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Sample records for saltmarsh cumbria uk

  1. Quantification of confidence in a geological model of Cumbria, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, Colin; Lark, Murray; Mathers, Steve; Marchant, Andrew; Hulbert, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    A three-dimensional geological model of Cumbria was constructed by several geologists, applying expert judgment to interpret available data, as both a fence network of cross-sections in GSI3d and surfaces in GOCAD®. Direct statistical measures of uncertainty of the model are not available. Neither is it feasible to undertake post hoc sampling at additional independent boreholes to estimate measures of model uncertainty. The study considered various qualitative and quantitative approaches to assessing the modelled surfaces and volumes. Modellers make judgments about the relative quality of different types of available data and the extent to which simple trends in the units of interest (e.g. a gentle dip) allow their structure to be extrapolated with confidence away from observations. Confidence decays with increasing distance from a hard observation, such as a field exposure, an interpreted borehole, or a "softer" observation such as a geophysical measurement. In the study area it is possible to make qualitative assessments of four distinct structural domains, marked by different levels in the confidence of the interpretation of the geological model through factors such as availability of deep borehole data, seismic lines, surface exposure and the complexity of the bedrock geology and an appraisal of the extent, amount and quality of the data used to constrain the boundaries presented within the model. The study also attempted to provide various quantitative approaches to assess the type and distribution of data. The quantification of a Confidence Index uses expert elicitation to assess the certainty of subsurface interpretations of modelled surfaces and volumes based upon a statistical analysis of the proximity to subsurface data (boreholes and seismic data). Application of this approach is presented as elevation and thickness grids for a principal aquifer in the region. This approach is directly applicable in areas where bedrock strata are poorly exposed and the

  2. Coastal saltmarsh managed realignment drives rapid breach inlet and external creek evolution, Freiston Shore (UK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friess, Daniel A.; Möller, Iris; Spencer, Thomas; Smith, Geoffrey M.; Thomson, Andrew G.; Hill, Ross A.

    2014-03-01

    The creation of saltmarsh through the managed realignment of sea defences, implemented in NW Europe as a sustainable coastal defence option, represents a substantial hydrodynamic perturbation to the local coastal system. The impact of a significantly increased tidal prism on hydromorphological features was investigated at Freiston Shore, Lincolnshire UK. Local tidal conditions and inadequate drainage at this realignment trial contributed to significant channel erosion due to the establishment of water surface slopes and pooling between the newly realigned site and the adjacent intertidal zone. Very high spatial resolution aerial photography and blimp photography were used to monitor inlet evolution from breaching in August 2002 to March 2008, showing a highly non-linear response with breach channels increasing in width by up to 960% within 2.5 months. Airborne laser scanning/LiDAR and terrestrial laser scanning quantified breach channel volume increases, showing a similar pattern. Breach channel evolution did not follow established tidal prism-channel width/cross-sectional area relationships that are often used to guide realignment design. Pre- and post-breach rates of external creek morphology change between 1999 and 2006 were also quantified, with intertidal creeks attached to the breach channels increasing significantly after realignment in both width and depth. This study highlights the physical processes affected by managed realignment, and the importance of understanding the causes of complex water surface slopes at multiple scales.

  3. Evidence of Historical Mining Impacts on Saltmarshes from east Cornwall, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iurian, Andra-Rada; Taylor, Alex; Millward, Geoff; Blake, William

    2016-04-01

    In landscapes with extensive mining history, saltmarshes can become sinks for contaminants that are vulnerable to release with sea-level rise and increased storminess. Given the prolonged residence time of heavy metals in the environment, data is urgently required to contextualise the impacts of past and present mining and pollution events and provide a baseline against which to assess Water Framework Directive (WFD) (2000/60/EC) compliance within an integrated catchment management framework. The geology of east Cornwall, UK (with intrusions of granite into the surrounding sedimentary rocks) was favourable for a prosperous mining industry, although large scale operations did not start until about 1830. Tin, cooper, lead and tungsten were the most important ores in the region. In order to quantify the spatial and temporal extent of contamination from past mining, sediment cores were collected from three saltmarshes, namely: Antony Marsh and Treluggan Marsh on the Lower Basin of River Lynher, and Port Eliot Marsh on the Lower Basin of River Tiddy. Core sections at 1 cm intervals were analysed by gamma-ray spectrometry for Pb-210, Ra-226, Cs-137 and Am-241, and the well-established Constant Rate of Supply (CRS) model was employed to derive Pb-210 geochronology with bomb-derived Cs-137 and Am-241 as independent chronological markers. The geochronological data provided the sedimentary accumulation and temporal context for the study. In terms of sediment quality with respect to mining pollution, core sections were analysed using Q-ICP-MS techniques and, additionally, WD-XRF instrumentation at Plymouth University. Measurements were performed for target elements that are normally associated with mining and smelting activities (e.g. Pb, Cu, Sn, Zn, Cr, Cd, etc.), and lithogenic elements (e.g. Fe, Al, Ti) that allow enrichment factors for the anthropogenically-derived elements to be determined. The grain size distribution was determined to identify storminess events and to

  4. Influence of Vegetation on Sediment Accumulation in Restored Tidal Saltmarshes: Field Evidence from the Blackwater Estuary, Essex, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, D.; French, J.; Burningham, H.

    2013-12-01

    Tidal saltmarshes in the UK, and especially in the estuaries of southeast England, have been subject to degradation and erosion over the last few decades, primarily caused by sea-level rise and coastal squeeze due to fixed coastal defences. This is of great concern to a range of coastal stakeholders due to the corresponding loss of functions and services associated with these systems. The coastal defence role that saltmarshes play is well established, and the importance of saltmarsh ecosystems as habitats for birds, fish, and other species is evidenced in the fact that a large proportion of saltmarsh in the southeast England is designated for its scientific and conservation significance. Sediment accumulation is critical for the maintenance of marsh elevation within the tidal frame and for delivery of the aforementioned functions and services. Although many studies have examined accumulation processes, key questions have yet to be fully tested through intensive field observations. One such question relates to the role of vegetation in mediating the retention of newly introduced sediment, as recent research has called into doubt the traditional view of halophytes significantly enhancing rates of sedimentation through wave dissipation. This study presents early results from a project designed to advance our understanding of the processes controlling sediment accumulation. The research focuses on the UK's first large-scale experimental managed flood defence realignment at Tollesbury, Blackwater estuary, Essex. The seawall protecting 21ha of reclaimed agricultural land was artificially breached in 1995 and saltmarsh has progressively developed as tidal exchange has introduced fine sediment into the site. Results from a 12 month monitoring campaign involving hierarchical two-week sediment trap deployments indicates that the role of vegetation in marsh development is less clear cut that previously thought. Gross sedimentation rates were generally higher in non

  5. Radon concentrations in abandoned mines, Cumbria, UK: safety implications for industrial archaeologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmore, G.; Alizadeh Gharib, H.; Denman, A.; Phillips, P.; Bridge, D.

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents a number of surveys performed in a geographical area of the UK, part of which until recently was considered low radon risk. The Cumbrian region was identified by the Building Research Establishment (BRE) in its 1999 guide as an area without a significant radon problem in the built environment. The geology of the region, which includes the Northern Pennine Orefield is varied, but consists of granites, andesites, tuffs, carbonates, sandstones and shales. Mineralisation has taken place (mostly lead and copper ores) primarily along fault and fracture zones, one example being Copper Valley, northwest of Coniston village. This work quantifies the risk of exposure to radon in a number of abandoned mine environments. High radon levels, up to 28 589 Bq m-3, have been measured in parts of one mine. This study demonstrates that industrial archaeologists (such as the Cumbrian Amenity Trust Mining History Society or CATMHS members) and explorers of abandoned mines can be at risk from radon exposure and it proposes a management scheme to allow industrial archaeologists to continue exploration whilst minimising the risk to health from radon.

  6. Patterns, rates and possible causes of saltmarsh erosion in the Greater Thames area (UK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Wal, Daphne; Pye, Kenneth

    2004-08-01

    The estuary-dominated coast of the Greater Thames in England has experienced rapid lateral erosion and internal dissection of saltmarshes. This paper provides an overview of saltmarsh development in this area, and re-examines the role of environmental and human forcing factors. It draws on documentary evidence, including historical maps, survey data and time-series data of forcing factors. Lateral marsh retreat began in the 19th century in the Medway and Blackwater Estuaries, followed by other estuaries in the Greater Thames region at the beginning of the 20th century. The outer estuaries and the wider parts of the inner estuaries especially have experienced erosion. Erosion has been modest in wave-sheltered areas, e.g., the Colne and the inner Crouch. In the 1960s and, more widely, the 1970s, a phase of rapid erosion took place, with erosion rates of up to ca. 16 ha year -1 per site, notably along the open coast of Dengie and Foulness, and in the Blackwater and Thames Estuaries. At all sites, vertical sediment accretion was well able to keep up with sea level rise over the past century. Evidence indicates that there may have been several causes for the erosion of saltmarshes. These are notably land claim and embankment construction (increasing the tidal range and current velocities) and a continuous rise of, especially, high and extreme water levels. The latest episode of rapid erosion in the 1970s is largely attributed to changes in the wind/wave climate. For example, erosion at wave-exposed sites coincided with a peak in high magnitude waves combined with a high incidence of southeasterly waves. The study shows that many factors, including natural forcing factors and human activities, have to be taken into account when explaining saltmarsh development.

  7. A case–control study of occupational contact levels in the childhood leukaemia cluster at Seascale, Cumbria, UK

    PubMed Central

    Kinlen, Leo J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate adult occupational contact levels and risk of childhood leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (LNHL) in Seascale, an association found in other situations of rural population mixing (PM). Design Matched case–control study. Setting Seascale, Cumbria, UK. Participants For each case of LNHL recorded in patients under age 25 years during 1950–2006, up to 20 matched controls were chosen and parental occupational details obtained; an exception was a single working young adult, whose own occupation (and that of controls) was used. Primary outcome measures Contact levels of occupations were categorised as: low/medium (reference group), high or very high contact levels, as in previous studies, with provision for certain unusual occupations. In particular, specialist policemen responsible for security and access at the nearby Sellafield nuclear complex were allocated to the highest contact category, and those Sellafield employees who worked in controlled areas to the middle (high) category. Since of possible bias, unusual contact aspects noted in the main research and development (R&D) building were reserved for a supplementary analysis. ORs were calculated for the occupational contact levels. Results Compared to the reference group, the social class adjusted ORs for the high and very high contact categories were 8.18 (95% CI 0.95 to 70.33) and 14.90 (1.20 to 184.90), respectively, with a significant trend across the categories (p value=0.024). In the supplementary analysis with R&D workers moved to the very high contact category, the OR for the latter became 29.68 (2.12 to 415.79), and the p value for trend, 0.011. Conclusions The Seascale LNHL excess was most marked among those young people linked with high occupational contact levels; it is therefore not an exception to the pattern of family infection shown by other PM-related excesses. The findings have implications for the choice of controls in certain types of virus study. PMID:26243554

  8. Fluvial geomorphological response along the upland sediment cascade during the record-breaking December 2015 floods, Cumbria, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Andrew; Perks, Matthew; Large, Andrew; Dunning, Stuart; Warburton, Jeff

    2016-04-01

    Between 0900 GMT on 4th December and 0900 GMT on 6th December 2015, Atlantic Storm Desmond produced over 260 mm of rainfall in Cumbria, northwest England, representing a new UK 48 hour rainfall maximum, and breaking previous records set in 2005 and 2009. The December 2015 event resulted in a number of rivers significantly exceeding their 2009 levels, over-topping recently-commissioned flood defences, destroying bridges and flooding thousands of homes. Our research aim is to identify factors controlling significant geomorphological and sedimentary response during Storm Desmond along the upland sediment cascade including: Rattling Beck (Glenridding), a high gradient upland stream draining the flanks of Helvellyn (950 m.a.o.d.), and a 25km extended reach of the lower gradient piedmont Derwent River corridor downstream of Bassenthwaite Lake. Rattling Beck descends steeply from the eastern slopes of the Helvellyn massif draining across an alluvial fan into Lake Ullswater. On 5th December 2015 the village of Glenridding was severely impacted by flooding which deposited boulder-sized sediment within the centre of the village, completely blocking the pre-existing stream course and causing avulsion of waning stage flows through riverside properties. A major new sediment lobe was deposited on the existing alluvial fan downstream of the village, grading to the temporarily raised lake water level. Although a number of hillslope failures occurred in the higher catchment, the majority of the sediment transported by Rattling Beck and impacting the village was acquired within a 2km reach upstream of Glenridding through erosion of older glacial and alluvial sediments. Lateral channel erosion was enhanced by inability of flood flows to rework highly resistant boulder bar lag deposits related to a previous mine tailings dam failure in 1927. The River Derwent corridor extends for 30km downstream of Bassenthwaite Lake to the Irish Sea at Workington and has a sinuous course ranging in

  9. Understanding 2H/1H systematics of leaf wax n-alkanes in coastal plants at Stiffkey saltmarsh, Norfolk, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eley, Yvette; Dawson, Lorna; Black, Stuart; Andrews, Julian; Pedentchouk, Nikolai

    2014-03-01

    Interpretation of sedimentary n-alkyl lipid δ2H data is complicated by a limited understanding of factors controlling interspecies variation in biomarker 2H/1H composition. To distinguish between the effects of interrelated environmental, physical and biochemical controls on the hydrogen isotope composition of n-alkyl lipids, we conducted linked δ2H analyses of soil water, xylem water, leaf water and n-alkanes from a range of C3 and C4 plants growing at a UK saltmarsh (i) across multiple sampling sites, (ii) throughout the 2012 growing season, and (iii) at different times of the day. Soil waters varied isotopically by up to 35‰ depending on marsh sub-environment, and exhibited site-specific seasonal shifts in δ2H up to a maximum of 31‰. Maximum interspecies variation in xylem water was 38‰, while leaf waters differed seasonally by a maximum of 29‰. Leaf wax n-alkane 2H/1H, however, consistently varied by over 100‰ throughout the 2012 growing season, resulting in an interspecies range in the ɛwax/leaf water values of -79‰ to -227‰. From the discrepancy in the magnitude of these isotopic differences, we conclude that mechanisms driving variation in the 2H/1H composition of leaf water, including (i) spatial changes in soil water 2H/1H, (ii) temporal changes in soil water 2H/1H, (iii) differences in xylem water 2H/1H, and (iv) differences in leaf water evaporative 2H-enrichment due to varied plant life forms, cannot explain the range of n-alkane δ2H values we observed. Results from this study suggests that accurate reconstructions of palaeoclimate regimes from sedimentary n-alkane δ2H require further research to constrain those biological mechanisms influencing species-specific differences in 2H/1H fractionation during lipid biosynthesis, in particular where plants have developed biochemical adaptations to water-stressed conditions. Understanding how these mechanisms interact with environmental conditions will be crucial to ensure accurate

  10. Impacts of Climate Change on Estuarine Habitats in the UK: Critical Evaluation of the Saltmarshes and Sea-Level Rise Model (SLAMM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pylarinou, A.; French, J.; Burningham, H.

    2013-12-01

    Estuarine wetland environments are at risk of significant transformation and loss due to sea-level rise and there is an increasing need to model such impacts. In a UK context, the relatively small size and morphological complexity of many estuaries necessitates a high spatial resolution but models must also be capable of efficient application over time scales of decades to centuries that correspond to widely used IPCC climate change scenarios. Little previous work of this kind has been carried out to date in the UK. An exception is the EU-funded BRANCH project, which simulated the drowning of intertidal topography, due to sea-level rise, and potential mudflat and saltmarsh responses to a change in inundation regime. However, this approach neglects the interplay of sea-level rise and sedimentation. Accordingly, this study investigates the potential of a more dynamic spatial landscape model to represent meso-scale impacts of sea-level rise on UK estuary environments. It takes as a starting point the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM), which has been widely used in the USA. This is built around the US National Wetlands Inventory classification and adapting it to suit the tidal sedimentary environments and habitats typical of the UK requires changes to the source code. This paper presents results obtained from the application of an appropriately modified SLAMM code to contrasting estuarine environments in eastern England. The aim is to evaluate the ability of SLAMM to produce plausible projections of intertidal habitat change. The estuaries studied are covered by high-resolution altimetry data, and an extensive literature on their physical process regime allows the parameterisation of the various sub-models in SLAMM. A Matlab-based shell is used to perform an initial sensitivity analysis to better understand the nature of the modelled sea-level rise effects. This shell also provides a framework for Monte Carlo simulations forced by a set of UKCP09 sea-level rise

  11. Investigating the potential to reduce flood risk through catchment-based land management techniques and interventions in the River Roe catchment, Cumbria,UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Callum; Reaney, Sim; Bracken, Louise; Butler, Lucy

    2015-04-01

    Throughout the United Kingdom flood risk is a growing problem and a significant proportion of the population are at risk from flooding throughout the country. Across England and Wales over 5 million people are believed to be at risk from fluvial, pluvial or coastal flooding (DEFRA, 2013). Increasingly communities that have not dealt with flooding before have recently experienced significant flood events. The communities of Stockdalewath and Highbridge in the Roe catchment, a tributary of the River Eden in Cumbria, UK, are an excellent example. The River Roe has a normal flow of less than 5m3 sec-1 occurring 97 percent of the time however there have been two flash floods of 98.8m3 sec-1 in January 2005 and 86.9m3 sec-1 in May 2013. These two flash flood events resulted in the inundation of numerous properties within the catchment with the 2013 event prompting the creation of the Roe Catchment Community Water Management Group which aims are to deliver a sustainable approach to managing the flood risk. Due to the distributed rural population the community fails the cost-benefit analysis for a centrally funded flood risk mitigation scheme. Therefore the at-risk community within the Roe catchment have to look for cost-effective, sustainable techniques and interventions to reduce the potential negative impacts of future events; this has resulted in a focus on natural flood risk management. This research investigates the potential to reduce flood risk through natural catchment-based land management techniques and interventions within the Roe catchment; providing a scientific base from with further action can be enacted. These interventions include changes to land management and land use, such as soil aeration and targeted afforestation, the creation of runoff attenuation features and the construction of in channel features, such as debris dams. Natural flood management (NFM) application has been proven to be effective when reducing flood risk in smaller catchments and the

  12. In-vivo estimates for the uptake of caesium-137 by cattle grazing contaminated pasture around the ESK and IRT estuaries, Cumbria, U.K.

    PubMed

    Sumerling, T J

    1981-12-01

    Sea water contaminated with diluted radioactive effluent from the Windscale nuclear complex in Cumbria periodically floods low-lying grazing pasture around the estuaries of the rivers Esk, Irt and Mite near Ravenglass. During 1979, an experiment was carried out to measure the transfer of caesium-137 from grass to muscle in cows grazing these pastures. Grass samples were taken in a vivo external gamma-ray measurements were made on cattle. A very low transfer coefficient was found, less than 9 X 10-4 days kg-1 with a best estimate of 4 X 10-4 days kg-1, compared with a more usual value of around 3 X 10-2 days kg-1. The low transfer seems to occur because the bulk of the caesium-137 on the grass is bound to resuspended estuarine surface sediment deposited during flooding. In this form, the caesium-137 is only poorly absorbed across the gut of the grazing cattle. PMID:7336201

  13. Keeping Wartime Memory Alive: An Oral History Project about the Wartime Memories of People with Learning Difficulties in Cumbria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dias, John; Eardley, Malcolm; Harkness, Elizabeth; Townson, Louise; Brownlee-Chapman, Chloe; Chapman, Rohhss

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses an oral history project funded by the Heritage Lottery. It recorded the memories of eight people with learning difficulties during the Second World War in Cumbria, UK, before their personal histories were lost forever. This qualitative, inclusive research project was supported by various organisations. The process of…

  14. Redgillite, Cu[subscript 6](OH)1 0(SO[subscript 4]).2H[subscript 2]O, a new mineral from Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England, UK: Description and crystal structure

    SciTech Connect

    Pluth, J.J.; Steele, I.M.; Kampf, A.R.; Green, D.I.

    2008-10-03

    Redgillite, Cu{sub 6}(OH){sub 10}(SO{sub 4}) {center_dot} H{sub 2}O, space group P2{sub 1}/c, a 3.155(3) {angstrom}, b 10.441(8) {angstrom}, c 19.436(16) {angstrom}, {beta} 90.089(13){sup o}, V = 640.2(9) {angstrom}{sup 3}, Z = 2, is a new mineral from Silver Gill, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. The strongest six lines of the X-ray powder-diffraction pattern [d in {angstrom}, (I) (hkl)] are: 9.72 (90) (002), 7.11 (100) (012), 4.60 (30) (022), 4.068 (20) (023), 2.880 (30) (112,11{bar 2}), 2.318 (50) (131,13{bar 1}). It occurs as translucent to transparent grass-green bladed crystals up to 0.15 mm long with squared-off or tapering terminations; usually in radiating groups. Forms observed are {l_brace}001{r_brace} prominent, {l_brace}010{r_brace} as composite stepped faces, and {l_brace}100{r_brace} irregular. Redgillite has white streak, vitreous lustre and Mohs hardness of {approx}2. Blades are slightly flexible with irregular fracture and exhibit a perfect {l_brace}001{r_brace} cleavage and good {l_brace}100{r_brace} and {l_brace}010{r_brace} cleavages. The measured density (by sink-float) is 3.45(5) g/cm{sup 3}; the calculated density is 3.450 g/cm{sup 3}. The mineral dissolves slowly in dilute HCl. Redgillite is biaxial-negative with {alpha} = 1.693(2), {beta} = 1.721(2), {gamma} = 1.723(2), 2V = 30(2){sup o} (meas.) and 30{sup o} (calc.); dispersion is r > v, medium; pleochroism: Y blue-green > X blue-green > Z yellow-green; orientation: X c, Y = b, Z a. Electron microprobe analyses yielded CuO 68.9, SO{sub 3} 11.6, total 80.5. With water inferred from the structure analysis, the empirical formula is: Cu{sub 5.995}(OH){sub 9.991}(SO{sub 4}){sub 1.003} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O. Redgillite is typically found in thin fractures in partly oxidized sulphides where it is commonly associated with langite and more rarely with malachite, cuprite, connellite and brochantite. The name is for the Red Gill mine, from which the mineral is best known. The crystal structure of

  15. Sellafield's Role in the Socio-Economic Development of West Cumbria - 12459

    SciTech Connect

    Irving, Iain

    2012-07-01

    It would be hard to imagine what West Cumbria, a remote area in the North West of England, would look like without the huge Sellafield nuclear complex. The site is owned by the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) and managed by Nuclear Management Partners (NMP), an international private partnership consisting of URS from the United States of America, AMEC from the UK and AREVA from France. Today some 10,000 people work at Sellafield with many more employed through the site's supply chain, a large percentage of which is located directly in West Cumbria. The Government, through the NDA, has committed around pounds 1.5 billion a year for the next three years as we at NMP bring our vast global expertise and experience to deliver substantial improvements to the clean-up mission there. Of this total budget, more than Pounds 800 million a year is spent in that supply chain and around 30 percent of that goes directly to firms in West Cumbria. But the dependency on the nuclear industry is immense and, with the site now entering an extensive decommissioning programme, the threats to jobs, and therefore the local economy, is severe. While Sellafield provides wealth, there are areas of deep deprivation and worklessness. Consequently, Sellafield Ltd, NMP and NDA have partnered with the local community leaders and politicians to form Britain's Energy Coast, a strategic regeneration body driving economic improvements and projects to deliver a vibrant economy for West Cumbria, long into the future. While the threats to our economy are real, the opportunities are potentially transformational. The UK is on the brink of a nuclear renaissance and, if we are successful through the Energy Coast programme, West Cumbria will become the hub, not only of the nuclear industry, but also of green energy production in the UK, with obvious benefits to our local economy. But to achieve this, Sellafield and its new owners are having to change the opportunistic ways of the past to provide a new

  16. Particle-size evidence of estuary evolution: A rapid and diagnostic tool for determining the nature of recent saltmarsh accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Rubina; Plater, Andrew J.

    2014-05-01

    A conceptual model of saltmarsh sedimentation based on high-resolution particle-size analysis has been tested on short cores (c. 0.5 m) of known age from the Dee estuary, NW England, UK. Here, two components of the particle-size distribution (PSD) are interpreted as the traction load deposited by the faster tidal flow velocities ('fast tide') and the suspension load that settles during the turn of the tide ('slow tide'). The feasibility of this model for diagnosing the driving mechanism of estuary evolution in both time and space is tested with reference to historical evidence of saltmarsh accretion, up-core trends in dated saltmarsh cores, and the PSDs of present-day saltmarsh surface sediments. Cores that show an up-core progression from very fine-skewed to near symmetrical PSDs are interpreted in the context of estuary infilling due to a positive sediment budget (sediment surplus), whilst those that show a persistence of near-symmetrical, (very) poorly sorted, mesokurtic particle-size distributions in the fine to very fine silts size range are considered to be the result of 'slow tide' sedimentation. The influences of the two 'end-member' styles of saltmarsh accretion, i.e. (i) infilling due to sediment surplus and (ii) 'slow tide' settling linked to sea level, exhibit spatial and temporal trends as predicted, particularly in cores from mid- and lower saltmarsh locations. The upper saltmarsh cores also show evidence of estuary infilling due to 'slow tide' sedimentation at rates in excess of sea-level rise. The results confirm that the diagnostic approach can be applied as a 'pre-filtering' method for assessing the suitability of saltmarsh sediments for reconstructing sea-level trends, and for providing input data for improved estuary morphological modelling.

  17. Assessing the carbon benefit of saltmarsh restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Benjamin; Paterson, David; Hanley, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    The quantification of carbon sequestration rates in coastal ecosystems is required to better realise their potential role in climate change mitigation. Through accurate valuation this service can be fully appreciated and perhaps help facilitate efforts to restore vulnerable ecosystems such as saltmarshes. Vegetated coastal ecosystems are suggested to account for approximately 50% of oceanic sedimentary carbon despite their 2% areal extent. Saltmarshes, conservatively estimated to store 430 ± 30 Tg C in surface sediment deposits, have experienced extensive decline in the recent past; through processes such as land use change and coastal squeeze. Saltmarsh habitats offer a range of services that benefit society and the natural world, making their conservation meaningful and beneficial. The associated costs of restoration projects could, in part, be subsidised through payment for ecosystem services, specifically Blue carbon. Additional storage is generated through the (re)vegetation of mudflat areas leading to an altered ecosystem state and function; providing similar benefits to natural saltmarsh areas. The Eden Estuary, Fife, Scotland has been a site of saltmarsh restoration since 2000; providing a temporal and spatial scale to evaluate these additional benefits. The study is being conducted to quantify the carbon benefit of restoration efforts and provide an insight into the evolution of this benefit through sites of different ages. Seasonal sediment deposition and settlement rates are measured across the estuary in: mudflat, young planted saltmarsh, old planted saltmarsh and extant high marsh areas. Carbon values being derived from loss on ignition organic content values. Samples are taken across a tidal cycle on a seasonal basis; providing data on tidal influence, vegetation condition effects and climatic factors on sedimentation and carbon sequestration rates. These data will inform on the annual characteristics of sedimentary processes in the estuary and be

  18. Spatial trends on an ungrazed West Cumbrian saltmarsh of surface contamination by selected radionuclides over a 25 year period.

    PubMed

    Caborn, Jane A; Howard, Brenda J; Blowers, Paul; Wright, Simon M

    2016-01-01

    Long term spatial and temporal variations in radionuclide activity have been measured in a contaminated ungrazed saltmarsh near Ravenglass, Cumbria. Over a twenty-five year period there has been a decrease in activity concentration with (106)Ru and (137)Cs showing the highest rate of change followed by Pu alpha and (241)Am. A number of factors contribute to the reduction with time; including radiological half lives, discharge and remobilisation. For (241)Am the lower reduction rate is partially due to ingrowth from (241)Pu and partially as a result of transport of sediment from the offshore Irish Sea mud patch. Considerable spatial variation for the different radionuclides was observed, which with time became less defined. The highest activity concentrations of long-lived radionuclides were in low energy areas, typically where higher rates of sedimentation and vegetation occurred. The trend was reversed for the shorter lived radionuclide, (106)Ru, with higher activity concentrations observed in high energy areas where there was frequent tidal inundation. Surface scrape samples provide a pragmatic, practical method of measuring sediment contamination over large areas and is a sampling approach adopted by most routine environmental monitoring programs, but it does not allow for interpretation of the effect of variation in sedimentation rates. This paper proposes a method for calculating indicative sedimentation rates across the saltmarsh using surface scrape data, which produces results consistent with values experimentally obtained. PMID:26440699

  19. Saltmarsh pool and tidal creek morphodynamics: Dynamic equilibrium of northern latitude saltmarshes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Carol A.; Hughes, Zoe J.; FitzGerald, Duncan M.; Hopkinson, Charles S.; Valentine, Vinton; Kolker, Alexander S.

    2014-05-01

    Many saltmarsh platforms in New England and other northern climates (e.g. Canada, northern Europe) exhibit poor drainage, creating waterlogged regions where short-form Spartina alterniflora dominates and stagnant pools that experience tidal exchange only during spring tides and storm-induced flooding events. The processes related to pool formation and tidal creek incision (via headward erosion) that may eventually drain these features are poorly understood, however it has been suggested that an increase in pool occurrence in recent decades is due to waterlogging stress from sea-level rise. We present evidence here that saltmarshes in Plum Island Estuary of Massachusetts are keeping pace with sea-level rise, and that the recent increase in saltmarsh pool area coincides with changes in drainage density from a legacy of anthropogenic ditching (reversion to natural drainage conditions). Gradients, in addition to elevation and hydroperiod, are critical for saltmarsh pool formation. Additionally, elevation and vegetative changes associated with pool formation, creek incision, subsequent drainage of pools, and recolonization by S. alterniflora are quantified. Pool and creek dynamics were found to be cyclic in nature, and represent platform elevation in dynamic equilibrium with sea level whereby saltmarsh elevation may be lowered (due to degradation of organic matter and formation of a pool), however may be regained on short timescales (101-2 yr) with creek incision into pools and restoration of tidal exchange. Rapid vertical accretion is associated with sedimentation and S. alterniflora plant recolonization.

  20. Fate of fish production in a seasonally flooded saltmarsh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, Philip W.; Montague, C.L.; Sulak, K.J.

    2006-01-01

    Although saltmarshes are thought to enhance the productivity of open estuarine waters, the mechanism by which energy transfer occurs has been debated for decades. One possible mechanism is the transfer of saltmarsh production to estuarine waters by vagile fishes and invertebrates. Monthly estimates of fish standing stock, net fish ingress, and predation were used to develop a biomass budget to estimate annual production of fishes and the relative yield to predatory fish, birds, and direct migration to the estuary. Annual production of saltmarsh fishes was estimated to be 31.0 g m-2 saltmarsh, which falls within the range of previously reported values for estuarine fish communities. The relative yields were 12 to 20% to piscivorous fishes, 8 to 13% to piscivorous birds, and 18 to 29% to export. Annual export of fish biomass was 5.6 g fish m-2 saltmarsh, representing about 1 to 2% of saltmarsh primary production. Saltmarsh fishes convert marsh production to high-quality vagile biomass (fishes concentrate energy, protein, and nutrients as body mass) and move this readily useable production to the estuary, providing an efficient link between saltmarshes and estuarine predators. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  1. 3D structure of macropore networks within natural and de-embarked estuary saltmarsh sediments: towards an improved understanding of network structural control over hydrologic function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Simon; Spencer, Kate; James, Tempest; Lucy, Diggens

    2015-04-01

    Saltmarshes are globally important environments which, though occupying < 4% of the Earth's surface, provide a range of ecosystem services. Yet, they are threatened by sea level rise, human population growth, urbanization and pollution resulting in degradation. To compensate for this habitat loss many coastal restoration projects have been implemented over the last few decades, largely driven by legislative requirements for improved biodiversity e.g. the EU Habitats Directive and Birds Directive. However, there is growing evidence that restored saltmarshes, recreated through the return to tidal inundation of previously drained and defended low-lying coastal land, do not have the same species composition even after 100 years and while environmental enhancement has been achieved, there may be consequences for ecosystem functioning This study presents the findings of a comparative analysis of detailed sediment structure and hydrological functioning of equivalent natural and de-embanked saltmarsh sediments at Orplands Farm, Essex, UK. 3D x-ray CT scanning of triplicate undisturbed sediment cores recovered in 2013 have been used to derive detailed volumetric reconstructions of macropore structure and networks, and to infer differences in bulk microporosity between natural and de-embanked saltmarshes. These volumes have been further visualised for qualitative analysis of the main sediment components, and extraction of key macropore space parameters for quantified analysis including total porosity and connectivity, as well as structure, organisation and efficiency (tortuosity) of macropore networks. Although total porosity was significantly greater within the de-embanked saltmarsh sediments, pore networks in these samples were less organised and more tortuous, and were also inferred to have significantly lower micro-porosity than those of the natural saltmarsh. These datasets are applied to explain significant differences in the hydraulic behaviour and functioning

  2. Fungal biomass in saltmarsh grass blades at two contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Newell, S Y; Wall, V D; Maruya, K A

    2000-04-01

    Ascomycetous fungi are the principal drivers of the decomposition of shoots of smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora). Shoots of smooth cordgrass move into the saltmarsh food web via the decomposition system. Therefore, influences on saltmarsh ascomycetes by pollutants of saltmarshes could have far-reaching impacts. Earlier examination of impacts of severe contamination of a Georgia saltmarsh by mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) revealed little or no influence of the toxicants on living standing crops or sexual productivities of cordgrass ascomycetes. Extension of the examination of saltmarsh-ascomycete response to sites containing other toxic pollutants (the chlorinated organocyclic insecticide toxaphene; chromium, copper, and lead; and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs]) has shown that none of the additional toxicants engendered saltmarsh-fungal responses in the form of reduced living standing crops or sexual productivities. Thus the ascomycetes of the cordgrass-decay system appear to be as resistant to anthropogenic-pollutant poisoning as smooth cordgrass itself. Unless the fungal and plant resistance mechanisms involve degradation of the toxicants, this may imply that saltmarshes are especially dangerous as receiving sites for toxic waste because they may have the potential to readily move toxicants into the food web. PMID:10667923

  3. Microbial communities within saltmarsh sediments: Composition, abundance and pollution constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, Ana; Magalhães, Catarina; Mucha, Ana P.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Bordalo, Adriano A.

    2012-03-01

    The influence of the saltmarsh plant Halimione portucaloides and the level of sediment metal contamination on the distribution of microbial communities were investigated in two Portuguese estuarine systems with different degrees of metal contamination: the Cavado (41.5 N; 8.7 W) and Sado estuaries. In the Sado, two saltmarshes were studied: Lisnave (38.4 N; 8.7 W) and Comporta (38.4 N; 8.8 W). A PCR rDNA-DGGE approach and direct microscopic counts of DAPI-stained cells were applied to study the biodiversity and abundance of prokaryotic communities. Sediment characteristics and metal concentrations (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni and Zn) were also evaluated to identify possible environmental pollution constraints on spatial and temporal microbial dynamics. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that the Lisnave saltmarsh microbial community was usually associated with a higher degree of metal contamination, especially the metal Pb. In clear contrast, the Cavado estuary microbial assemblage composition was associated with low metal concentrations but higher organic matter content. The Comporta saltmarsh bacterial community clustered in a separate branch, and was associated with higher levels of different metals, such as Ni, Cr and Zn. Additionally, the microbial community structure of the Lisnave and Cavado showed a seasonal pattern. Moreover, microbial abundance correlated negatively with metal concentrations, being higher at the Cavado estuarine site and with general higher counts in the rhizosediment. These findings suggest that increased metal concentrations negatively affect the abundance of prokaryotic cells and that saltmarsh plants may have a pivotal role in shaping the microbial community structure.

  4. The hydrodynamics of surface tidal flow exchange in saltmarshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, David L.; Bruder, Brittany L.; Haas, Kevin A.; Webster, Donald R.

    2016-04-01

    Modeling studies of estuary circulation show great sensitivity to the water exchange into and out of adjacent marshes, yet there is significant uncertainty in resolving the processes governing marsh surface flow. The objective of this study is to measure the estuary channel-to-saltmarsh pressure gradient and to guide parameterization for how it affects the surface flow in the high marsh. Current meters and high-resolution pressure transducers were deployed along a transect perpendicular to the nearby Little Ogeechee River in a saltmarsh adjacent to Rose Dhu Island near Savannah, Georgia, USA. The vertical elevations of the transducers were surveyed with static GPS to yield high accuracy water surface elevation data. It is found that water level differences between the Little Ogeechee River and neighboring saltmarsh are up to 15 cm and pressure gradients are up to 0.0017 m of water surface elevation change per m of linear distance during rising and falling tides. The resulting Little-Ogeechee-River-to-saltmarsh pressure gradient substantially affects tidal velocities at all current meter locations. At the velocity measurement station located closest to the Little Ogeechee River bank, the tidal velocity is nearly perpendicular to the bank. At this location, surface flow is effectively modeled as a balance between the pressure gradient force and the drag force due to marsh vegetation and bottom stress using the Darcy-Weisbach/Lindner's equations developed for flow-through-vegetation analysis in open channel flow. The study thus provides a direct connection between the pressure gradient and surface flow velocity in the high marsh, thereby overcoming a long-standing barrier in directly relating flow-through-saltmarsh studies to flow-through-vegetation studies in the open channel flow literature.

  5. Nitrous oxide and methane fluxes vs. carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous burial in new intertidal and saltmarsh sediments.

    PubMed

    Adams, C A; Andrews, J E; Jickells, T

    2012-09-15

    Carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) burial rates were determined within natural saltmarsh (NSM) and 'managed realignment' (MR) sediments of the Blackwater estuary, UK. Methane (CH(4)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) fluxes were measured along with their ability to offset a portion of the C burial to give net C sequestration. C and N densities (Cρ and Nρ) of NSM sediments (0.022 and 0.0019 g cm(-3)) are comparable to other UK NSM sediments. Less vegetationally developed MR sediments have lower Cρ and Nρ (0.012 and 0.0011 g cm(-3)) while the more vegetationally developed sites possess higher Cρ and Nρ (0.023 and 0.0030 g cm(-3)) than NSM. Both NSM and MR areas were small CH(4) (0.10-0.40 g m(-2)yr(-1)) and N(2)O (0.03-0.37 g m(-2) yr(-1)) sources. Due to their large Global Warming Potentials, even these relatively small greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes reduced the net C sequestration within MR marshes by as much as 49%, but by only 2% from NSM. Potential MR areas within the Blackwater estuary (29.5 km(2) saltmarsh and 23.7 km(2) intertidal mudflat) could bury 5478 t C yr(-1) and 695.5 t N yr(-1), with a further 476t N yr(-1) denitrified. The saltmarsh MR would also sequester 139.4 t Pyr(-1). GHG fluxes would reduce the C burial benefit by 24% giving a C sequestration rate of 4174 t Cyr(-1). Similar areas within the Humber estuary (74.95 km(2)) could bury 3597 t Cyr(-1) and 180 t N yr(-1), with a further 442 t Nyr(-1) denitrified. GHG fluxes would reduce the C burial benefit by 31% giving a C sequestration rate of 2492 t C yr(-1). Overall, MR sites provide sustainable coastal defence options with significant biogeochemical value and, despite being net sources of CH(4) and N(2)O, can sequester C and reduce estuarine nutrient loads. PMID:22197113

  6. Saltmarsh boundary modulates dispersal of mangrove propagules: implications for mangrove migration with sea-level rise.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Jennifer M; Bell, Susan S

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have empirically examined the suite of mechanisms that underlie the distributional shifts displayed by organisms in response to changing climatic condition. Mangrove forests are expected to move inland as sea-level rises, encroaching on saltmarsh plants inhabiting higher elevations. Mangrove propagules are transported by tidal waters and propagule dispersal is likely modified upon encountering the mangrove-saltmarsh ecotone, the implications of which are poorly known. Here, using an experimental approach, we record landward and seaward dispersal and subsequent establishment of mangrove propagules that encounter biotic boundaries composed of two types of saltmarsh taxa: succulents and grasses. Our findings revealed that propagules emplaced within saltmarsh vegetation immediately landward of the extant mangrove fringe boundary frequently dispersed in the seaward direction. However, propagules moved seaward less frequently and over shorter distances upon encountering boundaries composed of saltmarsh grasses versus succulents. We uniquely confirmed that the small subset of propagules dispersing landward displayed proportionately higher establishment success than those transported seaward. Although impacts of ecotones on plant dispersal have rarely been investigated in situ, our experimental results indicate that the interplay between tidal transport and physical attributes of saltmarsh vegetation influence boundary permeability to propagules, thereby directing the initial phase of shifting mangrove distributions. The incorporation of tidal inundation information and detailed data on landscape features, such as the structure of saltmarsh vegetation at mangrove boundaries, should improve the accuracy of models that are being developed to forecast mangrove distributional shifts in response to sea-level rise. PMID:25760867

  7. Saltmarsh Boundary Modulates Dispersal of Mangrove Propagules: Implications for Mangrove Migration with Sea-Level Rise

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Jennifer M.; Bell, Susan S.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have empirically examined the suite of mechanisms that underlie the distributional shifts displayed by organisms in response to changing climatic condition. Mangrove forests are expected to move inland as sea-level rises, encroaching on saltmarsh plants inhabiting higher elevations. Mangrove propagules are transported by tidal waters and propagule dispersal is likely modified upon encountering the mangrove-saltmarsh ecotone, the implications of which are poorly known. Here, using an experimental approach, we record landward and seaward dispersal and subsequent establishment of mangrove propagules that encounter biotic boundaries composed of two types of saltmarsh taxa: succulents and grasses. Our findings revealed that propagules emplaced within saltmarsh vegetation immediately landward of the extant mangrove fringe boundary frequently dispersed in the seaward direction. However, propagules moved seaward less frequently and over shorter distances upon encountering boundaries composed of saltmarsh grasses versus succulents. We uniquely confirmed that the small subset of propagules dispersing landward displayed proportionately higher establishment success than those transported seaward. Although impacts of ecotones on plant dispersal have rarely been investigated in situ, our experimental results indicate that the interplay between tidal transport and physical attributes of saltmarsh vegetation influence boundary permeability to propagules, thereby directing the initial phase of shifting mangrove distributions. The incorporation of tidal inundation information and detailed data on landscape features, such as the structure of saltmarsh vegetation at mangrove boundaries, should improve the accuracy of models that are being developed to forecast mangrove distributional shifts in response to sea-level rise. PMID:25760867

  8. Meiofauna Analyses of Sediment Cores to Investigate the Influence of Sea Level Rise on Saltmarsh Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radl, Michaela; Hughes, Rob G.; Horne, David J.

    2013-04-01

    The text-book explanation for the development of coastal saltmarshes is through increase in sediment elevation (with respect to sea level), mainly facilitated by plants leading to seaward progradation and succession from the lowest plant species to higher ones. An alternative hypothesis is that saltmarshes develop mainly by sea level rise leading to landward migration, where succession will be from the higher to lower species. These competing hypotheses are tested by comparing the assemblages of foraminifera in sediment cores with surface samples, in saltmarshes on isostatically rising (NW Scotland) and sinking coasts (SE England and Wales). The surface meiofauna assemblages differ with saltmarsh vertical zones and between saltmarshes. Ostracod abundance decreased with elevation at both sites and none were found in the high marsh (among sea couch grass Elytrigia atherica), limiting their use in some succession studies. The ratio of agglutinated foraminifera (e.g. Jadammina macrescens) to calcified species (e.g. Quinqueloculina spp.) increases with elevation. Geographical differences also occur which may be related to different sediment characteristics, particularly grain size, water content and plant species or grazing effects. For example, the domination of the mid-low saltmarsh by Cornuspira involuens on the sandier west coast in Wales and Quinqueloculina spp. in a muddier saltmarsh in SE England. Foraminifera assemblages throughout a 2.5 meter core in Tollesbury (SE England) were dominated by agglutinated species, indicating high marsh. The absence of lower marsh assemblages supports the hypothesis for the importance of sea level rise in saltmarsh development. In Loch Riddon (W Scotland) too there is no evidence of low marsh assemblages in the sediment strata (1 meter core). While there is no evidence of facilitation succession in this saltmarsh, sea level rise is unlikely to be responsible for its formation and development as it is on a rising coast.

  9. Monitoring the pollution from a pyre used to destroy animal carcasses during the outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease in Cumbria, United Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowles, I.; Hill, R.; Auld, V.; Stewart, H.; Colhoun, C.

    The recent outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease has affected many parts of the UK but none more so than Cumbria, which has had the highest proportion of infected premises. From the beginning of the outbreak, pyres were used to destroy the animal carcasses, however, over time this policy was questioned due to the growing concern about the levels of pollution being emitted from the pyres and their potential impact on human health. Of particular concern were the potential levels of dioxins being emitted from the materials used to construct the pyres as well as from the combustion of the animal carcasses. This paper describes a monitoring campaign that measured the air concentrations of key pollutants from a pyre in Cumbria. Measurements were taken close to residences downwind of the pyre using a mobile laboratory equipped to sample respiratory irritants (SO 2, PM 10 and NO 2) and carcinogens (VOCs and particle-bound PAHs). Measurements of speciated dioxins, furans and PAHs were made on samples collected using a high-volume air sampler co-located with the laboratory. Results from the campaign showed that although the levels of pollutants such as SO 2, PM 10, dioxins, furans and PAHs were clearly elevated above normal background concentrations, the levels were unlikely to cause a substantial exceedance of air quality standards. Moreover, the work showed that for the local residents downwind of this particular pyre, all but the most sensitive individuals (i.e. severe asthmatics and sufferers of lung disease) were unlikely to experience any significant health effects.

  10. Tidal events and salt-marsh structure influence black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) recruitment across an ecotone.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Jennifer M; Bell, Susan S

    2012-07-01

    Field experiments were conducted at a black mangrove-salt-marsh ecotone in southwest Florida (U.S.A.) to investigate retention of propagules of the black mangrove, Avicennia germinans, by salt-marsh plants as a mechanism of facilitation operating on recruitment success at landward boundaries. Buoyant A. germinans propagules are dispersed by tides, and stranding is required for establishment; therefore, processes that enable stranding should facilitate mangrove recruitment. We expected the physical structure of salt-marsh vegetation to define propagule retention capacity, and we predicted that salt-marsh plants with distinct growth forms would differentially retain propagules. Experimental monoculture plots (1 m2) of salt-marsh plants with different growth forms (Sporobolus virginicus [grass], Sesuvium portulacastrum [succulent forb], and Batis maritima [succulent scrub]) were created, and A. germinans propagules were emplaced into these plots and monitored over time. For comparison, propagules were also placed into natural polyculture plots (1 m2). Polyculture plots contained at least two of the salt-marsh plant taxa selected for monoculture treatments, and S. virginicus was always present within these polyculture plots. Natural polyculture plots retained 59.3% +/- 11.0% (mean +/- SE) of emplaced propagules. Monocultures varied in their propagule retention capacities with plots of S. virginicus retaining on average 65.7% +/- 11.5% of transplanted propagules compared to 7.2% +/- 1.8% by B. maritima and 5.0% +/- 1.9% by S. portulacastrum. Plots containing S. virginicus retained a significantly greater percentage of emplaced propagules relative to the two succulent salt-marsh taxa. Furthermore, propagule entrapment, across all treatments, was strongly correlated with salt-marsh structure (r2 = 0.6253, P = 0.00001), which was estimated using an indirect quantitative metric (lateral obstruction) calculated from digital images of plots. Overall, our findings imply that

  11. Saltmarsh creek bank stability: Biostabilisation and consolidation with depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Thompson, C. E. L.; Collins, M. B.

    2012-03-01

    The stability of cohesive sediments of a saltmarsh in Southern England was measured in the field and the laboratory using a Cohesive Strength Meter (CSM) and a shear vane apparatus. Cores and sediment samples were collected from two tidal creek banks, covered by Atriplex portulacoides (Sea Purslane) and Juncus maritimus (Sea Rush), respectively. The objectives of the study were to examine the variation of sediment stability throughout banks with cantilevers present and investigate the influence of roots and downcore consolidation on bank stability. Data on erosion threshold and shear strength were interpreted with reference to bank depth, sediment properties and biological influences. The higher average erosion threshold was from the Sea Purslane bank whilst the Sea Rush bank showed higher average vane shear strength. The vertical variation in core sediment stability was mainly affected by roots and downcore consolidation with depth. The data obtained from the bank faces revealed that vertical variations in both erosion threshold and vane shear strength were affected primarily by roots and algae. A quantitative estimate of the relative contributions of roots and downcore consolidation to bank sediment stability was undertaken using the bank stability data and sediment density data. This showed that roots contributed more to the Sea Purslane bank stability than downcore consolidation, whilst downcore consolidation has more pronounced effects on the Sea Rush bank stability.

  12. Mangrove distribution and mosquito control: transport of Avicennia marina propagules by mosquito-control runnels in southeast Queensland saltmarshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitfuss, M. J.; Connolly, R. M.; Dale, P. E. R.

    2003-03-01

    The saltmarsh-mangrove interface generally constitutes the landward boundary for the grey mangrove Avicennia marina var. australasica, the most widespread species on southeast Queensland shores. A. marina produces buoyant propagules, which are dispersed by tidal waters, only infrequently transported to saltmarsh by the highest spring tides. We predicted that runnelling, a form of habitat modification for mosquito control, transports and deposits mangrove propagules to saltmarsh because the runnels carry low-amplitude tides that would not normally inundate higher regions of the marsh. To test this, groups of marked A. marina propagules were released at three runnelled saltmarshes in southeast Queensland during high-amplitude, flooding and low-amplitude, non-flooding tidal events. The distance propagules were transported from their original starting positions on the saltmarsh-mangrove interface was measured and analysed to detect differences among groups at different distances from runnels. Groups of propagules released within 10 m of a runnel were always transported significantly further from the starting position and further up the saltmarsh shore after both flooding and non-flooding tides than any other groups. In addition, the pattern of stranding on saltmarsh for significantly different groups was closely associated with the path of runnel construction so that propagules were located either in the runnel or in depressions linked to the runnel that had been isolated mosquito-breeding pools prior to runnelling. Observations of A. marina plants at other runnelled sites suggest that propagules transported by runnels can establish and develop to maturity, at least in depressions and runnels, in saltmarsh. The fact that runnels transport propagules to regions of the saltmarsh beyond their normal limits of dispersion suggests a possible advantage for landward extension of the intertidal distribution of A. marina at runnelled sites and should be considered in saltmarsh

  13. Hypoxic coma as a strategy to survive inundation in a salt-marsh inhabiting spider

    PubMed Central

    Pétillon, Julien; Montaigne, William; Renault, David

    2009-01-01

    Spiders constitute a major arthropod group in regularly inundated habitats. Some species survive a flooding period under water. We compared survival during both submersion and a recovery period after submersion, in three stenotopic lycosids: two salt-marsh species Arctosa fulvolineata and Pardosa purbeckensis, and a forest spider Pardosa lugubris. Both activity and survival rates were determined under controlled laboratory conditions by individually surveying 120 females kept submerged in sea water. We found significant differences between the three species, with the two salt-marsh spiders exhibiting higher survival abilities. To our knowledge, this study reports for the first time the existence of a hypoxic coma caused by submersion, which is most pronounced in A. fulvolineata, the salt-marsh spider known to overcome tidal inundation under water. Its ability to fall into that coma can therefore be considered a physiological adaptation to its regularly inundated habitat. PMID:19411268

  14. Early Salt-Marsh Development, an Example of a Turing Instability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Koppel, J.

    2008-12-01

    In the past decades, regular spatial patterns have been described in a wide range of ecosystems, ranging from arid lands to boreal peat lands. Pattern formation mechanisms in many of these ecosystems are caused by scale-dependent interactions between organisms and geophysical processes, causing facilitation between organisms at small spatial scale, but inhibition at larger spatial scales. This conforms to the activation-inhibition principle laid out by Alan Turing in 1953. We present a combination of experimental and modeling studies on early salt-marsh development that indicate that similar scale-dependent interactions determine the establishment of salt-marsh vegetation and early geomorphological development of the marsh. Based on these studies, we argue that the early development of salt-marsh ecosystems is characterized by a Turing instability, placed into a complex landscape setting.

  15. Food web analysis in two permanently open temperate estuaries: consequences of saltmarsh loss?

    PubMed

    Svensson, Carl J; Hyndes, Glenn A; Lavery, Paul S

    2007-09-01

    Saltmarsh vegetation, seston and microphytobenthos are all conspicuous components of most temperate estuaries and they potentially contribute to the estuarine food chain. Yet their relative contributions are unclear, as is the significance of saltmarsh losses through natural and human-induced impacts. This study aimed to quantitatively determine the contribution of various types of primary producers to detritus in the Walpole-Nornalup Estuary and Leschenault Inlet, two permanently open estuaries in SW Australia, and, estimate the flow of different types of detritus to higher trophic levels, using carbon ((13)C) and nitrogen ((15)N) stable isotopes as tracers. Results of the mixing model indicated that seston, microphytobenthos and to some extent seagrass and fringing saltmarsh were the main contributors to the detrital pool in both estuaries. However, the relative contribution of different primary producers varied both within and between estuaries. The contribution of saltmarsh was higher at sites close to rivers and dense fringing vegetation, while seston, microphytobenthos and seagrass dominated the detrital material at other sites. Benthic harpacticoid copepods were shown to feed on detritus though they appeared to actively select for different components of the detritus depending on site and estuary. Isotopic signatures of other consumers indicated that fish and invertebrates derived nutrients from MPB and detritus, either directly as food or indirectly through feeding on invertebrates. The overall contribution of saltmarsh to detritus was lower in Leschenault Inlet than in Walpole-Nornalup Estuary, possibly as a result of increased clearing of fringing vegetation around Leschenault Inlet. This pattern was however not reflected in harpacticoid food. Therefore, although losses of fringing saltmarsh around estuaries have the potential to significantly affect estuarine food webs, the significance of such losses will be site- and estuary-dependent. PMID:17382379

  16. Biogeomorphically driven salt pan formation in Sarcocornia-dominated salt-marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escapa, Mauricio; Perillo, Gerardo M. E.; Iribarne, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Salt-marshes are under increasing threat, particularly from sea-level rise and increased wave action associated with climate change. The development and stability of these valuable habitats largely depend on complex interactions between biotic and abiotic processes operating at different scales. Also, interactions between biotic and abiotic processes drive internal morphological change in salt-marshes. In this paper we used a biogeomorphological approach to assess the impact of biological activities and interactions on salt pan formation in Sarcocornia-dominated salt marshes. Salt pans represent a key physiographic feature of salt-marshes and recent studies hypothesized that biogeomorphic processes could be related to salt pan formation in SW Atlantic salt-marshes. The glasswort Sarcocornia perennis is one of the dominant plants in the salt-marshes of the Bahía Blanca Estuary (Argentina) where they form patches up to 8 m in diameter. These salt-marshes are also inhabited in great densities by the burrowing crab Neohelice (Chasmagnathus) granulata whose bioturbation rates are among the highest reported for salt-marshes worldwide. A set of biological interactions between N. granulata and S. perennis appears to be responsible for salt pan development in these areas which has not been described elsewhere. The main objective of this work was to determine the ecological interactions occurring between plants and crabs that lead to salt pan formation by using field-based sampling and manipulative experiments. Our results showed that S. perennis facilitated crab colonization of the salt-marsh by buffering otherwise stressful physical conditions (e.g., temperature, desiccation). Crabs preferred to construct burrows underneath plants and, once they reach high densities (up to 40 burrows m- 2), the sediment reworking caused plant die-off in the central area of patches. At this state, the patches lose elevation and become depressed due to the continuous bioturbation by crabs

  17. Linking sediment structure, hydrological functioning and biogeochemical cycling in disturbed coastal saltmarshes and implications for vegetation development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Kate; Harvey, Gemma; James, Tempest; Simon, Carr; Michelle, Morris

    2014-05-01

    Saltmarsh restoration undoubtedly provides environmental enhancement, with vegetation quickly re-establishing following the breach of sea walls and subsequent tidal inundation of previously defended areas. Yet evidence increasingly suggests that the restored saltmarshes do not have the same biological characteristics as their natural counterparts (Mossman et al. 2012) and this may be in part be due to physicochemical parameters at the site including anoxia and poor drainage. Hence, restored saltmarshes may not offer the range and quality of ecosystem services anticipated. These environments will have been 'disturbed' by previous land use and there is little understanding of the impacts of this disturbance on the wider hydrogeomorphic and biogeochemical functioning in restored saltmarshes and the implications for saltmarsh vegetation development. This study examines linkages between physical sediment characteristics, sediment structure (using X-ray microtomography), sub-surface hydrology (using pressure transducers and time series analysis), and sediment and porewater geochemistry (major and trace elements, major anions) in sediment cores collected from undisturbed saltmarshes and those restored by de-embankment. Sub-surface sediments in restored saltmarshes have lower organic matter content, lower moisture content and higher bulk density than undisturbed sites. Using X-ray tomography a clear horizon can be observed which separates relict agricultural soils at depth with less dense and structureless sediments deposited since de-embankment. Ratios of open to closed pore space suggest that while undisturbed saltmarshes have the highest porosity, restored saltmarshes have larger void spaces, but limited pore connectivity. Sub-surface hydrological response to tidal flooding was subdued in the restored compared to the undisturbed site, suggesting that porewater flow may be impeded. Time series analysis indicated that flow pathways differ in restored saltmarsh sediments

  18. Long-term changes and historical uses of one of the largest French salt-marshes since 1705

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godet, Laurent; Pourinet, Laurent; Decaulne, Armelle

    2014-05-01

    The salt-marshes of the Baie de l'Aiguillon (Western France) are among the largest of Western Europe. Thanks to exceptional historical data, including old maps, manuscripts and aerial photographs, we propose one of the first long-term accurate cartographies of such a large salt-marsh, dating back to the beginning of the 18th century. Like other salt-marshes in Western Europe, including those of the Mont Saint-Michel Bay (France), we found that they are expanding for the three last decades. However, our historical analysis also reveals that the area of these salt-marshes shrinked by two thirds over the last three centuries, due to massive land-reclamations starting from the mid-17th century. As revealed by historical testimonies and archeological remains, we also demonstrated that these salt-marshes were actively mowed as soon as the 1700s. In consequence, the oldest and the non-used parts of such salt-marshes correspond to very restricted patches that may present a high conservation stake. In the context of massive land-use and land-cover changes along the European coastal zones, historical analyses exploring long-term changes and historical uses of coastal habitats may help to identify old and natural patches of coastal habitats. Salt-marshes, that are easy to map and monitor, are good candidates for such investigations.

  19. Comparison of Bottomless Lift Nets and Breder Traps for Sampling Salt-Marsh Nekton

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vegetated salt-marsh surfaces provide refuge, forage, and spawning habitat for estuarine nekton, yet are threatened by accelerating rates of sea-level rise in southern New England and elsewhere. Nekton responses to ongoing marsh surface changes need to be evaluated with effective...

  20. The impact of encroachment of mangroves into saltmarshes on saltwater mosquito habitats.

    PubMed

    Dale, Pat; Eslami-Andargoli, Leila; Knight, Jon

    2013-12-01

    Will mangrove encroachment into saltmarshes affect saltwater mosquito habitats? To address this, we synthesized information from two perspectives: 1) at a detailed level, the immature mosquito habitat within mangroves; 2) at a more general or regional level, changes due to mangrove expansion into saltmarshes. This is a synthesis of two research projects. One showed that mosquito larval habitats in mangroves are complex, related to the detailed interactions between topography and tidal patterns and that not all parts of a mangrove forest are suitable habitat. The other, based on remote sensing and analysis of rainfall data, showed that mangrove encroachment in eastern Australia is related to both climate and human land use over several decades (1972-2004). An important question emerged: when mangroves encroach into saltmarshes will they displace saltmarsh immature mosquito habitats or will they replace them with mangrove ones? There is no simple answer: it will vary with climate change and sea level scenario and how these affect the system. We conclude that mosquito management, which is locally implemented, needs to be integrated with land use planning systems, which often operate at a more general level. PMID:24581363

  1. RESTORATION AND PROPAGATION OF A DECLINING, TRADITIONAL CULTURAL RESOURCE SALTMARSH SPECIES, TRIFOLIUM WORMKSJOLDII (SPRINGBANK CLOVER).

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of an overall effort to propagate native species for river and estuarine saltmarsh restoration projects, Snohomish County's Native Plant steward is working with Tribes in the Snohomish and Stilliguamish River basins of Western Washington to restore a culturally significan...

  2. Characterization of the nest site preferences of Saltmarsh and Nelson's Sparrows, and hybrids

    EPA Science Inventory

    Saltmarsh Sparrows (hereafter SALS) are named on the National Audubon Society’s current WatchList as a species of global conservation concern (National Audubon Society 2007). Anthropogenic climate change is perhaps the largest threat to SALS populations because sea level ri...

  3. Childhood leukaemia and ordnance factories in west Cumbria during the Second World War

    PubMed Central

    Kinlen, L

    2006-01-01

    Much evidence has accumulated that childhood leukaemia (CL) is a rare response to a common, but unidentified, infection and in particular that situations involving the unusual mixing of urban and rural groups (approximating to, respectively, groups infected with, and susceptible to, the relevant microorganism) can produce localised epidemics with consequent increases of the infrequent leukaemic complication. During the Second World War, explosives production factories were built and operated at Drigg and Sellafield, and a shell filling factory at Bootle, in west Cumbria, England, requiring substantial numbers of construction workers to be brought into this remote and isolated area. Following the design of an earlier study of CL near large (post-war) rural construction sites, mortality from this disease was investigated with the help of the Office of National Statistics, in the area around these Cumbrian factories where local workers largely lived, during the construction period and with particular reference to the overlapping construction and operational phase when the mixing of local and migrant workers would have been greatest. An excess of leukaemia deaths at ages 1–14 was found during the construction period (observed 3; observed/expected (O/E) 2.2, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.6, 6.0), which was more marked and statistically significant during the overlap with operations (O 3; O/E 4.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 12.2), especially at ages 1–4 (O 2; O/E 7.1, CI: 1.2, 23.6). A previous investigation did not detect this excess because it considered only a small part of west Cumbria that omitted the communities where most of the workforce lived, having incorrectly attributed the post-war expansion of the village of Seascale (situated between Drigg and Sellafield) to the wartime ordnance factories. The present findings are consistent with the results of the earlier study of rural construction projects and with the general evidence that marked rural–urban population

  4. Childhood leukaemia and ordnance factories in west Cumbria during the Second World War.

    PubMed

    Kinlen, L

    2006-07-01

    Much evidence has accumulated that childhood leukaemia (CL) is a rare response to a common, but unidentified, infection and in particular that situations involving the unusual mixing of urban and rural groups (approximating to, respectively, groups infected with, and susceptible to, the relevant microorganism) can produce localised epidemics with consequent increases of the infrequent leukaemic complication. During the Second World War, explosives production factories were built and operated at Drigg and Sellafield, and a shell filling factory at Bootle, in west Cumbria, England, requiring substantial numbers of construction workers to be brought into this remote and isolated area. Following the design of an earlier study of CL near large (post-war) rural construction sites, mortality from this disease was investigated with the help of the Office of National Statistics, in the area around these Cumbrian factories where local workers largely lived, during the construction period and with particular reference to the overlapping construction and operational phase when the mixing of local and migrant workers would have been greatest. An excess of leukaemia deaths at ages 1-14 was found during the construction period (observed 3; observed/expected (O/E) 2.2, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.6, 6.0), which was more marked and statistically significant during the overlap with operations (O 3; O/E 4.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 12.2), especially at ages 1-4 (O 2; O/E 7.1, CI: 1.2, 23.6). A previous investigation did not detect this excess because it considered only a small part of west Cumbria that omitted the communities where most of the workforce lived, having incorrectly attributed the post-war expansion of the village of Seascale (situated between Drigg and Sellafield) to the wartime ordnance factories. The present findings are consistent with the results of the earlier study of rural construction projects and with the general evidence that marked rural-urban population mixing

  5. Trophic relay and prey switching - A stomach contents and calorimetric investigation of an ambassid fish and their saltmarsh prey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhee, Jack J.; Platell, Margaret E.; Schreider, Maria J.

    2015-12-01

    Trophic relay is an ecological model that involves the movement of biomass and energy from vegetation, such as saltmarshes, within estuaries to the open sea via a series of predator-prey relationships. Any potential for trophic relay is therefore affected by water movements within an estuary and by the ability of a predator to "switch" prey in response to fluctuating abundances of those prey. Saltmarsh-dwelling grapsid crabs, which feed on saltmarsh-derived detritus and microphytobenthos, release zoeae into ebbing tides that inundate saltmarshes during spring-tide cycles within tidally-dominated estuaries, such as Brisbane Water Estuary, therefore providing an opportunity to examine whether prey-switching and/or trophic relay may occur in fish that feed on those zoeae (such as the highly abundant estuarine ambassid, Ambassis jacksoniensis). This model was examined by sampling A. jacksoniensis near saltmarshes in a large, temperate south-eastern Australian estuary during flood and ebb tides on days of saltmarsh inundation and non-inundation over four spring-tide events in 2012. Stomach fullnesses of A. jacksoniensis were generally highest during ebb tides on days of saltmarsh inundation, implying that feeding was most marked at these times. Caridean decapods dominated diets during flood tides and on days of no saltmarsh inundation, while crab zoeae dominated diets during ebb tides and on days of inundation, suggesting that, when saltmarsh-derived zoeae became abundant, A. jacksoniensis switched to feeding on those prey. Three potential zooplankton prey (calanoid copepods, caridean decapods and crab zoeae) did not differ calorimetrically, indicating that switching of prey by A. jacksoniensis is not directly related to their preying on energetically greater prey, but reflects opportunistic feeding on more abundant and/or less elusive prey. As A. jacksoniensis is able to switch prey from estuarine caridean decapods to saltmarsh-derived crab zoeae, this very abundant

  6. Changes in methanogenic substrate utilization and communities with depth in a salt-marsh, creek sediment in southern England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John Parkes, R.; Brock, Fiona; Banning, Natasha; Hornibrook, Edward R. C.; Roussel, Erwan G.; Weightman, Andrew J.; Fry, John C.

    2012-01-01

    A combined biogeochemical and molecular genetic study of creek sediments (down to 65 cm depth) from Arne Peninsula salt-marsh (Dorset, UK) determined the substrates used for methanogenesis and the distribution of the common methanogens, Methanosarcinales and Methanomicrobiales capable of metabolising these substrates. Methane concentrations increased by 11 cm, despite pore water sulphate not being removed until 45 cm. Neither upward methane diffusion or anaerobic oxidation of methane seemed to be important in this zone. In the near-surface sulphate-reduction zone (5-25 cm) turnover time to methane for the non-competitive methanogenic substrate trimethylamine was most rapid (80 days), and were much longer for acetate (7900 days), methanol (40,500 days) and bicarbonate (361,600 days). Methylamine-utilizing Methanosarcinales were the dominant (60-95%) methanogens in this zone. In deeper sediments rates of methanogenesis from competitive substrates increased substantially, with acetate methanogenic rates becoming ˜100 times greater than H 2/CO 2 methanogenesis below 50 cm. In addition, there was a dramatic change in methanogen diversity with obligate acetate-utilizing, Methanosaeta related sequences being dominant. At a similar depth methanol turnover to methane increased to its most rapid (1700 days). This activity pattern is consistent with deeper methanogen populations (55 cm) being dominated by acetate-utilizing Methanosaeta with H 2/CO 2 and alcohol-utilizing Methanomicrobiales also present. Hence, there is close relationship between the depth distribution of methanogenic substrate utilization and specific methanogens that can utilize these compounds. It is unusual for acetate to be the dominant methanogenic substrate in coastal sediments and δ13C-CH 4 values (-74 to -71‰) were atypical for acetate methanogenesis, suggesting that common stable isotope proxy models may not apply well in this type of dynamic anoxic sediment, with multiple methanogenic substrates.

  7. Relationships of salt-marsh plant distributions to tidal levels in Connecticut, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Lefor, M.W.; Kennard, W.C.; Civco, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    A three-year study of Connecticut, USA, salt-marsh vegetation was undertaken to determine the relationship of its distribution on the marsh surface to tidal levels, particularly mean high water (MHW) as measured on each of three sites representing different tidal amplitudes. Elevations and species present were measured on 1-m/sup 2/ grids in 10 x 70-m belt transects at each site. After the data were subjected to discriminant analysis and other standard statistical procedures, the results showed that 98.4% of all observations of Spartina alterniflora Loisel. occurred at or below MHW. The data can aid in salt-marsh restoration by offering a reliable indicator of what species should be planted when restored elevations and on-site MHW are known.

  8. Marsh Pool and Tidal Creek Morphodynamics: Dynamic Equilibrium of New England Saltmarshes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C.; FitzGerald, D. M.; Hughes, Z. J.

    2012-12-01

    Under natural conditions, high saltmarsh platforms in New England exhibit poor drainage, creating waterlogged pannes (where short-form Spartina alterniflora dominates) and stagnant pools that experience tidal exchange only during spring tides and storm-induced flooding events. It is well accepted that a legacy of ditching practices (either for agriculture or mosquito control purposes) provide "overdrainage" of saltmarshes (after Redfield, 1972) and a shift in biogeochemical conditions: lowering of groundwater tables, aeration of soil, and decrease in preserved belowground biomass. Analysis of historical imagery in the Plum Island Estuary of Massachusetts reveals closure and decrease in length of anthropogenic ditches in recent decades is closely linked to marsh pool evolution. Field analyses including stratigraphic transects and elevation surveys suggest these marshes are reverting to natural drainage conditions. Further, an important dynamic interaction exists between saltmarsh pools and natural tidal creeks: creeks incise into pool areas, causing drainage of the pools, and formation of an unvegetated mudflat which can be rapidly recolonized by halophytic Spartina alterniflora vegetation. It was determined that pool and creek dynamics are cyclic in nature. The marsh platform is in dynamic equilibrium with respect to elevation and sea-level whereby marsh elevation may be lost (due to degradation of organic matter and formation of a pool) however may be regained (by creek incision into pools, restoration of tidal exchange, and rapid vertical accretion with Spartina alterniflora recolonization. Since vertical accretion in saltmarshes is a function of both organic and inorganic contributions to the marsh subsurface, it is hypothesized that cannibalization of existing muds is supplying inorganic material in this sediment starved system.

  9. Genetic population structure of local populations of the endangered saltmarsh sesarmid crab Clistocoeloma sinense in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yuhara, Takeshi; Kawane, Masako; Furota, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    During recent decades, over 40% of Japanese estuarine tidal flats have been lost due to coastal developments. Local populations of the saltmarsh sesarmid crab Clistocoeloma sinense, designated as an endangered species due to the limited suitable saltmarsh habitat available, have decreased accordingly, being now represented as small remnant populations. Several such populations in Tokyo Bay, have been recognised as representing distributional limits of the species. To clarify the genetic diversity and connectivity among local coastal populations of Japanese Clistocoeloma sinense, including those in Tokyo Bay, mitochondrial DNA analyses were conducted in the hope of providing fundamental information for future conservation studies and an understanding of metapopulation dynamics through larval dispersal among local populations. All of the populations sampled indicated low levels of genetic diversity, which may have resulted from recent population bottlenecks or founder events. However, the results also revealed clear genetic differentiation between two enclosed-water populations in Tokyo Bay and Ise-Mikawa Bay, suggesting the existence of a barrier to larval transport between these two water bodies. Since the maintenance of genetic connectivity is a requirement of local population stability, the preservation of extant habitats and restoration of saltmarshes along the coast of Japan may be the most effective measures for conservation of this endangered species. PMID:24400112

  10. Comparative analysis of Worldview-2 and Landsat 8 for coastal saltmarsh mapping accuracy assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasel, Sikdar M. M.; Chang, Hsing-Chung; Diti, Israt Jahan; Ralph, Tim; Saintilan, Neil

    2016-05-01

    Coastal saltmarsh and their constituent components and processes are of an interest scientifically due to their ecological function and services. However, heterogeneity and seasonal dynamic of the coastal wetland system makes it challenging to map saltmarshes with remotely sensed data. This study selected four important saltmarsh species Pragmitis australis, Sporobolus virginicus, Ficiona nodosa and Schoeloplectus sp. as well as a Mangrove and Pine tree species, Avecinia and Casuarina sp respectively. High Spatial Resolution Worldview-2 data and Coarse Spatial resolution Landsat 8 imagery were selected in this study. Among the selected vegetation types some patches ware fragmented and close to the spatial resolution of Worldview-2 data while and some patch were larger than the 30 meter resolution of Landsat 8 data. This study aims to test the effectiveness of different classifier for the imagery with various spatial and spectral resolutions. Three different classification algorithm, Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) were tested and compared with their mapping accuracy of the results derived from both satellite imagery. For Worldview-2 data SVM was giving the higher overall accuracy (92.12%, kappa =0.90) followed by ANN (90.82%, Kappa 0.89) and MLC (90.55%, kappa = 0.88). For Landsat 8 data, MLC (82.04%) showed the highest classification accuracy comparing to SVM (77.31%) and ANN (75.23%). The producer accuracy of the classification results were also presented in the paper.

  11. Genetic Population Structure of Local Populations of the Endangered Saltmarsh Sesarmid Crab Clistocoeloma sinense in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yuhara, Takeshi; Kawane, Masako; Furota, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    During recent decades, over 40% of Japanese estuarine tidal flats have been lost due to coastal developments. Local populations of the saltmarsh sesarmid crab Clistocoeloma sinense, designated as an endangered species due to the limited suitable saltmarsh habitat available, have decreased accordingly, being now represented as small remnant populations. Several such populations in Tokyo Bay, have been recognised as representing distributional limits of the species. To clarify the genetic diversity and connectivity among local coastal populations of Japanese Clistocoeloma sinense, including those in Tokyo Bay, mitochondrial DNA analyses were conducted in the hope of providing fundamental information for future conservation studies and an understanding of metapopulation dynamics through larval dispersal among local populations. All of the populations sampled indicated low levels of genetic diversity, which may have resulted from recent population bottlenecks or founder events. However, the results also revealed clear genetic differentiation between two enclosed-water populations in Tokyo Bay and Ise-Mikawa Bay, suggesting the existence of a barrier to larval transport between these two water bodies. Since the maintenance of genetic connectivity is a requirement of local population stability, the preservation of extant habitats and restoration of saltmarshes along the coast of Japan may be the most effective measures for conservation of this endangered species. PMID:24400112

  12. Are southern California's fragmented saltmarshes capable of sustaining endemic bird populations?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, A.N.

    2006-01-01

    Loss of coastal saltmarshes in southern California has been estimated at 75-90% since presettlement times. The remaining wetlands are mostly fragmented and degraded, and most frequently have harsh edges adjacent to urban landscapes. Non-migratory Belding's Savannah Sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis beldingi) and Light-footed Clapper Rails (Rallus longirostris levipes) are endemic to saltmarshes in southern California and Baja California, Mexico. Population sizes of Belding's Savannah Sparrows show a positive relationship with saltmarsh area, but few large wetland fragments remain within their range in California. Belding's Savannah Sparrows are sensitive to fragmentation and isolation, with small isolated marshes acting as population sinks. In addition, this subspecies shows low genetic variability, limited dispersal, and small effective population sizes. Light-footed Clapper Rails are habitat specialists, found in marshes with good tidal flushing that support California cordgrass (Spartina foliosa) habitats. Light-footed Clapper rails also show low genetic variability and limited dispersal and the remnant populations of clapper rails are relatively isolated from one another. Large wetland complexes may serve as population sources for both species, while small, isolated marshes may act as population sinks but more research is needed to estimate and model the dynamics of these two metapopulations. Mitigation for wetland loss and restoration projects should not be evaluated simply by presence of rare bird species alone, but instead efforts should be made to determine population sustainability.

  13. UK-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcroberts, J. J.

    1971-01-01

    The launch of the UK-4 satellite (United Kingdom) and its expected operations in the upper ionosphere are discussed. The satellite is designed to study radio noise, low frequency radio waves, electron temperature, and count low energy charged particles.

  14. Monitoring environmental controls on salt-marsh foraminifera in Tuckerton, NJ: implications for sea-level research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Jennifer; Khan, Nicole; Shaw, Timothy; Garcia-Artola, Ane; Dura, Tina; Horton, Ben

    2016-04-01

    Salt-marsh foraminifera have been widely used as proxies to reconstruct sea-level trends because their modern distribution is strongly linked with tidal elevation, and they are relatively abundant and have a high preservation potential in intertidal sediments. To determine former sea levels, the relation between contemporary foraminifera and their controlling environmental variables must be determined and the influence of post-depositional changes elucidated. Duration and frequency of tidal exposure, while the dominant control, is not the only environmental variable controlling the distribution of foraminifera. Complex interactions between organisms and their environment factor into foraminifera species distributions and these factors will vary over space and time. Here we present preliminary results of a spatial and temporal ecological study to monitor short-term, seasonal, and interannual variations in salt-marsh foraminifera assemblages along a salinity gradient of an intertidal zone of New Jersey, USA. The temporal nature is beneficial in recording potential lags in response to changes in environmental conditions compared with one-time sampling. Live foraminifera assemblage samples are compared with measured environmental parameters (porewater chemistry, porewater nutrients, tidal inundation, grain size) and experiments (bioturbation, overwash deposit, and infaunal) to determine the controlling environmental variables on foraminifera and how these variables and the foraminifera assemblages change through time. Ultimately, this multi-year monitoring experiment provides a more comprehensive understanding of environmental controls on salt-marsh foraminifera and will provide a background data set of salt-marsh foraminifera to compare with future studies and with sampling after large events such as storms. A greater understanding of salt-marsh foraminifera in their environment will contribute to sea-level reconstructions. Since sea-level records use the distribution

  15. Home/Work: The Roles of Education, Literacy, and Learning in the Networks and Mobility of Professional Women Migrant Carers in Cumbria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuban, Sondra

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on a group of highly skilled female migrants who were carers to the elderly, and the roles of education, literacy, and learning in their social networks and mobility in Cumbria, England. Over a one-year period, interviews were conducted with care training specialists, carers, clients, and employers across England, including…

  16. A strategy to potentiate Cd phytoremediation by saltmarsh plants - autochthonous bioaugmentation.

    PubMed

    Nunes da Silva, Marta; Mucha, Ana P; Rocha, A Cristina; Teixeira, Catarina; Gomes, Carlos R; Almeida, C Marisa R

    2014-02-15

    The recovery of estuarine environments is in need. Phytoremediation could be a valid option to reduce pollution while preserving natural biodiversity. In this work, estuarine sediments colonized by Juncus maritimus or Phragmites australis were spiked with cadmium in the absence and in the presence of an autochthonous microbial consortium resistant to the metal. The aim of this study was to increase the potential for cadmium phytoremediation that these two halophyte plants have shown. Experiments were carried out in greenhouses with an automatic irrigation system that simulated estuarine tidal cycles. After 2 months, Cd concentration in P. australis stems increased up to 7 times when the rhizosphere was inoculated with the microbial consortium. So, P. australis phytoextraction potential was increased through autochthonous bioaugmentation. As for J. maritimus, up to 48% more Cd (total amount) was observed in its belowground tissues after being subjected to autochthonous bioaugmentation. Therefore, the phytostabilization potential of this plant was promoted. For both plants this increase in cadmium uptake did not cause significant signs of toxicity. Therefore, the addition of autochthonous microorganisms resistant to cadmium seems to be a valuable strategy to potentiate phytoremediation of this metal in saltmarshes, being useful for the recovery of moderately impacted estuaries. This will contribute for an effective management of these areas. Research on this topic regarding estuarine ecosystems, especially saltmarshes, is, to our knowledge, inexistent. PMID:24486467

  17. Spectral Discrimination of the Invasive Plant Spartina alterniflora at Multiple Phenological Stages in a Saltmarsh Wetland

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Zu-Tao; Gao, Yu; Xie, Xiao; Guo, Hai-Qiang; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Zhao, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Spartina alterniflora has widely invaded the saltmarshes of the Yangtze River Estuary and brought negative effects to the ecosystem. Remote sensing technique has recently been used to monitor its distribution, but the similar morphology and canopy structure among S. alterniflora and its neighbor species make it difficult even with high-resolution images. Nevertheless, these species have divergence on phenological stages throughout the year, which cause distinguishing spectral characteristics among them and provide opportunities for discrimination. The field spectra of the S. alterniflora community as well as its major victims, native Phragmites australis and Scirpus mariqueter, were measured in 2009 and 2010 at multi-phenological stages in the Yangtze River Estuary, aiming to find the most appropriate periods for mapping S. alterniflora. Collected spectral data were analyzed separately for every stage firstly by re-sampling reflectance curves into continued 5-nm-wide hyper-spectral bands and then by re-sampling into broad multi-spectral bands – the same as the band ranges of the TM sensor, as well as calculating commonly used vegetation indices. The results showed that differences among saltmarsh communities’ spectral characteristics were affected by their phenological stages. The germination and early vegetative growth stage and the flowering stage were probably the best timings to identify S. alterniflora. Vegetation indices like NDVI, ANVI, VNVI, and RVI are likely to enhance spectral separability and also make it possible to discriminate S. alterniflora at its withering stage. PMID:23826265

  18. Modern salt-marsh and tidal-flat foraminifera from Sitkinak and Simeonof Islands, southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kemp, Andrew C.; Engelhart, Simon E.; Culver, Stephen J.; Nelson, Alan R.; Briggs, Richard W.; Haeussler, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the modern distribution of salt-marsh and tidal-flat foraminifera from Sitkinak Island (Trinity Islands) and Simeonof Island (Shumagin Islands), Alaska, to begin development of a dataset for later use in reconstructing relative sea-level changes caused by great earthquakes along the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone. Dead foraminifera were enumerated from a total of 58 surface-sediment samples collected along three intertidal transects around a coastal lagoon on Sitkinak Island and two intertidal transects on Simeonof Island. Two distinctive assemblages of salt-marsh foraminifera were recognized on Sitkinak Island. Miliammina fusca dominated low-marsh settings and Balticammina pseudomacrescens dominated the high marsh. These two species make up >98% of individuals. On Simeonof Island, 93% of individuals in high-marsh settings above mean high water were B. pseudomacrescens. The tidal flat on Simeonof Island was dominated by Cibicides lobatulus (60% of individuals), but the lower limit of this species is subtidal and was not sampled. These results indicate that uplift or subsidence caused by repeated earthquakes along the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone could be reconstructed in coastal sediments using alternating assemblages of near monospecific B. pseudomacrescens and low-marsh or tidal-flat foraminifera.

  19. Electrogenic sulfur oxidation in a northern saltmarsh (St. Lawrence Estuary, Canada).

    PubMed

    Rao, Alexandra; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Neumeier, Urs

    2016-06-01

    Measurements of porewater O2, pH, and H2S microprofiles in intact sediment cores collected in a northern saltmarsh in the St. Lawrence Estuary (Quebec, Canada) revealed the occurrence of electrogenic sulfur oxidation (e-SOx) by filamentous "cable" bacteria in submerged marsh pond sediments in the high marsh. In summer, the geochemical fingerprint of e-SOx was apparent in intact cores, while in fall, cable bacteria were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization and the characteristic geochemical signature of e-SOx was observed only upon prolonged incubation. In exposed, unvegetated creek bank sediments sampled in the low marsh in summer, cable bacteria developed only in repacked cores of sieved (500 μm), homogenized sediments. These results suggest that e-SOx is suppressed by the activity of macrofauna in exposed, unvegetated marsh sediments. A reduced abundance of benthic invertebrates may promote e-SOx development in marsh ponds, which are dominant features of subarctic saltmarshes as in the St. Lawrence Estuary. PMID:27104296

  20. FATE OF FENTHION IN SALT-MARSH ENVIRONMENTS: 1. FACTORS AFFECTING BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC DEGRADATION RATES IN WATER AND SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fenthion (Baytex), an organophosphate insecticide, is frequently applied to salt-marsh environments to control mosquitoes. hake-flask tests were used to study rates of abiotic and biotic degradation of fenthion and the environmental parameters that affect these rates. Water or wa...

  1. Heavy metal geochemistry of saltmarsh soils from the Ría of Ortigueira (mafic and ultramafic areas, NW Iberian Peninsula).

    PubMed

    Otero, X L; Huerta-Diaz, M A; Macías, F

    2000-11-01

    Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cr and Zn in their total, silicate, organic, reactive and pyrite fractions were determined in soils collected from the Ortigueira saltmarshes (Esteiro, Ladrido and Mera, NW Iberian Peninsula), from sediments of the Landoi and Esteiro Rivers, and from sludge generated by a nearby dunite mine. The Esteiro saltmarsh presented clear enrichments of the four metals studied (first 10 cm), especially of Ni and Cr, whose concentrations were among the highest. It is proposed that the elevated Cr and Ni levels found in the Esteiro saltmarsh were derived from recent contributions of the mine, which are partially discharged into the Landoi River. Total Cu and Zn concentrations were lower than the corresponding ones for Cr and Ni. Under suboxic conditions, Ni, Cr, Cu and Zn were mainly associated with the reactive fraction. Under anoxic conditions, Cu and Ni were associated mainly with the pyrite phase. Pyritic Zn and Cr concentrations were relatively low and similar in all three saltmarshes; however, where anoxic-sulfidic conditions prevailed these two metals were mainly associated with the reactive and organic fractions. PMID:15092843

  2. Late Holocene saltmarsh accretion among sand ridges, West Bay, southern Pamlico Sound, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, D. C.; Woodson, A. L.; Newbern, E. H.

    2011-12-01

    The ongoing Late Holocene sea-level rise has inundated a series of low (< 2m above sea level) relict sand ridges on Cedar Island, in southern Pamlico Sound on the central North Carolina coast (35.00°N, 76.34°W). The ridges likely represent shorelines formed during a previous (Pleistocene) sea-level highstand by a combination of longshore transport and eolian dune processes. Saltmarsh peat comprising primarily the remains of the high marsh plant Juncus gerardii has accumulated between the ridges, yielding a continuous record of transgression over at least the last 2,000 years. The protected depositional setting between the ridges, the small tidal amplitude (< 25 cm) in southern Pamlico Sound, and the smoothly varying topography of the underlying sand surface provide the opportunity to acquire basal saltmarsh peat samples from a range of elevations for sea-level reconstruction. We obtained cores of the marsh peat and sand deposits using various techniques (hand auger, Russian and dutch peat corers, vibracore) to generate an overview of the stratigraphy in the study area. We visually logged the cores and analyzed samples for organic carbon content, particle size and magnetic susceptibility. In the marsh peat, plant macrofossils were identified and agglutinated foraminiferal assemblages were counted. Saltmarsh foraminifera species identified in the cores include Trochammina inflata, Ammoastuta inepta, Jadammina macrescens, Tiphotroca comprimata and Milliamina fusca. Radiocarbon dates on plant material provide chronological control. Marsh core elevations were referenced to NAVD88 by total station surveys to the NGS benchmark on Cedar Island. We have acquired marsh cores as deep as 3.25 m below local mean sea level (MSL), but thus far the deepest saltmarsh peat sample found to contain saltmarsh foraminifera is from 2.16 m below MSL. The marsh deposits are laterally consistent in the upper 1.5 m of core transects, but minor downcore variations in organic content

  3. Patterns of fish use and piscivore abundance within a reconnected saltmarsh impoundment in the northern Indian River Lagoon, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, Philip W.; Montague, C.L.; Sulak, K.J.

    2006-01-01

    Nearly all saltmarshes in east-central, Florida were impounded for mosquito control during the 1960s. The majority of these marshes have since been reconnected to the estuary by culverts, providing an opportunity to effectively measure exchange of aquatic organisms. A multi-gear approach was used monthly to simultaneously estimate fish standing stock (cast net), fish exchange with the estuary (culvert traps), and piscivore abundance (gill nets and bird counts) to document patterns of fish use in a reconnected saltmarsh impoundment. Changes in saltmarsh fish abundance, and exchange of fish with the estuary reflected the seasonal pattern of marsh flooding in the northern Indian River Lagoon system. During a 6-month period of marsh flooding, resident fish had continuous access to the marsh surface. Large piscivorous fish regularly entered the impoundment via creeks and ditches to prey upon small resident fish, and piscivorous birds aggregated following major fish movements to the marsh surface or to deep habitats. As water levels receded in winter, saltmarsh fish concentrated into deep habitats and emigration to the estuary ensued (200% greater biomass left the impoundment than entered). Fish abundance and community structure along the estuary shoreline (although fringed with marsh vegetation) were not analogous to marsh creeks and ditches. Perimeter ditches provided deep-water habitat for large estuarine predators, and shallow creeks served as an alternative habitat for resident fish when the marsh surface was dry. Use of the impoundment as nursery by transients was limited to Mugil cephalus Linnaeus, but large juvenile and adult piscivorous fish used the impoundment for feeding. In conclusion, the saltmarsh impoundment was a feeding site for piscivorous fish and birds, and functioned as a net exporter of forage fish to adjacent estuarine waters. ?? Springer 2006.

  4. SEASONAL CHANGES IN THE AMPHIPOD FAUNA OF 'MICROCIONA PROLIFERA' (ELLIS AND SOLANDER) (PORIFERA: DEMOSPONGIA) AND ASSOCIATED SPONGES IN A SHALLOW SALT-MARSH CREEK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Between September 1976 and August 1978, samples of four species of sponge, Microciona prolifera, Haliclona loosanoffi, Lissodendoryx, and Halichondria bowerbanki were collected from subtidal shell debris in a North Edisto River, South Carolina saltmarsh creek and associated amphi...

  5. Lidar based vegetation height models to quantify carbon stocks in Galveston saltmarshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulawardhana, R. W.; Popescu, S. C.; Feagin, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    Concern over global climate change has stimulated much interest in identifying existing and potential carbon sinks. Wetland ecosystems are highly recognized for their high productivity and thus as major terrestrial carbon (C) sinks. The rapid decline in the extent and health of these wetland ecosystems has created a need for non-destructive methods for the study of their C dynamics. However, these biomass estimates are mostly based on vegetation structural properties, particularly based on vegetation height models. Hence, for better quantification of vegetation biomass and C estimates, the accuracy of vegetation height models derived using lidar data is of paramount importance. Yet, unlike in woody vegetation dominated ecosystems, the use of lidar in saltmarshes is limited due to several reasons: 1) relatively dense vegetation cover limits laser penetration affecting the accuracy of terrain and thus vegetation height estimates; and 2) relatively shorter vegetation demands high point density data with high vertical accuracy to capture relatively smaller differences between terrain and vegetation canopy surfaces. Thus, the use of lidar data to characterize saltmarsh vegetation community demands appropriate methodologies. Our overall objective in this study was to develop a methodology for deriving salt marsh vegetation height models using airborne lidar data. More specific objectives involved: (1) understanding the interaction between discrete-return airborne lidar data and marsh vegetation; (2) finding appropriate grid sizes for deriving terrain and vegetation height models; and (3) analyze lidar-derived surface accuracies by comparing estimates to field measurements. In this study, we used 1m point spacing airborne lidar data from Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) program to derive vegetation height models (VHM) for Spartina alterniflora saltmarshes in Galveston, Texas. We first derived digital terrain models (DEMs) and verified their vertical accuracy

  6. Reading the signatures of biologic-geomorphic feedbacks in salt-marsh landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alpaos, Andrea; Marani, Marco

    2016-07-01

    How do interacting physical and biological processes control the form and evolution of salt-marsh landscapes? Salt marshes are shaped by the erosion, transport and deposition of sediment, all of which are mediated by vegetation. In addition, vegetation plays a key role in deposition of organic material within marsh sediments. The influence of biota on salt-marsh landscapes is indeed well established. However, a fascinating and relevant question is whether one can identify the signatures of the underlying and intertwined physical and biological processes in marsh landscapes, and indeed infer from them the dynamic behavior of these coupled physical and biological systems. Can one detect landscape features that would not have emerged in the absence of interactions and feedbacks between physical and biological processes? Here we use field evidence and a two-dimensional biomorphodynamic model to show that the interplay between physical and biological processes generates striking biological and morphological patterns. One such pattern, vegetation zonation, consists of a mosaic of vegetation patches, of approximately uniform composition, displaying sharp transitions in the presence of extremely small topographic gradients. The model describes the mutual interaction and adjustment between tidal flows, sediment transport, morphology, and vegetation distribution, thus allowing us to study the biomorphodynamic evolution of salt-marsh platforms. A number of different scenarios were modelled to analyze the changes induced in bio-geomorphic patterns by varying environmental forcings, such as the rate of relative sea level rise (RSLR) andsediment supply (SS), and by plant species with different characteristics. Model results show how marsh responses to changes in forcings are highly spatially dependent: while changes in SS most directly affect marsh areas closest to the channels, changes in the rate of RSLR affect the marsh platform as a whole. Organic sediment accretion is very

  7. Characterization of Mercury and Its Risk in Nelson’s, Saltmarsh, and Seaside Sparrows

    PubMed Central

    Winder, Virginia L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Nelson’s, Saltmarsh, and Seaside Sparrows (Ammodramus nelsoni, A. caudacutus, and A. maritimus, respectively) depend on marsh and wetland habitats – ecosystems in which mercury (Hg) bioavailability is notoriously high. The purpose of the present study was to address the potential impact of Hg on these species using first primary and breast feathers as non-destructive biomonitoring tools. Methods and Principal Findings Feathers were sampled from wintering sparrows in North Carolina salt marshes (2006–2010). Feather Hg data were used in three risk analysis components (1) Threshold Component – examined feather Hg with regard to published negative effects thresholds; (2) Hg Dynamics Component – examined Hg in sparrows captured multiple times; and (3) Capture Frequency and Survival Component – tested for links between Hg and return frequency and survival. Threshold Component analyses indicated that Hg concentrations in 42–77% of sampled individuals (breast feather n = 879; first primary feather n = 663) were within the range associated with decreased reproduction in other avian species. Hg Dynamics Component analyses demonstrated that Hg increased between first and second captures for Nelson’s (n = 9) and Seaside Sparrows (n = 23). Capture Frequency and Survival Component analyses detected a negative relationship between Hg and capture frequency in Nelson’s Sparrows (n = 315). However, MARK models detected no effect of Hg on apparent survival in any species. Conclusion and Significance This study indicates that current Hg exposure places a considerable proportion of each population at risk. In particular, 52% of all sampled Saltmarsh Sparrows exhibited first primary feather Hg concentrations exceeding those associated with a >60% reduction in reproductive success in other species. This study reports evidence for net annual bioaccumulation, indicating an increased risk in older individuals. These data can be used to inform

  8. Are all intertidal wetlands naturally created equal? Bottlenecks, thresholds and knowledge gaps to mangrove and saltmarsh ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friess, Daniel A.; Krauss, Ken W.; Horstman, Erik M.; Balke, Thorsten; Bouma, Tjeerd J.; Galli, Demis; Webb, Edward L.

    2011-01-01

    Intertidal wetlands such as saltmarshes and mangroves provide numerous important ecological functions, though they are in rapid and global decline. To better conserve and restore these wetland ecosystems, we need an understanding of the fundamental natural bottlenecks and thresholds to their establishment and long-term ecological maintenance. Despite inhabiting similar intertidal positions, the biological traits of these systems differ markedly in structure, phenology, life history, phylogeny and dispersal, suggesting large differences in biophysical interactions. By providing the first systematic comparison between saltmarshes and mangroves, we unravel how the interplay between species-specific life-history traits, biophysical interactions and biogeomorphological feedback processes determine where, when and what wetland can establish, the thresholds to long-term ecosystem stability, and constraints to genetic connectivity between intertidal wetland populations at the landscape level. To understand these process interactions, research into the constraints to wetland development, and biological adaptations to overcome these critical bottlenecks and thresholds requires a truly interdisciplinary approach.

  9. Mercury Speciation in Saltmarsh Porewater, Groundwater, and Surface Water: Cape Cod, MA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguli, P. M.; Gonneea, M. E.; Lamborg, C. H.; Kroeger, K. D.; O'Keefe Suttles, J.; Swarr, G.; Baldwin, S.; Brooks, T. W.; Green, A.

    2015-12-01

    We are assessing variability in mercury species in porewater, groundwater, and surface water at Sage Lot saltmarsh along the south shore of Cape Cod, MA. This relatively undisturbed coastal marsh is part of the Waquoit Bay National Estuarine Reserve and is surrounded by undeveloped wooded uplands. The marsh substrate is comprised of an organic-rich peat layer that reaches a maximum thickness of ~2 m at the water's edge and overlays the regional sand groundwater aquifer. We collected porewater depth profiles within the peat layer along an approximately 120 m transect perpendicular to the shoreline (see figure). Total mercury (HgT) concentrations in porewater ranged from 2 to 6 pM in filtered (< 0.2 µm) water and from 10 to 20 pM in unfiltered water. Mercury concentrations in groundwater collected from a well installed about 20 m upgradient from the marsh were an order of magnitude higher (~ 130 pM and 170 pM in filtered and unfiltered water, respectively). Although ~70% of this mercury occurred in the presumably mobile (< 0.2 μm) fraction, the elevated groundwater concentrations did not appear to enhance HgT within the peat layer. Groundwater in sand immediately below the sand-peat interface, however, typically had HgT concentrations similar to those observed in peat, suggesting porewater infiltration to the underlying aquifer. We also collected time series surface water samples over tidal flooding and draining cycles. Filtered and unfiltered surface water HgT were similar to concentrations observed in peat porewater and did not change in response to the tidal cycle. Preliminary data suggests methylmercury (MeHg) in filtered porewater was about 1 pM (i.e., ~20% MeHg), indicating enhanced mercury methylation within the anoxic peat layer. If the similarity between peat porewater and marsh surface water HgT concentrations is a result of hydraulic exchange between the porewater and offshore water, the saltmarsh may be an important source of bioavailable mercury to the

  10. Agricultural fingerprints in salt-marsh sediments and adaptation to sea-level rise in the eastern Cantabrian coast (N. Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Artola, Ane; Cearreta, Alejandro; Irabien, María Jesús; Leorri, Eduardo; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Corbett, D. Reide

    2016-03-01

    A multi-proxy approach based on benthic foraminifera, sand content, short-lived radioisotope activities, heavy metal concentrations and aerial photography was developed to characterise the process of human disturbance on the intensely impacted eastern Cantabrian coast (N. Spain) over the last two centuries. Analysis of two 50 cm long sediment cores from different saltmarshes in the Santoña estuary and their comparison with previous results in nearby coastal areas defines criteria to identify records of agricultural activities in salt-marsh sediments. Agricultural occupation of saltmarshes and the later regeneration was recognised based on foraminifera and sand content. Saltmarshes in the eastern Cantabrian coast are expected to adapt to ongoing sea-level rise based on the high sedimentation rates (14-18 mm yr-1) observed during the regeneration process of previously reclaimed areas. These findings can potentially be useful in other temperate saltmarshes with abundant sediment input, as a cost-effective adaptation measure to counteract the effects of sea-level rise.

  11. Rapid degradation of Deepwater Horizon spilled oil by indigenous microbial communities in Louisiana saltmarsh sediments.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Nagissa; Porter, Teresita M; Zimmerman, Andrew R; Fulthorpe, Roberta R; Kasozi, Gabriel N; Silliman, Brian R; Slater, Greg F

    2013-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill led to the severe contamination of coastal environments in the Gulf of Mexico. A previous study detailed coastal saltmarsh erosion and recovery in a number of oil-impacted and nonimpacted reference sites in Barataria Bay, Louisiana over the first 18 months after the spill. Concentrations of alkanes and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at oil-impacted sites significantly decreased over this time period. Here, a combination of DNA, lipid, and isotopic approaches confirm that microbial biodegradation was contributing to the observed petroleum mass loss. Natural abundance (14)C analysis of microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) reveals that petroleum-derived carbon was a primary carbon source for microbial communities at impacted sites several months following oil intrusion when the highest concentrations of oil were present. Also at this time, microbial community analysis suggests that community structure of all three domains has shifted with the intrusion of oil. These results suggest that Gulf of Mexico marsh sediments have considerable biodegradation potential and that natural attenuation is playing a role in impacted sites. PMID:24219093

  12. Mapping the Transverse Structure of Tidal Velocity in the Channel of a Saltmarsh Creek

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, S. J.; Arega, F.; Styles, R.

    2008-12-01

    The tidal exchange through the Scott Creek saltmarsh estuary was measured near Big Bay Creek, in Edisto, South Carolina. The techniques used for data collection stemmed from those recommended in previous studies. A bottom-mounted ADCP was used to sample data for 35 days, from the thalweg. A vessel-mounted ADCP was used for 13- hour durations, repeatedly surveying Scott Creek's 50m width. These surveys were performed during 4 different tidal cycles, capturing 1.2, 1.5, 2.3, and 2.4m amplitude events. Survey data were then spatially segregated into 3m wide bins along the transverse axis of the creek. Data in each bin were then depth-integrated, treated as distinct time series of data, and analyzed for 14 significant harmonic frequencies. Resultant constituents were used to construct individual time series for axial current speed through each transverse bin and were compared with both the bottom-mounted and vessel-mounted ADCP datasets. Correlations, between transversely segregated measurements and each constructed time series, averaged 0.88, and varied between 0.71 and 0.93. Standard deviations were 8-14cm/s. This effort was completed to provide both the boundary forcing function to drive a 2-D hydrodynamic model and the baseline to evaluate the effect of tidal restoration for the Scott Creek estuary.

  13. A trophic cascade triggers collapse of a salt-marsh ecosystem with intensive recreational fishing.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Andrew H; Bertness, Mark D; Coverdale, Tyler C; Herrmann, Nicholas C; Angelini, Christine

    2012-06-01

    Overexploitation of predators has been linked to the collapse of a growing number of shallow-water marine ecosystems. However, salt-marsh ecosystems are often viewed and managed as systems controlled by physical processes, despite recent evidence for herbivore-driven die-off of marsh vegetation. Here we use field observations, experiments, and historical records at 14 sites to examine whether the recently reported die-off of northwestern Atlantic salt marshes is associated with the cascading effects of predator dynamics and intensive recreational fishing activity. We found that the localized depletion of top predators at sites accessible to recreational anglers has triggered the proliferation of herbivorous crabs, which in turn results in runaway consumption of marsh vegetation. This suggests that overfishing may be a general mechanism underlying the consumer-driven die-off of salt marshes spreading throughout the western Atlantic. Our findings support the emerging realization that consumers play a dominant role in regulating marine plant communities and can lead to ecosystem collapse when their impacts are amplified by human activities, including recreational fishing. PMID:22834380

  14. Magnetic properties of salt-marsh soils contaminated by iron industry emissions (southeast France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecoanet, Hélène; Lévêque, François; Ambrosi, Jean-Paul

    2001-09-01

    Detailed magnetic properties of salt-marsh soils exposed to intense atmospheric deposition of fly ashes from the iron industry (southeast France) are reported. An enhancement in the concentration of magnetic particles in topsoil through this area is observed. Low values of frequency-dependent susceptibility ( χFD) are characteristic of coarse multidomain (MD) grains and were observed in surface samples. Concentration of ferrimagnetic minerals in different soil horizons is linked to pollution sources and the prevailing wind direction. The anhysteretic remanent magnetisation/saturation anhysteretic remanent magnetisation (ARM 40 mT/SARM) ratio versus isothermal remanent magnetisation/saturation isothermal remanent magnetisation (IRM -100 mT/SIRM) ratio and the IRM -20 mT/SIRM ratio versus IRM -200 mT/SIRM ratio can differentiate two different contamination emission sources. Magnetic methods used reflect not only the concentration of ferrimagnetic minerals but also their grain size, thus enabling discrimination of metallurgical dusts and fine pedogenic particles created in situ. Our results suggest that pollution is not the only source and that pedogenesis also plays a role.

  15. The alkali (Scirpus maritimus L.) and saltmarsh (S. robustus Pursh) bulrushes: a literature review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kantrud, H.A.

    1996-01-01

    Alkali (Scirpus maritimus L.) and saltmarsh (S. robustus Pursh) bulrushes are closely related, emergent hydrophytes that are important as foods of waterfowl and other wildlife. Water depth, water level fluctuations, exposure, sediment and water salinity, and shading by taller emergents strongly affect growth and reproduction. Important management problems are inconsistent achene germination, difficulties with maintenance and timing of water level and salinity cycles, and acidification of sediments. Other serious problems are competition from other hydrophytes and the largely unpredictable effects of grazing, burning, tilling, and other land use practices. Recent management efforts have focused on thinning stands of the two bulrushes or intermixing them with stands of shorter emergents and submersed plants in order to increase the variety of food plants available to waterfowl and other birds. Information needed for more effective management includes the optimum size and vegetation interspersion of treated areas, treatment response, and the combined effects of natural disturbances such as grazing and burning. Control of a few salt-tolerant plants requires closure of some impoundments to the open sea for long periods. Such closures are of concern to fisheries managers, especially in areas where coastal marshes are disappearing. Conversely, in other managed wetlands, freshwater diverted from rivers pushes estuarine water seaward, making it difficult to obtain waters of sufficient salinity to control undesirable freshwater plants. Research and conservation thus need to be combined in many areas to improve management of these bulrushes.

  16. Role of salt-marsh erosion in barrier island evolution and deterioration in coastal Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, D.J. )

    1989-09-01

    Barrier shoreline erosion in Louisiana reaches over 10 m/year, and island area decreased by 40% between 1880 and 1979. Salt-marsh erosion is an important factor in evolutionary barrier shoreline development and is presently contributing, both directly and indirectly, to the deterioration of Louisiana's barrier islands. The marshes originally developed as fresh marshes associated with regression of Mississippi River delta lobes. After abandonment, salinity gradually increased and natural habitat change occurred as subsidence of deltaic sediments and transgression of the coastline by marine processes proceeded. The marsh surface is subjected to relative sea level rise and unless there is sufficient sedimentation to maintain marsh elevation, erosional processes become dominant. Increased inundation of marsh vegetation stresses even halophytic vegetation and leads to plant death. Examination of variations in marsh topography over an area of approximately 1 ha. revealed marked variations in the frequency and duration of tidal inundation. Increased flooding of lower areas can be sufficient to cause plant death and the opening of marsh ponds. As small ponds expand and coalesce to form larger areas of open water, wave action becomes important in eroding pond banks and mobilizing sediment from the bed causing pond deepening. Fragmentation of the marsh by these subsidence-induced processes is part of the evolution of morphostratigraphic forms in the Mississippi deltaic plain from erosional headland with flanking barriers to barrier island arc.

  17. Scale Effect in Nutrient Transport along a Rural River System: THE River Eden, Cumbria, Northwest, England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tijani, F. O.; Bathurst, J. C.; Quinn, P. F.

    2014-12-01

    distribution, from the headwater to the lowland areas downstream, control the spatial behaviour of the nutrients and suspended sediment concentration in the River Eden. The findings are being generalized for wider applicability in the UK using the TOPCAT-NP model. Key words: scale, nitrate, phosphorus, River Eden, agricultural activity

  18. Scale effect in nutrient transport along a rural river system: the River Eden, Cumbria, northwest, England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oladapo Tijani, Fatai; Bathurst, James; Quinn, Paul

    2015-04-01

    with the period of low flow (strongest inverse relationship, R2 = 0.97 was recorded in in autumn sampling campaign near Appleby gauging station). In contrast, phosphorus and suspended sediment are positively associated with discharge (strongest relationship R2 = 0.94 for reactive P and R2 = 0.97 for total P were both recorded in spring campaign at Temple Sowerby gauging station; R2 = 0.87 was recorded in autumn seasonal campaign near Great Corby gauging station). Similarly the dryness or wetness of a season affects the nutrient concentrations. Thus, it appears that hydrology and land use distribution, from the headwater to the lowland areas downstream, control the spatial behaviour of the nutrient and suspended sediment concentration in the River Eden. The findings was generalized for wider applicability in the UK using the TOPCAT-NP model. Key Word: Scale, Nitrate, Phosphorus, Sediment, River Eden, agricultural activities, TOPCAT-NP

  19. Comparison of Very Near Infrared (vnir) Wavelength from EO-1 Hyperion and Worldview 2 Images for Saltmarsh Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasel, Sikdar M. M.; Chang, Hsing-Chung; Jahan Diti, Israt; Ralph, Tim; Saintilan, Neil

    2016-06-01

    Saltmarsh is one of the important communities of wetlands. Due to a range of pressures, it has been declared as an EEC (Ecological Endangered Community) in Australia. In order to correctly identify different saltmarsh species, development of distinct spectral characteristics is essential to monitor this EEC. This research was conducted to classify saltmarsh species based on spectral characteristics in the VNIR wavelength of Hyperion Hyperspectral and Worldview 2 multispectral remote sensing data. Signal Noise Ratio (SNR) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were applied in Hyperion data to test data quality and to reduce data dimensionality respectively. FLAASH atmospheric correction was done to get surface reflectance data. Based on spectral and spatial information a supervised classification followed by Mapping Accuracy (%) was used to assess the classification result. SNR of Hyperion data was varied according to season and wavelength and it was higher for all land cover in VNIR wavelength. There was a significant difference between radiance and reflectance spectra. It was found that atmospheric correction improves the spectral information. Based on the PCA of 56 VNIR band of Hyperion, it was possible to segregate 16 bands that contain 99.83 % variability. Based on reference 16 bands were compared with 8 bands of Worldview 2 for classification accuracy. Overall Accuracy (OA) % for Worldview 2 was increased from 72 to 79 while for Hyperion, it was increased from 70.47 to 71.66 when bands were added orderly. Considering the significance test with z values and kappa statistics at 95% confidence level, Worldview 2 classification accuracy was higher than Hyperion data.

  20. The application of cutting plus waterlogging to control Spartina alterniflora on saltmarshes in the Yangtze Estuary, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Lin; Zhang, Liquan; Xiao, Derong; Huang, Huamei

    2011-03-01

    Control and eradication of the exotic and invasive plant Spartina alterniflora within the Chongming Dongtan nature reserve, Shanghai, China, is vital for the management and conservation of the saltmarshes. A demonstration project was established using waterlogging and cutting to control this invasive species. Results from 2007 to 2008 showed that, although the managed waterlogging significantly reduced biomass and seed production of S. alterniflora at an early stage, the species subsequently showed rapid adaptation to the long-term waterlogging stress. Thus, managed waterlogging alone was insufficient for the effective eradication of S. alterniflora. However, managed waterlogging for around 3 months, combined with cutting the above-ground part of S. alterniflora at a key stage (flowering period in July), controlled and eradicated the plant successfully. Both the above-ground and below-ground parts of S. alterniflora were killed and the plants began to decompose after 3 months. Furthermore, there was no re-growth of the emergent part of S. alterniflora in the following years. However, once the impounded water was released restoring the natural hydrodynamic regime of the saltmarshes, the seeds and seedlings of S. alterniflora reinvaded the controlled site from the neighboring areas and the S. alterniflora community was re-established. Thus, after eradication of S. alterniflora, control measures should be maintained to prevent the re-establishment of S. alterniflora. The results of this demonstration project indicate a potentially useful and effective approach for the control and management of large-scale invasion by S. alterniflora on saltmarshes in the Yangtze Estuary, China.

  1. Understanding system disturbance and ecosystem services in restored saltmarshes: Integrating physical and biogeochemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, K. L.; Harvey, G. L.

    2012-06-01

    Coastal saltmarsh ecosystems occupy only a small percentage of Earth's land surface, yet contribute a wide range of ecosystem services that have significant global economic and societal value. These environments currently face significant challenges associated with climate change, sea level rise, development and water quality deterioration and are consequently the focus of a range of management schemes. Increasingly, soft engineering techniques such as managed realignment (MR) are being employed to restore and recreate these environments, driven primarily by the need for habitat (re)creation and sustainable coastal flood defence. Such restoration schemes also have the potential to provide additional ecosystem services including climate regulation and waste processing. However, these sites have frequently been physically impacted by their previous land use and there is a lack of understanding of how this 'disturbance' impacts the delivery of ecosystem services or of the complex linkages between ecological, physical and biogeochemical processes in restored systems. Through the exploration of current data this paper determines that hydrological, geomorphological and hydrodynamic functioning of restored sites may be significantly impaired with respects to natural 'undisturbed' systems and that links between morphology, sediment structure, hydrology and solute transfer are poorly understood. This has consequences for the delivery of seeds, the provision of abiotic conditions suitable for plant growth, the development of microhabitats and the cycling of nutrients/contaminants and may impact the delivery of ecosystem services including biodiversity, climate regulation and waste processing. This calls for a change in our approach to research in these environments with a need for integrated, interdisciplinary studies over a range of spatial and temporal scales incorporating both intensive and extensive research design.

  2. Causeway and bridge design to reduce roadway contaminant runoff to a saltmarsh ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Leitman, P.A.; Ross, P.E.

    1995-12-31

    At the insistence of the local fishermen and landowners the Isle of Palms connector (Charleston, South Carolina) was built with a unique set of environmental safeguards so that the saltmarsh beneath the bridge would remain uncontaminated. This study evaluates the effectiveness of the bridge, in order to judge the suitability of the design for other areas. A two kilometer causeway over the marsh has catch pans to hold runoff, except that a heavy rain causes the pans to overflow. A one kilometer span over the Intracoastal waterway has pipes that redirect the runoff into gravel lined spoils. The bridge was monitored quarterly from January to December 1994. Extensive testing was performed during October 1994 to compare sites around the bridge and within the watershed to a pristine site and a to highly contaminated site. Sediment and water samples were tested with the Microtox{reg_sign} bioluminescence assay and a Latuca sativa (lettuce) seed germination and growth assay. Sediment samples were also tested with a Mercenaria mercenaria (littleneck clam) growth bioassay. Benthic community structure was analyzed for sites around the bridge. While very few statistically significant instances of toxicity were found, there are some trends that make it apparent that the bridge runoff may have some effects. There is no apparent accumulation of toxic contaminants from the pan overflow in sediments beneath the bridge, and this bridge design should ameliorate the effects of bridge runoff in almost any area. Future research using chemical analysis of the fate and transport of contaminants within the bridge and the surrounding area is suggested.

  3. Degradation State and Sequestration Potential of Carbon in Coastal Wetlands of Texas: Mangrove Vs. Saltmarsh Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterne, A. M. E.; Kaiser, K.; Louchouarn, P.; Norwood, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    The estimated magnitude of the organic carbon (OC) stocks contained in the first meter of US coastal wetland soils represents ~10% of the entire OC stock in US soils (4 vs. 52 Pg, respectively). Because this stock extends to several meters below the surface for many coastal wetlands, it becomes paramount to understand the fate of OC under ecosystem shifts, varying natural environmental constraints, and changing land use. In this project we analyze the major classes of biochemicals including total hydrolysable neutral carbohydrates, enantiomeric amino acids, phenols, and cutins/suberins at two study sites located on the Texas coastline to investigate chemical composition and its controls on organic carbon preservation in mangrove (Avicennia germinans) and saltmarsh grass (Spartina alterniflora) dominated wetlands. Results show neutral carbohydrates and lignin contribute 30-70% and 10-40% of total OC, respectively, in plant litter and surface sediments at both sites. Sharp declines of carbohydrate yields with depth occur parallel to increasing Ac/AlS,V ratios indicating substantial decomposition of both the polysaccharide and lignin components of litter detritus. Contrasts in the compositions and relative abundances of all previously mentioned compound classes are further discussed to examine the role of litter biochemistry in OC preservation. For example, the selective preservation of cellulose over hemicellulose in sediments indicates macromolecular structure plays a key role in preservation between plant types. It is concluded that the chemical composition of litter material controls the composition and magnitude of OC stored in sediments. Ultimately, as these ecosystems transition from one dominant plant type to another, as is currently observed along the Texas coastline, there is the potential for OC sequestration efficiency to shift due to the changing composition of OC input to sediments.

  4. Interactions between the range expansion of saltmarsh vegetation and hydrodynamic regimes in the Yangtze Estuary, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhenchang; Zhang, Liquan; Wang, Ning; Schwarz, Christian; Ysebaert, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, rapid invasion of large areas of the saltmarshes of Chongming Island, in the Yangtze Estuary, China by the exotic species Spartina alterniflora has occurred. Two types of advancing fronts are found: the S. alterniflora-mudflat (S-M front) and the S. alterniflora - Scirpus mariqueter - mudflat (S-S-M front). In this study, both the range expansion in terms of seedling recruitment and tussock development at these two advancing fronts and the accretion/erosion dynamics used as a proxy for comparable hydrodynamic regimes were investigated. The results showed that the mean number of seedlings of S. alterniflora recruited at the S-M front was much higher than that at the S-S-M front. The rate of range expansion after one growing season at the S-M front was much faster than the S-S-M front. The different colonisation behaviours on the two types of advancing front was related to the differences in hydrodynamic regimes. At the site with a regime of autumn/winter erosion and spring/summer accretion, the original pioneer species of S. mariqueter was replaced by S. alterniflora and a pattern of range expansion at the S-M front developed. In contrast, at the site with a relatively stable accretion regime, the original pioneer species of S. mariqueter remained within the advancing front and a pattern of range expansion at the S-S-M front developed. The impact of abiotic and biotic factors governing the range expansion of S. alterniflora and its implications on the spatial structure of tidal wetlands is discussed.

  5. Hydrodynamics and inundation of a tidal saltmarsh in Kent County, Delaware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieterse, A.; Puleo, J. A.; McKenna, T. E.

    2013-12-01

    A 2-week field experiment was conducted in March and April 2013 in a tidal wetland in Kent County, Delaware. The study area was a tidal flat fed by a secondary channel of a small tributary of Delaware Bay. The goal of the field study was to investigate spatio-temporal variability in the hydrodynamics of the saltmarsh and tidal flat, over the period of one spring-neap tidal cycle. The experiment combined remotely-sensed imagery with high-frequency in-situ measurements. A tower with imagers (RGB, NIR, TIR) was deployed to quantify the spatial variations of inundation of the channels, flat and marsh. In-situ sensors that measured flow velocity, sediment concentration and water depth were deployed on the tidal flat and in the channels. At three locations, a Nortek Vectrino II - profiling velocimeter was deployed that measured a 30 mm velocity profile at 1 mm vertical increments at 100 Hz. These velocity profiles are used to compute turbulent kinetic energy, energy dissipation and stress profiles close to the bed. Preliminary results of the experiment show that peak velocities occur at the beginning of the rising and end of ebbing tide, when the water levels are low. At these instances, peaks in turbulence and bed stress also occur, which coincides with the largest sediment concentrations that were observed. During both rising and falling tide, flow velocities up to 0.4 m/s were observed in the main channel leading to the tidal flat. After these initial large flow velocities, the flat inundated very quickly, and flow velocities decreased. Furthermore, due to the large flow velocities, bed erosion often took place in the channel at the beginning of each high tide, while deposition occurred during ebbing tide, resulting in small net changes over the tidal cycle. The velocities in the channel relative to those on the adjacent flat were investigated. Furthermore, the relationship between near-bed turbulence and suspended sediment concentration and an analysis of the near

  6. Human impact and the historical transformation of saltmarshes in the Marano and Grado Lagoon, northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontolan, Giorgio; Pillon, Simone; Bezzi, Annelore; Villalta, Renato; Lipizer, Marco; Triches, Antonella; D'Aietti, Alessandro

    2012-11-01

    Historical transformations of the saltmarshes in the six sub-basins of the Marano and Grado Lagoon were analyzed using aerial photographs (1954, 1990, 2006), and the support of historical maps and topographic surveys. Analysis of the 2006 set of aerial photographs enabled the definition of the present extent and distribution of the saltmarshes inside the lagoon (760 ha), with a total reduction in saltmarsh area of 16% (144 ha) compared to 1954. Direct human actions played a significant role in the budget, since total loss due to land reclamation and dredging during this period amounted to 126 ha. After excluding the total loss due to direct human interventions, different erosional and depositional marsh types were recognized and associated with different forcing factors, based on morphological and geographical evidence. Over the 52-year period marshes were lost due to: (a) drowning - the combined effects of eustatism, regional subsidence and autocompaction (102 ha); (b) edge-retreat by wind wave attack (34 ha); (c) erosion by vessel-generated waves (37 ha); and (d) coastal dynamics and inlet migration (5.7 ha). Conversely, marshes gained in area due to: (a) fluvial input (63 ha); (b) tidal input (27 ha); (c) paralagoonal deposition (45 ha); (d) the re-opening of abandoned fish farms (18 ha); and (e) the dumping of dredged material (8 ha). Our analysis demonstrates that local and short-term forcing factors can obliterate or compensate the long-term ones, especially the relative sea-level rise. A test of the integrated sediment budget carried out on one third of the total lagoon, through a bathymetric comparison between datasets from 1964 to 2009, pointed out that conservation or slight expansion of the marshes inside these basins were linked to an overall positive sediment budget of 61,000 m3/y. Nevertheless, significant morphological changes occurred in the submerged basin, which is affected by sustained deposition along the inner margins due to sediment supplies

  7. Effects of CuCl sub 2 on the germination response of two populations of the saltmarsh cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora

    SciTech Connect

    Waddell, D.C.; Kraus, M.L. Hackensack Meadowlands Development Commission, Lyndhurst, NJ )

    1990-05-01

    The saltmarsh cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) is the dominant vascular plant in tidal marshes along the east and gulf coasts in the United States. This plant's ability to survive in polluted estuaries has led many researchers to investigate its role in heavy metal uptake and export. Spartina seeds accumulate a variety of metals as well, although seed concentrations are generally lower than those found in leaf tissue. It has been demonstrated that some heavy metals affect germination in this plant (e.g. methyl Hg, Zn, and Pb), while others, such as Cu and Cd, in solution concentrations as high as 100 mg/L, do not affect the germination response. Despite this, S. alterniflora seedlings grown in Cu solution exhibit 100 percent mortality within 56 d.

  8. Sulfate Reduction and Methanogenesis in the Sediment of a Saltmarsh on the East Coast of the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Senior, Eric; Lindström, E. Börje; Banat, Ibrahim M.; Nedwell, David B.

    1982-01-01

    The rates of sulfate reduction, methanogenesis, and methane loss were measured in saltmarsh sediment at monthly intervals. In addition, dissolved methane and sulfate concentrations together with pS2− and pH were determined. Methane formation from carbon dioxide, but not from acetate, was detected within the same horizon of sediment where sulfate reduction was most active. Sulfate reduction was about three orders of magnitude greater than annual methanogenesis. The two processes were not separated either spatially or temporally, but occurred within the same layer of sediment at the same time of the year. Their coexistence did not seem to be the result of sulfate-depleted microenvironments within which methanogenesis could occur, but the methanogenic bacteria persisted at very low rates of activity within the same environment as the sulfate reducers. PMID:16346022

  9. Short-term effects of salinity reduction and drainage on salt-marsh biogeochemical cycling and Spartina (Cordgrass) production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Portnoy, J.W.; Valiela, I.

    1997-01-01

    To assess the biogeochemical effects of tidal restrictions on salt-marsh sulfur cycling and plant growth, cores of short-form Spartina alterniflora peat were desalinated and kept either waterlogged or drained in greenhouse microcosms. Changes in net Spartina production, and porewater and solid phase chemistry of treated cores were compared to natural conditions in the field collection site over a 21-mo period. Net production among treatments increased significantly in drained and waterlogged peat compared to field conditions during the first growing season. Constantly high sulfide in waterlogged cores accompanied reduced plant growth. Aeration invigorated growth in drained cores but led to oxidization of sulfide minerals and to lowered pH. During the second growing season, growth declined in the drained treatment, probably because of acidification and decreased dissolved inorganic nitrogen. Results are pertinent to the success of current wetland protection and restoration activities in the coastal zone.

  10. Promoting SETI in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penny, Alan

    2013-10-01

    MEETING REPORT What does the UK presently do in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence and what are the plans for the future? Alan Penny reports on a meeting of UK academics active in SETI, held as sessions in the recent National Astronomy Meeting in Scotland - and the formation of the UK SETI Research Network to promote UK academic work.

  11. Endmember identification from EO-1 Hyperion L1_R hyperspectral data to build saltmarsh spectral library in Hunter Wetland, NSW, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasel, Sikdar M. M.; Chang, Hsing-Chung; Ralph, Tim; Saintilan, Neil

    2015-10-01

    Saltmarsh is one of the important communities of wetlands, however, due to a range of pressures, it has been declared as an EEC (Ecological Endangered Community) in Australia. In order to correctly identify different saltmarsh species, development of spectral libraries of saltmarsh species is essential to monitor this EEC. Hyperspectral remote sensing, can explore the area of wetland monitoring and mapping. The benefits of Hyperion data to wetland monitoring have been studied at Hunter Wetland Park, NSW, Australia. After exclusion of bad bands from the original data, an atmospheric correction model was applied to minimize atmospheric effect and to retrieve apparent surface reflectance for different land cover. Large data dimensionality was reduced by Forward Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) algorithm. It was found that first 32 MNF band contains more than 80% information of the image. Pixel Purity Index (PPI) algorithm worked properly to extract pure pixel for water, builtup area and three vegetation Casuarina sp., Phragmitis sp. and green grass. The result showed it was challenging to extract extreme pure pixel for Sporobolus and Sarcocornia from the data due to coarse resolution (30 m) and small patch size (<3 m) of those vegetation on the ground . Spectral Angle Mapper, classified the image into five classes: Casuarina, Saltmarsh (Phragmitis), Green grass, Water and Builtup area with 43.55 % accuracy. This classification also failed to classify Sporobolus as a distinct group due to the same reason. A high spatial resolution airborne hyperspectral data and a new study site with a bigger patch of Sporobolus and Sarcocornia is proposed to overcome the issue.

  12. Changes in photosynthetic yield (Fv/Fm) responses of salt-marsh microalgal communities along an osmotic gradient (Mont-Saint-Michel Bay, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Rouzic, Bertrand

    2012-12-01

    The response of salt-marsh microphytobenthic communities to daily changes is characterized by high microalgal growth rates. In comparison, the irregular tidal submersions that prevail in the extreme macrotidal system of "La Baie du Mont-Saint-Michel" (France) could be considered as a large-scale disturbance. The physiological capacities of microphytobenthic communities along a salinity gradient were assessed for rapid response to osmotic stress, salinity tolerance and changes in response to short-time submersion. The photosynthetic system response (Fv/Fm) of microphytobenthic communities sampled at different levels of the saltmarsh along a conductivity gradient was studied during spring-tide and neap-tide periods. All samples demonstrated a dominant adaptation of the microalgal community to coastal seawater salinity, but response heterogeneity ruled out euryhaline adaptation as the global response of microphytobenthic taxa. The higher and lower salinity tolerances at the seaward and uppermost stations, respectively, were probably due to the occurrence of oversalted or undersalted habitats during the neap tide period. Moreover, the seaward communities were characterized by successive stimulation and inhibition of Fv/Fm during the spring tide period. Such a phenomenon could result from the opposing influences of sea submersion, which supplies resources on the one hand and destabilizes the biofilm on the other hand. Despite the singular response of these saltmarsh microphytobenthic communities to a conductivity gradient, the rapid and irregular salinity changes due to seawater submersion cannot be considered as a stressor for the dominant taxa.

  13. Relative contributions of bacteria and fungi to rates of degradation of lignocellulosic detritus in salt-marsh sediments. [Spartina alterniflora; Buergenerula spartinae; Phaeosphaeria typharum; Leptosphaeria obiones

    SciTech Connect

    Benner, R.; Newell, S.Y.; MacCubbin, A.E.; Hodson, R.E.

    1984-07-01

    Specifically radiolabeled (/sup 14/C-lignin)lignocellulose and (/sup 14/C-polysaccharide)lignocellulose from the salt-marsh cordgrass Spartina alterniflora were incubated with an intact salt-marsh sediment microbial assemblage, with a mixed (size-fractionated) bacterial assemblage, and with each of three marine fungi, Buergenerula spartinae, Phaeosphaeria typharum, and Leptosphaeria obiones, isolated from decaying S. alterniflora. The bacterial assemblage alone mineralized the lignin and polysaccharide components of S. alterniflora lignocellulose at approximately the same rate as did intact salt-marsh sediment inocula. The polysaccharide component was mineralized twice as fast as the lignin component; after 23 days of incubation, ca. 10% of the lignin component and 20% of the polysaccharide component of S. alterniflora lignocellulose were mineralized. Relative to the total sediment and bacterial inocula, the three species of fungi mediated only very slow mineralization of the lignin and polysaccharide components of S. alterniflora lignocellulose. Experiments with uniformly /sup 14/C-labeled S. alterniflora material indicated that the three fungi and the bacterial assemblage were capable of degrading the non-lignocellulosic fraction of S. alterniflora material, but only the bacterial assemblage significantly degraded the lignocellulosic fraction. Our results suggest that bacteria are the predominant degraders of lignocellulosic detritus in salt-march sediments.

  14. Radioactive influence of some phosphogypsum piles located at the SW Spain in their surrounding soils and salt-marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolivar, J. P.; Mosqueda, F.; Vaca, F.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Martinez-Sanchez, M. J.; Perez-Sirvent, C.; Martinez-Lopez, S.

    2012-04-01

    In the SW of Spain, just in the confluence of the mouths of the Tinto and Odiel River and in the vicinity of Huelva town, there is a big industrial complex which includes between others an industry devoted during more than 40 years to the production of phosphoric acid, by treating sedimentary phosphate rock by the so-called "wet acid method". As a by-product of the mentioned process it have been produced historically huge amounts of a compound called phosphogypsum, which composition is mostly di-hydrate calcium sulphate containing some of the impurities of heavy metals and natural radionuclides originally present in the raw material. Due to the lack of market for this by-product, it has been mostly piled over some salt-marshes located in the vicinity of the industry, on the bank of the Tinto River. About 100 million tons of phosphogypsum have been piled in an area covering more than 1000 hectares, constituting a clear environmental and radiological anomaly in the zone. The phosphogypsum piles set do not conform obviously a close system. They are interacting with the nearby environment mostly by leaching waters releases from the waters accumulated in them either for its previous use in transporting in suspension the PG from the factory or by rainfall. These waters leaks contain in solution enhanced amounts of heavy metals and radionuclides that can provoke the chemical and radioactive contamination in surroundings soil and salt-marshes areas. In this communication the radioactive influence by the phosphogypsum piles in the surrounding terrestrial environment is evaluated. This contamination is mostly due to radionuclides belonging to the uranium series, which are present originally in the raw material treated in the industry, and afterwards in the generated phosphogypsum, in enhanced amounts in relation to typical soils. In addition, the different dynamics and behavior of different radionuclides will be discussed and analyzed. The gained information in this study

  15. Hydrogen isotope systematics in C3 and C4 saltmarsh plants: the importance of biochemical processes in controlling interspecies variation in n-alkane 2H/1H composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eley, Y.; Pedentchouk, N.

    2013-12-01

    Palaeohydrological studies have increasingly utilised the 2H/1H composition of leaf wax n-alkyl lipids to extract information from the geological record. Interpretation of the sedimentary biomarker δ2H signal, however, requires detailed understanding of the mechanisms controlling hydrogen isotope fractionation between source water and n-alkyl lipids (ɛl/w). The existence of large ranges in published n-alkyl δ2H and ɛl/w among modern plant species growing at a single location suggests that the lipid signal incorporated into the sedimentary record could be sensitive to relatively small-scale changes in vegetation assemblages. The mechanisms responsible for these interspecies differences are currently poorly constrained. Previous research has had limited success explaining n-alkyl δ2H by reference to physical processes controlling the movement of water inside/outside and within the leaf, while the relative importance of biochemical processes remains largely unexplored. This project aims to identify the mechanisms controlling interspecies variation in n-alkane 2H/1H among a range of C3 and C4 plants from a Norfolk saltmarsh in the UK. To distinguish between environmental, physical and biochemical controls, we conducted 2H/1H analysis of soil, xylem, and leaf waters and n-alkanes (i) across multiple sampling sites within the marsh, (ii) throughout the 2012 growth season, and (iii) at different times of the day. We also measured the 2H/1H of chloroplast phytol in 7 samples collected at the end of 2012. Leaf wax n-alkane δ2H varied among the sampled species by over 100‰ throughout the 2012 growth season. Environmental processes that could influence control source water 2H/1H did not fully account for this interspecies variation - soil water 2H/1H varied by only 35‰ with marsh sub-environment and exhibited site-specific seasonal shifts by no more than 31‰. Maximum interspecies variation in xylem water was 38‰, while leaf waters differed by only 29‰. We

  16. Structural elucidation, in vitro antioxidant and photoprotective capacities of a purified polyphenolic-enriched fraction from a saltmarsh plant.

    PubMed

    Surget, Gwladys; Stiger-Pouvreau, Valérie; Le Lann, Klervi; Kervarec, Nelly; Couteau, Céline; Coiffard, Laurence J M; Gaillard, Fanny; Cahier, Karine; Guérard, Fabienne; Poupart, Nathalie

    2015-02-01

    In temperate saltmarshes, halophytic plants have to daily protect their internal tissues against sunlight and UV rays. Consequently, they develop adaptive responses such as the synthesis of secondary metabolites, including polyphenols. The present study focused on the biological activities of fractions enriched in polyphenols from Salicornia ramosissima. Three different extracts were obtained by purification processes to concentrate polyphenols: a crude hydroalcoholic extract, and two purified fractions: an ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and an aqueous fraction. Phenolic and flavonoid contents, antioxidant (DPPH radical-scavenging activity, reducing activity, β-carotene linoleic acid system and the ORAC method) and sunscreen properties (Sun Protection Factor and UVA-Protection Factor) were assessed by in vitro tests. The purification process was effective in increasing phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as antioxidant and sunscreen capacities of the EAF. The EAF appeared to be a broad spectrum UV absorber. The chemical structure of 10 EAF polyphenols was elucidated using 2D NMR and mass spectrometry spectra. Furthermore, a correlation was observed between phenolic composition and biological activity. These findings are encouraging for the future use of S. ramosissima as a potential source of antioxidant and photoprotectant molecules for industrial applications. PMID:25600264

  17. Drug assessment: UK style.

    PubMed

    2013-12-01

    Before medicines can be marketed in the UK, they are subject to a system of licensing and the granting of a marketing authorisation that describes the conditions and patient groups for which the medicinal product can be used within the terms of its licence.(1) The licensing process involves an assessment of data relating to the efficacy, safety and quality of the product. However, the marketing authorisation does not determine whether, or how, it will be used in clinical practice. In the UK, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), the Scottish Medicines Consortium (SMC) and the All Wales Medicines Strategy Group (AWMSG) publish recommendations on the use of medicines for health services in the United Kingdom. In this article we review their remit, work processes and the status of guidance published in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. PMID:24336496

  18. Mineralogical Evidence for the Palaeohydrogeological Stability of a Deep Groundwater System in Fractured Rock, in West Cumbria, Northwest England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milodowski, A. E.; Gillespie, M. R.; Chenery, S. R. N.; Naden, J.; Shaw, R. P.

    2014-12-01

    An important requirement of the safety assessment for a geological disposal facility (GDF) for radioactive waste is to be able to demonstrate the long-term chemical stability of the groundwater system at repository depth over the long period of time during which the waste will be a hazard, typically up to one million years. Of particular concern in the UK is the potential for oxidising groundwater to penetrate to repository depth during periods of glaciation, thereby increasing the mobility of some transuranic radionuclides.Between 1990 and 1998, United Kingdom Nirex Limited carried out geological investigations into the suitability of a potential site in the Sellafield area of NW England, for a GDF for L/ILW. As part of these investigations, detailed petrological analysis of fracture mineralisation in 23 deep boreholes identified a complex sequence of mineralisation events referred to as ME1-ME9. The distribution of the ME9 calcite mineralisation correlates closely with present-day groundwater flows. The ME9 calcite has been studied in more detail to understand the evolution of the deep groundwater system. The morphology and growth zoning characteristics of the calcites reflects the groundwater chemistry. Freshwater calcites display c-axis flattened to equant crystals, and are non-ferroan and strongly zoned with Mn-rich and Mn-free bands. Deeper saline-zone calcites display c-axis elongated crystals, with high Mn:Fe and low Mn:Fe growth zones. Calcite in the transition zone between the saline and fresh groundwater display saline-type cores overgrown by freshwater-type calcite, indicating a small depression of the position of the transition zone during the growth of the calcites. Sr isotope ratios and fluid inclusion chemistry confirm a link between ME9 calcite and the present regional groundwater system. Modelling of the oxygen isotope data indicates that some growth zones in the ME9 calcite precipitated from groundwater potentially containing a significant

  19. Signatures of Biomass Burning Aerosols during a Smoke Plume Event from a Saltmarsh Wildfire in South Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louchouarn, P.; Griffin, R. J.; Norwood, M. J.; Sterne, A. M. E.; Karakurt Cevik, B.

    2014-12-01

    The most conventional and abundant tracers of biomass combustion in aerosol particles include potassium and biomarkers derived from thermally altered cellulose/hemicellulose (anhydrosugars) and lignin (methoxyphenols). However, little is known of the role of biomass combustion as a particulate source of major plant polymers to the atmosphere. Here, concentrations of "free" (solvent-extractable) anhydrosugars and methoxyphenols are compared to the yields of polymeric lignin oxidation products (LOPs) during a smoke plume event in Houston, Texas. Downwind aerosol samples (PM2.5) were collected prior to, during, and following a two-day wildfire event that burned ~5,000 acres of a spartina saltmarsh ecosystem in the McFaddin National Wildlife Refuge, 125 km southeast of Houston. In addition, charcoals of the burned plants were collected within a week of the fire at the wildfire site. HYSPLIT modeling shows that Houston was directly downwind of this wildfire during the peak of the burn, with an approximate travel time from source to aerosol sampling site of 12-16 hrs. Concentrations of all organic markers, K+, and Ca2+ jumped by a factor of 2-13 within 1-2 days of the start of the fire and dropped to pre-fire levels three days after the peak event. Source signatures of anhydrosugars and free methoxyphenols during the peak of the plume were identical to those of grass charcoals collected from the site, confirming the potential use of charcoals as endmembers for source input reconstruction during atmospheric transport. An enrichment factor of 20 in the anhydrosugar to methoxyphenol ratio of aerosols vs. charcoals can partially be explained by differences in degradation rate constants between the two biomarker groups. Polymeric LOP comprised 73-91% of all lignin material in the aerosols, pointing to fires as major sources of primary biogenic aerosol particles and confirming an earlier study that lignin phenols in atmospheric particles occur predominantly in polymeric form.

  20. Long-term ecological consequences of herbicide treatment to control the invasive grass, Spartina anglica, in an Australian saltmarsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimeta, Jeff; Saint, Lynnette; Verspaandonk, Emily R.; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Howe, Steffan

    2016-07-01

    Invasive plants acting as habitat modifiers in coastal wetlands can have extensive ecological impacts. Control of invasive plants often relies on herbicides, although little is known about subsequent environmental impacts. Studying effects of herbicides on non-target species and long-term cascading consequences may yield insights into the ecology of invasive species by revealing interactions with native species. We conducted a long-term field experiment measuring effects of treating the invasive saltmarsh grass, Spartina anglica, with the herbicide Fusilade Forte®. No changes in sedimentary macrofaunal abundances or species richness, diversity, or assemblages were detected 1-2 months after spraying, despite known toxicity of Fusilade Forte® to fauna. This lack of impact may have been due to low exposure, since the herbicide was taken up primarily by plant leaves, with the small amount that reached the sediment hydrolyzing rapidly. Six months after spraying, however, total macrofauna in treated plots was more than four times more abundant than in unsprayed control plots, due to a fifteen-fold increase in annelids. This population growth correlated with increased sedimentary organic matter in treated plots, likely due to decomposition of dead S. anglica leaves serving as food for annelids. After another year, no differences in macrofauna or organic matter remained between treatments. The indirect effect on annelid populations from herbicide treatment could benefit management efforts by providing greater food resources for wading birds, in addition to improving birds' access to sediments by reducing plant cover. This study shows that an invasive grass can have a significant impact on native fauna through food-web interactions, influenced by herbicide usage.

  1. Seed dispersal capacity and post-dispersal fate of the invasive Spartina alterniflora in saltmarshes of the Yangtze Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Derong; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Liquan; Zhu, Zhenchang; Tian, Kun; Gao, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Spartina alterniflora is one of the most serious invasive species in the coastal saltmarshes of China. Seeds are generally considered to be the main method for this species to colonise new habitat, but little is known quantitatively about the seed dispersal capacity and post-dispersal fate (i.e., germination and survival time). We measured the duration of seed flotation, seed persistence and seed germination of S. alterniflora in three intertidal zones [low intertidal zone (LIT), middle intertidal zone (MIT) and high intertidal zone (HIT)] in the Yangtze Estuary on the eastern coast of China. The results showed that (1) the flotation time of S. alterniflora seeds ranged from 3 to 13 days, and the values were higher in HIT and MIT than in LIT; (2) the period of seed germination was from February to June, mainly in March and April, and seed source affected seed germination as the values for seeds from HIT and MIT were much higher than those from LIT, while burial sites had no effect on germination percentages, and (3) the seed persistence was less than a year regardless of seed source, which was characterised by a transient seed bank, with values being higher in HIT and MIT than in LIT. Our results suggested that low marsh plants were far less able to produce successful seeds, or conversely, that the mid-marsh location had plants with the greatest seed production and seed mass, and the high- and mid-marsh plants had good seed floatation ability, germination and survival. Thus, plants in the mid-and high-marsh may contribute disproportionally to an invasion.

  2. Community composition and activity of anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria in the rhizosphere of salt-marsh grass Spartina alterniflora.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yanling; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Yin, Guoyu; Gao, Juan; Jiang, Xiaofen; Lin, Xianbiao; Li, Xiaofei; Yu, Chendi; Wang, Rong

    2016-09-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) as an important nitrogen removal pathway has been investigated in intertidal marshes. However, the rhizosphere-driven anammox process in these ecosystems is largely overlooked so far. In this study, the community dynamics and activities of anammox bacteria in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere sediments of salt-marsh grass Spartina alterniflora (a widely distributed plant in estuaries and intertidal ecosystems) were investigated using clone library analysis, quantitative PCR assay, and isotope-tracing technique. Phylogenetic analysis showed that anammox bacterial diversity was higher in the non-rhizosphere sediments (Scalindua and Kuenenia) compared with the rhizosphere zone (only Scalindua genus). Higher abundance of anammox bacteria was detected in the rhizosphere (6.46 × 10(6)-1.56 × 10(7) copies g(-1)), which was about 1.5-fold higher in comparison with that in the non-rhizosphere zone (4.22 × 10(6)-1.12 × 10(7) copies g(-1)). Nitrogen isotope-tracing experiments indicated that the anammox process in the rhizosphere contributed to 12-14 % N2 generation with rates of 0.43-1.58 nmol N g(-1) h(-1), while anammox activity in the non-rhizosphere zone contributed to only 4-7 % N2 production with significantly lower activities (0.28-0.83 nmol N g(-1) h(-1)). Overall, we propose that the rhizosphere microenvironment in intertidal marshes might provide a favorable niche for anammox bacteria and thus plays an important role in nitrogen cycling. PMID:27225476

  3. UK Parkinson's Excellence Network: empowering service improvement across the UK.

    PubMed

    Burn, David

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's UK, together with leading Parkinson's professionals, has set up the UK Parkinson's Excellence Network to bring together the passion and expertise of leading clinicians with the strategic leadership and resources of Parkinson's UK underpinned by the voice of people affected by Parkinson's. Launched in London in February 2015, the Excellence Network aims to drive sustainable improvements in health and social care services. It will provide a more strategic approach to clinical development so that Parkinson's services across health and social care can be transformed to provide the best quality care across the UK. PMID:26107314

  4. Complexity of the flooding/drying process in an estuarine tidal-creek salt-marsh system: An application of FVCOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Changsheng; Qi, Jianhua; Li, Chunyan; Beardsley, Robert C.; Lin, Huichan; Walker, Randy; Gates, Keith

    2008-07-01

    The tidal flooding/drying process in the Satilla River Estuary was examined using an unstructured-grid finite-volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM). Driven by tidal forcing at the open boundary and river discharge at the upstream end, FVCOM produced realistic tidal flushing in this estuarine tidal-creek intertidal salt-marsh complex, amplitudes and phases of the tidal wave, and salinity observed at mooring sites and along hydrographic transects. The model-predicted residual flow field is characterized by multiscale eddies in the main channel, which are verified by ship-towed ADCP measurements. To examine the impact of complex coastal geometry on water exchange in an estuarine tidal-creek salt-marsh system, FVCOM was compared with our previous structured-grid finite difference Satilla River Estuary model (ECOM-si). The results suggest that by failing to resolve the complex coastal geometry of tidal creeks, barriers and islands, a model can generate unrealistic flow and water exchange and thus predict the wrong dynamics for this estuary. A mass-conservative unstructured-grid model is required to accurately and efficiently simulate tidal flow and flushing in a complex geometrically controlled estuarine dynamical system.

  5. [Distribution patterns and pollution assessments of heavy metals in the Spartina alterniflora salt-marsh wetland of Rudong, Jiangsu province].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Long-Hui; Du, Yong-Fen; Wang, Dan-Dan; Gao, Shu; Gao, Wen-Hua

    2014-06-01

    . alterniflora is one of important factors to enrich the heavy metal in tidal flat sediment. Thus, ecological risk of the heavy metal is reduced or blocked, due to the filtering effect of salt-marsh, which prevents metals from entering the open sea directly. The distribution of heavy metal is influenced by a combination of colonization time of vegetation, chemical form of metals and their origins. PMID:25158523

  6. UK malaria treatment guidelines.

    PubMed

    Lalloo, David G; Shingadia, Delane; Pasvol, Geoffrey; Chiodini, Peter L; Whitty, Christopher J; Beeching, Nicholas J; Hill, David R; Warrell, David A; Bannister, Barbara A

    2007-02-01

    Malaria is the tropical disease most commonly imported into the UK, with 1500-2000 cases reported each year, and 10-20 deaths. Approximately three-quarters of reported malaria cases in the UK are caused by Plasmodium falciparum, which is capable of invading a high proportion of red blood cells and rapidly leading to severe or life-threatening multi-organ disease. Most non-falciparum malaria cases are caused by Plasmodium vivax; a few cases are caused by the other two species of Plasmodium: Plasmodium ovale or Plasmodium malariae. Mixed infections with more than 1 species of parasite can occur; they commonly involve P. falciparum with the attendant risks of severe malaria. Management of malaria depends on awareness of the diagnosis and on performing the correct diagnostic tests: the diagnosis cannot be excluded until 3 blood specimens have been examined by an experienced microscopist. There are no typical clinical features of malaria, even fever is not invariably present. The optimum diagnostic procedure is examination of thick and thin blood films by an expert to detect and speciate the malarial parasites; P. falciparum malaria can be diagnosed almost as accurately using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) which detect plasmodial antigens or enzymes, although RDTs for other Plasmodium species are not as reliable. The treatment of choice for non-falciparum malaria is a 3-day course of oral chloroquine, to which only a limited proportion of P. vivax strains have gained resistance. Dormant parasites (hypnozoites) persist in the liver after treatment of P. vivax or P. ovale infection: the only currently effective drug for eradication of hypnozoites is primaquine. This must be avoided or given with caution under expert supervision in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD), in whom it may cause severe haemolysis. Uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria can be treated orally with quinine, atovaquone plus proguanil (Malarone) or co-artemether (Riamet

  7. Fluoride in UK rivers.

    PubMed

    Neal, Colin; Neal, Margaret; Davies, Helen; Smith, Jennifer

    2003-10-01

    Fluoride concentrations in eastern UK rivers (the Humber, Tweed, Wear, Great Ouse and Thames) are described based on information collected within the Land-Ocean Interaction Study (LOIS) and by the Environment Agency (EA) of England and Wales. The results show varied fluoride concentrations across the region, with a range from <0.01 to >10 mg l(-1); and mean, median and range in mean concentrations of 0.30, 0.21 and 0.05-3.38 mg l(-1) (excluding one outlier point), respectively. Within the main rivers and tributaries, the mean fluoride concentration varied from approximately 0.5 to over 2 mg l(-1) and the highest values occurred within the Don basin (Don, Dearne and Rother) and parts of the Trent basin (upper Tame and mid-upper Derbyshire Derwent) in highly industrialised and urbanised areas (Sheffield and Rotherham in the Don basin; Birmingham and Derby on the Trent). For localised inputs to the rivers, fluoride concentrations were slightly higher, and considerably higher in one outlier case. Correspondingly, the other rivers examined typically had mean fluoride concentrations between approximately 0.2 and 0.5 mg l(-1), but fluoride concentrations were lower in the headwater areas. As there is much less information on fluoride levels in upland areas, extensive data collected as part of an acid waters survey are used to show that fluoride concentrations are generally less than 0.1 mg l(-1) for the upland UK. The data are summarised in terms of both fluoride concentrations and flux, and the values are cross-referenced to other determinands collected within LOIS. The high positive correlation with boron and negative correlation with flow show the importance of point source (sewage) inputs of fluoride, while strong positive correlations between fluoride and barium indicate the relative importance of vein mineralisation in the bedrock in supplying fluoride to the waters of the Yorkshire Ouse and its tributaries. There seems to be some process that limits the fluoride

  8. Remedial habitat creation: does Nereis diversicolor play a confounding role in the colonisation and establishment of the pioneering saltmarsh plant, Spartina anglica?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmerson, M.

    2000-07-01

    Increasing concerns over global warming and expected sea level rises have led to the adoption of new coastal management strategies around the south-east coast of England. This paper explores the role played by the estuarine invertebrate Nereis diversicolor in limiting the colonisation and establishment of the invasive pioneering salt marsh plant, Spartina anglica. The biology of N. diversicolor is briefly reviewed and data from field experiments are presented demonstrating significant negative effects of worm abundance on transplanted S. anglica biomass. Laboratory-based experiments demonstrated significant negative effects of N. diversicolor abundance on the survival of S. anglica seeds transplanted to sediment cores. The importance of estuarine invertebrates in engineering the mudflat habitat may confound the foreseen ecosystem services and function provided by saltmarsh management schemes.

  9. Effects of repeated field applications of two formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis on non-target saltmarsh invertebrates in Atlantic coastal wetlands.

    PubMed

    Caquet, Thierry; Roucaute, Marc; Le Goff, Pierre; Lagadic, Laurent

    2011-07-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) is commonly used for selective control of larval populations of mosquitoes in coastal wetlands. A two year-study was implemented to investigate whether repeated treatments with Bti applied either as a liquid (VectoBac® 12AS) or a water-dispersible granule (VectoBac® WG) formulation may affect the abundance and diversity of non-target aquatic invertebrates in saltmarsh pools. Taxonomic composition of the invertebrate communities was typical of brackishwater intermittent ecosystems, with a dominance of annelids, crustaceans and nematocerans. Conditions were contrasted between the two years of the survey, both in terms of annual cumulative rainfall and rainfall distribution throughout the year. As a consequence, the hydroperiod and some other environmental characteristics associated with pool drying played a major role in the dynamics of the invertebrate community. In summer 2006, pool drying reduced the abundance of the polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor, of the amphipod crustacean Corophium volutator and of chironomid larvae. These taxa were able to recolonize rapidly the pools after flooding in September 2006. In 2007, rainfall was more regularly distributed across the year, and the pools did not get dry. Hydrozoans, Chironomini and Orthocladiinae larvae, and oligochaetes were more abundant in treated than in control pools, especially in VectoBac® WG-treated pools. No adverse effects of the treatments were shown on the abundance of N. diversicolor, C. volutator and midge larvae, suggesting that the availability of these food sources for birds was not negatively affected by Bti applications. It is concluded that, as currently performed in Western France coastal wetlands, land-based treatments of saltmarsh pools for larval mosquito control with Bti, used either as VectoBac® 12AS or VectoBac® WG, did not adversely impact non-target aquatic invertebrate communities. PMID:21592573

  10. Constructing and Deconstructing Giftedness: A Reflective Conversation between Tim Dracup, Architect of England's National Gifted and Talented Education Programme from 1996 to 2009, and Barry Hymer, Professor of Psychology in Education, University of Cumbria, UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hymer, Barry

    2014-01-01

    This conversation was prompted by a blog entry posted by Tim Dracup in January 2012. The subsequent e-exchange between Tim and Barry Hymer explored a number of issues central to the nature and aetiology of giftedness, confronting these issues from contrasting ontological and epistemological stances. As a result, their conversation includes…

  11. UK businesses bag innovation awards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Five UK firms have received innovation awards from the Institute of Physics (IOP), which publishes Physics World. Hallmarq Veterinary Imaging, Metrasens, M Squared Lasers, Silixa and Tracerco have all won an IOP award for developing new innovative products.

  12. Researchers dodge UK migration cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacey, James

    2011-03-01

    Research scientists are among those to be prioritized under the UK government's new immigration rules that will impose an annual cap on the number of work visas issued to those from outside the European Union (EU).

  13. UK to support open access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2012-08-01

    The UK government has "widely accepted" the recommendations of a major report into open-access publishing that was released in June by a 15-strong working group led by the British sociologist Janet Finch.

  14. Spatial variation of salt-marsh organic and inorganic deposition and organic carbon accumulation: Inferences from the Venice lagoon, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roner, M.; D'Alpaos, A.; Ghinassi, M.; Marani, M.; Silvestri, S.; Franceschinis, E.; Realdon, N.

    2016-07-01

    Salt marshes are ubiquitous features of the tidal landscape governed by mutual feedbacks among processes of physical and biological nature. Improving our understanding of these feedbacks and of their effects on tidal geomorphological and ecological dynamics is a critical step to address issues related to salt-marsh conservation and response to changes in the environmental forcing. In particular, the spatial variation of organic and inorganic soil production processes at the marsh scale, a key piece of information to understand marsh responses to a changing climate, remains virtually unexplored. In order to characterize the relative importance of organic vs. inorganic deposition as a function of space, we collected 33 shallow soil sediment samples along three transects in the San Felice and Rigà salt marshes located in the Venice lagoon, Italy. The amount of organic matter in each sample was evaluated using Loss On Ignition (LOI), a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment, and a sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) treatment following the H2O2 treatment. The grain size distribution of the inorganic fraction was determined using laser diffraction techniques. Our study marshes exhibit a weakly concave-up profile, with maximum elevations and coarser inorganic grains along their edges. The amount of organic and inorganic matter content in the samples varies with the distance from the marsh edge and is very sensitive to the specific analysis method adopted. The use of a H2O2+NaClO treatment yields an organic matter density value which is more than double the value obtained from LOI. Overall, inorganic contributions to soil formation are greatest near the marsh edges, whereas organic soil production is the main contributor to soil accretion in the inner marsh. We interpret this pattern by considering that while plant biomass productivity is generally lower in the inner part of the marsh, organic soil decomposition rates are highest in the better aerated edge soils. Hence the higher

  15. The effect of sewage pollution on the feeding behaviour and diet of Hediste (Nereis diversicolor (O.F. Müller, 1776)) in three estuaries in south-east England, with implications for saltmarsh erosion.

    PubMed

    Aberson, M J R; Bolam, S G; Hughes, R G

    2016-04-15

    Stable isotope analyses of the abundant infaunal polychaete Hediste diversicolor, recognised as an indicator of sewage pollution, support the hypothesis that nutrient enrichment promotes surface deposit feeding, over suspension feeding and predation. At sewage-polluted sites in three estuaries in SE England Hediste mainly consumed microphytobenthos, sediment organic matter and filamentous macroalgae Ulva spp. At cleaner sites Hediste relied more on suspension feeding and consumption of Spartina anglica. There were no consistent differences in Hediste densities between the polluted and cleaner sites, probably because of increased densities at the cleaner sites too, facilitated by the planting of Spartina and nitrogen enrichment there too, including from agricultural run-off. Increased nutrient enrichment and the artificial availability of Spartina have probably increased densities of, and deposit-feeding by, Hediste in the past half-century and contributed indirectly to saltmarsh losses, since deposit-feeding by Hediste has been implicated in recent saltmarsh erosion in SE England. PMID:26902686

  16. The puzzle of high heads beneath the West Cumbrian coast, UK: a possible solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, John H.; Barker, John A.

    2016-03-01

    A region of high heads within the Borrowdale Volcanic Group (BVG; a fractured crystalline rock) beneath the coastal plain of West Cumbria, England (UK), is identified as a possible relic left over by the Late Devensian ice sheet. It was found during investigations in the 1990s. Contemporary modelling work failed to produce a satisfactory explanation of the high heads compatible with the `cold recharge' isotopic signature of the groundwater. This study has reassessed the original hydraulic testing results. By plotting density-adjusted heads versus their depth below the water table in the immediate vicinity of the borehole in which they were measured, a depth profile resembling a `wave' was revealed with a peak value located at 1,100 m depth. The possibility that this wave represents relic heads from the last major ice sheet has been assessed using one-dimensional mathematical analysis based on a poroelastic approach. It is found that a wet-based ice sheet above the West Cumbrian coast was probably thick enough and sufficiently long-lasting to leave such relic heads providing that the hydraulic diffusivity of the BVG is in the order of 10-6 m s-1. Initial assessment 20 years ago of the long-interval slug tests suggested that such low values are not likely. More recent interpretation argues for such low values of hydraulic diffusivity. It is concluded that ice sheet recharge is the most likely cause of the raised heads, that the BVG contains significant patches of very low conductivity rock, and that long-interval single-hole tests should be avoided in fractured crystalline rock.

  17. Teaching Astronomy in UK Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, Paul; Roberts, Sarah; Newsam, Andy; Barclay, Charles

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to summarise the good, bad and (occasionally) ugly aspects of teaching astronomy in UK schools. It covers the most common problems reported by teachers when asked about covering the astronomy/space topics in school. Particular focus is given to the GCSE Astronomy qualification offered by Edexcel (which is currently the…

  18. UK partnership targets lung cancer.

    PubMed

    2014-07-01

    Cancer Research UK has joined with two major pharmaceutical companies to launch a large multiarm clinical trial, dubbed the National Lung Matrix trial, to test the effectiveness of promising experimental therapies in treating rare forms of advanced lung cancer. PMID:25002593

  19. UK report on waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, J.

    1995-09-01

    Arising jointly from the National and European Union requirements for more intensive attention to be paid to the environment, the United Kingdom (UK) has taken many strides forward in protecting the environment from pollution and preventing harm to human health arising from the handling, transport and disposal of wastes. Major adjustments are taking place in Europe following the opening up of the Eastern European countries. The consequences of the illegal movement of wastes and its mistreatment and disposal are now recognised within the European Union. The UK as a member State is well aware of the consequences which arise from the lack of proper waste management. This paper discusses waste management and legislation pertaining to waste management in the United Kingdom.

  20. The UK Crop Plant Bioinformatics Network (UK CropNet)

    PubMed Central

    May, Sean

    2000-01-01

    UK CropNet currently provides a range of databases (and database-mining tools) to the plant community that are all freely accessible through our website (http://ukcrop.net/). Recent upgrades have meant that we can now expand the range of available facilities (e.g. addition of new databases) whilst also strengthening and improving access to existing services (e.g. providing a BLAST search facility against sequences in our databases). This article will briefly outline these and other new developments in our service. PMID:11119312

  1. Impact of hurricane Isaac on recovery of saltmarshes affected by the BP oil spill in Barataria Bay in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, S.; Haverkamp, P. J.; Santos, M. J.; Shapiro, K.; Lay, M.; Koltunov, A.; Ustin, S.

    2013-12-01

    Saltmarshes of the Gulf of Mexico have a long history of being impacted by oil spills. The Deep Water Horizon BP Oil spill was the biggest spill in US history. Its effects are still noticeable on these coastal wetlands. While it is expected that over time these ecosystems will recover from oil spill impacts, disturbances can alter the pathway to recovery. In August 2012, hurricane Isaac traced the same path as the 2010 oil spill. We questioned whether the hurricane had a detrimental effect on the recovery of wetland communities previously affected by the oil spill. We analyzed AVIRIS hyperspectral imagery acquired over Bay Jimmy in Barataria Bay in September of 2010, in August of 2011, and after hurricane Isaac in October of 2012. We estimated oil and hurricane impact extent, and effects on plant stress based on change detection and trajectories of narrow band vegetation indexes. In September 2010, the oil impact extended 14m inland from the shore. Four plant stress indexes (NDVI, mNDVI, ANIR, ARed) and three water content indexes (NDII, WA980, WA1240) consistently showed that plant stress was significantly negatively correlated with distance from the shore. A year after the oil spill, in August 2011, we found that the vegetation was regenerating rapidly in more than 80% of the affected area. However, after hurricane Isaac, in October 2012, 24% of the 14-m green vegetation belt next to the shore disappeared under water in regions previously impacted by oil and 21% of the oil-free shoreline also lost its land to water. In the first 7 m adjacent to the shore, 38.5% of the land disappeared in oil-impacted zones and 32% in the oil-free zones. These results suggest that post-oil disturbance events can delay vegetation recovery in an already fragile wetland community.

  2. UK mining invests, suppliers profit

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-15

    In the midst of a major economic crisis in the United Kingdom, equipment suppliers have been reporting a number of considerable purchases by British coal mining companies. In December 2008, Liebherr-Great Britain delivered the first two of four Rq350 Litronic hydraulic excavators for use at the Broken Cross opencast coal site in Lanarkshire, Scotland. Ten Terex TR100 rigid haulers were delivered to the site in late 2008. Hatfield Colliery at Stainforth, South Yorkshire, has been reopened by PowerFuel. The main equipment for two longwall faces was supplied by Joy Mining Machinery UK Ltd. 2 photos.

  3. Uveal Melanoma UK National Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Nathan, P; Cohen, V; Coupland, S; Curtis, K; Damato, B; Evans, J; Fenwick, S; Kirkpatrick, L; Li, O; Marshall, E; McGuirk, K; Ottensmeier, C; Pearce, N; Salvi, S; Stedman, B; Szlosarek, P; Turnbull, N

    2015-11-01

    The United Kingdom (UK) uveal melanoma guideline development group used an evidence based systematic approach (Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN)) to make recommendations in key areas of uncertainty in the field including: the use and effectiveness of new technologies for prognostication, the appropriate pathway for the surveillance of patients following treatment for primary uveal melanoma, the use and effectiveness of new technologies in the treatment of hepatic recurrence and the use of systemic treatments. The guidelines were sent for international peer review and have been accredited by NICE. A summary of key recommendations is presented. The full documents are available on the Melanoma Focus website. PMID:26278648

  4. Geochemical association of Pu and Am in selected host-phases of contaminated soils from the UK and their susceptibility to chemical and microbiological leaching.

    PubMed

    Kimber, Richard L; Corkhill, Claire L; Amos, Sean; Livens, Francis R; Lloyd, Jonathan R

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the biogeochemical behaviour and potential mobility of actinides in soils and groundwater is vital for developing remediation and management strategies for radionuclide-contaminated land. Pu is known to have a high Kd in soils and sediments, however remobilization of low concentrations of Pu remains a concern. Here, some of the physicochemical properties of Pu and the co-contaminant, Am, are investigated in contaminated soils from Aldermaston, Berkshire, UK, and the Esk Estuary, Cumbria, UK, to determine their potential mobility. Sequential extraction techniques were used to examine the host-phases of the actinides in these soils and their susceptibility to microbiological leaching was investigated using acidophilic sulphur-oxidising bacteria. Sequential extractions found the majority of (239,240)Pu associated with the highly refractory residual phase in both the Aldermaston (63.8-85.5 %) and Esk Estuary (91.9-94.5%) soils. The (241)Am was distributed across multiple phases including the reducible oxide (26.1-40.0%), organic (45.6-63.6%) and residual fractions (1.9-11.1%). Plutonium proved largely resistant to leaching from microbially-produced sulphuric acid, with a maximum 0.18% leached into solution, although up to 12.5% of the (241)Am was leached under the same conditions. If Pu was present as distinct oxide particles in the soil, then (241)Am, a decay product of Pu, would be expected to be physically retained in the particle. The differences in geochemical association and bioleachability of the two actinides suggest that this is not the case and hence, that significant Pu is not present as distinct particles. These data suggest the majority of Pu in the contaminated soils studied is highly recalcitrant to geochemical changes and is likely to remain immobile over significant time periods, even when challenged with aggressive "bioleaching" bacteria. PMID:25659921

  5. Environmental enforcement in the UK.

    PubMed

    Stott, David

    2009-03-01

    In the UK, the Environment Agency is responsible for enforcement of environmental legislation and offences committed under such laws and regulations. Under the current regime, if deemed serious enough, offenders are taken to court. In the past eight years, there have been approximately 1600 cases (including approximately 800 prosecutions) per year with 61% being for illegal disposal of wastes and a further 26% being for water pollution incidents. The level of fine has been relatively small at around pound sterling 6700 per conviction for water offences and pound sterling 3700 for waste offences. This is possibly due to a lack of awareness of the damage caused in environmental offending by the courts. New legislation in the form of the Regulatory Enforcement and Sanctions Act 2008 is likely to change the way offences are assessed and treated by the Agency and a proportion of cases will be dealt with by the Agency itself, with appeals being handled by a Tribunal and only the most serious cases going to the criminal courts. The efficacy of this approach has yet to be tested in the UK but may speed up the process and lead to more appropriate sanctions being levied. PMID:19280025

  6. An Introduction to ESERO-UK, the UK Space Education Office

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Allan; Mather, Edward

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the UK branch of the European Space Education Resource Office (ESERO-UK), also known as the UK Space Education Office. It is a teaching project designed to use space to enthuse primary and secondary students to study science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subjects. The office is funded by the European Space…

  7. The molecular properties of humic substances isolated from a UK upland peat system: a temporal investigation.

    PubMed

    Scott, M J; Jones, M N; Woof, C; Simon, B; Tipping, E

    2001-12-01

    The study concerns the possible changes in the molecular characteristics of humic materials isolated from the same source as a function of time. A great deal of data has been reported concerning the contrast in molecular characteristics of humic substances isolated from different environments. This has primarily been an attempt to identify source-specific molecular characteristics. However, data presented in this paper suggests that humic substances isolated from a single catchment have significant changes in molecular characteristics over time. Two naturally occurring peat pools (X and Y) situated upon a small organic catchment on Great Dun Fell, Cumbria, UK were sampled monthly between November 1994 and November 1996. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) from the pool water samples was fractionated using macroporous nonionic resins (XAD8 and 4), and the humic, fulvic and hydrophilic acids were collected. These fractions were analysed for elemental composition (C, H and N), weight average molecular weight, functional group content and adsorption (340 nm) of a 1 g l(-1) solution measured in a 1-cm spectrophotometer cell. The molecular characteristics were compared to those of natural DOM described by Scott et al. (1998). Scott et al. reported that drought conditions and seasonal climatic changes could have appreciable effects upon molecular characteristics of natural DOM. Results showed that the atomic H/C ratio of the humic substances increased immediately after strong drought conditions experienced in the summer of 1995. This change was temporary with atomic H/C ratio decreasing gradually over the following months. A similar decrease was observed in the carboxyl group content of the isolated compounds. The data set suggested that atomic H/C ratio in the fulvic and hydrophilic fractions exhibited seasonal characteristics of higher ratios during the late summer/early autumn months. This was not observed in the humic fraction. Humic acids exhibited a seasonal pattern of

  8. Palaeoenvironment of braided fluvial systems in different tectonic realms of the Triassic Sherwood Sandstone Group, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medici, G.; Boulesteix, K.; Mountney, N. P.; West, L. J.; Odling, N. E.

    2015-11-01

    Fluvial successions comprising the fills of sedimentary basins occur in a variety of tectonic realms related to extensional, compressional and strike-slip settings, as well as on slowly subsiding, passive basin margins. A major rifting phase affected NW Europe during the Triassic and resulted in the generation of numerous sedimentary basins. In the UK, much of the fill of these basins is represented by fluvial and aeolian successions of the Sherwood Sandstone Group. Additionally, regions that experienced slow rates of Mesozoic subsidence unrelated to Triassic rifting also acted as sites of accumulation of the Sherwood Sandstone Group, one well-exposed example being the eastern England Shelf. The fluvial depositional architecture of deposits of the Sherwood Sandstone Group of the eastern England Shelf (a shelf-edge basin) is compared with similar fluvial deposits of the St Bees Sandstone Formation, eastern Irish Sea Basin (a half-graben). The two studied successions represent the preserved deposits of braided fluvial systems that were influenced by common allogenic factors (climate, sediment source, delivery style); differences in preserved sedimentary style principally reflect their different tectonics settings. Analysis of lithofacies and architectural elements demonstrates that both studied successions are characterized by amalgamated channel-fill elements that are recorded predominantly by downstream-accreting sandy barforms. The different tectonic settings in which the two braided-fluvial systems accumulated exerted a dominant control on preserved sedimentary style and long-term preservation potential. On the eastern England Shelf, the vertical stacking of pebbly units and the general absence of fine-grained units reflect a slow rate of sediment accommodation generation (18-19.4 m/Myr). In this shelf-edge basin, successive fluvial cycles repeatedly reworked the uppermost parts of earlier fluvial deposits such that only the lowermost channel lags tend to be

  9. Leadership Practices in German and UK Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this research was to determine whether leadership practices vary between German and UK organisations. Design/methodology/approach: The author used self-assessment documents submitted by German and UK organisations to the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM), to identify leadership practices in both countries. A…

  10. The Geomatics.org.UK Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramald, Tom; Powell, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how pupils can benefit from some unusual and exciting free resources of geomatics.org.uk. Geomatics.org.uk is a project that provides free resources to support teaching and learning in a variety of subjects including maths and geography, often in a cross-curricular way. Via the project website, it is possible,…

  11. Implementing Critical Skills in UK Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, M.; Wilkinson, J. E.; Mcphee, A.; McQueen, I.; McConnell, F.; Baron, S.

    2006-01-01

    Cooperative learning, which is a relatively new form of pedagogy developed in North America, has recently been introduced into a number of schools in the UK. One such form of this pedagogy is referred to as Critical Skills. Two systematic evaluations of pilot projects which have implemented Critical Skills in UK schools have recently been…

  12. UK Policy on Folate Fortification of Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Alan

    2004-01-01

    The UK Food Standards Agency has decided not to recommend fortification of foods with folate, the family of vitamins associated with the prevention of neural tube defects in babies. This is a change in attitude from previous recommendations made by a series of committees and reports in the UK. Notably, it differs from US policy on the matter. The…

  13. Sustainable psychiatry in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Yarlagadda, Sucharita; Maughan, Daniel; Lingwood, Susie; Davison, Phil

    2014-01-01

    Demands on our mental health services are growing as financial pressures increase. In addition, there are regular changes to service design and commissioning. The current political mantra is ‘more and more, of better quality, for less and less, please’. We suggest that mental health services need to actively respond to these constraints and that clinical transformation is needed to move towards a more sustainable system of healthcare. Emphasis on prevention, patient empowerment and leaner, greener services is required alongside more extensive use of technologies. Focusing on these areas will make mental health services more responsive to the challenges we face and serve to future-proof psychiatry in the UK. Services need to be delivered to provide maximum benefit to the health of our patients, but also to our society and the environment. PMID:25505629

  14. The UK Space & Planetary Robotics Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellery, A.; Barnes, D.; Buckland, R.; Welch, C.; Garry, J.; Zarnecki, J.; Gebbie, J.; Green, A.; Smith, M.; Hall, D.; McInnes, C.; Winfield, A.; Nehmzhow, U.; Ball, A.

    A number of academic engineering research groups around the UK have become increasingly interested in the applications of robotics or robotics techniques to solving problems in space engineering. Although these groups have sprung up independently and have worked in essentially independent areas, they are seeking to form themselves into a network offering a diverse range of expertise within the UK with the capability of developing complete space robotic systems. Space robotics is an area in which the UK has dabbled in the past, but for the first time, the UK offers a solid base of expertise in mobile robotics and associated space engineering which would enable the UK to contribute to European space robotics projects funded by ESA and/ or national agencies. To that end, following the inaugural meeting of the Space & Planetary Robotics Network, an extended group of interested parties will be putting forward an application to EPSRC for Network funding.

  15. Innovative 3D and 4D geological interpretation, modelling and visualisation techniques for subsurface characterisation of complex industrial sites - examples in the UK nuclear industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Nicholas; Shevelan, John; Hodgetts, David; Head, William

    2013-04-01

    Industrial sites are typically complex, with numerous plants within their (often) relatively small footprint. The 'cramped' nature of these sites means that the geological characterisation that is essential to the development of environmental safety cases may be hampered by a lack of access to exposures, if they exist at all. Due to access limitations and potential for ground vibration affecting key plants, geophysical data are typically limited to those gathered from lower resolution surveys (e.g. electrical resistivity tomography) rather than those gathered from more informative vibroseis seismic reflection surveys. Thus, whilst many industrial sites may possess numerous intrusive boreholes (Sellafield, perhaps the UK's most complex industrial site, has over 3000), there is a lack of ties to either high resolution geophysical data, or important regional lithostratigraphic data provided by exposure of key sequences. This poses a conundrum: the hydrogeological 3D and 4D numerical models required to show the predicted migration paths of potential contamination within the subsurface require the best geological understanding possible, yet without high resolution geophysical data or geological exposure within the sites themselves geological interpretation is often restricted to attempting to correlate between boreholes that may be tens to hundreds of metres apart and only a few metres deep, which one could assume may not provide a good geological understanding. In this paper, using examples from the nuclear industry, we describe how the use of outcrop analogues and innovative GIS-based, 3D/4D geological interpretation, characterisation, modelling and visualisation techniques goes some way to addressing these issues. Regional outcrops of Triassic sandstone and unconsolidated Quaternary sequences are ideal analogues for unexposed sequences underlying key nuclear sites in West Cumbria (UK), providing important sedimentological (and depositional), lithostratigraphic and

  16. The extent of wind-induced undercatch in the UK winter storms of 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Michael; Colli, Matteo; Stagnaro, Mattia; Quinn, Paul; Dutton, Mark; O'Donnell, Greg; Wilkinson, Mark; Black, Andrew; O'Connell, Enda; Lanza, Luca

    2016-04-01

    The most widely used device for measuring rainfall is the rain gauge, of which the tipping bucket (TBR) is the most prevalent type. Rain gauges are considered by many to be the most accurate method currently available. The data they produce are used in flood-forecasting and flood risk management, water resource management, hydrological modelling and evaluating impacts on climate change; to name but a few. Rain gauges may provide the most accurate measurement of rainfall at a point in space and time, but they are subject to errors - and some gauges are more prone than others. The most significant error is the 'wind-induced undercatch'. This is caused by the gauge itself contributing to an acceleration of the wind speed near the orifice, which disturbs and distorts the airflow. The trajectories of precipitation particles are affected, resulting in an undercatch. Results from Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations, presented herein, describe in detail the physical processes contributing to this. High resolution field measurements of rainfall and wind are collected at four field research stations in the UK. Each site is equipped with juxtaposed rain gauges with different funnel profiles, in addition to a WMO reference pit rain gauge measurement. These data describe the rainfall measurement uncertainty. The sites were selected to represent the prevalent rainfall regimes observed in the UK. Two research stations are on the west coast; which is prone to frontal weather systems and storms swept in from the Atlantic, often enhanced by orography. Two are located in the east. Rural lowland and upland areas are represented, both in the west and the east. Urban sites will also have significant undercatch problems but are outside the scope of this study. Data from the four research stations are analysed for the 2015 winter storms which caused devastating flooding in the west of the UK, particularly Cumbria and the Scottish Borders, where two of the sites are located. An

  17. UK malaria treatment guidelines 2016.

    PubMed

    Lalloo, David G; Shingadia, Delane; Bell, David J; Beeching, Nicholas J; Whitty, Christopher J M; Chiodini, Peter L

    2016-06-01

    1.Malaria is the tropical disease most commonly imported into the UK, with 1300-1800 cases reported each year, and 2-11 deaths. 2. Approximately three quarters of reported malaria cases in the UK are caused by Plasmodium falciparum, which is capable of invading a high proportion of red blood cells and rapidly leading to severe or life-threatening multi-organ disease. 3. Most non-falciparum malaria cases are caused by Plasmodium vivax; a few cases are caused by the other species of plasmodium: Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae or Plasmodium knowlesi. 4. Mixed infections with more than one species of parasite can occur; they commonly involve P. falciparum with the attendant risks of severe malaria. 5. There are no typical clinical features of malaria; even fever is not invariably present. Malaria in children (and sometimes in adults) may present with misleading symptoms such as gastrointestinal features, sore throat or lower respiratory complaints. 6. A diagnosis of malaria must always be sought in a feverish or sick child or adult who has visited malaria-endemic areas. Specific country information on malaria can be found at http://travelhealthpro.org.uk/. P. falciparum infection rarely presents more than six months after exposure but presentation of other species can occur more than a year after exposure. 7. Management of malaria depends on awareness of the diagnosis and on performing the correct diagnostic tests: the diagnosis cannot be excluded until more than one blood specimen has been examined. Other travel related infections, especially viral haemorrhagic fevers, should also be considered. 8. The optimum diagnostic procedure is examination of thick and thin blood films by an expert to detect and speciate the malarial parasites. P. falciparum and P. vivax (depending upon the product) malaria can be diagnosed almost as accurately using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) which detect plasmodial antigens. RDTs for other Plasmodium species are not as reliable. 9

  18. Experiences of non-UK-qualified doctors working within the UK regulatory framework: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Slowther, A; Lewando Hundt, GA; Purkis, J; Taylor, R

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the experience of non-UK-qualified doctors in working within the regulatory framework of the General Medical Council (GMC) document Good Medical Practice. Design Individual interviews and focus groups. Setting United Kingdom. Participants Non-UK-qualified doctors who had registered with the GMC between 1 April 2006 and 31 March 2008, doctors attending training/induction programmes for non-UK-qualified doctors, and key informants involved in training and support for non-UK-qualified doctors. Main outcome measures Themes identified from analysis of interview and focus group transcripts. Results Information and support for non-UK qualified doctors who apply to register to work in the UK has little reference to the ethical and professional standards required of doctors working in the UK. Recognition of the ethical, legal and cultural context of UK healthcare occurs once doctors are working in practice. Non-UK qualified doctors reported clear differences in the ethical and legal framework for practising medicine between the UK and their country of qualification, particularly in the model of the doctor–patient relationship. The degree of support for non-UK-qualified doctors in dealing with ethical concerns is related to the type of post they work in. European doctors describe similar difficulties with working in an unfamiliar regulatory framework to their non-European colleagues. Conclusions Non-UK-qualified doctors experience a number of difficulties related to practising within a different ethical and professional regulatory framework. Provision of information and educational resources before registration, together with in-practice support would help to develop a more effective understanding of GMP and its implications for practice in the UK. PMID:22408082

  19. Heavens Open Up for UK Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-07-01

    A significant milestone for British and European science occurred today (July 8, 2002) when the Council of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) met in London. At this historical meeting, the United Kingdom was formally welcomed into ESO by the nine other member states. The UK, one of the leading nations in astronomical research, now joins one of the world's major astronomical organisations. UK astronomers will now be able to use the four 8.2-metre and several 1.8-metre telescopes that comprise the Very Large Telescope (VLT) facility located at the Paranal Observatory in the northern part of the Atacama desert in Chile, as well as two 4-m class telescopes and several smaller ones at the ESO La Silla Observatory further south. The UK will also benefit from increased involvement in the design and construction of the Atacama Large Millimetre Array (ALMA), a network of 64 twelve-metre telescopes also sited in Chile, and play a defining role in ESO's 100-metre Overwhelmingly Large Telescope (OWL). Sir Martin Rees , The Astronomer Royal, said, "Joining ESO is good for UK science, and I think good for Europe as well. It offers us access to the VLT's 8-m class telescopes and restores the UK's full competitiveness in optical astronomy. We're now guaranteed full involvement in ALMA and in the next generation of giant optical instruments - projects that will be at the forefront of the research in the next decade and beyond. Moreover, our commitment to ESO should enhance its chances of forging ahead of the US in these technically challenging and high profile scientific projects. UK membership of ESO is a significant and welcome outcome of this government's increasing investment in science". Prof. Ian Halliday , Chief Executive of the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC), the UK's strategic science investment agency said, "The United Kingdom already participates in Europe's flagship particle physics research and the space science research programmes through

  20. Learning from UK primary care.

    PubMed

    Hays, Richard

    2009-03-01

    The Australian Government is wise to examine other health care systems as it strives to improve the quality of care and address rising costs to both governments and individuals. Focus is currently on the United Kingdom, whose National Health Service (NHS) stands out as one that delivers good care at a reasonable price to all who need it. The Australian and UK systems have many similarities: universal access, tax payer support, no or low cost at point of delivery, and good population health outcomes. They also face similar pressures on services from aging, increasingly unwell yet expectant populations.However, there are also differences, largely in the way that health care is funded, organised and delivered. The NHS is a huge system for 60 million people in four home countries with diverging policies. Within England, the system is managed through 10 strategic health authorities, each responsible for about 5 million people and having the right to interpret national policy. Population based health care, including tertiary care, is funded locally via primary care trusts. PMID:19283244

  1. Lessons from UK Digitization research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Eamon T.

    2002-08-01

    The paper describes the findings and approach of Ex NEAR HORIZONS, which as part of a series of trials, aimed to explore the performance characteristics and potential operational benefits of a number of technology inserts for the UK Digitization Programme. Although the exercise contained 5 discrete options (hypotheses) for improvement in Command, Control, Communications, Computing and Information (C4I) this paper explores only two of these: a web-based approach and the provision of technology to support distributed and co-located collaborative team working. Despite the commercial world moving towards an information exchange model based on publish and subscribe, the trial found that, although the concept was well received, the implications for changes in organsiation and process were substantial. When working collaboratively in a distributed environment, the findings indicate difficulties in gaining an initial shared understanding of the situation and to exercise command. The participants were a wide range of regular British Army Officers, not only to provide broad views on current military benefits but also to move away from the traditional trials, which tend to expose a single HQ, with prescriptive processes and organizations to the technology. The innovative trial was considered to have been very successful, gathering a considerable body of valuable data and identifying clear paths for exploitation of information technologies to support the military decision- maker. The paper extrapolates the findings of the trial to provide comment on the potential difficulties facing the concept of Network Centric Warfare.

  2. UK organisation of access care.

    PubMed

    Wilmink, Teun; Powers, Sarah; Baharani, Jyoti

    2015-01-01

    National UK audits show that 73% of patients start renal replacement therapy (RRT) with haemodialysis (HD). However, 59% of those start HD on non-permanent access in the form of a tunnelled line (TL) or a non-tunnelled line (NTL), 40% on an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and 1% on an arteriovenous graft (AVG). After 3 months, the number of patients dialysing on AVF was only 41%. Late referrals, within 90 days of starting dialysis to the renal service, occur in one-fifth of all incident HD patients. Referral to a surgeon was an important determinant of mode of access at first dialysis. However, referral to a surgeon occurred in 67% of patients who were known to the nephrologist for over a year and in 46% of patients who were known to nephrology less than a year but more than 90 days. Best practice tariffs of the National Health Service (NHS) payment by results program have set a target of 75% of prevalent HD occurring via an AVF or AVG in 2011/2012, rising to 85% in 2013/2014. We suggest that this target is best achieved by increasing timely referral to a surgeon for creation of access before HD is needed. PMID:25751543

  3. UK now claims world's top discovery rate

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-01

    UK explorers are a bit more cheerful these days even though no one has discovered a giant field or anything elephant-sized. The reason is a benign tax regime and a growing confidence among industry explorers. This last has resulted in discovery of many smaller fields - particularly gas, some potentially commercial. It is claimed that the UK's discovery rate is now the highest in the world.

  4. The UK pharmaceutical market. An overview.

    PubMed

    Towse, A

    1996-01-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) accounts for more than 98% of the UK prescription medicines market, which is the sixth largest pharmaceutical market in the world. Most of this market is driven by the UK's approximately 35,000 general practitioners (GPs). It is an open market, with most leading foreign pharmaceutical companies having a strong presence. While the growth rate of this market has been decelerating, it remains one of the fastest growing components of NHS expenditure. The NHS does not operate any kind of national reimbursement list, but the UK government has adopted several means to keep medicines expenditure under control. These include cash incentives and constraints for GPs relating to expenditure on medicines, individual quarterly updates on GP prescribing, the publication of a list of medicines that cannot be prescribed by GPs, the switching of some prescription-only medicines to over-the-counter medicines, and a co-payment system. The main form of economic regulation in the UK, however, remains the Pharmaceutical Price Regulation Scheme (PPRS). This limits the rate-of-return on capital attributable to medicines sales to the NHS, with the intended rate-of-return being equal to that of UK industry overall. The pharmaceutical industry has generally performed relatively well in the UK market, managing to preserve incentives to innovation. This reflects the fact that UK GPs have been able to maintain their clinical freedom, as well as government recognition of the economic contribution made by the pharmaceutical industry. Current issues of interest in the UK pharmaceutical market context include the future of the PPRS, the debates over the imposition of a national formulary and generic substitution, and over parallel trade, the potential impact of managed-care protocols and computer-based prescribing on pharmaceutical expenditures, and possible political changes. PMID:10163432

  5. Trends in UK mean sea level revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodworth, P. L.; Teferle, F. N.; Bingley, R. M.; Shennan, I.; Williams, S. D. P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents estimates of rates of mean sea level (MSL) change around the UK, based on a larger tide gauge data set and more accurate analysis methods than have been employed so far. The spatial variation of the trend in MSL is found to be similar to that inferred from geological information and from advanced geodetic techniques, which is a similar conclusion to that arrived at in the previous studies. The tide gauge MSL trends for 1901 onwards are estimated to be 1.4 +/- 0.2 mm yr-1 larger than those inferred from geology or geodetic methods, suggesting a regional sea level rise of climate change origin several one-tenths of mm per year lower than global estimates for the 20th century. However, UK MSL change cannot be described in terms of a simple linear increase alone but includes variations on interannual and decadal timescales. The possible sources of variation in a `UK sea level index' are explored. Air pressure is clearly one such possible source but its direct local forcing through the `inverse barometer' accounts for only one-third of the observed variability. A number of larger scale atmospheric and ocean processes must also play important roles, but modelling them satisfactorily and separating the individual contributions present a major challenge. As regards future regional UK sea level changes, we conclude that there is no basis for major modification to existing projections for the 2080s included in the 2002 UK Climate Impacts Programme studies.

  6. UK Announces Intention to Join ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-11-01

    Summary The Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC) , the UK's strategic science investment agency, today announced that the government of the United Kingdom is making funds available that provide a baseline for this country to join the European Southern Observatory (ESO) . The ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , and the ESO Community warmly welcome this move towards fuller integration in European astronomy. "With the UK as a potential member country of ESO, our joint opportunities for front-line research and technology will grow significantly", she said. "This announcement is a clear sign of confidence in ESO's abilities, most recently demonstrated with the construction and operation of the unique Very Large Telescope (VLT) on Paranal. Together we will look forward with confidence towards new, exciting projects in ground-based astronomy." It was decided earlier this year to place the 4-m UK Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope (VISTA) at Paranal, cf. ESO Press Release 03/00. Following negotiations between ESO and PPARC, a detailed proposal for the associated UK/ESO Agreement with the various entry modalities will now be presented to the ESO Council for approval. Before this Agreement can enter into force, the ESO Convention and associated protocols must also be ratified by the UK Parliament. Research and key technologies According to the PPARC press release, increased funding for science, announced by the UK government today, will enable UK astronomers to prepare for the next generation of telescopes and expand their current telescope portfolio through membership of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). The uplift to its baseline budget will enable PPARC to enter into final negotiations for UK membership of the ESO. This will ensure that UK astronomers, together with their colleagues in the ESO member states, are actively involved in global scale preparations for the next generation of astronomy facilities. among these are ALMA

  7. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. Methods The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Findings Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Conclusions Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK. PMID:23479113

  8. UK medical selection: lottery or meritocracy?

    PubMed

    Harris, Benjamin H L; Walsh, Jason L; Lammy, Simon

    2015-02-01

    From senior school through to consultancy, a plethora of assessments shape medical careers. Multiple methods of assessment are used to discriminate between applicants. Medical selection in the UK appears to be moving increasingly towards non-knowledge-based testing at all career stages. We review the evidence for non-knowledge-based tests and discuss their perceived benefits. We raise the question: is the current use of non-knowledge-based tests within the UK at risk of undermining more robust measures of medical school and postgraduate performance? PMID:25650197

  9. Spectroscopic Classification of ASASSN-15uk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chun; Liu, X.-W.; Dong, S.; Prieto, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    We obtained a low-resolution optical spectrum of ASASSN-15uk (ATel #8461) on 2015 December 25.9 with the 2.16-m telescope at Xinglong Station of NAOC. Cross-correlation with a library of SN spectra using SNID (Blondin & Tonry 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) shows that ASASSN-15uk is a Type Ia and matches best the normal SN 1999ef and the SN 1991T-like SN 2003fa at 7-9 days after maximum.

  10. Educational Qualifications of UK Farmers: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasson, Ruth

    1998-01-01

    No single source provides information on farmers' educational levels in the United Kingdom. Recent large surveys suggest that a third to half of UK farmers have pursued courses of further/higher education and obtained formal qualifications, largely in agricultural areas. Farmers' educational attainment is related to age, region, farm size and…

  11. Universities UK: Manifesto for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The challenges that the UK faces today are global and they require world-class solutions. With continued support and investment from the Government, higher education will play a central role in meeting those challenges. Tomorrow's knowledge-based economy will demand a flexible, diverse and well educated workforce. Climate change and rapid…

  12. Cohort profile: UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS).

    PubMed

    Connelly, Roxanne; Platt, Lucinda

    2014-12-01

    The UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) is an observational, multidisciplinary cohort study that was set up to follow the lives of children born at the turn of the new century. The MCS is nationally representative and 18 552 families (18 827 children) were recruited to the cohort in the first sweep. There have currently been five main sweeps of data collection, at ages 9 months and 3, 5, 7 and 11 years. A further sweep of data collection is planned for age 14 years. A range of health-related data have been collected as well as measures concerning child development, cognitive ability and educational attainment. The data also include a wealth of information describing the social, economic and demographic characteristics of the cohort members and their families. In addition, the MCS data have been linked to administrative data resources including health records. The MCS provides a unique and valuable resource for the analysis of health outcomes and health inequalities. The MCS data are freely available to bona fide researchers under standard access conditions via the UK Data Service (http://ukdataservice.ac.uk) and the MCS website provides detailed information on the study (http://www.cls.ioe.ac.uk/mcs). PMID:24550246

  13. Ammonia emission factors for UK agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misselbrook, T. H.; Van Der Weerden, T. J.; Pain, B. F.; Jarvis, S. C.; Chambers, B. J.; Smith, K. A.; Phillips, V. R.; Demmers, T. G. M.

    Ammonia (NH 3) emission inventories are required for modelling atmospheric NH 3 transport and estimating downwind deposition. A recent inventory for UK agriculture, estimating emission as 197 kt NH 3-N yr -1, was constructed using 1993 statistical and census data for the UK. This paper describes the derivation of the UK-based emission factors used in the calculation of that emission for a range of livestock classes, farm practices and fertiliser applications to agricultural land. Some emission factors have been updated where more recent information has become available. Some of the largest emission factors derived for each farming practice include 16.9 g NH 3-N dairy cow -1 d -1 for grazing, 148.8 g NH 3-N liveweight unit -1 yr -1 for housed broilers and 4.8 g NH 3-N m -2 d -1 for storage of solid pig and poultry waste as manure heaps. Emissions for land spreading of all livestock waste were 59% of the total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) applied as a high dry matter content slurry and 76% of TAN applied as farm yard manure. An updated estimate of emission from UK agriculture, using updated emission factors together with 1997 statistical and census data, is presented, giving a total of 226 kt NH 3-N per year.

  14. Disability in the UK: Measuring Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdam, Kingsley; Afkhami, Reza; Olsen, Wendy; Thornton, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    In this article we identify the key survey data for examining the issue of equality in the lives of disabled people in the UK. Such data is essential for assessing change in quality of life over time and for the evaluation of the impact of policy initiatives. For each data source we consider definitions, data collection, issue coverage, sample…

  15. Globalisation and MATESOL Programmes in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasrati, Mostafa; Tavakoli, Parvaneh

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of a mixed-methods approach to investigating the association between globalisation and MATESOL in UK universities. Qualitative and quantitative data collected from academic staff through eight emails, four interviews and 41 questionnaires indicate that the globalised context of higher education has affected these…

  16. Subject Choice and Earnings of UK Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Using a survey of a cohort of UK graduates, linked to administrative data on higher education participation, this paper investigates the labour market attainment of recent graduates by subject of study. We document a large heterogeneity in the mean wages of graduates from different subjects and a considerably larger one within subject with…

  17. Resources for Teaching Astronomy in UK Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, Paul; Newsam, Andy; Roberts, Sarah; Mason, Tom; Baruch, John

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at a selection of resources currently available for use in the teaching of astronomy in UK schools. It is by no means an exhaustive list but it highlights a variety of free resources that can be used in the classroom to help engage students of all ages with astronomy and space science. It also lists several facilities with a…

  18. Economic Cost of Autism in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Martin; Romeo, Renee; Beecham, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Autism has lifetime consequences, with potentially a range of impacts on the health, wellbeing, social integration and quality of life of individuals and families. Many of those impacts are economic. This study estimated the costs of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in the UK. Data on prevalence, level of intellectual disability and place of…

  19. UK Work Placements: A Choice Too Far?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Brenda; Harvey, Lee

    2007-01-01

    Increasing expectations are being placed on higher education institutions to ensure the economic relevance of research and knowledge creation as well as developing the skill needs of workers in modern knowledge-based societies. In the UK, workplace learning has long been a feature of higher education in certain subject areas, and in the late 1990s…

  20. PLAB and UK graduates’ performance on MRCP(UK) and MRCGP examinations: data linkage study

    PubMed Central

    Wakeford, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether international medical graduates passing the two examinations set by the Professional and Linguistic Assessments Board (PLAB1 and PLAB2) of the General Medical Council (GMC) are equivalent to UK graduates at the end of the first foundation year of medical training (F1), as the GMC requires, and if not, to assess what changes in the PLAB pass marks might produce equivalence. Design Data linkage of GMC PLAB performance data with data from the Royal Colleges of Physicians and the Royal College of General Practitioners on performance of PLAB graduates and UK graduates at the MRCP(UK) and MRCGP examinations. Setting Doctors in training for internal medicine or general practice in the United Kingdom. Participants 7829, 5135, and 4387 PLAB graduates on their first attempt at MRCP(UK) Part 1, Part 2, and PACES assessments from 2001 to 2012 compared with 18 532, 14 094, and 14 376 UK graduates taking the same assessments; 3160 PLAB1 graduates making their first attempt at the MRCGP AKT during 2007-12 compared with 14 235 UK graduates; and 1411 PLAB2 graduates making their first attempt at the MRCGP CSA during 2010-12 compared with 6935 UK graduates. Main outcome measures Performance at MRCP(UK) Part 1, Part 2, and PACES assessments, and MRCGP AKT and CSA assessments in relation to performance on PLAB1 and PLAB2 assessments, as well as to International English Language Testing System (IELTS) scores. MRCP(UK), MRCGP, and PLAB results were analysed as marks relative to the pass mark at the first attempt. Results PLAB1 marks were a valid predictor of MRCP(UK) Part 1, MRCP(UK) Part 2, and MRCGP AKT (r=0.521, 0.390, and 0.490; all P<0.001). PLAB2 marks correlated with MRCP(UK) PACES and MRCGP CSA (r=0.274, 0.321; both P<0.001). PLAB graduates had significantly lower MRCP(UK) and MRCGP assessments (Glass’s Δ=0.94, 0.91, 1.40, 1.01, and 1.82 for MRCP(UK) Part 1, Part 2, and PACES and MRCGP AKT and CSA), and were more likely to fail assessments

  1. UK Schools, CCTV and the Data Protection Act 1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Emmeline

    2011-01-01

    The use of CCTV in schools is now commonplace in the UK. It is estimated that 85% of all UK secondary schools currently have CCTV systems in operation. The introduction of the Data Protection Act 1998 (DPA) (enacted in March 2000) meant that for the first time CCTV had direct legislation governing its use in the UK. This paper attempts to apply…

  2. Establishing a Research Culture for Archive Administration in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Mary

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the current state of academic research within the discipline of archive administration in the UK. It identifies and examines a number of reasons why research output from the UK is so low when compared with activity on an international basis. These reasons include the historic nature of archival education in the UK, the…

  3. Patterns and Trends in UK Higher Education, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report builds on the time series data produced annually since 2001 under the title "Patterns of higher education institutions in the UK." It offers a unique overview of provision at publicly-funded higher education institutions in the UK. All charts and tables in the report are now also available to download from the Universities UK website.…

  4. The UK sugar tax - a healthy start?

    PubMed

    Jones, C M

    2016-07-22

    The unexpected announcement by the UK Chancellor of the Exchequer of a levy on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) on the 16 March 2016, should be welcomed by all health professionals. This population based, structural intervention sends a strong message that there is no place for carbonated drinks, neither sugared nor sugar-free, in a healthy diet and the proposed levy has the potential to contribute to both general and dental health. The sugar content of drinks exempt from the proposed sugar levy will still cause tooth decay. Improving the proposed tax could involve a change to a scaled volumetric tax of added sugar with a lower exemption threshold. External influences such as the Common Agricultural Policy and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership may negate the benefits of the sugar levy unless it is improved. However, the proposed UK sugar tax should be considered as a start in improving the nation's diet. PMID:27444594

  5. Update on dialysis economics in the UK.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Adnan; Baboolal, Keshwar

    2011-03-01

    The burgeoning population of patients requiring renal replacement therapy contributes a disproportionate strain on National Health Service resources. Although renal transplantation is the preferred treatment modality for patients with established renal failure, achieving both clinical and financial advantages, limitations to organ donation and clinical comorbidities will leave a significant proportion of patients with established renal failure requiring expensive dialysis therapy in the form of either hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. An understanding of dialysis economics is essential for both healthcare providers and clinical leaders to establish clinically efficient and cost-effective treatment modalities that maximize service provision. In light of changes to the provision of healthcare funds in the form of "Payment by Results," it is imperative for UK renal units to adopt clinically effective and financially accountable dialysis programs. This article explores the role of dialysis economics and implications for UK renal replacement therapy programs. PMID:21364210

  6. The 2015 Pregnancy Summit, London, UK.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Cherynne

    2016-03-01

    Pregnancy Summit, Cineworld, The O2, London, UK, 29 September to 1 October 2015 The 2015 Pregnancy Summit was held over 3 days from 29 September to 1 October at Cineworld, The O2, London, UK. The event brings together a multidisciplinary faculty of international researchers and clinicians to discuss both scientific and clinical aspects of pregnancy-related issues in an informal setting. The goal of the meeting was to provide delegates with an update of recent advances in management of pregnancy-related conditions, to present research data and to discuss the current attitudes and practices in relevant topics. An extensive range of topics were discussed, from preeclampsia and treatment of hypertension, to the psychological impact of termination of pregnancy and feticide. This report will summarize a selection of the lectures presented. PMID:26900652

  7. History of Inclusive Design in the UK.

    PubMed

    John Clarkson, P; Coleman, Roger

    2015-01-01

    The UK Design Council describes Inclusive Design as neither a new genre of design, nor a separate specialism, but as a general approach to designing in which designers ensure that their products and services address the needs of the widest possible audience, irrespective of age or ability. Inclusive Design (also known [in Europe] as Design for All and as Universal Design in the USA) is in essence the inverse of earlier approaches to designing for disabled and elderly people as a sub-set of the population, and an integral part of a more recent international trend towards the integration of older and disabled people in the mainstream of society. This paper describes the development of Inclusive Design in the UK, from its early beginnings, through its subsequent adoption as a topic of academic research, leading to its recent emergence embodied as a framework and toolkit for design. PMID:23570838

  8. Balance sheet for phosphorus in the UK.

    PubMed

    Bowman, J C

    A balance sheet for the inputs, uses and outputs of phosphorus in the UK economy has been drawn up. The major import is fertilizer, amounting to about 200 kt P per year. After fertilizers, the other imports (in kt P) are in animal feeds (63), detergents (38) and human food (14). The major outputs are sewage (50), animal excreta (26) and refuse (21); soil losses are about 20 kt. The flowpaths for phosphorus through humans, animals and plants are described. The discrepancy of about 210 kt P/yr is explained by the fact that the amount of phosphorus in the soil increases each year by almost as much as the amount of fertilizer phosphorus added. In view of UK dependence on this imported resource it is suggested that priority is given to work which might eventually have some practical application in preventing or reversing the immobilization of phosphorus in the soil. PMID:249678

  9. UK biotechnology lab advances improve fermentation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lock, J.

    1983-12-01

    In the UK the government is promoting research into biotechnology in order to encourage commercialisation of the products at industrial level. This is especially obvious at the Agricultural Division of Imperial Chemical Industries. ''Pruteen'' and ''Biopol'' or PHB (polybeta-hydroxybutyric acid) are two products which have been successful commercially ''Pruteen'' is an animal feed additive and the main aspects of ''Purteen'' technology are outlined in the article. PHB is synthesised in bacterial cells and ICI researchers have developed a new extraction and purification procedure. The physical and chemical properties of PHB are discussed along with its uses. UK researchers are also involved in commercial production of single cell proteins and the continuous fermentation of ethanol.

  10. Magnetospheric studies using the UKS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.; Elphic, R. C.

    1987-01-01

    The magnetic field data from the UKS spacecraft were analyzed to learn more about the solar wind interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere and about the magnetosphere itself. The data was reduced from raw experimenter data records to engineering units. The evolution of the waves in the foreshock, the varying structure of the bow shock along the boundary, simultaneous behavior of the magnetopause in the north and south hemisphere and MHD waves in the magnetosphere and magnetosheath were examined.

  11. Epidemiology of U.K. military burns.

    PubMed

    Foster, Mark Anthony; Moledina, Jamil; Jeffery, Steve L A

    2011-01-01

    The authors review the etiology of U.K. military burns in light of increasing hybrid warfare. Analysis of the nature of these injured personnel will provide commanders with the evidence to plan for on-going and future operations. Case notes of all U.K. Armed Forces burn injured patients who were evacuated to the Royal Centre for Defence Medicine were reviewed. Demographics, burn severity, pattern, and mortality details were included. There were 134 U.K. military personnel with burns requiring return to the United Kingdom during 2001-2007. The median age was 27 (20-62) years. Overall, 60% of burns seen were "accidental." Burning waste, misuse or disrespect of fuel, and scalds were the most prevalent noncombat burns. Areas commonly burned were the face, legs, and hands. During 2006-2007 in the two major conflicts, more than 59% (n = 36) of the burned patients evacuated to the United Kingdom were injured during combat. Burns sustained in combat represent 5.8% of all combat casualties and were commonly associated with other injuries. Improvised explosive device, minestrike, and rocket-propelled grenade were common causes. The mean TBSA affected for both groups was 5% (1-70). The majority of combat burn injuries have been small in size. Greater provision of flame retardant equipment and clothing may reduce the extent and number of combat burns in the future. The numbers of noncombat burns are being reduced by good military discipline. PMID:21422938

  12. Resuscitation of general paediatrics in the UK.

    PubMed

    Wacogne, I; Scott-Jupp, R; Chambers, T

    2006-12-01

    "The report of my death was an exaggeration", said Mark Twain. For a dying specialty, general paediatrics has certainly been looking very healthy recently. It is timely to examine why our specialty was thought to be at such risk, and to explore why, although in many cases shocked and confused, it is well on the way to recovery. This article explores what is needed to keep it healthy to ensure that the general paediatrician is at the centre of the delivery of paediatrics in the UK. PMID:17119078

  13. Well integrity failure in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worrall, F.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to consider the potential legacy of increased onshore, unconventional gas production by examining the integrity of decommissioned, onshore, oil and gas wells in the UK. In the absence of a history of unconventional hydrocarbon exploitation in the UK, conventional onshore sites were considered and an examination of pollution incidents records had suggested that only a small fraction of operational, onshore wells could show integrity failures. A consideration of groundwater and surface water quality monitoring could find no regional impact of historic or current conventional oil and gas exploitation in the UK. As a more direct measure of well legacy this study considered the fugitive emissions of methane from former oil and gas wells onshore in the UK as a measure of well integrity. The survey considered 102 decommissioned (abandoned) wells from 4 different basins that were between 8 and 78 years old; all but one of these wells would be considered as having been decommissioned properly, i.e. wells cut, sealed and buried by soil cover to the extent that the well sites were being used for agriculture. For each well site the soil gas methane was analysed multiple times and assessed relative to a nearby control site of similar land-use and soil type. The results showed that of the 102 wells surveyed, 30% had soil gas CH4 at the soil surface that was significantly greater than their respective control. Conversely, 39% of well sites had significant lower surface soil gas CH4 concentrations than their respective control. We interpret elevated soil gas CH4 concentrations to be the result of well integrity failure, but do not know the source of the gas nor the route to the surface. Where elevated CH4 was detected it appears to have occurred within a decade of the well being decommissioned. The flux of CH4 from wells was 364 ± 677 kg CO2eq/well/yr with a 27% chance that any well would be a net sink of CH4 independent of well age. This flux is low

  14. Panel picked to review UK physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2008-03-01

    The UK's research councils have named the eight physicists who will take part in a review of the health of the country's physics. The review, which will be led by physicist Bill Wakeham from Southampton University, was announced late last year by the science minister Ian Pearson after an £80m shortfall in the budget of the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) forced it to pull out of the Gemini telescopes, withdraw from the International Linear Collider (ILC), and cut university grants by 25% in particle physics and astronomy.

  15. UK physics hit by fresh funding cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Matin

    2009-08-01

    Physicists have reacted angrily to plans by one of the UK's leading research councils to slash funding for a number of key national facilities. The Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) will cut support for the Diamond light source and make "reductions in facility operations" at the ISIS neutron source and the Central Laser Facility. STFC chief executive Keith Mason blames the cuts on the fall in the value of the pound, which has led to a 15.1% rise in the STFC's subscriptions to CERN and other international facilities from £214.9m last year to £247.3m in 2009-2010.

  16. Effort testing in contemporary UK neuropsychological practice.

    PubMed

    McCarter, Renee J; Walton, Nigel H; Brooks, D Neil; Powell, Graham E

    2009-08-01

    A survey of members of the British Psychological Society Division of Neuropsychology (N = 588) was conducted via email to ascertain current practice with respect to the use of symptom validity testing (SVT) in clinical and legal neuropsychological assessments. Replies were received from 130 practicing neuropsychologists. Results showed that 59% frequently use SVT in legal assessments, but a minority (15%) employ them in clinical assessments. Practice in the UK is only moderately different to that in North America with respect to frequency of use of SVT, although methods employed showed greater diversity. Favored tests, respondents' justifications for use of SVT and rationales for not using SVT are reported. PMID:19235633

  17. The WAIS-R(UK): basic psychometric properties in an adult UK sample.

    PubMed

    Crawford, J R; Gray, C D; Allan, K M

    1995-05-01

    The WAIS-R is the most widely used measure of intellectual ability in the UK, despite never having been standardized in this country. The present study examined the psychometric properties of the WAIS-R in a sample of 200 subjects, which was representative of the adult UK population in terms of the distributions of age, sex and social class. The properties of the three IQ scales, i.e. the FSIQ, the VIQ and the PIQ, were found to be very similar to those reported for the US standardization sample: the scores were normally distributed, with means close to the desired value of 100; moreover, the reliabilities of the IQ scales were extremely high and closely matched the US reliabilities. There were also indications, however, that the scales have restricted standard deviations when used in the UK. The reliabilities of the 11 original subtests ranged from moderate to high and the majority were similar to the US reliabilities. However, in addition to evidence of restricted SDs, significant differences (sometimes as much as two-thirds of an SD) were found among the subtest means. These in-built subtest discrepancies could lead to erroneous conclusions about an individual's performance. A conversion table for UK test users is provided to overcome this problem. PMID:7647715

  18. Interpreting in the UK Community: Some Reflections on Public Service Interpreting in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsley, Brooke

    2007-01-01

    Starting with the question "why do we need professional public service interpreters?" this paper offers an overview of the present situation regarding the provision of public service interpreters (PSIs) in the UK to public service clients and touches on the main obstacles to the professionalisation of public service interpreting so far…

  19. Supporting UK adaptation: building services for the next set of UK climate projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Fai; Lowe, Jason

    2016-04-01

    As part of the Climate Change Act 2008, the UK Government sets out a national adaptation programme to address the risks and opportunities identified in a national climate change risk assessment (CCRA) every five years. The last risk assessment in 2012 was based on the probabilistic projections for the UK published in 2009 (UKCP09). The second risk assessment will also use information from UKCP09 alongside other evidence on climate projections. However, developments in the science of climate projeciton, and evolving user needs (based partly on what has been learnt about the diverse user requirements of the UK adaptation community from the seven years of delivering and managing UKCP09 products, market research and the peer-reviewed literature) suggest now is an appropriate time to update the projections and how they are delivered. A new set of UK climate projections are now being produced to upgrade UKCP09 to reflect the latest developments in climate science, the first phase of which will be delivered in 2018 to support the third CCRA. A major component of the work is the building of a tailored service to support users of the new projections during their development and to involve users in key decisions so that the projections are of most use. We will set out the plan for the new climate projections that seek to address the evolving user need. We will also present a framework which aims to (i) facilitate the dialogue between users, boundary organisations and producers, reflecting their different decision-making roles (ii) produce scientifically robust, user-relevant climate information (iii) provide the building blocks for developing further climate services to support adaptation activities in the UK.

  20. Obesity Treatment in the UK Health System.

    PubMed

    Capehorn, Matthew S; Haslam, David W; Welbourn, Richard

    2016-09-01

    In the UK, as in most other countries in the world, levels of obesity are increasing. According to the Kinsey report, obesity has the second largest public health impact after smoking, and it is inextricably linked to physical inactivity. Since the UK Health and Social Care Act reforms of 2012, there has been a significant restructuring of the National Health Service (NHS). As a consequence, NHS England and the Department of Health have issued new policy guidelines regarding the commissioning of obesity treatment. A 4-tier model of care is now widely accepted and ranges from primary activity, through community weight management and specialist weight management for severe and complex obesity, to bariatric surgery. However, although there are clear care pathways and clinical guidelines for evidence-based practice, there remains no single stakeholder willing to take overall responsibility for obesity care. There is a lack of provision of adequate services characterised by a noticeable 'postcode lottery', and little political will to change the obesogenic environment. PMID:27352180

  1. Assisted reproductive travel: UK patient trajectories.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Nicky; Culley, Lorraine

    2011-11-01

    Media reporting of 'fertility tourism' tends to portray those who travel as a cohesive group, marked by their desperation and/or selfishness and propensity towards morally questionable behaviour. However, to date little has been known about the profile of those leaving the UK for treatment. This paper discusses the first UK-based study of patient assisted reproduction travel that was designed to explore individual travel trajectories. It is argued that existing ways of conceptualizing cross-border reproductive care as 'fertility or reproductive tourism' are in danger of essentializing what the data suggest are diverse, complex and often ambiguous motivations for reproductive travel. The concept of seriality is used to suggest that, whilst 'reproductive tourists' share some characteristics, they also differ in significant ways. This paper argues that, through an examination of the personal landscapes of fertility travel, the diverse processes involved in reproductive travel can be better understood and policymakers can be assisted to avoid what might be regarded as simplistic responses to cross-border reproductive care. PMID:21958915

  2. Low background screening capability in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghag, Chamkaur

    2015-08-01

    Low background rare event searches in underground laboratories seeking observation of direct dark matter interactions or neutrino-less double beta decay have the potential to profoundly advance our understanding of the physical universe. Successful results from these experiments depend critically on construction from extremely radiologically clean materials and accurate knowledge of subsequent low levels of expected background. The experiments must conduct comprehensive screening campaigns to reduce radioactivity from detector components, and these measurements also inform detailed characterisation and quantification of background sources and their impact, necessary to assign statistical significance to any potential discovery. To provide requisite sensitivity for material screening and characterisation in the UK to support our rare event search activities, we have re-developed our infrastructure to add ultra-low background capability across a range of complementary techniques that collectively allow complete radioactivity measurements. Ultra-low background HPGe and BEGe detectors have been installed at the Boulby Underground Laboratory, itself undergoing substantial facility re-furbishment, to provide high sensitivity gamma spectroscopy in particular for measuring the uranium and thorium decay series products. Dedicated low-activity mass spectrometry instrumentation has been developed at UCL for part per trillion level contaminant identification to complement underground screening with direct U and Th measurements, and meet throughput demands. Finally, radon emanation screening at UCL measures radon background inaccessible to gamma or mass spectrometry techniques. With this new capability the UK is delivering half of the radioactivity screening for the LZ dark matter search experiment.

  3. Refugee blues: a UK and European perspective

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the numbers of refugees travelling to the European Union are set in a global context. It is argued that the increasing restrictions placed on asylum seekers from the 1980s onwards in the UK and the associated culture of deterrence and prohibition have had the perverse effect of supporting the economic market for people smuggling. It appears that these restrictions were initially designed to deter people, most of whom would have been granted humanitarian assistance had they managed to arrive in the UK, so as to prevent them from accessing the decision-making process on asylum. Policy changes concerning travel, benefits, and other pressures on asylum seekers are also considered in the context of deterrence. The problems facing asylum seekers do not end with their arrival in a safe country. The current methods of determining refugee status are alarmingly weak. Indeed there is evidence suggesting that those who are most traumatised before arrival face systematic disadvantage. The focus of this paper is on the United Kingdom but its conclusions apply to most Western European countries. The paper concludes with some tentative suggestions for change. PMID:26514159

  4. Teaching fellowships for UK foundation doctors.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Shaun

    2015-01-01

    Teaching Fellowships for junior doctors in their second post-graduate (FY2) year should be considered by medical students and junior doctors in UK. FY2 Teaching Fellowships are available in many foundation schools as part of the UK Academic Foundation Programme. Although programme structures differ between schools, they are designed to allow junior trainees to take time out from clinical practice to develop their teaching skills and gain insights into medication education careers. The advantages of an FY2 teaching fellowship include valuable experience of teaching and formal feedback not available to other trainees; the opportunity to further develop your portfolio; further development of the trainee's own knowledge and skills; the stimulation of working with students. Potential drawbacks to be considered are reduced direct clinical contact; reduced salary; difficulty carrying out education research in the allocated time frame; occasional difficulties establishing the teacher-student relationship while the trainee is at a relatively junior level. Experience of medical education as an FY2 trainee provides a helpful stepping stone whether or not the trainee further pursues education as a career, because the teaching skills are transferable to any specialty, and the unique experience enhances the trainee's confidence as a role model for junior colleagues. PMID:25073019

  5. Refugee blues: a UK and European perspective.

    PubMed

    Turner, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the numbers of refugees travelling to the European Union are set in a global context. It is argued that the increasing restrictions placed on asylum seekers from the 1980s onwards in the UK and the associated culture of deterrence and prohibition have had the perverse effect of supporting the economic market for people smuggling. It appears that these restrictions were initially designed to deter people, most of whom would have been granted humanitarian assistance had they managed to arrive in the UK, so as to prevent them from accessing the decision-making process on asylum. Policy changes concerning travel, benefits, and other pressures on asylum seekers are also considered in the context of deterrence. The problems facing asylum seekers do not end with their arrival in a safe country. The current methods of determining refugee status are alarmingly weak. Indeed there is evidence suggesting that those who are most traumatised before arrival face systematic disadvantage. The focus of this paper is on the United Kingdom but its conclusions apply to most Western European countries. The paper concludes with some tentative suggestions for change. PMID:26514159

  6. Low background screening capability in the UK

    SciTech Connect

    Ghag, Chamkaur

    2015-08-17

    Low background rare event searches in underground laboratories seeking observation of direct dark matter interactions or neutrino-less double beta decay have the potential to profoundly advance our understanding of the physical universe. Successful results from these experiments depend critically on construction from extremely radiologically clean materials and accurate knowledge of subsequent low levels of expected background. The experiments must conduct comprehensive screening campaigns to reduce radioactivity from detector components, and these measurements also inform detailed characterisation and quantification of background sources and their impact, necessary to assign statistical significance to any potential discovery. To provide requisite sensitivity for material screening and characterisation in the UK to support our rare event search activities, we have re-developed our infrastructure to add ultra-low background capability across a range of complementary techniques that collectively allow complete radioactivity measurements. Ultra-low background HPGe and BEGe detectors have been installed at the Boulby Underground Laboratory, itself undergoing substantial facility re-furbishment, to provide high sensitivity gamma spectroscopy in particular for measuring the uranium and thorium decay series products. Dedicated low-activity mass spectrometry instrumentation has been developed at UCL for part per trillion level contaminant identification to complement underground screening with direct U and Th measurements, and meet throughput demands. Finally, radon emanation screening at UCL measures radon background inaccessible to gamma or mass spectrometry techniques. With this new capability the UK is delivering half of the radioactivity screening for the LZ dark matter search experiment.

  7. Strategic marketing in the UK tobacco industry.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Susan; Hastings, Gerard; MacFadyen, Lynn

    2002-08-01

    Tobacco-industry marketing has played a central part in the global spread of tobacco use and addiction. Although the absolute size of the tobacco market has dwindled, the industry is still immensely successful, largely due to sophisticated and manipulative marketing strategies. The UK tobacco industry identifies target groups and builds enduring relationships based on careful brand management. Potential customers are exposed to brands which are likely to appeal to them most. Tobacco companies tailor their products to target markets by altering the content of tar and nicotine, and by adding flavourings to produce a distinctive taste. Marketing strategies ensure that the products are promoted heavily at the point of sale, and directed advertising and sponsorship agreements are used to increase the visibility of the brand and strengthen its image. Tobacco companies also target non-consumer organisations such as retailers and policy makers with the aim of creating the best possible business environment for tobacco sales. We review published evidence, internal-advertising-agency documents, and observational data about tobacco promotion, and discuss the use of targeted marketing strategies in the UK. PMID:12147434

  8. Customer privacy on UK healthcare websites.

    PubMed

    Mundy, Darren P

    2006-09-01

    Privacy has been and continues to be one of the key challenges of an age devoted to the accumulation, processing, and mining of electronic information. In particular, privacy of healthcare-related information is seen as a key issue as health organizations move towards the electronic provision of services. The aim of the research detailed in this paper has been to analyse privacy policies on popular UK healthcare-related websites to determine the extent to which consumer privacy is protected. The author has combined approaches (such as approaches focused on usability, policy content, and policy quality) used in studies by other researchers on e-commerce and US healthcare websites to provide a comprehensive analysis of UK healthcare privacy policies. The author identifies a wide range of issues related to the protection of consumer privacy through his research analysis using quantitative results. The main outcomes from the author's research are that only 61% of healthcare-related websites in their sample group posted privacy policies. In addition, most of the posted privacy policies had poor readability standards and included a variety of privacy vulnerability statements. Overall, the author's findings represent significant current issues in relation to healthcare information protection on the Internet. The hope is that raising awareness of these results will drive forward changes in the industry, similar to those experienced with information quality. PMID:16954055

  9. Characterising Cold Weather for the UK mainland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fradley, Kate; Dacre, Helen; Ambaum, Maarten

    2016-04-01

    Excess Winter Mortality is a peak in the population's mortality rate during winter months and is correlated with low outdoor temperatures. Excess Winter Mortality has adverse impacts, including increased demand on health services. The management of resources for such increased demands maybe improved through incorporation of weather forecasting information to advanced warnings. For the UK, prolonged cold periods are associated with easterly advection, and high pressure systems. Characterisation of the synoptic conditions associated with cold periods is important to understand forecast performance. Principal Component Analysis has been used with mean sea level pressure from 35 years of ERA interim reanalysis to capture synoptic variability on a continuous scale. Cold events in the North and South of the UK mainland have been identified as having different synoptic variability using this method. Furthermore extending the Principal Component Analysis to investigate the skill of forecasts has identified systematic under prediction of some cold weather synoptic conditions. Ensemble forecasts are used to quantify the uncertainty associated with these cold weather synoptic conditions. This information maybe be used to improve the value of existing weather warnings.

  10. Towards management of mosquitoes at Homebush Bay, Sydney, Australia. I. Seasonal activity and relative abundance of adults of Aedes vigilax, Culex sitiens, and other salt-marsh species, 1993-94 through 1997-98.

    PubMed

    Webb, C E; Russell, R C

    1999-06-01

    The mosquitoes associated with 2 saline wetlands at Homebush Bay, Sydney, Australia, were investigated over 5 consecutive seasons. Twenty-one species were collected in adult traps at the 2 sites but the saline wetlands supported larvae of only 4 species: Aedes alternans, Aedes camptorhynchus, Aedes vigilax, and Culex sitiens. Of these, Ae. vigilax and Cx. sitiens were the most common, and their peak abundances generally occurred during February and April, respectively. Both wetlands were influenced by tides and rainfall-runoff, and a lack of regular tidal exchange in the mangroves and inadequate drainage of the saltmarsh provided potential habitat. Populations of Ae. vigilax and Cx. sitiens at the Newington site were greater than those at the Bicentennial Park site, because of more extensive habitat at the former, but were diminished by irregular ground-based applications of temephos during the middle 3 years of the study. Populations at the Bicentennial Park site, not subjected to the larvicide, were typically smaller but more consistently related to influences of tide and rainfall through the 5 seasons. During the final season, populations of both species in both wetlands were enhanced by exceptional tide penetration and rainfall. Helicopter applications of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis larvicide were employed at both sites and effectively suppressed populations of both pest species. For future management, provision of full tidal exchange and water recirculation to reduce the area of water impounded within the mangroves and retained in depressions on the marshes should significantly suppress the pest populations and relieve reliance on control agents. PMID:10412120

  11. Paediatric UK demyelinating disease longitudinal study (PUDDLS)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is evidence that at least 5% of Multiple sclerosis (MS) cases manifest in childhood. Children with MS present with a demyelinating episode involving single or multiple symptoms prior to developing a second event (usually within two years) to then meet criteria for diagnosis. There is evidence from adult cohorts that the incidence and sex ratios of MS are changing and that children of immigrants have a higher risk for developing MS. A paediatric population should reflect the vanguard of such changes and may reflect trends yet to be observed in adult cohorts. Studying a paediatric population from the first demyelinating event will allow us to test these hypotheses, and may offer further valuable insights into the genetic and environmental interactions in the pathogenesis of MS. Methods/Design The Paediatric UK Demyelinating Disease Longitudinal Study (PUDDLS) is a prospective longitudinal observational study which aims to determine the natural history, predictors and outcomes of childhood CNS inflammatory demyelinating diseases. PUDDLS will involve centres in the UK, and will establish a cohort of children affected with a first CNS inflammatory demyelinating event for long-term follow up by recruiting for approximately 5 years. PUDDLS will also establish a biological sample archive (CSF, serum, and DNA), allowing future hypothesis driven research. For example, the future discovery of a biomarker will allow validation within this dataset for the evaluation of novel biomarkers. Patients will also be requested to consent to be contacted in the future. A secondary aim is to collaborate internationally with the International Paediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group when future collaborative studies are proposed, whilst sharing a minimal anonymised dataset. PUDDLS is the second of two jointly funded studies. The first (UCID-SS) is an epidemiological surveillance study that already received ethical approvals, and started on the 1st September 2009. There is

  12. Choice, Competition and Equity: Lessons from Research in the UK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewirtz, Sharon; And Others

    This paper evaluates the recent education reforms in the United Kingdom (UK) in terms of their contribution to the establishment of an equitable system of education income distribution. The UK education market as it exists today was set in motion by a package of reforms introduced as a result of the 1988 Education Reform Act. That legislation was…

  13. The IB Diploma and UK University Degree Qualifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank-Gemmill, Gerda

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma has become widely accepted as a university-entry qualification in the UK, but there has been little quantitative research into the achievements of IB students at degree level. This study investigates IB students from one selective independent school who entered UK universities between…

  14. Modelling the effect of UK energy policy and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Ronald Wai Ho

    The central aim of this thesis is to investigate various UK energy policy documents and identify how they are implanted to the main energy consuming sectors in order to achieve a reduction of 60 percent of carbon emissions by 2050. This has lead to two key questions: What are the pros and cons of the various UK energy policy documents What are the impacts of currently proposed environmental policies in UK on economic growth in the 21st century To answer these questions, the following four energy policy documents are reviewed. UK Energy White Paper Energy Efficiency Commitment Climate Change Levy and UK Emissions Trading Scheme Renewable Obligations Also, the following macro energy modelling work is also investigated: Markal Model E3ME The UK Energy White Paper has shown the government is being very eager to solve the climate change and its associated problems by reducing carbon dioxide emissions by 60 percent by 2050. The four documents have illustrated the UK government main strategies to tackle climate change they are based on developing new technology, improving energy efficiency and to increase the use of renewables considerably. The analysis of these policies and macro-scale model has forecasted that the UK is going to have a slow down economic growth due to the environmental pressure.

  15. "Big Society" in the UK: A Policy Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Alongside the UK Coalition Government's historic public spending cuts, the "Big Society" has become a major narrative in UK political discourse. This article reviews key features of Big Society policies against their aims of rebalancing the economy and mending "Broken Britain", with particular reference to their implications for children and young…

  16. Restart: The Resurgence of Computer Science in UK Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Neil C. C.; Sentance, Sue; Crick, Tom; Humphreys, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Computer science in UK schools is undergoing a remarkable transformation. While the changes are not consistent across each of the four devolved nations of the UK (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland), there are developments in each that are moving the subject to become mandatory for all pupils from age 5 onwards. In this article, we…

  17. Large-Scale Innovation and Change in UK Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This paper reflects on challenges universities face as they respond to change. It reviews current theories and models of change management, discusses why universities are particularly difficult environments in which to achieve large scale, lasting change and reports on a recent attempt by the UK JISC to enable a range of UK universities to employ…

  18. Higher Education Academic Salaries in the UK. CEE DP 75

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mark; Vignoles, Anna; Walker, James

    2007-01-01

    The recent industrial action taken by the Association of University Teachers (AUT) has given the issue of academic pay high prominence in the UK press. There appears to be a remarkable consensus that higher education academic salaries are too low, relative to other groups of workers in the UK, and that this is leading to an academic "brain drain".…

  19. Universities UK Submission to the 2010 Spending Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This document represents the submission of Universities UK to the 2010 Spending Review. It sets out why the authors believe universities are critical to the UK's future economic growth, what the impact of cuts to the budget for higher education would be, and the activities which universities are currently pursuing to secure national economic…

  20. New Migrants in the UK: Education, Training and Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillimore, Jenny; Goodson, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    This study of the education, training and employment of asylum seekers and refugees in the UK is based on the academic and policy literature and empirical data from five major studies. It sets out the political context to seeking asylum in the UK, explores current policy and practice regarding the education, training and employment of new migrants…

  1. Educational Attainment across the UK Nations: Performance, Inequality and Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machin, Stephen; McNally, Sandra; Wyness, Gill

    2013-01-01

    Background: Political devolution occurred in the UK in 1998-99, following many years in which some degree of policy administration had been devolved to the four nations. Since devolution, all four countries of the UK have pursued increasingly divergent education policies. This is true in England in particular, where diversity, choice and…

  2. Promoting the UK Doctorate: Opportunities and Challenges. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Faye; Metcalfe, Janet

    2009-01-01

    The last decade has seen increased interest in various aspects of the UK doctorate. This report brings together issues arising from national policy developments, the doctoral researcher cohort, the diversification of doctoral level provision in the UK and the development of the third cycle in the Bologna process. Through discussions with key…

  3. The Prevalence of Intellectual Disability in a Major UK Prison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Susan; Shackell, Phil; Mottram, Pat; Lancaster, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    Over-representation of people with learning disability in prisons has been demonstrated in many Western jurisdictions. This was the first comprehensive research in a UK prison. The research used a random 10% sample of a prison population (n = 140). A semi-structured interview, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (UK version) and the Vineland…

  4. Knowing Your "Lemons": Quality Uncertainty in UK Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Paul

    2007-01-01

    In the UK and elsewhere, higher education is increasingly and controversially being construed, especially within political discourse, as a marketised commodity service to paying customers. Notions of quality, broadly construed, will be of central significance in the development of new markets in higher education in the UK and beyond. Drawing upon…

  5. Universities and Economic Development Activities: A UK Regional Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decter, Moira; Cave, Frank; Rose, Mary; Peers, Gill; Fogg, Helen; Smith, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    A number of UK universities prioritize economic development or regeneration activities and for some of these universities such activities are the main focus of their knowledge transfer work. This study compares two regions of the UK--the North West and the South East of England--which have very different levels of economic performance.…

  6. Comparative Review of UK-USA Industry-University Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decter, Moira H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore significant historical changes, legislation and policy in the UK and USA from the 1960s to present day relating to university-industry relationships. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents a review of papers, reports and policy documents from the UK and USA drawing comparisons of…

  7. Students and Sex Work in the UK: Providers and Purchasers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Ron; Jones, Amy; Sanders, Teela

    2013-01-01

    Available evidence suggests that changes in the funding of UK higher education in recent years have been accompanied by an increased student presence in the sex industry, ostensibly for financial reasons and to make ends meet. The current study comprises a sample of students ("N" = 200) drawn from several universities in the UK. Data…

  8. Towards the Hybrid Library: Developments in UK Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusbridge, Chris; Royan, Bruce

    This paper outlines the efforts of the United Kingdom (UK) Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) to help UK higher education institutions deal with the growing diversity of information resources. These efforts are based on two strands: the Electronic Libraries Program and the development of the JISC collections. These strands are now coming…

  9. Mapping the Information Systems Curricula in UK Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefanidis, Angelos; Fitzgerald, Guy

    2010-01-01

    Information Systems (IS) undergraduate student numbers in the UK have reduced by half in the last five years. An increasing number of researchers have been pondering the possible relationship between the modernity of IS curricula and its attractiveness to potential students. To support the debate about IS curricula in the UK and elsewhere, this…

  10. Safer Schools in the UK--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Carol; Holt, Amanda; Martin, Denise; Nee, Claire

    2011-01-01

    This article reports a research that is based on a European Safer Schools Partnership that included ten countries and specifically the UK case study which was located in London. The initiators of this partnership had been involved in early SSPs in the UK and the educationalists were very much focussed on work that would address problematic…

  11. Does Price Matter? Overseas Students in UK Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soo, Kwok Tong; Elliott, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the determinants of the choice of UK universities by overseas undergraduate applicants. We use data on overseas applicants in Business Studies and Engineering from 2002 to 2007, to 97 UK universities. Estimating using a Hausman-Taylor model to control for the possible correlation between our explanatory variables and…

  12. Staffing UK University Campuses Overseas: Lessons from MNE Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salt, John; Wood, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This article suggests that as their internal labor markets become more multinational in scope, UK universities may acquire similar staffing characteristics to commercial multinational enterprises (MNEs). Comparing evidence from four UK universities with several surveys of MNEs it concludes that, although there are broad similarities in the…

  13. Has Economics become an Elite Subject for Elite UK Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, James; Reeves, Alan; Talbot, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The decline in the number of UK universities offering undergraduate degree programmes in subjects such as sciences, mathematics, modern languages and humanities has been well documented and is now of real concern. It appears that economics may be going through a decline in new (post-1992) UK universities with many economics programmes having been…

  14. Data Protection Management in University Libraries in the UK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, J. Eric

    1997-01-01

    Examines a range of issues relating to data protection management in UK (United Kingdom) university library and information services. Highlights include data protection legislation, personal data in libraries, and results of an impact survey of UK university libraries. A copy of the survey questionnaire is appended. (Author/LRW)

  15. What Determines Alumni Generosity? Evidence for the UK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, C. R.; Beney, A. P.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the scale and determinants of alumni giving, using datasets from two public-sector UK universities. Considers the importance of alumni giving as revenue and performance measures, comparing UK with U.S. alumni behaviors. Women are more likely to give; high-income grads, particularly lawyers, give greater amounts. (Contains 35 references.)…

  16. Challenges for academic accreditation: the UK experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearman, Richard; Seddon, Deborah

    2010-08-01

    Several factors (government policy, demographic trends, employer pressure) are leading to new forms of degree programmes in UK universities. The government is strongly encouraging engagement between universities and employers. Work-based learning is increasingly found in first and second cycle programmes, along with modules designed by employers and increasing use of distance learning. Engineering faculties are playing a leading part in these developments, and the Engineering Council, the engineering professional bodies and some universities are collaborating to develop work-based learning programmes as a pathway to professional qualification. While potentially beneficial to the engineering profession, these developments pose a challenge to traditional approaches to programme accreditation. This paper explores how this system deals with these challenges and highlights the issues that will have to be addressed to ensure that the system can cope effectively with change, especially the development of individually tailored, work-based second cycle programmes, while maintaining appropriate standards and international confidence.

  17. Leadership and the UK health service.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, N

    2000-02-01

    This paper explores future leadership requirements for health services in the context of relevant leadership theory and the changing environment for health services in the UK. The output of leadership research is both prolific and confusing and its applicability to health services management uncertain especially in the context of constraints on the strategic managerial behaviour and choices of public service managers. The introduction of general management to the UK NHS in the 1980s, followed by an internal market for health care in 1990 should have provided the opportunity for managers to work differently and to create personal space for leadership. However, it is not known whether sustainable , new ways of leadership working have emerged although it is reasonable to hypothesis from studies elsewhere that a number of contextual and behavioural leadership models are likely to be found in the NHS. Although management researchers have explored networking and referred to the impact of the external environment of leadership, insufficient importance has been attached to-date to the impact of future trends in health services on the leadership of change in the health sector. The paper argues that in future health services leadership will require much more than traditional networking with other organizations and groups and will need to focus on developing and securing external agreement to an agenda for positive change turning the apparent constraints of the external environment, determined primarily by government policies,into opportunities. In other words, the demands of external or contextual leadership will increase forcing a stronger focus on having to achieve change through others. PMID:11010225

  18. Multiple-camera tracking: UK government requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosmer, Paul

    2007-10-01

    The Imagery Library for Intelligent Detection Systems (i-LIDS) is the UK government's new standard for Video Based Detection Systems (VBDS). The standard was launched in November 2006 and evaluations against it began in July 2007. With the first four i-LIDS scenarios completed, the Home Office Scientific development Branch (HOSDB) are looking toward the future of intelligent vision in the security surveillance market by adding a fifth scenario to the standard. The fifth i-LIDS scenario will concentrate on the development, testing and evaluation of systems for the tracking of people across multiple cameras. HOSDB and the Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure (CPNI) identified a requirement to track targets across a network of CCTV cameras using both live and post event imagery. The Detection and Vision Systems group at HOSDB were asked to determine the current state of the market and develop an in-depth Operational Requirement (OR) based on government end user requirements. Using this OR the i-LIDS team will develop a full i-LIDS scenario to aid the machine vision community in its development of multi-camera tracking systems. By defining a requirement for multi-camera tracking and building this into the i-LIDS standard the UK government will provide a widely available tool that developers can use to help them turn theory and conceptual demonstrators into front line application. This paper will briefly describe the i-LIDS project and then detail the work conducted in building the new tracking aspect of the standard.

  19. The UK Nitrate Time Bomb (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, R.; Wang, L.; Stuart, M.; Bloomfield, J.; Gooddy, D.; Lewis, M.; McKenzie, A.

    2013-12-01

    The developed world has benefitted enormously from the intensification of agriculture and the increased availability and use of synthetic fertilizers during the last century. However there has also been unintended adverse impact on the natural environment (water and ecosystems) with nitrate the most significant cause of water pollution and ecosystem damage . Many countries have introduced controls on nitrate, e.g. the European Union's Water Framework and Nitrate Directives, but despite this are continuing to see a serious decline in water quality. The purpose of our research is to investigate and quantify the importance of the unsaturated (vadose) zone pathway and groundwater in contributing to the decline. Understanding nutrient behaviour in the sub-surface environment and, in particular, the time lag between action and improvement is critical to effective management and remediation of nutrient pollution. A readily-transferable process-based model has been used to predict temporal loading of nitrate at the water table across the UK. A time-varying nitrate input function has been developed based on nitrate usage since 1925. Depth to the water table has been calculated from groundwater levels based on regional-scale observations in-filled by interpolated river base levels and vertical unsaturated zone velocities estimated from hydrogeological properties and mapping. The model has been validated using the results of more than 300 unsaturated zone nitrate profiles. Results show that for about 60% of the Chalk - the principal aquifer in the UK - peak nitrate input has yet to reach the water table and concentrations will continue to rise over the next 60 years. The implications are hugely significant especially where environmental objectives must be achieved in much shorter timescales. Current environmental and regulatory management strategies rarely take lag times into account and as a result will be poorly informed, leading to inappropriate controls and conflicts

  20. UK consumer perceptions of starchy foods.

    PubMed

    Stubenitsky, K; Mela, D J

    2000-03-01

    To gain an understanding of UK consumer attitudes and beliefs regarding starchy foods and their dietary role, a questionnaire based on the theory of planned behaviour was developed and sent out to a UK consumer sample (n 800). The content focused on attitudes and beliefs towards starchy foods, perceived barriers towards increasing their intake (e.g. cost, habit, social influences), perceptions of personal and recommended starchy food intake, intention to increase starchy food intakes in the future and socio-demographic information. Responses (n 414) indicated that consumers have highly divergent attitudes and beliefs regarding starchy foods. These foods are seen as nutritious and good for one's health, but also as high in energy and not helping to control weight, and the overall intention to increase starchy food intake was extremely low. Possible barriers towards increasing starchy food intake were the perceptions that personal starchy food intakes were already high, beliefs that starchy food intakes should be reduced to achieve a healthier diet, and the view that personal starchy food intakes did not need to be changed any further, because (depending on attitude) individual's intakes had already been increased or reduced. The model including attitude and subjective norm had the best fit for predicting reported intention to increase starchy food consumption, with attitude being the strongest contributor. Addition of the factor 'family's liking of starchy foods' significantly improved the model. For reported starch intake, the model including attitude had the best fit, and addition of other factors did not improve the model. These findings indicate that health promotion strategies aimed at increasing complex carbohydrate intakes should take these perceptions into consideration; however, further work is required to examine how these potential barriers can best be addressed in practice. PMID:10884716

  1. Seasonal UK Drought Forecasting using Statistical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Doug; Fowler, Hayley; Kilsby, Chris; Serinaldi, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    In the UK drought is a recurrent feature of climate with potentially large impacts on public water supply. Water companies' ability to mitigate the impacts of drought by managing diminishing availability depends on forward planning and it would be extremely valuable to improve forecasts of drought on monthly to seasonal time scales. By focusing on statistical forecasting methods, this research aims to provide techniques that are simpler, faster and computationally cheaper than physically based models. In general, statistical forecasting is done by relating the variable of interest (some hydro-meteorological variable such as rainfall or streamflow, or a drought index) to one or more predictors via some formal dependence. These predictors are generally antecedent values of the response variable or external factors such as teleconnections. A candidate model is Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape parameters (GAMLSS). GAMLSS is a very flexible class allowing for more general distribution functions (e.g. highly skewed and/or kurtotic distributions) and the modelling of not just the location parameter but also the scale and shape parameters. Additionally GAMLSS permits the forecasting of an entire distribution, allowing the output to be assessed in probabilistic terms rather than simply the mean and confidence intervals. Exploratory analysis of the relationship between long-memory processes (e.g. large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns, sea surface temperatures and soil moisture content) and drought should result in the identification of suitable predictors to be included in the forecasting model, and further our understanding of the drivers of UK drought.

  2. The carbon component of the UK power price

    SciTech Connect

    Kris Voorspools

    2006-08-01

    CO{sub 2} emissions trading is in full swing in Europe and is already having an impact on the price of power in the UK. If EU allowances (EUAs) trade at euro 20/t-CO{sub 2}, the EUA component in the power price is estimated to be slightly < euro 10/MW.h. In the case of UK power for delivery 1 year ahead, this is {approximately} 10% of the market price of power. The introduction of a carbon components into the UK power prices took place along before the 'official' start of ETS in 2005. Analysis of historical data of the price of power, gas, coal and EUAs shows that the first trace of a CO{sub 2} component in UK power dates back to August 2003, shortly after EUAs first started to trade. In April 2004, CO{sub 2} was fully integrated into the UK power price. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Update on Radioactive Waste Management in the UK

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, John; McCall, Ann

    2003-02-24

    This paper provides a brief background to the current position in the United Kingdom (UK) and provides an update on the various developments and initiatives within the field of radioactive waste management that have been taking place during 2002/03. These include: The UK Government's Department of Trade and Industry (DTi) review of UK energy policy; The UK Government's (Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) and Devolved Administrations*) consultation program; The UK Government's DTi White Paper, 'Managing the Nuclear Legacy: A Strategy for Action'; Proposals for improved regulation of Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) conditioning and packaging. These various initiatives relate, in Nirex's opinion, to the three sectors of the industry and this paper will provide a comment on these initiatives in light of the lessons that Nirex has learnt from past events and suggest some conclusions for the future.

  4. Learning the law: practical proposals for UK medical education.

    PubMed

    Margetts, J K

    2016-02-01

    Ongoing serious breaches in medical professionalism might be avoided if UK doctors rethink their approach to law. UK medical education has a role in creating a climate of change by re-examining how law is taught to medical students. Adopting a more insightful approach in the UK to the impact of The Human Rights Act and learning to manipulate legal concepts, such as conflict of interest, need to be taught to medical students now if UK doctors are to manage complex decision-making in the NHS of the future. The literature is reviewed from a unique personal perspective of a doctor and lawyer, and practical proposals for developing medical education in law in the UK are suggested. PMID:23161613

  5. Enhancing national Daily Landslide Hazard Assessments through inter-agency collaboration; lessons learned from storm Desmond (UK)/Synne (Norway), Dec 2015.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boje, Søren; Devoli, Graziella; Sund, Monica; Freeborough, Katy; Dijkstra, Tom; Reeves, Helen; Banks, Vanessa

    2016-04-01

    The Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) and the British Geological Survey (BGS) compile daily landslide hazard assessments (DLHA) in their respective countries. NVE DLHA has been operational since 2013 and provides national daily assessments based on quantitative thresholds related to daily hydro-meteorological forecasts coupled with qualitative expert analysis of these forecasts. The BGS DLHA has been operational since 2012 and this is predominantly based on expert evaluation of antecedent hydro-meteorological conditions and triggering rainfall across Great Britain (GB). In both cases, the hydro-meteorological evaluation is coupled with observations derived from proprietary datasets on landslide events and landslide potential in order to specify, and limit, the spatial extent of the potentially impacted area. However, the DLHA are strongly driven by hydro-meteorological forecasts. In December 2015, a large extra-tropical cyclone developed over the Atlantic and delivered record-breaking precipitation over parts of the UK and Norway. The meteorological services started naming these events to enhance public uptake and awareness and the storms were named as Desmond (the 4th large storm in 2015/16 in the UK) and Synne (the 5th storm in 2015 in Norway). Desmond arrived in earnest on the 5th of December and brought intense precipitation and strong winds over a 48-hour period. In Cumbria (NW-England) record precipitation was measured (341.4 mm in 24-hour at Honister Pass which is more than twice the monthly average), with 48-hour accumulations exceeding 400 mm. Synne arrived shortly after in Norway and was also characterised by excessive rainfall of 140 mm in 24-hour, 236 mm in 48-hour and 299 mm in 72-hour at Maudal, SW-Norway. Both organisations managed to issue appropriate advance warnings, operating individually. In Norway, warnings were issued some 2 days in advance with a yellow level communicated on Friday 4th and an orange warning the 5th and 6

  6. SSTL UK-DMC SLIM-6 data quality assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Saunier, S.; Choate, M.J.; Scaramuzza, P.L.

    2009-01-01

    Satellite data from the Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) United Kingdom (UK) Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) were assessed for geometric and radiometric quality. The UK-DMC Surrey Linear Imager 6 (SLIM-6) sensor has a 32-m spatial resolution and a ground swath width of 640 km. The UK-DMC SLIM-6 design consists of a three-band imager with green, red, and near-infrared bands that are set to similar bandpass as Landsat bands 2, 3, and 4. The UK-DMC data consisted of imagery registered to Landsat orthorectified imagery produced from the GeoCover program. Relief displacements within the UK-DMC SLIM-6 imagery were accounted for by using global 1-km digital elevation models available through the Global Land One-km Base Elevation (GLOBE) Project. Positional accuracy and relative band-to-band accuracy were measured. Positional accuracy of the UK-DMC SLIM-6 imagery was assessed by measuring the imagery against digital orthophoto quadrangles (DOQs), which are designed to meet national map accuracy standards at 1:24000 scales; this corresponds to a horizontal root-mean-square accuracy of about 6 m. The UK-DMC SLIM-6 images were typically registered to within 1.01.5 pixels to the DOQ mosaic images. Several radiometric artifacts like striping, coherent noise, and flat detector were discovered and studied. Indications are that the SSTL UK-DMC SLIM-6 data have few artifacts and calibration challenges, and these can be adjusted or corrected via calibration and processing algorithms. The cross-calibration of the UK-DMC SLIM-6 and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus was performed using image statistics derived from large common areas observed by the two sensors. ?? 2006 IEEE.

  7. The siting of UK nuclear reactors.

    PubMed

    Grimston, Malcolm; Nuttall, William J; Vaughan, Geoff

    2014-06-01

    Choosing a suitable site for a nuclear power station requires the consideration and balancing of several factors. Some 'physical' site characteristics, such as the local climate and the potential for seismic activity, will be generic to all reactors designs, while others, such as the availability of cooling water, the area of land required and geological conditions capable of sustaining the weight of the reactor and other buildings will to an extent be dependent on the particular design of reactor chosen (or alternatively the reactor design chosen may to an extent be dependent on the characteristics of an available site). However, one particularly interesting tension is a human and demographic one. On the one hand it is beneficial to place nuclear stations close to centres of population, to reduce transmission losses and other costs (including to the local environment) of transporting electricity over large distances from generator to consumer. On the other it is advantageous to place nuclear stations some distance away from such population centres in order to minimise the potential human consequences of a major release of radioactive materials in the (extremely unlikely) event of a major nuclear accident, not only in terms of direct exposure but also concerning the management of emergency planning, notably evacuation.This paper considers the emergence of policies aimed at managing this tension in the UK. In the first phase of nuclear development (roughly speaking 1945-1965) there was a highly cautious attitude, with installations being placed in remote rural locations with very low population density. The second phase (1965-1985) saw a more relaxed approach, allowing the development of AGR nuclear power stations (which with concrete pressure vessels were regarded as significantly safer) closer to population centres (in 'semi-urban' locations, notably at Hartlepool and Heysham). In the third phase (1985-2005) there was very little new nuclear development, Sizewell

  8. Macrophytes: ecosystem engineers in UK urban rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, H.; Gurnell, A.; Heppell, K.; Spencer, K.

    2012-04-01

    Macrophytes act as ecosystem engineers within river channels in that they have the ability to cause geomorphological and ecological change. They induce reductions in flow velocity and associated sediment accumulation, and their system of underground roots and rhizomes also reinforces the accumulated sediment reducing sediment erosion and resuspension and creating habitats. As sediments, particularly finer-grained, store contaminants including metals, this engineering means that in the specific context of urban rivers where sediments are more likely to be contaminated, macrophytes trap and hold contaminated sediments creating a potentially important sink of metals. However, depending on the ability for the macrophyte to reinforce the sediment and reduce erosion and resuspension, there is the potential for the sink to turn in to a source and metals to be released in to the overlying water. This research therefore looks at the ecosystem engineering ability of common macrophytes in UK urban rivers by looking at: (i) the effect upon flow velocity and sediment accumulation of Sparganium erectum (branched bur-reed); (ii) the sediment reinforcement ability of both S. erectum, Typha latifolia (bulrush) and Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass); and, (iii) the storage of metals within the sediment, overlying water and the macrophytes. Research was undertaken on the River Blackwater, an urban river in Surrey, UK which has extensive macrophyte growth. Flow velocity measurements and fine sediment depths were recorded both within and outside of dense stands of S. erectum. The uprooting resistance (as an indicator of sediment reinforcement) was measured for three species: S. erectum, T. latifolia and P. arundinacea. Additionally, some preliminary sampling was undertaken of the sediment, overlying water and the macrophytes to determine metal storage. Lower flow velocities and greater volumes of fine sediment were recorded within the stands of S. erectum as opposed to the

  9. Questions raised over future of UK research council

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2010-02-01

    Five senior physicists have written to the UK science minister, Lord Drayson, about the "dismal future" for researchers in the country in the wake of a £40m shortfall in the budget of the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC). The physicists, who chair the STFC's five advisory panels, have also called for structural reforms to be made to the council. They warn that unless the government takes action to reverse the situation, the UK will be "perceived as an untrustworthy partner in global projects" and predict that a brain drain of the best UK scientists to positions overseas will ensue.

  10. Burnout in therapy radiographers in the UK.

    PubMed

    Probst, H; Griffiths, S; Adams, R; Hill, C

    2012-09-01

    The 2007 UK National Radiotherapy Advisory Group report indicated that the number and type of staff available is one of the "rate-limiting" steps in improving productivity in radiotherapy departments. Retaining well-trained, satisfied staff is key to meeting the objectives of the report; burnout is an important factor linked to satisfaction and attrition. The results of a survey measuring burnout in a sample of radiotherapists (therapy radiographers) are presented and considered against norms for the health sector and burnout in therapists from Canada and the USA. Case study methodology was used studying six radiotherapy departments selected because of close geographical proximity and differing vacancy rates for radiotherapists. An anonymous survey of radiotherapists used the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and other workforce-related measures (e.g. job satisfaction scales, measures of professional plateau, intentions to leave, job characteristics and demographic data); the results of the burnout questionnaire alone are presented in this paper. A total of 97 completed questionnaires were returned (representing a 28% response rate). The average score for emotional exhaustion was higher than the MBI norms, with 38% of respondents reporting emotional exhaustion (an element of burnout). The data presented support and validated a previous qualitative study, and highlighted key areas of concern requiring further study. A correlation between burnout and job dissatisfaction and intention to leave was identified; managers may want to consider encouraging role extension and good leadership qualities in treatment unit leaders to minimise the potential for burnout. PMID:22253352

  11. Processing LHC data in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Colling, D.; Britton, D.; Gordon, J.; Lloyd, S.; Doyle, A.; Gronbech, P.; Coles, J.; Sansum, A.; Patrick, G.; Jones, R.; Middleton, R.; Kelsey, D.; Cass, A.; Geddes, N.; Clark, P.; Barnby, L.

    2013-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is one of the greatest scientific endeavours to date. The construction of the collider itself and the experiments that collect data from it represent a huge investment, both financially and in terms of human effort, in our hope to understand the way the Universe works at a deeper level. Yet the volumes of data produced are so large that they cannot be analysed at any single computing centre. Instead, the experiments have all adopted distributed computing models based on the LHC Computing Grid. Without the correct functioning of this grid infrastructure the experiments would not be able to understand the data that they have collected. Within the UK, the Grid infrastructure needed by the experiments is provided by the GridPP project. We report on the operations, performance and contributions made to the experiments by the GridPP project during the years of 2010 and 2011—the first two significant years of the running of the LHC. PMID:23230163

  12. Burnout in therapy radiographers in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Probst, H; Griffiths, S; Adams, R; Hill, C

    2012-01-01

    The 2007 UK National Radiotherapy Advisory Group report indicated that the number and type of staff available is one of the “rate-limiting” steps in improving productivity in radiotherapy departments. Retaining well-trained, satisfied staff is key to meeting the objectives of the report; burnout is an important factor linked to satisfaction and attrition. The results of a survey measuring burnout in a sample of radiotherapists (therapy radiographers) are presented and considered against norms for the health sector and burnout in therapists from Canada and the USA. Case study methodology was used studying six radiotherapy departments selected because of close geographical proximity and differing vacancy rates for radiotherapists. An anonymous survey of radiotherapists used the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and other workforce-related measures (e.g. job satisfaction scales, measures of professional plateau, intentions to leave, job characteristics and demographic data); the results of the burnout questionnaire alone are presented in this paper. A total of 97 completed questionnaires were returned (representing a 28% response rate). The average score for emotional exhaustion was higher than the MBI norms, with 38% of respondents reporting emotional exhaustion (an element of burnout). The data presented support and validated a previous qualitative study, and highlighted key areas of concern requiring further study. A correlation between burnout and job dissatisfaction and intention to leave was identified; managers may want to consider encouraging role extension and good leadership qualities in treatment unit leaders to minimise the potential for burnout. PMID:22253352

  13. Ectoparasites of goats in the UK.

    PubMed

    Cornall, Katherine; Wall, Richard

    2015-01-15

    The goat industry in the UK has expanded rapidly in recent years, but at present there is only a poor understanding of the prevalence of parasitic diseases in this farming system. Here, a questionnaire survey of 110 goat owners was used to address this issue. Problems with louse infestation in the previous 12 months were reported by 23% of owners and 19% reported mange. Chorioptic mange was the most common form, with 14 of 21 cases. Sarcoptic mage accounted for only 3 cases and demodex and psoroptic mange each made up 2 cases. Only 53 farmers (48%) said that they took preventative measures to protect their animals against ectoparasite infestation; 20 of these relied on macrocyclic lactones (MLs), the most common product specified was ivermectin. Therapeutic treatment was used by all respondents who said that they had experienced ectoparasites, and again ivermectin was the most common treatment. The use of fipronil was specified by 3 respondents, including one commercial meat producer. Four farmers said that they used antibiotics as an ectoparasiticide. This pattern of treatment for ectoparasites, with reliance on MLs, has implications for the inadvertent selection of resistance in endoparasites. The results suggest that ectoparasites are a major problem for many goat owners, both commercial and non-commercial, but that there is a need for better information for the goat producing community about the optimum approaches to parasite prevention and treatment. PMID:25465737

  14. 2009 UK/US Nuclear Engineering Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Rankin

    2009-04-01

    This report summarizes the 2009 UK/US Nuclear Engineering Workshop held April 20-21, 2010, in Washington, D.C. to discuss opportunities for nuclear engineering collaboration between researchers in the United States and the United Kingdom.

  15. U.K. Case of Throat Gonorrhea Resists Antibiotics

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159536.html U.K. Case of Throat Gonorrhea Resists Antibiotics U.S. officials concerned about potential ... public health experts have confirmed a case of throat gonorrhea that proved untreatable with the standard antibiotic ...

  16. Hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans acquired in the UK.

    PubMed

    Baple, Katy; Clayton, James

    2015-01-01

    Hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans (HrCLM) is a skin disease caused by infection with the larvae of animal hookworms. With conditions for infection more favourable in tropical climates, HrCLM in the UK is classically diagnosed in the returning traveller. We present two cases of clinically diagnosed UK-acquired HrCLM from a district general hospital in the south of England. A 68-year-old woman presented with a pruritic serpiginous tract on the right hand. She was a keen gardener and had been handling compost. A 50-year-old man, a long distance runner, presented with a similar lesion on the dorsum of his foot. Both patients were treated with a single dose of albendazole. These cases may represent an emerging infection in the UK. In the absence of a suggestive travel history, early recognition followed by efficient access to therapy is vital for treating HrCLM transmitted in the UK. PMID:26567237

  17. Universities give record level of support to the UK economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-08-01

    Universities in the UK are providing record levels of services to businesses, according to a recent survey by the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS) and the Higher Education Funding Council for England. The survey concludes that the income earned by universities and higher-education colleges in the UK is now worth a total of £2.812bn - an increase of 6.5% from the previous year.

  18. Assisted dying - should the UK change its stance?

    PubMed

    Gordon, Daniel; Raphael, Claire E; Vassiliou, Vassilios

    2015-04-01

    Along with an increasing interest in assisted dying by many European and North American countries, some of which have already modified their existing laws to accommodate this, the interest in assisted dying in the UK has increased once again following Lord Falconer's Assisted Dying for the Terminally Ill Bill. Drawing on examples from countries where similar assisted dying laws are already in place, this article analyses and contextualises the proposed bill and discusses its potential pitfalls and benefits for the UK. PMID:25628340

  19. First emission estimates from the UK DECC network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Aoife; O'Doherty, Simon; Manning, Alistair J.; Young, Dickon; Simmonds, Peter G.; Derwent, Richard G.; Moncrieff, John B.; Oram, David E.; Sturges, William T.

    2013-04-01

    The UK DECC (Deriving Emissions linked to Climate Change) network monitors the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases to assess the impact of international policies related to climate change. The effects of control measures on greenhouse gases introduced under the Kyoto Protocol are now being observed. Continued monitoring is required to assess the overall success of the Protocol. For over 25 years the UK Government has funded high-frequency measurements of greenhouse gases at Mace Head, a global background measurement station on the west coast of Ireland. These in-situ, high-frequency, high-precision measurements are used to estimate emissions of greenhouse gases across the UK using the inversion methodology InTEM (Inversion Technique for Emission Modelling). InTEM links the Met Office's atmospheric dispersion model, NAME (Numerical Atmospheric dispersion Modelling Environment), with the Mace Head observations and provides independent verification of bottom up (inventory) emission estimates. In 2011 the UK government (Department of Energy and Climate Change) funded the establishment and integration of three new tall tower measurements stations in the UK, to allow enhanced resolution emission estimates with decreased uncertainty to be produced using InTEM. The new network became operational in 2012. All three additional stations provide ultra high-frequency (1 sec) data of CO2 and CH4 using the Picarro© Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer and high frequency (10 min) measurements of N2O and SF6 from custom built sample modules with GC-ECD. We will present the new UK measurement network in detail along with the new inversion results highlighting the enhanced resolution in regional emission maps for the UK. These results are presented to the UK government annually and provide independent verification of the emission estimates of radiatively active trace gases. The results are compared to the bottom up inventory emission estimates as submitted to the UNFCCC.

  20. The alcohol industry, charities and policy influence in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Lyness, Sarah M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Charities exist to pursue a public benefit, whereas corporations serve the interests of their shareholders. The alcohol industry uses corporate social responsibility activities to further its interests in influencing alcohol policy. Many charities also seek to influence alcohol and other policy. The aim of this study was to explore relationships between the alcohol industry and charities in the UK and whether these relationships may be used as a method of influencing alcohol policy. Methods: The charity regulator websites for England and Wales and for Scotland were the main data sources used to identify charities involved in UK alcohol policy making processes and/or funded by the alcohol industry. Results: Five charities were identified that both receive alcohol industry funding and are active in UK alcohol policy processes: Drinkaware; the Robertson Trust; British Institute of Innkeeping; Mentor UK and Addaction. The latter two are the sole remaining non-industry non-governmental members of the controversial responsibility deal alcohol network, from which all other public health interests have resigned. Conclusion: This study raises questions about the extent to which the alcohol industry is using UK charities as vehicles to further their own interests in UK alcohol policy. Mechanisms of industry influence in alcohol policy making globally is an important target for further investigations designed to assist the implementation of evidenced-based policies. PMID:24913316

  1. Calcite saturation in eastern UK rivers.

    PubMed

    Neal, Colin

    2002-01-23

    Calcite saturation in eastern UK rivers is assessed in relation to the potential kinetic inhibition of calcite precipitation. Two well established inhibitors are considered: soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP, i.e. inorganic monomeric phosphorus); and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The rivers show a range of calcite saturation levels from approximately 1hundredth to approximately 100-fold. The greatest range occurs for the northernmost river considered, the Tweed, where the waters range from highly unsaturated to highly oversaturated. The lowest range occurs for the most southerly rivers (the Great Ouse and the Thames) where the waters are consistently oversaturated with respect to calcite. The contrasting patterns relate to a greater diversity of water quality within the northern regions. Thus, during the winter, the main waters are derived from the upland areas with acidic soils and low weathering rates. During the summer baseflow periods, groundwater inputs are more important and high photosynthesis results in particularly high pHs and calcite oversaturation. In contrast, for the southern rivers, the main source of water during both the summer baseflow and the winter highflow periods comes from calcium carbonate rich aquifer sources. Statistical analysis of pH vs. the logarithm of the calcite saturation index for each river indicates strong linear features with individual gradients of approximately 1. This linearity results from an autocorrelation (the logarithm of the saturation index is calculated from the pH) and this indicates that calcite solubility controls are not operative in any of the rivers examined. A comparison of calcite saturation levels and SRP and DOC concentrations show a pattern inconsistent with kinetic hindrance, although some structure is observed, probably due to the mixing reactions between point and diffuse sources of water with contrasting chemistry. PMID:11846076

  2. Macrofaunal production along the UK continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolam, S. G.; Barrio-Frojan, C. R. S.; Eggleton, J. D.

    2010-10-01

    Estimates of secondary production ( P/ B ratio and total production) by macrobenthic communities across the UK continental shelf are presented. Values for individual sampling stations varied from 0.21 to 4.1 y - 1 for community P/ B and 3.1 to 897.2 kJ m - 2 y - 1 for total production. Such data fills an important gap pertaining to our understanding of the spatial variation in production estimates for this region. Benthic production estimates varied primarily at small (inter-station) scales (24 nm), although larger-scale differences were observed. In general, the highest production estimates were exhibited by benthic communities in Cardigan Bay (Irish Sea) and East English Channel, while the lowest estimates were observed for the mid- and northern North Sea areas. The former were typified by shallow, gravelly areas of seabed which exhibit high bed tidal stress and do not thermally stratify during the summer months. On average, annelids contribute an overwhelming majority of the total production with different regions varying in the relative contributions from other phyla such as molluscs, crustaceans and echinoderms. Spatial heterogeneity of sediment granulometric variables occurred primarily between stations while those of other variables (e.g., depth, stratification, and tidal bed stress) were more regional. Although a large proportion of the spatial variation in secondary production estimates was not explained by environmental characteristics, the data indicate that such relationships are scale-dependent. Average bed temperature was a significant factor in creating some of the observed differences at large spatial scales. The possible reasons why a larger proportion of the variation in production estimates was not explained by the present study are presented.

  3. Trends in UK cancer trials: results from the UK Coordinating Committee for Cancer Research National Register of Cancer Trials

    PubMed Central

    Vale, C; Stewart, L; Tierney, J

    2005-01-01

    We aimed to study trends in the design and conduct of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in cancer in the UK, using the UK Coordinating Committee for Cancer Research (UKCCCR) National Register of Cancer Trials (NRCT). We conducted a descriptive survey of 520 UK RCTs in cancer that were registered on the UKCCCR NRCT. All trials had been initiated between 1971 and 2000. Trials on the NRCT have been conducted in a wide variety of cancer types, but with a third in breast (22%) or lung cancer (11%). They have largely been funded by the UK public and charity sectors. Overall, there has been a sustained rise in the total numbers of patients entering UK cancer trials over time with a trend towards larger, multicentre trials, greater recruitment targets and a marked reduction in the average time taken to complete trials. Trends in the design and conduct of noncommercial cancer RCTs from 1971 to 2000 are encouraging. It will be interesting to see how they develop in light of the implementation of recent national initiatives regarding cancer clinical trials in the UK. PMID:15756251

  4. A UK utility perspective on irradiated nuclear fuel management

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmer, P.C.

    1994-12-31

    Before privatisation in 1990, the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB), had a statutory responsibility for the supply of electricity in England and Wales. Nuclear Electric took over the operation of the CEGB`s nuclear assets whilst remaining in the public sector. It now has to compete with private sector companies within the privatised market for electricity in the UK. The UK has had a tradition of reprocessing originating in the early weapons programme and all irradiated fuel from the Magnox reactors continues to be reprocessed. Specific consideration is given to the fuel used in the Advanced Gas Cooled Reactors (AGR) and the competing irradiated fuel management strategies of early reprocessing British Nuclear Fuel`s (BNFL) Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) at Sellafield or the alternative of long term storage followed by direct disposal. The fuel management strategy for the UK`s first Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR), Sizewell B, will also be discussed. This review considers the following issues: (1) Plant technology and the effect on back-end strategies; (2) Nuclear Electric`s commercial approach to the changing UK business environment; (3) The inevitability of storage in the management of irradiated fuel; (4) Dry storage as an option in the UK Non economic issues such as safety, public perception, proliferation, International Safeguards and bilateral trade agreements; and (5) The experience of THORP and the issues it raises concerning two stage licensing. This paper not only reflects on the worldwide issues relating to the {open_quotes}reprocess or not decision{close_quotes} but also considers UK specific actions both historic and current. It concludes that whether to exercise the option of reprocessing in the short or long term, or at all, is a matter of commercial and strategic judgement of Nuclear Electric.

  5. Pipeline Decommissioning Trial AWE Berkshire UK - 13619

    SciTech Connect

    Agnew, Kieran

    2013-07-01

    This Paper details the implementation of a 'Decommissioning Trial' to assess the feasibility of decommissioning the redundant pipeline operated by AWE located in Berkshire UK. The paper also presents the tool box of decommissioning techniques that were developed during the decommissioning trial. Constructed in the 1950's and operated until 2005, AWE used a pipeline for the authorised discharge of treated effluent. Now redundant, the pipeline is under a care and surveillance regime awaiting decommissioning. The pipeline is some 18.5 km in length and extends from AWE site to the River Thames. Along its route the pipeline passes along and under several major roads, railway lines and rivers as well as travelling through woodland, agricultural land and residential areas. Currently under care and surveillance AWE is considering a number of options for decommissioning the pipeline. One option is to remove the pipeline. In order to assist option evaluation and assess the feasibility of removing the pipeline a decommissioning trial was undertaken and sections of the pipeline were removed within the AWE site. The objectives of the decommissioning trial were to: - Demonstrate to stakeholders that the pipeline can be removed safely, securely and cleanly - Develop a 'tool box' of methods that could be deployed to remove the pipeline - Replicate the conditions and environments encountered along the route of the pipeline The onsite trial was also designed to replicate the physical prevailing conditions and constraints encountered along the remainder of its route i.e. working along a narrow corridor, working in close proximity to roads, working in proximity to above ground and underground services (e.g. Gas, Water, Electricity). By undertaking the decommissioning trial AWE have successfully demonstrated the pipeline can be decommissioned in a safe, secure and clean manor and have developed a tool box of decommissioning techniques. The tool box of includes; - Hot tapping - a method

  6. An Introduction to the UK Polar Network: Education and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendry, K.; Irvine, E.; Mugford, R.; Freeman, H.; Baker, N.; Thomas, L.; Rye, C.; Cheshire, J.

    2007-12-01

    The UK Polar Network is the UK branch of the IPY Youth Steering Committee, an endorsed IPY Project, and the Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS). We have two aims in the UKPN: (1) to provide a network for early career polar researchers working in the UK and (2) to carry out education and outreach activities in UK schools, science festivals and through our website. The Education and Outreach working group is involved in organising programs for a range of age groups including engaging activities for primary and secondary school children, information packs on careers and gap year ideas to school leavers and undergraduate students. The intention is, as far as possible, to keep these events free through fundraising. In addition we aim to provide funding for UK polar researchers to attend national networking days and international IPY conferences to present their work, and are involved with organising workshops at these events. In addition, our website is being developed to provide discussion boards, careers information for polar researchers, as well as information for the public, photos and blogs from polar researchers in the field.

  7. History of UK contribution to astronautics: Politics and government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks CB, Colin

    2009-12-01

    In all developed countries, once it emerged from the amateur era, Space (and especially rocketry) moved on the public agenda because of its potential significance for both the civil and military policies of governments (coupled with its appetite for new money). In the UK the policy treatment of Space broadly paralleled that in other countries until the post-Empire trauma, the burn-out of the White-Hot Technological revolution of Harold Wilson, and the financial crises of the 1970s exhausted the public appetite for large scale publicly funded projects in high technology. The culmination for Space of these pressures came in 1986-1987 when the UK rejected the emerging international consensus and, almost alone, stayed outside the manned space commitments which developed into the International Space Station. In this paper, Colin Hicks will review the UK political developments which led up to the 1986-1987 decision and how the politics and organisation of UK space activity have developed since then to the point where in 2008 a major government review of the UK involvement in manned space was commissioned.

  8. UK114, a YjgF/Yer057p/UK114 family protein highly conserved from bacteria to mammals, is localized in rat liver peroxisomes

    SciTech Connect

    Antonenkov, Vasily D. . E-mail: vasily.antonenkov@oulu.fi; Ohlmeier, Steffen; Sormunen, Raija T.; Hiltunen, J. Kalervo

    2007-05-25

    Mammalian UK114 belongs to a highly conserved family of proteins with unknown functions. Although it is believed that UK114 is a cytosolic or mitochondrial protein there is no detailed study of its intracellular localization. Using analytical subcellular fractionation, electron microscopic colloidal gold technique, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of peroxisomal matrix proteins combined with mass spectrometric analysis we show here that a large portion of UK114 is present in rat liver peroxisomes. The peroxisomal UK114 is a soluble matrix protein and it is not inducible by the peroxisomal proliferator clofibrate. The data predict involvement of UK114 in peroxisomal metabolism.

  9. Barrow-in-Furness: a large community legionellosis outbreak in the UK.

    PubMed

    Bennett, E; Ashton, M; Calvert, N; Chaloner, J; Cheesbrough, J; Egan, J; Farrell, I; Hall, I; Harrison, T G; Naik, F C; Partridge, S; Syed, Q; Gent, R N

    2014-08-01

    A community outbreak of legionellosis occurred in Barrow-in-Furness, Cumbria, during July and August 2002. A descriptive study and active case-finding were instigated and all known wet cooling systems and other potential sources were investigated. Genotypic and phenotypic analysis, and amplified fragment length polymorphism of clinical human and environmental isolates confirmed the air-conditioning unit of a council-owned arts and leisure centre to be the source of infection. Subsequent sequence-based typing confirmed this link. One hundred and seventy-nine cases, including seven deaths [case fatality rate (CFR) 3·9%] were attributed to the outbreak. Timely recognition and management of the incident very likely led to the low CFR compared to other outbreaks. The outbreak highlights the responsibility associated with managing an aerosol-producing system, with the potential to expose and infect a large proportion of the local population and the consequent legal ramifications and human cost. PMID:24112310

  10. From the Saltmarsh and the Deershelter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Key, Paul

    2011-01-01

    When we think about approaches to teaching and learning in art and design education the diverse and complex role of the teacher soon becomes apparent. Teachers often find themselves working through situations which require them to shift between subject- and learner-centred approaches, where they negotiate authority and freedom in their teaching…

  11. Effects of Shoreline Dynamics on Saltmarsh Vegetation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shailesh; Goff, Joshua; Moody, Ryan M; McDonald, Ashley; Byron, Dorothy; Heck, Kenneth L; Powers, Sean P; Ferraro, Carl; Cebrian, Just

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of shoreline dynamics on fringing vegetation density at mid- and low-marsh elevations at a high-energy site in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Particularly, we selected eight unprotected shoreline stretches (75 m each) at a historically eroding site and measured their inter-annual lateral movement rate using the DSAS method for three consecutive years. We observed high inter-annual variability of shoreline movement within the selected stretches. Specifically, shorelines retrograded (eroded) in year 1 and year 3, whereas, in year 2, shorelines advanced seaward. Despite shoreline advancement in year 2, an overall net erosion was recorded during the survey period. Additionally, vegetation density generally declined at both elevations during the survey period; however, probably due to their immediate proximity with lateral erosion agents (e.g., waves, currents), marsh grasses at low-elevation exhibited abrupt reduction in density, more so than grasses at mid elevation. Finally, contrary to our hypothesis, despite shoreline advancement, vegetation density did not increase correspondingly in year 2 probably due to a lag in response from biota. More studies in other coastal systems may advance our knowledge of marsh edge systems; however, we consider our results could be beneficial to resource managers in preparing protection plans for coastal wetlands against chronic stressors such as lateral erosion. PMID:27442515

  12. Effects of Shoreline Dynamics on Saltmarsh Vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shailesh; Goff, Joshua; Moody, Ryan M.; McDonald, Ashley; Byron, Dorothy; Heck, Kenneth L.; Powers, Sean P.; Ferraro, Carl; Cebrian, Just

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of shoreline dynamics on fringing vegetation density at mid- and low-marsh elevations at a high-energy site in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Particularly, we selected eight unprotected shoreline stretches (75 m each) at a historically eroding site and measured their inter-annual lateral movement rate using the DSAS method for three consecutive years. We observed high inter-annual variability of shoreline movement within the selected stretches. Specifically, shorelines retrograded (eroded) in year 1 and year 3, whereas, in year 2, shorelines advanced seaward. Despite shoreline advancement in year 2, an overall net erosion was recorded during the survey period. Additionally, vegetation density generally declined at both elevations during the survey period; however, probably due to their immediate proximity with lateral erosion agents (e.g., waves, currents), marsh grasses at low-elevation exhibited abrupt reduction in density, more so than grasses at mid elevation. Finally, contrary to our hypothesis, despite shoreline advancement, vegetation density did not increase correspondingly in year 2 probably due to a lag in response from biota. More studies in other coastal systems may advance our knowledge of marsh edge systems; however, we consider our results could be beneficial to resource managers in preparing protection plans for coastal wetlands against chronic stressors such as lateral erosion. PMID:27442515

  13. Propagation data for VHF planning in the UK area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, K. A.; Lane, J. A.

    1983-03-01

    Demand for VHF spectrum in the UK requires sharing of frequency bands by different services. Fundamental to the planning of shared bands is the prediction of the potential interference between the services for small percentages of the time. The most well established prediction method at VHF is probably that given in CCIR Recommendation 370. As an aid to UK spectrum planning, the suitability of Recommendation 370-4 has been investigated for propagation paths within, or terminating in the UK. Comparisons have been made between long term measurements and predicted values of field strength using the Recommendation. For some categories of path, measured field strengths were found to exceed predicted values by some 10 dB; other categories however, show good agreement. the applicability of the Recommendation to current planning requirements is discussed in the light of the comparisons.

  14. Saturated and trans-fatty acids in UK takeaway food.

    PubMed

    Davies, Ian Glynn; Blackham, Toni; Jaworowska, Agnieszka; Taylor, Catherine; Ashton, Matthew; Stevenson, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans-fatty acid (TFA) contents of popular takeaway foods in the UK (including English, pizza, Chinese, Indian and kebab cuisine). Samples of meals were analyzed by an accredited public analyst laboratory for SFA and TFA. The meals were highly variable for SFA and TFA. English and Pizza meals had the highest median amount of SFA with 35.7 g/meal; Kebab meals were high in TFA with up to 5.2 g/meal. When compared to UK dietary reference values, some meals exceeded SFA and TFA recommendations from just one meal. Takeaway food would be an obvious target to reduce SFA and TFA contents and increase the potential of meeting UK recommendations. Strategies such as reformulation and smaller takeaway portion sizes warrant investigation. PMID:26911372

  15. UK Hazard Assessment for a Laki-type Volcanic Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witham, Claire; Felton, Chris; Daud, Sophie; Aspinall, Willy; Braban, Christine; Loughlin, Sue; Hort, Matthew; Schmidt, Anja; Vieno, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    Following the impacts of the Eyjafjallajokull eruption in 2010, two types of volcanic eruption have been added to the UK Government's National Risk Register for Civil Emergencies. One of these, a large gas-rich volcanic eruption, was identified as a high impact natural hazard, one of the three highest priority natural hazards faced by the UK. This eruption scenario is typified by the Laki eruption in Iceland in 1783-1784. The Civil Contingency Secretariat (CCS) of the UK's Cabinet Office, responsible for Civil Protection in the UK, has since been working on quantifying the risk and better understanding its potential impacts. This involves cross-cutting work across UK Government departments and the wider scientific community in order to identify the capabilities needed to respond to an effusive eruption, to exercise the response and develop increased resilience where possible. As part of its current work, CCS has been working closely with the UK Met Office and other UK agencies and academics (represented by the co-authors and others) to generate and assess the impacts of a 'reasonable worst case scenario', which can be used for decision making and preparation in advance of an eruption. Information from the literature and the findings of an expert elicitation have been synthesised to determine appropriate eruption source term parameters and associated uncertainties. This scenario is then being used to create a limited ensemble of model simulations of the dispersion and chemical conversion of the emissions of volcanic gases during such an eruption. The UK Met Office's NAME Lagrangian dispersion model and the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology's EMEP4UK Eulerian model are both being used. Modelling outputs will address the likelihood of near-surface concentrations of sulphur and halogen species being above specified health thresholds. Concentrations at aviation relevant altitudes will also be evaluated, as well as the effects of acid deposition of volcanic species on

  16. CEA in policies and plans: UK case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Lourdes M.

    2011-09-15

    This paper examines how cumulative effects assessment (CEA) has been considered in Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEA) of regional and local plans in a number of case studies in the UK. Initially, the paper presents the legislative and regulatory requirements for assessing cumulative effects in plans and programmes in the UK. The two approaches for assessing plans in the UK, Sustainability Appraisal (SA) and SEA are discussed and in most cases, a combined SA and SEA process is undertaken by Regional and Local Planning Authorities. The strengths and weaknesses of this approach are explored, as well as their usefulness in decision making. There are problems relating to baseline, establishing trends and predicting cumulative effects at the strategic level. The issues in assessing cumulative effects within this SA/SEA framework are discussed and recommendations for improvements are made.

  17. [Employment-related benefit system in the UK].

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Keiji; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Matsuda, Shinya

    2013-12-01

    Statutory Sick Pay, Jobseeker's Allowance, and Employment and Support Allowance are employment-related benefits in the United Kingdom (UK). They correspond to the Injury and Disease Allowance and Unemployment Insurance in Japan. The Government of the UK is determined to reform the benefit system to make it fairer and to improve financial work incentives, using the slogan "Welfare to Work". Against this background, the government of the UK united some non-contributory benefits into a new "Universal Credit" scheme, which started in April 2013. The labor policy was also reformed to improve work incentives, for example by abolishing the Flexible New Deal program and uniting all the "Welfare to Work" policies into the "Work Programme". These reforms are useful for reconsidering the labor and employment-related policy and benefit system of Japan. PMID:24334698

  18. Governing UK Biobank: the importance of ensuring public trust.

    PubMed

    Tutton, Richard; Kaye, Jane; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2004-06-01

    In the autumn of 2003, UK Biobank published the first draft of its Ethics and Governance Framework. Subsequently, this document has been available for interested parties to comment on and the UK Biobank Board of Directors is expected to adopt the final version in 2004. Here, we aim to contribute to this process and highlight to a wider audience some of the inconsistencies in the issues of consent, governance and right of withdrawal that emerge from the draft of the Framework. These issues will have implications for securing the public trust and long-term support that the success of the project depends on. Therefore, they must be considered carefully because the UK Biobank will be the first ever genetic database of a general population of this size to become operational, and will be used as a model for other projects of this kind. PMID:15158057

  19. UK rheumatology consultant workforce provision 2007-9: results from the BSR/Arthritis Research UK Consultant Workforce Register.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Mark J; Lee, Sarah; Deighton, Chris; Symmons, Deborah P M

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the provision of consultant rheumatology services and the pattern of inequalities in UK rheumatology service provision, and to summarise the five-year impact of the new NHS consultant contract and the Musculoskeletal Services Framework in England and Wales. All consultants on the British Society for Rheumatology/Arthritis Research UK Consultant Workforce Register in January 2007 and January 2009 were sent questionnaires about timetable and working conditions and the personal and job-related details currently held about them on the register. Response rates were 87% in 2007 and 86% in 2009. The number of whole-time equivalent (WTE) rheumatologists in the UK increased from 470 to 531 (13%). Levels of provision in 2009 were lower in Scotland (1 WTE per 113,286 population) than the rest of the UK. There are now few regional variations in rheumatology consultant provision within the UK, and the number of WTE consultants is approaching recommended levels. PMID:21526690

  20. Characterising freeze in the UK: applications for the insurance industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raven, E. K.; Keef, C.; Busby, K.

    2012-04-01

    The UK winters of 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 were characterised by prolonged and widespread low temperatures. This was challenging for the UK insurance industry and organisations such as the emergency services, the Highways Agency and British Gas who had to manage the extra demands that resulted. In the 6-day period running to Christmas Eve 2010, British Gas reported 100,000 boiler repair call-outs, whilst those 190,000 homes and businesses left with frozen and subsequently burst pipes contributed to the ABI's estimated £ 900 million in insured losses for December 2010 alone; the highest payout by the industry for damages associated with cold weather. Unfortunately, the severity of these winters made the difference between profit and loss for some primary UK insurance companies. To enable better pricing of premiums in the future, insurance companies are looking to understand the potential risk from cold waves at a local, postcode-level, whilst reinsurance firms seek to determine the accumulated loss across the UK associated with spatially coherent events. Other industry sectors also strive to improve their understanding of weather extremes for planning and management. Underpinning this is the need to statistically characterise the physical hazard. Aimed primarily at the re/insurance industry, we have applied an established methodology for developing statistical event sets and applied this to generate a UK freeze event set. An event set provides a stochastic set of several thousand events over 10's of 1000's of years and is typically applied within probabilistic catastrophe models. Our method applies extreme value theory and dependence modelling to explain low-temperature relationships across the UK and over time using historical records. The resulting event set represents the spatial and temporal dependence of cold waves in the UK and is modelled against household factors that increase the vulnerability to freezing conditions, such as property type, age and condition

  1. UK postgraduate medicine examinations: opportunities for international candidates.

    PubMed

    McAlpine, Lawrence; Selamaj, Elona; Shannon, Colleen; Chis, Liliana; Dacre, Jane; Elder, Andrew

    2014-10-01

    The medical profession is global, and ambitious trainee physicians around the world are eager to attain internationally recognised postgraduate medical qualifications. The MRCP(UK) and specialty certificate examinations of the Federation of Royal Colleges of Physicians of the United Kingdom provide such qualifications, and between 2002 and 2013, the number of international candidates attempting these examinations grew substantially. Delivering these proven and reliable UK-based examinations in other countries has many local benefits: it enhances careers, strengthens medical training and improves standards of patient care. In collaboration with international colleagues, the Federation is committed to continued growth that extends these benefits to all physicians, wherever they work and live. PMID:25301910

  2. UK interpretation and implementation of the EEC Shellfish directive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wathern, Peter; Young, Stephen N.; Brown, Ian W.; Roberts, Dawn A.

    1987-01-01

    The EEC Shellfish Directive is a policy designed to protect and, where necessary, improve the quality of designated shellfish waters. Its implementation within the UK, however, has had no effect upon water quality for two reasons. First, the policy has important defects, having ambiguities concerning public health provisions and lacking designation criteria. Second, UK government has sought to achieve formal compliance, while at the same time ensuring that its full financial impact on public expenditure has been contained. Consequently, only those fisheries which already comply with water quality standards have been designated. Within Wales, one fishery has been designated, while other, commercially more important, but grossly contaminated shellfisheries have not.

  3. Maternal near-miss case reviews: the UK approach.

    PubMed

    Knight, M; Lewis, G; Acosta, C D; Kurinczuk, J J

    2014-09-01

    The UK has a well-established programme of Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths and a national system for research into near-miss maternal morbidities, the UK Obstetric Surveillance System. The addition of a programme of near-miss case reviews, the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Morbidity, permits a complete examination of the incidence, risk factors, care and outcomes of the severest complications in pregnancy, and enables the lessons learnt to improve future care to be identified more quickly. This in turn allows for more rapid inclusion of recommendations into national guidance and hence the potential of better health for both women and babies. PMID:25236644

  4. Stakeholder involvement facilitates decision making for UK nuclear accident recovery.

    PubMed

    Alexander, C; Burt, R; Nisbet, A F

    2005-01-01

    The importance of major stakeholders participating in the formulation of strategies for maintaining food safety and agricultural production following a nuclear accident has been successfully demonstrated by the UK 'Agriculture and Food Countermeasures Working Group' (AFCWG). The organisation, membership and terms of reference of the group are described. Details are given of the achievements of the AFCWG and its sub-groups, which include agreeing management options that would be included in a recovery handbook for decision-makers in the UK and tackling the disposal of large volumes of contaminated milk, potentially resulting from a nuclear accident. PMID:15921830

  5. Environmental health impacts: occurrence, exposure and significance, Lancaster University, UK, 9-10 September 2003.

    PubMed

    Martin, Francis L; Semple, Kirk T

    2004-09-01

    Speakers: John Ashby (Syngenta CTL, UK), Peter A. Behnisch (Eurofins GfA, Germany), Paul L. Carmichael (Unilever Colworth, UK), Curtis C.Harris (National Cancer Institute, USA), Kevin C. Jones (Lancaster University, UK), Andreas Kortenkamp (School of Pharmacy, London, UK), Caroline J. Langdon (Reading University, UK), Anthony M. Lynch (GlaxoSmithKline, UK), Francis L. Martin (Lancaster University, UK), Trevor J. McMillan (Lancaster University, UK), David H. Phillips (Institute of Cancer Research, UK), Huw J. Ricketts (University of Cardiff, UK), Michael N. Routledge (University of Leeds, UK), J. Thomas Sanderson (Utrecht University, The Netherlands) and Kirk T. Semple (Lancaster University, UK) The effects of many environmental exposures to either single contaminants or to mixtures still remain to be properly assessed in ecotoxicological and human toxicological settings. Such assessments need to be carried out using relevant biological assays. On a mechanistic basis, future studies need to be able to extrapolate exposure to disease risk. It is envisaged that such an approach would lead to the development of appropriate strategies to either reduce exposures or to initiate preventative measures in susceptible individuals or populations. To mark the opening of a new Institute, the Lancaster Environmental Centre, an environmental health workshop was held over 2 days (9-10 September 2003) at Lancaster University, UK. The fate, behaviour and movement of chemicals in the environment, together with environmental exposures and human health, biomarkers of such exposures, hormone-like compounds and appropriate genetic toxicology methodologies, were discussed. PMID:15388817

  6. Feudalism and Academia: UK Academics' Accounts of Research Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holligan, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Our knowledge of research cultures in university education departments is still evolving, particularly in connection with the departments which have achieved a high ranking in the UK government's Research Assessment Exercise (RAE), and also the conditions under which "knowledge workers" operate are under-researched, although this is beginning to…

  7. The Big Bang: UK Young Scientists' and Engineers' Fair 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The Big Bang: UK Young Scientists' and Engineers' Fair is an annual three-day event designed to promote science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM) careers to young people aged 7-19 through experiential learning. It is supported by stakeholders from business and industry, government and the community, and brings together people from various…

  8. Science Education in the Gambia--UK Students' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vatcher, Judy

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author shares UK students' experience in a ten-day trip to the Gambia. During the trip, three schools were visited and students taught their lessons in pairs, each pair delivering two 20-minute lessons. Topics covered were chosen beforehand to relate to the Gambian curriculum and the equipment used was selected on a local…

  9. The End of the Botany Degree in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drea, Sinead

    2011-01-01

    The last student enrolled in a pure "Botany" degree in the UK began in the University of Bristol this year, 2010. In recent years only the University of Reading also offered the Botany degree, before it was dropped there 3 years ago. This short article is written to draw attention to this fact and to a more general relative decline in the number…

  10. Mapping Student-Led Peer Learning in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Peer-led academic learning has increased in importance, but there is little sense of how many institutions support it, how they understand its purposes or what peer-led learning best practice is. This report examines the provision of peer-led learning in the UK. It identifies challenges and opportunities, including international perspectives and…

  11. Students' Expectations of Debt in UK Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachan, Ray

    2014-01-01

    The funding of students in UK higher education (HE) has undergone radical reform over the past two decades. Using a unique dataset, this paper investigates student expectations of debt. We find that a student's gender, ethnicity, and year of study play an important role in determining their expected debt. Students in receipt of financial…

  12. The Changing UK Careers Landscape: Tidal Waves, Turbulence and Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Deirdre

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how the UK careers landscape in each of the four home nations is changing in response to neo-liberal policies. In this context, careers services are increasingly under pressure to demonstrate their added value, impact and returns on investment. As fiscal arrangements tighten and governments state their preferences and…

  13. Commitment to Environmental Sustainability in the UK Student Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotton, Debby R. E.; Alcock, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability is an increasingly important issue in higher education, both in the UK and internationally. Although environmental sustainability is the most frequently identified of the three pillars of sustainability (social and economic sustainability being less widely understood), there has been little previous research which has quantitatively…

  14. Deconstructing "Aspiration": UK Policy Debates and European Policy Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spohrer, Konstanze

    2011-01-01

    Strategies of "employability" and "activation" are increasingly favoured in the European Union policy context. These strategies are aimed at fostering inclusion by stressing the responsibility of the individual to participate in education and employment. Similar tendencies can be observed in the United Kingdom (UK) over the last decade, among them…

  15. Are Ethnic Minorities Underrepresented in UK Postgraduate Study?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakeling, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Despite recent rapid increases in postgraduate numbers, little is known about the ethnic background of current postgraduates. This lacuna is addressed using data about the UK postgraduate population. Overall, students from minority ethnic backgrounds are under-represented among research and teacher-training students but not on masters degrees. The…

  16. Participating and Performing: Sport and Higher Education in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mike, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This report highlights the contribution that higher education institutions make to sport in the UK. It draws out key findings from the Sport England and sportscotland audits of sports provision in higher education institutions. The role of sport ranges from world-class excellence to community access and healthy living. (Contains 22 notes.)

  17. Greening Technology in U.K. Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bristow, Rob

    2009-01-01

    With the world focusing on climate change and individuals through to organizations questioning how they can reduce their personal and professional carbon footprints, JISC (Joint Information Systems Committee) is looking at how it can help U.K. education professionals learn from one another. In 2009, the final report from JISC's SusteIT study…

  18. Chinese Language Teaching in the UK: Present and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, George X.; Li, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    There has been a long history of Chinese learning and teaching (CLT) in the UK, but until recently CLT was predominantly confined to community schools for Chinese children at weekends and a small number of other schools and universities. Therefore, it had remained peripheral for a long time in terms of student numbers and its position in the…

  19. Quick Win or Slow Burn: Modelling UK HE CAA Uptake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warburton, Bill

    2009-01-01

    The uptake of CAA in UK higher education (HE) on a large scale lags behind the expectations of CAA specialists. A research project was undertaken with the aim of discovering and addressing the underlying reasons for this. The research was conducted according to Strauss and Corbin's (1998) prescription for grounded theory (GT) research. During…

  20. Determinants of Teaching as a Career in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    See, Beng Huat

    2004-01-01

    This paper models the likelihood of individuals becoming teachers, to identify the key social and economic determinants of selecting teaching as a career in the UK. E-mail and focus group interviews were used to develop a questionnaire, for surveying a sample of 1845 students and professional trainees from four tertiary institutions in South-west…

  1. Mutual learning and research messages: India, UK, and Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Gurvinder; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2010-01-01

    India and UK have had a long history together, since the times of the British Raj. Most of what Indian psychiatry is today, finds its roots in ancient Indian texts and medicine systems as much as it is influenced by the European system. Psychiatric research in India is growing. It is being influenced by research in the UK and Europe and is influencing them at the same time. In addition to the sharing of ideas and the know-how, there has also been a good amount of sharing of mental health professionals and research samples in the form of immigrants from India to the UK. The Indian mental health professionals based in UK have done a good amount of research with a focus on these Indian immigrants, giving an insight into cross-cultural aspects of some major psychiatric disorders. This article discusses the impact that research in these countries has had on each other and the contributions that have resulted from it. PMID:21836716

  2. Embracing the UNCRC in Wales (UK): Policy, Pedagogy and Prejudices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyle, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Most countries are signatories to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC). In 1999, the Government of Wales was devolved from the UK, and in 2011 the "Children and Young Persons Rights Measure" put the UNCRC as the basis of all its work. Any programme introduced in schools should therefore promote the UNCRC. To…

  3. The Education of Asylum Seekers: Some UK Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reakes, Angharad

    2007-01-01

    The body of literature examining the educational needs of asylum-seeker children is limited. Extending the body of knowledge has become increasingly important because of the increasing number of asylum seekers in the UK, with significant implications for local education authorities and schools. The main focus of the research was the situation in…

  4. Quality and Standards in UK Universities: A Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2008

    2008-01-01

    UK universities are widely regarded as being among the best in the world. Maintaining the highest academic quality and standards is crucial to that reputation. This leaflet explains how universities ensure that students can have confidence that the time and money they invest in their education are well spent. This leaflet summarises the detailed…

  5. Copyright Infringement and Potential Technological Prevention Measures in UK Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hoorebeek, Mark

    2004-01-01

    "Sony Music v. Easyinternetcafe" has introduced a new facet to the debate concerning the copyright legality of peer-to-peer file transfer. The judgment and subsequent settlement has highlighted that companies offering services that are used to infringe copyright may be held to account in the UK courts. Liability may extend from the private to the…

  6. Performance Management in UK Universities: Implementing the Balanced Scorecard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, John; Baines, Claire

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, UK universities have become increasingly concerned with performance management. This trend reflects both growing competition and marketisation within higher education, and the increasing requirements for accountability. In response, institutions have begun to explore the application of formal methodologies for performance…

  7. Universities UK Response to the Higher Education White Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Universities UK's response to the Higher Education White Paper outlines the principles that we believe will underpin a strong future higher education system. These principles form the basis of the specific recommendations we make to government in taking forward a programme of change. They also form the backdrop to our own commitments, which…

  8. Women in physics in the UK: Update 2011-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, Ann; Dyer, Jenni; Monroe, Maisie; Butcher, Gillian

    2015-12-01

    The interests of women in physics in the UK are being addressed by two strands of work by the Institute of Physics—Girls in Physics and Project Juno—and by several nationwide efforts, including the Athena SWAN awards. Both Project Juno and the Athena SWAN awards recognize academic departments for graded levels of gender equity.

  9. Changing Places: A Study of Chinese Students in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Qing; Maley, Alan

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the way tertiary level Chinese students in the UK adapt, in varying degrees, to their new learning and living environment. A questionnaire and interview study that includes both Chinese students and their British teachers attempts to ascertain key issues with a view to helping sojourning students adapt to their environment,…

  10. International Higher Education and the Mobility of UK Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Rachel; Waters, Johanna

    2009-01-01

    In the context of increasing academic interest in the internationalization of education and the international mobility of university students, this article draws on findings of a recent research project examining students from the UK as they seek higher education overseas before entering the labour market. The discussion is framed around four key…

  11. Exploring the case for assisted dying in the UK.

    PubMed

    Haigh, Carol

    This article discusses the concepts of euthanasia, assisted suicide and physician-assisted suicide, under the umbrella term of assisted dying, from a pro-assisted dying perspective. It outlines the key principles underpinning the debate around assisted dying and refutes the main arguments put forward by those opposing legalisation of assisted dying in the UK. PMID:22272538

  12. The Impact Debate: Hazards of Discourse in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The UK higher education community is well served for news and policy discourse by the weekly "Times Higher Education" ("THE"). "THE" also provides a window into the conduct of this community. Concern about the contribution of research to the wider society beyond academe has risen along with its scale and cost. Views became polarized about the…

  13. Restructuring Revisited: Changing Academic Structures in UK Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, John

    2012-01-01

    In a rapidly changing external environment, for many universities, restructuring of the academic organisation is the most important leadership challenge. In this article, the author provides an analysis of academic restructuring in UK universities. Using the "Commonwealth Universities Yearbook", he looked at the changes in academic structures…

  14. Understanding Attrition in UK Maritime Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gekara, Victor

    2009-01-01

    The shipping industry worldwide is experiencing a shortage of trained and qualified officers to operate a rapidly expanding global merchant fleet. High cadet wastage in Maritime Education and Training (MET) institutions is an obstacle to skills replenishment in the UK. This paper examines the specificity of MET programmes with regard to the…

  15. Emotional Connectedness to Home for Ghanaian Students in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doku, Florence; Meekums, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    Ghanaian migrants represent one of the largest Black African groups in the UK. While viewed positively in terms of economic and educational success, migration has impacts on emotional attachments. The aim of this study was therefore to explore narrative expressions of belonging and emotional connectedness for Ghanaian university students in the…

  16. Perceptions of HPV Vaccine amongst UK University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ellen; Senior, Naomi; Abdullah, Ammar; Brown, Janine; Collings, Suzanne; Racktoo, Sophie; Walpole, Sarah; Zeiton, Moez; Heffernan, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this small-scale focus group study is to explore the impact the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine has on attitudes towards HPV, cervical cancer and sexual risk taking amongst university students in the UK. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were recruited through advertisements placed on notice boards throughout the…

  17. Information Society: Agenda for Action in the UK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips of Ellesmere, Lord

    1997-01-01

    Explains the House of Lords Select Committee on Science and Technology in the UK (United Kingdom) and discusses its report that addresses the need for information technology planning on a national basis. Topics include electronic publishing for access to government publications, universal access, regulatory framework, encryption and verification,…

  18. A Study of CHARGE Syndrome in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deuce, Gail; Howard, Simon; Rose, Steve; Fuggle, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This article reports findings of a questionnaire completed by 44 families living in the UK with a child (aged 15 years or younger) with a medical diagnosis of CHARGE syndrome. The questionnaire contained three sections, namely Diagnosis (including medical and health issues), Child development, and Educational provision. This article reports on the…

  19. Creating Cultures of Integrity: Ethics Education in UK Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Emma; Caulfield, Paul; Hibbert, Paul; Jennings, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Recent corporate scandals and responses by regulators have created an environment in which there is a heightened awareness of business ethics. This report presents a series of case studies exploring how the current curricula in UK business schools could be scoped differently to give new business leaders the tools required for strong ethical…

  20. Education and Training in Psychiatry in the U.K.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Stuart; Bhugra, Dinesh K.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objective: Recent training and education changes have raised important issues in delivery of psychiatric education at all levels. In this article, the authors describe the current status of mental health education in the training of all doctors and postgraduate training and education in psychiatry in the U.K. Method: The authors explore…

  1. Do UK Universities Communicate Their Brands Effectively through Their Websites?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapleo, Chris; Duran, Maria Victoria Carrillo; Diaz, Ana Castillo

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore the effectiveness of UK universities' websites. The area of branding in higher education has received increasing academic investigation, but little work has researched how universities demonstrate their brand promises through their websites. The quest to differentiate through branding can be challenging in the…

  2. The Politics of Childhood and Asylum in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giner, Clotilde

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the general treatment of asylum-seeking families with children in the UK, focusing on the government's practices and public reactions to these measures. It first describes both the exclusive asylum framework, based on institutionalised suspicion, welfare restrictions and detention, and the inclusive child policy framework,…

  3. International Students' Networks: A Case Study in a UK University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taha, Nashrawan; Cox, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The great influx of international students into UK universities has led to internationalisation becoming an important issue. Previous studies have focused on the integration of home and international students, illustrating a lack of intercultural interaction. Yet there has been a lack of research investigating international students' networks and…

  4. Domestic properties in the UK and a lack of sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugochukwu, Nnadozie

    This research aims to provide sufficient insight into the lack of sustainable domestic properties in the UK. The paper reviewed relevant theories of sustainability, with respect to energy performance and environmental friendliness of the built environment. The research also studied the efforts made by the UK Government and other Stakeholders to ensure availability of sustainable domestic properties in the UK, by introducing the Code for Sustainable Homes. The research identified constraints that cause the lack of sustainable domestic properties in the UK, they are: The extra costs associated with building homes to sustainable standards, flexible government legislation, lack of information of the benefits of owning a home built to sustainable standards, and lack of community participation in the formulation of sustainable policies. Recommendations for the availability of more homes built to sustainable standards include the need for mandatory government legislation, making the formulation of policies more participatory amongst the communities where they will be implemented, creating public awareness about the benefits of owning a home built to sustainable standards and the fact that the costs associated with owning such a home is recoverable through savings made in energy costs.

  5. Diagnostic Testing at UK Universities: An E-Mail Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillard, Jonathan; Levi, Margaret; Wilson, Robert

    2010-01-01

    In July 2009, an e-mail survey was sent to various UK universities to gain information regarding current practices concerning mathematics diagnostic testing, and to provide an update from the review "Diagnostic Testing for Mathematics" published by the LTSN MathsTEAM Project in 2003. A total of 38 university departments were contacted and the…

  6. The Prevalence of "Life Planning:" Evidence from UK Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Rachel; Everett, Glyn

    2008-01-01

    At a time when "personal development planning" is being rolled out across the UK higher education sector, this paper explores young adults' inclinations to plan for the future in relation to work, relationships and other aspects of life. Although Giddens has emphasised the prevalence of strategic life planning (or the "colonisation of the future")…

  7. Leadership Development for Organizational Change in a "New" UK University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Sharon; Edwards, Gareth

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a case study of an Organizational Development (OD) intervention within a new university in the UK. Previous research into the leadership of higher education has highlighted a number of apparently inevitable tensions. The findings of the case study uncovered a number of complex and interrelated tensions. The…

  8. Addressing the Causes of Chef Shortages in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratten, John; O'Leary, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To outline the reasons for staff shortages in the UK catering industry and then to decide if further training could help to address these issues. Design/methodology/approach: The objectives have been achieved by examining the training provisions at a college, and then asking the students, their training staff, employers and employees…

  9. Non-European nurses' perceived barriers to UK nurse registration.

    PubMed

    Allan, Helen; Westwood, Sue

    2016-05-11

    Aim To conduct a scoping project to identify perceived barriers to UK nurse registration as experienced by internationally educated nurses working as healthcare assistants in the UK. Method Eleven internationally educated nurses working as healthcare assistants in two London hospitals attended two facilitated focus groups. Qualitative thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Findings Study participants articulated frustration with UK English language testing requirements and a sense of injustice and unfairness relating to: double standards for nurses educated within and outside of the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA); and what was perceived, by some, as arbitrary English language testing with unnecessarily high standards. Differences among study participants related to issues of competency and accountability regarding English language skills and passing English language skills tests, with many feeling they were playing 'a game' where the rules kept changing. Conclusion Language testing barriers are impeding UK nurse registration for some internationally educated nurses from outside the EU and EEA who, as a result, are working as healthcare assistants. The provision of English language training by employers would improve their prospects of achieving nurse registration. PMID:27206205

  10. US/UK Loan Account Project Status PMOD477

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Patrice A.

    2012-07-12

    The viewgraphs describe the status of PMOD477 for LANL. The meeting will occur at DOE-HQ with NA-11 and Military Applications personnel in attendance. Serves to repatriate material with a balance to zero by December 2012. Phase 1 -- Establish formality of operations for War Reserve (WR): Complete surrogate taskings to A90 through a Materials Channel and perform US/UK lessons learned; Complete the US/UK agreed Quality Acceptance Plan, Materials Plan, Shipping procedure, and establish the formal UK/US point of contacts. Phase 2 -- Metal Manufacture (WR): Process material and store material as electrorefined metal (ER) rings, with initial assay and isotopic analysis, prior to manufacturing. Material is cast into accepted configuration and appropriate acceptance document for each aliquot will be generated. Phase 3 -- Intermediate Material Manufacture, Packaging and Shipping (WR): Continue processing of the material in accepted configuration with appropriate acceptance documentation for each aliquot. Provide an initial tasking of the material owed to UK including appropriate quality acceptance documentation. Phase 4 -- Complete Tasking (WR). Phase 5 -- Residue Processing (Non-WR): Complete processing of residue material and waste into accepted configuration with appropriate acceptance document for disposal.

  11. The Evolution of Student Services in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    There is limited literature that looks at the evolution of student services in the UK and their effectiveness in providing student support. Student support is broadly defined as all services that support students to learn. Academic and non-academic support are essential mechanisms in providing holistic student support. In this article, the author…

  12. Lifelong Learning through SMEs: Exploring Workplace Learning in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahlgren, Linda; Engel, Laura C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The primary objective in this paper is to examine the role of small- to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in promoting and/or hindering educational opportunities to adult employees in the UK. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws on 12 case studies of SMEs in England and Scotland, which form part of a larger European Sixth Framework…

  13. Constructed wetlands in UK urban surface drainage systems.

    PubMed

    Shutes, B; Ellis, J B; Revitt, D M; Scholes, L N L

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the outcome of an inventory of planted wetland systems in the UK which are classified according to land use type and are all examples of sustainable drainage systems. The introduction of constructed wetlands to treat surface runoff essentially followed a 1997 Environment Agency for England and Wales report advocating the use of "soft engineered" facilities including wetlands in the context of sustainable development and Agenda 21. Subsequently published reports by the UK Construction Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA) have promoted the potential benefits to both developer and the community of adopting constructed wetlands and other vegetated systems as a sustainable drainage approach. In addition, the UK Environment Agency and Highways Agency (HA) have recently published their own design criteria and requirements for vegetative control and treatment of road runoff. A case study of the design and performance of a constructed wetland system for the treatment of road runoff is discussed. The performance of these systems will be assessed in terms of their design criteria, runoff loadings as well as vegetation and structure maintenance procedures. The differing design approaches in guidance documents published in the UK by the Environment Agency, CIRIA and HA will also be evaluated. PMID:16042240

  14. The Future of Family Business Education in UK Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Lorna; Seaman, Claire; Graham, Stuart; Stepek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This practitioner paper aims to question basic assumptions about management education and to argue that a new paradigm is needed for UK business schools which embraces an oft neglected, yet economically vital, stakeholder group, namely family businesses. It seeks to pose the question of why we have forgotten to teach about family business…

  15. Civic Engagement and the Arts and Humanities: A UK Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Higher education in the UK is in a state of flux and this is having particular impact on the humanities. On the one hand, the pressure to support a STEM agenda is seen by some as forcing higher education down a narrow economic agenda, while government requirements for assessing the social and economic impact of research have raised concerns about…

  16. University Rankings: Do They Matter in the UK?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broecke, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers the first comprehensive analysis of the effect of changes in university rankings on applicant and institution behaviour in the UK. When their rank worsens, universities are found to experience small but statistically significant reductions in the number of applications received as well as in the average tariff score of applicants…

  17. Environmental issues of energetic materials: A U.K. perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Cumming, A.S.; Paul, N.C.

    1998-07-01

    Research on environmental problems encountered in the production, formulation, use and disposal of energetic munitions is driven by current and projected future legislation. In turn, legislation is being driven by public perception and pressure groups. With the ban on sea dumping and pressures to ban open burning the main concern at present is disposal of the end of life stockpile. U.K. research effort on disposal is further influenced by both the available funding and the size of the U.K. problem. Controlled incineration is being implemented and a munitions destruction facility based on this has been commissioned. For the longer term there is an increasing research effort in the production of munitions by cleaner methods and processes for the control and treatment of effluent streams. There is strong commitment by the UK Ministry of Defence to address environmental issues and an Ordnance Board Proceeding ``Design for Disposal`` has been published. This is a far reaching proposal which places full life cycle responsibility on the procurer i.e. purchasing office in the U.K. MOD. Design for Disposal is a comprehensive strategy which considers all aspects of the life of munitions from design, through production to eventual disposal.

  18. UK Higher Education Institutions and the Third Stream Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clough, Stephen; Bagley, Carl A.

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses upon the adoption and implementation of United Kingdom government support for third stream business-facing activities in UK higher education institutions (HEIs). The article, concerned with income generation and the creation and application of knowledge beyond the confines of the academy, draws on policy literature and…

  19. Social Pedagogy in the UK: Gaining a Firm Foothold?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrie, Pat

    2013-01-01

    The paper asks why, unlike much of Europe, the UK has until recently taken very little interest in social pedagogy. It looks at the meanings of social pedagogy, including the importance of both "social" and "pedagogy" in understanding the term and argues that social pedagogy policy, practice, and theory are interlinked and…

  20. Developing Competence Frameworks in UK Healthcare: Lessons from Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Lindsay; Boak, George

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to review the use of competence frameworks in the UK healthcare sector and to explore characteristics of the sector that may influence the success of projects to develop new frameworks. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws on project reports and evaluations of practice in a range of recent projects…

  1. The Future of Entrepreneurship Education in the UK's "Big Society"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matlay, Harry; Hussain, Javed

    2012-01-01

    Over the last three decades in the UK, successive Conservative and Labour governments have implemented policies and initiatives aimed at widening access to higher education. During the same period, entrepreneurship education has emerged as an important aspect of higher education provision, as it has in other industrially developed and developing…

  2. Falling through the Gaps: Safeguarding Children Trafficked into the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokhari, Farrah

    2008-01-01

    An overview of child trafficking in the UK explores the nature and methods of this abuse, as well as the treatment and protection afforded to these particularly vulnerable children. It highlights the shortcomings and inconsistent standards of local authorities, the lack of specialist protection and the uncertainty of a trafficked child's…

  3. UK Higher Education Viewed through the Marketization and Marketing Lenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nedbalová, Eva; Greenacre, Luke; Schulz, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses the Economic Market mechanisms and the 4P Marketing Mix as lenses to review the context of UK higher education (HE) and to explore the relationship between the market and marketing disciplines and practice. Four Economic Market mechanisms--autonomy, competition, price and information--are contrasted with the four Ps of marketing:…

  4. The Future of Bioscience Fieldwork in UK Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauchline, Alice L.; Peacock, Julie; Park, Julian R.

    2013-01-01

    Fieldwork is an important and often enjoyable part of learning in Bioscience degree courses, however it is unclear how the recent reforms to Higher Education (HE) may impact the future funding of outdoor learning. This paper reports on the findings from a recent survey of 30 HE Bioscience practitioners from across the UK. Their current level of…

  5. Research Staff and Public Engagement: A UK Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Sarah R.

    2013-01-01

    Public engagement plays an important role in the contemporary UK academy, and is promoted through initiatives such as Beacons of Public Engagement and research grant "Pathways to Impact". Relatively little is known, however, about academic experiences of such engagement activities. This study focuses on one staff group, contract…

  6. The New Decade: A Watershed in UK Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNay, Ian

    2012-01-01

    This article first draws together a range of published statistics to analyse trends in participation in higher education in the UK over recent years. That provides evidence of the shifting profile in the student population and sets a context for examining emerging evidence of the impact of recent government policy decisions on control of student…

  7. Environmental Management in the UK: The Way Ahead for Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryall, Colin; Pinder, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Discusses two environmental management systems (EMS) for businesses, including the BS7750 developed in the UK, and the Eco-Management and Audit Scheme, from the European Commission. Reviews the benefits of installing an EMS and the pressures of environmental compliance. (LZ)

  8. UK Public Libraries: Roles in Adult Literacy Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoughlin, Carla; Morris, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Reported here are the results of a research project that examined the role of UK public libraries in addressing adult literacy including approaches and issues. Eight public libraries were selected as case studies and adult literacy provision was investigated using staff interviews. The interviews provided support for the role of public libraries…

  9. Refugee Children in the UK. Education in an Urbanised Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Jill

    2006-01-01

    Asylum migration causes intense media and political debate. However, little attention has been paid to how forced migrants can rebuild their lives in the UK or elsewhere. This timely book analyzes the social policies that impact on refugee children's education, and: (1) Provides the background to the migration of refugees; (2) Explores how…

  10. The UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshop Programme...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albone, Eric; Okano, Toru

    2012-01-01

    The authors have been running UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshops at universities in Britain and Japan since 2001: for the past three years in England with Cambridge University and, last year, also with Kyoto University and Kyoto University of Education. For many years they have worked jointly with colleagues in a group of Super Science High…

  11. Mobile phone collection, reuse and recycling in the UK

    SciTech Connect

    Ongondo, F.O.; Williams, I.D.

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > We characterized the key features of the voluntary UK mobile phone takeback network via a survey. > We identified 3 flows: information; product (handsets and accessories); and incentives. > There has been a significant rise in the number of UK takeback schemes since 1997. > Most returned handsets are low quality; little data exists on quantities of mobile phones collected. > Takeback schemes increasingly divert EoL mobile phones from landfill and enable reuse/recycling. - Abstract: Mobile phones are the most ubiquitous electronic product on the globe. They have relatively short lifecycles and because of their (perceived) in-built obsolescence, discarded mobile phones represent a significant and growing problem with respect to waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). An emerging and increasingly important issue for industry is the shortage of key metals, especially the types of metals found in mobile phones, and hence the primary aim of this timely study was to assess and evaluate the voluntary mobile phone takeback network in the UK. The study has characterised the information, product and incentives flows in the voluntary UK mobile phone takeback network and reviewed the merits and demerits of the incentives offered. A survey of the activities of the voluntary mobile phone takeback schemes was undertaken in 2008 to: identify and evaluate the takeback schemes operating in the UK; determine the target groups from whom handsets are collected; and assess the collection, promotion and advertising methods used by the schemes. In addition, the survey sought to identify and critically evaluate the incentives offered by the takeback schemes, evaluate their ease and convenience of use; and determine the types, qualities and quantities of mobile phones they collect. The study has established that the UK voluntary mobile phone takeback network can be characterised as three distinctive flows: information flow; product flow (handsets and related

  12. UK Environmental Prediction - integration and evaluation at the convective scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Huw; Brunet, Gilbert; Harris, Chris; Best, Martin; Saulter, Andrew; Holt, Jason; Bricheno, Lucy; Brerton, Ashley; Reynard, Nick; Blyth, Eleanor; Martinez de la Torre, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    It has long been understood that accurate prediction and warning of the impacts of severe weather requires an integrated approach to forecasting. This was well demonstrated in the UK throughout winter 2013/14 when an exceptional run of severe winter storms, often with damaging high winds and intense rainfall led to significant damage from the large waves and storm surge along coastlines, and from saturated soils, high river flows and significant flooding inland. The substantial impacts on individuals, businesses and infrastructure indicate a pressing need to understand better the value that might be delivered through more integrated environmental prediction. To address this need, the Met Office, Centre for Ecology & Hydrology and National Oceanography Centre have begun to develop the foundations of a coupled high resolution probabilistic forecast system for the UK at km-scale. This links together existing model components of the atmosphere, coastal ocean, land surface and hydrology. Our initial focus on a 2-year Prototype project will demonstrate the UK coupled prediction concept in research mode, including an analysis of the winter 2013/14 storms and its impacts. By linking science development to operational collaborations such as the UK Natural Hazards Partnership, we can ensure that science priorities are rooted in user requirements. This presentation will provide an overview of UK environmental prediction activities and an update on progress during the first year of the Prototype project. We will present initial results from the coupled model development and discuss the challenges to realise the potential of integrated regional coupled forecasting for improving predictions and applications.

  13. Health and lifestyle of Nepalese migrants in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Adhikary, Pratik; Simkhada, Padam P; van Teijlingen, Edwin R; Raja, Amalraj E

    2008-01-01

    Background The health status and lifestyle of migrants is often poorer than that of the general population of their host countries. The Nepalese represent a relatively small, but growing, immigrant community in the UK, about whom very little is known in term of public health. Therefore, our study examined the health and lifestyle of Nepalese migrants in the UK. Methods A cross-sectional survey of Nepalese migrants in UK was conducted in early 2007 using a postal, self-administered questionnaire in England and Scotland (n = 312), and telephone interviews in Wales (n = 15). The total response rate was 68% (327 out of 480). Data were analyzed to establish whether there are associations between socio-economic and lifestyle factors. A multivariate binary logistic regression was applied to find out independent effect of personal factors on health status. Results The majority of respondents was male (75%), aged between 30 and 45 (66%), married or had a civil partner (83%), had university education (47%) and an annual family income (69%) ranging from £5,035 to £33,300. More than one third (39%) of the respondents have lived in the UK for 1 to 5 years and approximately half (46%) were longer-term residents. Most (95%) were registered with a family doctor, but only 38% with a dentist. A low proportion (14%) of respondents smoked but more than half (61%) consumed alcohol. More than half (57%) did not do regular exercises and nearly one fourth (23%) of respondents rated their health as poor. Self reported 'good' health status of the respondents was independently associated with immigration status and doing regular exercise Conclusion The self reported health status and lifestyle, health seeking behaviour of Nepalese people who are residing in UK appears to be good. However, the overall regular exercise and dentist registration was rather poor. Health promotion, especially aimed at Nepalese migrants could help encourage them to exercise regularly and assist them to register

  14. A Nonessential African Swine Fever Virus Gene UK Is a Significant Virulence Determinant in Domestic Swine

    PubMed Central

    Zsak, L.; Caler, E.; Lu, Z.; Kutish, G. F.; Neilan, J. G.; Rock, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    Sequence analysis of the right variable genomic region of the pathogenic African swine fever virus (ASFV) isolate E70 revealed a novel gene, UK, that is immediately upstream from the previously described ASFV virulence-associated gene NL-S (L. Zsak, Z. Lu, G. F. Kutish, J. G. Neilan, and D. L. Rock, J. Virol. 70:8865–8871, 1996). UK, transcriptionally oriented toward the right end of the genome, predicts a protein of 96 amino acids with a molecular mass of 10.7 kDa. Searches of genetic databases did not find significant similarity between UK and other known genes. Sequence analysis of the UK genes from several pathogenic ASFVs from Europe, the Caribbean, and Africa demonstrated that this gene was highly conserved among diverse pathogenic isolates, including those from both tick and pig sources. Polyclonal antibodies raised against the UK protein specifically precipitated a 15-kDa protein from ASFV-infected macrophage cell cultures as early as 2 h postinfection. A recombinant UK gene deletion mutant, ΔUK, and its revertant, UK-R, were constructed from the E70 isolate to study gene function. Although deletion of UK did not affect the growth characteristics of the virus in macrophage cell cultures, ΔUK exhibited reduced virulence in infected pigs. While mortality among parental E70- or UK-R-infected animals was 100%, all ΔUK-infected pigs survived infection. Fever responses were comparable in E70-, UK-R-, and ΔUK-infected groups; however, ΔUK-infected animals exhibited significant, 100- to 1,000-fold, reductions in viremia titers. These data indicate that the highly conserved UK gene of ASFV, while being nonessential for growth in macrophages in vitro, is an important viral virulence determinant for domestic pigs. PMID:9444996

  15. A nonessential African swine fever virus gene UK is a significant virulence determinant in domestic swine.

    PubMed

    Zsak, L; Caler, E; Lu, Z; Kutish, G F; Neilan, J G; Rock, D L

    1998-02-01

    Sequence analysis of the right variable genomic region of the pathogenic African swine fever virus (ASFV) isolate E70 revealed a novel gene, UK, that is immediately upstream from the previously described ASFV virulence-associated gene NL-S (L. Zsak, Z. Lu, G. F. Kutish, J. G. Neilan, and D. L. Rock, J. Virol. 70:8865-8871, 1996). UK, transcriptionally oriented toward the right end of the genome, predicts a protein of 96 amino acids with a molecular mass of 10.7 kDa. Searches of genetic databases did not find significant similarity between UK and other known genes. Sequence analysis of the UK genes from several pathogenic ASFVs from Europe, the Caribbean, and Africa demonstrated that this gene was highly conserved among diverse pathogenic isolates, including those from both tick and pig sources. Polyclonal antibodies raised against the UK protein specifically precipitated a 15-kDa protein from ASFV-infected macrophage cell cultures as early as 2 h postinfection. A recombinant UK gene deletion mutant, deltaUK, and its revertant, UK-R, were constructed from the E70 isolate to study gene function. Although deletion of UK did not affect the growth characteristics of the virus in macrophage cell cultures, deltaUK exhibited reduced virulence in infected pigs. While mortality among parental E70- or UK-R-infected animals was 100%, all deltaUK-infected pigs survived infection. Fever responses were comparable in E70-, UK-R-, and deltaUK-infected groups; however, deltaUK-infected animals exhibited significant, 100- to 1,000-fold, reductions in viremia titers. These data indicate that the highly conserved UK gene of ASFV, while being nonessential for growth in macrophages in vitro, is an important viral virulence determinant for domestic pigs. PMID:9444996

  16. Survey of stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy in the UK by the QA group on behalf of the UK SABR Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Baker, A; Scott, A J D; Webster, G J

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the progress being made towards the implementation of stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) treatment in the UK, to obtain details of current practice in centres with an active treatment programme and to assess the projected future provision. Methods: In August 2012, an online questionnaire was sent to all 65 UK radiotherapy institutions. The included questions covered the current number of patients being treated and the intended number of patients for each clinical site; immobilization and motion management methods; CT scanning protocols; target and organ-at-risk delineation; treatment planning; image-guidance and treatment protocols; and quality assurance methods. Results: 48/65 (74%) institutions responded by the end of November 2012, with 15 indicating an active SABR programme. A further four centres indicated that a SABR protocol had been established but was not yet in clinical use. 14 of the 29 remaining responses stated an intention to develop a SABR programme in the next 2 years. Conclusion: The survey responses confirm that SABR provision in the UK is increasing and that this should be expected to continue in the next 2 years. A projection of the future uptake would suggest that by the end of 2014, UK SABR provision will be broadly in line with international practice. PMID:24620840

  17. Developing tools for long-term breeding of blueberry germplasm for UK production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit consumption in the UK, particularly of berry fruits, is expanding rapidly, and consumer demand for blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) is at record levels with UK growers unable to meet current demand. There is great potential for UK growers to supply high-quality fresh blueberries across a wide seas...

  18. UK School Students' Attitudes towards Science and Potential Science-Based Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Emelia L.; Harrison, Timothy G.

    2012-01-01

    This is a review of literature pertaining to UK secondary school students, their uptake of science at higher levels and their consideration of careers as scientists. As with all countries, the continued uptake of sufficient numbers of science at all levels is in the UK's interest. Unfortunately too many UK secondary students see science as…

  19. An Overview of Extra-Curricular Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) Interventions in UK Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipscombe, Bryan P.; Burek, Cynthia V.; Potter, Jacqueline A.; Ribchester, Chris; Degg, Martin R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the extent and type of extra-curricular ESD-related practice in UK universities and to record opinions about the utility of such work. Design/methodology/approach: A postal questionnaire survey of all UK universities was undertaken in 2006. Over half (51 percent) of the UK's 140 universities with…

  20. Those Who Can, Teach: Addressing the Crisis in Mathematics in UK Schools and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Paul; d'Inverno, Ray

    2004-01-01

    The crisis in UK mathematics education, both in schools and universities, has been widely reported in the national media. A recent study shows that 26% of full-time mathematics teachers in UK schools have no qualification in the subject, and that 31% of all UK schools' mathematics teachers are now over the age of 50. The crisis in school…

  1. Big Ideas for the Future: UK Research That Will Have a Profound Effect on Our Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Big ideas for the future is a joint report by Universities UK and Research Councils UK, published as part of the second annual Universities Week campaign. This new report explores the excellent research taking place in UK higher education today and what it will mean for us in 20 years' time. It demonstrates the value of public investment in higher…

  2. Construct Validity of the WISC-IV[superscript UK] with a Large Referred Irish Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Marley W.; Canivez, Gary L.; James, Trevor; James, Kate; Good, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Irish educational psychologists frequently use the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth U.K. Edition (WISC-IV[superscript UK]) in clinical assessments of children with learning difficulties. Unfortunately, reliability and validity studies of the WISC-IV[superscript UK] have not yet been reported. This study examined the construct…

  3. Career Progress and Career Barriers: Women MBA Graduates in Canada and the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Ruth; Sturges, Jane; Woods, Adrian; Altman, Yochanan

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the career progress of female MBA graduates in Canada and the UK and the nature of career barriers experienced in each context. Results suggest that while Canadian women have similar career profiles to men, women in the UK lag behind their male counterparts after graduation from the course. At the same time, UK women…

  4. Improving UK Air Quality Modelling Through Exploitation of Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Richard; Chipperfield, Martyn; Savage, Nick

    2014-05-01

    In this work the applicability of satellite observations to evaluate the operational UK Met Office Air Quality in the Unified Model (AQUM) have been investigated. The main focus involved the AQUM validation against satellite observations, investigation of satellite retrieval error types and of synoptic meteorological-atmospheric chemistry relationships simulated/seen by the AQUM/satellite. The AQUM is a short range forecast model of atmospheric chemistry and aerosols up to 5 days. It has been designed to predict potentially hazardous air pollution events, e.g. high concentrations of surface ozone. The AQUM has only been validated against UK atmospheric chemistry recording surface stations. Therefore, satellite observations of atmospheric chemistry have been used to further validate the model, taking advantage of better satellite spatial coverage. Observations of summer and winter 2006 tropospheric column NO2 from both OMI and SCIAMACHY show that the AQUM generally compares well with the observations. However, in northern England positive biases (AQUM - satellite) suggest that the AQUM overestimates column NO2; we present results of sensitivity experiments on UK emissions datasets suspected to be the cause. In winter, the AQUM over predicts background column NO2 when compared to both satellite instruments. We hypothesise that the cause is the AQUM winter night-time chemistry, where the NO2 sinks are not substantially defined. Satellite data are prone to errors/uncertainty such as random, systematic and smoothing errors. We have investigated these error types and developed an algorithm to calculate and reduce the random error component of DOAS NO2 retrievals, giving more robust seasonal satellite composites. The Lamb Weather Types (LWT), an objective method of classifying the daily synoptic weather over the UK, were used to create composite satellite maps of column NO2 under different synoptic conditions. Under cyclonic conditions, satellite observed UK column NO2 is

  5. Growth inhibition dependent on reactive oxygen species generated by C9-UK-2A, a derivative of the antifungal antibiotic UK-2A, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Ken-Ichi; Tani, Kazunori; Usuki, Yoshinosuke; Tanaka, Toshio; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2004-08-01

    UK-2A is a potent antifungal antibiotic and its structure is highly similar to that of antimycin A3 (AA). UK-2A and AA inhibit mitochondrial electron transport at complex III. C9-UK-2A, which has been prepared to improve the duration of the antifungal activity of UK-2A, shows durable fungicidal activities against various species of fungi and induces both membrane injury and the generation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) against Rhodotorula mucilaginosa IFO 0001 cells. We found that C9-UK-2A inhibited the vegetative growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae IFO 0203 cells accompanying cellular ROS generation in Sabouraud dextrose (SD) medium, which contained a fermentable carbon source. The ROS generation was completely restricted by pretreatment with a lipophilic antioxidant alpha-tocopherol. In addition, the pretreatment with the antioxidant protected against the growth inhibition induced by C9-UK-2A. C9-UK-2A also induced ROS generation in isolated mitochondria of the S. cerevisiae cells. The addition of both a complex I inhibitor rotenone and a complex II inhibitor thenoyltrifluoroacetone reduced ROS generation induced by C9-UK-2A in the whole cells and the isolated mitochondria. The addition of the inhibitors of complex III, AA or myxothiazol, or of complex IV, KCN, did not reduce ROS generation. These results suggest that C9-UK-2A induces ROS generation due to the blockade of electron flow at complex III, thereby inhibiting the growth of S. cerevisiae in SD medium. PMID:15515888

  6. Ethnicity and bullying involvement in a national UK youth sample.

    PubMed

    Tippett, Neil; Wolke, Dieter; Platt, Lucinda

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated ethnic differences in bullying involvement (as victim and bully) among a UK wide sample of adolescents, controlling for potential confounders, including age, gender, economic situation, family structure and parent-adolescent relationships. 4668 youths, aged 10 to 15, who participate in the UK Household Longitudinal Study were assessed for bullying involvement. Binary logistic regression models were used to estimate ethnic differences across bullying roles while controlling for potential confounders. Overall, ethnic minority youths were not more likely to be victims; African boys and girls were significantly less likely to be victimised than same sex White youths. Pakistani and Caribbean girls were significantly more likely to have bullied others compared to White girls. Further research is necessary to explore why Pakistani and Caribbean girls may be more often perpetrators of bullying than girls in other ethnic groups. PMID:23849658

  7. The moral economy of austerity: analysing UK welfare reform.

    PubMed

    Morris, Lydia

    2016-03-01

    This paper notes the contemporary emergence of 'morality' in both sociological argument and political rhetoric, and analyses its significance in relation to ongoing UK welfare reforms. It revisits the idea of 'moral economy' and identifies two strands in its contemporary application; that all economies depend on an internal moral schema, and that some external moral evaluation is desirable. UK welfare reform is analysed as an example of the former, with reference to three distinct orientations advanced in the work of Freeden (1996), Laclau (2014), and Lockwood (1996). In this light, the paper then considers challenges to the reform agenda, drawn from third sector and other public sources. It outlines the forms of argument present in these challenges, based respectively on rationality, legality, and morality, which together provide a basis for evaluation of the welfare reforms and for an alternative 'moral economy'. PMID:26948066

  8. Congressional Science Fellow tackles science policy for U.K.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, Julie J.

    After an AGU Congressional Science Fellowship in 1997-1998,I decided to pursue science policy further. I spied an ad in the Sunday Washington Post advertising for someone with a science degree, who also had knowledge of the United Kingdom, and science policy experience on Capitol Hill. In addition to my Ph.D. from the University of California at Los Angeles and the Congressional Science Fellowship, I had spent two years in the U.K. as a post-doc at Queen Mary and Westfield College in London.I applied for the job, which was at the British Embassy in Washington, D.C., and was hired. The UK Foreign Office has a tradition of hiring many of its embassy staff locally; they consider knowledge of local politics and issues very use ful for their interests. Now I cover hard science issues, including space and the Internet for Her Majesty's Government.

  9. Women in physics in the UK: Update 2008-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Carol; Marks, Ann; Wilkin, Nicola; Leslie, Dawn; D'Amico, Irene; Dyer, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    Positive progress has continued in the past three years for women in physics in the UK. The Institute of Physics has aggressively advocated and organized initiatives for women in science through its Diversity Programme and its Women in Physics Group. Surveys are routinely carried out and acted upon, most recently on postdoctoral researchers and childcare issues. The Institute's Juno Award program encourages higher education institutes to address the underrepresentation of women in physics. The UK Resource Centre for Women in SET (science, engineering, and technology) provides resources and support for women working in physics and other science and engineering disciplines. The Equality Act of 2010 provides renewed focus on equality and a framework within which women physicists can continue to push for progress. The recent achievements of women physicists are noted.

  10. Support of vulnerable patients throughout TB treatment in the UK.

    PubMed

    Potter, J L; Inamdar, L; Okereke, E; Collinson, S; Dukes, R; Mandelbaum, M

    2016-06-01

    Despite well-established treatment regimens, tuberculosis (TB) remains a public health burden; it disproportionately affects poor and marginalized populations who may not have access to social support, including migrants, homeless people and those dependent on drugs or alcohol. There is a clearly demonstrated need for housing and other appropriate social support, as part of a package of integrated clinical and social care. However, TB prevention and control efforts in the UK often do not address the specific vulnerabilities of these groups and it can be a challenge to support the continued TB treatment of these underserved populations. This challenge is exacerbated by complex issues concerning funding, immigration and the law. In this paper, we have reviewed current UK guidance and legislation, discussed several case studies and highlighted examples of existing models of community support for TB patients. Finally, we lay out our recommendations for ensuring a co-ordinated, whole system approach to successful TB treatment. PMID:25889386

  11. UK role 4 military infection services: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Dufty, Ngozi E; Bailey, M S

    2013-09-01

    NATO describes 'Role 4' military medical services as those provided for the definitive care of patients who cannot be treated within a theatre of operations and these are usually located in a military force's country of origin and may include the involvement of civilian medical services. The UK Defence Medical Services have a proud history of developing and providing clinical services in infectious diseases and tropical medicine, sexual health and HIV medicine, and medical microbiology and virology. These UK Role 4 Military Infection Services have adapted well to recent overseas deployments, but new challenges will arise due to current military cutbacks and a greater diversity of contingency operations in the future. Further evidence-based development of these services will require leadership by military clinicians and improved communication and support for 'reach-back' services. PMID:24109133

  12. Mobile phone collection, reuse and recycling in the UK.

    PubMed

    Ongondo, F O; Williams, I D

    2011-06-01

    Mobile phones are the most ubiquitous electronic product on the globe. They have relatively short lifecycles and because of their (perceived) in-built obsolescence, discarded mobile phones represent a significant and growing problem with respect to waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). An emerging and increasingly important issue for industry is the shortage of key metals, especially the types of metals found in mobile phones, and hence the primary aim of this timely study was to assess and evaluate the voluntary mobile phone takeback network in the UK. The study has characterised the information, product and incentives flows in the voluntary UK mobile phone takeback network and reviewed the merits and demerits of the incentives offered. A survey of the activities of the voluntary mobile phone takeback schemes was undertaken in 2008 to: identify and evaluate the takeback schemes operating in the UK; determine the target groups from whom handsets are collected; and assess the collection, promotion and advertising methods used by the schemes. In addition, the survey sought to identify and critically evaluate the incentives offered by the takeback schemes, evaluate their ease and convenience of use; and determine the types, qualities and quantities of mobile phones they collect. The study has established that the UK voluntary mobile phone takeback network can be characterised as three distinctive flows: information flow; product flow (handsets and related accessories); and incentives flow. Over 100 voluntary schemes offering online takeback of mobile phone handsets were identified. The schemes are operated by manufacturers, retailers, mobile phone network service operators, charities and by mobile phone reuse, recycling and refurbishing companies. The latter two scheme categories offer the highest level of convenience and ease of use to their customers. Approximately 83% of the schemes are either for-profit/commercial-oriented and/or operate to raise funds

  13. The medicines for children agenda in the UK.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Terence

    2006-06-01

    Children can expect the medicines prescribed for them to have at least as good an evidence base as in adult practice. Current licensing arrangements in the UK ensure a rigorous assessment of most drugs used for adults, whereas prescribing outside the licence is relatively common for children. Until the evidence base is increased, consensus guidelines or formularies, such as the new British National Formulary for Children, provide some protection for children and prescribers. For the future, there is optimism that the dearth of research on which to base children's prescribing will be addressed by new initiatives, such as the UK Medicines for Children Research Network and draft EU legislation providing incentives to industry. PMID:16722834

  14. Thyroid and iodine nutritional status: a UK perspective.

    PubMed

    Vanderpump, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormones, which play a crucial role in brain and neurological development. At least one-third of the world's population is estimated to be iodine deficient predominantly in developing countries. Recently concern had also been expressed about the iodine status in industrialised countries such as the UK. A recent survey of the UK iodine status found that that more than two-thirds of schoolgirls aged 14-15 years were iodine deficient due to the reduced milk intake. Maternal iodine deficiency in pregnancy is correlated with cognitive outcomes such as intelligence quotient and reading ability in offspring. No randomised trial data exist for iodine supplementation in mild-moderate iodine-deficient pregnant women. It is possible to combine population interventions to reduce population salt intake with salt iodisation programmes in order to maintain adequate levels of iodine nutrition. PMID:25468924

  15. The UK Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest Outcome (OHCAO) project

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Gavin D; Brace-McDonnell, Samantha J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Reducing premature death is a key priority for the UK National Health Service (NHS). NHS Ambulance services treat approximately 30 000 cases of suspected cardiac arrest each year but survival rates vary. The British Heart Foundation and Resuscitation Council (UK) have funded a structured research programme—the Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest Outcomes (OHCAO) programme. The aim of the project is to establish the epidemiology and outcome of OHCA, explore sources of variation in outcome and establish the feasibility of setting up a national OHCA registry. Methods and analysis This is a prospective observational study set in UK NHS Ambulance Services. The target population will be adults and children sustaining an OHCA who are attended by an NHS ambulance emergency response and where resuscitation is attempted. The data collected will be characterised broadly as system characteristics, emergency medical services (EMS) dispatch characteristics, patient characteristics and EMS process variables. The main outcome variables of interest will be return of spontaneous circulation and medium—long-term survival (30 days to 10-year survival). Ethics and dissemination Ethics committee permissions were gained and the study also has received approval from the Confidentiality Advisory Group Ethics and Confidentiality committee which provides authorisation to lawfully hold identifiable data on patients without their consent. To identify the key characteristics contributing to better outcomes in some ambulance services, reliable and reproducible systems need to be established for collecting data on OHCA in the UK. Reports generated from the registry will focus on data completeness, timeliness and quality. Subsequent reports will summarise demographic, patient, process and outcome variables with aim of improving patient care through focus quality improvement initiatives. PMID:26428332

  16. Can UK fossil fuel emissions be determined by radiocarbon measurements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenger, Angelina; O'Doherty, Simon; Rigby, Matthew; Manning, Alistair; Palmer, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The GAUGE project evaluates different methods to estimate UK emissions. However, estimating carbon dioxide emissions as a result of fossil fuel burning is challenging as natural fluxes in and out of the atmosphere are very large. Radiocarbon (14C) measurements offer a way to specifically measure the amount of recently added carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning. This is possible as, due to their age, all the radiocarbon in fossil fuels has decayed. Hence the amount of recently added CO2 from fossil fuel burning can be measured as a depletion of the 14C content in air. While this method has been successfully applied by several groups on a city or a regional scale, this is the first attempt at using the technique for a national emission estimate. Geographically the UK, being an island, is a good location for such an experiment. But are 14CO2 measurements the ideal solution for estimating fossil fuel emissions as they are heralded to be? Previous studies have shown that 14CO2emissions from the nuclear industry mask the 14C depletion caused by fossil fuel burning and result in an underestimation of the fossil fuel CO2. While this might not be a problem in certain regions around the world, many countries like the UK have a substantial nuclear industry. A correction for this enhancement from the nuclear industry can be applied but are invariably difficult as 14CO2emissions from nuclear power plants have a high temporal variability. We will explain how our sampling strategy was chosen to minimize the influence form the nuclear industry and why this proved to be challenging. In addition we present the results from our ground based measurements to show why trying to estimate national emissions using radiocarbon measurements was overambitious, and how practical the technique is for the UK in general.

  17. Contemporary vegetarianism in the U.K.: challenge and incorporation?

    PubMed

    Beardsworth, A D; Keil, E T

    1993-06-01

    The relationship between vegetarianism and the "orthodox" food ideology and the overall food system in the U.K. is complex and ambiguous. Vegetarianism, and a fortiori veganism, appear to represent a direct challenge to orthodox foodways and current production methods. Yet there is some evidence for the incorporation of vegetarianism into the commercial food system, which raises the question of how and why incorporation has occurred. PMID:8373147

  18. The epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in the UK 2014.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Prachi; Wickramasinghe, Kremlin; Williams, Julianne; Rayner, Mike; Townsend, Nick

    2015-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) presents a significant burden to the UK. This review presents data from nationally representative datasets to provide up-to-date statistics on mortality, prevalence, treatment and costs. Data focus on CVD as a whole, coronary heart disease (International Classification of Diseases (ICD):I20-25) and cerebrovascular disease (ICD:I60-69); however, where available, other cardiovascular conditions are also presented. In 2012, CVD was the most common cause of death in the UK for women (28% of all female deaths), but not for men, where cancer is now the most common cause of death (32% of all male deaths). Mortality from CVD varies widely throughout the UK, with the highest age-standardised CVD death rates in Scotland (347/100 000) and the North of England (320/100 000 in the North West). Prevalence of coronary heart disease is also highest in the North of England (4.5% in the North East) and Scotland (4.3%). Overall, around three times as many men have had a myocardial infarction compared with women. Treatment for CVD is increasing over time, with prescriptions and operations for CVD having substantially increased over the last two decades. The National Health Service in England spent around £6.8 billion on CVD in 2012/2013, the majority of which came from spending on secondary care. Despite significant declines in mortality in the UK, CVD remains a considerable burden, both in terms of health and costs. Both primary and secondary prevention measures are necessary to reduce both the burden of CVD and inequalities in CVD mortality and prevalence. PMID:26041770

  19. Results from the UK 3rd generation programme: Albion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, R. K.; Axcell, C.; Knowles, P.; Hoade, K. P.; Wilson, M.; Dennis, P. N. J.; Backhouse, P.; Gordon, N. T.

    2008-10-01

    Following the development of 1st Generation systems in the 1970s, thermal imaging has been in service with the UK armed forces for over 25 years and has proven itself to be a battle winning technology. More recently the wider accessibility to similar technologies within opposing forces has reduced the military advantage provided by these 1st Generation systems and a clear requirement has been identified by the UK MOD for thermal imaging sensors providing increased detection, recognition and identification (DRI) ranges together with a simplified logistical deployment burden and reduced through-life costs. In late 2005, the UK MOD initiated a programme known as "Albion" to develop high performance 3rd Generation single waveband infrared detectors to meet this requirement. At the same time, under a separate programme supporting higher risk technology, a dual waveband infrared detector was also developed. The development phase of the Albion programme has now been completed and prototype detectors are now available and have been integrated into demonstration thermal imaging cameras. The Albion programme has now progressed into the second phase, incorporating both single and dual waveband devices, focussing on low rate initial production (LRIP) and qualification of the devices for military applications. All of the detectors have been fabricated using cadmium mercury telluride material (CMT), grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on low cost, gallium arsenide (GaAs) substrates and bump bonded to the silicon read out circuit (ROIC). This paper discusses the design features of the 3rd Generation detectors developed in the UK together with the results obtained from the prototype devices both in the laboratory and when integrated into field deployable thermal imaging cameras.

  20. Review of the UK transport energy outlook: And policy recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-12-01

    Liquid fuel consumption for transport (excluding international bunkers for ships) in 1979 is analyzed and used to forecast the position at the end of the century. Car population is expected to increase by 6 million to over 20 million, but fuel saving designs mean that fuel consumption increases only slightly. Truck fuel consumption stays the same. Fuel consumption by UK airlines is expected to double. The proportion of a barrel of crude oil which is refined as transport fuel must be increased.

  1. UK Environmental Prediction - integration and evaluation at the convective scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallmann, Joachim; Lewis, Huw; Castillo, Juan Manuel; Pearson, David; Harris, Chris; Saulter, Andy; Bricheno, Lucy; Blyth, Eleanor

    2016-04-01

    Traditionally, the simulation of regional ocean, wave and atmosphere components of the Earth System have been considered separately, with some information on other components provided by means of boundary or forcing conditions. More recently, the potential value of a more integrated approach, as required for global climate and Earth System prediction, for regional short-term applications has begun to gain increasing research effort. In the UK, this activity is motivated by an understanding that accurate prediction and warning of the impacts of severe weather requires an integrated approach to forecasting. The substantial impacts on individuals, businesses and infrastructure of such events indicate a pressing need to understand better the value that might be delivered through more integrated environmental prediction. To address this need, the Met Office, NERC Centre for Ecology & Hydrology and NERC National Oceanography Centre have begun to develop the foundations of a coupled high resolution probabilistic forecast system for the UK at km-scale. This links together existing model components of the atmosphere, coastal ocean, land surface and hydrology. Our initial focus has been on a 2-year Prototype project to demonstrate the UK coupled prediction concept in research mode. This presentation will provide an update on UK environmental prediction activities. We will present the results from the initial implementation of an atmosphere-land-ocean coupled system, including a new eddy-permitting resolution ocean component, and discuss progress and initial results from further development to integrate wave interactions in this relatively high resolution system. We will discuss future directions and opportunities for collaboration in environmental prediction, and the challenges to realise the potential of integrated regional coupled forecasting for improving predictions and applications.

  2. Household hazardous waste data for the UK by direct sampling.

    PubMed

    Slack, Rebecca J; Bonin, Michael; Gronow, Jan R; Van Santen, Anton; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2007-04-01

    The amount of household hazardous waste (HHW) disposed of in the United Kingdom (UK) requires assessment. This paper describes a direct analysis study carried out in three areas in southeast England involving over 500 households. Each participating householder was provided with a special bin in which to place items corresponding to a list of HHW. The amount of waste collected was split into nine broad categories: batteries, home maintenance (DIY), vehicle upkeep, pesticides, pet care, pharmaceuticals, photographic chemicals, household cleaners, and printer cartridges. Over 1 T of waste was collected from the sample households over a 32-week period, which would correspond to an estimated 51,000 T if extrapolated to the UK population for the same period or over 7,000 T per month. Details of likely disposal routes adopted by householders were also sought, demonstrating the different pathways selected for different waste categories. Co-disposal with residual household waste dominated for waste batteries and veterinary medicines, hence avoiding classification as hazardous waste under new UK waste regulations. The information can be used to set a baseline for the management of HHW and provides information for an environmental risk assessment of the disposal of such wastes to landfill. PMID:17438817

  3. UK asbestos imports and mortality due to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Wiggans, R. E.; Young, C.; Fishwick, D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have demonstrated that the rising mortality due to mesothelioma and asbestosis can be predicted from historic asbestos usage. Mortality due to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is also rising, without any apparent explanation. Aims To compare mortality due to these conditions and examine the relationship between mortality and national asbestos imports. Methods Mortality data for IPF and asbestosis in England and Wales were available from the Office for National Statistics. Data for mesothelioma deaths in England and Wales and historic UK asbestos import data were available from the Health & Safety Executive. The numbers of annual deaths due to each condition were plotted separately by gender, against UK asbestos imports 48 years earlier. Linear regression models were constructed. Results For mesothelioma and IPF, there was a significant linear relationship between the number of male and female deaths each year and historic UK asbestos imports. For asbestosis mortality, a similar relationship was found for male but not female deaths. The annual numbers of deaths due to asbestosis in both sexes were lower than for IPF and mesothelioma. Conclusions The strength of the association between IPF mortality and historic asbestos imports was similar to that seen in an established asbestos-related disease, i.e. mesothelioma. This finding could in part be explained by diagnostic difficulties in separating asbestosis from IPF and highlights the need for a more accurate method of assessing lifetime occupational asbestos exposure. PMID:26511746

  4. Reported flooding in the UK: 1884-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    Long term archives of reported flooding in the UK from 1884-2012 are used to build an indicator dataset of significant flooding at a national scale in England. The report describes the occurrence of significant flood events on a national scale based on the monthly UK Met Office weather reports and auxiliary sources. Unlike previous studies, which use flow gauging records, these data describe the occurrence of a flood event that affected people and property i.e. they are not flow station specific. The descriptions of reported flood events are classified in order of magnitude, extent and impact. Notable and significant reported flood events are analysed to determine long term temporal trends, changes in seasonality (summer/winter) and to detect any changes in spatial distribution and scale over the last 120 years. The 19th century reports are less frequent, suggesting that flooding became much more common over the 20th century; however this may be due to an increase in rates of exposure to flood risk due to urban growth and as reporting technology became more sophisticated. The 20th century data shows a high variation with no clear trend of an increase in reported flooding over time. Reported events suggest that flooding occurs in clusters followed by periods of little or no flooding. This supports recent hypotheses regarding the flood-drought cycle of UK water resources. The data shows no tendency towards seasonal winter flooding, with an even distribution of flood events being reported in both summer and winter.

  5. The effects of a soft drink tax in the UK.

    PubMed

    Tiffin, Richard; Kehlbacher, Ariane; Salois, Matthew

    2015-05-01

    The majority of the UK population is either overweight or obese. Health economists, nutritionists and doctors are calling for the UK to follow the example of other European countries and introduce a tax on soft drinks as a result of the perception that high intakes contribute to diet-related disease. We use a demand model estimated with household-level data on beverage purchases in the UK to investigate the effects of a tax on soft drink consumption. The model is a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System, and censoring is handled by applying a double hurdle. Separate models are estimated for low, moderate and high consumers to allow for a differential impact on consumption between these groups. Applying different hypothetical tax rates, we conclude that understanding the nature of substitute/complement relationships is crucial in designing an effective policy as these relationships differ between consumers depending on their consumption level. The overall impact of a soft drink tax on calorie consumption is likely to be small. PMID:24677314

  6. Long-range forecasts of UK winter hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, C.; Brookshaw, A.; Scaife, A. A.; Bell, V. A.; Mackay, J. D.; Jackson, C. R.; Hannaford, J.; Davies, H. N.; Arribas, A.; Stanley, S.

    2015-06-01

    Seasonal river flow forecasts are beneficial for planning agricultural activities, river navigation, and for management of reservoirs for public water supply and hydropower generation. In the United Kingdom (UK), skilful seasonal river flow predictions have previously been limited to catchments in lowland (southern and eastern) regions. Here we show that skilful long-range forecasts of winter flows can now be achieved across the whole of the UK. This is due to a remarkable geographical complementarity between the regional geological and meteorological sources of predictability for river flows. Forecast skill derives from the hydrogeological memory of antecedent conditions in southern and eastern parts of the UK and from meteorological predictability in northern and western areas. Specifically, it is the predictions of the atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic that provides the skill at the seasonal timescale. In addition, significant levels of skill in predicting the frequency of winter high flow events is demonstrated, which has the potential to allow flood adaptation measures to be put in place.

  7. Offshore UK; Shell starts Galleon field pre-drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Shell U.K. Exploration and Production (Shell), acting as operator for a consortium of companies, has described plans for the two-phase development of Galleon gas field, located 50 miles from the Shell/Esso gas processing plant at Bacton, Norfolk, in 82 ft of water. The field has estimated reserves of 1.4 Tcf. Phase 1 development will cost [Brit pounds]300 million ($500 million); and first production is expected in late 1994. British Gas has agreed to purchase at least Phase 1 gas. Shell will be the operator for the development. A preliminary costsharing arrangement has been agreed to by the co-venturers to bridge the period until equities are determined. The consortium comprises Shell and Esso, with 40% each, and Conoco (U.K.) Ltd. and Oryx U.K. Energy Co., each with 10%. The field is located in Shell/Esso Blocks 48/14, 19a and 20a, and Conoco/Oryx Block 48/15a. Galleon will be the sixth gas field to be developed in the Southern North Sea by Shell, the operator for Shell and Esso. It will be the third field in the Sole Pit area, where total reserves found by Shell/Esso are about 3.0 Tcf.

  8. Temporal variability of beryllium-7 fallout in southwest UK.

    PubMed

    Taylor, A; Keith-Roach, M J; Iurian, A R; Mabit, L; Blake, W H

    2016-08-01

    Cosmogenic beryllium-7 has been widely employed as a sediment tracing tool and continued development of its use as a soil erosion tracer requires knowledge of fallout temporal dynamics. Data regarding beryllium-7 fallout in the UK are scarce and here the authors provide a record of beryllium-7 fallout in southwest England spanning a two-year period. A monthly fallout record was developed for Plymouth, UK using regular rainfall sampling to determine beryllium-7 rainfall activity concentration (Bq L(-1)) and deposition flux (Bq m(-2)). Data showed a general tendency for higher activity during the spring/summer months and lower activity in the autumn/winter months. Comparison with data for other UK sites (Chilton and Aberporth) for the same period found significant differences in (7)Be activity in rainwater and lower variability in Plymouth than Chilton and Aberporth. Total deposition was largely controlled by rainfall in Plymouth although regression coefficients suggested greater importance of other atmospheric controls at the Chilton and Aberporth sites. Use of a deposition proportion to rainfall proportion ratio identified periods when deposition was influenced by varying (7)Be activity in rainfall. Broad ranges in ratios were found for Chilton and Aberporth and this has implications for sediment tracer studies requiring estimates of (7)Be deposition flux across months or seasons. PMID:27155526

  9. Workforce issues and training programmes - A UK perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Warren

    2007-07-01

    Over the past 20 years under-investment has led to the UK's nuclear skills base being run down to the point where it is now very fragile and the cracks are showing. As a result a number of key nuclear science and engineering disciplines are now showing signs of shortages developing which is being reflected in both industry and academia. Fortunately, the skills gap has been recognised and the trend of under-investment is being reversed. Industry, Government and the Research Councils are starting to take steps to address the issue and new nuclear education and research initiatives are underway including the Dalton Nuclear Institute and the plans to create a National Nuclear Laboratory. The concern over a skills gap still exists but hopefully with the realisation of high profile projects such as new nuclear build, the establishment of a National Nuclear Laboratory and continued support from the UK's Research Councils, involvement in the nuclear field will prove to be an attractive career option for a greater number of people which will put the UK back in the position of having a vibrant and sustainable world class nuclear skills base. (author)

  10. A UK inventory of nitrous oxide emissions from farmed livestock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, D. R.; Sneath, R. W.; Phillips, V. R.; Pain, B. F.

    A UK inventory of the nitrous oxide (N 2O) emissions from farmed livestock was compiled to identify areas where potential abatement practices may be effective. Where possible, emission factors based on direct experimental data gathered under UK conditions were used, but published data were used when this was not feasible, together with statistical information, which included details of numbers of animals within each category of a species, animal liveweights, number of days housed, excretal rates and volumes of manures in stores. Total N 2O emissions were calculated for each component of livestock production systems, i.e. animal houses, manure stores, following application of manures to land and during grazing. Emissions were also estimated from land used for forage conservation and tillage. Total annual N 2O emissions from UK farmed livestock, based mainly on 1996 animal census data, were estimated to be 38.27 kt. The two main terms were 22.66 kt N 2O from mineral fertilisers after application to soils and 5.61 kt N 2O from stored manures (mainly in the form of farmyard manure). Within buildings, poultry were the largest contributors of N 2O, 2.97 kt, followed by cattle, 1.62 kt. Within the total emissions from stored manures, cattle were the largest contributors of N 2O, 3.58 kt, followed by poultry, 1.86 kt. Dietary manipulation and a move from solid manure based systems to slurry based systems appear to be promising abatement practices.

  11. Maintaining quality in the UK breast screening program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gale, Alastair

    2010-02-01

    Breast screening in the UK has been implemented for over 20 years and annually nearly two million women are now screened with an estimated 1,400 lives saved. Nationally, some 700 individuals interpret screening mammograms in almost 110 screening centres. Currently, women aged 50 to 70 are invited for screening every three years and by 2012 this age range will increase to 47 - 73 years. There is a rapid ongoing transition from using film mammograms to full field digital mammography such that in 2010 every screening centre will be partly digital. An early, and long running, concern has been how to ensure the highest quality of imaging interpretation across the UK, an issue enhanced by the use of a three year screening interval. To partly address this question a self assessment scheme was developed in 1988 and subsequently implemented nationally in the UK as a virtually mandatory activity. The scheme is detailed from its beginnings, through its various developments to current incarnation and future plans. This encompasses both radiological (single view screening, two view screening, mammographic film and full field digital mammography) as well as design changes (cases reported by means of: form filling; PDA; tablet PC; iPhone, and the internet). The scheme provides a rich data source which is regularly studied to examine different aspects of radiological performance. Overall it aids screening radiologists by giving them regular access to a range of difficult exemplar cases together with feedback on their performance as compared to their peers.

  12. The occurrence of selected human pharmaceutical compounds in UK estuaries.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kevin V; Hilton, Martin J

    2004-09-01

    This report describes a scoping study conducted in order to establish whether pharmaceutical compounds may be present in UK estuaries. Surface water samples collected from five UK estuaries were analysed for the presence of 14 pharmaceutical compounds selected from the priority lists of the UK Environment Agency and the Oslo and Paris Commission (OSPAR). The pharmaceutical compounds/metabolites clofibric acid, clotrimazole, dextropropoxyphene, diclofenac, ibuprofen, mefenamic acid, propranolol, tamoxifen and trimethoprim were detected at measurable concentrations in the samples collected. The concentrations of erythromycin, lofepramine, paracetamol, sulfamethoxazole and acetyl-sulfamethoxazole were all below the limits of detection of the methods used (between 4 and 20 ng l(-1)). The anti-fungal agent clotrimazole was the most frequently detected at a maximal concentration of 22 ng l(-1) and a median concentration of 7 ng l(-1). The analgesic compound ibuprofen was detected at a maximal concentration of approximately 930 ng l(-1) and a median concentration of 48 ng l(-1), whilst the other pharmaceutical compounds were detected between the limits of detection of the method used and 570 ng l(-1). PMID:15325211

  13. The epidemiology of self-poisoning in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Camidge, D R; Wood, R J; Bateman, D N

    2003-01-01

    Self-poisoning by ingestion or inhalation is common, and it is important to study its various epidemiological manifestations with clear definitions. Data on fatal self-poisonings are recorded nationally within the UK and are codified according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) revision relevant at the time. Most fatal self-poisonings are codified as suicides, accidental deaths or undetermined deaths (‘open verdicts’). Non-fatal self-poisoning data, whether accidental or as a manifestation of deliberate self-harm, are recorded through hospital discharge information nationally but are not routinely published in the same way as mortality data. The bulk of the UK's published epidemiological information on nonfatal self-poisoning episodes is largely based on individual hospitals' admission or discharge records (‘special studies’). After establishing definitions for different self-poisoning categories we discuss the published data on self-poisoning as they relate to suicide, accidental self-poisoning and deliberate self-harm in the UK. PMID:14616420

  14. UK Environmental Prediction - integration and evaluation at the convective scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallmann, Joachim; Lewis, Huw; Castillo, Juan Manuel; Pearson, David; Harris, Chris; Saulter, Andy; Bricheno, Lucy; Blyth, Eleanor

    2016-04-01

    It has long been understood that accurate prediction and warning of the impacts of severe weather requires an integrated approach to forecasting. For example, high impact weather is typically manifested through various interactions and feedbacks between different components of the Earth System. Damaging high winds can lead to significant damage from the large waves and storm surge along coastlines. The impact of intense rainfall can be translated through saturated soils and land surface processes, high river flows and flooding inland. The substantial impacts on individuals, businesses and infrastructure of such events indicate a pressing need to understand better the value that might be delivered through more integrated environmental prediction. To address this need, the Met Office, NERC Centre for Ecology & Hydrology and NERC National Oceanography Centre have begun to develop the foundations of a coupled high resolution probabilistic forecast system for the UK at km-scale. This links together existing model components of the atmosphere, coastal ocean, land surface and hydrology. Our initial focus has been on a 2-year Prototype project to demonstrate the UK coupled prediction concept in research mode. This presentation will provide an update on UK environmental prediction activities. We will present the results from the initial implementation of an atmosphere-land-ocean coupled system and discuss progress and initial results from further development to integrate wave interactions. We will discuss future directions and opportunities for collaboration in environmental prediction, and the challenges to realise the potential of integrated regional coupled forecasting for improving predictions and applications.

  15. Alcohol imagery on popularly viewed television in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to alcohol consumption and product imagery in films is associated with increased alcohol consumption among young people, but the extent to which exposure also occurs through television is not clear. We have measured the occurrence of alcohol imagery in prime-time broadcasting on UK free-to-air television channels. Methods Occurrence of alcohol imagery (actual use, implied use, brand appearances or other reference to alcohol) was measured in all broadcasting on the five most popular UK television stations between 6 and 10 p.m. during 3 weeks in 2010, by 1-min interval coding. Results Alcohol imagery occurred in over 40% of broadcasts, most commonly soap operas, feature films, sport and comedies, and was equally frequent before and after the 9 p.m. watershed. Brand appearances occurred in 21% of programmes, and over half of all sports programmes, a third of soap operas and comedies and a fifth of advertising/trailers. Three brands, Heineken, Budweiser and Carlsberg together accounted for ∼40% of all brand depictions. Conclusions Young people are exposed to frequent alcohol imagery, including branding, in UK prime-time television. It is likely that this exposure has an important effect on alcohol consumption in young people. PMID:23929886

  16. An overview of occupational hazards amongst UK Otolaryngologists.

    PubMed

    Vijendren, Ananth; Yung, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Occupational-related hazards (OH) are noted to be prevalent within the medical community. However, there is limited evidence of its effects amongst ENT surgeons. A national survey was carried out with the assistance of ENT-UK to investigate the prevalence of various OH amongst ENT doctors in the UK. A literature search was also conducted to search for articles within English literature worldwide on this subject. 70.6 % of the responding 323 ENT surgeons had reported a form of OH throughout their career. Musculoskeletal pain was the most commonly reported (47.4 %) followed by stress/psychiatric morbidities (38.4 %) and sharps injuries (26.6 %). We found no correlation between OH and consultants/non-consultant status, time spent in ENT and subspecialty. Our literature search revealed 16 articles pertaining to OH amongst ENT doctors. OHs are prevalent within the UK ENT community. There is good evidence within literature on musculoskeletal pain, however, higher level studies are required to thoroughly investigate the other hazards. PMID:27048520

  17. Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottrill, C.; Liverman, D.; Boykoff, M.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors—such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities—have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO2e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO2e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO2e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

  18. The whole grain content of foods consumed in the UK.

    PubMed

    Jones, Angela R; Mann, Kay D; Kuznesof, Sharron A; Richardson, David P; Seal, Chris J

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the whole grain (WG) content of foods consumed in the UK which include ingredients that retain all three structural components of the grain, and contained ⩾10% WG. Dietary data from seven studies with 10,474 UK subjects were examined for foods containing WG. The WG content was then determined from ingredient lists, manufacturers' information and recipes. 372 food descriptors from nine food groups (4.4% of all food codes) contained ⩾10% WG. Of these 372 foods, 31.5% contained ⩾51%, 30.6% 25-50%, and 37.9% 10-24% WG dry matter as eaten. The relatively small number of WG foods identified in the total number of foods consumed confirms the low contribution of WG foods to the overall pattern of foods consumed in the UK. Since foods containing <51% WG accounted for the majority of WG food codes identified, recognising the importance of these foods to WG intake is essential. PMID:27507498

  19. Exploring leadership in the context of dentistry in the UK.

    PubMed

    Willcocks, Stephen George

    2016-05-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore selective leadership approaches in the context of dentistry in the UK. Design/methodology/approach This is a conceptual paper utilising published sources from relevant literature about leadership theory and practice and the policy background to dentistry in the UK. Findings This paper suggests that there is merit in identifying and applying an eclectic mix of leadership theory to the case of dentistry. It offers insight into individual aspects of the leadership role for dentists and applies this to the dental context. It also contrasts these individual approaches with shared leadership and suggests this may also be relevant to dentistry. It highlights the fact that leadership will be of growing concern for dentistry in the light of recent policy changes. Research limitations/implications This paper points out that there are developmental implications depending on the particular approach taken. It argues that leadership development will become increasingly important in dentistry in the UK. Originality/value This paper addresses a topic that has so far received limited attention in the literature. PMID:27198707

  20. Public preferences regarding rabies-prevention policies in the UK.

    PubMed

    Cox, M; Barbier, E B; White, P C; Newton-Cross, G A; Kinsella, L; Kennedy, H J

    1999-08-23

    The current 6-month quarantine system for all cats and dogs entering the UK has kept the UK rabies-free since 1922. However, pressure is mounting for a change to a system of vaccination, microchip identification and serological testing. In response to the increasing controversy surrounding the quarantine system, the UK government recently set up an independent review panel to assess the alternatives. This paper quantifies public preferences for the current policy and three alternative rabies-prevention measures. A survey was used not only to assess the overall preferences for rabies-prevention policies but also to assess the importance of policy attributes and socio-economic characteristics in determining policy preferences. We interviewed a sample of pet-owners in North Yorkshire. The results showed that the existing system was the single most-preferred policy option. However, a large proportion of the sample preferred the vaccination-based policies. A logistic-regression model and ordered probit models were used to find that safety and animal welfare were the most-important factors determining policy preferences. The respondents' awareness of the rabies-policy review, a desire to take a pet abroad, the amount of foreign travel, occupation and previous experience of quarantine were all important factors in policy choice. Socio-economic characteristics such as income, pets owned and the number of children were not significant determinants of policy preference. PMID:10530425

  1. IQ AND SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ACROSS REGIONS OF THE UK.

    PubMed

    Carl, Noah

    2016-05-01

    Cross-regional correlations between average IQ and socioeconomic development have been documented in many different countries. This paper presents new IQ estimates for the twelve regions of the UK. These are weakly correlated (r=0.24) with the regional IQs assembled by Lynn (1979). Assuming the two sets of estimates are accurate and comparable, this finding suggests that the relative IQs of different UK regions have changed since the 1950s, most likely due to differentials in the magnitude of the Flynn effect, the selectivity of external migration, the selectivity of internal migration or the strength of the relationship between IQ and fertility. The paper provides evidence for the validity of the regional IQs by showing that IQ estimates for UK nations (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland) derived from the same data are strongly correlated with national PISA scores (r=0.99). It finds that regional IQ is positively related to income, longevity and technological accomplishment; and is negatively related to poverty, deprivation and unemployment. A general factor of socioeconomic development is correlated with regional IQ at r=0.72. PMID:26088751

  2. A survey of UK fertility clinics' approach to surrogacy arrangements.

    PubMed

    Norton, Wendy; Crawshaw, Marilyn; Hudson, Nicky; Culley, Lorraine; Law, Caroline

    2015-09-01

    This paper draws on the findings of the first survey of surrogacy arrangements in Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) licensed fertility clinics since 1998. Given the complex social, ethical and legal issues involved, surrogacy continues to raise debate worldwide and fuel calls for increased domestic provision in developed countries. However, little is known about how recent changes have affected HFEA licensed clinics. A 24-item online survey was undertaken between August and October 2013, designed to improve understanding of recent trends and current practices associated with UK-based surrogacy, and consider the implications for future policy and practice in UK and cross-border surrogacy arrangements. The response rate was 51.4%, comprising 54 clinics. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics, and open-ended qualitative responses analysed for extending understanding. Of the participating clinics, 42.6% offered surrogacy (mostly gestational surrogacy). Heterosexual couples using gestational surrogacy were the largest group currently using services followed by male same-sex couples. Most clinics reported having encountered problems with surrogacy treatments, suggesting barriers still exist to expanding the UK provision of surrogacy arrangements. It is important that professionals are well informed about the legal implications of surrogacy and that clinics have consistent and appropriate operational protocols for surrogacy arrangements. PMID:26206280

  3. The Flood Forecasting Centre (FFC) in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P.

    2009-09-01

    The Met Office and the Environment Agency in the UK have set up a joint Flood Forecasting Centre (FFC), based at the London offices of the Met Office. This partnership will improve the UK's ability to respond to flooding events by providing an earlier national forecasting and alert service to central and local government departments so as to give them more time to prepare for floods and reduce the risk of loss of life and damage to property. The creation of the centre is in response to a key recommendation of Sir Michael Pitt's Review following the summer 2007 floods over the UK. For the first time, the FFC combines the Environment Agency's expertise in flood risk management and the Met Office's expertise in weather forecasting under one roof. My presentation will describe the benefits it will bring to the emergency responder community. It will also cover the tools available to the centre such as the new generation of high resolution weather models now coming on line. As a result, flood forecasting and warning systems, (which historically have been based on the lack of sufficiently fine scale rainfall information), need to be revisited in the light of the new meteorological modelling capabilities. This is particularly true for surface water flooding, where these new capabilities offer, for the first time, the possibility of providing credible alerts.

  4. Environmental baselines: preparing for shale gas in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, John; Manamsa, Katya; Bell, Rachel; Darling, George; Dochartaigh, Brighid O.; Stuart, Marianne; Ward, Rob

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater is a vital source of freshwater in the UK. It provides almost 30% of public water supply on average, but locally, for example in south-east England, it is constitutes nearly 90% of public supply. In addition to public supply, groundwater has a number of other uses including agriculture, industry, and food and drink production. It is also vital for maintaining river flows especially during dry periods and so is essential for maintaining ecosystem health. Recently, there have been concerns expressed about the potential impacts of shale gas development on groundwater. The UK has abundant shales and clays which are currently the focus of considerable interest and there is active research into their characterisation, resource evaluation and exploitation risks. The British Geological Survey (BGS) is undertaking research to provide information to address some of the environmental concerns related to the potential impacts of shale gas development on groundwater resources and quality. The aim of much of this initial work is to establish environmental baselines, such as a baseline survey of methane occurrence in groundwater (National methane baseline study) and the spatial relationships between potential sources and groundwater receptors (iHydrogeology project), prior to any shale gas exploration and development. The poster describes these two baseline studies and presents preliminary findings. BGS are currently undertaking a national survey of baseline methane concentrations in groundwater across the UK. This work will enable any potential future changes in methane in groundwater associated with shale gas development to be assessed. Measurements of methane in potable water from the Cretaceous, Jurassic and Triassic carbonate and sandstone aquifers are variable and reveal methane concentrations of up to 500 micrograms per litre, but the mean value is relatively low at < 10 micrograms per litre. These values compare with much higher levels of methane in aquicludes

  5. Potential environmental impacts of offshore UK geological CO2 storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carruthers, Kit; Wilkinson, Mark; Butler, Ian B.

    2016-04-01

    Geological carbon dioxide storage in the United Kingdom (UK) will almost certainly be entirely offshore, with storage for over 100 years' worth of UK CO2 output from industry and power generation in offshore depleted hydrocarbon fields and sandstone formations. Storage capacity can be limited by the increase in formation water pressure upon CO2 injection, therefore removal and disposal of formation waters ('produced waters') can control formation water pressures, and increase CO2 storage capacity. Formation waters could also be produced during CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery (CO2-EOR). The precedent from current UK North Sea hydrocarbon extraction is to 'overboard' produced waters into the ocean, under current regulations. However, laboratory and field scale studies, with an emphasis on the effects on onshore shallow potable groundwaters, have shown that CO2 dissolution in formation waters during injection and storage acidifies the waters and promotes mobilisation from the reservoir sandstones of major and trace elements into solution, including heavy metals. Eight of these elements are specifically identified in the UK as potentially hazardous to the marine environment (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn). A comparison was made between the concentrations of these eight trace elements in the results of laboratory batch leaching experiments of reservoir rock in CO2-rich saline solutions and overboarded waters from current offshore UK hydrocarbon production. This showed that, taking the North Sea as a whole, the experimental results fall within the range of concentrations of current oil and gas activities. However, on a field-by-field basis, concentrations may be enhanced with CO2 storage, such that they are higher than waters normally produced from a particular field. Lead, nickel and zinc showed the greatest concentration increases in the experiments with the addition of CO2, with the other five elements of interest not showing any strong trends with respect to enhanced CO2

  6. The future of flood insurance in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Diane

    2013-04-01

    Approximately one in seven properties in the UK (3.6 million homes and businesses) are at risk of flooding. The Adaptation Sub-Committee of the UK Committee on Climate Change reported in 2012 that development on the floodplain grew at a faster rate than elsewhere in England over the past ten years, with one in five properties in the floodplain in areas of significant risk. They concluded that current levels of investment will not keep pace with the increasing risk, noting that without additional action, climate change could almost double the number of properties at significant risk by 2035. Flood insurance can contribute to risk reduction by using pricing or restrictions on availability of cover to discourage new development in flood risk areas, or to encourage the uptake of flood resilience measures. The UK insurance market currently offers flood cover as a standard feature of domestic and small business policies, with central government providing physical protection backed up by financial protection provided by the insurance industry. This approach is unusual in not passing all or part of the flood risk to government schemes. At present, flood insurance in the UK is conducted under a series of informal agreements established between the insurance industry and the Government known as the Statement of Principles. Members of the Association of British Insurers (ABI) currently agree to cover homes at risk of flooding in return for government commitment to manage flood risk. However, this arrangement is now under threat, as the insurance industry is increasingly reluctant to bear the financial burden of flooding alone. The current Statement of Principles ends on 30 June 2013 and will not be renewed. High-risk properties may be unable to obtain insurance after the Statement of Principles expires. Unusually, insurers are arguing against a free market solution, arguing that no country in the world provides universal flood cover without some form of government-led support

  7. Who applies and who gets admitted to UK graduate entry medicine? - an analysis of UK admission statistics

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Graduate-entry medicine is a recent development in the UK, intended to expand and broaden access to medical training. After eight years, it is time to evaluate its success in recruitment. Objectives This study aimed to compare the applications and admissions profiles of graduate-entry programmes in the UK to traditional 5 and 6-year courses. Methods Aggregate data on applications and admissions were obtained from the Universities and Colleges Admission Service covering 2003 to 2009. Data were extracted, grouped as appropriate and analysed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Results Graduate-entry attracts 10,000 applications a year. Women form the majority of applicants and admissions to graduate-entry and traditional medicine programmes. Graduate-entry age profile is older, typically 20's or 30's compared to 18 or 19 years in traditional programmes. Graduate-entry applications and admissions were higher from white and black UK ethnic communities than traditional programmes, and lower from southern and Chinese Asian groups. Graduate-entry has few applications or admissions from Scotland or Northern Ireland. Secondary educational achievement is poorer amongst graduate-entry applicants and admissions than traditional programmes. Conclusions Graduate-entry has succeeded in recruiting substantial additional numbers of older applicants to medicine, in which white and black groups are better represented and Asian groups more poorly represented than in traditional undergraduate programmes. PMID:21943332

  8. The UK-DALE dataset, domestic appliance-level electricity demand and whole-house demand from five UK homes.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Jack; Knottenbelt, William

    2015-01-01

    Many countries are rolling out smart electricity meters. These measure a home's total power demand. However, research into consumer behaviour suggests that consumers are best able to improve their energy efficiency when provided with itemised, appliance-by-appliance consumption information. Energy disaggregation is a computational technique for estimating appliance-by-appliance energy consumption from a whole-house meter signal. To conduct research on disaggregation algorithms, researchers require data describing not just the aggregate demand per building but also the 'ground truth' demand of individual appliances. In this context, we present UK-DALE: an open-access dataset from the UK recording Domestic Appliance-Level Electricity at a sample rate of 16 kHz for the whole-house and at 1/6 Hz for individual appliances. This is the first open access UK dataset at this temporal resolution. We recorded from five houses, one of which was recorded for 655 days, the longest duration we are aware of for any energy dataset at this sample rate. We also describe the low-cost, open-source, wireless system we built for collecting our dataset. PMID:25984347

  9. The UK-DALE dataset, domestic appliance-level electricity demand and whole-house demand from five UK homes

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Jack; Knottenbelt, William

    2015-01-01

    Many countries are rolling out smart electricity meters. These measure a home’s total power demand. However, research into consumer behaviour suggests that consumers are best able to improve their energy efficiency when provided with itemised, appliance-by-appliance consumption information. Energy disaggregation is a computational technique for estimating appliance-by-appliance energy consumption from a whole-house meter signal. To conduct research on disaggregation algorithms, researchers require data describing not just the aggregate demand per building but also the ‘ground truth’ demand of individual appliances. In this context, we present UK-DALE: an open-access dataset from the UK recording Domestic Appliance-Level Electricity at a sample rate of 16 kHz for the whole-house and at 1/6 Hz for individual appliances. This is the first open access UK dataset at this temporal resolution. We recorded from five houses, one of which was recorded for 655 days, the longest duration we are aware of for any energy dataset at this sample rate. We also describe the low-cost, open-source, wireless system we built for collecting our dataset. PMID:25984347

  10. Incremental Validity of WISC-IV[superscript UK] Factor Index Scores with a Referred Irish Sample: Predicting Performance on the WIAT-II[superscript UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canivez, Gary L.; Watkins, Marley W.; James, Trevor; Good, Rebecca; James, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Background: Subtest and factor scores have typically provided little incremental predictive validity beyond the omnibus IQ score. Aims: This study examined the incremental validity of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth UK Edition (WISC-IV[superscript UK]; Wechsler, 2004a, "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth UK…

  11. The UK Functional Assessment Measure (UK FIM+FAM): Psychometric Evaluation in Patients Undergoing Specialist Rehabilitation following a Stroke from the National UK Clinical Dataset.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Meenakshi; Vanderstay, Roxana; Siegert, Richard J; Turner-Stokes, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    The UK Functional Assessment Measure (UKFIM+FAM) is the principal outcome measure for the UK Rehabilitation Outcomes Collaborative (UKROC) national database for specialist rehabilitation. Previously validated in a mixed neurorehabilitation cohort, this study is the first to explore its psychometric properties in a stroke population, and compare left and right hemispheric strokes (LHS vs RHS). We analysed in-patient episode data from 62 specialist rehabilitation units collated through the UKROC database 2010-2013. Complete data were analysed for 1,539 stroke patients (LHS: 588, RHS: 566 with clear localisation). For factor analysis, admission and discharge data were pooled and randomised into two equivalent samples; the first for exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using principal components analysis, and the second for confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Responsiveness for each subject (change from admission to discharge) was examined using paired t-tests and differences between LHS and RHS for the entire group were examined using non-paired t-tests. EFA showed a strong general factor accounting for >48% of the total variance. A three-factor solution comprising motor, communication and psychosocial subscales, accounting for >69% total variance, provided acceptable fit statistics on CFA (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation was 0.08 and Comparative Fit Index/ Tucker Lewis Index 0.922/0.907). All three subscales showed significant improvement between admission and discharge (p<0.001) with moderate effect sizes (>0.5). Total scores between LHS and RHS were not significantly different. However, LHS showed significantly higher motor scores (Mean 5.7, 95%CI 2.7, 8.6 p<0.001), while LHS had significantly lower cognitive scores, primarily in the communication domain (-6.8 95%CI -7.7, -5.8 p<0.001). To conclude, the UK FIM+FAM has a three-factor structure in stroke, similar to the general neurorehabilitation population. It is responsive to change during in

  12. The UK Functional Assessment Measure (UK FIM+FAM): Psychometric Evaluation in Patients Undergoing Specialist Rehabilitation following a Stroke from the National UK Clinical Dataset

    PubMed Central

    Nayar, Meenakshi; Vanderstay, Roxana; Siegert, Richard J.; Turner-Stokes, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    The UK Functional Assessment Measure (UKFIM+FAM) is the principal outcome measure for the UK Rehabilitation Outcomes Collaborative (UKROC) national database for specialist rehabilitation. Previously validated in a mixed neurorehabilitation cohort, this study is the first to explore its psychometric properties in a stroke population, and compare left and right hemispheric strokes (LHS vs RHS). We analysed in-patient episode data from 62 specialist rehabilitation units collated through the UKROC database 2010–2013. Complete data were analysed for 1,539 stroke patients (LHS: 588, RHS: 566 with clear localisation). For factor analysis, admission and discharge data were pooled and randomised into two equivalent samples; the first for exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using principal components analysis, and the second for confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Responsiveness for each subject (change from admission to discharge) was examined using paired t-tests and differences between LHS and RHS for the entire group were examined using non-paired t-tests. EFA showed a strong general factor accounting for >48% of the total variance. A three-factor solution comprising motor, communication and psychosocial subscales, accounting for >69% total variance, provided acceptable fit statistics on CFA (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation was 0.08 and Comparative Fit Index/ Tucker Lewis Index 0.922/0.907). All three subscales showed significant improvement between admission and discharge (p<0.001) with moderate effect sizes (>0.5). Total scores between LHS and RHS were not significantly different. However, LHS showed significantly higher motor scores (Mean 5.7, 95%CI 2.7, 8.6 p<0.001), while LHS had significantly lower cognitive scores, primarily in the communication domain (-6.8 95%CI -7.7, -5.8 p<0.001). To conclude, the UK FIM+FAM has a three-factor structure in stroke, similar to the general neurorehabilitation population. It is responsive to change during in

  13. Malaria knowledge and utilization of chemoprophylaxis in the UK population and in UK passengers departing to malaria-endemic areas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The burden of imported malaria is predominantly in travellers visiting friends and relatives (VFR) in sub-Saharan Africa. The failure of this group to use chemoprophylaxis is recognized as the most important risk factor for the high incidence of disease. Understanding the reasons for failure to follow national recommendations may relate to knowledge, risk perception, cost, and peer pressure. Research into these variables is critical to understand and change practices in this group and this study was designed to explore whether knowledge, risk perception and prophylaxis use differs between travellers’ to various destinations and the rest of the UK population. Methods Two face-to-face questionnaire surveys were conducted to collect information on demographics, malaria knowledge, source, and quality of pre-travel advice, past travel experience and perceived malaria threat. One was an IPSOS survey of individuals representative of the UK population. The other was a departure lounge survey (Civil Aviation Authority (CAA)) of passengers departing to malarious regions detailing destinations and use of chemoprophylaxis. Results Around a quarter of the 1,991 UK population surveyed had previously travelled to a malarious area. Five-hundred departing passengers were interviewed, of which 80% travelled for leisure (56% VFR’s) and 42% were travelling to West Africa. Malaria knowledge among the UK population (score 58.6) was significantly lower than that of individuals who had previously travelled or were travelling (63.8 and 70.7 respectively). Malaria knowledge was similar in individuals who had and had not sought pre-travel advice and travellers using and not using chemoprophylaxis for their journey. Leisure travellers to Ghana and Nigeria were predominantly VFRs (74%), whilst 66% of travellers to Kenya were tourists. Despite similar high knowledge scores and perceived (>90%) threat of the lethality of malaria in the three groups, chemoprophylaxis use in

  14. Ambient concentrations of 1,3-butadiene in the UK.

    PubMed

    Dollard, G J; Dore, C J; Jenkin, M E

    2001-06-01

    This paper assesses the current knowledge of 1,3-butadiene as an atmospheric pollutant, considers measurement techniques and reviews available data on 1,3-butadiene monitoring and emissions estimates. Atmospheric chemistry, sources of emission, current legislation, measurement techniques and monitoring programmes for 1,3-butadiene are reviewed. There have been comparatively few studies of the products of oxidation of 1,3-butadiene in the atmosphere. However, on the basis of the available information, and by analogy with the oxidation mechanism for the widely-studied and structurally similar natural hydrocarbon isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene), it is possible to define some features of the likely oxidation pathways for 1,3-butadiene. The total UK 1,3-butadiene emission to the atmosphere for 1996 has been estimated at 10.60 kTonnes. 1,3-Butadiene is a product of petrol and diesel combustion; consequently this total is dominated by road transport exhaust emissions (accounting for some 68% of the total). Off-road vehicles and machinery are responsible for 14% of the total UK emission. 1,3-Butadiene is used in the manufacture of numerous rubber compounds, and consequently emissions arise from both the manufacture and use of 1,3-butadiene in industrial processes. Emissions from the chemical industry account for 18% of the UK total emission- 8% from 1,3-butadiene manufacture and 10% from 1,3-butadiene use. The United Kingdom Expert Panel on Air Quality Standards (EPAQS) has published a report on 1,3-butadiene, and recommended a national air quality standard of 1.0 ppb (expressed as an annual rolling mean). This was adopted by the Government as part of the National Air Quality Strategy (NAQS) in 1997, and a target of compliance by 2005 was set. Work conducted for the review of the NAQS (1999) indicated that it was likely that all locations would be compliant with the national standard by the end of 2003. As a result, the review updated the air quality objective for 1

  15. Developing the radiation protection safety culture in the UK.

    PubMed

    Cole, P; Hallard, R; Broughton, J; Coates, R; Croft, J; Davies, K; Devine, I; Lewis, C; Marsden, P; Marsh, A; McGeary, R; Riley, P; Rogers, A; Rycraft, H; Shaw, A

    2014-06-01

    In the UK, as elsewhere, there is potential to improve how radiological challenges are addressed through improvement in, or development of, a strong radiation protection (RP) safety culture. In preliminary work in the UK, two areas have been identified as having a strong influence on UK society: the healthcare and nuclear industry sectors. Each has specific challenges, but with many overlapping common factors. Other sectors will benefit from further consideration.In order to make meaningful comparisons between these two principal sectors, this paper is primarily concerned with cultural aspects of RP in the working environment and occupational exposures rather than patient doses.The healthcare sector delivers a large collective dose to patients each year, particularly for diagnostic purposes, which continues to increase. Although patient dose is not the focus, it must be recognised that collective patient dose is inevitably linked to collective occupational exposure, especially in interventional procedures.The nuclear industry faces major challenges as work moves from operations to decommissioning on many sites. This involves restarting work in the plants responsible for the much higher radiation doses of the 1960/70s, but also performing tasks that are considerably more difficult and hazardous than those original performed in these plants.Factors which influence RP safety culture in the workplace are examined, and proposals are considered for a series of actions that may lead to an improvement in RP culture with an associated reduction in dose in many work areas. These actions include methods to improve knowledge and awareness of radiation safety, plus ways to influence management and colleagues in the workplace. The exchange of knowledge about safety culture between the nuclear industry and medical areas may act to develop RP culture in both sectors, and have a wider impact in other sectors where exposures to ionising radiations can occur. PMID:24894330

  16. Current management of Paget-Schroetter syndrome in the UK.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Shaukat N.; Stansby, Gerard

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Untreated symptomatic patients with Paget-Schroetter syndrome (PSS) can sustain chronic disability from venous obstruction, with arm swelling, pain and early exercise fatigue. This may result in significant loss of occupational productivity and quality of life. For this reason, active management is recommended in the majority of the recent literature. The objective of the this study was to assess current trends of management of PSS in the UK. METHODS: A 9-part questionnaire was sent to 90 ordinary members of the Vascular Surgical Society of Great Britain and Ireland (VSS-GBI). Names and addresses were selected by highlighting every fourth ordinary member from the UK, in the 2000 VSS-GBI handbook. Ordinary members of the VSS-GBI who were clearly radiologists were excluded. RESULTS: Of the 90 questionnaires sent, 60 were returned (66.67%). The majority of respondents used both duplex and venography (61%) as the major investigative tools though some employed duplex only (17%). Multimodality treatment (radiological and operative) was the favoured approach. Only 17% still favoured conservative management alone. Thrombolysis was the most common intervention (86.7%) usually followed by elective thoracic outlet decompression. Most favoured a delayed approach for surgery of 6-12 weeks. First rib resection was the most commonly performed operation (58%), usually by the transaxillary approach (55%). Most of the respondents were doubtful of the role of stenting in this condition and did not use it. CONCLUSIONS: There is no definite consensus on treatment of this condition in the UK. A majority tend to favour a multimodal approach. Thrombolysis is the most common form of treatment employed and first rib resection via the transaxillary approach remains the most popular surgical procedure. The lack of consensus of this potentially disabling condition highlights the need for randomised clinical trials to guide management. PMID:15005942

  17. Mechanical Thrombectomy for Ischaemic Stroke: The First UK Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Nasar; Nayak, Sanjeev; Jadun, Changez; Natarajan, Indira; Jain, Palbha; Roffe, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Endovascular treatments have the potential to accelerate reperfusion in acute ischaemic stroke with large vessel occlusion. In the UK only a few stroke centres offer this interventional option. The University Hospital of North Staffordshire (UHNS) has treated the largest number of cases in the UK. Results of the first 106 endovascular treatments (EVT) are presented here. Methods All patients treated with EVT (intra-arterial thrombolysis (IAT), mechanical thrombectomy (MT) or both, or an attempt at intervention) for acute stroke at UHNS, Stoke-on-Trent, UK, were entered into a prospective register. Baseline demographic and clinical data, the National Institutes for Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), imaging results including Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) score, and complications were recorded. Mortality, and modified Rankin score (mRS) were assessed at 90 days. Results From December 2009 to January 2013 106 patients (mean age 64 years, median baseline NIHSS 18) were treated with EVT (thrombectomy ± IAT 83%, IAT alone 13%, neither 4%). Seventy-eight per cent of occlusions were in the anterior circulation. Intravenous bridging thrombolysis was performed in 81%. Revascularization was successful (TICI 2b/3) in 84%. The median time from stroke onset to the end of the procedure was 6 h 03 min. A good outcome (mRS≤2) at 90 days was achieved in 48% with a mortality of 15%. Fatal or nonfatal symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage (sICH) within 10 days occurred in 9%. The median length of stay was 14 days (31% discharged home ≤7 days). Conclusions EVT led to good clinical outcomes in almost 50% of patients with severe strokes. PMID:24386090

  18. A comparative assessment of waste incinerators in the UK

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, J.D.; Wright, D.G.; Dey, P.K.; Ghosh, S.K.; Davies, P.A.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • We evaluate operational municipal solid waste incinerators in the UK. • The supply chain of four case study plants are examined and compared in detail. • Technical, financial and operational data has been gathered for the four plants. • We suggest the best business practices for waste incinerators. • Appropriate strategy choices are the major difficulties for waste to energy plants. - Abstract: The uptake in Europe of Energy from Waste (EfW) incinerator plants has increased rapidly in recent years. In the UK, 25 municipal waste incinerators with energy recovery are now in operation; however, their waste supply chains and business practices vary significantly. With over a hundred more plant developments being considered it is important to establish best business practices for ensuring efficient environmental and operational performance. By reviewing the 25 plants we identify four suitable case study plants to compare technologies (moving grate, fluidised bed and rotary kiln), plant economics and operations. Using data collected from annual reports and through interviews and site visits we provide recommendations for improving the supply chain for waste incinerators and highlight the current issues and challenges faced by the industry. We find that plants using moving grate have a high availability of 87–92%. However, compared to the fluidised bed and rotary kiln, quantities of bottom ash and emissions of hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide are high. The uptake of integrated recycling practices, combined heat and power, and post incineration non-ferrous metal collections needs to be increased among EfW incinerators in the UK. We conclude that one of the major difficulties encountered by waste facilities is the appropriate selection of technology, capacity, site, waste suppliers and heat consumers. This study will be of particular value to EfW plant developers, government authorities and researchers working within the sector of waste

  19. River entrenchment and terrace formation in the UK Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macklin, M. G.; Lewin, J.; Jones, A. F.

    2013-09-01

    A meta-analysis of a large database of 14C dated fluvial units is used to assess the chronology and controls of episodic Holocene river entrenchment and terrace formation in the UK. Most Holocene terraces are of a ‘fill-cut’ type developed in Pleistocene sediments, in places now reaching down to pre-Holocene bedrock. Holocene terraces are widespread in higher-relief areas of the UK and peripheral higher-energy rivers, and include up to 7 levels in some valley floor reaches. Using 14C constrained data sub-sets for incision episodes, the onset, vertical ranges, formation times, and rates of entrenchment are examined, together with geographical distributions. The height range of terrace separation is relatively small (0.5-3.5 m) with a long-term averaged incision rate over the late and mid-Holocene of 0.43, 0.5, 0.67, 0.7 and 0.81 m/ka in the Tweed, Rheidol, Severn, Ouse and Ribble catchments, and a regional similarity in the scale of incision events. The periods 4200-3700, 3100-2900, 2100-1900, 1800-1500 cal. BP and most notably the last 1000 years (with prominent peaks at 900-800 and 700-600 cal. BP) were times of accelerated incision. It appears likely that extreme flood events triggered the formation of incision ‘slots’, rather than entrenchment being a direct response to glacio-tectonic uplift, or the result of incremental valley-floor lowering by combined incision and lateral reworking. River entrenchment has also been rapid in recent centuries, reflecting the coupling of extreme-events with anthropogenic effects on catchment hydrology. Incision results in changes of river channel flood power and overbank flood extent, and improved data on the long-term and large-scale vertical tendency of UK rivers are needed for flood risk management purposes.

  20. Special Issue featuring invited articles arising from UK Semiconductors 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Edmund; Wada, Osamu

    2013-07-01

    Semiconductor research has formed the basis of many technological advances over the past 50 years, and the field is still highly active, as new material systems and device concepts are developed to address new applications or operating conditions. In addition to the development of traditional semiconductor devices, the wealth of experience with these materials also allows their use as an ideal environment for testing new physics, leading to new classes of devices exploiting quantum mechanical effects that can also benefit from the advantages of existing semiconductor technology in scalability, compactness and ease of mass production. This special issue features papers arising from the UK Semiconductors 2012 Conference, held at the University of Sheffield. The annual conference covers all aspects of semiconductor research, from crystal growth, through investigations of the physics of semiconductor structures to realization of semiconductor devices and their application in emerging technologies. The 2012 conference featured over 150 presentations, including plenary sessions on interband cascade lasers for the 3-6 µm spectral band, efficient single photon sources based on InAs quantum dots embedded in GaAs photonic nanowires, nitride-based quantum dot visible lasers and single photon sources, and engineering of organic light-emitting diodes. The seven papers collected here highlight current research advances, taken from across the scope of the conference. The papers feature growth of novel nitride-antimonide material systems for mid-infrared sources and detectors, use of semiconductor nanostructures for charge-based memory and visible lasers, optimization of device structures either to reduce losses in solar cells or achieve low noise amplification in transistors, design considerations for surface-emitting lasers incorporating photonic crystals and an assessment of laser power convertors for power transfer. The editors of this special issue and the conference

  1. Management of diabetes in South Asian communities in the UK.

    PubMed

    Hill, Jillian

    This article discusses some of the specific challenges related to the management of diabetes in patients of South Asian origin. Communicating information that considers cultural, religious and language differences is important to promote effective self-management. The South Asian population in the UK is at greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes, and cultural practices such as fasting if not managed properly can lead to deterioration in their condition. The use of appropriate information and educators with Asian language skills and an understanding of the local population's culture are important to improve self-management of diabetes in these patients. PMID:16536399

  2. Osteoporosis services in secondary care: a UK survey.

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, R E; Cooper, C C

    2000-01-01

    A 1994 survey indicated that only 13 health authorities in the UK were purchasing access to dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), the most accurate measure of osteoporosis risk. By 1998 the number of centres (including private facilities providing DXA) was 161. All these were sent a questionnaire concerning their activities. 124 (77%) responded, and the survey found that DXA machines operate, on average, for only 3.6 days a week. Funding of and access to diagnostic services for osteoporosis varies greatly. There is clear scope for greater efficiency in the use of existing DXA machines and more equitable access to diagnostic services is required for effective management of osteoporosis. PMID:10700842

  3. UK policy initiatives and the effect on increasing organ donation.

    PubMed

    Hall, Bethany; Parkin, Matthew Sw

    Organ donation has developed since the Human Tissue Act 1961, and even since the Human Tissue Act 2004, which replaced it. Given the demand for organ transplants, there have been various attempts to increase the number of people on the Organ Donation Register, including awareness campaigns and celebrity endorsement. However, as the UK-wide strategy Taking Organ Transplantation to 2020 indicates, increasing the number of donations will require more than simply increasing the number of registered donors. This article reviews the changes in policies relating to organ donation and the associated issues. PMID:27019167

  4. Enhanced propagation of rainfall kinetic energy in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diodato, Nazzareno; Bellocchi, Gianni

    2016-07-01

    A gridded 0.25° reconstruction of rainfall kinetic energy (RKE) over the UK, on the basis of pluviometric observations and reanalysis back to 1765, shows that autumn RKE doubled in 1991-2013 (˜2 MJ m-2) compared to 1948-1990 (˜1 MJ m-2). A shift eastward is underway, which includes southern and northern portions of the country. Analyzing the long-running England and Wales precipitation series, we conclude that it is likely that increased precipitation amounts associated with more frequent convective storms created conditions for higher energy events.

  5. The current status of the UK-FMOS spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosh, Ian A.; Woodhouse, Guy F.; Froud, Tim; Dowell, Allan; Patel, Mukesh; Wallner, Mattias; Lewis, Ian J.; Dalton, Gavin B.; Holmes, Alan; Brooks, Barney; Band, Cyril; Bonfield, David G.; Murray, Graham J.; Robertson, David J.; Dipper, Nigel A.

    2004-09-01

    FMOS is a near-IR OH-suppressed multi-fibre fed spectrograph for the Subaru telescope. The spectrograph will accept 200 optical fibres from the ECHIDNA positioner system at the 30arcmin Prime focus of the telescope. We will describe the recent activities here in the UK in progressing the instrument from its conceptual phase through detailed design and into manufacture. A variety of technical areas will be described including: the opto-mechanical system design and construction, development of the HAWAII-II detector control system, the thermal system design & control and OH suppression techniques.

  6. The state of neonatal transport services in the UK.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Alan C; Leslie, Andrew

    2012-11-01

    Neonatal transfer services across the UK have evolved at different rates, using a variety of approaches. Scotland, Northern Ireland and most recently Wales have adopted a more centralised approach than in England, where due to comparative population size transport services have developed alongside neonatal network boundaries. Despite considerable investment, transport provision remains variable in some areas and there are continuing issues common to most regions, including service provision and configuration, training, competencies and audit. Further development is required to optimise the use of available resources and develop benchmarking to ensure a high quality sustainable service. PMID:21948327

  7. Ammonia emissions from non-agricultural sources in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, M. A.; Dragosits, U.; Tang, Y. S.; Fowler, D.

    A detailed literature review has been undertaken of the magnitude of non-agricultural sources of ammonia (NH 3) in the United Kingdom. Key elements of the work included estimation of nitrogen (N) excreted by different sources (birds, animals, babies, human sweat), review of miscellaneous combustion sources, as well as identification of industrial sources and use of NH 3 as a solvent. Overall the total non-agricultural emission of NH 3 from the UK in 1996 is estimated here as 54 (27-106) kt NH 3-N yr -1, although this includes 11 (6-23) kt yr -1 from agriculture related sources (sewage sludge spreading, biomass burning and agro-industry). Compared with previous estimates for 1990, component source magnitudes have changed both because of revised average emissions per source unit (emission factors) and changes in the source activity between 1990 and 1996. Sources with larger average emission factors than before include horses, wild animals and sea bird colonies, industry, sugar beet processing, household products and non-agricultural fertilizer use, with the last three sources being included for the first time. Sources with smaller emission factors than before include: land spreading of sewage sludge, direct human emissions (sweat, breath, smoking, infants), pets (cats and dogs) and fertilizer manufacture. Between 1990 and 1996 source activities increased for sewage spreading (due to reduced dumping at sea) and transport (due to increased use of catalytic converters), but decreased for coal combustion. Combined with the current UK estimates of agricultural NH 3 emissions of 229 kt N yr -1 (1996), total UK NH 3 emissions are estimated at 283 kt N yr -1. Allowing for an import of reduced nitrogen (NH x) of 30 kt N yr -1 and deposition of 230 kt N yr -1, these figures imply an export of 83 kt NH 3-N yr -1. Although export is larger than previously estimated, due to the larger contribution of non-agricultural NH 3 emissions, it is still insufficient to balance the UK

  8. The UK register of HIV seroconverters: methods and analytical issues. UK register of HIV seroconverters (UKRHS) Steering Committee.

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    A Register of HIV-infected persons who have had a negative antibody test within 3 years of their first antibody positive test (seroconverters) is being set up in the UK to monitor the distribution of times from HIV seroconversion to AIDS (the incubation period) and to death. It will also provide a national resource for use by those designing studies in this group of individuals. Clinicians caring for HIV-positive persons in Genito-Urinary Medicine, Infectious Disease and other departments throughout the UK were asked to participate by providing information on eligible subjects. Most laboratories undertaking HIV antibody testing were also contacted and asked to provide the name of the attending clinician for all seroconverters identified through the HIV laboratory reporting systems of the PHLS Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre (CDSC) and the Scottish Centre for Infection and Environmental Health (SCIEH) and for any other seroconverters known to them but not identified by CDSC or SCIEH. Data items sought for the Register include: sex, ethnic group, probable route of HIV transmission, annual CD4 counts, details of therapy and prophylaxis prescribed, AIDS-defining events and vital status. Follow up information is collected annually. Wherever possible, all seroconverters known to a clinic have been identified, whether currently alive or dead, either from clinic records or laboratory reporting or both. The objective is to establish and update a complete register of seroconverters on a long-term to basis to provide reliable estimates of the incubation period on which future projections of AIDS cases in the UK can be made. PMID:8870628

  9. Audit of the job satisfaction levels of the UK radiography and physics workforce in UK radiotherapy centres 2012

    PubMed Central

    Beardmore, C; Patel, I; Massey, J; Wong, H; Probst, H

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Workforce planning reports identify a staff shortfall that jeopardizes the ability of UK radiotherapy centres to meet future demands. Obtaining an understanding of the work experiences of radiotherapy professionals will support the development of strategies to increase job satisfaction, productivity and effectiveness. Methods: A quantitative survey assessed job satisfaction, attitudes to incident reporting, stress and burnout, opportunities for professional development, workload, retention and turnover. Clinical oncologists were not included, as the Royal College of Radiologists, London, UK, had recently assessed their members' satisfaction. All questions were taken from validated instruments or adapted from the “UK National Health Service Staff Survey”. Results: The survey yielded 658 completed responses (approximately 16% response rate), from public and private sectors. Over a third (36%) of respondents were classified as satisfied for job satisfaction with 11% dissatisfied and the remaining 53% ambivalent. A significant proportion of clinical staff (37.5%) report high emotional exhaustion. Presenteeism was an issue with 42.4% attending work despite feeling unable to fulfil their role. Conclusion: Radiotherapy professionals are prone to the effects of compassion fatigue and burnout. Attention must be paid to workload and its impact on practitioners' job satisfaction. Professional development that is supported and informed by a performance development review is a simple and effective means of enhancing satisfaction. Individuals have a responsibility to themselves and their colleagues as their behaviours and attitudes influence job satisfaction. Advances in knowledge: This work identifies areas for future research to enhance the professional resilience of practitioners, in order to provide high-quality treatments. PMID:24786316

  10. Favourable changes to the IP and tax systems in the UK for drug development.

    PubMed

    Watson, Robert

    2013-07-01

    The editorial discusses the planned introduction into U.K. patent law of a new exemption from patent infringement for all activities required to secure regulatory approval to market innovative drugs, which brings the UK into line with other major European jurisdictions. It is also planned to exempt studies carried out in relation to reimbursement work. These new exemptions, when set alongside the recent impletion of the Patent Box, offering a reduction in corporation tax on profits earned from patents and Research and Development tax relief, show how the UK Government is trying to make good on its promise to ensure the UK is a leader in Life Sciences Innovation. PMID:23713616

  11. Performance assessment for low-level waste disposal in the UK

    SciTech Connect

    Ashworth, A.B.

    1995-12-31

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) operate a site for the disposal of Low Level Radioactive Waste at Drigg in West Cumbria, in North-West England. HMIP are responsible for the regulation of the site with regard to environmental discharges of radioactive materials, both operational and post-closure. This paper is concerned with post-closure matters only. Two post-closure performance assessments have been carried out for this site: one by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) in 1987; and a subsequent one carried out on behalf of HMIP, completed in 1991. Currently, BNFL are preparing a Safety Case for continued operation of the Drigg site, and it expected that the core of this Case will comprise BNFL`s own analysis of post-closure performance. HMIP has developed procedures for the assessment of this Case, based upon experience of the previous Drigg assessments, and also upon the experience of similar work carried out in the assessment of Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) disposal at both deep and shallow potential sites. This paper describes the more important features of these procedures.

  12. Infectious diseases in air travellers arriving in the UK.

    PubMed

    Gerard, E

    2002-06-01

    The ease of access to air travel and its increased popularity over the last 30 years have led to a significant incidence of imported infectious diseases and potential infectious hazards. The commonest type of illness found is acute gastroenteritis. Tuberculosis and malaria are not currently common conditions encountered in the UK, but medical vigilance is increasingly necessary as a result of these and other infectious diseases being carried by arriving air travellers. Risks of transmission to other passengers have been considered, and tuberculosis has been shown to have relatively low infectivity on commercial flights. Incidence of serious communicable disease occurring in arriving passengers is low, and should be referred to communicable disease specialists for advice on management. High standards of precautionary hygiene measures are mandatory to commercial aircraft to prevent spread of infectious agents. Disease vectors and products of animal origin pose additional potential threats to public health. Vigilance by environmental health specialists helps maintain national defences against this group of threats. Alertness to recent travel history and awareness of international public health concerns is essential for clinicians likely to encounter sick members of the travelling public. The largest commercial airports have health surveillance units, tasked with acting as a first line of defence against infectious disease. The majority of cases do not present in flight or at the airport, so they can present to any primary care clinician or emergency department. An integrated strategy for health protection will be developed in the UK with the setting up of a Health Protection Agency. PMID:12134773

  13. Long-term mercury dynamics in UK soils.

    PubMed

    Tipping, E; Wadsworth, R A; Norris, D A; Hall, J R; Ilyin, I

    2011-12-01

    A model assuming first-order losses by evasion and leaching was used to evaluate Hg dynamics in UK soils since 1850. Temporal deposition patterns of Hg were constructed from literature information. Inverse modelling indicated that 30% of 898 rural sites receive Hg only from the global circulation, while in 51% of cases local deposition exceeds global. Average estimated deposition is 16 μg Hg m(-2) a(-1) to rural soils, 19 μg Hg m(-2) a(-1) to rural and non-rural soils combined. UK soils currently hold 2490 tonnes of reactive Hg, of which 2140 tonnes are due to anthropogenic deposition, mostly local in origin. Topsoil currently releases 5.1 tonnes of Hg(0) per annum to the atmosphere, about 50% more than the anthropogenic flux. Sorptive retention of Hg in the lower soil exerts a strong control on surface water Hg concentrations. Following decreases in inputs, soil Hg concentrations are predicted to decline over hundreds of years. PMID:21889245

  14. Demographics and macroeconomic effects in aesthetic surgery in the UK.

    PubMed

    Duncan, C O; Ho-Asjoe, M; Hittinger, R; Nishikawa, H; Waterhouse, N; Coghlan, B; Jones, B

    2004-09-01

    Media interest in aesthetic surgery is substantial and suggestions of demographic changes such as reductions in age or an increase in the number of male patients are common. In spite of this, there is no peer reviewed literature reporting demographics of a contemporary large patient cohort or of the effect of macroeconomic indicators on aesthetic surgery in the UK. In this study, computer records 13006 patients presenting between 1998 and the first quarter of 2003 at a significant aesthetic surgery centre were analysed for procedures undergone, patient age and sex. Male to female ratios for each procedure were calculated and a comparison was made between unit activity and macroeconomic indicators. The results showed that there has been no significant demographic change in the procedures studied with patient age and male to female ratio remaining constant throughout the period studied for each procedure. Comparison with macroeconomic indicators suggested increasing demand for aesthetic surgery in spite of a global recession. In conclusion, media reports of large scale demographic shifts in aesthetic surgery patients are exaggerated. The stability of unit activity in spite of falling national economic indicators suggested that some units in the UK might be relatively immune to economic vagaries. The implications for training are discussed. PMID:15308405

  15. Smartphone Applications for the Clinical Oncologist in UK Practice.

    PubMed

    Rozati, Hamoun; Shah, Sonya Pratik; Shah, Neha

    2015-06-01

    A number of medical smartphone applications have been developed to assist clinical oncology specialists. Concerns have arisen that the information provided may not be under sufficient scrutiny. This study aims to analyse the current applications available for clinical oncologists in the UK. Applications aimed specifically at physician clinical oncologists were searched for on the major smartphone operating systems: Apple iOS; Google Android; Microsoft Windows OS; and Blackberry OS. All applications were installed and analysed. The applications were scrutinised to assess the following information: cost; whether the information included was referenced; when the information was last updated; and whether they made any reference to UK guidelines. A novel rating score based on these criteria was applied to each application. Fifty applications were identified: 24 for Apple's iOS; 23 for Google's Android; 2 for Blackberry OS; and 1 for Windows OS. The categories of applications available were: drug reference; journal reference; learning; clinical calculators; decision support; guidelines; and dictionaries. Journal reference and guideline applications scored highly on our rating system. Drug reference application costs were prohibitive. Learning tools were poorly referenced and not up-to-date. Smartphones provide easy access to information. There are numerous applications devoted to oncology physicians, many of which are free and contain referenced, up-to-date data. The cost and quality of drug reference and learning applications have significant scope for improvement. A regulatory body is needed to ensure the presence of peer-reviewed, validated applications to ensure their reliability. PMID:24903139

  16. Contrail Cirrus Parameterization in the UK Met Office Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rap, A.; Forster, P.; Dobbie, S.

    2011-12-01

    Air travel and its associated emissions are growing faster than other sectors and they are predicted to contribute a significant warming of climate over the coming century. According to current best estimates, the largest single radiative forcing component associated with aviation is due to aviation-induced cloudiness (AIC), which includes contrail cirrus and changes in the natural cirrus caused by air traffic. However, there is still a high level of uncertainty associated with these, and limited estimates for the forcing of the total effect of aviation induced cloudiness exist. This study, as part of the Contrails Spreading into Cirrus (COSIC) project, aimed to build a physically based parameterization of contrails spreading into cirrus within the UK Met Office Unified Model (UM) and thus to give an independent estimate of the climate impact of AIC. In-situ observations of contrails properties and their spreading have been performed during a series of flights with the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 aircraft. These observations were used in the development of the parameterization, which simulates contrail formation and ageing interactively with the natural cirrus module within the UM. Based on this new parameterisation, estimates of global contrail cirrus coverage, optical depth, and radiative forcing are given, investigating also the contrail effect on the natural cirrus cloud and contrail saturation regional effects of future air traffic growth.

  17. A comparative assessment of waste incinerators in the UK.

    PubMed

    Nixon, J D; Wright, D G; Dey, P K; Ghosh, S K; Davies, P A

    2013-11-01

    The uptake in Europe of Energy from Waste (EfW) incinerator plants has increased rapidly in recent years. In the UK, 25 municipal waste incinerators with energy recovery are now in operation; however, their waste supply chains and business practices vary significantly. With over a hundred more plant developments being considered it is important to establish best business practices for ensuring efficient environmental and operational performance. By reviewing the 25 plants we identify four suitable case study plants to compare technologies (moving grate, fluidised bed and rotary kiln), plant economics and operations. Using data collected from annual reports and through interviews and site visits we provide recommendations for improving the supply chain for waste incinerators and highlight the current issues and challenges faced by the industry. We find that plants using moving grate have a high availability of 87-92%. However, compared to the fluidised bed and rotary kiln, quantities of bottom ash and emissions of hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide are high. The uptake of integrated recycling practices, combined heat and power, and post incineration non-ferrous metal collections needs to be increased among EfW incinerators in the UK. We conclude that one of the major difficulties encountered by waste facilities is the appropriate selection of technology, capacity, site, waste suppliers and heat consumers. This study will be of particular value to EfW plant developers, government authorities and researchers working within the sector of waste management. PMID:23978558

  18. The Cleft Care UK study. Part 4: perceptual speech outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sell, D; Mildinhall, S; Albery, L; Wills, A K; Sandy, J R; Ness, A R

    2015-01-01

    Structured Abstract Objectives To describe the perceptual speech outcomes from the Cleft Care UK (CCUK) study and compare them to the 1998 Clinical Standards Advisory Group (CSAG) audit. Setting and sample population A cross-sectional study of 248 children born with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate, between 1 April 2005 and 31 March 2007 who underwent speech assessment. Materials and methods Centre-based specialist speech and language therapists (SLT) took speech audio–video recordings according to nationally agreed guidelines. Two independent listeners undertook the perceptual analysis using the CAPS-A Audit tool. Intra- and inter-rater reliability were tested. Results For each speech parameter of intelligibility/distinctiveness, hypernasality, palatal/palatalization, backed to velar/uvular, glottal, weak and nasalized consonants, and nasal realizations, there was strong evidence that speech outcomes were better in the CCUK children compared to CSAG children. The parameters which did not show improvement were nasal emission, nasal turbulence, hyponasality and lateral/lateralization. Conclusion These results suggest that centralization of cleft care into high volume centres has resulted in improvements in UK speech outcomes in five-year-olds with unilateral cleft lip and palate. This may be associated with the development of a specialized workforce. Nevertheless, there still remains a group of children with significant difficulties at school entry. PMID:26567854

  19. Mapping an index of extreme rainfall across the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, D. S.; Prudhomme, C.

    Distance from the sea, proximity of mountains, continentality and elevation are all useful covariates to assist the mapping of extreme rainfalls. Regression models linking these and other variables calculated from a digital terrain model have been built for estimating the median annual maximum rainfall, RMED. This statistic, for rainfall durations between 1 hour and 8 days, is the index variable in the rainfall frequency analysis for the new UK Flood Estimation Handbook. The interpolation of RMED between raingauge sites is most challenging in mountainous regions, which combine the greatest variation in rainfall with the sparsest network of gauges. Sophisticated variables have been developed to account for the influence of topography on extreme rainfall, the geographical orientation of the variables reflecting the prevailing direction of rain-bearing weather systems. The different processes of short and long-duration extreme rainfall are accounted for by separate regression models. The technique of georegression combines estimates from regression models with a map of correction factors interpolated between raingauge locations using the geostatistical method of kriging, to produce final maps of RMED across the UK.

  20. UK heart disease prevention project: incidence and mortality results.

    PubMed

    Rose, G; Tunstall-Pedoe, H D; Heller, R F

    1983-05-14

    Results are presented for the UK centre of the WHO European Collaborative Trial in the Multifactorial Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD). 18 210 men took part, aged 40 to 59; they were employed in 24 factories, which formed the allocation units for a randomised controlled trial lasting 5-6 years. Intervention comprised advice on cholesterol-lowering diet, smoking cessation, weight control, exercise, and treatment of hypertension. Advice was given mainly through factory medical departments, the staff being supplemented a little by a visiting central team. Self-reported cigarette smoking was moderately reduced, but changes in other risk factors were small and not well sustained. There was no clear effect on hard CHD end-points (coronary deaths and myocardial infarction) or on all-causes mortality. However, there was a 36% reduction in the rate at which intervention subjects reported ill with other CHD (principally angina) during the study, and at the end fewer intervention men gave positive responses to a self-administered questionnaire on angina and chest pain. These apparent benefits were not substantiated by electrocardiographic evidence, suggesting that participation in a heart disease prevention campaign may bias reporting of symptoms. Experience in other centres of the Collaborative Trial, however, suggests that more effective risk factor control does reduce CHD incidence and mortality. This implies that for the UK the problem is to find means of enhancing the acceptance of health advice. PMID:6133103

  1. Ethnicity and Occupational Pension Membership in the UK

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Reflecting a relatively low‐value Basic State Pension, occupational pensions have historically been a key aspect of pension protection within Britain. Existing research shows that minority ethnic groups are less likely to benefit from such pensions and are more likely to face poverty in later life, as a result of the interaction of their labour market participation and pension membership patterns. However, the lack of adequate data on ethnic minorities has so far prevented the direct comparison of different ethnic groups, as well as their comparison to the White British group. Using data from the UK Household Longitudinal Study, this article explores patterns of employment and the odds ratios of membership in an employer's pension scheme among working‐age individuals from minority ethnic groups and the White British population, taking into account factors not used by previous research, such as one's migration history and sector of employment (public/private). The analysis provides new empirical evidence confirming that ethnicity remains a strong determinant of one's pension protection prospects through being in paid work, being an employee and working for an employer who offers a pension scheme. However, once an individual is working for an employer offering a pension scheme, the effect of ethnicity on that person's odds of being a member of that scheme reduces, except among Pakistani and Bangladeshi individuals for whom the differentials remain. The article also provides evidence on the pension protection of Polish individuals, a relatively ‘new’ minority group in the UK. PMID:27563161

  2. Translating comparative effectiveness research into clinical practice: the UK experience.

    PubMed

    Walley, Tom

    2012-01-22

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is not new but its potential to improve the effectiveness of healthcare has not yet been exploited in the US. Other countries such as the UK have more experience of this. Key points of the UK experience are summarized here and some possible pointers for the US are drawn. These include the following: how to go beyond the evidence and apply judgements to make recommendations with authority and in a timely manner; how to implement these recommendations; how to identify suitable topics; and how to be open and transparently fair to all stakeholders. The quality of the science of CER is key but this needs developing, and not just in biomedical or statistical terms but also in how to understand public expectations, and how to implement its recommendations. A key issue is the role of health economics, which seems to have been marginalized by the CER legislation, but perhaps this is more apparent than real. Clearly this is a matter for much further debate. It is hard to see how CER can deliver its potential without active consideration of both benefits and costs. Although other countries have more experience of this than does the US, the context for such work is always very specific and the US will have to find its own way, while trying to avoid some of the errors made elsewhere. PMID:22268389

  3. Misrepresentation of UK homicide characteristics in popular culture.

    PubMed

    Brown, J; Hughes, N S; McGlen, M C; Crichton, J H M

    2014-03-01

    The homicide statistics of a popular UK television fictional crime series and the former Lothian & Borders police force region, Scotland were compared. This comparison was used to consider the implications for public attitudes which may influence the adoption of public health interventions to reduce homicide. 217 homicides were identified by 105 perpetrators in the television series 'Midsomer Murders' between 1997 and 2011; these were compared to 55 homicides by 53 perpetrators in the regional sample between 2006 and 2011. The numbers of serial killings (p < 0.0001), planned homicides, female perpetrators (p < 0.0001), shootings (p = 0.0456) and poisonings (p = 0.0289) were higher in the fictional sample. Lothian & Borders cases were almost all single killings, mostly unplanned, with a far greater rate of homicide by kitchen knives (p < 0.0001) and hitting/kicking (p = 0.0005) by intoxicated perpetrators. Control of access to pointed kitchen knives by members of certain groups may reduce homicide rates. If the popular perception of UK homicides is influenced by popular culture, the importance of such a public health intervention may not be apparent. PMID:24661708

  4. PACS and diagnostic imaging service delivery--a UK perspective.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Laurence N

    2011-05-01

    This review sets out the current position with regard to the implementation of PACS throughout the United Kingdom and the impact this has had on improving patient care. In December 2007 England had implemented full hospital-wide PACS in all hospitals: a major achievement in the relatively short time period of three years. The different approaches used by each country of the UK to achieve full national PACS are described in addition to the current issues with the sharing of images and reports across different healthcare organisations with regard to technical solutions, clinical safety and governance. The review gives insight into the changing methods of service delivery to address increasing demand pressures on diagnostic imaging services and how the national PACS implementation, specifically in England, has made a significant contribution to measures to improve efficiencies. The role of Teleradiology is discussed in the context of supporting local patient services rather than undermining them and the concept of cross-healthcare reporting 'Grids' is described. Finally, in the summary it is recognised that the vast wealth of knowledge accumulated during the national implementations has placed the UK in a strong position to facilitate full national data sharing across all healthcare organisations to improve patient care. PMID:21600402

  5. The state of academic cancer surgery in the UK.

    PubMed

    Eckhouse, S; Sullivan, R

    2008-10-01

    Despite media and public perception to the contrary cancer surgery is the most important modality for the control and cure of cancer. However, after years of underinvestment by research funders and increasing service delivery demands the academic cancer surgeon is an endangered species. In an effort to improve evidence-based policymaking in this critical domain of cancer research the ECRM has conducted a semi-quantitative assessment of the state of academic cancer surgery in the UK. We have found that the percentage of investment in cancer surgical technologies R&D is less than 1% and even when this is extended to other diseases then this figure is still less than 1%. A decline in the overall numbers of academic surgical staff is paralleled by our finding that over 50% of the academic cancer surgeons in this survey had insufficient time for research. With clinical trials and surgical technology development identified as key research domains the majority (60-80%) did not perceive any benefit for surgical research in these areas as a result of the creation of the UK National Cancer Research Institute. We also found high support for academic surgery from colleagues but medium-low support from many institutions. Key policy conclusions are: (1) greater hypothecated investment by research funders, particularly for the development of surgical technologies as well as clinical trials, and (2) the creation of cancer surgery centres of excellence which have sufficient staffing and institutional support to engendered a creative academic environment. PMID:19383341

  6. The regulation of general practice in the UK.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, W

    1996-01-01

    When health professionals offer primary health services on a private market a number of problems can arise to do with choice, quality and supplier-induced demand. Professional self-regulation through qualification requirements and licensing procedures may offset some of the worst problems. However, in the UK, the primary health care sector is also subject to additional regulatory controls set within the context of the NHS. Private practitioners within the NHS function in a quasi-market setting, in which they are funded by public health authorities to provide services free at the point of delivery to their patients. Within this context there is regulation of quality, entry, prices and profits. This system can be contrasted with the much less extensive set of regulations applied to more market-based systems operating in countries such as the USA. Recent reforms in the UK have, however, initiated a movement towards a market-led system, extended the autonomy of health care practitioners, and increased the scope of financial incentives as a mechanism to promote professional quality and innovation. This article draws on the insights developed in Propper (1993) in her study of regulation and quasi-markets in secondary health care, education and community care. Its focus is on the extent of regulation in primary health care services; the effects of increased financial incentives on professional performance brought about by the NHS reforms; and, the scope for further deregulation of professional services in primary care. PMID:10157063

  7. Evaluation of the status of canine hydrotherapy in the UK.

    PubMed

    Waining, M; Young, I S; Williams, S B

    2011-04-16

    To establish the current status of canine hydrotherapy in the UK and to ascertain information regarding the current use of hydrotherapy, a questionnaire was sent to 152 hydrotherapy centres throughout the UK, from which 89 responded. Hydrotherapy was found to be a rapidly growing business. Stand-alone centres were in existence; however, many centres were connected to other businesses, including boarding kennels and general practice veterinary surgeries. The dogs using the facility were mainly pedigree breeds, particularly labrador retrievers (30 per cent), and the most commonly encountered conditions were rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament (25 per cent), hip dysplasia (24 per cent) and osteoarthritis (18 per cent). The proportion of qualified versus unqualified staff varied between centres, highlighting a need for improved regulation of this aspect of the industry. However, all the dogs treated by the hydrotherapy centres surveyed were direct veterinary referrals, suggesting a good degree of professionalism in the field and a high regard for the benefits of hydrotherapy. PMID:21493454

  8. Going home after infant cardiac surgery: a UK qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Tregay, Jenifer; Wray, Jo; Crowe, Sonya; Knowles, Rachel; Daubeney, Piers; Franklin, Rodney; Barron, David; Hull, Sally; Barnes, Nick; Bull, Catherine; Brown, Katherine L

    2016-01-01

    Objective To qualitatively assess the discharge processes and postdischarge care in the community for infants discharged after congenital heart interventions in the first year of life. Design Qualitative study using semistructured interviews and Framework Analysis. Setting UK specialist cardiac centres and the services their patients are discharged to. Subjects Twenty-five cardiologists and nurses from tertiary centres, 11 primary and secondary health professionals and 20 parents of children who had either died after discharge or had needed emergency readmission. Results Participants indicated that going home with an infant after cardiac intervention represents a major challenge for parents and professionals. Although there were reported examples of good care, difficulties are exacerbated by inconsistent pathways and potential loss of information between the multiple teams involved. Written documentation from tertiary centres frequently lacks crucial contact information and contains too many specialist terms. Non-tertiary professionals and parents may not hold the information required to respond appropriately when an infant deteriorates, this contributing to the stressful experience of managing these infants at home. Where they exist, the content of formal ‘home monitoring pathways’ varies nationally, and families can find this onerous. Conclusions Service improvements are needed for infants going home after cardiac intervention in the UK, focusing especially on enhancing mechanisms for effective transfer of information outside the tertiary centre and processes to assist with monitoring and triage of vulnerable infants in the community by primary and secondary care professionals. At present there is no routine audit for this stage of the patient journey. PMID:26826171

  9. Accidental dural puncture rates in UK obstetric practice.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, C M; Reynolds, F

    1998-10-01

    Headache following epidural analgesia is a common cause of complaint, but accidental dural puncture rates vary among hospitals and with techniques. We were therefore interested to discover the extent of audit of dural puncture, the dural puncture rates in those UK centres that kept reliable records, and the techniques they used for detecting the epidural space. Consultants in charge of anaesthetic services to all 257 obstetric units in the UK were sent a questionnaire requesting numbers of obstetric epidurals, techniques used to detect the epidural space and the numbers of accidental dural punctures in the years 1991-1995. Replies were received from 191 respondents (74%) of whom 104 were able to provide some information about dural puncture rates. Dural puncture rate was inversely related to the number of epidurals performed; the highest recorded rate was 3.6% in a unit with < 300 epidurals annually, and the lowest 0.19% in a unit with > 1000. Most respondents did not record the loss of resistance technique used but among those who did, the dural puncture rate using mainly saline was 0.69% and using mainly air was 1.11% (P<0.001). Since accurate patient information is crucial for informed consent, audit needs to be improved in many centres. Though the accidental dural puncture rate may be under-reported in this survey, our data are in agreement with other findings that loss of resistance to saline is safer than loss of resistance to air. PMID:15321187

  10. Anthropogenic and geogenic impacts on arsenic bioaccessibility in UK topsoils.

    PubMed

    Appleton, J D; Cave, M R; Wragg, J

    2012-10-01

    Predictive linear regression (LR) modelling between bioaccessible arsenic (B-As) and a range of total elemental compositions and soil properties was executed in order to assess the potential for developing a national B-As dataset for the UK. LR indicates that total arsenic (As) is the only highly significant independent variable for estimating B-As in urban areas where it explains 75-92% of the variance. The broad compatibility of the London, Glasgow and Swansea regression models suggests that application of these models to estimate bioaccessible As in UK soils impacted by diffuse anthropogenic urban contamination and non-ferrous metal processing should be relatively accurate. In areas dominated by Jurassic ironstones and associated clays and limestones, total As, P and pH are significant, accounting for 53, 14 and 5%, respectively, of the B-As variance. Models based on total As as the sole predictor in the combined Jurassic and Cretaceous sedimentary ironstones datasets explain about 40% of the B-As variance. The median As bioaccessible fraction (%As-BAF) is 19 to 28% in the anthropogenic contamination impacted urban domains, but much lower (5-9%) in geogenic terrains dominated by ironstones. Results of this study can be used as part of a lines of evidence approach to localised risk assessment but should not be used to replace bioaccessibility testing at individual sites where local conditions may vary considerably from the broad overview presented in this study. PMID:22842593

  11. Genomics education for medical professionals - the current UK landscape.

    PubMed

    Slade, Ingrid; Subramanian, Deepak N; Burton, Hilary

    2016-08-01

    Genomics education in the UK is at an early stage of development, and its pace of evolution has lagged behind that of the genomics research upon which it is based. As a result, knowledge of genomics and its applications remains limited among non-specialist clinicians. In this review article, we describe the complex landscape for genomics education within the UK, and highlight the large number and variety of organisations that can influence, direct and provide genomics training to medical professionals. Postgraduate genomics education is being shaped by the work of the Health Education England (HEE) Genomics Education Programme, working in conjunction with the Joint Committee on Genomics in Medicine. The success of their work will be greatly enhanced by the full cooperation and engagement of the many groups, societies and organisations involved with medical education and training (such as the royal colleges). Without this cooperation, there is a risk of poor coordination and unnecessary duplication of work. Leadership from an organisation such as the HEE Genomics Education Programme will have a key role in guiding the formulation and delivery of genomics education policy by various stakeholders among the different disciplines in medicine. PMID:27481379

  12. Long-term macronutrient stoichiometry of UK ombrotrophic peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillereff, Daniel; Boyle, John; Toberman, Hannah; Adams, Jessica; Tipping, Ed

    2016-04-01

    Ombrotrophic peatlands across northern latitudes represent a globally-important store for carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) through the Holocene. A key characteristic of ombrotrophic bogs is that N, P and other elements vital to their biogeochemical functioning are almost exclusively supplied by hydrological and biological inputs from the atmosphere. While different mechanisms regulating the atmospheric supply of N and P and their limiting effects on bog productivity have been widely studied, limited attention has been paid to the long-term patterns of, and controls on, macronutrient accumulation, cycling and stoichiometry in ombrotrophic peatlands. Indeed there is a dearth of C, N and P stoichiometric data from the UK despite decades of peatland research. Using data from 15 sites, we report the first estimates of millennial-scale macronutrient concentrations and accumulation rates in UK ombrotrophic peats. Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were measured on cores from five ombrotrophic blanket mires, spanning 4000-10000 years to present, and integrated with existing nutrient profiles from ten Scottish sites. Long-term C, N and P concentrations for the UK are 55.1, 1.55 and 0.037 wt%, similar to the few existing northern and tropical comparable sites worldwide. The uppermost peat (0 - 0.2 m) is more enriched in P and N (51.0, 1.86, and 0.070 wt%), while the deeper peat (0.5 - 1.25 m) is more depleted (56.6, 1.39, and 0.028 wt%). Long-term average (whole core) accumulation rates of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus are 25.3±2.2 gC m‑2 yr‑1, 0.70±0.09 gN m‑2 yr‑1 and 0.018±0.004 gP m‑2 yr‑1, again similar to values reported elsewhere in the world. A number of significant findings can be drawn from our results: i) N and P concentrations in ombrotrophic peat are strongly associated, such that a regression model of N concentration on P concentration and mean annual precipitation, based on global meta data for surface peat samples, can

  13. Improving UK Air Quality Modelling Through Exploitation of Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, R.; Chipperfield, M.; Savage, N.

    2012-12-01

    The Met Office's operational regional Air Quality Unified Model (AQUM) contains a description of atmospheric chemistry/aerosols which allows for the short-term forecast of chemical weather (e.g. high concentrations of ozone or nitrogen dioxide, which can trigger warnings of poor air quality). AQUM's performance has so far only been tested against a network of surface monitoring stations. Therefore, with recent improvements in the quality and quantity of satellite measurements, data products (e.g. tropospheric columns, vertical profiles) from several satellite instruments will be used to test the performance of the model. First comparisons between an AQUM simulation for the UK heatwave event of July 2006 and data from OMI, TES (both on AURA) and MODIS (on AQUA) have identified multiple model-satellite biases. The chemical/aerosol species investigated for this simulation include nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), formaldehyde (HCHO), carbon monoxide (CO) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 0.55 microns wavelength. NO2 spatial positive mean biases (AQUM-OMI July 2006 monthly mean tropospheric columns) over north- east England suggest model overestimation in the area's urban regions. Currently, sensitivity tests of the NOx emission datasets are investigating these biases and the model's represent of urban pollution. In the UK O3 monthly mean vertical profile comparisons (AQUM-TES), strong positive mean biases are detected in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere. Since the AQUM does not use a stratospheric chemistry scheme, the satellite climatological vertical boundary conditions will be investigated (e.g. test the model with new boundary conditions using multiple satellite instruments or perturb existing climatologies). Comparisons of HCHO (AQUM-OMI monthly mean tropospheric columns) biases highlight strong negative biases over continental Europe and sporadic positive biases in the south-east lateral boundary conditions. Therefore, evaluation and development of

  14. Measuring and decomposing oral health inequalities in an UK population

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jing; Wildman, John; Steele, Jimmy

    2013-01-01

    Objectives With health inequalities high on the policy agenda, this study measures oral health inequalities in the UK. Methods We compare an objective clinical measure of oral health (number of natural teeth) with a self-reported measure of the impact of oral health (the Oral Health Impact Profile, OHIP) to establish whether the type of measure affects the scale of inequality measured. Gini coefficients and Concentration Indices (CIs) are calculated with subsequent decompositions using data from the 1998 UK Adult Dental Health Survey. Because the information on OHIP is only available on dentate individuals, analyses on the number of natural teeth are conducted for two samples – the entire sample and the sample with dentate individuals only, the latter to allow direct comparison with OHIP. Results We find considerable overall pure oral health inequalities (number of teeth: Gini = 0.68 (including edentate), Gini = 0.40 (excluding edentate); OHIP: Gini = 0.33) and income-related inequalities for both measures (number of teeth: CI = 0.35 (including edentate), CI = 0.15 (excluding edentate); OHIP: CI = 0.03), and the CI is generally higher for the number of teeth than for OHIP. There are differences across age groups, with CI increasing with age for the number of teeth (excluding edentate: 16–30 years: CI = 0.01, 65 + years: CI = 0.11; including edentate: 16–30 years: CI = 0.01, 65 + years: CI = 0.19). However, inequalities for OHIP were highest in the youngest age group (CI = 0.05). Number of teeth reflects the accumulation of damage over a lifetime, while OHIP records more immediate concerns. Conclusions There are considerable pure oral health inequalities and income-related oral health inequalities in the UK. Using sophisticated methods to measure oral health inequality, we have been able to compare inequality in oral health with inequality in general health. The results provide a benchmark for future comparisons but also indicate that the type of health

  15. Mental health services commissioning and provision: Lessons from the UK?

    PubMed

    Ikkos, G; Sugarman, Ph; Bouras, N

    2015-01-01

    The commissioning and provision of healthcare, including mental health services, must be consistent with ethical principles - which can be summarised as being "fair", irrespective of the method chosen to deliver care. They must also provide value to both patients and society in general. Value may be defined as the ratio of patient health outcomes to the cost of service across the whole care pathway. Particularly in difficult times, it is essential to keep an open mind as to how this might be best achieved. National and regional policies will necessarily vary as they reflect diverse local histories, cultures, needs and preferences. As systems of commissioning and delivering mental health care vary from country to country, there is the opportunity to learn from others. In the future international comparisons may help identify policies and systems that can work across nations and regions. However a persistent problem is the lack of clear evidence over cost and quality delivered by different local or national models. The best informed economists, when asked about the international evidence do not provide clear answers, stating that it depends how you measure cost and quality, the national governance model and the level of resources. The UK has a centrally managed system funded by general taxation, known as the National Health Service (NHS). Since 2010, the UK's new Coalition* government has responded by further reforming the system of purchasing and providing NHS services - aiming to strengthen choice and competition between providers on the basis of quality and outcomes as well as price. Although the present coalition government's intention is to maintain a tax-funded system, free at the point of delivery, introducing market-style purchasing and provider-side reforms to encompass all of these bring new risks, whilst not pursuing reforms of a system in crisis is also seen to carry risks. Competition might bring efficiency, but may weaken cooperation between providers

  16. The Supply of Part-Time Higher Education in the UK. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callender, Claire; Birkbeck, Anne Jamieson; Mason, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    This report explores the supply of part-time higher education in the UK, with particular consideration to the study of part-time undergraduate provision in England. It is the final publication in the series of reports on individual student markets that were commissioned by Universities UK following the publication of the reports on the Future size…

  17. The Effect of Academic Culture on the Implementation of the EFQM Excellence Model in UK Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, John; Douglas, Alex; Douglas, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to explore the effect of academic culture on the implementation of the European Foundation for Quality Management's (EFQM) Excellence Model in UK universities. Design/methodology/approach: A literature review reveals several aspects, which collectively define the academic culture in UK universities. These aspects were…

  18. Knowledge Construction and Personal Relationship: Insights about a UK University Mentoring and Coaching Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Eleanore

    2010-01-01

    This article examines interview data from 12 mentors/coaches and eight of their clients in order to explore a mentoring and coaching service among UK university staff. Both mentors/coaches and clients were administrative or academic employees of the Institute of Education or affiliated colleges at London University, UK. Their roles related to the…

  19. Developing tools for long-term breeding of blueberry germplasm for UK production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit consumption in the UK, particularly of berry fruits, is expanding rapidly, and consumer demand for blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) is at record levels with UK growers unable to meet current demand. Consumers are aware that eating fruit can be pleasurable and with appropriate packaging, convenient...

  20. An Exploration of the Relationship between Training Grants and Profitability of UK Construction Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed; Dainty, Andrew R. J.; Ison, Stephen G.; Hazlehurst, Guy

    2008-01-01

    A levy/grant system exists in the UK construction industry to provide financial support for companies undertaking training activities. With the current UK government skills policy, there is an emphasis on ensuring that training support provided to employers is aimed at enhancing companies' profitability. This paper explores the profitability of…

  1. Researcher Development: The Impact of Undergraduate Research Opportunity Programmes on Students in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Joanna; Creighton, John

    2011-01-01

    Undergraduate research opportunity programmes (UROP) are common in North America where research has confirmed their benefits. These schemes are gaining ground in the UK, and this article provides evidence for how UK students are benefiting from the experience. Results suggest UROP makes a significant contribution to the research capabilities and…

  2. Learning Organizations, Employee Development and Learning Representative Schemes in the UK and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Bill; Cassell, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Disparities in learning opportunities endure. This paper aims to investigate whether the learning representative schemes in the UK and New Zealand (NZ) may redress disparate opportunities for learning. Design/methodology/approach: An interview study of UK trade unions' educational officers and an interview study of representatives of…

  3. Which Terms Should Be Used to Describe Autism? Perspectives from the UK Autism Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Lorcan; Hattersley, Caroline; Molins, Bonnie; Buckley, Carole; Povey, Carol; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Recent public discussions suggest that there is much disagreement about the way autism is and should be described. This study sought to elicit the views and preferences of UK autism community members--autistic people, parents and their broader support network--about the terms they use to describe autism. In all, 3470 UK residents responded to an…

  4. Education for Sustainable Development in the UK: Making the Connections between the Environment and Development Agendas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourn, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) is an initiative that dates back to the early 1990s. Whilst policy statements at this time referred to ESD as a bringing together of environmental and development education, in the UK, as in most other industrialized countries, it has been the environmental agenda that has tended to dominate. In the UK,…

  5. Challenges for University Engagement in the UK: Towards a Public Academe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watermeyer, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the changing role of universities in the UK as they respond to an engagement agenda that stipulates a more immersive and visible interaction between academics and the public. It constitutes a survey of attitudes to public engagement in a selection of UK universities drawing on interviews with senior academics with managerial…

  6. Centre of IT Excellence for SMEs in the West Midlands, UK: A Suitable Project Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Diana; Homer, Garry

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the IT Futures Centre, a European technology transfer project based at the University of Wolverhampton in the UK. After reviewing UK government policy in technology transfer, the authors highlight the project's two key elements--a new state-of-the-art building and an IT consultancy team--both of which are…

  7. Three Versions of "Localism": Implications for Upper Secondary Education and Lifelong Learning in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Ann; Spours, Ken

    2012-01-01

    As part of the international debate about new forms of governance and moves towards decentralization and devolution, this article discusses the increasing interest in the concept of "localism" in the UK, marked recently by the publication of the UK Coalition Government's "Localism Bill". A distinction is made between three versions--"centrally…

  8. Research on the Flow of International Students to UK Universities: Determinants and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Vikash

    2007-01-01

    Using time series data over the 1985-2003 period, this article examines some of the determinants of international student mobility to universities in the UK. The research found that some of the main factors influencing international student mobility to the UK include access to domestic education opportunities in the source country, the level of…

  9. People with Intellectual Disabilities Living in Generic Residential Services for Older People in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, D. J.; Ryrie, I.; Wright, S.

    2004-01-01

    Background: As part of a UK programme of work focusing on older people with intellectual disabilities, the circumstance of those who reside in generic services for older people were investigated. Materials and methods: Questionnaires were sent to 2570 residential and nursing homes in 53 local authorities across the UK. Results: Five hundred and…

  10. Dyslexia and Learning Disabilities in Canada and the UK: The Impact of Its Disability Employment Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Paul J.; Batalo, Cecilia G.; Achola, Edwin O.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of employment laws pertaining to individuals with learning disabilities in Canada and dyslexia in the UK were investigated via the extant research literature. Currently, there is very little research in this area despite Canada and the UK having laws in effect for decades. Surprisingly, their laws have been revamped despite an absence…

  11. Enhancing International Students' Experiences: An Imperative Agenda for Universities in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramachandran, Narayanan T.

    2011-01-01

    The role of international students as catalysts for internationalization and related reforms in the UK higher education sector is increasing. With the growing number of international students, administrators and academics are identifying ways to enable international students to adapt to the UK environment and enhance their experiences as students.…

  12. Lifelong Learning and the Social Integration of Refugees in the UK: The Significance of Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrice, Linda

    2007-01-01

    In response to growing population movements the UK Government has introduced a number of measures designed to facilitate the social inclusion and integration of refugees into UK society. This paper explores some of the lifelong learning issues for refugees and argues that the current discourse of social inclusion and exclusion gives rise to narrow…

  13. Meeting the challenge of disease threats to the U.K.

    PubMed

    Mill, Georgina

    2015-12-01

    Official Veterinarians (OVs) from across the U.K. came together recently at conference organised to provide targeted CPD for their particular roles. With the theme of 'Reducing the impact of notifiable diseases in the UK', the meeting considered a wide range of topics, spanning large animal, small animal and equine issues. Georgina Mills reports on some of the sessions. PMID:26637614

  14. Educational Leadership Programmes in the UK: Who Cares about the School Leader?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the evidence of stress-related training for the school leader in the UK. It is intended to stimulate thought and interest in the subject of stress preparation for extant and aspiring school leaders through a review of the current literature and the presentation of data from all UK training institutions and universities.…

  15. Leading Learning and Teaching: An Exploration of "Loca"' Leadership in Academic Departments in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Kate

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a small-scale longitudinal study of "local" leadership roles at two UK universities. The research explored perceptions of the leadership provided by a specific group of staff who held roles for enhancing learning and teaching. Based on ethnographic design principles, the study was based at one UK higher education…

  16. UK Young Adults' Safety Awareness Online -- Is It a "Girl Thing"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a recent research project undertaken in the UK that investigated young adults' perception of potentially risky behaviour online. The research was undertaken through the use of an online survey associated with the UK teen soap opera "Being Victor". The findings of the project suggest that this sample of…

  17. Developing Student Character through Disciplinary Curricula: An Analysis of UK QAA Subject Benchmark Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinlan, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    What aspects of student character are expected to be developed through disciplinary curricula? This paper examines the UK written curriculum through an analysis of the Quality Assurance Agency's subject benchmark statements for the most popular subjects studied in the UK. It explores the language, principles and intended outcomes that suggest…

  18. The Impact of Placements on the Academic Performance of UK and International Students in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Ian; Wang, Zhiqi

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by an increasing number of international students in UK higher education, this study investigates the effect of year-long placements on the academic performance of 268 accounting and finance students enrolled between 2006 and 2009. The results show differences between UK and international students although both statistically and…

  19. Assessment of the Undergraduate Medical Education Environment in a Large UK Medical School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Fidelma; McAleer, Sean; Roff, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the undergraduate educational environment in a large UK medical school. Method: Prospective study using the already validated Dundee Ready Education Environment (DREEM) questionnaire ("Appendix 1"). Setting: A large UK medical school. Participants: All medical students enrolled in the academic year 2002/2003. Main outcome…

  20. Herding the Academic Cats: The Challenges of "Managing" Academic Research in the Contemporary UK University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deem, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    This article explores some aspects of and challenges faced by those academics and administrators who undertake the leadership and management of research activity in contemporary UK universities. This analysis is set in the context of almost three decades of reforms to the UK's higher education systems in general and to research funding and audit…

  1. The Effect of Work Placements on the Academic Performance of Chinese Students in UK Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Ian; Wang, Zhiqi

    2015-01-01

    The main controversy as a result of the commercialisation of international education markets is that international students especially those from China are unable to perform as well as UK students in UK universities. So far, research has yet to identify the influence of placements on the academic performance of Chinese students from entry to…

  2. The Benefits of Part-Time Undergraduate Study and UK Higher Education Policy: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennion, Alice; Scesa, Anna; Williams, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Part-time study in the UK is significant: nearly 40 per cent of higher education students study part-time. This article reports on a literature review that sought to understand the economic and social benefits of part-time study in the UK. It concludes that there are substantial and wide-ranging benefits from studying part-time. The article also…

  3. Highlights of the 2 nd Bioinformatics Student Symposium by ISCB RSG-UK

    PubMed Central

    White, Benjamen; Fatima, Vayani; Fatima, Nazeefa; Das, Sayoni; Rahman, Farzana; Hassan, Mehedi

    2016-01-01

    Following the success of the 1 st Student Symposium by ISCB RSG-UK, a 2 nd Student Symposium took place on 7 th October 2015 at The Genome Analysis Centre, Norwich, UK. This short report summarizes the main highlights from the 2 nd Bioinformatics Student Symposium. PMID:27239284

  4. Leading and Managing Contemporary UK Universities: Do Excellence and Meritocracy Still Prevail over Diversity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deem, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    The paper uses a gendered and feminist perspective to explore some dimensions of the debate about excellence and diversity in relation to the leadership and management of UK universities. The paper considers the extent to which notions about excellence and diversity are in tension in UK higher education and how understandings, underpinning values…

  5. Quality and Standards in UK Universities: A Guide to How the System Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2008

    2008-01-01

    UK universities are widely regarded as being among the best in the world. Maintaining the highest academic quality and standards is crucial to that reputation. This paper explains how universities ensure that students can have confidence that the time and money that they invest in their education are well spent. The UK model for assuring quality…

  6. Cataloguing E-Books in UK Higher Education Libraries: Report of a Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the results of a 2006 survey of UK Higher Education OPACs in order to provide a snapshot of cataloguing practices for e-books. Design/methodology/approach: The OPACs of 30 UK HE libraries were examined in July/August 2006 to determine which e-books were catalogued, and the level of cataloguing…

  7. Policy, Professionalism, Professionality and the Development of HR Practitioners in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Moira

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to explore the role of relevant policies in the professional development of HR practitioners in the UK. Design/methodology/approach: A review of literature was carried out on the subject of the role of relevant policies in the professional development of HR practitioners in the UK. In doing so, the issues of…

  8. Entrepreneurialism in Japanese and UK Universities: Governance, Management, Leadership, and Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yokoyama, Keiko

    2006-01-01

    This paper scrutinises organisational change in Japanese and UK universities which are engaged in entrepreneurial activities. The study focuses on recent changes in governance, management, leadership, and funding in these universities. The paper argues there are convergent trends between Japanese and UK universities in terms of increasing…

  9. "Brits Abroad": The Perceived Support Needs of U.K. Learners Studying in Higher Education Overseas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartram, Brendan

    2013-01-01

    In the context of international growth in higher education exchanges and recent expansion in U.K. mobility rates after a period of some decline, this article examines the perspectives of U.K. students who have decided to spend part of their degree at universities abroad. Based on an analysis of data generated by a cross-institutional survey of…

  10. Perceived Advantages and Disadvantages of Being a Female Graduate Student in the US and the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Clare Marie; Keener, Emily; Shrier, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    We build on Diana Leonard's work on gender and graduate education by qualitatively investigating the perceived advantages and disadvantages of being a female graduate student in the USA and the UK. We interviewed six female students (ages 22-30) pursuing master's degrees in psychology or social sciences in the USA and the UK. Students…

  11. Exploring the "Limits to Growth" in UK Organics: Beyond the Statistical Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Everard; Marsden, Terry

    2004-01-01

    Following a slow start in the early 1990s, the conversion to, and diffusion of, organic farming across UK agriculture has been impressive even by European standards. Between 1996 and 2000, for example, organic land in the UK showed a nine-fold increase. And correspondingly, the retail value of organic foods grew by a factor of four. From a…

  12. Consultant-Client Relationships in UK SMEs: The Roles of the Personal Business Adviser

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on research into the role and value of a particular type of business consultant: a UK government-sponsored Personal Business Adviser (PBA). While it is an occupation that is now defunct in the UK, the author argues that its abolition may have been premature. The roles of the PBA are identified and are found to be in line with…

  13. Creating Prosperity: The Role of Higher Education in Driving the UK's Creative Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report summarises the findings of research commissioned by Universities UK into the role and contribution of higher education in the UK's creative economy. The research gathered evidence from existing data and research as well as case study analysis and contributions from industry, higher education and public sector partners. The findings…

  14. A hominid tibia from Middle Pleistocene sediments at Boxgrove, UK.

    PubMed

    Roberts, M B; Stringer, C B; Parfitt, S A

    1994-05-26

    Fossil hominids from the earlier Middle Pleistocene of Europe are very rare and the Mauer mandible is generally accepted as the most ancient, with an estimated age of 500 kyr. We report here on the discovery of a human tibia, in association with stone tools, from calcareous silts at the Lower Palaeolithic site of Boxgrove, West Sussex, UK (Fig. 1). The silt units are correlated by mammalian biostratigraphy to an, as yet unnamed, major temperate stage or interglacial that immediately pre-dates the Anglian cold stage. Accordingly, the temperate sediments are equated with oxygen isotope stage 13 (ref. 6) and are therefore roughly coeval with the Mauer mandible. The massive tibia is the oldest hominid fragment from the British Isles and provides the first information about the manufacturers of the early Acheulian industries of Europe. It is assigned to Homo cf. heidelbergensis. PMID:8183368

  15. A Statistical Survey of the UK Residential Sector Electrical Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsagarakis, George; Collin, Adam; Kiprakis, Aristides

    2013-09-01

    This article presents a comprehensive statistical analysis of data obtained from a wide range of literature on the most widely used appliances in the UK residential load sector, as well as a comprehensive technology and market survey conducted by the authors. The article focuses on the individual appliances and begins by consideration of the electrical operations performed by the load. This approach allows for the loads to be categorised based on the electrical characteristics, which is particularly important for implementing load-use statistics in power system analysis. In addition to this, device ownership statistics and probability density functions of power demand are presented for the main residential loads. Although the data presented is primarily intended as a resource for the development of load profiles for power system analysis, it contains a large volume of information that provides a useful database for the wider research community.

  16. The injured mind in the UK Armed Forces

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, N.; Jones, E.; Jones, N.; Fear, N. T.; Wessely, S.

    2011-01-01

    The mental health of the UK Armed Forces is a topic much debated by healthcare professionals, politicians and the media. While the current operations in Afghanistan, and the recent conflict in Iraq, are relevant to this debate, much of what is known about the effects of war upon the psyche still derives from the two World Wars. This paper will examine the historical and contemporary evidence about why it is that some Service personnel suffer psychological injuries during their military service and others do not. The paper will also consider some of the strategies that today's Armed Forces have put in place to mitigate the effects of sending military personnel into danger. PMID:21149361

  17. The injured mind in the UK Armed Forces.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, N; Jones, E; Jones, N; Fear, N T; Wessely, S

    2011-01-27

    The mental health of the UK Armed Forces is a topic much debated by healthcare professionals, politicians and the media. While the current operations in Afghanistan, and the recent conflict in Iraq, are relevant to this debate, much of what is known about the effects of war upon the psyche still derives from the two World Wars. This paper will examine the historical and contemporary evidence about why it is that some Service personnel suffer psychological injuries during their military service and others do not. The paper will also consider some of the strategies that today's Armed Forces have put in place to mitigate the effects of sending military personnel into danger. PMID:21149361

  18. General practitioner beds in Finland — lessons for the UK?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Roger

    1987-01-01

    The Finnish Primary Health Care Act of 1972 aimed to provide comprehensive health care to the population. One consequence was an increase in the number of beds for the use of general practitioners, so that there are now 2.2 general practitioner beds per thousand population. Use of these beds varies with the location of the health station in which they are situated, but in rural areas approximates to that of general practitioner hospitals in the United Kingdom. Despite integration of general practitioner beds into overall planning, some potential benefits of these facilities have not been realized. For the UK, with traditions of personal general practice and continuity of care, the Finnish system offers one model of community care which may have medical and economic advantages. PMID:3668922

  19. Estimation of Hail Risk in the UK and Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Eric; Parker, Melanie; Higgs, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Observations of hail events in Europe, and the UK especially, are relatively limited. In order to determine hail risk it is therefore necessary to use information other than relying purely on the historical record. One such methodology is to leverage reanalysis data, in this case ERA-Interim, along with a numerical model (WRF) to recreate the past state of the atmosphere. Relevant atmospheric properties can be extracted and used in a regression model to determine hail probability for each day contained within the reanalyses. The results presented here show the results of using a regression model based on convective available potential energy, deep level shear and weather type. Combined these parameters represent the probability of severe thunderstorm, and in turn hail, activity. Once the probability of hail occurring on each day is determined this can be used as the basis of a stochastic catalogue which can be used in the estimation of hail risk.

  20. Anthropogenic greenhouse gas contribution to UK autumn flood risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pall, Pardeep; Aina, Tolu; Stone, Dáithí; Stott, Peter; Nozawa, Toru; Hilberts, Arno; Lohmann, Dag; Allen, Myles

    2010-05-01

    Interest in attributing the risk of damaging weather-related events to anthropogenic climate change is increasing[1]. Yet climate models typically used for studying the attribution problem do not resolve weather at scales causing damage[2]. Here we present the first multi-step study that attributes increasing risk of a damaging regional weather-related event to global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The event was the UK flooding of October and November 2000, occurring during the wettest autumn in England & Wales since records began in 1766[3] and inundating several river catchments[4]. Nearly 10,000 properties were flooded and transport services and power supplies severely disrupted, with insured losses estimated at £1.3bn[5,6]. Though the floods were deemed a ‘wake up call' to the impacts of climate change[7], anthropogenic drivers cannot be blamed for this individual event: but they could be blamed for changing its risk[8,9]. Indeed, typically quoted thermodynamic arguments do suggest increased probability of precipitation extremes under anthropogenic warming[10]. But these arguments are too simple[11,12,13] to fully account for the complex weather[4,14] associated with the flooding. Instead we use a Probabilistic Event Attribution framework, to rigorously estimate the contribution of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions to England & Wales Autumn 2000 flood risk. This involves comparing an unprecedented number of daily river runoff realisations for the region, under Autumn 2000 scenarios both with and without the emissions. These realisations are produced using publicly volunteered distributed computing power to generate several thousand seasonal forecast resolution climate model simulations[15,16] that are then fed into a precipitation-runoff model[17,18]. Autumn 2000 flooding is characterised by realisations exceeding the highest daily river runoff for that period, derived from the observational-based ERA-40 re-anaylsis[19]. We find that our

  1. Ebola virus disease: the UK critical care perspective.

    PubMed

    Martin, D; Howard, J; Agarwal, B; Rajalingam, Y; Athan, B; Bhagani, S; Cropley, I; Hopkins, S; Mepham, S; Rodger, A; Warren, S; Jacobs, M

    2016-05-01

    The recent outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) has required the treatment of affected patients in the NHS system within the UK. Managing patients with a confirmed viral haemorrhagic fever requires a thorough understanding of treatment options within the confines of an effective biocontainment setting. The Royal Free Hospital High Level Isolation Unit (HLIU) in London, is a purpose built facility that allows healthcare workers to safely treat patients with highly contagious diseases. This HLIU uses Trexler isolator tents to prevent the spread of infection from patients to healthcare workers. Provision of invasive organ support can be provided in this environment, if considered appropriate, and is achievable without posing additional risk to staff. We report our recent experiences of managing patients with EVD, with particular focus on those aspects of care pertinent to anaesthesia and critical care medicine. PMID:27106962

  2. Air gun wounding and current UK laws controlling air weapons.

    PubMed

    Bruce-Chwatt, Robert Michael

    2010-04-01

    Air weapons whether rifles or pistols are, potentially, lethal weapons. The UK legislation is complex and yet little known to the public. Hunting with air weapons and the laws controlling those animals that are permitted to be shot with air weapons is even more labyrinthine due to the legal power limitations on the possession of air weapons. Still relatively freely available by mail order or on the Internet, an increasing number of deaths have been reported from the misuse of air weapons or accidental discharges. Ammunition for air weapons has become increasingly sophisticated, effective and therefore increasingly dangerous if misused, though freely available being a mere projectile without a concomitant cartridge containing a propellant and an initiator. PMID:20211450

  3. On the thermal expansion hysteresis of a UK PBX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, David; Palmer, Stewart; Govier, Rebecca

    2011-06-01

    The thermal expansion coefficient of a UK PBX has been measured over the temperature range -40 to +80 C. A subtle but measurable hysteresis in length as a function of temperature was observed. This is attributed to a miss-match between the thermal expansion coefficients of its solid-fill and binder constituents. On heating or cooling this induces mechanical stresses within the binder system, which being viscous it can flow to relieve. A change in sample temperature results in an asymptotic relaxation to a mechanical equilibrium length, which is described by an exponential dependence on time. This is analogous to the type of stress relaxation and creep behaviour normally associated with the bulk response of viscoelastic materials when more conventional stresses are applied.

  4. Preparing for Disaster: Response Matrices in the USA and UK

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Laura H.

    2008-01-01

    Disasters, whether man-made or naturally occurring, require complex responses across multiple government agencies and private sector elements, including the media. These factors mandate that, for effective disaster management and because of the unpredictability of such events, response structures must be in place in advance, ready to be activated on short notice, with lines of responsibility clearly delineated and mechanisms for coordination of efforts already established. Disaster response experiences in the USA and the UK were reviewed at a conference convened by the New York Academy of Medicine and the Royal Society of Medicine in June 2007. Lessons to be drawn from these comparisons were sought. The importance of careful advance planning, clear delineation of spheres of responsibility and response roles, effective mechanisms for communication at all levels, and provision for adequate communication with the public were all identified as key elements of effective response mechanisms. PMID:18756376

  5. U.K. offshore safety regime raises new challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Baily, M.

    1996-08-19

    In November 1995, UK operators completed implementation of the offshore safety case regime, which resulted from Lord Cullen`s inquiry into the Piper Alpha explosion of 1988. Since then a number of significant milestones have been achieved, but there are continuing challenges both for the operators of offshore installations and the regulator, the Offshore Safety Division (OSD) of the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). Recommendations from Lord Cullen`s report on the Piper Alpha disaster were far-reaching and included proposals for an extensive legislative review. They included a requirement for the submission and acceptance of a safety case document for each offshore installation, in advance of operations and underpinning goal-setting regulations covering arrangements for prevention and mitigation of fire and explosion, emergency response, offshore management, and design and construction, and for verification of integrity. The paper discusses safety cases, benefits and costs, work in progress, challenges, appraisal, and compliance.

  6. Dual hybrid suite 'a first' for the UK.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2014-08-01

    A new 6.4 million pounds sterling dual hybrid endovascular theatre suite at the Manchester Royal Infirmary (MRI), which the Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (CMFT) says will 'transform the treatment of patients undergoing minimally invasive vascular and cardiac procedures', has recently come into operation. As HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, discovered, when he met, a few weeks before its completion, with one of the vascular surgeons who championed it, and the Trust's associate director for Surgical Services, who wrote the business case, the surgical suite makes the MRI the UK's first hospital equipped with two adjacent full hybrid theatres utilising a robotic imaging system, with a fully flexible, synchronised operating table. PMID:25219084

  7. Modulation of UK lightning by heliospheric magnetic field polarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, M. J.; Scott, C. J.; Lockwood, M.; Barnard, L.; Harrison, R. G.; Nicoll, K.; Watt, C.; Bennett, A. J.

    2014-11-01

    Observational studies have reported solar magnetic modulation of terrestrial lightning on a range of time scales, from days to decades. The proposed mechanism is two-step: lightning rates vary with galactic cosmic ray (GCR) flux incident on Earth, either via changes in atmospheric conductivity and/or direct triggering of lightning. GCR flux is, in turn, primarily controlled by the heliospheric magnetic field (HMF) intensity. Consequently, global changes in lightning rates are expected. This study instead considers HMF polarity, which doesn't greatly affect total GCR flux. Opposing HMF polarities are, however, associated with a 40-60% difference in observed UK lightning and thunder rates. As HMF polarity skews the terrestrial magnetosphere from its nominal position, this perturbs local ionospheric potential at high latitudes and local exposure to energetic charged particles from the magnetosphere. We speculate as to the mechanism(s) by which this may, in turn, redistribute the global location and/or intensity of thunderstorm activity.

  8. The medium dispersion prism of the UK Schmidt Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, R. D.; Dawe, J. A.; Morgan, D. H.; Savage, A.; Smith, M. G.

    The UK 1.2-m Schmidt Telescope acquired its first full aperture objective prism in 1975. This was a very low dispersion prism which was found to be particularly useful in searching for faint QSO's. However, the dispersion in the red is so low that nearly all plates have been taken on the blue-sensitive IIIa J emulsion, and it has been extremely difficult to identify quasars with redshifts larger than z=3. It was, therefore, decided to obtain a second objective prism having a three times higher dispersion. It is expected that this prism will make it possible to conduct searches for quasars having redshifts greater than the long-standing limit at z approximately 3.5. The prism should also be useful for stellar classification work in the UV/blue part of the spectrum. A description is presented of some results obtained during the recent commissioning run with the new prism.

  9. Journal subscription expenditure of UK higher education institutions

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Stuart; Meghreblian, Ben

    2015-01-01

    The academic libraries of higher education institutions (HEIs) pay significant amounts of money each year for access to academic journals. The amounts paid are often not transparent especially when it comes to knowing how much is paid to specific publishers. Therefore data on journal subscription expenditure were obtained for UK HEIs using a series of Freedom of Information requests. Data were obtained for 153 HEIs’ expenditure with ten publishers over a five-year period. The majority of institutions have provided figures but some are still outstanding. The data will be of interest to those who wish to understand the economics of scholarly communication and see the scale of payments flowing within the system. Further research could replicate the data collection in other jurisdictions. PMID:25653840

  10. UK Guidelines for the Management of Bone Sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Grimer, Robert; Athanasou, Nick; Gerrand, Craig; Judson, Ian; Lewis, Ian; Morland, Bruce; Peake, David; Seddon, Beatrice; Whelan, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    These guidelines have been developed in order to provide an overview and a set of broad-based key recommendations for the management of patients with bone sarcomas in the UK. They have taken into consideration the most up-to-date scientific literature along with the recent recommendations by the European Society of Medical Oncology. The principles of the NICE guidance on both “improving outcomes for patients with sarcomas” and “improving outcomes with children and young people with cancer” have been incorporated. As care evolves, it is acknowledged that these guidelines will need updating. The key recommendations are that bone pain or a palpable mass should always lead to further investigation and patients with clinicoradiological findings suggestive of a primary bone tumour should be sent to a reference centre. Patients should then have their care managed at such a specialist centre by a fully accredited multidisciplinary team. PMID:21253474

  11. Preparing for disaster: response matrices in the USA and UK.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Laura H; Barondess, Jeremiah A

    2008-11-01

    Disasters, whether man-made or naturally occurring, require complex responses across multiple government agencies and private sector elements, including the media. These factors mandate that, for effective disaster management and because of the unpredictability of such events, response structures must be in place in advance, ready to be activated on short notice, with lines of responsibility clearly delineated and mechanisms for coordination of efforts already established. Disaster response experiences in the USA and the UK were reviewed at a conference convened by the New York Academy of Medicine and the Royal Society of Medicine in June 2007. Lessons to be drawn from these comparisons were sought. The importance of careful advance planning, clear delineation of spheres of responsibility and response roles, effective mechanisms for communication at all levels, and provision for adequate communication with the public were all identified as key elements of effective response mechanisms. PMID:18756376

  12. Accountability in the UK Healthcare System: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Peckham, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Recent changes in the English National Health Service (NHS) have introduced new complexities into the accountability arrangements for healthcare services. This commentary describes how the new organizational structures have challenged the traditional centralized accountability structures by creating a more dispersed system of governance for local health-care commissioners. It sets the context of discussions about accountability in the UK NHS and then describes the key changes in England following the implementation of the NHS reforms in April 2013. The commentary concludes that while there is increased complexity of accountability within a more decentralized and fragmented healthcare system, the government's goal of achieving increased local autonomy and greater control by general practitioners (GPs) will probably not be realized. In particular, the system will continue to have strongly centralized aspects, with increased regulation and central political responsibility. PMID:25305399

  13. Acheiving speech intelligibility at Paddington Station, London, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, Helen M.

    2002-11-01

    Paddington Station in London, UK is a large rail terminus for long distance electric and diesel powered trains. This magnificent train shed has four arched spans and is one of the remaining structural testaments to the architect Brunel. Given the current British and European legislative requirements for intelligible speech in public buildings AMS Acoustics were engaged to design an electroacoustic solution. In this paper we will outline how the significant problems of lively natural acoustics, the high operational noise levels and the strict aesthetic constraints were addressed. The resultant design is radical, using the most recent dsp controlled line array loudspeakers. In the paper we detail the acoustic modeling undertaken to predict both even direct sound pressure level coverage and STI. Further it presents the speech intelligibility measured upon handover of the new system. The design has proved to be successful and given the nature of the space, outstanding speech intelligibility is achieved.

  14. Visibility trends in the UK 1950-1997

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Martin; Dorling, Stephen

    Visibility data have been examined for eight UK Meteorological Office surface network sites. Trends from 1950 to 1997 have been constructed using four different statistical methods; ridit analysis, cumulative percentiles, frequency of "very good" visibility and annual and seasonal means. Improvements in visibility have been experienced at the majority of the sites studied. Major improvements can be observed at many of the sites after 1973 and this is attributed to changes in personal behaviour, fuel use and vehicle fleet efficiency during the 1970s and especially after the 1973 oil crisis. Improvements in visibility at the Scottish sites studied are much less than at the other sites due to their locations in less populated and less polluted areas. Aldergrove, near Belfast in Northern Ireland, has also experienced less improvement in the visibility distance than the other sites.

  15. UK national guidelines on the management of syphilis 2015.

    PubMed

    Kingston, M; French, P; Higgins, S; McQuillan, O; Sukthankar, A; Stott, C; McBrien, B; Tipple, C; Turner, A; Sullivan, A K; Radcliffe, Keith; Cousins, Darren; FitzGerald, Mark; Fisher, Martin; Grover, Deepa; Higgins, Stephen; Kingston, Margaret; Rayment, Michael; Sullivan, Ann

    2016-05-01

    These guidelines are an update for 2015 of the 2008 UK guidelines for the management of syphilis. The writing group have piloted the new BASHH guideline methodology, notably using the GRADE system for assessing evidence and making recommendations. We have made significant changes to the recommendations for screening infants born to mothers with positive syphilis serology and to facilitate accurate and timely communication between the teams caring for mother and baby we have developed a birth plan. Procaine penicillin is now an alternative, not preferred treatment, for all stages of syphilis except neurosyphilis, but the length of treatment for this is shortened. Other changes are summarised at the start of the guideline. PMID:26721608

  16. Women in Physics in the UK: Update 2005-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butcher, Gillian; Marks, Ann; Ahmed, Saher; Hollinshead, Katharine

    2009-04-01

    The United Kingdom continues to address gender equality and diversity in all aspects of society. The Institute of Physics (IOP) is regarded as a leading proponent of these issues, not only in physics, but in disseminating its practices to other learned societies in science, engineering, and technology. Within IOP, both the Women in Physics Group, a membership organization with 2,700 members, including students, and a dedicated Diversity Programme, that reports to a high-level strategic Diversity Committee, are very active. In this paper we highlight some of the many initiatives that have taken place in the last few years, as well as present statistics on women in physics in the UK, demonstrating that progress has been made.

  17. The changing UK careers landscape: tidal waves, turbulence and transformation

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Deirdre

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how the UK careers landscape in each of the four home nations is changing in response to neo-liberal policies. In this context, careers services are increasingly under pressure to demonstrate their added value, impact and returns on investment. As fiscal arrangements tighten and governments state their preferences and priorities for national careers services, differing strategic responses are beginning to emerge. A quasi-market, experimental approach is now the dominant discourse in England, in contrast to differing and complementary arrangements in Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. The article suggests that insofar as these developments are transforming national careers services, they are also creating significant challenges which require new forms of policy imagery and imagination for high-impact, all-age careers services. PMID:23847391

  18. On instability and mixing on the UK Continental Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhiyu

    2016-06-01

    The stability of stratified flows at locations in the Clyde, Irish and Celtic Seas on the UK Continental Shelf is examined. Flows are averaged over periods of 12-30 min in each hour, corresponding to the times taken to obtain reliable estimates of the rate of dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy per unit mass, ε. The Taylor-Goldstein equation is solved to find the maximum growth rate of small disturbances to these averaged flows, and the critical gradient Richardson number, Ric. The proportion of unstable periods where the minimum gradient Richardson number, Rimin, is less than Ric is about 35%. Cases are found in which Ric < 0.25; 37% of the flows with Rimin < 0.25 are stable, and Ric < 0.24 in 68% of the periods where Rimin < 0.25. Marginal conditions with 0.8 < Rimin/Ric < 1.2 occur in 30% of the periods examined. The mean dissipation rate at the level where the fastest growing disturbance has its maximum amplitude is examined to assess whether the turbulence there is isotropic and how it relates to the wave-turbulence boundary. It is concluded that there is a background level of dissipation that is augmented by instability; instability of the averaged flow does not account for all the turbulence observed in mid-water. The effects of a horizontal separation of the measurements of shear and buoyancy are considered. The available data do not support the hypothesis that the turbulent flows observed on the UK shelf adjust rapidly to conditions that are close to being marginal, or that flows in a particular location and period of time in one sea have stability characteristics that are very similar to those in another.

  19. Hominin Footprints from Early Pleistocene Deposits at Happisburgh, UK

    PubMed Central

    Ashton, Nick; Lewis, Simon G.; De Groote, Isabelle; Duffy, Sarah M.; Bates, Martin; Bates, Richard; Hoare, Peter; Lewis, Mark; Parfitt, Simon A.; Peglar, Sylvia; Williams, Craig; Stringer, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Investigations at Happisburgh, UK, have revealed the oldest known hominin footprint surface outside Africa at between ca. 1 million and 0.78 million years ago. The site has long been recognised for the preservation of sediments containing Early Pleistocene fauna and flora, but since 2005 has also yielded humanly made flint artefacts, extending the record of human occupation of northern Europe by at least 350,000 years. The sediments consist of sands, gravels and laminated silts laid down by a large river within the upper reaches of its estuary. In May 2013 extensive areas of the laminated sediments were exposed on the foreshore. On the surface of one of the laminated silt horizons a series of hollows was revealed in an area of ca. 12 m2. The surface was recorded using multi-image photogrammetry which showed that the hollows are distinctly elongated and the majority fall within the range of juvenile to adult hominin foot sizes. In many cases the arch and front/back of the foot can be identified and in one case the impression of toes can be seen. Using foot length to stature ratios, the hominins are estimated to have been between ca. 0.93 and 1.73 m in height, suggestive of a group of mixed ages. The orientation of the prints indicates movement in a southerly direction on mud-flats along the river edge. Early Pleistocene human fossils are extremely rare in Europe, with no evidence from the UK. The only known species in western Europe of a similar age is Homo antecessor, whose fossil remains have been found at Atapuerca, Spain. The foot sizes and estimated stature of the hominins from Happisburgh fall within the range derived from the fossil evidence of Homo antecessor. PMID:24516637

  20. Enhancing the Biodiversity of Ditches in Intensively Managed UK Farmland

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Rosalind F.; Johnson, Paul J.; Macdonald, David W.; Feber, Ruth E.

    2015-01-01

    Drainage ditches, either seasonally flooded or permanent, are commonly found on intensively managed lowland farmland in the UK. They are potentially important for wetland biodiversity but, despite their ubiquity, information on their biodiversity and management in the wider countryside is scarce. We surveyed 175 ditches for their physical and chemical characteristics, spatial connectivity, plant communities and aquatic invertebrates in an area of intensively managed farmland in Oxfordshire, UK and collected information on ditch management from farmer interviews. Water depth and shade had a small impact on the diversity of plant and invertebrate communities in ditches. Increased shade over the ditch channel resulted in reduced taxonomic richness of both channel vegetation and aquatic invertebrates and channel vegetation cover was lower at shaded sites. Invertebrate taxonomic richness was higher when water was deeper. Spatial connectivity had no detectable impact on the aquatic invertebrate or plant communities found in ditches. The number of families within the orders Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT), which contain many pollution-sensitive species, declined with decreasing pH of ditch water. As time since dredging increased, the number of EPT families increased in permanent ditches but decreased in temporary ditches. Whether or not a ditch was in an agri-environment scheme had little impact on the reported management regime or biodiversity value of the ditch. Measures for increasing the amount of water in ditches, by increasing the water depth or promoting retention of water in ditches, could increase the biodiversity value of ditches in agricultural land. Some temporary ditches for specialised species should be retained. Reducing the amount of shade over narrow ditches by managing adjacent hedgerows is also likely to increase the species diversity of plant and invertebrate communities within the ditch. We recommend that to preserve or enhance the