence or absence of the secondary sex characteristic, a dorsal fin notch, was a very reliable indicator of gonadal sex. No instances of gonadal intersexes were observed. Ethinyl estradiol also appeared to reduce growth but not condition (weight-at-length) and exposed XX females appeared to have a higher incidence of atretic follicles relative to controls. Our results suggest that estrogenic chemicals may influence sexual differentiation and development and that the medaka model is well suited to assessing these effects. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

Papoulias, D. M.; Noltie, D. B.; Tillitt, D. E.

2000-01-01

303

Using real-time PCR and Bayesian analysis to distinguish susceptible tubificid taxa important in the transmission of Myxobolus cerebralis, the cause of salmonid whirling disease.  

PubMed

Aquatic oligochaetes have long been appreciated for their value in assessing habitat quality because they are ubiquitous sediment-dwelling filter feeders. Many oligochaete taxa are also important in the transmission of fish diseases. Distinguishing resistant and susceptible taxa is important for managing fish disease, yet challenging in practice. Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaeta: Tubificidae) is the definitive host for the complex life-cycle parasite, Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of salmonid whirling disease. We developed two hydrolysis probe-based qualitative real-time PCR (qPCR) multiplex assays that distinguish among tubificid taxa collected from the Madison River, Montana, USA. The first assay distinguishes T. tubifex from Rhyacodrilus spp.; while the second classifies T. tubifex identified by the first assay into two genetic lineages (I and III). Specificity and sensitivity were optimized for each assay; the two assays showed specificity of 94.3% and 98.6% for the target oligochaetes, respectively. DNA sequencing verified the results. The development of these assays allowed us to more fully describe tubificid community composition (the taxa and their abundance at a site) and estimate the relative abundances of host taxa. To relate tubificid relative abundance to fish disease risk, we determined M. cerebralis infection prevalence in samples identified as T. tubifex using similar molecular techniques. Given prior information (i.e., morphological identification of sexually mature worms), Bayesian analysis inferred that the first qPCR assay improved taxonomic identification. Bayesian inference of the relative abundance of T. tubifex, combined with infection assay results, identified sites with a high prevalence of infected T. tubifex. To our knowledge, this study represents both the first assessment of oligochaete community composition using a qPCR assay based on fluorescent probes and the first use of Bayesian analysis to fully characterize the dominant infected taxa in streams where whirling disease is observed. PMID:23474394

Fytilis, Nikolaos; Rizzo, Donna M; Lamb, Ryan D; Kerans, Billie L; Stevens, Lori

2013-05-01

304

Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying  

MedlinePLUS

... bullying. Forcing someone to do sexual things is sexual assault or rape, and it's a crime. Back Continue Flirting or ... Spreading Rumors About Me. What Can I Do? Rape Cyberbullying Stress & Coping Center School Counselors How Can ...

305

Pilot Study in the Development of an Interactive Multimedia Learning Environment for Sexual Health Interventions: A Focus Group Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the UK there are high rates of sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies amongst young people. There is limited and contradictory evidence that current sexual health education interventions are effective or that they improve access to appropriate sexual health services. This paper describes the outcome of focus group work with…

Goold, P. C.; Bustard, S.; Ferguson, E.; Carlin, E. M.; Neal, K.; Bowman, C. A.

2006-01-01

306

Sexual sadism in sexual offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present review considers the various conceptual and operational definitions of sexual sadism as this has been diagnosed among sexual offenders. The most persistent problem this review identified concerns the criteria of the fusion of sexual arousal with one or more of the various features of the offenders' actions or of the victims' responses. Not only do the definitions of

W. L Marshall; Pamela Kennedy

2003-01-01

307

Treating sexual dysfunction associated with prior sexual trauma.  

PubMed

Negative, confusing, guilt-inducing, or traumatic sexual experiences are almost universal for both females and males. Guidelines are presented for assessing sexual trauma using the medium of the detailed sexual history. The cognitive-behavioral treatment strategy considers past trauma in the context of the present sexual dysfunction rather than an issue to be dealt with first or separately. The guiding principles are to teach the person to be a "survivor" rather than a "victim" and to help the couple develop a functional and satisfying sexual style because "living well is the best revenge." PMID:2246791

McCarthy, B W

1990-01-01

308

Role of Neural Stem Cell Activity in Postweaning Development of the Sexually Dimorphic Nucleus of the Preoptic Area in Rats  

PubMed Central

The sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) has received increased attention due to its apparent sensitivity to estrogen-like compounds found in food and food containers. The mechanisms that regulate SDN-POA volume remain unclear as is the extent of postweaning development of the SDN-POA. Here we demonstrate that the female Sprague-Dawley SDN-POA volume increased from weaning to adulthood, although this increase was not statistically significant as it was in males. The number of cells positive for Ki67, a marker of cell proliferation, in both the SDN-POA and the hypothalamus was significantly higher at weaning than at adulthood in male rats. In contrast, the number of Ki67-positive cells was significantly higher in the hypothalamus but not in the SDN-POA (p>0.05) at weaning than at adulthood in female rats. A subset of the Ki67-positive cells in the SDN-POA displayed the morphology of dividing cells. Nestin-immunoreactivity delineated a potential macroscopic neural stem cell niche in the rostral end of the 3rd ventricle. In conclusion, stem cells may partially account for the sexually dimorphic postweaning development of the SDN-POA.

He, Zhen; Ferguson, Sherry A.; Cui, Li; Greenfield, L. John; Paule, Merle G.

2013-01-01

309

Isospora suis in an Epithelial Cell Culture System - An In Vitro Model for Sexual Development in Coccidia  

PubMed Central

Coccidian parasites are of major importance in animal production, public health and food safety. The most frequently used representative in basic research on this group is Toxoplasma gondii. Although this parasite is well investigated there is no adequate in vitro model for its sexual development available and knowledge on this important life cycle phase is therefore scarce. The use of Isosporasuis, a sister taxon to T. gondii and the causative agent of piglet coccidiosis, could provide a solution for this. In the present study an in vitro model for neonatal porcine coccidiosis in cells representative for the in vivo situation in the piglet gut was developed and evaluated. The parasite development was investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy and optimum culture conditions were evaluated. Intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) adequately representing the natural host cells supported the development of all endogenous life cycle stages of I. suis, including gametocytes and oocysts. A concentration of 5% fetal calf serum in the culture medium led to highest gametocyte densities on day 12 post infection. Low infection doses (?1 sporozoite for 100 host cells) were best for oocyst and gametocyte development. The presented system can also be used for immunostaining with established antibodies developed against T. gondii (in our case, anti-TgIMC3 antibodies directed against the inner membrane complex 3). The complete life cycle of I. suis in a cell line representing the natural host cell type and species provides a unique model among coccidian parasites and can be used to address a wide range of topics, especially with regard to the sexual development of coccidia.

Worliczek, Hanna Lucia; Ruttkowski, Barbel; Schwarz, Lukas; Witter, Kirsti; Tschulenk, Waltraud; Joachim, Anja

2013-01-01

310

Sexually dimorphic expression of protease nexin-1 and vanin-1 in the developing mouse gonad prior to overt differentiation suggests a role in mammalian sexual development  

Microsoft Academic Search

DDBJ\\/EMBL\\/GenBank accession nos AI115537, AI115468 The mammalian sex-determining pathway is controlled by the presence or absence of SRY expres- sion in the embryonic gonad .E xpression of SRY in males is believed to initiate a pathway of gene expres- sion resulting in testis development .I n the absence of SRY, ovary development ensues. Several genes have now been placed in

Sean Grimmond; ick Van Hateren; Pam Siggers; Ruth Arkell; Rachel Larder; Marcelo Bento Soares; Maria de Fatima Bonaldo; L ee Smith; Zuzanna Tymowska-Lalanne; Christine Wells; Andy Greenfield

2000-01-01

311

Sexual Health and Reproduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity provides questions and Web sites to guide student investigation of birth control methods, fetal development, risks of alcohol and smoking during pregnancy, changes during puberty, and HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases.

Waldron, Ingrid

312

The protein kinase ImeB is required for light-mediated inhibition of sexual development and for mycotoxin production in Aspergillus nidulans.  

PubMed

Spore formation is a common process in the developmental cycle of fungi. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ime2 is a key protein kinase for the meiotic cell cycle, which precedes ascospore formation. Here, we analysed the IME2-related imeB gene of the filamentous ascomycete Aspergillus nidulans. imeB deletion strains are retarded in growth and overproduce fertile sexual fruiting bodies in the presence of light, which normally represses sexual development. imeB mutants also display abnormal differentiation of sexual Hülle cells in submerged cultures. Increased sexual development of imeB mutants is dependent on VeA, a component of the heterotrimeric velvet complex. A combined deletion of imeB with the phytochrome fphA, a red light receptor, results in a complete loss of light response, suggesting that ImeB and FphA cooperate in light-mediated inhibition of sexual development. Furthermore, we found that imeB mutants fail to produce the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin, an aflatoxin precursor, and show that ImeB is needed for expression of the sterigmatocystin gene cluster. ImeB contains a TXY motif conserved in mitogen-activated protein kinases. This sequence element is essential for ImeB function. We conclude that ImeB is a mitogen-activated protein kinase-related protein kinase required for the co-ordinated control of light-dependent development with mycotoxin production. PMID:19210625

Bayram, Ozgür; Sari, Fatih; Braus, Gerhard H; Irniger, Stefan

2009-03-01

313

Modelling the probability of salmonid egg pocket scour due to floods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flood disturbance plays a key but complex role in structuring lotic ecosystems. Empirical models proposed here allow salmonid resource managers to quantify the probability of egg pocket scour during floods and to predict how the expected losses vary with flood strength and reach characteristics. The models are based on comparisons be- tween published salmonid egg pocket depth criteria and statistics

Michel Lapointe; Brett Eaton; Steve Driscoll; Christian Latulippe

2000-01-01

314

Salmonid Communities in the South Fork of Caspar Creek, 1967 to 1969 and 1993 to 20031  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demand for wood products and advances in logging technology post-World War II resulted in timber harvesting that extensively modified streams on the North Coast of California. To assess the resulting impacts to salmonid populations, the Department of Fish and Game conducted studies at widely spaced sites throughout the redwood region during the 1960s. In order to compare current salmonid communities

Bradley E. Valentine; Richard A. Macedo; Tracie Hughes

2007-01-01

315

Caspian Tern Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in the Mid-Columbia River  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used a bioenergetics approach to determine the magnitude of predation by Caspian terns Sterna caspia on juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. in the mid-Columbia River during 2000 and 2001. Caspian terns nesting on Crescent Island, Washington, located below the confluence of the Snake and Columbia rivers, consumed several hundred thousand juvenile salmonids each year of the study. Tern consumption of

Michelle Antolos; Daniel D. Roby; Donald E. Lyons; Ken Collis; Allen F. Evans; Mike Hawbecker; Brad A. Ryan

2005-01-01

316

Defining Flow Windows for Upstream Passage of Adult Anadromous Salmonids at Cascades and Falls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in streamflow at falls and cascades can create transitory barriers to upstream passage of adult anadromous salmonids. In this study, we evaluated the ability of six anadromous salmonids (coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, pink salmon O. gorbuscha, chum salmon O. keta, sockeye salmon O. nerka, Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha, and steelhead O. mykiss) to pass five sets of falls or

Dudley W. Reiser; Chi-Ming Huang; Stuart Beck; Michael Gagner; Eric Jeanes

2006-01-01

317

Dynamics of Myxobolus cerebralis in the Lostine River, Oregon: Implications for Resident and Anadromous Salmonids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myxobolus cerebralis, the myxozoan parasite causing whirling disease in salmonids, was first detected in northeastern Oregon in 1986. To better understand the potential impact of M. cerebralis on resident and anadromous salmonids in this region, a series of studies was conducted in the Lostine River, where infected fish were first reported. Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss fry were exposed in sentinel

Todd A. Sandell; Harriet V. Lorz; Donald G. Stevens; Jerri L. Bartholomew

2001-01-01

318

Sexual behaviour  

PubMed Central

Sexual health is not merely the absence of disease, but the ability to have informed, consensual, safe, respectful, and pleasurable sexual relationships. The majority of the population are sexually active, most with someone of the opposite sex. The frequency and range of sexual practices that people engage in declines with age, but for many, sexual activity continues well into later life. Different aspects of sexual health affect people at different times throughout their lives. As people in the UK tend to first have sex around the age of 16, but do not start living with a partner until much later, the avoidance of sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancy is necessary for many for a number of years. As people get older, their sexual health needs change and they become more concerned with the impact of their general health on their ability to have sex. Some people experience non-volitional sex (sex against their will); although this occurs typically in late teenage it may affect women and men at any age and so requires consideration throughout life. As many people find it difficult to talk about sex and sexual health matters, health professionals should make sexual health enquiry a component of their holistic healthcare.

Mercer, Catherine H.

2014-01-01

319

Effect of three larval diets on larval development and male sexual performance of Anopheles gambiae s.s.  

PubMed

Population replacement/elimination strategies based on mass-release of sterile or otherwise genetically modified (male) mosquitoes are being considered in order to expand the malaria vector control arsenal on the way to eradication. A challenge in this context, is to produce male mosquitoes that will be able to compete and mate with wild females more efficiently than their wild counterparts, i.e. high fitness males. This study explored the effect of three larval food diets developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency on the overall fitness and mating performance of male Anopheles gambiae s.s. mosquitoes (Kisumu strain). Larval development (pupation and emergence rate, development time) was monitored, and adult wing length and energy reserves at emergence (i.e. lipids, sugars, glycogen and proteins) were measured. Male sexual performance was assessed through an insemination test whereby one male and 10 virgin females were maintained together in the same cage in order to record the number of inseminated females per 24h. Our results show that males reared on Diets 2 and 3 performed best during larval development. Males provided with treatment 2.2 had a shorter development time and performed best in insemination tests. However, these males had the lowest overall lifespan, suggesting a trade-off between longevity and sexual performances which needs to be taken into consideration when planning release. The results from this work were discussed in the context of sterile insect techniques or genetic control methods which is today one of the strategy in the overall mosquito control and elimination efforts. PMID:24291460

Yahouédo, Gildas A; Djogbénou, Luc; Saïzonou, Jacques; Assogba, Bénoît S; Makoutodé, Michel; Gilles, Jeremie R L; Maïga, Hamidou; Mouline, Karine; Soukou, Bhonna K; Simard, Frédéric

2014-04-01

320

[The impact of male phytoestrogenization on the somato-sexual development and fertility of the offsprings in rats].  

PubMed

The effect of phytoestrogen-rich diet administered to male rats in a dose 20 mg/kg of body weight for 30 days with the mixture of phytoestrogens on reproductive function of male offspring and the effect of additional phytoestrogenization during milk feeding have been investigated. It was shown that male phytoestrogenization leads to feminization of the offsprings. Specifically, at birth, the ano-genital distance in males was less than that measured in control rats: (2.7 +/- 0.1) vs (3.1 +/- 0.0) mm (P < 0.05). This and additional phytoestrogenization of newborn rats during milk feeding inhibit their somatic and sexual development, weakening sexual activity in adults and reducing fertility at the expense of dectreased fertilizing capacity of sperm. A possible mechanism for the observed effects may be a reduction of relative androgenization due to increased of estradiol concentration by 3-4 times. Analysis of the data revealed a significant impact of phytoestrogens in father's diet on reproductive function of their offsprings under conditions of additional phytoestrogenization after birth. PMID:25007526

2014-01-01

321

REDUCING SEXUAL RISK AMONG FILIPINA FEMALE BAR WORKERS: EFFECTS OF A CBPR-DEVELOPED STRUCTURAL AND NETWORK INTERVENTION  

PubMed Central

The effects of three interventions designed to reduce sexual risk among Filipina female bar workers (FBWs) were compared with each other and with usual care (nonintervention). The interventions were developed iteratively by a community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership comprising lay community members, organizational representatives (including nongovernmental organizations), and academic researchers from the United States and the Philippines. Peer educators and bar managers from 110 different establishments in three southern regions were recruited and trained to increase knowledge of HIV and of condom use rules and regulations within establishments, as well as to change attitudes about risk reduction, provide HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing referrals, and build condom use skills among FBWs. Compared with the control community, all three interventions increased HIV and STI testing; however, only FBWs in the combination peer-educator and manager-training intervention significantly increased condom use from baseline to 2-year follow-up. Condom use was significantly associated with higher HIV knowledge, attendance of a prevention class, and being taught how to use condoms properly. Given these findings, research is warranted to further explore and understand various forms of commercial sex work and to test adapted peer-educator and manger-training interventions within HIV epicenters.

Morisky, Donald E.; Malow, Robert M.; Tiglao, Teodora V.; Lyu, Shu-Yu; Vissman, Aaron T.; Rhodes, Scott D.

2011-01-01

322

Development of an HIV risk reduction counselling intervention for use in South African sexually transmitted infection clinics.  

PubMed

South Africa urgently needs HIV prevention interventions that can be disseminated for use in clinical and community settings. A brief theory-based HIV risk reduction counselling intervention originally developed in the USA has recently been adapted for use in a South African sexually transmitted infection clinic. The 60-minute risk reduction counselling intervention was grounded in the Information-Motivation-Behavioural Skills (IMB) model of HIV preventive behaviour change, adapted through a series of interdisciplinary collaborative workshops. This paper reports the process of developing and culturally adapting the brief risk reduction counselling intervention. The processes used for adapting the HIV risk reduction counselling for South Africa provides a potential model for conducting technology transfer activities with other HIV prevention interventions. Several lessons learned from this process may help guide future efforts to transfer HIV prevention technologies. PMID:17601009

Mathiti, V; Simbayi, L C; Jooste, S; Kekana, Q; Nibe, X P; Shasha, L; Bidla, P; Magubane, P; Cain, D; Cherry, C; Kalichman, S C

2005-07-01

323

Examining key design decisions involved in developing a serious game for child sexual abuse prevention.  

PubMed

This paper presents a case study of the key decisions made in the design of Orbit, a child sexual abuse prevention computer game targeted at school students between 8 and 10 years of age. Key decisions include providing supported delivery for the target age group, featuring adults in the program, not over-sanitizing game content, having a focus on building healthy self-concept of players, making the game engaging and relatable for all players and evaluating the program. This case study has implications for the design of Serious Games more generally, including that research should underpin game design decisions, game designers should consider ways of bridging the game to real life, the learning that arises from the game should go beyond rote-learning, designers should consider how the player can make the game-world their own and comprehensive evaluations of Serious Games should be undertaken. PMID:24550880

Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Jones, Christian M; Rolfe, Ben; Pozzebon, Kay

2014-01-01

324

Characterization of 13 microsatellites for Lahontan cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki henshawi) and cross-amplification in six other salmonids.  

PubMed

Thirteen newly developed tri- and tetranucleotide repeat microsatellite markers were developed for Lahontan cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki henshawi), a threatened subspecies endemic to the Lahontan hydrographic basin in the western USA. These loci are highly polymorphic with five to 30 alleles per locus and observed heterozygosities ranging from 0.4 to 0.7. Cross-species amplification of these markers was most successful in the closely related rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, with only three loci amplifying in brown trout, Salmo trutta. Nonoverlapping allelic distributions for many of these loci among the six salmonid species screened suggest these markers may be useful for hybrid determination. PMID:21564582

Robinson, M L; Kirchoff, V S; Peacock, M M

2009-01-01

325

The contribution of molecular epidemiology to the understanding and control of viral diseases of salmonid aquaculture.  

PubMed

Molecular epidemiology is a science which utilizes molecular biology to define the distribution of disease in a population (descriptive epidemiology) and relies heavily on integration of traditional (or analytical) epidemiological approaches to identify the etiological determinants of this distribution. The study of viral pathogens of aquaculture has provided many exciting opportunities to apply such tools. This review considers the extent to which molecular epidemiological studies have contributed to better understanding and control of disease in aquaculture, drawing on examples of viral diseases of salmonid fish of commercial significance including viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), salmonid alphavirus (SAV) and infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV). Significant outcomes of molecular epidemiological studies include:Improved taxonomic classification of viruses. A better understanding of the natural distribution of viruses. An improved understanding of the origins of viral pathogens in aquaculture. An improved understanding of the risks of translocation of pathogens outwith their natural host range. An increased ability to trace the source of new disease outbreaks. Development of a basis for ensuring development of appropriate diagnostic tools. An ability to classify isolates and thus target future research aimed at better understanding biological function. While molecular epidemiological studies have no doubt already made a significant contribution in these areas, the advent of new technologies such as pyrosequencing heralds a quantum leap in the ability to generate descriptive molecular sequence data. The ability of molecular epidemiology to fulfil its potential to translate complex disease pathways into relevant fish health policy is thus unlikely to be limited by the generation of descriptive molecular markers. More likely, full realisation of the potential to better explain viral transmission pathways will be dependent on the ability to assimilate and analyse knowledge from a range of more traditional information sources. The development of methods to systematically record and share such epidemiologically important information thus represents a major challenge for fish health professionals in making the best future use of molecular data in supporting fish health policy and disease control. PMID:21466673

Snow, Michael

2011-01-01

326

Sexual pain.  

PubMed

Sexual pain is an underrecognized and poorly treated constellation of disorders that significantly impact affected women and their partners. Recognized as a form of chronic pain, sexual pain disorders are heterogeneous and include dyspareunia (superficial and deep), vaginismus, vulvodynia, vestibulitis, and noncoital sexual pain disorder. Women too often tolerate pain in the belief that this will meet their partners' needs. This article provides a review of the terminology and definition of the condition, theories on the pathophysiology, diagnostic considerations, and recommendations on the management of female sexual pain. PMID:20393420

Boardman, Lori A; Stockdale, Colleen K

2009-12-01

327

Longitudinal Development of Secondary Sexual Characteristics in Girls and Boys Between Ages 9 1/2 and 15 1/2 Years  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify ages when adolescents were in sexual maturity stages 2 through 5; to explain the relations between breast (girls), genital (boys), and pubic hair (girls and boys) development between ages 9½ and 15½ years; and to evaluate synchrony of pubertal development across characteristics. Design Annual pubertal assessments. Setting Ten locations in the United States. Participants A total of 859 adolescents (427 boys [49.7%] and 432 girls [50.3%]; 737 white [85.8%] and 122 black [14.2%]). Main Outcome Measures Changes in the 5 stages of breast, genital, and pubic hair development. Results Girls were in breast maturity stages 2 and 3 earlier than comparable pubic hair stages. Although breast development in girls started earlier than pubic hair development, girls completed breast and pubic hair development at approximately the same age. Black girls were in all stages of breast and pubic hair development earlier than white girls. Boys were in stages 2, 3, 4, and 5 of genital development before the comparable pubic hair stage. In boys, genital development started earlier than pubic hair development, but pubic hair development was completed in less time. Black boys were in genital and pubic hair development about 7 months earlier than white boys. Black and white boys completed genital development in approximately 4½ years, but black boys took approximately 6 months longer than white boys to complete pubic hair development. At stage 2, for 66.2% of girls, breast development preceded their pubic hair development; for 91.1% of boys, genital development preceded their pubic hair development. Conclusions The results of this study are useful in understanding normative variation in the timing and change in the development of secondary sexual characteristics at puberty. They will help identify adolescents with atypical changes in sexual maturation and unusual progression of sexual maturation and growth disorders.

Susman, Elizabeth J.; Houts, Renate M.; Steinberg, Laurence; Belsky, Jay; Cauffman, Elizabeth; DeHart, Ganie; Friedman, Sarah L.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

2010-01-01

328

Histopathology and ultrastructure of ocular lesions associated with gas bubble disease in salmonids.  

PubMed

Ocular lesions associated with natural and experimental outbreaks of gas bubble disease (GBD) in commercial salmonids were assessed histologically and by scanning electron microscopy. Small gas emboli were first detected in the choroid gland of the posterior uvea. In subacute and chronic cases, bubble size increased markedly and localization in retrobulbar and periocular sites was favoured. During the acute phase of GBD, ocular lesions were limited to anatomical displacement of tissue and local degeneration of compressed tissues around the perimeter of bubbles. Subacute sequelae included the formation of anterior synechia, lens cataract, and suppurative panophthalmitis. During chronic stages, when large retrobulbar bubbles had caused severe exophthalmia, there was stretching of the optic nerve and of retinal blood vessels and severe distortion of the posterior aspects of the globe. The sequential development, pathogenesis and persistence of ocular lesions associated with GBD in fish are discussed. PMID:2079557

Speare, D J

1990-11-01

329

Oral vaccination of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) against salmonid rickettsial septicaemia.  

PubMed

Effective oral immunization systems may be very helpful to the salmon industry, particularly during the seawater growth stages in which vaccination through injection is not possible. During the seawater growing stage, fish become more susceptible to several types of disease, due to the natural decay of vaccine-induced immune responses. In this study, we demonstrate the immune response and efficacy of a new salmonid rickettsial septicaemia (SRS) oral vaccine, developed using MicroMatrix™ Technology. The vaccine, which is administered together with daily feed ration, induces a specific immune response at local and systemic levels. Anti-Piscirickettsia salmonis specific antibodies were detected as soon as 300 degree-days after vaccination. Furthermore, oral vaccination was able to protect fish against a lethal pathogen challenge when administered either as a primary vaccination or as a booster for an injected vaccine. Results show that oral vaccination is an efficacious treatment for the prevention of SRS outbreaks throughout the salmon culture period. PMID:21219985

Tobar, Jaime A; Jerez, Sofía; Caruffo, Mario; Bravo, Catalina; Contreras, Francisco; Bucarey, Sergio A; Harel, Moti

2011-03-01

330

Development, standardization and refinement of procedures for evaluating effects of endocrine active compounds on development and sexual differentiation of Xenopus laevis  

PubMed Central

Xenopus laevis has been introduced as a model to study effects of endocrine-active compounds (EAC) on development and sexual differentiation. However, variable and inconsistent data have raised questions about the reliability of the test methods applied. The current study was conducted in two laboratories to develop, refine, and standardize procedures and protocols. Larvae were exposed in flow-through systems to 17?-estradiol (E2), at concentrations from 0.2 to 6.0 ?g E2 L?1 in Experiment 1A, and 0.015 to 2.0 ?g E2 L?1 in Experiment 1B. In both studies survival (92%, 99%) and percentage of animals that completed metamorphosis (97%, 99%) indicated reproducible biological performance. Furthermore, minor variations in husbandry led to significant differences in snout-to-vent length, weight, and gonad size. In Experiment 1A, almost complete feminization occurred in all E2 treatment groups whereas a concentration response was observed in Experiment 1B resulting in an EC50 of 0.12 ?g E2 L?1. The final verified protocol is suitable for determining effects of EAC on development and sexual differentiation in X. laevis.

Kloas, Werner; Springer, Timothy A.; Holden, Larry R.; Wolf, Jeff C.; Krueger, Henry O.; Hosmer, Alan J.

2008-01-01

331

Fgfr1 signalling in the development of a sexually selected trait in vertebrates, the sword of swordtail fish  

PubMed Central

Background One of Darwin's chosen examples for his idea of sexual selection through female choice was the "sword", a colourful extension of the caudal fin of male swordtails of the genus Xiphophorus. Platyfish, also members of the genus Xiphophorus, are thought to have arisen from within the swordtails, but have secondarily lost the ability to develop a sword. The sustained increase of testosterone during sexual maturation initiates sword development in male swordtails. Addition of testosterone also induces sword-like fin extensions in some platyfish species, suggesting that the genetic interactions required for sword development may be dormant, rather than lost, within platyfish. Despite considerable interest in the evolution of the sword from a behavioural or evolutionary point of view, little is known about the developmental changes that resulted in the gain and secondary loss of the sword. Up-regulation of msxC had been shown to characterize the development of both swords and the gonopodium, a modified anal fin that serves as an intromittent organ, and prompted investigations of the regulatory mechanisms that control msxC and sword growth. Results By comparing both development and regeneration of caudal fins in swordtails and platyfish, we show that fgfr1 is strongly up-regulated in developing and regenerating sword and gonopodial rays. Characterization of the fin overgrowth mutant brushtail in a platyfish background confirmed that fin regeneration rates are correlated with the expression levels of fgfr1 and msxC. Moreover, brushtail re-awakens the dormant mechanisms of sword development in platyfish and activates fgfr1/msxC-signalling. Although both genes are co-expressed in scleroblasts, expression of msxC in the distal blastema may be independent of fgfr1. Known regulators of Fgf-signalling in teleost fins, fgf20a and fgf24, are transiently expressed only during regeneration and thus not likely to be required in developing swords. Conclusion Our data suggest that Fgf-signalling is involved upstream of msxC in the development of the sword and gonopodium in male swordtails. Activation of a gene regulatory network that includes fgfr1 and msxC is positively correlated with fin ray growth rates and can be re-activated in platyfish to form small sword-like fin extensions. These findings point towards a disruption between the fgfr1/msxC network and its regulation by testosterone as a likely developmental cause for sword-loss in platyfish.

Offen, Nils; Blum, Nicola; Meyer, Axel; Begemann, Gerrit

2008-01-01

332

A Structural Examination of the Predictors of Sexual Coercion Against Children in Adolescent Sexual Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study proposed an etiological model for sexually offending behavior against younger victims. In a sample of adolescent sexual offenders (N = 329), it tested whether attachment disruptions, specific maltreatment experiences, or combinations of early abuse experiences played a role in the development of certain unique, core personality traits (i.e., sexual inadequacy, psychopathy, child sexual arousal) that mediate the prediction

Maria T. Daversa; Raymond A. Knight

2007-01-01

333

Covert Cultural Sexual Abuse of Gay Male Teenagers Contributing to Etiology of Sexual Addiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gay male teenagers are at high risk for the development of sexual addiction. There exists a regular assault on the sexuality of gay males. This covert cultural sexual abuse suffered by these gay ado- lescents predisposes them to reenact this trauma through sexual acting out. The trauma model is useful in conceptualizing how to treat this population and address the

JOE KORT

2004-01-01

334

Sexually dimorphic effects of NMDA receptor antagonism on brain-pituitary-gonad axis development in the platyfish  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR) is found in hypothalamic nuclei involved in the regulation of reproduction in several species of mammals and fishes. NMDAR is believed to affect reproductive development and function by regulating gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)-producing cells. These pathways are likely to be sexually dimorphic, as are several other neurotransmitter systems involved in reproductive function. In this report, male and female platyfish received intraperitoneal injections of 0, 5, 10, 20, 40 or 60 microg/g body wt. of the non-competitive NMDAR antagonist MK-801. Injections began at 6 weeks of age and continued thrice weekly until control animals reached puberty, as evidenced by anal fin maturation. The percent of pubescent animals was significantly affected by sex and treatment, with fewer MK-801-injected females in puberty than control females at each dose (P<0.001), and fewer pubescent females than males at 10, 20 and 40 microg/g (P<0.05). There were no MK-801-related effects in males. Histological analyses revealed typical immature gonads and pituitary glands in treated females, and typical mature morphology in control females and all males. Immunocytochemical distribution of the R1 subunit of the NMDAR within the brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis was limited to GnRH-containing brain cells in all animals; however, NMDAR1 distribution was in an immature pattern in treated females and a mature pattern in all others. Neural concentrations of GnRH were unaffected by MK-801 treatment in both sexes. These data suggest that in the platyfish, NMDAR influence on reproductive development is sexually dimorphic and occurs at, or above, the level of GnRH-containing cells of the BPG axis.

Flynn, Katherine M.; Miller, Shelly A.; Sower, Stacia A.; Schreibman, Martin P.

2002-01-01

335

GzSNF1 Is Required for Normal Sexual and Asexual Development in the Ascomycete Gibberella zeae? †  

PubMed Central

The sucrose nonfermenting 1 (SNF1) protein kinase of yeast plays a central role in the transcription of glucose-repressible genes in response to glucose starvation. In this study, we deleted an ortholog of SNF1 from Gibberella zeae to characterize its functions by using a gene replacement strategy. The mycelial growth of deletion mutants (?GzSNF1) was reduced by 21 to 74% on diverse carbon sources. The virulence of ?GzSNF1 mutants on barley decreased, and the expression of genes encoding cell-wall-degrading enzymes was reduced. The most distinct phenotypic changes were in sexual and asexual development. ?GzSNF1 mutants produced 30% fewer perithecia, which matured more slowly, and asci that contained one to eight abnormally shaped ascospores. Mutants in which only the GzSNF1 catalytic domain was deleted had the same phenotype changes as the ?GzSNF1 strains, but the phenotype was less extreme in the mutants with the regulatory domain deleted. In outcrosses between the ?GzSNF1 mutants, each perithecium contained ?70% of the abnormal ascospores, and ?50% of the asci showed unexpected segregation patterns in a single locus tested. The asexual spores of the ?GzSNF1 mutants were shorter and had fewer septa than those of the wild-type strain. The germination and nucleation of both ascospores and conidia were delayed in ?GzSNF1 mutants in comparison with those of the wild-type strain. GzSNF1 expression and localization depended on the developmental stage of the fungus. These results suggest that GzSNF1 is critical for normal sexual and asexual development in addition to virulence and the utilization of alternative carbon sources.

Lee, Seung-Ho; Lee, Jungkwan; Lee, Seunghoon; Park, Eun-Hee; Kim, Ki-Woo; Kim, Myoung-Dong; Yun, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Yin-Won

2009-01-01

336

The growth and reproductive endocrinology of adult triploid Pacific salmonids.  

PubMed

This paper describes the effect of triploidy on growth and reproductive endocrinology in the months leading up to and including spawning in rainbow trout,Salmo gairdneri, and pink salmon,Oncorhynchus gorbuscha. Growth rates were the same for diploid and triploid rainbow trout, but triploid female pink salmon were smaller than maturing diploid females and diploid and triploid males of the same age. Triploid males of both species developed typical secondary sexual characteristics and had normal endocrine profiles, although their cycle appeared to be delayed by about one month. Triploid females remained silvery in appearance and showed no endocrine signs of maturation, even at the level of the pituitary. Thus, although triploids of both sexes are genetically sterile, only the females do not undergo physiological maturation. PMID:24226976

Benfey, T J; Dye, H M; Solar, I I; Donaldson, E M

1989-03-01

337

Temperature and salmonid reproduction: implications for aquaculture.  

PubMed

Fish reproduction is likely to be affected by increasing water temperatures arising from climate change. Normal changes in environmental temperature have the capacity to affect endocrine function and either advance or retard gametogenesis and maturation, but above-normal temperatures have deleterious effects on reproductive processes. In Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, exposure to elevated temperature during gametogenesis impairs both gonadal steroid synthesis and hepatic vitellogenin production, alters hepatic oestrogen receptor dynamics and ultimately results in reduced maternal investment and gamete viability. Exposure to high temperature during the maturational phase impairs gonadal steroidogenesis, delaying or inhibiting the preovulatory shift from androgen to maturation-inducing steroid production. There are also deleterious effects on reproductive development of female broodstock of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus when they are exposed to elevated temperature. Less is known about temperature effects on male fishes but inhibition of spermiation has been observed in S. salar and O. mykiss. Among wild stocks, the response to elevated temperature will involve behavioural thermoregulation with consequent change in geographical ranges and the possibility of local extinctions in some regions. For domesticated stocks, containment in the culture environment precludes behavioural thermoregulation and aquaculturists will be required to develop adaptive strategies in order to maintain productivity. The most direct strategy is to manage the thermal environment using one or more of a range of developing aquaculture technologies. Alternatively, there is potential to mitigate the effects of elevated temperature on reproductive processes through endocrine therapies designed to augment or restore natural endocrine function. Studies largely on S. salar have demonstrated the capacity for synthetic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone to offset the inhibitory effects of elevated temperature on maturational events in both sexes, but the potential for hormone therapy to provide protection during gametogenesis is still largely unexplored. PMID:20738700

Pankhurst, N W; King, H R

2010-01-01

338

Sexual Sadism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Definitions of sexual sadism in ICD-10 and DSM-IV will be presented as well as the historical routes of the concept. Today studies on differently selected clinical samples reveal a different distribution of sexual sadism versus masochism with masochism prevailing in general especially outpatient psychiatric facilities, and sadism prevailing in forensic settings, thus corroborating the concept of two separated diagnoses sadism

Wolfgang Berner; Peter Berger; Andreas Hill

2003-01-01

339

Sexual Health  

MedlinePLUS

... healthy aging. As we age, our bodies undergo changes that may hinder the rewarding sex life enjoyed until this time. For example, hormone levels decrease, medical conditions may affect sexual performance, chronic pain may get in the way, and surgery can have a severe impact on sexual response. ...

340

The nsdC gene encoding a putative C2H2-type transcription factor is a key activator of sexual development in Aspergillus nidulans.  

PubMed

The formation of the Aspergillus nidulans fruiting body is affected by a number of genetic and environmental factors. Here, the nsdC (never in sexual development) gene-encoding a putative transcription factor carrying a novel type of zinc-finger DNA-binding domain consisting of two C(2)H(2)'s and a C(2)HC motif that are highly conserved in most fungi but not in plants or animals-was investigated. Two distinct transcripts of 2.6 and 3.0 kb were generated from nsdC. The 2.6-kb mRNA accumulated differentially in various stages of growth and development, while the level of the 3.0-kb mRNA remained relatively constant throughout the life cycle. While the deletion of nsdC resulted in the complete loss of fruiting body formation under all conditions favoring sexual development, overexpression of nsdC not only enhanced formation of fruiting bodies (cleistothecia) but also overcame inhibitory effects of certain stresses on cleistothecial development, implying that NsdC is a key positive regulator of sexual development. Deletion of nsdC also retarded vegetative growth and hyperactive asexual sporulation, suggesting that NsdC is necessary not only for sexual development but also for regulating asexual sporulation negatively. Overexpression of veA or nsdD does not rescue the failure of fruiting body formation caused by nsdC deletion. Furthermore, nsdC expression is not affected by either VeA or NsdD, and vice versa, indicating that NsdC regulates sexual development independently of VeA or NsdD. PMID:19416940

Kim, Hye-Ryun; Chae, Keon-Sang; Han, Kap-Hoon; Han, Dong-Min

2009-07-01

341

Rape Myth Acceptance, Hypermasculinity, and SAT Scores as Correlates of Moral Development: Understanding Sexually Aggressive Attitudes in First-Year College Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male perpetrated sexual aggression has long been recognized as a serious problem on college campuses. The purpose of this multiple regression correlation study was to assess the relationship between levels of moral development (measured by the Defining Issues Test) and the degree to which first-year college men (N = 161) ascribed to rape supportive attitudes, as measured by the Illinois

Jerry L. Tatum; John D. Foubert

2009-01-01

342

EFFECTS OF MIXTURES OF PHTHALATES, PESTICIDES AND TCDD ON SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATON IN RATS: A RISK FRAMEWORK BASED UPON DISRUPTION OF COMMON DEVELOPING SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Since humans are exposed to more than one chemical at a time, concern has arisen about the effects of mixtures of chemicals on human reproduction and development. We are conducting studies to determine the 1) classes of chemicals that disrupt sexual differentiation via different ...

343

A Comparison of Self-Reported Puberty Using the Pubertal Development Scale and the Sexual Maturation Scale in a School-Based Epidemiologic Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine concordance between two self-reported measures of puberty: Sexual Maturation Scale (SMS) and Pubertal Development Scale (PDS) and their acceptability to adolescents. Methods: Participants of a school-based study in grades 5, 7 and 9 were classified into one of 5 pubertal stages using each method. Results: 2864 students (age…

Bond, Lyndal; Clements, Jackie; Bertalli, Nadine; Evans-Whipp, Tracy; McMorris, Barbara J.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

2006-01-01

344

Rape Myth Acceptance, Hypermasculinity, and SAT Scores as Correlates of Moral Development: Understanding Sexually Aggressive Attitudes in First-Year College Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Male perpetrated sexual aggression has long been recognized as a serious problem on college campuses. The purpose of this multiple regression correlation study was to assess the relationship between levels of moral development (measured by the Defining Issues Test) and the degree to which first-year college men (N = 161) ascribed to rape…

Tatum, Jerry L.; Foubert, John D.

2009-01-01

345

The Development of Reproductive Strategy in Females: Early Maternal Harshness [right arrow] Earlier Menarche [right arrow] Increased Sexual Risk Taking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To test a proposition central to J. Belsky, L. Steinberg, and P. Draper's (1991) evolutionary theory of socialization--that pubertal maturation plays a role in linking early rearing experience with adolescent sexual risk taking (i.e., frequency of sexual behavior) and, perhaps, other risk taking (e.g., alcohol, drugs, delinquency)--the authors…

Belsky, Jay; Steinberg, Laurence; Houts, Renate M.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

2010-01-01

346

Saving Sex for Later: developing a parent–child communication intervention to delay sexual initiation among young adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young adolescents in communities with high rates of early sexual initiation are at risk of multiple negative health outcomes. Although sex education programs for this age group are often controversial, surveys document that many mothers and fathers would appreciate guidance about how to discuss sexuality with their children. This paper presents an innovative strategy for reaching inner?city parents and helping

Lydia ODonnell; Kim Dash; Varzi Jeanbaptiste; Jesse Moss; Ann Stueve

2007-01-01

347

The roots of sexual arousal and sexual orientation.  

PubMed

Unlike members of other species that are genetically wired to be attracted to their sexual partners, humans learn the cues that guide them in choosing their sexual partners and that trigger sexual arousal. Genetically wired mechanisms must be directing the acquisition of those cues and organizing them in information structures that underlie human sexual behavior. Individual sexuality is a combination of the genetic mechanisms and information learned through personal experiences. This article focuses on the roots of human sexuality - on genetically embedded mechanisms, common to all humans, around which the wide variety of sexual behaviors is built. It proposes a model that defines the basic mechanisms and their role in developing individual sexuality. It is suggested that three brain areas host the roots of human sexuality: the auditory area, which provides stimuli that serve as cues for the identification of a mate; an emotional area, which provides cues for emotional arousal; and a corporal area, which controls the physiological expressions of arousal. The amygdala is a main candidate for the emotional area, and the hypothalamus for the corporal area, but other areas may also provide those inputs. Experimental observations that support this model are discussed, and an outline of additional experiments for validating the model is proposed. If validated, the model would provide knowledge that fills a gap in the understanding of human sexuality - knowledge that would benefit individuals, the medical profession, and society as a whole. PMID:21095066

Salu, Yehuda

2011-03-01

348

An essential role for the Plasmodium Nek-2 Nima-related protein kinase in the sexual development of malaria parasites.  

PubMed

The molecular control of cell division and development in malaria parasites is far from understood. We previously showed that a Plasmodium gametocyte-specific NIMA-related protein kinase, nek-4, is required for completion of meiosis in the ookinete, the motile form that develops from the zygote in the mosquito vector. Here, we show that another NIMA-related kinase, Pfnek-2, is also predominantly expressed in gametocytes, and that Pfnek-2 is an active enzyme displaying an in vitro substrate preference distinct from that of Pfnek-4. A functional nek-2 gene is required for transmission of both Plasmodium falciparum and the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei to the mosquito vector, which is explained by the observation that disruption of the nek-2 gene in P. berghei causes dysregulation of DNA replication during meiosis and blocks ookinete development. This has implications (i) in our understanding of sexual development of malaria parasites and (ii) in the context of control strategies aimed at interfering with malaria transmission. PMID:19491095

Reininger, Luc; Tewari, Rita; Fennell, Clare; Holland, Zoe; Goldring, Dean; Ranford-Cartwright, Lisa; Billker, Oliver; Doerig, Christian

2009-07-31

349

An Essential Role for the Plasmodium Nek-2 Nima-related Protein Kinase in the Sexual Development of Malaria Parasites*  

PubMed Central

The molecular control of cell division and development in malaria parasites is far from understood. We previously showed that a Plasmodium gametocyte-specific NIMA-related protein kinase, nek-4, is required for completion of meiosis in the ookinete, the motile form that develops from the zygote in the mosquito vector. Here, we show that another NIMA-related kinase, Pfnek-2, is also predominantly expressed in gametocytes, and that Pfnek-2 is an active enzyme displaying an in vitro substrate preference distinct from that of Pfnek-4. A functional nek-2 gene is required for transmission of both Plasmodium falciparum and the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei to the mosquito vector, which is explained by the observation that disruption of the nek-2 gene in P. berghei causes dysregulation of DNA replication during meiosis and blocks ookinete development. This has implications (i) in our understanding of sexual development of malaria parasites and (ii) in the context of control strategies aimed at interfering with malaria transmission.

Reininger, Luc; Tewari, Rita; Fennell, Clare; Holland, Zoe; Goldring, Dean; Ranford-Cartwright, Lisa; Billker, Oliver; Doerig, Christian

2009-01-01

350

Sexual Values and Risky Sexual Behaviors Among Latino Youths  

PubMed Central

CONTEXT Understanding Latino youths’ sexual values is key to informing HIV prevention efforts. Few studies have examined associations between culturally based sexual values and behaviors among Latinos. METHODS A sample of 839 sexually active Latinos aged 16–22 residing in San Francisco were interviewed in 2003–2006. Multiple regression and multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between sexual values and behaviors, while adjusting for language use (a proxy for acculturation) and other covariates. RESULTS The importance attached to female virginity was negatively associated with the number of sexual partners women had had in their lifetime (odds ratio, 0.8) and in the past year (0.9), and was positively associated with women’s nonuse of condoms, rather than consistent use, during the first month of their current relationships (1.8). For men, the importance of satisfying sexual needs increased with the numbers of lifetime and recent sexual partners (1.4 and 1.1, respectively), and with inconsistent condom use in the first month of their relationships (1.9). Comfort with sexual communication was positively associated with inconsistent use or nonuse of condoms in the last month of both men’s and women’s current relationships (2.0–2.2). For women, considering satisfaction of sexual needs important was associated with more sexual partners only among those who attached little value to female virginity. CONCLUSIONS It is important to integrate themes of virginity and sexual desire into intervention curricula so youth can better understand how these sexual norms influence their developing sexual identities and behaviors.

Deardorff, Julianna; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Flores, Elena; Ozer, Emily J.

2010-01-01

351

Men's sexual self-schema  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual self-schemas are cognitive generalizations about sexual aspects of oneself. In Part 1, a measure of men's sexual self-schema is developed. Studies of test—retest and internal consistency reliability and validity studies of factor analysis, internal structure, convergent and discriminant validity, process, group difference, and change are provided. The construct consists of 3 dimensions: passionate—loving, powerful-aggressive, and open-minded-liberal traits. In Part

Barbara L. Andersen; Jill M. Cyranowski; Derek Espindle

1999-01-01

352

Biology and Sexual Minority Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this chapter is to provide clinicians with an overview of current knowledge pertaining to the biology of sexual\\u000a minority status. Under the umbrella of sexual minority are included homosexuals, bisexuals, transgenders and intersexes. The\\u000a most developed biologic theory pertaining to sexual minority status is the prenatal hormonal\\u000a hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, prenatal hormones act (primarily during

William Byne

353

A Multidimensional Model of Sexual Health and Sexual and Prevention Behavior Among Adolescent Women  

PubMed Central

Purpose Sexual health refers a state of lifespan well-being related to sexuality. Among young people, sexual health has multiple dimensions, including the positive developmental contributions of sexuality, as well as the acquisition of skills pertinent to avoiding adverse sexual outcomes such as unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Existing efforts to understand sexual health, however, have yet to empirically operationalize a multi-dimensional model of sexual health and to evaluate its association to different sexual/prevention behaviors. Methods Sexual health dimensions and sexual/prevention behaviors were drawn from a larger longitudinal cohort study of sexual relationships among adolescent women (N =387, 14–17 years). Second order latent variable modeling (AMOS/19.0) evaluated the relationship between sexual health and dimensions and analyzed the effect of sexual health to sexual/prevention outcomes. Results All first order latent variables were significant indicators of sexual health (?: 0.192 – 0.874, all p < .001). Greater sexual health was significantly associated with sexual abstinence, as well as with more frequent non-coital and vaginal sex, condom use at last sex, a higher proportion of condom-protected events, use of hormonal or other methods of pregnancy control and absence of STI. All models showed good fit. Conclusions Sexual health is an empirically coherent structure, in which the totality of its dimensions is significantly linked to a wide range of outcomes, including sexual abstinence, condom use and absence of STI. This means that, regardless of a young person’s experiences, sexual health is an important construct for promoting positive sexual development and for primary prevention.

Hensel, Devon J.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

2013-01-01

354

Outcomes of sexual behaviors among sexual minority youth.  

PubMed

Very little is known about outcomes of sexual behavior for sexual minority youth. In this chapter, I review relevant literature and draw on findings from my own research to initiate an inquiry into this important topic. I begin with a brief overview of the range of sexual behaviors of sexual minority adolescents and young adults. Next, I describe what we know about positive and negative outcomes of sexual behavior among sexual minority youth. This discussion takes into account physical outcomes, psychological and emotional outcomes, and outcomes related to identity development. Lastly, I discuss the limitations of prior research and propose several goals for future research to expand our understanding of this topic. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24962360

Morgan, Elizabeth M

2014-06-01

355

Comparative evaluation of molecular diagnostic tests for Nucleospora salmonis and prevalence in migrating juvenile salmonids from the Snake River, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nucleospora salmonis is an intranuclear microsporidian that primarily infects lymphoblast cells and contributes to chronic lymphoblastosis and a leukemia-like condition in a range of salmonid species. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of N. salmonis in out-migrating juvenile hatchery and wild Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss from the Snake River in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. To achieve this goal, we first addressed the following concerns about current molecular diagnostic tests for N. salmonis: (1) nonspecific amplification patterns by the published nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) test, (2) incomplete validation of the published quantitative PCR (qPCR) test, and (3) whether N. salmonis can be detected reliably from nonlethal samples. Here, we present an optimized nPCR protocol that eliminates nonspecific amplification. During validation of the published qPCR test, our laboratory developed a second qPCR test that targeted a different gene sequence and used different probe chemistry for comparison purposes. We simultaneously evaluated the two different qPCR tests for N. salmonis and found that both assays were highly specific, sensitive, and repeatable. The nPCR and qPCR tests had good overall concordance when DNA samples derived from both apparently healthy and clinically diseased hatchery rainbow trout were tested. Finally, we demonstrated that gill snips were a suitable tissue for nonlethal detection of N. salmonis DNA in juvenile salmonids. Monitoring of juvenile salmonid fish in the Snake River over a 3-year period revealed low prevalence of N. salmonis in hatchery and wild Chinook salmon and wild steelhead but significantly higher prevalence in hatchery-derived steelhead. Routine monitoring of N. salmonis is not performed for all hatchery steelhead populations. At present, the possible contribution of this pathogen to delayed mortality of steelhead has not been determined.

Badil, Samantha; Elliott, Diane G.; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Hedrick, Ronald P.; Clemens, Kathy; Blair, Marilyn; Purcell, Maureen K.

2011-01-01

356

Migrational Characteristics, Biological Observations, and Relative Survival of Juvenile Salmonids Entering the Columbia River Estuary, 1966-1983, 1985 Final Report of Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural runs of salmonids in the Columbia River basin have decreased as a result of hydroelectric-dam development, poor land- and forest-management, and over-fishing. This has necessitated increased salmon culture to assure adequate numbers of returning adults. Hatchery procedures and facilities are continually being modified to improve both the efficiency of production and the quality of juveniles produced. Initial efforts to

Dawley; Earl M

1986-01-01

357

The sexual responses of sexual sadists.  

PubMed

On average, rapists show greater relative genital responses to rape stories than do nonrapists in the laboratory. It has been suggested that this robust group difference is explained by the fact that many rapists are sexually sadistic. It is not clear, however, what the critical cues underlying rapists' genital responses are, because rape stories used in previous research include a mix of sadistic cues of violence and victim injury as well as cues of victim resistance and nonconsent. The present study was conducted to identify the critical cues producing self-identified sadists' sexual responses, and thereby to test sexual sadism as an explanation of rapists' arousal pattern. The present study was also conducted to develop a new phallometric test for sexual sadism for research and clinical applications, given evidence of poor diagnostic reliability and validity. Eighteen self-identified male sadists, 22 men with some sadistic interests who did not meet all of our sadist criteria, and 23 nonsadists (all recruited from the community) were compared in their genital and subjective responses to a new set of stories that disentangle violence/injury cues from resistance/nonconsent cues. The three groups differed in both their genital and subjective responses: using indices of relative responding, sadists responded significantly more to cues of violence/injury than nonsadists and men with some sadistic interests. The group difference for cues of nonconsent was not significant. The results suggest that sexual sadism primarily involves arousal to violence/injury in a sexual context rather than resistance/nonconsent. PMID:22708887

Seto, Michael C; Lalumière, Martin L; Harris, Grant T; Chivers, Meredith L

2012-08-01

358

Magnitude and Dynamics of Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs, Annual Report of Research, 1989-1990.  

SciTech Connect

Three aspects of predation upon juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River are addressed in this report: (1) Indexing predator consumption. During 1989--1990, two indices of northern squawfish consumption upon juvenile salmonids were developed for use throughout the Columbia River Basin. The direct Consumption Index (CI) is based upon the concept of meal turnover time and takes into account number of salmonids, temperature, total gut content weight and predator weight. A Bioenergetics Index (BI) for consumption indexing was also developed to complement the direct CI. In the BI, growth, consumption, excretion/evacuation and respiration processes are modeled to predict the consumption required to produce an observed growth increment. (2) Studies on predator-smolt dynamics. Northern squawfish consumption data were collected in the McNary Dam tailrace during nine days in July 1988 to improve our understanding of the predator-smolt functional response. (3) Selective predation by northern squawfish. Laboratory and field protocols were developed to evaluate northern squawfish selection and prey vulnerability. Results from laboratory studies suggest that northern squawfish prefer dead over live prey and that descaled prey may be more vulnerable to predation than non-descaled prey. Stressed and unstressed prey were consumed in equal proportions when predation occurred for 6 or 24 h. Physiological and behavioral effects of stress on juvenile salmon are presented. 100 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs.

Petersen, J.H.

1990-07-01

359

Transporting juvenile salmonids around dams impairs adult migration.  

PubMed

Mitigation and ecosystem-restoration efforts may have unintended consequences on both target and nontarget populations. Important effects can be displaced in space and time, making them difficult to detect without monitoring at appropriate scales. Here, we examined the effects of a mitigation program for juvenile salmonids on subsequent adult migration behaviors and survival. Juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) were collected and uniquely tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags at Lower Granite Dam (Washington State, USA) on the Snake River and were then either transported downstream in barges in an effort to reduce out-migration mortality or returned to the river as a control group. Returning adults were collected and radio-tagged at Bonneville Dam (Washington-Oregon, USA) on the Columbia River 1-3 years later and then monitored during approximately 460 km of their homing migrations. The proportion of adults successfully homing was significantly lower, and unaccounted loss and permanent straying into non-natal rivers was higher, for barged fish of both species. On average, barged fish homed to Lower Granite Dam at rates about 10% lower than for in-river migrants. Barged fish were also 1.7-3.4 times more likely than in-river fish to fall back downstream past dams as adults, a behavior strongly associated with lower survival. These results suggest that juvenile transport impaired adult orientation or homing abilities, perhaps by disrupting sequential imprinting processes during juvenile out-migration. While juvenile transportation has clear short-term juvenile-survival benefits, the delayed effects that manifest in adult stages illustrate the need to assess mitigation success throughout the life cycle of target organisms, i.e., the use of fitness-based measures. In the case of Snake River salmonids listed under the Endangered Species Act, the increased straying and potential associated genetic and demographic effects may represent significant risks to successful recovery for both target and nontarget populations. PMID:19263886

Keefer, Matthew L; Caudill, Christopher C; Peery, Christopher A; Lee, Steven R

2008-12-01

360

Sexual Difficulties  

MedlinePLUS

... in the mood for sex Trouble becoming aroused (vaginal dryness) and having orgasms Pain during sex or sexual ... barriers to enjoying intimacy. If you're having vaginal dryness, try using an over-the-counter lubricant. Keep ...

361

Sexual Problems  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... sensate focus, which are types of specific sexual exercises. Sex therapists and counselors are mental health providers ... one’s thinking influences feelings and behavior. Sensate focus exercises are structured “touching” activities that are designed to ...

362

Validity of the Wetted Perimeter Method for Recommending Instream Flows for Salmonids in Small Streams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The validity of the wetted perimeter/inflection point method of recommending instream discharge for salmonids in small streams was evaluated. Studies were conducted on three sections of a small stream. Discharge in two sections was severely reduced by irr...

C. L. Randolph R. G. White

1984-01-01

363

Minimally Invasive Detection of Piscirickettsia salmonis in Cultivated Salmonids via the PCR  

PubMed Central

The attributes of the PCR allowed implementation of an assay for specific detection of Piscirickettsia salmonis from a few microliters of fish serum. This opens the way to less invasive modes of sampling for this microbial pathogen in salmonids.

Marshall, Sergio; Heath, Sekou; Henriquez, Vitalia; Orrego, Cristian

1998-01-01

364

Maternal Care Effects on the Development of a Sexually Dimorphic Motor System: The Role of Spinal Oxytocin  

PubMed Central

Maternal licking in rats affects the development of the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB), a sexually dimorphic motor nucleus that controls penile reflexes involved with copulation. Reduced maternal licking results in decreased motoneuron number, size, and dendritic length in the adult SNB, as well as deficits in adult male copulatory behavior. Our previous findings that licking-like tactile stimulation influences SNB dendritic development and upregulates Fos expression in the lumbosacral spinal cord suggest that afferent signaling is changed by differences in maternal stimulation. Oxytocin afferents from the hypothalamus are a possible candidate, given previous research that has shown oxytocin is released following sensory stimulation, oxytocin modulates excitability in the spinal cord, and is a pro-erectile modulator of male sex behavior. In this experiment, we used immunofluorescence and immediate early gene analysis to assess whether licking-like tactile stimulation of the perineum activated parvocellular oxytocinergic neurons in the hypothalamus in neonates. We also used enzyme immunoassay to determine whether this same stroking stimulation produced an increase in spinal oxytocin levels. We found that stroking increased Fos immunolabeling in small oxytocin-positive cells in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, in comparison to unstroked or handled control pups. In addition, sixty seconds of licking-like perineal stimulation produced a transient 89% increase in oxytocin levels in the lumbosacral spinal cord. Together, these results suggest that oxytocin afferent activity may contribute to the effects of early maternal care on the masculinization of the SNB and resultant male copulatory behavior.

Lenz, Kathryn M.; Sengelaub, Dale R.

2010-01-01

365

Different patterns of sexual identity development over time: implications for the psychological adjustment of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths.  

PubMed

Despite research documenting variability in the sexual identity development of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths, it remains unclear whether different developmental patterns have implications for the psychological adjustment of LGB youths. This report longitudinally examines whether different patterns of LGB identity formation and integration are associated with indicators of psychological adjustment among an ethnically diverse sample of 156 LGB youths (ages 14-21) in New York City. Although differences in the timing of identity formation were not associated with psychological adjustment, greater identity integration was related to less depressive and anxious symptoms, fewer conduct problems, and higher self-esteem both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Individual changes in identity integration over time were associated with all four aspects of psychological adjustment, even after controlling for rival hypotheses concerning family and friend support, gay-related stress, negative social relationships, and other covariates. These findings suggest that difficulties in developing an integrated LGB identity may have negative implications for the psychological adjustment of LGB youths and that efforts to reduce distress among LGB youths should address the youths' identity integration. PMID:19916104

Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Hunter, Joyce

2011-01-01

366

A 3-step eHealth approach to transfer knowledge on HIV and sexual violence in developing countries.  

PubMed

This paper discusses an innovative 3-step eHealth approach to translate research for target audiences' knowledge uptake in developing countries. The first step uses a knowledge transfer model for the identification and packaging of health content as well as the selection of appropriate Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) platforms; followed by consumer health informatics studies to evaluate the efficacy of addressing health consumers' information needs; and the final step recommends forming of strategic partnerships to strengthen and support knowledge transfer and sharing. The 3-step eHealth approach is based on a convergence of ICTs, and application of the practices and principles of informatics and knowledge management. It was refined during the development of AfroAIDSinfo, an AIDS information portal of the SA Medical Research Council (MRC). The approach was evaluated during the forming of a strategic partnership between the AfroAIDSinfo project of the MRC's Web and Media Technologies Platform and the Sexual Violence Research Initiative. The successful outcome of the eHealth approach served to collect evidence for good practice in informatics and knowledge management. PMID:20841731

van Zyl, Hendra; Dartnall, Liz

2010-01-01

367

LAMMER Kinase LkhA Plays Multiple Roles in the Vegetative Growth and Asexual and Sexual Development of Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

LAMMER kinase plays pivotal roles in various physiological processes in eukaryotes; however, its function in filamentous fungi is not known. We performed molecular studies on the function of the Aspergillus nidulans LAMMER kinase, LkhA, and report its involvement in multiple developmental processes. The gene for LkhA was highly expressed during reproductive organ development, such as that of conidiophores and cleistothecia. During vegetative growth, the patterns of germ tube emergence and hyphal polarity were changed and septation was increased by lkhA deletion. Northern analyses showed that lkhA regulated the transcription of brlA, csnD, and ppoA, which supported the detrimental effect of lkhA-deletion on asexual and sexual differentiation. LkhA also affected expression of cyclin-dependent kinase NimXcdc2, a multiple cell cycle regulator, and StuA, an APSES family of fungal transcription factors that play pivotal roles in multiple differentiation processes. Here, for the first time, we present molecular evidence showing that LAMMER kinase is involved in A. nidulans development by modulating the expression of key regulators of developmental processes.

Kang, Eun-Hye; Kim, Ji-ae; Oh, Hyun-Woo; Park, Hee-Moon

2013-01-01

368

Different Patterns of Sexual Identity Development over Time: Implications for the Psychological Adjustment of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youths  

PubMed Central

Despite research documenting variability in the sexual identity development of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths, it remains unclear whether different developmental patterns have implications for the psychological adjustment of LGB youths. The current report longitudinally examines whether different patterns of LGB identity formation and integration are associated with indicators of psychological adjustment among an ethnically diverse sample of 156 LGB youths (ages 14 – 21) in New York City. Although differences in the timing of identity formation were not associated with psychological adjustment, greater identity integration was related to less depressive and anxious symptoms, fewer conduct problems, and higher self-esteem both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Individual changes in identity integration over time were associated with all four aspects of psychological adjustment, even after controlling for rival hypotheses concerning family and friend support, gay-related stress, negative social relationships, and other covariates. These findings suggest that difficulties in developing an integrated LGB identity may have negative implications for the psychological adjustment of LGB youths and that efforts to reduce distress among LGB youths should address the youths’ identity integration.

Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce

2010-01-01

369

The role of density-dependent individual growth in the persistence of freshwater salmonid populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical and empirical models of populations dynamics have paid little attention to the implications of density-dependent\\u000a individual growth on the persistence and regulation of small freshwater salmonid populations. We have therefore designed a\\u000a study aimed at testing our hypothesis that density-dependent individual growth is a process that enhances population recovery\\u000a and reduces extinction risk in salmonid populations in a variable

Simone Vincenzi; Alain J. Crivelli; Dusan Jesensek; Giulio A. De Leo

2008-01-01

370

Extent and scale of local adaptation in salmonid fishes: review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is the extent and scale of local adaptation (LA)? How quickly does LA arise? And what is its underlying molecular basis? Our review and meta-analysis on salmonid fishes estimates the frequency of LA to be ?55–70%, with local populations having a 1.2 times average fitness advantage relative to foreign populations or to their performance in new environments. Salmonid LA

D J Fraser; L K Weir; L Bernatchez; M M Hansen; E B Taylor

2011-01-01

371

Sexual sadism in sexual offenders and sexually motivated homicide.  

PubMed

This article gives a clinically oriented overview of forensically relevant forms of sexual sadism disorder and its specific relationship to sexual homicide. In sexual homicide perpetrators, peculiar patterns of sexual sadism may be a motivational pathway to kill. Sexual sadism increases the risk for reoffending in sexual offenders. Through psychotherapy and pharmacological interventions, treatment of sadistic sex offenders has to consider special characteristics that may be different from those of nonsadistic sex offenders. Many of these offenders share a combination of sexual sadistic motives and an intact self-regulation, sometimes combined with a high level of sexual preoccupation. PMID:24877708

Briken, Peer; Bourget, Dominique; Dufour, Mathieu

2014-06-01

372

A Mixed Methods and Triangulation Model for Increasing the Accuracy of Adherence and Sexual Behaviour Data: The Microbicides Development Programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe collection of accurate data on adherence and sexual behaviour is crucial in microbicide (and other HIV-related) research. In the absence of a “gold standard” the collection of such data relies largely on participant self-reporting. After reviewing available methods, this paper describes a mixed method\\/triangulation model for generating more accurate data on adherence and sexual behaviour in a multi-centre vaginal

Robert Pool; Catherine M. Montgomery; Neetha S. Morar; Oliver Mweemba; Agnes Ssali; Mitzy Gafos; Shelley Lees; Jonathan Stadler; Angela Crook; Andrew Nunn; Richard Hayes; Sheena McCormack; Patricia Kissinger

2010-01-01

373

The Role of Sex Chromosome Chimerism in Altering Sexual Development of Mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirteen bovine females, twins to males, were examined in a study of the variability of the freemartin syndrome. The range of intersexuality was from foreshortened uterine horns in the least masculine to complete absence of Müllerian derivatives and development of accessory sex glands in the most masculine. Histological examination revealed no follicular development in the gonads, although juvenile ovarian stroma

M. S. Herschler; N. S. Fechheimer

1967-01-01

374

Abnormalities of sexual development in male rats with in utero and lactational exposure to the antiandrogenic plasticizer Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate.  

PubMed

Several members of the phthalate ester family have antiandrogenic properties, yet little is known about how exposure to these ubiquitous environmental contaminants early in development may affect sexual development. We conducted experiments to determine effects of in utero and lactational exposure to the most prevalent phthalate ester, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), on male reproductive system development and sexual behavior. Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed with corn oil or DEHP (0, 375, 750, or 1,500 mg/kg/day, per os) from gestation day 3 through postnatal day (PND) 21. Dose-related effects on male offspring included reduced anogenital distance, areola and nipple retention, undescended testes, and permanently incomplete preputial separation. Testis, epididymis, glans penis, ventral prostate, dorsolateral prostate, anterior prostate, and seminal vesicle weights were reduced at PND 21, 63, and/or 105-112. Additional dose-related effects included a high incidence of anterior prostate agenesis, a lower incidence of partial or complete ventral prostate agenesis, occasional dorsolateral prostate and seminal vesicle agenesis, reduced sperm counts, and testicular, epididymal, and penile malformations. Many DEHP-exposed males were sexually inactive in the presence of receptive control females, but sexual inactivity did not correlate with abnormal male reproductive organs. These results suggest that in utero and lactational DEHP exposure also inhibited sexually dimorphic central nervous system development. No major abnormalities were found in any of eight control litters, but DEHP caused severe male reproductive system toxicity in five of eight litters at 375 mg/kg/day, seven of eight litters at 750 mg/kg/day, and five of five litters at 1,500 mg/kg/day. These results demonstrate that the male reproductive system is far more sensitive to DEHP early in development than when animals are exposed as juveniles or adults. The effects of DEHP on male reproductive organs and sexual behaviors and the lack of significant effects on time to vaginal opening and first estrus in their littermates demonstrate that DEHP (and/or its metabolites) affects development of the male reproductive system primarily by acting as an antiandrogen. The pattern of effects of in utero and lactational DEHP exposure differed from patterns caused by other phthalate esters, and the preponderance of anterior prostate agenesis appears to be unique among all chemicals. These results suggest that DEHP acts partly by mechanisms distinct from those of other antiandrogens. PMID:11333183

Moore, R W; Rudy, T A; Lin, T M; Ko, K; Peterson, R E

2001-03-01

375

A Study on the Effect of a Program Teaching Healthy Sexuality Values on Adolescent Sexual Awareness and Sexual Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to explore the effectiveness of a program teaching healthy sexuality values on adolescent sexual awareness and sexual behavior. For this study, the present researcher, along with two other professors, developed a 4-h program on 4 different subjects, and conducted the full education program through four different 4-h…

Moon, Sang Huy

2013-01-01

376

Sexuality, Television and Broadcast Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph provides a rationale for contemporary guidelines for the television and broadcast network management of sexual content in proposed progam materials. Beginning with a brief outline of the professional practices and responsibilities of broadcast standards editors, it then explores the relationships between sexual development,…

Heller, Melvin S.

377

Child Sexual Abuse in Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Africa and many other developing countries in the Asia Pacific and Latin America, child sexual abuse is a serious problem that is on the increase. Cases of child sexual abuse are rarely reported because the majority of the perpetrators are related or close to the abused children, such as fathers, uncles, brothers, and, in some instances, their school teachers.

CHRISTOPHER CHITEREKA

2010-01-01

378

Human Sexuality/AIDS Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary intent of this theme issue is to clarify the urgent problems faced by the nation's youth in regard to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and human sexuality for Kansas educators and curriculum developers. The first section includes an overview of the Kansas Department of Education's mandate/regulation for human sexuality/AIDS…

Foyle, Harvey C., Ed.; Wilson, John H., Ed.

1989-01-01

379

Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bulllying  

MedlinePLUS

... like other kinds of bullying, sexual bullying involves comments, gestures, actions, or attention that is intended to ... or harassment may be verbal (like making rude comments to or about someone), but it doesn't ...

380

Sexual Health for Older Women  

PubMed Central

This article presents findings from a review of the evidence regarding sexual health for older women from MEDLINE, SCOPUS and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINHAL) databases. A total of 10 articles based on primary studies, reporting about the sexuality or sexual health of older women (and older people), and published between 2002–2012, were deemed suitable. The major themes that emerged from the available literature suggest that the sexual health of older people is affected by factors such as physical changes, mental health, changes to their relationship with their husband, chronic ill health and other psychosocial situations. It is concluded that nurses and other healthcare providers have a range of interventions that can be adopted to promote sexual health among older women. These interventions may focus on improving the older woman’s sexual health assessment; increasing awareness and knowledge about sexuality in later life; pharmacological and psychotherapeutic therapies; using alternative techniques to achieve better sexual functioning; addressing partner and relationship issues, and advocating the importance of sexual health through media and policy development.

Muliira, Joshua K.; Muliira, Rhoda S.

2013-01-01

381

A case of leucocyte chimerism (78,XX/78,XY) in a dog with a disorder of sexual development.  

PubMed

A 1-year-old Shih Tzu dog was presented for examination because of abnormal external genitalia. A residual penis with a prepuce was located in a position typical of a male. The dog had no palpable testicles or scrotum. The ultrasound examination revealed the presence of the prostate, but the gonads remained undetectable. Cytogenetic analysis performed on chromosome preparations obtained from lymphocyte culture showed two cell lines - 78,XX and 78,XY. Molecular analysis of 14 polymorphic microsatellite markers allowed us to distinguish leucocyte chimerism from whole body chimerism. The presence of 3 or 4 alleles was confirmed in DNA isolated from blood, while in DNA isolated from hair follicles only 1 or 2 alleles were detected. The case was classified as leucocyte 78,XX/78,XY chimerism. Our study showed that XX/XY leucocyte chimerism might be associated with disorder of sexual development in dogs. Furthermore, it is emphasized that the use of cytogenetic study, in combination with analysis of polymorphic markers in DNA isolated from different somatic cells, facilitates distinguishing between leucocyte and whole body chimerism. PMID:24735223

Szczerbal, I; Nowacka-Woszuk, J; Nizanski, W; Salamon, S; Ochota, M; Dzimira, S; Atamaniuk, W; Switonski, M

2014-06-01

382

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)  

MedlinePLUS

... link in the menu on the left. Common Names Sexually transmitted diseases STDs Sexually transmitted infections STIs Medical or Scientific Names Sexually transmitted diseases Sexually transmitted infections Last Updated ...

383

Dealing with Sexual Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... affect sexuality and fertility Dealing with sexual problems Vaginal dryness Premature menopause Coping with the loss of a ... treatments can affect sexuality and fertility Next Topic Vaginal dryness Dealing with sexual problems When you first think ...

384

Healthy Aging -- Sexual Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) Sexual health More information on sexual health Many older women ... Protecting yourself Return to top More information on Sexual health Read more from womenshealth.gov Sexually Transmitted Infections ...

385

Adolescent Sexual Education: Designing Curriculum That Works  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this review paper, "Adolescent Sexual Education: Designing Curriculum That Works", is to present some basic curriculum necessities for developing an in-school sexual education program that results in decreasing the number of teenagers initiating sex, thus reducing the number of teen pregnancies and cases of sexually transmitted…

Quincy, Michael L.

2009-01-01

386

Disorders of sexual development and abnormal early development in domestic food-producing mammals: the role of chromosome abnormalities, environment and stress factors.  

PubMed

The management of disorders of sexual development (DSD) in humans and domestic animals has been the subject of intense interest for decades. The association between abnormal chromosome constitutions and DSDs in domestic animals has been recorded since the beginnings of conventional cytogenetic analysis. Deviated karyotypes consisting of abnormal sex chromosome sets and/or the coexistence of cells with different sex chromosome constitutions in an individual seem to be the main causes of anomalies of sex determination and sex differentiation. In recent years, a growing interest has developed around the environmental insults, such as endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDC) and heat stressors, which affect fertility, early embryonic development and, in some instances, directly the sex ratio and/or the development of 1 specific sex versus the other. A variety of chemical compounds present in the environment at low doses has been shown to have major effects on the reproductive functions in human and domestic animals following prolonged exposure. In this review, we present an overview of congenital/chromosomal factors that are responsible for the DSDs and link them and the lack of proper embryonic development to environmental factors that are becoming a major global concern. PMID:22024933

Favetta, L A; Villagómez, D A F; Iannuzzi, L; Di Meo, G; Webb, A; Crain, S; King, W A

2012-01-01

387

Agricultural intensity in ovo affects growth, metamorphic development and sexual differentiation in the common toad (Bufo bufo).  

PubMed

Pollution was cited by the Global Amphibian Assessment to be the second most important cause of amphibian decline worldwide, however, the effects of the agricultural environment on amphibians are not well understood. In this study, spawn from Bufo bufo was taken from four sites in England and Wales with varying intensities of arable agriculture. Spawn was either placed in tanks containing aged tap water (ex-situ, five replicates) or in cages at the native site (caged, five replicates). Hatching success, abnormal tadpoles, and forelimb emergence were recorded during the larval stage. Individuals were also sampled at five time points (TP) during development (5-, 7-, 9-, 12-, 15-weeks post-hatch) and analysed for morphological parameters. The thyroids (TP2) and the gonads (TP3,4,5) were also analysed histologically. With the exception of the thyroid histopathology, all analysed endpoints were significantly different between ex-situ individuals reared under identical conditions from the different sites. In addition, intensity of arable agriculture had a negative effect on growth and development. At one site, despite distinct rearing conditions, a high level of intersex (up to 42%) and similar sex ratios were observed in both ex-situ and caged individuals. Taken together, these data suggest that maternal exposure and/or events in ovo had a much larger effect on growth, metamorphic development, and sexual differentiation in B. bufo than the ambient environment. This could have important implications for traditional exposure scenarios that typically begin at the larval stage. Intersex is reported for the first time in European amphibians in situ, highlighting the potential use of distinct populations of amphibians in fundamental research into the aetiology of specific developmental effects in wild amphibians. PMID:21448622

Orton, Frances; Routledge, Edwin

2011-06-01

388

Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata)  

SciTech Connect

Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine?disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi?static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long?term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17??estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine?disrupting action. -- Highlights: ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused an increase in 17??estradiol levels of male guppies. ? Monocrotophos pesticide induced vitellogenin synthesis of male guppies. ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused a decrease in testosterone levels of male guppies. ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused demasculinization of male sexual characteristics. ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused a reduction in reproductive success of male guppies.

Tian, Hua; Li, Yun; Wang, Wei; Wu, Peng; Ru, Shaoguo, E-mail: rusg@ouc.edu.cn

2012-09-01

389

Factors associated with sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking, and sexual satisfaction among African-American adolescent females  

PubMed Central

Sexuality-related constructs such as sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking (SSS) and sexual satisfaction have been related to sexual behaviors that place one at risk for adverse consequences such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs), HIV, and unintended pregnancy. The biopsychosocial model posits an array of factors, ranging from social environmental factors, biological, and psychological predispositions that may be associated with these sexuality constructs in adolescent samples. African-American females aged 14-20 were recruited from reproductive health clinics for an HIV intervention. Baseline survey and follow-up DNA data (N=304) was used to assess biological, psychological and social environmental associations with the sexuality constructs of arousal, SSS, and sexual satisfaction. In multivariable linear regressions, a higher depressive symptom rating was associated with higher arousability while short serotonin allele(s) status was associated with lower arousability. Impulsivity and perceived peer norms supportive of unsafe sexual behaviors were associated with increased SSS, and short serotonin allele(s) status was associated with lower SSS. Higher social support was also associated with higher levels of sexual satisfaction while short serotonin allele(s) status was associated with lower satisfaction. The sexuality constructs were also significantly related to number of sex partners, frequency of vaginal sex, and number of unprotected vaginal sex acts in the past six months. These findings emphasize the importance of understanding biopsychosocial factors, including the role of serotonin as an indicator of natural variations in sexual inclination and behaviors, that influence sexuality constructs, which in turn are associated with sexual behaviors, to allow further refinement of sexual health clinical services and programs and promote the development of healthy sexuality.

Sales, Jessica M.; Smearman, Erica; Brody, Gene H.; Milhausen, Robin; Philibert, Robert A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

2013-01-01

390

Factors Affecting the Survival of Upstream Migrant Adult Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 9 of 11.  

SciTech Connect

The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is developing conservation planning documentation to support the National Marine Fisheries Service`s (NMFS) recovery plan for Columbia Basin salmonid stocks that are currently listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Information from the conservation planning documentation will be used as a partial scientific basis for identifying alternative conservation strategies and to make recommendations toward conserving, rebuilding, and ultimately removing these salmon stocks from the list of endangered species. This report describes the adult upstream survival study, a synthesis of biological analyses related to conditions affecting the survival of adult upstream migrant salmonids in the Columbia River system. The objective of the adult upstream survival study was to analyze existing data related to increasing the survival of adult migrant salmonids returning to the Snake River system. The fate and accountability of each stock during its upstream migration period and the uncertainties associated with measurements of escapement and survival were evaluated. Operational measures that affected the survival of adult salmon were evaluated including existing conditions, augmented flows from upstream storage release, and drawdown of mainstem reservoirs. The potential impacts and benefits of these measures to each ESA stock were, also described based on considerations of species behavior and run timing.

Dauble, Dennis D.; Mueller, Robert P.

1993-06-01

391

Detection and quantification of Renibacterium salmoninarum DNA in salmonid tissues by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Renibacterium salmoninarum is an important salmonid pathogen that is difficult to culture. We developed and assessed a real-time, quantitative, polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for the detection and enumeration of R. salmoninarum. The qPCR is based on TaqMan technology and amplifies a 69-base pair (bp) region of the gene encoding the major soluble antigen (MSA) of R. salmoninarum. The qPCR assay consistently detected as few as 5 R. salmoninarum cells per reaction in kidney tissue. The specificity of the qPCR was confirmed by testing the DNA extracts from a panel of microorganisms that were either common fish pathogens or reported to cause false-positive reactions in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Kidney samples from 38 juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in a naturally infected population were examined by real-time qPCR, a nested PCR, and ELISA, and prevalences of R. salmoninarum detected were 71, 66, and 71%, respectively. The qPCR should be a valuable tool for evaluating the R. salmoninarum infection status of salmonids.

Chase, D. M.; Elliott, D. G.; Pascho, R. J.

2006-01-01

392

LOVING TO STRAIGHTEN OUT DEVELOPMENT: SEXUALITY AND ETHNODEVELOPMENT IN THE WORLD BANK'S ECUADORIAN LENDING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender staff in the World Bank -- the world's largest and most influential development institution -- have a policy problem.\\u000a Having prioritised efforts to get women into paid employment as the ?8cure-all?9 for gender inequality they must deal with\\u000a the work that women already do -- the unpaid labour of caring, socialisation, and human needs fulfilment. This article explores\\u000a the

KATE BEDFORD

2005-01-01

393

Sexually dimorphic development and binding characteristics of NMDA receptors in the brain of the platyfish  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study investigated age- and gender-specific variations in properties of the glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in a freshwater teleost, the platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus). Prior localization of the immunoreactive (ir)-R1 subunit of the NMDAR protein (R1) in cells of the nucleus olfactoretinalis (NOR), a primary gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-containing brain nucleus in the platyfish, suggests that NMDAR, as in mammals, is involved in modulation of the platyfish brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis. The current study shows that the number of cells in the NOR displaying ir-R1 is significantly increased in pubescent and mature female platyfish when compared to immature and senescent animals. In males, there is no significant change in ir-R1 expression in the NOR at any time in their lifespan. The affinity of the noncompetitive antagonist ((3)H)MK-801 for the NMDAR is significantly increased in pubescent females while maximum binding of ((3)H)MK-801 to the receptor reaches a significant maximum in mature females. In males, both MK-801 affinity and maximum binding remain unchanged throughout development. This is the first report of gender differences in the association of NMDA receptors with neuroendocrine brain areas during development. It is also the first report to suggest NMDA receptor involvement in the development of the BPG axis in a nonmammalian vertebrate. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

Flynn, K. M.; Schreibman, M. P.; Yablonsky-Alter, E.; Banerjee, S. P.

1999-01-01

394

Developing the interview protocol for video-recorded child sexual abuse investigations: A training experience with police officers, social workers, and clinical psychologists in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of training programs which focused on culturally relevant questioning skills and video-recorded interviews in child sexual abuse cases were designed for social workers, police officers, and clinical psychologists in Hong Kong. An interview protocol was developed with four stages: rapport building, free narrative of account, questioning, and closure. The content analysis of 74 role-played interviews of video-recorded investigation

Kam-fong Monit Cheung

1997-01-01

395

Neuregulins Signaling via a Glial erbB-2-erbB-4 Receptor Complex Contribute to the Neuroendocrine Control of Mammalian Sexual Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activation of erbB-1 receptors by glial TGFa has been shown to be a component of the developmental program by which the neuroendocrine brain controls mammalian sexual develop- ment. The participation of other members of the erbB family may be required, however, for full signaling capacity. Here, we show that activation of astrocytic erbB-2\\/erbB-4 receptors plays a significant role in the

Ying J. Ma; Diane F. Hill; Kimberly E. Creswick; Maria E. Costa; Anda Cornea; Mario N. Lioubin; Gregory D. Plowman; Sergio R. Ojeda

1999-01-01

396

Effects of prenatal testosterone propionate on the sexual development of male and female rats: a dose-response study.  

PubMed

Testosterone plays a major role in male sexual development. Exposure of females to testosterone in utero can induce masculine characteristics such as anovulation, increased anogenital distance (AGD), absence of nipples, retention of male-like tissues, and agenesis of the lower vagina. In addition, high levels of androgens during fetal development can lead to toxic effects such as reduced litter size and viability. The study of the effects of testosterone administration during sexual differentiation provides a foundation for understanding the effects of environmental androgens on fetuses, a sensitive subpopulation. In the current study, we investigated the ability of a range of concentrations of testosterone propionate (TP) administered prenatally to masculinize female and alter male offspring, and measured maternal and fetal T levels. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed by sc injection on gestational day (GD) 14-19 (GD 1= day of plug) with either corn oil (vehicle; 0.1 ml/rat) or with 0.1 ml of TP solution at 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, or 10 mg/0.1 ml. Parturition was delayed at 2, 5, and 10 mg TP, litter size was reduced at 5 and 10 mg TP, and pup weight was significantly reduced in both sexes at 0.5 mg TP and higher doses. Viability of offspring was unaffected at any dosage level. Androgenic effects seen at 0.5 mg TP in females included increased AGD at weaning and adulthood, reduced number of areolas and nipples, cleft phallus, small vaginal orifice, and presence of prostate tissue. This dose of TP elevated maternal T levels 10x but had no effect on fetal T levels. At 1 mg TP and above, female AGD on postnatal day (PND) 2 (or postcoital day 24 [gestation length = 22(1/2)]) was increased; areolas and nipples were virtually eliminated; levator ani muscle, bulbourethral glands, and seminal vesicles (2 mg TP and above) were present; none of the females developed a vaginal orifice and many females in the 1 and 2 mg TP dose groups developed a greatly distended, fluid-filled uterus after puberty. Maternal T levels at 1 mg TP were elevated 30x, and female fetal T levels showed an 80% increase. Male offspring displayed a reduced AGD and body weight on PND 2 at 0.5 mg TP and higher doses. These effects were not evident by weaning and male offspring displayed no malformations. We conclude that gestational administration of 0.5 and 1 mg TP masculinizes female offspring without greatly affecting pup viability or pregnancy of the dam. This study provides a useful model for in utero testing of environmental androgens for their potential to induce developmental abnormalities. PMID:11752687

Wolf, Cynthia J; Hotchkiss, Andrew; Ostby, Joseph S; LeBlanc, Gerald A; Gray, L Earl

2002-01-01

397

Development of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico National Protocol for the Management of Victims of Sexual Violence: Adults/Adolescents.  

PubMed

Sexual violence is a public health problem in Puerto Rico (PR), with an incidence of 7.4 cases for every 10,000 people during 2005-2006 (Departamento de Salud Secretaría Auxiliar de Salud Familiar y Servicios Integrados, 2007). Findings from the literature review indicated that the traditional model of care provided to the victims of sexual violence in the Emergency Department is incomplete; furthermore, it may cause revictimization because of the attitudes, behaviors, and practices of the community service providers, resulting in additional trauma. Emerging evidence demonstrates that Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs are providing effective quality care. In PR, SANEs do not intervene in sexual assault cases; nevertheless, the Department of Health of PR has recognized the importance of SANE intervention. Consequently, there is a need for current evidence-based protocols and standards of care to describe the procedures, roles, and responsibilities for the provision of quality care to victims. This project involves the implementation of the Stufflebeam's Context-Input-Process-Product Model in the creation of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico National Protocol for the Management of Victims of Sexual Violence: Adults/Adolescents. PMID:24158134

Méndez, Rose Marie; Kulbok, Pamela; Lawson, Sarah; Matos, Abigail

2013-01-01

398

Medicalizations and demedicalizations of sexuality therapies.  

PubMed

This article complicates recent discussions about the expanding zones and influences of medicalization and biomedicalization on sexuality and sex therapy by contextualizing them with competing nonmedicalizing trends. These latter developments include an escalating nonexpert commercial sexuality sector on the Internet, as well as a long history of anarchic and democratizing social politics, such as "the counterculture" and "free love movements." What these nonmedicalizing trends have in common is the view of sexual problems and solutions as far broader than sexual dysfunctions and sex therapies, a belief in the social determinants of individuals' sexual experiences, and a deep concern regarding the socially harmful consequences of medicalization. With the quantity of sexuality information and advice available to the public through the Internet only likely to expand, a long era of clashing claims about relations between sexuality and health and about the role of expertise in sexual life can be foreseen. PMID:22720822

Tiefer, Leonore

2012-01-01

399

Advancing Sexuality Studies: A Short Course on Sexuality Theory and Research Methodologies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical Sexuality Studies is an emerging field of academic enquiry linked to an international network of advocacy agencies, activists, and political issues. This paper reports on the development of an advanced short course in sexuality theory and research, drawing on Critical Sexuality Studies and aiming directly at academics in developing

Fletcher, Gillian; Dowsett, Gary W.; Duncan, Duane; Slavin, Sean; Corboz, Julienne

2013-01-01

400

Sexual reproduction and early development of the solitary coral Fungia scutaria (Anthozoa: Scleractinia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fungia scutaria spawned vigorously with a lunar beriodicity during the summer months of 1981 and 1982. Spawning activity declined in the fall of both years and was absent in winter and spring (1983). There was only one short spawning event per lunar cycle. Each event occurred in the evening between 1700 and 1900 hours 1 to 4 days following the full moon. Fungia scutaria exhibits gonochorism. Females ejected eggs through their mouths into the seawater above. Many of these negatively buoyant eggs settled onto the oral discs and were moved off the edge by ciliary-mucoid activity. Spermatoza from males were similarly expelled in a jet of gastrovascular fluid. Spawned eggs were small and lacked endosymbiotic zooxanthellae. Rapid development led to ciliated solid planulae by the next morning. Within 24 h a mouth had begun to develop. Planulae may have been able to feed within 39 h. Infection with zooxanthellae occurred 4 5 days following spawning. Planulae may have become competent for settlement by 7 days, but attempts to docment settlement produced ambiguous results.

Krupp, David A.

1983-12-01

401

Trenbolone causes mortality and altered sexual differentiation in Xenopus tropicalis during larval development.  

PubMed

Trenbolone is an androgen agonist used in cattle production and has been measured in aquatic systems associated with concentrated animal-feeding operations. In this study, the authors characterized the effects of aqueous exposure to 17?-trenbolone during larval Xenopus tropicalis development. Trenbolone exposure resulted in increased mortality of post-Nieuwkoop-Faber stage 58 tadpoles at concentrations ?100?ng/L. Morphological observations and the timing of this mortality are consistent with hypertrophy of the larynx. Development of nuptial pads, a male secondary sex characteristic, was induced in tadpoles of both sexes at 100?ng/L. Effects on time to complete metamorphosis or body sizes were not observed; however, grow-outs placed in clean media for six weeks were significantly smaller in body size at 78?ng/L. Effects on sex ratios were equivocal, with the first experiment showing a significant shift in sex ratio toward males at 78?ng/L. In the second experiment, no significant effects were observed up to 100?ng/L, although overall sex ratios were similar. Histological assessment of gonads at metamorphosis showed half with normal male phenotypes and half that possessed a mixed-sex phenotype at 100?ng/L. Hypertrophy of the Wolffian ducts was also observed at this concentration. These results indicate that larval 17?-trenbolone exposure results in effects down to 78?ng/L, illustrating potential effects from exposure to androgenic compounds in anurans. PMID:22847831

Olmstead, Allen W; Kosian, Patricia A; Johnson, Rodney; Blackshear, Pamela E; Haselman, Jonathan; Blanksma, Chad; Korte, Joseph J; Holcombe, Gary W; Burgess, Emily; Lindberg-Livingston, Annelie; Bennett, Blake A; Woodis, Kacie K; Degitz, Sigmund J

2012-10-01

402

Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Lookout Point Dam, 2010  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Lookout Point Dam (LOP) on the Middle Fork Willamette River. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). The goal of the study was to provide fish passage and distribution data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at LOP and others dams in USACE’s Willamette Valley Project in response to the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. During the year-long study period - February 1, 2010 to January 31, 2011the objectives of the hydroacoustic evaluation of fish passage and distribution at LOP were to: 1. Estimate passage rates, run timing, horizontal distribution, and diel distribution at turbine penstock intakes for smolt-size fish. 2. Estimate passage rates, run timing and diel distribution at turbine penstock intakes for small-size fish. 3. Estimate passage rates and run timing at the regulating outlets for smolt-size fish. 4. Estimate vertical distribution of smolt-size fish in the forebay near the upstream face of the dam. The fixed-location hydroacoustic technique was used to accomplish the objectives of this study. Transducers (420 kHz) were deployed in each penstock intake, above each RO entrance, and on the dam face; a total of nine transducers (2 single-beam and 7 split-beam) were used. We summarize the findings from the hydroacoustic evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at LOP during February 2010 through January 2011 as follows. • Fish passage rates for smolt-size fish (> ~90 mm) were highest during December-January and lowest in mid-summer through early fall. • During the entire study period, an estimated total of 142,463 fish ± 4,444 (95% confidence interval) smolt-size fish passed through turbine penstock intakes. • Diel periodicity of smolt-size fish showing crepuscular peaks was evident in fish passage into turbine penstock intakes. • Run timing for small-size fish (~65-90 mm) peaked (702 fish) on December 18. Downstream passage of small-size juvenile fish was variable, occurring on two days in the spring, eight days in the summer, and at times throughout late fall and winter. A total of 7,017 ± 690 small-size fish passed through the turbine penstock intakes during the study period. • Relatively few fish passed into the ROs when they were open in summer (2 fish/d) and winter (8 fish/d). • Fish were surface-oriented with 62-80% above 10 m deep. The highest percentage of fish (30-60%) was in the 5-10 m depth bin. We draw the following conclusions from the study. • The non-obtrusive hydroacoustic data from this study are reliable because passage estimates and patterns were similar with those observed in the direct capture data from the tailrace screw trap and were consistent with distribution patterns observed in other studies of juvenile salmonid passage at dams. • Fish passage at LOP was apparently affected but not dominated by dam operations and reservoir elevation. • The surface-oriented vertical distribution of fish we observed supports development of surface passage or collector devices. In summary, the high-resolution spatially and temporally data reported herein provide detailed estimates of vertical, horizontal, diel, daily, and seasonal passage and distributions at LOP during March 2010 through January 2011. This information is applicable to management decisions on design and development of surface passage and collections devices to help restore Chinook salmon populations in the Middle Fork Willamette River watershed above Lookout Point Dam.

Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Trott, Donna M.; Ploskey, Gene R.

2011-07-01

403

Healthy sex and sexual health: new directions for studying outcomes of sexual health.  

PubMed

Sexual behavior is an important aspect of adolescent development with implications for well-being. These chapters highlight important perspectives on studying sexual health from a normative, developmental perspective, such as viewing a range of sexual behaviors as life events; considering potentially positive physical health, mental health, social health, and identity outcomes; examining both intraindividual and interindividual differences in outcomes; recognizing the romantic relationship context of sexual behavior; and understanding how sexual media may impact sexual health outcomes. We suggest new directions for studying sexual health outcomes, such as studying behaviors beyond vaginal sex and condom use, new methodologies such as latent class analysis, sophisticated longitudinal designs, and collection and analysis of dyadic data. We recommend research on populations underrepresented in sexual health research such as late adolescents who do not attend traditional universities and adolescents from ethnic/racial minorities. Finally, we consider future directions for sexuality education and prevention efforts. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24962364

Lefkowitz, Eva S; Vasilenko, Sara A

2014-06-01

404

Modeling Food Delivery Dynamics For Juvenile Salmonids Under Variable Flow Regimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional approaches for assessing instream flow needs for salmonids have typically focused on the importance of physical habitat in determining fish habitat selection. This somewhat simplistic approach does not account for differences in food delivery rates to salmonids that arise due to spatial variability in river morphology, hydraulics and temporal variations in the flow regime. Explicitly linking how changes in the flow regime influences food delivery dynamics is an important step in advancing process-based bioenergetic models that seek to predict growth rates of salmonids across various life-stages. Here we investigate how food delivery rates for juvenile salmonids vary both spatially and with flow magnitude in a meandering reach of the Merced River, CA. We utilize a two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic model and discrete particle tracking algorithm to simulate invertebrate drift transport rates at baseflow and a near-bankfull discharge. Modeling results indicate that at baseflow, the maximum drift density occurs in the channel thalweg, while drift densities decrease towards the channel margins due to the process of organisms settling out of the drift. During high-flow events, typical of spring dam-releases, the invertebrate drift transport pathway follows a similar trajectory along the high velocity core and the drift concentrations are greatest in the channel centerline, though the zone of invertebrate transport occupies a greater fraction of the channel width. Based on invertebrate supply rates alone, feeding juvenile salmonids would be expected to be distributed down the channel centerline where the maximum predicted food delivery rates are located in this reach. However, flow velocities in these channel sections are beyond maximum sustainable swimming speeds for most juvenile salmonids. Our preliminary findings suggest that a lack of low velocity refuge may prevent juvenile salmonids from deriving energy from the areas with maximum drift density in this reach. Future efforts will focus on integration of food delivery and bioenergetic models to account for conflicting demands of maximizing food intake while minimizing the energetic costs of swimming.

Harrison, L.; Utz, R.; Anderson, K.; Nisbet, R.

2010-12-01

405

Community perspectives on developing a sexual health agenda for gay and bisexual men.  

PubMed

Community mobilization around gay rights in the late 1960s and 1970s led to the first efforts to improve the health of gay and bisexual men. In the 1980s the deadly AIDS epidemic was responded to with fierce organizing and community activism, primarily led by gay men. Today, community involvement is crucial to many advocacy and organizing efforts for the health of gay and bisexual men. This article begins with the roots of this history and then describes how they are reflected in a number of key health initiatives for this community including the National Black Gay Men's Advocacy Coalition, the Legacy Project, International Rectal Microbicide Advocates and the Gay Men's Health Agenda. A path forward is described in terms of next steps for advocacy for gay men's health and the health of gay and bisexual men of color emphasizing cultural viability, development of new leaders, and strategic alliances. PMID:21336606

Landers, Stewart; Pickett, Jim; Rennie, Leo; Wakefield, Steve

2011-04-01

406

Rescheduling Child Sexual Trajectories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author comments on Diederik Janssen's essay "ReQueering Queer Youth Development: A Post-Developmental Approach to Childhood and Pedagogy," commenting that Janssen's analysis can inform both both materialist and post-structuralist understandings of children's sexuality by shifting focus from children as fetishized objects or as a group…

Yuill, Richard

2008-01-01

407

Sexual activity diminishes male virility in two Coccinella species: consequences for female fertility and progeny development.  

PubMed

Male contributions, both chemical and behavioural, can influence female sperm usage and reproductive success. To determine whether such male factors are subject to depletion in Coccinella septempunctata and Coccinella transversalis, we tested the effects of male mating history on male virility, as estimated by measures of mating behaviour, female reproductive success and progeny fitness, with parental age held constant. Overt measures of male mating effort (wriggling duration, number of shaking bouts and total copula duration) all diminished from virgin to 5×mated males and were mirrored by concurrent declines in female fecundity and fertility(measured over 20 days). Paternal effects were also observed which diminished as a function of mating history, suggesting that transgenerational signals of male origin are also subject to depletion. Progeny of virgin fathers had higher rates of survival(C. transversalis) and faster development (both species) than progeny of 5×mated fathers. Seminal fluid proteins are known to have allohormonal properties and can stimulate female fecundity and fertility in a number of insects, making them strong candidates for depletion as a function of mating activity. However, it is also possible that sperm limitation and/or reduced tactile stimulation of females by multiple-mated males may have contributed to some of the observed effects. PMID:23590838

Michaud, J P; Bista, Mahadev; Mishra, Geetanjali; Omkar; Singh, Omkar

2013-10-01

408

Genomic Resources for Immunology and Disease of Salmonid and Non-Salmonid Fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of aquaculture has increased interest in infectious diseases of fish due to the economic losses in fish farms. Although there are successful vaccines against bacteria, therapeutic treatments for viral diseases have yet to be established. The innate immune system is the first line of defense and therefore an important protection against pathogens in fish. The reason is the

S. Dios; B. Novoa; F. Buonocore; G. Scapigliati; A. Figueras

2008-01-01

409

Assessment of Salmonids and Their Habitat Conditions in the Walla Walla River Basin within Washington, Annual Report 2002-2003.  

SciTech Connect

This study began in 1998 to assess salmonid distribution, relative abundance, genetics, and the condition of salmonid habitats in the Walla Walla River basin. Stream flows in the Walla Walla Basin continue to show a general trend that begins with a sharp decline in discharge in late June, followed by low summer flows and then an increase in discharge in fall and winter. Manual stream flow measurements at Pepper bridge showed an increase in 2002 of 110-185% from July-September, over flows from 2001. This increase is apparently associated with a 2000 settlement agreement between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the irrigation districts to leave minimum flows in the river. Stream temperatures in the Walla Walla basin were similar to those in 2001. Upper montane tributaries maintained maximum summer temperatures below 65 F, while sites in mid and lower Touchet and Walla Walla rivers frequently had daily maximum temperatures well above 68 F (high enough to inhibit migration in adult and juvenile salmonids, and to sharply reduce survival of their embryos and fry). These high temperatures are possibly the most critical physiological barrier to salmonids in the Walla Walla basin, but other factors (available water, turbidity or sediment deposition, cover, lack of pools, etc.) also play a part in salmonid survival, migration, and breeding success. The increased flows in the Walla Walla, due to the 2000 settlement agreement, have not shown consistent improvements to stream temperatures. Rainbow/steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) trout represent the most common salmonid in the basin. Densities of Rainbow/steelhead in the Walla Walla River from the Washington/Oregon stateline to Mojonnier Rd. dropped slightly from 2001, but are still considerably higher than before the 2000 settlement agreement. Other salmonids including; bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), and brown trout (Salmo trutta) had low densities, and limited distribution throughout the basin. A large return of adult spring chinook to the Touchet River drainage in 2001 produced higher densities of juvenile chinook in 2002 than have been seen in recent years, especially in the Wolf Fork. The adult return in 2002 was substantially less than what was seen in 2001. Due to poor water conditions and trouble getting personnel hired, spawning surveys were limited in 2002. Surveyors found only one redd in four Walla Walla River tributaries (Cottonwood Ck., East Little Walla Walla, West Little Walla Walla, and Mill Ck.), and 59 redds in Touchet River tributaries (10 in the North Fork Touchet, 30 in the South Fork Touchet, and 19 in the Wolf Fork). Bull trout spawning surveys in the upper Touchet River tributaries found a total of 125 redds and 150 live fish (92 redds and 75 fish in the Wolf Fork, 2 redds and 1 fish in the Burnt Fork, 0 redds and 1 fish in the South Fork Touchet, 29 redds and 71 fish in the North Fork Touchet, and 2 redds and 2 fish in Lewis Ck.). A preliminary steelhead genetics analysis was completed as part of this project. Results indicate differences between naturally produced steelhead and those produced in the hatchery. There were also apparent genetic differences among the naturally produced fish from different areas of the basin. Detailed results are reported in Bumgarner et al. 2003. Recommendations for assessment activities in 2003 included: (1) continue to monitor the Walla Walla River (focusing from the stateline to McDonald Rd.), the Mill Ck system, and the Little Walla Walla System. (2) reevaluate Whiskey Ck. for abundance and distribution of salmonids, and Lewis Ck. for bull trout density and distribution. (3) select or develop a habitat survey protocol and begin to conduct habitat inventory and assessment surveys. (4) summarize bull trout data for Mill Ck, South Fork Touchet, and Lewis Ck. (5) begin to evaluate temperature and flow data to assess if the habitat conditions exist for spring chinook in the Touchet River.

Mendel, Glen; Trump, Jeremy; Gembala, Mike

2003-09-01

410

Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage at The Dalles Dam Sluiceway, 2005  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District engaged the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate fish passage at The Dalles Dam powerhouse in 2005. The goal of the study was to provide information on smolt passage that will inform decisions on long-term measures and operations to enhance sluiceway passage and reduce turbine passage to improve smolt survival at the dam. The study addressed one of the main programs dedicated to improving juvenile salmonid survival at The Dalles Dam: Surface Flow Bypass. The study objectives (see below) were met using a combination of hydroacoustic and hydraulic data. The study incorporated fixed-location hydroacoustic methods across the entire powerhouse, with especially intense sampling using multiple split-beam transducers at all sluiceway portals. We did not sample fish passage at the spillway in 2005. In the sluiceway nearfield, we used an acoustic camera to track fish movements. The fish data were interpreted with hydraulic data from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Fish passage data were collected in the framework of an “experiment” using a randomized block design (3-day treatments; two treatments) to compare two sluiceway operational configurations: Sluice 2+5 and Sluice 2+19 (six gates open for each configuration). Total project outflow was 76% of the 10-year average for spring and 71% of the 10-year average for summer. Based on these findings, we make the following recommendations: 1) The sluice should be operated 24 h/d from April until November. 2) Open six rather than three sluice gates to take advantage of the maximum hydraulic capacity of the sluiceway. 3) Open the three gates above the western-most operating main turbine unit and the three gates at MU 8 where turbine passage rates are relatively high. 4) Operate the turbine units below open sluice gates as a standard fish operations procedure. 5) Develop hydraulic and entrance enhancements to the sluiceway to tap the potential of The Dalles Dam sluiceway to be highly efficient and effective at passing juvenile salmonids. 6) Consider the following elements for surface flow bypasses during design of any sluiceway enhancements at The Dalles Dam: Form an extensive surface flow bypass flow net (surface bypass discharge greater than ~7% of total project discharge) at both west and east ends of the dam; Create a gradual increase in water velocity approaching the surface flow bypass (ideally, acceleration < 1 m/s per meter); Make water velocities at an entrance high enough (> 3 m/s) to entrain the subject juvenile fishes, e.g., 10,000 cfs or so; Adapt the shape and orientation of the surface entrance(s) to fit site-specific features, i.e., test a Removable Sluiceway Weir. 7)The Dalles Dam sluiceway has potential to be highly efficient and effective at passing juvenile salmonids. We recommend tapping this potential with enhancements to the sluiceway.

Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Hedgepeth, J; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.; Skalski, John R.

2006-06-01

411

Differential sensitivity to adrenergic stimulation underlies the sexual dimorphism in the development of diabetes caused by Irs-2 deficiency.  

PubMed

The diabetic phenotype caused by the deletion of insulin receptor substrate-2 (Irs-2) in mice displays a sexual dimorphism. Whereas the majority of male Irs-2(-/-) mice are overtly diabetic by 12 weeks of age, female Irs-2(-/-) animals develop mild obesity and progress less rapidly to diabetes. Here we investigated ?-cell function and lipolysis as potential explanations for the gender-related differences in this model. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was enhanced in islets from male null mice as compared to male WT whereas this response in female Irs-2(-/-) islets was identical to that of female controls. The ability of ?(2)-adrenoceptor (?(2)-AR) agonists to inhibit insulin secretion was attenuated in male Irs2 null mice. Consistent with this, the expression of the ?(2A)-AR was reduced in male Irs-2(-/-) islets. The response of male Irs-2(-/-) islets to forskolin was enhanced, owing to increased production of cAMP. Basal lipolysis was increased in male Irs-2(-/-) but decreased in female Irs-2(-/-) mice, concordant with the observation that adipose tissue is sparse in males whereas female Irs2 null mice are mildly obese. Adipocytes from both male and female Irs-2(-/-) were resistant to the anti-lipolytic effects of insulin but female Irs-2(-/-) fat cells were additionally resistant to the catabolic effects of beta-adrenergic agonists. This catecholamine resistance was associated with impaired generation of cAMP. Consequently, targets of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) which mediate lipolysis were not phosphorylated in adipose tissue of female Irs-2(-/-) mice. Our findings suggest that IRS-2 deficiency in mice alters the expression and/or sensitivity of components of adrenergic signaling. PMID:20959116

Garcia-Barrado, Maria Jose; Iglesias-Osma, Maria Carmen; Moreno-Viedma, Veronica; Pastor Mansilla, Maria Francisca; Gonzalez, Silvia Sanz; Carretero, Jose; Moratinos, Julio; Burks, Deborah J

2011-01-15

412