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Sample records for salts pyrochemical process

  1. Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt

    DOEpatents

    Mullins, Lawrence J.; Christensen, Dana C.

    1984-01-01

    A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium from electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

  2. Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt

    DOEpatents

    Mullins, L.J.; Christensen, D.C.

    1982-09-20

    A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium for electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

  3. Disposition of salt-waste from pyrochemical nuclear fuel processing

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, E.R.

    2007-07-01

    Waste salts from pyrochemical processing of nuclear fuel can be immobilised in sodalite if consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at {approx}750 deg. C/100 MPa in thick stainless steel 316 cans. Other canning materials for this purpose also look possible. Spodiosite-based waste forms do not look promising in terms of leach resistance and their incorporation of alkali ions and compatibility with other phases which could potentially accommodate fission products, such as NaZr{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} or alumino-phosphate glass. Chloro- or fluor-apatite-based waste forms however have been reported to successfully accommodate fission products and alkalis which would be derived from either chloride- or fluoride-based waste pyro-processing salts. The presence of 10 or 20 wt% of additional Whitlockite, Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}, should allow chemical flexibility to maintain the same qualitative phase assemblage when there are variations in the waste feed and in the waste/precursor ratios. Experimental verification of incorporation of the full complement of waste salts and fission products is not yet complete however. Apatite-rich samples could likely be HIPed in Inconel 600 cans. Other candidate HIP canning materials such as Alloy 22 or Inconel 625 are under study by encapsulating them in the candidate waste form and studying their interaction or otherwise with the waste form. (author)

  4. Application of molten salts in pyrochemical processing of reactive metals

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, B.; Olson, D.L. . Kroll Inst. for Extractive Metallurgy); Averill, W.A. . Rocky Flats Plant)

    1992-01-01

    Various mixes of chloride and fluoride salts are used as the media for conducting pyrochemical processes in the production and purification of reactive metals. These processes generate a significant amount of contaminated waste that has to be treated for recycling or disposal. Molten calcium chloride based salt systems have been used in this work to electrolytically regenerate calcium metal from calcium oxide for the in situ reduction of reactive metal oxides. The recovery of calcium is characterized by the process efficiency to overcome back reactions in the electrowinning cell. A thermodynamic analysis, based on fundamental rate theory, has been performed to understand the process parameters controlling the metal deposition, rate, behavior of the ceramic anode-sheath and influence of the back-reactions. It has been observed that the deposition of calcium is dependent on the ionic diffusion through the sheath. It has also been evidenced that the recovered calcium is completely lost through the back-reactions in the absence of a sheath. A practical scenario has also been presented where the electrowon metal can be used in situ as a reductant to reduce another reactive metal oxide.

  5. Study on a regeneration process of LiCl-KCl eutectic based waste salt generated from the pyrochemical process

    SciTech Connect

    Eun, H.C.; Cho, Y.Z.; Choi, J.H.; Kim, J.H.; Lee, T.K.; Park, H.S.; Kim, I.T.; Park, G.I.

    2013-07-01

    A regeneration process of LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt generated from the pyrochemical process of spent nuclear fuel has been studied. This regeneration process is composed of a chemical conversion process and a vacuum distillation process. Through the regeneration process, a high efficiency of renewable salt recovery can be obtained from the waste salt and rare earth nuclides in the waste salt can be separated as oxide or phosphate forms. Thus, the regeneration process can contribute greatly to a reduction of the waste volume and a creation of durable final waste forms. (authors)

  6. Facilities for pyrochemical process studies at ENEA

    SciTech Connect

    De Angelis, G.; Fedeli, C.; Tiranti, G.; Baicchi, E.

    2013-07-01

    Some facilities have successfully been installed at ENEA laboratories for pyrochemical process studies under inactive conditions. PYREL III, MECRYP and OGATA plants allow to perform experiments about electrorefining and electroreduction of simulated fuel, melt crystallization of lithium chloride containing impurities from electroreduction campaigns, and trapping of volatile and semi-volatile fission products. Moreover, an argon-atmosphere glove-box is used for conditioning of chloride salt wastes with sodalite or SAP (SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}) matrix.

  7. TGS measurements of pyrochemical salts at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, D. J.; Hansen, J. S.; Lestone, J. P.; Prettyman, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    A new skid-mounted tomographic gamma scanner (TGS) was designed to assist in the decommissioning of Rocky Flats Building 37 1, This instrument was used to assay pyrochemical salts as a prerequisite for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The following paper discusses measurement challenges and results from the first year of operation of the instrument.

  8. Pyrochemical Processing for Low-Level Waste Production in PEACER

    SciTech Connect

    Byung Gi Park; Il Soon Hwang

    2002-07-01

    A pyrochemical partitioning process has been conceptually designed so that the transmutation of spent LWR fuels in PEACER can produce mainly low-level waste (Class C waste) for near-surface burial. Chloride salt technology developed for IFR has been employed as the baseline. Electrorefining, reductive extraction and salt recycling steps are used to construct overall flowsheet in order to support PEACER operation. The decontamination factor for transuranic elements was estimated based on both thermodynamic models and reported experimental data. It is expected that overall decontamination factor can be as high as 10{sup 5} for transuranic elements. Final wastes from pyrochemical processing for PEACER are noble metals, alkaline earth metal, and lanthanides. The final wastes are stabilized by mixing with zeolite and glass-frits such that concentration limit for class C waste can be met. The volume of Class C waste is estimated to be small enough to make PEACER concept valuable for densely populated countries. (authors)

  9. Literature on fabrication of tungsten for application in pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Edstrom, C.M.; Phillips, A.G.; Johnson, L.D.; Corle, R.R.

    1980-10-11

    The pyrochemical processing of nuclear fuels requires crucibles, stirrers, and transfer tubing that will withstand the temperature and the chemical attack from molten salts and metals used in the process. This report summarizes the literature that pertains to fabrication (joining, chemical vapor deposition, plasma spraying, forming, and spinning) is the main theme. This report also summarizes a sampling of literature on molbdenum and the work previously performed at Argonne National Laboratory on other container materials used for pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuels.

  10. Transportation of pyrochemical salts from Rocky Flats to Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, S.B.

    1997-02-01

    Radioactive legacy wastes or residues are currently being stored on numerous Sites around the former Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nuclear Weapons Complex. Since most of the operating facilities were shut down and have not operated since before the declared end to the Cold War in 1993, the historical method for treating these residues no longer exists. The risk associated with continued storage of these residues will dramatically increase with time. Thus, the DOE was directed by the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board in its Recommendation 94-1 to address and stabilize these residues and established an eight year time frame for doing so. There are only two options available to respond to this requirement: (1) restart existing facilities to treat and package the residues for disposal or (2) transport the residues to another operating facility within the Complex where they can be treated and packaged for disposal. This paper focuses on one such residue type, pyrochemical salts, produced at one Complex site, the Rocky Flats Plant located northwest of Denver, Colorado. One option for treating the salts is their shipment to Los Alamos, New Mexico, for handling at the Plutonium Facility. The safe transportation of these salts can be accomplished at present with several shipping containers including a DOT 6M, a DOE 9968, Type A or Type B quantity 55-gallon drum overpacks, or even the TRUPACT II. The tradeoffs between each container is examined with the conclusion that none of the available shipping containers is fully satisfactory. Thus, the advantageous aspects of each container must be utilized in an integrated and efficient way to effectively manage the risk involved. 1 fig.

  11. Dose estimates of alternative plutonium pyrochemical processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Kornreich, D. E.; Jackson, J. W.; Boerigter, S. T.; Averill, W. A.; Fasel, J. H.

    2002-01-01

    We have coupled our dose calculation tool Pandemonium with a discrete-event, object-oriented, process-modeling system ProMosO to analyze a set of alternatives for plutonium purification operations. The results follow expected trends and indicate, from a dose perspective, that an experimental flowsheet may warrant further research to see if it can be scaled to industrial levels. Flowsheets that include fluoride processes resulted in the largest doses.

  12. The thermodynamics of pyrochemical processes for liquid metal reactor fuel cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, I.

    1987-01-01

    The thermodynamic basis for pyrochemical processes for the recovery and purification of fuel for the liquid metal reactor fuel cycle is described. These processes involve the transport of the uranium and plutonium from one liquid alloy to another through a molten salt. The processes discussed use liquid alloys of cadmium, zinc, and magnesium and molten chloride salts. The oxidation-reduction steps are done either chemically by the use of an auxiliary redox couple or electrochemically by the use of an external electrical supply. The same basic thermodynamics apply to both the salt transport and the electrotransport processes. Large deviations from ideal solution behavior of the actinides and lanthanides in the liquid alloys have a major influence on the solubilities and the performance of both the salt transport and electrotransport processes. Separation of plutonium and uranium from each other and decontamination from the more noble fission product elements can be achieved using both transport processes. The thermodynamic analysis is used to make process design computations for different process conditions.

  13. Evaluation of alkali bromide salts for potential pyrochemical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathy, P.K.; Gutknecht, T.Y.; Herrmann, S.D.; Fredrickson, G.L.; Lister, T.E.

    2013-07-01

    Transient techniques were employed to study the electrochemical behavior, reduction mechanism and transport properties of REBr{sub 3} (RE - La, Nd and Gd) in pure LiBr, LiBr-KBr (eutectic) and LiBr-KBr-CsBr (eutectic) melts. Gd(III) showed a reversible single step soluble-insoluble exchange phenomenon in LiBr melt at 973 K. Although La (III), Nd(III) and Gd(III) ions showed reversible behavior in eutectic LiBr-KBr melts, these ions showed a combination of temperature dependent reversible and pseudo-reversible behavior. While both La(III) and Gd(III) showed one step reduction, the reduction of Nd(III) was observed to be a two step process. La metal could be electrodeposited from the ternary electrolyte at a temperature of 673 K. Various electrochemical measurements suggest that both binary and ternary bromide melts can potentially be used to electro-deposit high purity RE metals at comparatively lower operating temperatures. (authors)

  14. Evaluation of Alkali Bromide Salts for Potential Pyrochemical Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhat K. Tripathy; Steven D. Herrmann; Guy L. Fredrickson; Tedd E. Lister; Toni Y. Gutknecht

    2013-10-01

    Transient techniques were employed to study the electrochemical behavior, reduction mechanism and transport properties of REBr3 (RE - La, Nd and Gd) in pure LiBr, LiBr-KBr (eutectic) and LiBr-KBr-CsBr (eutectic) melts. Gd(III) showed a reversible single step soluble-insoluble exchange phenomenon in LiBr melt at 973K. Although La (III), Nd(III) and Gd(III) ions showed reversible behavior in eutectic LiBr-KBr melts, these ions showed a combination of temperature dependent reversible and pseudo-reversible behavior. While both La(III) and Gd(III) showed one step reduction, the reduction of Nd(III) was observed to be a two step process. La metal could be electrodeposited from the ternary electrolyte at a temperature of 673K. Various electrochemical measurements suggest that both binary and ternary bromide melts can potentially be used to electrodeposit high purity RE metals at comparatively lower operating temperatures.

  15. Proposed methods for treating high-level pyrochemical process wastes. [Integral Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, T.R.; Miller, W.E.; Steunenberg, R.K.

    1985-01-01

    This survey illustrates the large variety and number of possible techniques available for treating pyrochemical wastes; there are undoubtedly other process types and many variations. The choice of a suitable process is complicated by the uncertainty as to what will be an acceptable waste form in the future for both TRU and non-TRU wastes.

  16. Advanced pyrochemical technologies for minimizing nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, M.C.; Dodson, K.E.; Riley, D.C.

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking to reduce the size of the current nuclear weapons complex and consequently minimize operating costs. To meet this DOE objective, the national laboratories have been asked to develop advanced technologies that take uranium and plutonium, from retired weapons and prepare it for new weapons, long-term storage, and/or final disposition. Current pyrochemical processes generate residue salts and ceramic wastes that require aqueous processing to remove and recover the actinides. However, the aqueous treatment of these residues generates an estimated 100 liters of acidic transuranic (TRU) waste per kilogram of plutonium in the residue. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing pyrochemical techniques to eliminate, minimize, or more efficiently treat these residue streams. This paper will present technologies being developed at LLNL on advanced materials for actinide containment, reactors that minimize residues, and pyrochemical processes that remove actinides from waste salts.

  17. Zone Freezing Study for Pyrochemical Process Waste Minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Ammon Williams

    2012-05-01

    Pyroprocessing technology is a non-aqueous separation process for treatment of used nuclear fuel. At the heart of pyroprocessing lies the electrorefiner, which electrochemically dissolves uranium from the used fuel at the anode and deposits it onto a cathode. During this operation, sodium, transuranics, and fission product chlorides accumulate in the electrolyte salt (LiCl-KCl). These contaminates change the characteristics of the salt overtime and as a result, large volumes of contaminated salt are being removed, reprocessed and stored as radioactive waste. To reduce the storage volumes and improve recycling process for cost minimization, a salt purification method called zone freezing has been proposed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Zone freezing is melt crystallization process similar to the vertical Bridgeman method. In this process, the eutectic salt is slowly cooled axially from top to bottom. As solidification occurs, the fission products are rejected from the solid interface and forced into the liquid phase. The resulting product is a grown crystal with the bulk of the fission products near the bottom of the salt ingot, where they can be easily be sectioned and removed. Despite successful feasibility report from KAERI on this process, there were many unexplored parameters to help understanding and improving its operational routines. Thus, this becomes the main motivation of this proposed study. The majority of this work has been focused on the CsCl-LiCl-KCl ternary salt. CeCl3-LiCl-KCl was also investigated to check whether or not this process is feasible for the trivalent species—surrogate for rare-earths and transuranics. For the main part of the work, several parameters were varied, they are: (1) the retort advancement rate—1.8, 3.2, and 5.0 mm/hr, (2) the crucible lid configurations—lid versus no-lid, (3) the amount or size of mixture—50 and 400 g, (4) the composition of CsCl in the salt—1, 3, and 5 wt%, and (5) the

  18. Corrosion resistance of ceramic materials in pyrochemical reprocessing condition by using molten salt for spent nuclear oxide fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, M.; Kato, T.; Hanada, K.; Koizumi, T.; Aose, S.

    2005-02-01

    The corrosion resistance of ceramic materials in pyrochemical reprocessing using molten salts was discussed through the thermodynamic calculation and corrosion test. The corrosion test was basically carried out in alkali molten salt under chlorine gas. In addition, the effects of oxygen, carbon and main fission product's chlorides on ceramics corrosion were evaluated in that condition. Most of ceramic oxides showed good chemical stability on chlorine, oxygen and uranyl chloride from thermodynamic calculation results. On the other hand, from corrosion test result, silicon nitride, mullite (Al6Si2O13) and cordierite (Mg2Al3(AlSi5O18)) have a good corrosion resistance which is corresponding to 0.1 mm/y or less. No cracks on the materials were observed and flexural strength did not drop remarkably after 480 h corrosion testing in molten salt under Cl2 O2 atmosphere.

  19. Chemical Engineering Division fuel cycle programs. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1979. [Pyrochemical/dry processing; waste encapsulation in metal; transport in geologic media

    SciTech Connect

    Steindler, M.J.; Ader, M.; Barletta, R.E.

    1980-09-01

    For pyrochemical and dry processing materials development included exposure to molten metal and salt of Mo-0.5% Ti-0.07% Ti-0.01% C, Mo-30% W, SiC, Si/sub 2/ON/sub 2/, ZrB/sub 2/-SiC, MgAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, AlN, HfB/sub 2/, Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/, BeO, Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/, nickel nitrate-infiltrated W, W-coated Mo, and W-metallized alumina-yttria. Work on Th-U salt transport processing included solubility of Th in liquid Cd, defining the Cd-Th and Cd-Mg-Th phase diagrams, ThO/sub 2/ reduction experiments, and electrolysis of CaO in molten salt. Work on pyrochemical processes and associated hardware for coprocessing U and Pu in spent FBR fuels included a second-generation computer model of the transport process, turntable transport process design, work on the U-Cu-Mg system, and U and Pu distribution coefficients between molten salt and metal. Refractory metal vessels are being service-life tested. The chloride volatility processing of Th-based fuel was evaluated for its proliferation resistance, and a preliminary ternary phase diagram for the Zn-U-Pu system was computed. Material characterization and process analysis were conducted on the Exportable Pyrochemical process (Pyro-Civex process). Literature data on oxidation of fissile metals to oxides were reviewed. Work was done on chemical bases for the reprocessing of actinide oxides in molten salts. Flowsheets are being developed for the processing of fuel in molten tin. Work on encapsulation of solidified radioactive waste in metal matrix included studies of leach rate of crystalline waste materials and of the impact resistance of metal-matrix waste forms. In work on the transport properties of nuclear waste in geologic media, adsorption of Sr on oolitic limestone was studied, as well as the migration of Cs in basalt. Fitting of data on the adsorption of iodate by hematite to a mathematical model was attempted.

  20. Direct oxide reduction (DOR) solvent salt recycle in pyrochemical plutonium recovery operations

    SciTech Connect

    Fife, K.W.; Bowersox, D.F.; Davis, C.C.; McCormick, E.D.

    1987-02-01

    One method used at Los Alamos for producing plutonium metal is to reduce the oxide with calcium metal in molten CaCl/sub 2/ at 850/sup 0/C. The solvent CaCl/sub 2/ from this reduction step is currently discarded as low-level radioactive waste because it is saturated with the reaction by-product, CaO. We have developed and demonstrated a molten salt technique for rechlorinating the CaO, thereby regenerating the CaCl/sub 2/ and incorporating solvent recycle into the batch PuO/sub 2/ reduction process. We discuss results from the process development experiments and present our plans for incorporating the technique into an advanced design for semicontinuous plutonium metal production.

  1. Pyrochemical treatment of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant high-level waste calcine

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, T.A.; DelDebbio, J.A.; Nelson, L.O.; Sharpsten, M.R.

    1993-06-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), has reprocessed irradiated nuclear fuels for the US Department of Energy (DOE) since 1951 to recover uranium, krypton-85, and isolated fission products for interim treatment and immobilization. The acidic radioactive high-level liquid waste (HLLW) is routinely stored in stainless steel tanks and then, since 1963, calcined to form a dry granular solid. The resulting high-level waste (HLW) calcine is stored in seismically hardened stainless steel bins that are housed in underground concrete vaults. A research and development program has been established to determine the feasibility of treating ICPP HLW calcine using pyrochemical technology.This technology is described.

  2. Interrelation of technologies for RW preparation and sites for final isolation of the wastes from pyrochemical processing of SNF

    SciTech Connect

    Gupalo, V.S.; Chistyakov, V.N.; Kormilitsyn, M.V.; Kormilitsyna, L.A.

    2013-07-01

    For the justification of engineering solutions and practical testing of the radiochemical component of the perspective nuclear power complex with on-site variant of nuclear fuel cycle (NFC), it is planned to establish a multi-functional research-development complex (MFCRC) for radiochemical processing of spent nuclear fuels (SNF) from fast reactors. MFCRC is being established at the NIIAR site, it comprises technological process lines, where innovation pyro-electrochemical and hydrometallurgical technologies are realized, with an option for closing the inter-chain material flows for testing the combined radiochemically converted materials. The technological flowchart for processing at the MFCRC is subdivided into 3 segments: -) complex of the lead operations for dismantling the fuel elements (FE) and fuel assemblies (FA), -) pyrochemical extraction flowchart for processing SNF, and -) hydrometallurgical flowchart for processing SNF. The engineered solutions for the management and disposition of the radioactive wastes from MFCRC are reviewed.

  3. Applications of molten salts in reactive metals processing

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, B.; Olson, D.L.; Averill, W.A.

    1993-12-31

    Pyrochemical processes using molten salts provide a unique opportunity for the extraction and refining of many reactive and valuable metals either directly from the beneficiated ore or from other process effluent that contain reactive metal compounds. This research program is aimed at developing a process for the production and recovery of reactive and valuable metals, such as zinc, tin, lead, bismuth and silver, in a hybrid reactor combining electrolytic production of the calcium reductant and in-situ utilization of this reductant for pyrochemical reduction of the metal compounds, such as halide or oxides. The process is equally suitable for producing other low melting metals, such as cadmium and antimony. The cell is typically operated below 1000C temperature. Attempts have been made to produce silver, lead, bismuth, tin and cerium by calciothermic reduction in a molten salt media. In a separate effort, calcium has been produced by an electrolytic dissociation of lime in a calcium chloride medium. The most important characteristic of the hybrid technology is its ability to produce metals under ``zero-waste`` conditions.

  4. Development of pyro-processing technology for thorium-fuelled molten salt reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlir, J.; Straka, M.; Szatmary, L.

    2012-07-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is classified as the non-classical nuclear reactor type based on the specific features coming out from the use of liquid fuel circulating in the MSR primary circuit. Other uniqueness of the reactor type is based on the fact that the primary circuit of the reactor is directly connected with the on-line reprocessing technology, necessary for keeping the reactor in operation for a long run. MSR is the only reactor system, which can be effectively operated within the {sup 232}Th- {sup 233}U fuel cycle as thorium breeder with the breeding factor significantly higher than one. The fuel cycle technologies proposed as ford the fresh thorium fuel processing as for the primary circuit fuel reprocessing are pyrochemical and mainly fluoride. Although these pyrochemical processes were never previously fully verified, the present-day development anticipates an assumption for the successful future deployment of the thorium-fuelled MSR technology. (authors)

  5. Technical-and-economic analysis and optimization of the full flow charts of processing of radioactive wastes on a polyfunctional plant of pyrochemical processing of the spent nuclear fuel of fast reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupalo, V. S.; Chistyakov, V. N.; Kormilitsyn, M. V.; Kormilitsyna, L. A.; Osipenko, A. G.

    2015-12-01

    When considering the full flow charts of processing of radioactive wastes (RAW) on a polyfunctional plant of pyrochemical processing of the spent nuclear fuel of NIIAR fast reactors, we corroborate optimum technical solutions for the preparation of RAW for burial from a standpoint of heat release, dose formation, and technological storage time with allowance for technical-and-economic and ecological indices during the implementation of the analyzed technologies and equipment for processing of all RAW fluxes.

  6. Pyrochemical processes for the recovery of weapons grade plutonium either as a metal or as PuO{sub 2} for use in mixed oxide reactor fuel pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Colmenares, C.A.; Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Bronson, M.C.

    1995-11-03

    The authors have developed two processes for the recovery of weapons grade Pu, as either Pu metal or PuO{sub 2}, that are strictly pyrochemical and do not produce any liquid waste. Large amounts of Pu metal (up to 4 kg.), in various geometric shapes, have been recovered by a hydride/dehydride/casting process (HYDEC) to produce metal ingots of any desired shape. The three processing steps are carried out in a single compact apparatus. The experimental technique and results obtained will be described. The authors have prepared PuO{sub 2} powders from weapons grade Pu by a process that hydrides the Pu metal followed by the oxidation of the hydride (HYDOX process). Experimental details of the best way to carry out this process will be presented, as well as the characterization of both hydride and oxide powders produced.

  7. Immobilization of chloride-rich radioactive wastes produced by pyrochemical operations

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, E.W.; Terry, J.W.

    1997-08-01

    A a result of its former role as a producer of nuclear weapons components, the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), Golden, Colorado accumulated a variety of plutonium-contaminated materials. When the level of contamination exceeded a predetermined level (the economic discard limit), the materials were classified as residues rather than waste and were stored for later recovery of the plutonium. Although large quantities of residues were processed, others, primarily those more difficult to process, remain in storage at the site. It is planned for the residues with lower concentrations of plutonium to be disposed of as wastes at an appropriate disposal facility, probably the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Because the plutonium concentration is too high or because the physical or chemical form would be difficult to get into a form acceptable to WIPP, it may not be possible to dispose of a portion of the residues at WIPP. The pyrochemical salts are among the residues that are difficult to dispose of. For a large percentage of the pyrochemical salts, safeguards controls are required, but WIPP was not designed to accommodate safeguards controls. A potential solution would be to immobilize the salts. These immobilized salts would contain substantially higher plutonium concentrations than is currently permissible but would be suitable for disposal at WIPP. This document presents the results of a review of three immobilization technologies to determine if mature technologies exist that would be suitable to immobilize pyrochemical salts: cement-based stabilization, low-temperature vitrification, and polymer encapsulation. The authors recommend that flow sheets and life-cycle costs be developed for cement-based and low-temperature glass immobilization.

  8. Clean salt process final report

    SciTech Connect

    Herting, D.L.

    1996-09-30

    A process has been demonstrated in the laboratory for separating clean, virtually non-radioactive sodium nitrate from Hanford tank waste using fractional crystallization. The name of the process is the Clean Salt Process. Flowsheet modeling has shown that the process is capable of reducing the volume of vitrified low activity waste (LAW) by 80 to 90 %. Construction of the Clean Salt processing plant would cost less than $1 10 million, and would eliminate the need for building a $2.2 billion large scale vitrification plant planned for Privatization Phase 11. Disposal costs for the vitrified LAW would also be reduced by an estimated $240 million. This report provides a summary of five years of laboratory and engineering development activities, beginning in fiscal year 1992. Topics covered include laboratory testing of a variety of processing options; proof-of-principle demonstrations with actual waste samples from Hanford tanks 241-U-110 (U-110), 241-SY-101 (101-SY), and 241-AN-102 (102-AN); descriptions of the primary solubility phase diagrams that govem the process; a review of environmental regulations governing disposition of the reclaimed salt and an assessment of the potential beneficial uses of the reclaimed salt; preliminary plant design and construction cost estimates. A detailed description is given for the large scale laboratory demonstration of the process using waste from tank 241-AW-101 (101-AW), a candidate waste for 0044vitrification during Phase I Privatization.

  9. PYROCHEMICAL DECONTAMINATION METHOD FOR REACTOR FUEL

    DOEpatents

    Buyers, A.G.

    1959-06-30

    A pyro-chemical method is presented for decontaminating neutron irradiated uranium and separating plutonium therefrom by contact in the molten state with a metal chloride salt. Uranium trichloride and uranium tetrachloride either alone or in admixture with alkaline metal and alkaline eanth metal fluorides under specified temperature and specified phase ratio conditions extract substantially all of the uranium from the irradiated uranium fuel together with certain fission products. The phases are then separated leaving purified uranium metal. The uranium and plutonium in the salt phase can be reduced to forin a highly decontaminated uraniumplutonium alloy. The present method possesses advantages for economically decontaminating irradiated nuclear fuel elements since irradiated fuel may be proccessed immediately after withdrawal from the reactor and the uranium need not be dissolved and later reduced to the metallic form. Accordingly, the uranium may be economically refabricated and reinserted into the reactor.

  10. High-temperature vacuum distillation separation of plutonium waste salts

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, E.

    1996-10-01

    In this task, high-temperature vacuum distillation separation is being developed for residue sodium chloride-potassium chloride salts resulting from past pyrochemical processing of plutonium. This process has the potential of providing clean separation of the salt and the actinides with minimal amounts of secondary waste generation. The process could produce chloride salt that could be discarded as low-level waste (LLW) or low actinide content transuranic (TRU) waste, and a concentrated actinide oxide powder that would meet long-term storage standards (DOE-DTD-3013-94) until a final disposition option for all surplus plutonium is chosen.

  11. Organic waste processing using molten salt oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, M. G., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal means of oxidizing (destroying) the organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials while retaining inorganic and radioactive constituents in the salt. For this reason, MSO is considered a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. The U. S. Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (DOE/EM) is currently funding research that will identify alternatives to incineration for the treatment of organic-based mixed wastes. (Mixed wastes are defined as waste streams which have both hazardous and radioactive properties.) One such project is Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Expedited Technology Demonstration of Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO). The goal of this project is to conduct an integrated demonstration of MSO, including off-gas and spent salt treatment, and the preparation of robust solid final forms. Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has constructed an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system in which tests and demonstrations are presently being performed under carefully controlled (experimental) conditions. The system consists of a MSO process vessel with dedicated off-gas treatment, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and equipment for preparing ceramic final waste forms. In this paper we describe the integrated system and discuss its capabilities as well as preliminary process demonstration data. A primary purpose of these demonstrations is to identify the most suitable waste streams and waste types for MSO treatment.

  12. SEPARATION PROCESS FOR THORIUM SALTS

    DOEpatents

    Bridger, G.L.; Whatley, M.E.; Shaw, K.G.

    1957-12-01

    A process is described for the separation of uranium, thorium, and rare earths extracted from monazite by digesting with sulfuric acid. By carefully increasing the pH of the solution, stepwise, over the range 0.8 to 5.5, a series of selective precipitations will be achieved, with the thorium values coming out at lower pH, the rare earths at intermediate pH and the uranium last. Some mixed precipitates will be obtained, and these may be treated by dissolving in HNO/sub 3/ and contacting with dibutyl phosphate, whereby thorium or uranium are taken up by the organic phase while the rare earths preferentially remain in the aqueous solution.

  13. Molten salt applications in materials processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Brajendra; Olson, David L.

    2005-02-01

    The science of molten salt electrochemistry for electrowinning of reactive metals, such as calcium, and its in situ application in pyro-reduction has been described. Calcium electrowinning has been performed in a 5 10 wt% calcium oxide calcium chloride molten salt by the electrolytic dissociation of calcium oxide. This electrolysis requires the use of a porous ceramic sheath around the anode to keep the cathodically deposited calcium and the anodic gases separate. Stainless steel cathode and graphite anode have been used in the temperature range of 850 950 °C. This salt mixture is produced as a result of the direct oxide reduction (DOR) of reactive metal oxides by calcium in a calcium chloride bath. The primary purpose of this process is to recover the expensive calcium reductant and to recycle calcium chloride. Experimental data have been included to justify the suitability as well as limitations of the electrowinning process. Transport of oxygen ions through the sheath is found to be the rate controlling step. Under the constraints of the reactor design, a calcium recovery rate of approx. 150 g/h was achieved. Feasibility of a process to produce metals by pyrometallurgical reduction, using the calcium reductant produced electrolytically within the same reactor, has been shown in a hybrid process. Several processes are currently under investigation to use this electrowon calcium for in situ reduction of metal oxides.

  14. Processing of effluent salt from the direct oxide reduction process

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, B.; Olson, D.L. . Kroll Inst. for Extractive Metallurgy); Averill, W.A. )

    1992-01-01

    The production of reactive metals by Direct Oxide Reduction (DOR) process using calcium in a molten calcium salt system generates significant amount of contaminated waste as calcium oxide saturated calcium chloride salt mix with calcium oxide content of up to 15 wt. pct. Fused salt electrolysis of a simulated salt mix has been carried out to electrowin calcium, which can be recycled to the DOR reactor along with the calcium chloride salt or may be used in-situ in a combined DOR and electrowinning process. Many reactive metal oxides could thus be reduced in a one-step process without generating a significant amount of waste. The process has been optimized in terms of the calcium solubility, cell temperature, current density and the cell design to maximize the current efficiency. Based on the information available regarding the solubility of calcium in calcium chloride salt in the presence of calcium oxide, and the back reactions occurring in-situ between the electrowon calcium and other components present in the cell, e.g. carbon, oxygen, carbon dioxide and calcium oxide, it is difficult to recover elemental calcium within the system. However, a liquid cathode or a rising cathode has been used in the past to recover calcium. The solubility has also been found to depend on the use of graphite as the anode material as evidenced by the presence of calcium carbonate in the final salt. The rate of recovery for metallic calcium has to be enhanced to levels that overcome the back reactions in a system where quick removal of anodic gases is achieved. Calcium has been detected by the hydrogen evolution technique and the amount of calcia has been determined by titration. A porous ceramic sheath has been used in the cell to prevent the chemical reaction of electrowon calcium to produce oxide or carbonate and to prevent the contamination of salt by the anodic carbon.

  15. Processing of effluent salt from the direct oxide reduction process

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, B.; Olson, D.L.; Averill, W.A.

    1992-05-01

    The production of reactive metals by Direct Oxide Reduction (DOR) process using calcium in a molten calcium salt system generates significant amount of contaminated waste as calcium oxide saturated calcium chloride salt mix with calcium oxide content of up to 15 wt. pct. Fused salt electrolysis of a simulated salt mix has been carried out to electrowin calcium, which can be recycled to the DOR reactor along with the calcium chloride salt or may be used in-situ in a combined DOR and electrowinning process. Many reactive metal oxides could thus be reduced in a one-step process without generating a significant amount of waste. The process has been optimized in terms of the calcium solubility, cell temperature, current density and the cell design to maximize the current efficiency. Based on the information available regarding the solubility of calcium in calcium chloride salt in the presence of calcium oxide, and the back reactions occurring in-situ between the electrowon calcium and other components present in the cell, e.g. carbon, oxygen, carbon dioxide and calcium oxide, it is difficult to recover elemental calcium within the system. However, a liquid cathode or a rising cathode has been used in the past to recover calcium. The solubility has also been found to depend on the use of graphite as the anode material as evidenced by the presence of calcium carbonate in the final salt. The rate of recovery for metallic calcium has to be enhanced to levels that overcome the back reactions in a system where quick removal of anodic gases is achieved. Calcium has been detected by the hydrogen evolution technique and the amount of calcia has been determined by titration. A porous ceramic sheath has been used in the cell to prevent the chemical reaction of electrowon calcium to produce oxide or carbonate and to prevent the contamination of salt by the anodic carbon.

  16. Highlights of the Salt Extraction Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasalizadeh, Aida; Seetharaman, Seshadri; Teng, Lidong; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Grinder, Olle; Izumi, Yukari; Barati, Mansoor

    2013-11-01

    This article presents the salient features of a new process for the recovery of metal values from secondary sources and waste materials such as slag and flue dusts. It is also feasible in extracting metals such as nickel and cobalt from ores that normally are difficult to enrich and process metallurgically. The salt extraction process is based on extraction of the metals from the raw materials by a molten salt bath consisting of NaCl, LiCl, and KCl corresponding to the eutectic composition with AlCl3 as the chlorinating agent. The process is operated in the temperature range 973 K (700°C) to 1173 K (900°C). The process was shown to be successful in extracting Cr and Fe from electric arc furnace (EAF) slag. Electrolytic copper could be produced from copper concentrate based on chalcopyrite in a single step. Conducting the process in oxygen-free atmosphere, sulfur could be captured in the elemental form. The method proved to be successful in extracting lead from spent cathode ray tubes. In order to prevent the loss of AlCl3 in the vapor form and also chlorine gas emission at the cathode during the electrolysis, liquid aluminum was used. The process was shown to be successful in extracting Nd and Dy from magnetic scrap. The method is a highly promising process route for the recovery of strategic metals. It also has the added advantage of being environmentally friendly.

  17. FDA Calls for Less Salt in Processed Foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159136.html FDA Calls for Less Salt in Processed Foods Agency sets short- and long- ... the food industry to cut back on the salt. In draft voluntary guidelines issued Wednesday, the agency ...

  18. Testing of pyrochemical centrifugal contactors

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, L.S.; Carls, E.L.; Basco, J.K.; Johnson, T.R.

    1996-08-01

    A centrifugal contactor that performs oxidation and reduction exchange reactions between molten metals and salts at 500 degrees Centigrade has been tested successfully at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The design is based on contactors for aqueous- organic systems operation near room temperature. In tests to demonstrate the performance of the pyrocontactor, cadmium and LICl- KCl eutectic salt were the immiscible solvent phases, and rare earths were the distributing solutes. The tests showed that the pyrocontactor mixed and separated the phases well, with stage efficiencies approaching 99% at rotor speeds near 2700 rpm. The contactor ran smoothly and reliably over the entire range of speeds that was tested.

  19. 238Pu recovery and salt disposition from the molten salt oxidation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remerowski, M. L.; Stimmel, Jay J.; Wong, Amy S.; Ramsey, Kevin B.

    2000-07-01

    We have begun designing and optimizing our recovery and recycling processes by experimenting with samples of "spent salt" produced by MSO treatment of surrogate waste in the reaction vessel at the Naval Surface Warfare Center-Indian Head. One salt was produced by treating surrogate waste containing pyrolysis ash spiked with cerium. The other salt contains residues from MSO treatment of materials similar to those used in 238Pu processing, e.g., Tygon tubing, PVC bagout bags, HDPE bottles. Using these two salt samples, we will present results from our investigations.

  20. ADR salt pill design and crystal growth process for hydrated magnetic salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor); DiPirro, Michael J. (Inventor); Canavan, Edgar R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A process is provided for producing a salt pill for use in very low temperature adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADRs). The method can include providing a thermal bus in a housing. The thermal bus can include an array of thermally conductive metal conductors. A hydrated salt can be grown on the array of thermally conductive metal conductors. Thermal conductance can be provided to the hydrated salt.

  1. Comparative Toxicities of Salts on Microbial Processes in Soil.

    PubMed

    Rath, Kristin M; Maheshwari, Arpita; Bengtson, Per; Rousk, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinization is a growing threat to global agriculture and carbon sequestration, but to date it remains unclear how microbial processes will respond. We studied the acute response to salt exposure of a range of anabolic and catabolic microbial processes, including bacterial (leucine incorporation) and fungal (acetate incorporation into ergosterol) growth rates, respiration, and gross N mineralization and nitrification rates. To distinguish effects of specific ions from those of overall ionic strength, we compared the addition of four salts frequently associated with soil salinization (NaCl, KCl, Na2SO4, and K2SO4) to a nonsaline soil. To compare the tolerance of different microbial processes to salt and to interrelate the toxicity of different salts, concentration-response relationships were established. Growth-based measurements revealed that fungi were more resistant to salt exposure than bacteria. Effects by salt on C and N mineralization were indistinguishable, and in contrast to previous studies, nitrification was not found to be more sensitive to salt exposure than other microbial processes. The ion-specific toxicity of certain salts could be observed only for respiration, which was less inhibited by salts containing SO4 (2-) than Cl(-) salts, in contrast to the microbial growth assessments. This suggested that the inhibition of microbial growth was explained solely by total ionic strength, while ion-specific toxicity also should be considered for effects on microbial decomposition. This difference resulted in an apparent reduction of microbial growth efficiency in response to exposure to SO4 (2-) salts but not to Cl(-) salts; no evidence was found to distinguish K(+) and Na(+) salts. PMID:26801570

  2. MSO spent salt clean-up recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, M G; Brummond, W A; Hipple, D L; Hsu, P C; Summers, L J; Von Holtz, E H; Wang, F T

    1997-02-01

    An effective process has been developed to separate metals, mineral residues, and radionuclides from spent salt, a secondary waste generated by Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO). This process includes salt dissolution, pH adjustment, chemical reduction and/or sulfiding, filtration, ion exchange, and drying. The process uses dithionite to reduce soluble chromate and/or sulfiding agent to suppress solubilities of metal compounds in water. This process is capable of reducing the secondary waste to less than 5% of its original weight. It is a low temperature, aqueous process and has been demonstrated in the laboratory [1].

  3. Application of lithium in molten-salt reduction processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Gourishankar, K. V.

    1998-11-11

    Metallothermic reductions have been extensively studied in the field of extractive metallurgy. At Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), we have developed a molten-salt based reduction process using lithium. This process was originally developed to reduce actinide oxides present in spent nuclear fuel. Preliminary thermodynamic considerations indicate that this process has the potential to be adapted for the extraction of other metals. The reduction is carried out at 650 C in a molten-salt (LiCl) medium. Lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O), produced during the reduction of the actinide oxides, dissolves in the molten salt. At the end of the reduction step, the lithium is regenerated from the salt by an electrowinning process. The lithium and the salt from the electrowinning are then reused for reduction of the next batch of oxide fuel. The process cycle has been successfully demonstrated on an engineering scale in a specially designed pyroprocessing facility. This paper discusses the applicability of lithium in molten-salt reduction processes with specific reference to our process. Results are presented from our work on actinide oxides to highlight the role of lithium and its effect on process variables in these molten-salt based reduction processes.

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Processable Polyaniline Salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gul, Salma; Shah, Anwar-ul-Haq Ali; Bilal, Salma

    2013-06-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) is one of the most promising candidates for possible technological applications. PANI has potential applications in batteries, anion exchanger, tissue engineering, inhibition of steel corrosion, fuel cell, sensors and so on. However, its insolubility in common organic solvents limits its range of applications. In the present study an attempt has been made to synthesize soluble polyaniline salt via inverse polymerization pathway using benzoyl peroxide as oxidant and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA) as dopant as well as a surfactant. A mixture of chloroform and 2-butanol was used as dispersion medium for the first time. The influence of synthesis parameters such as concentration of aniline, benzoyl peroxide and DBSA on the yield and other properties of the resulting PANI salt was studied. The synthesized PANI salt was found to be completely soluble in DMSO, DMF, chloroform and in a mixture of toluene and 2-propanol. The synthesized polymer salt was also characterized with cyclic voltam-metry, SEM, XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy and viscosity measurements. TGA was used to analyze the thermal properties of synthesized polymer. The extent of doping of the PANI salt was determined from UV-Vis spectra and TGA analysis. The activation energy for the degradation of the polymer was calculated with the help of TGA.

  5. Secondary Aluminum Processing Waste: Salt Cake Characterization and Reactivity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thirty-nine salt cake samples were collected from 10 SAP facilities across the U.S. The facilities were identified by the Aluminum Association to cover a wide range of processes. Results suggest that while the percent metal leached from the salt cake was relatively low, the leac...

  6. Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Stimmel, J.; Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.; Brock, J.; Heslop, M.; Wernly, K.

    1999-04-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible {sup 238}Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and NaAsO{sub 2} or Na{sub 3}AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the {sup 238}Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox.

  7. FDA Calls for Less Salt in Processed Foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... html FDA Calls for Less Salt in Processed Foods Agency sets short- and long-term goals in ... WEDNESDAY, June 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration wants the food industry to ...

  8. Sol-gel processing with inorganic metal salt precursors

    DOEpatents

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng

    2004-10-19

    Methods for sol-gel processing that generally involve mixing together an inorganic metal salt, water, and a water miscible alcohol or other organic solvent, at room temperature with a macromolecular dispersant material, such as hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) added. The resulting homogenous solution is incubated at a desired temperature and time to result in a desired product. The methods enable production of high quality sols and gels at lower temperatures than standard methods. The methods enable production of nanosize sols from inorganic metal salts. The methods offer sol-gel processing from inorganic metal salts.

  9. Processes of Salt Transport in Disturbed Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitrakar, S.; Miller, S. N.; Caffrey, P. A.; Stern, J.

    2013-12-01

    The extraction of coal bed methane natural gas involves removal of large amount of ground/Coal Bed Methane (CBM) water which is commonly discharged to surface-water drainages or constructed reservoirs. The extraction of large volume of water and its disposal on soil surface not only lowers the water table but also potentially accelerate soil erosions, contaminate surface water resources, and alter the natural flows. Due to the difference in quality and quantity between the surface discharge and disposed CBM water, this management strategy potentially poses threats to quality of surface water and soil. CBM discharge water typically contains high concentrations of sodium and low concentrations of calcium and magnesium, resulting in high sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). Similarly, it also contains high concentration of other ions which could results in increasing salt concentrations. Our study area is in the Atlantic Rim development area of the Muddy Creek, SE of Wyoming, a tributary to Colorado River, where significant development of CBM wells is ongoing. Since Muddy Creek is part of the Upper Colorado River, the greatest concern is its potential to contribute to surface water quality (primarily salinity) impairment downstream. However, very few studies have made efforts to assess the water quality in this particular region. The alteration of stream water quality in this region is still not fully understood if it due to CBM water discharge or via soil/water interactions, erosion, and sediment transport. Efforts are being made to identify crucial water quality parameters such as SAR and EC along with the quantification of solute/salt loadings at both CBM discharge fed streams and natural streams at different seasons to distinguish effect of CBM discharge on water quality. We have been continuously monitoring water quality on monthly basis and discharge measurement on daily basis at sampling sites that are placed to discriminate CBM fed streams and natural streams. The

  10. Novel waste printed circuit board recycling process with molten salt

    PubMed Central

    Riedewald, Frank; Sousa-Gallagher, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the method was to prove the concept of a novel waste PCBs recycling process which uses inert, stable molten salts as the direct heat transfer fluid and, simultaneously, uses this molten salt to separate the metal products in either liquid (solder, zinc, tin, lead, etc.) or solid (copper, gold, steel, palladium, etc.) form at the operating temperatures of 450–470 °C. The PCB recovery reactor is essentially a U-shaped reactor with the molten salt providing a continuous fluid, allowing molten salt access from different depths for metal recovery. A laboratory scale batch reactor was constructed using 316L as suitable construction material. For safety reasons, the inert, stable LiCl–KCl molten salts were used as direct heat transfer fluid. Recovered materials were washed with hot water to remove residual salt before metal recovery assessment. The impact of this work was to show metal separation using molten salts in one single unit, by using this novel reactor methodology. • The reactor is a U-shaped reactor filled with a continuous liquid with a sloped bottom representing a novel reactor concept. • This method uses large PCB pieces instead of shredded PCBs as the reactor volume is 2.2 L. • The treated PCBs can be removed via leg B while the process is on-going. PMID:26150977

  11. Novel waste printed circuit board recycling process with molten salt.

    PubMed

    Riedewald, Frank; Sousa-Gallagher, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the method was to prove the concept of a novel waste PCBs recycling process which uses inert, stable molten salts as the direct heat transfer fluid and, simultaneously, uses this molten salt to separate the metal products in either liquid (solder, zinc, tin, lead, etc.) or solid (copper, gold, steel, palladium, etc.) form at the operating temperatures of 450-470 °C. The PCB recovery reactor is essentially a U-shaped reactor with the molten salt providing a continuous fluid, allowing molten salt access from different depths for metal recovery. A laboratory scale batch reactor was constructed using 316L as suitable construction material. For safety reasons, the inert, stable LiCl-KCl molten salts were used as direct heat transfer fluid. Recovered materials were washed with hot water to remove residual salt before metal recovery assessment. The impact of this work was to show metal separation using molten salts in one single unit, by using this novel reactor methodology. •The reactor is a U-shaped reactor filled with a continuous liquid with a sloped bottom representing a novel reactor concept.•This method uses large PCB pieces instead of shredded PCBs as the reactor volume is 2.2 L.•The treated PCBs can be removed via leg B while the process is on-going. PMID:26150977

  12. Direct reduction processes for titanium oxide in molten salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2007-02-01

    Molten salt electrolysis using CaCl2 is employed to produce pure titanium and its alloys directly from TiO2 and a mixture of elemental oxides, respectively, as an alternate to the Kroll process. This is because CaO, which is a reduction by-product, is highly soluble in CaCl2. Good-quality titanium containing only a small amount of residual oxygen has been successfully produced and scaled to industrial levels. Thermochemical and electrochemical bases are reviewed to optimize the process conditions. Several processes using molten salt are being examined for future progress in titanium processing.

  13. Plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings on type 316L stainless steel for pyrochemical reprocessing plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi Shankar, A.; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Sole, Ravikumar; Khatak, H. S.; Raj, Baldev

    2008-01-01

    Type 316L stainless steel (SS) is one of the candidate materials proposed for application in pyrochemical reprocessing plants. In the present work, yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings of 300 μm were applied over type 316L SS with a metallic bond coating of 50 μm by an optimized plasma spray process, and were assessed for the corrosion behaviour in molten LiCl-KCl medium at 873 K for periods of 5 h, 100 h, 250 h and 500 h. The as-coated and tested samples were examined by optical microscopy and SEM for homogeneity, penetration of molten salt through coating and corrosion of type 316L SS substrate. The results indicated that the yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings performed well without significant degradation and corrosion attack. Laser melting of the coated samples using CO 2 laser was attempted to consolidate the coatings. The development of large grains with segmented cracks was noticed after laser melting, though the coating defects have been eliminated.

  14. CRITICALITY SAFETY OF PROCESSING SALT SOLUTION AT SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, K; Davoud Eghbali, D; Michelle Abney, M

    2008-01-15

    High level radioactive liquid waste generated as a result of the production of nuclear material for the United States defense program at the Savannah River Site has been stored as 36 million gallons in underground tanks. About ten percent of the waste volume is sludge, composed of insoluble metal hydroxides primarily hydroxides of Mn, Fe, Al, Hg, and most radionuclides including fission products. The remaining ninety percent of the waste volume is saltcake, composed of primarily sodium (nitrites, nitrates, and aluminates) and hydroxides. Saltcakes account for 30% of the radioactivity while the sludge accounts for 70% of the radioactivity. A pilot plant salt disposition processing system has been designed at the Savannah River Site for interim processing of salt solution and is composed of two facilities: the Actinide Removal Process Facility (ARPF) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Data from the pilot plant salt processing system will be used for future processing salt at a much higher rate in a new salt processing facility. Saltcake contains significant amounts of actinides, and other long-lived radioactive nuclides such as strontium and cesium that must be extracted prior to disposal as low level waste. The extracted radioactive nuclides will be mixed with the sludge from waste tanks and vitrified in another facility. Because of the presence of highly enriched uranium in the saltcake, there is a criticality concern associated with concentration and/or accumulation of fissionable material in the ARP and MCU.

  15. Molten salt processing of mixed wastes with offgas condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.; Brummond, W.; Celeste, J.; Farmer, J.; Hoenig, C.; Krikorian, O.H.; Upadhye, R. ); Gay, R.L.; Stewart, A.; Yosim, S. . Energy Systems Group)

    1991-05-13

    We are developing an advanced process for treatment of mixed wastes in molten salt media at temperatures of 700--1000{degrees}C. Waste destruction has been demonstrated in a single stage oxidation process, with destruction efficiencies above 99.9999% for many waste categories. The molten salt provides a heat transfer medium, prevents thermal surges, and functions as an in situ scrubber to transform the acid-gas forming components of the waste into neutral salts and immobilizes potentially fugitive materials by a combination of particle wetting, encapsulation and chemical dissolution and solvation. Because the offgas is collected and assayed before release, and wastes containing toxic and radioactive materials are treated while immobilized in a condensed phase, the process avoids the problems sometimes associated with incineration processes. We are studying a potentially improved modification of this process, which treats oxidizable wastes in two stages: pyrolysis followed by catalyzed molten salt oxidation of the pyrolysis gases at ca. 700{degrees}C. 15 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Characterization of the effects of continuous salt processing on the performance of molten salt fusion breeder blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson-Hine, F.A.

    1984-05-01

    Several continuous salt processing options are available for use in molten salt fusion breeder blanket designs. The effects of processing on blanket performance have been assessed for three levels of processing and various equilibrium uranium concentrations in the salt. A one-dimensional model of the blanket was used in the neutronics analysis which incorporated transport calculations with time-dependent isotope generation and depletion calculations. The level of salt processing was found to have little effect on the behavior of the blanket during reactor operation; however, significant effects were observed during the decay period after reactor shutdown.

  17. Preconceptual design of a salt splitting process using ceramic membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Kurath, D.E.; Brooks, K.P.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Clemmer, R.; Balagopal, S.; Landro, T.; Sutija, D.P.

    1997-01-01

    Inorganic ceramic membranes for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions are being developed for treating U. S. Department of Energy tank wastes. The process consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON) membranes. The primary NaSICON compositions being investigated are based on rare- earth ions (RE-NaSICON). Potential applications include: caustic recycling for sludge leaching, regenerating ion exchange resins, inhibiting corrosion in carbon-steel tanks, or retrieving tank wastes; reducing the volume of low-level wastes volume to be disposed of; adjusting pH and reducing competing cations to enhance cesium ion exchange processes; reducing sodium in high-level-waste sludges; and removing sodium from acidic wastes to facilitate calcining. These applications encompass wastes stored at the Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sites. The overall project objective is to supply a salt splitting process unit that impacts the waste treatment and disposal flowsheets and meets user requirements. The potential flowsheet impacts include improving the efficiency of the waste pretreatment processes, reducing volume, and increasing the quality of the final waste disposal forms. Meeting user requirements implies developing the technology to the point where it is available as standard equipment with predictable and reliable performance. This report presents two preconceptual designs for a full-scale salt splitting process based on the RE-NaSICON membranes to distinguish critical items for testing and to provide a vision that site users can evaluate.

  18. Anisotropic pyrochemical microetching of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) initiated by synchrotron radiation-induced scission of molecule bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Akinobu; Kido, Hideki; Ukita, Yoshiaki; Kishihara, Mitsuyoshi; Utsumi, Yuichi

    2016-02-01

    We developed a process for micromachining polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE): anisotropic pyrochemical microetching induced by synchrotron X-ray irradiation. X-ray irradiation was performed at room temperature. Upon heating, the irradiated PTFE substrates exhibited high-precision features. Both the X-ray diffraction peak and Raman signal from the irradiated areas of the substrate decreased with increasing irradiation dose. The etching mechanism is speculated as follows: X-ray irradiation caused chain scission, which decreased the number-average degree of polymerization. The melting temperature of irradiated PTFE decreased as the polymer chain length decreased, enabling the treated regions to melt at a lower temperature. The anisotropic pyrochemical etching process enabled the fabrication of PTFE microstructures with higher precision than simultaneously heating and irradiating the sample.

  19. Process Heat Exchanger Options for Fluoride Salt High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Eung Soo Kim; Michael McKellar; Nolan Anderson

    2011-04-01

    The work reported herein is a significant intermediate step in reaching the final goal of commercial-scale deployment and usage of molten salt as the heat transport medium for process heat applications. The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for power production and process heat application, which would support large-scale deployment.

  20. Pyrochemical separation of radioactive components from inert materials in ICPP high-level calcined waste

    SciTech Connect

    Del Debbio, J.A.; Nelson, L.O.; Todd, T.A.

    1995-05-01

    Since 1963, calcination of aqueous wastes from reprocessing of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuels has resulted in the accumulation of approximately 3800 m{sup 3} of high-level waste (HLW) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The waste is in the form of a granular solid called calcine and is stored on site in stainless steel bins which are encased in concrete. Due to the leachability of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr and possibly other radioactive components, the calcine is not suitable for final disposal. Hence, a process to immobilize calcine in glass is being developed. Since radioactive components represent less than 1 wt % of the calcine, separation of actinides and fission products from inert components is being considered to reduce the volume of HLW requiring final disposal. Current estimates indicate that compared to direct vitrification, a volume reduction factor of 10 could result in significant cost savings. Aqueous processes, which involve calcine dissolution in nitric acid followed by separation of actinide and fission products by solvent extraction and ion exchange methods, are being developed. Pyrochemical separation methods, which generate small volumes of aqueous wastes and do not require calcine dissolution, have been evaluated as alternatives to aqueous processes. This report describes three proposed pyrochemical flowsheets and presents the results of experimental studies conducted to evaluate their feasibility. The information presented is a consolidation of three reports, which should be consulted for experimental details.

  1. CO2 decomposition using electrochemical process in molten salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otake, Koya; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2012-08-01

    The electrochemical decomposition of CO2 gas to carbon and oxygen gas in LiCl-Li2O and CaCl2-CaO molten salts was studied. This process consists of electrochemical reduction of Li2O and CaO, as well as the thermal reduction of CO2 gas by the respective metallic Li and Ca. Two kinds of ZrO2 solid electrolytes were tested as an oxygen ion conductor, and the electrolytes removed oxygen ions from the molten salts to the outside of the reactor. After electrolysis in both salts, the aggregations of nanometer-scale amorphous carbon and rod-like graphite crystals were observed by transmission electron microscopy. When 9.7 %CO2-Ar mixed gas was blown into LiCl-Li2O and CaCl2-CaO molten salts, the current efficiency was evaluated to be 89.7 % and 78.5 %, respectively, by the exhaust gas analysis and the supplied charge. When a solid electrolyte with higher ionic conductivity was used, the current and carbon production became larger. It was found that the rate determining step is the diffusion of oxygen ions into the ZrO2 solid electrolyte.

  2. Advances toward industrialization of novel molten salt electrochemical processes.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yasuhiko; Nishikiori, Tokujiro; Tsujimura, Hiroyuki

    2016-08-15

    We have invented various novel molten salt electrochemical processes, that can be put to practical use in the fields of energy and materials. These processes are promising from both technological and commercial viewpoints, and they are currently under development for industrial application. To showcase current developments in work toward industrialization, we focus here on three of these processes: (1) electrolytic synthesis of ammonia from water and nitrogen under atmospheric pressure, (2) electrochemical formation of carbon film, and (3) plasma-induced discharge electrolysis to produce nanoparticles. PMID:27265244

  3. Separation of actinides from lanthanides utilizing molten salt electrorefining

    SciTech Connect

    Grimmett, D.L.; Fusselman, S.P.; Roy, J.J.; Gay, R.L.; Krueger, C.L.; Storvick, T.S.; Inoue, T.; Hijikata, T.; Takahashi, N.

    1996-10-01

    TRUMP-S (TRansUranic Management through Pyropartitioning Separation) is a pyrochemical process being developed to separate actinides form fission products in nuclear waste. A key process step involving molten salt electrorefining to separate actinides from lanthanides has been studied on a laboratory scale. Electrorefining of U, Np, Pu, Am, and lanthanide mixtures from molten cadmium at 450 C to a solid cathode utilizing a molten chloride electrolyte resulted in > 99% removal of actinides from the molten cadmium and salt phases. Removal of the last few percent of actinides is accompanied by lowered cathodic current efficiency and some lanthanide codeposition. Actinide/lanthanide separation ratios on the cathode are ordered U > Np > Pu > Am and are consistent with predictions based on equilibrium potentials.

  4. BLENDING ANALYSIS FOR RADIOACTIVE SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.

    2012-05-10

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated methods to mix and blend the contents of the blend tanks to ensure the contents are properly blended before they are transferred from the blend tank such as Tank 21 and Tank 24 to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) feed tank. The tank contents consist of three forms: dissolved salt solution, other waste salt solutions, and sludge containing settled solids. This paper focuses on developing the computational model and estimating the operation time of submersible slurry pump when the tank contents are adequately blended prior to their transfer to the SWPF facility. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics approach was taken by using the full scale configuration of SRS Type-IV tank, Tank 21H. Major solid obstructions such as the tank wall boundary, the transfer pump column, and three slurry pump housings including one active and two inactive pumps were included in the mixing performance model. Basic flow pattern results predicted by the computational model were benchmarked against the SRNL test results and literature data. Tank 21 is a waste tank that is used to prepare batches of salt feed for SWPF. The salt feed must be a homogeneous solution satisfying the acceptance criterion of the solids entrainment during transfer operation. The work scope described here consists of two modeling areas. They are the steady state flow pattern calculations before the addition of acid solution for tank blending operation and the transient mixing analysis during miscible liquid blending operation. The transient blending calculations were performed by using the 95% homogeneity criterion for the entire liquid domain of the tank. The initial conditions for the entire modeling domain were based on the steady-state flow pattern results with zero second phase concentration. The performance model was also benchmarked against the SRNL test results and literature data.

  5. Pyrochemical Glovebox Line Replacement and Modernization Effort at Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility.

    SciTech Connect

    Dennison, D. K.; McNeese, James A.; Cantrell, W. S.; Garcia, R. E.

    2002-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), as part of the stockpile stewardship mission, is developing the capability to manufacture replacement pits for the United States nuclear weapon stockpile. Part of this effort requires that the various manufacturing activities formerly performed at the Rocky Flats be reconstructed at LANL, modernized to improve operation, and re-certified for pit production. Part of this effort requires that new pyrochemical metal production facilities be installed in TA-55 to replace existing outdated equipment. The purpose of this effort is design, build/procure, assemble, cold test, and support installation activities for ten pyrochemical processing gloveboxes and processing support equipment for insertion into a selected PF-4 laboratory. Eight of the gloveboxes will be connected to a common trolley tunnel with a state-of-the-art automated transport system that can access each glovebox. Five of those gloveboxes will be designed to accommodate standard water-cooled pyrochemical processing furnaces with appropriate lift mechanisms for handling the furnace products and processing hardware. Another glovebox will be designed to accommodate an improved breaking press that will be designed/procured to break alpha metal up to a thickness of l-inch, eliminate introduction of hydraulic oil to the glovebox environment, provide appropriate shielding for prevention of glovebox damage due to shrapnel projectiles, and use interchangeable impact tools in order to be able to process both contaminated and clean metals with the same machine. In addition, a storage glovebox and a distillation glovebox (already developed) will be attached to the transport system. Two other gloveboxes, one accommodating two casting furnaces and another storage glovebox, will be installed in the laboratory independent of the transport system. A transfer system (trolley) will be incorporated to handle material flow between the pyrochemical furnace gloveboxes, the press glovebox

  6. Feasibility study of a plant for LWR used fuel reprocessing by pyrochemical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Bychkov, A.V.; Kormilitsyn, M.V.; Savotchkin, Yu.P.; Sokolovsky, Yu.S.; Baganz, Catherine; Lopoukhine, Serge; Maurin, Guy; Medzadourian, Michel

    2007-07-01

    In 2005, experts from AREVA and RIAR performed a joint research work on the feasibility study of a plant reprocessing 1000 t/y of LWR spent nuclear fuel by the gas-fluoride and pyro-electrochemical techniques developed at RIAR. This work was based on the RIAR experience in development of pyrochemical processes and AREVA experience in designing UNF reprocessing plants. UNF reprocessing pyrochemical processes have been developed at RIAR at laboratory scale and technology for granulated MOX fuel fabrication and manufacturing of vibro-packed fuel rods is developed at pilot scale. The research work resulted in a preliminary feasibility assessment of the reprocessing plant according to the norms and standards applied in France. The study results interpretation must integrate the fact that the different technology steps are at very different stage of development. It appears clearly however that in its present state of development, pyro-electrochemical technology is not adapted to the treatment of an important material flow issuing from thermal reactors. There is probably an economic optimum to be studied for the choice of hydrometallurgical or pyro-electrochemical technology, depending on the area of application. This work is an example of successful and fruitful collaboration between French and Russian specialists. (authors)

  7. Corrosion study of a highly durable electrolyzer based on cold crucible technique for pyrochemical reprocessing of spent nuclear oxide fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, M.; Arai, Y.; Kase, T.; Nakajima, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The application of the cold crucible technique to a pyrochemical electrolyzer used in the oxide-electrowinning method, which is a method for the pyrochemical reprocessing of spent nuclear oxide fuel, is proposed as a means for improving corrosion resistance. The electrolyzer suffers from a severe corrosion environment consisting of molten salt and corrosive gas. In this study, corrosion tests for several metals in molten 2CsCl-NaCl at 923 K with purging chlorine gas were conducted under controlled material temperature conditions. The results revealed that the corrosion rates of several materials were significantly decreased by the material cooling effect. In particular, Hastelloy C-22 showed excellent corrosion resistance with a corrosion rate of just under 0.01 mm/y in both molten salt and vapor phases by controlling the material surface at 473 K. Finally, an engineering-scale crucible composed of Hastelloy C-22 was manufactured to demonstrate the basic function of the cold crucible. The cold crucible induction melting system with the new concept Hastelloy crucible showed good compatibility with respect to its heating and cooling performances.

  8. Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Anast, Kurt Roy

    2015-11-18

    This report examines and assesses the available systems and facilities considered for carrying out remediation activities on remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The assessment includes a review of the waste streams consisting of 60 RNS, 29 aboveground UNS, and 79 candidate belowground UNS containers that may need remediation. The waste stream characteristics were examined along with the proposed treatment options identified in the Options Assessment Report . Two primary approaches were identified in the five candidate treatment options discussed in the Options Assessment Report: zeolite blending and cementation. Systems that could be used at LANL were examined for housing processing operations to remediate the RNS and UNS containers and for their viability to provide repackaging support for remaining LANL legacy waste.

  9. Engineering Options Assessment Report. Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Anast, Kurt Roy

    2015-11-13

    This report examines and assesses the available systems and facilities considered for carrying out remediation activities on remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The assessment includes a review of the waste streams consisting of 60 RNS, 29 above-ground UNS, and 79 candidate below-ground UNS containers that may need remediation. The waste stream characteristics were examined along with the proposed treatment options identified in the Options Assessment Report . Two primary approaches were identified in the five candidate treatment options discussed in the Options Assessment Report: zeolite blending and cementation. Systems that could be used at LANL were examined for housing processing operations to remediate the RNS and UNS containers and for their viability to provide repackaging support for remaining LANL legacy waste.

  10. Pyrochemical separations technologies envisioned for the U. S. accelerator transmutation of waste system

    SciTech Connect

    Laidler, J. J.

    2000-02-17

    A program has been initiated for the purpose of developing the chemical separations technologies necessary to support a large Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) system capable of dealing with the projected inventory of spent fuel from the commercial nuclear power stations in the United States. The baseline process selected combines aqueous and pyrochemical processes to enable the efficient separation of uranium, technetium, iodine, and the transuranic elements from LWR spent fuel. The diversity of processing methods was chosen for both technical and economic factors. A six-year technology evaluation and development program is foreseen, by the end of which an informed decision can be made on proceeding with demonstration of the ATW system.

  11. Process for the preparation of protected dihydroxypropyl trialkylammonium salts and derivatives thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I.; Wang, Guijun

    2000-01-01

    A process for the preparation of protected dihydroxypropyl trialkylammonium salts, particularly in chiral form is described. In particular, a process for the preparation of (2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-ylmethyl)trialkylammonium salts, particularly in chiral form is described. Furthermore, a process is described wherein the (2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4ylmethyl)trialkylammonium salts is a 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-ylmethyl trimethylammonium salt, preferably in chiral form. The protected dihydroxypropyl trialkylammonium salts lead to L-carnitine (9) when in chiral form (5).

  12. Properties of TiN and TiN deposited by CVD on graphite for pyrochemical applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Maiya, P. S.; Moon, B. M.

    1997-12-17

    High-density TiN (>98% of theoretical) has been prepared by hot pressing TiN powder with 2-4 wt.% Li{sub 2}C0{sub 3} at temperatures between 1150-1550 C and pressures of {approx}40-50 MPa. The Li{sub 2}C0{sub 3} served as a fugitive sintering aid, enabling attainment of high density at low temperatures without adversely affecting the inherently good properties. Variation in processing variables and TiN powder characteristics resulted in material with various porosities. Measurement of mechanical properties such as flexural strength and fracture toughness showed that the high-density material has mechanical properties that are superior to those of several oxide ceramics. We have also quantified the effects of porosity on mechanical properties. In addition, adhesion and chemical stability tests were used to investigate graphite coated with TiN by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Pin-pull tests were used to determine coating adhesion and failure stresses were analyzed by Weibull statistics. All pin-pull tests resulted in fracture of the graphite substrate, rather than separation at the TiN/graphite interface. The data showed a good fit to the two-parameter Weibull expression, with a failure strength of 16.4 MPa and Weibull modulus of 9.3. Both the high-density TiN and the TiN coating on the graphite were exposed to a corrosive molten salt CaCl{sub 2}-7 wt.% CaO and a liquid metal alloy (Zn-10 wt.% Mg) at 800 C for 168 h to determine chemical interactions. No reaction was detected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) or energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Thus, graphite coated with TiN by CVD combines the thermodynamic stability of TiN when exposed to reactive molten metals and salts, with the excellent machinability of graphite, and hence is promising for use in container vessels for pyrochemical processing of certain rare-earth and nuclear metals, where chemical inertness and good matching of thermal expansion coefficients are required.

  13. Pilot-scale equipment development for pyrochemical treatment of spent oxide fuel.

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, S. D.

    1999-06-08

    Fundamental objectives regarding spent nuclear fuel treatment technologies include, first, the effective distribution of spent fuel constituents among product and stable waste forms and, second, the minimization and standardization of waste form types and volumes. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed and is presently demonstrating the electrometallurgical treatment of sodium-bonded metal fuel from Experimental Breeder Reactor II, resulting in an uranium product and two stable waste forms, i.e. ceramic and metallic. Engineering efforts are underway at ANL to develop pilot-scale equipment which would precondition irradiated oxide fuel via pyrochemical processing and subsequently allow for electrometallurgical treatment of such non-metallic fuels into standard product and waste forms. This paper highlights the integration of proposed spent oxide fuel treatment with existing electrometallurgical processes. System designs and technical bases for development of pilot-scale oxide reduction equipment are also described.

  14. Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water

    DOEpatents

    Tsai, Shih-Perng

    1997-01-01

    A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid.

  15. Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water

    DOEpatents

    Tsai, S.P.

    1997-07-08

    A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants-containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid. 6 figs.

  16. Modeling Coupled THM Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Blanco-Martin, Laura; Molins, Sergi; Trebotich, David; Birkholzer, Jens

    2015-09-01

    In this report, we present FY2015 progress by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) related to modeling of coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. This is a combined milestone report related to milestone Salt R&D Milestone “Modeling Coupled THM Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures” (M3FT-15LB0818012) and the Salt Field Testing Milestone (M3FT-15LB0819022) to support the overall objectives of the salt field test planning.

  17. Salts of alkali metal anions and process of preparing same

    DOEpatents

    Dye, James L.; Ceraso, Joseph M.; Tehan, Frederick J.; Lok, Mei Tak

    1978-01-01

    Compounds of alkali metal anion salts of alkali metal cations in bicyclic polyoxadiamines are disclosed. The salts are prepared by contacting an excess of alkali metal with an alkali metal dissolving solution consisting of a bicyclic polyoxadiamine in a suitable solvent, and recovered by precipitation. The salts have a gold-color crystalline appearance and are stable in a vacuum at -10.degree. C. and below.

  18. OCCUPATIONAL ALLERGY AND ASTHMA AMONG SALT WATER FISH PROCESSING WORKERS

    PubMed Central

    Jeebhay, Mohamed F; Robins, Thomas G; Miller, Mary E; Bateman, Eric; Smuts, Marius; Baatjies, Roslynn; Lopata, Andreas L

    2010-01-01

    Background Fish processing is a common economic activity in Southern Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and host determinants of allergic symptoms, allergic sensitization, bronchial hyper-responsiveness and asthma among workers processing saltwater fish. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 594 currently employed workers in two processing plants involved in pilchard canning and fishmeal processing. A modified European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) questionnaire was used. Skin prick tests (SPT) used extracts of common airborne allergens, fresh fish (pilchard, anchovy, maasbanker, mackerel, red eye) and fishmeal. Spirometry and methacholine challenge tests (tidal breathing method) used ATS guidelines. Results Work-related ocular-nasal symptoms (26%) were more common than asthma symptoms (16%). The prevalence of atopy was 36%, while 7% were sensitized to fish species and 26% had NSBH (PC20 ≤ 8 mg/ml or ≥12% increase in FEV1 post bronchodilator). The prevalence of probable occupational asthma was 1.8% and fish allergic rhino-conjunctivitis 2.6%. Women were more likely to report work-related asthma symptoms (OR=1.94) and have NSBH (OR=3.09), while men were more likely to be sensitized to fish (OR=2.06) and have airway obstruction (OR=4.17). Atopy (OR=3.16) and current smoking (OR=2.37), but not habitual seafood consumption were associated with sensitization to fish. Conclusions Based on comparison with previous published studies, the prevalence of occupational asthma to salt water fish is lower than due to shellfish. The gendered distribution of work and exposures in fish processing operations together with atopy and cigarette smoking are important determinants of occupational allergy and asthma. PMID:18726880

  19. Removal of uranium from spent salt from the moltensalt oxidation process

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, L.; Hsu, P. C.; Holtz, E. V.; Hipple, D.; Wang, F.; Adamson, M.

    1997-03-01

    Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that has the capability of destroying organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials. In this process, combustible waste and air are introduced into the molten sodium carbonate salt. The organic constituents of the waste materials are oxidized to carbon dioxide and water, while most of the inorganic constituents, including toxic metals, minerals, and radioisotopes, are retained in the molten salt bath. As these impurities accumulate in the salt, the process efficiency drops and the salt must be replaced. An efficient process is needed to separate these toxic metals, minerals, and radioisotopes from the spent carbonate to avoid generating a large volume of secondary waste. Toxic metals such as cadmium, chromium, lead, and zinc etc. are removed by a method described elsewhere. This paper describes a separation strategy developed for radioisotope removal from the mixed spent salt, as well as experimental results, as part of the spent salt cleanup. As the MSO system operates, inorganic products resulting from the reaction of halides, sulfides, phosphates, metals and radionuclides with carbonate accumulate in the salt bath. These must be removed to prevent complete conversion of the sodium carbonate, which would result in eventual losses of destruction efficiency and acid scrubbing capability. There are two operational modes for salt removal: (1) during reactor operation a slip-stream of molten salt is continuously withdrawn with continuous replacement by carbonate, or (2) the spent salt melt is discharged completely and the reactor then refilled with carbonate in batch mode. Because many of the metals and/or radionuclides captured in the salt are hazardous and/or radioactive, spent salt removed from the reactor would create a large secondary waste stream without further treatment. A spent salt clean up/recovery system is necessary to segregate these materials and minimize the amount of

  20. Tank 37H Salt Removal Batch Process and Salt Dissolution Mixing Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, K.C.

    2001-09-18

    Tank 30H is the receipt tank for concentrate from the 3H Evaporator. Tank 30H has had problems, such as cooling coil failure, which limit its ability to receive concentrate from the 3H Evaporator. SRS High Level Waste wishes to use Tank 37H as the receipt tank for the 3H Evaporator concentrate. Prior to using Tank 37H as the 3H Evaporator concentrate receipt tank, HLW must remove 50 inches of salt cake from the tank. They requested SRTC to evaluate various salt removal methods for Tank 37H. These methods include slurry pumps, Flygt mixers, the modified density gradient method, and molecular diffusion.

  1. Integrated Efficiency Test for Pyrochemical Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    S. X. Li; D. Vaden; B. R. Westphal; G. L. Fredrickson; R. W. Benedict; T. A. Johnson

    2009-05-01

    An engineering-scale integrated efficiency test was conducted with sodium-bonded, spent EBR-II drive fuel elements. The major pieces of equipment involved in the test were the element chopper, Mk-IV electrorefiner, cathode processor, and casting furnace. Four electrorefining batches (containing 50.4 kg HM) were processed under a set of fixed operating parameters that have been developed for the equipment based on over a decade’s worth of processing experience. A mass balance around this equipment was performed. Actinide dissolution and recovery efficiencies were established based on the mass balance and chemical analytical results of various samples taken from process streams during the integrated efficiency test.

  2. Nutritional modelling: distributions of salt intake from processed foods in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Barbara M

    2009-09-01

    The salt content of processed foods is important because of the high intake of Na by most New Zealanders. A database of Na concentrations in fifty-eight processed foods was compiled from existing and new data and combined with 24 h diet recall data from two national nutrition surveys (5771 respondents) to derive salt intakes for seven population groups. Mean salt intakes from processed foods ranged from 6.9 g/d for young males aged 19-24 years to 3.5 g/d for children aged 5-6 years. A total of > or = 50 % of children aged 5-6 years, boys aged 11-14 years and young males aged 19-24 years had salt intakes that exceeded the upper limit for Na, calculated as salt (3.2-5.3 g/d), from processed foods only. Bread accounted for the greatest contribution to salt intake for each population group (35-43 % of total salt intake). Other foods that contributed 2 % or more and common across most age groups were sausage, meat pies, pizza, instant noodles and cheese. The Na concentrations of key foods have changed little over the 16-year period from 1987 to 2003 except for corned beef and whole milk that have decreased by 34 and 50 % respectively. Bread is an obvious target for salt reduction but the implication on iodine intake needs consideration as salt is used as a vehicle for iodine fortification of bread. PMID:19296874

  3. Overview of Fiscal Year 2002 Research and Development for Savannah River Site's Salt Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    H. D. Harmon, R. Leugemors, PNNL; S. Fink, M. Thompson, D. Walker, WSRC; P. Suggs, W. D. Clark, Jr

    2003-02-26

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste program is responsible for storage, treatment, and immobilization of high-level waste for disposal. The Salt Processing Program (SPP) is the salt (soluble) waste treatment portion of the SRS high-level waste effort. The overall SPP encompasses the selection, design, construction and operation of treatment technologies to prepare the salt waste feed material for the site's grout facility (Saltstone) and vitrification facility (Defense Waste Processing Facility). Major constituents that must be removed from the salt waste and sent as feed to Defense Waste Processing Facility include actinides, strontium, cesium, and entrained sludge. In fiscal year 2002 (FY02), research and development (R&D) on the actinide and strontium removal and Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) processes transitioned from technology development for baseline process selection to providing input for conceptual design of the Salt Waste Processing Facility. The SPP R&D focused on advancing the technical maturity, risk reduction, engineering development, and design support for DOE's engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) contractors for the Salt Waste Processing Facility. Thus, R&D in FY02 addressed the areas of actual waste performance, process chemistry, engineering tests of equipment, and chemical and physical properties relevant to safety. All of the testing, studies, and reports were summarized and provided to the DOE to support the Salt Waste Processing Facility, which began conceptual design in September 2002.

  4. Chemical and Electrochemical Processing of Aluminum Dross Using Molten Salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xiao Y.

    2008-04-01

    A novel molten salt process was investigated, where Al, as metal or contained in Al2O3 and AlN, was recovered from Al dross by chemical or direct electrochemical reduction in electrolytic cells. Electrolysis experiments were carried out under argon at temperatures from 1123 to 1243 K. In order to better understand the reduction behavior, the as-received Al dross was simulated using simplified systems, including pure Al2O3, pure AlN, an Al2O3/AlN binary mixture, and an Al2O3/AlN/Al ternary mixture. The reduction of the as-received dross was also studied experimentally. The studies showed that solid Al2O3 was chemically reduced by the Ca in a Ca-saturated Ca-CaCl2 melt to form Al2Ca or electrochemically reduced to Al-rich Al-Ca alloys and that the Al value in the Al2O3 was easily recovered from the Al drosses. It was found experimentally that solid AlN in the drosses could not be calciothermically reduced to any extent, consistent with thermodynamic evaluations. It was also found that the direct electrochemical reduction of the AlN in the drosses was confined to three phase boundaries (3PBs) between the AlN, the electrolyte, and the current collector and could not be enhanced by using the LiCl-containing chloride melt or the chloride-fluoride melts studied. The presence of Al powder in the Al2O3/AlN mixture facilitated the direct electrochemical reduction of both Al2O3 and AlN. The reduction mechanisms are discussed based upon the present experimental observations. Flow sheets for recovering the metallic Al and the Al in the Al2O3 and AlN from Al dross are finally proposed.

  5. Pyrochemical recovery of plutonium from calcium fluoride reduction slag

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, D.C.

    A pyrochemical method of recovering finely dispersed plutonium metal from calcium fluoride reduction slag is claimed. The plutonium-bearing slag is crushed and melted in the presence of at least an equimolar amount of calcium chloride and a few percent metallic calcium. The calcium chloride reduces the melting point and thereby decreases the viscosity of the molten mixture. The calcium reduces any oxidized plutonium in the mixture and also causes the dispersed plutonium metal to coalesce and settle out as a separate metallic phase at the bottom of the reaction vessel. Upon cooling the mixture to room temperature, the solid plutonium can be cleanly separated from the overlying solid slag, with an average recovery yield on the order of 96 percent.

  6. Management of salt waste from electrochemical processing of used nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, M.F.; Patterson, M.N.; Lee, J.; Wang, Y.; Versey, J.; Phongikaroon, S.

    2013-07-01

    Electrochemical processing of used nuclear fuel involves operation of one or more cells containing molten salt electrolyte. Processing of the fuel results in contamination of the salt via accumulation of fission products and transuranic (TRU) actinides. Upon reaching contamination limits, the salt must be removed and either disposed or treated to remove the contaminants and recycled back to the process. During development of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II spent fuel treatment process, waste salt from the electro-refiner was to be stabilized in a ceramic waste form and disposed of in a high-level waste repository. With the cancellation of the Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository, other options are now being considered. One approach that involves direct disposal of the salt in a geologic salt formation has been evaluated. While waste forms such as the ceramic provide near-term resistance to corrosion, they may not be necessary to ensure adequate performance of the repository. To improve the feasibility of direct disposal, recycling a substantial fraction of the useful salt back to the process equipment could minimize the volume of the waste. Experiments have been run in which a cold finger is used for this purpose to crystallize LiCl from LiCl/CsCl. If it is found to be unsuitable for transportation, the salt waste could also be immobilized in zeolite without conversion to the ceramic waste form. (authors)

  7. Management of Salt Waste from Electrochemical Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Michael F. Simpson; Michael N. Patterson; Joon Lee; Yifeng Wang; Joshua Versey; Ammon Williams; Supathorn Phongikaroon; James Allensworth; Man-Sung Yim

    2013-10-01

    Electrochemical processing of used nuclear fuel involves operation of one or more cells containing molten salt electrolyte. Processing of the fuel results in contamination of the salt via accumulation of fission products and transuranic (TRU) actinides. Upon reaching contamination limits, the salt must be removed and either disposed or treated to remove the contaminants and recycled back to the process. During development of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II spent fuel treatment process, waste salt from the electrorefiner was to be stabilized in a ceramic waste form and disposed of in a high-level waste repository. With the cancellation of the Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository, other options are now being considered. One approach that involves direct disposal of the salt in a geologic salt formation has been evaluated. While waste forms such as the ceramic provide near-term resistance to corrosion, they may not be necessary to ensure adequate performance of the repository. To improve the feasibility of direct disposal, recycling a substantial fraction of the useful salt back to the process equipment could minimize the volume of the waste. Experiments have been run in which a cold finger is used for this purpose to crystallize LiCl from LiCl/CsCl. If it is found to be unsuitable for transportation, the salt waste could also be immobilized in zeolite without conversion to the ceramic waste form.

  8. Emissions from energetic material waste during the Molten Salt Destruction process

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, B.E.; Upadhye, R.S.; Pruneda, C.O.; Brummond, W.A.

    1994-07-05

    The Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) process is an alternative to open burn/open detonation for destroying energetic materials; MSD has inherently low gaseous emissions, and the salt bath can scrub both acidic gases and particulates. It was demonstrated that high explosives and a liquid propellant can be safely and completely destroyed using MSD. Gaseous emissions of NOx and CO are very low. Nitrate builds up in the salt bath when nitrate-rich materials are destroyed, but addition fuel reduces the nitrate to NO. A program has been begun to add catalytic materials to the bed to further reduce emissions; a small molten salt bath has been constructed for chemical kinetic studies.

  9. Artisanal salt production in Aveiro/Portugal - an ecofriendly process.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Carolina M; Bio, Ana; Amat, Francisco; Vieira, Natividade

    2011-01-01

    Solar salinas are man-made systems exploited for the extraction of salt, by solar and wind evaporation of seawater. Salt production achieved by traditional methods is associated with landscapes and environmental and patrimonial values generated throughout history. Since the mid-twentieth century, this activity has been facing a marked decline in Portugal, with most salinas either abandoned or subjected to destruction, making it necessary to find a strategy to reverse this trend.It is, however, possible to generate revenue from salinas at several levels, not merely in terms of good quality salt production, but also by obtaining other products that can be commercialized, or by exploring their potential for tourism, and as research facilities, among others. Furthermore, with an adequate management, biodiversity can be restored to abandoned salinas, which constitute important feeding and breeding grounds for resident and migratory aquatic birds, many of which are protected by European Community Directives.The aims of this manuscript are to present a brief overview on the current state of sea salt exploitation in Portugal and to stress the importance of recovering these salinas for the conservation of this particular environment, for the regional economy, the scientific community and the general public. The Aveiro salina complex is presented in detail, to exemplify salina structure and functioning, as well as current problems and potential solutions for artisanal salinas. PMID:22053788

  10. Artisanal salt production in Aveiro/Portugal - an ecofriendly process

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Solar salinas are man-made systems exploited for the extraction of salt, by solar and wind evaporation of seawater. Salt production achieved by traditional methods is associated with landscapes and environmental and patrimonial values generated throughout history. Since the mid-twentieth century, this activity has been facing a marked decline in Portugal, with most salinas either abandoned or subjected to destruction, making it necessary to find a strategy to reverse this trend. It is, however, possible to generate revenue from salinas at several levels, not merely in terms of good quality salt production, but also by obtaining other products that can be commercialized, or by exploring their potential for tourism, and as research facilities, among others. Furthermore, with an adequate management, biodiversity can be restored to abandoned salinas, which constitute important feeding and breeding grounds for resident and migratory aquatic birds, many of which are protected by European Community Directives. The aims of this manuscript are to present a brief overview on the current state of sea salt exploitation in Portugal and to stress the importance of recovering these salinas for the conservation of this particular environment, for the regional economy, the scientific community and the general public. The Aveiro salina complex is presented in detail, to exemplify salina structure and functioning, as well as current problems and potential solutions for artisanal salinas. PMID:22053788

  11. Assessment of the microbial contribution to the processing of salted salmon roe (Sujiko).

    PubMed

    Miyaji, Tatsuro; Nakagawa, Tomoyuki; Tomizuka, Noboru

    2007-09-01

    As the microbial contributions to the processing of salted foods have been little investigated, there remains a possibility that excess sterilization of raw materials for salted foods leads to deterioration in food quality and safety. At a salmon roe (sujiko) processing company, we investigated salted sujiko made identically to commercial products, but that had been processed with or without antibiotics. The antibiotics caused no significant difference in the content of free amino acids, lactic acid or acetic acid. These results show that general aerobic bacteria have no impact on the formation of these flavor compounds. PMID:17927051

  12. Development of a Phosphate Ceramic as a Host for Halide-contaminated Plutonium Pyrochemical Reprocessing Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, Brian; Fong, Shirley K.; Gerrard, Lee A.; Donald, Ian W.; Strachan, Denis M.; Scheele, Randall D.

    2007-03-31

    The presence of halide anions in four types of wastes arising from the pyrochemical reprocessing of plutonium required an immobilization process to be developed in which not only the actinide cations but also the halide anions were immobilized in a durable waste form. At AWE, we have developed such a process using Ca3(PO4)2 as the host material. Successful trials of the process with actinide- and Cl-bearing Type I waste were carried out at PNNL where the immobilization of the waste in a form resistant to aqueous leaching was confirmed. Normalized mass losses determined at 40°C and 28 days were 12 x 10-6 g∙m-2 and 2.7 x 10-3 g∙m-2 for Pu and Cl, respectively. Accelerated radiation-induced damage effects are being determined with specimens containing 238Pu. No changes in the crystalline lattice have been detected with XRD after the 239Pu equivalent of 400 years ageing. Confirmation of the process for Type II waste (a oxyhydroxide-based waste) is currently underway at PNNL. Differences in the ionic state of Pu in the four types of waste have required different surrogates to be used. Samarium chloride was used successfully as a surrogate for both Pu(III) and Am(III) chlorides. Initial investigations into the use of HfO2 as the surrogate for Pu(IV) oxide in Type II waste indicated no significant differences.

  13. Antioxidant enzyme activities are affected by salt content and temperature and influence muscle lipid oxidation during dry-salted bacon processing.

    PubMed

    Jin, Guofeng; He, Lichao; Yu, Xiang; Zhang, Jianhao; Ma, Meihu

    2013-12-01

    Fresh pork bacon belly was used as material and manufactured into dry-salted bacon through salting and drying-ripening. During processing both oxidative stability and antioxidant enzyme stability were evaluated by assessing peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and their correlations were also analysed. The results showed that all antioxidant enzyme activities decreased (p<0.05) until the end of process; GSH-Px was the most unstable one followed by catalase. Antioxidant enzyme activities were negatively correlated with TBARS (p<0.05), but the correlations were decreased with increasing process temperature. Salt showed inhibitory effect on all antioxidant enzyme activities and was concentration dependent. These results indicated that when process temperature and salt content were low at the same time during dry-salted bacon processing, antioxidant enzymes could effectively control lipid oxidation. PMID:23871020

  14. Advances in electroanalysis, sensing and monitoring in molten salts.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Damion K; Elliott, Justin P; Blair, Ewen O; Reeves, Simon J; Schmüser, Ilka; Walton, Anthony J; Mount, Andrew R

    2016-08-15

    Microelectrodes have a number of advantages over macroelectrodes for quantitative electroanalysis and monitoring, including reduced iR drop, a high signal-to-noise ratio and reduced sensitivity to convection. Their use in molten salts has been generally precluded by the combined materials challenges of stresses associated with thermal cycling and physical and corrosive chemical degradation at the relatively high temperatures involved. We have shown that microfabrication, employing high precision photolithographic patterning in combination with the controlled deposition of materials, can be used to successfully address these challenges. The resulting molten salt compatible microelectrodes (MSMs) enable prolonged quantitative microelectrode measurements in molten salts (MSs). This paper reports the fabrication of novel MSM disc electrodes, chosen because they have an established ambient analytical response. It includes a detailed set of electrochemical characterisation studies which demonstrate both their enhanced capability over macroelectrodes and over commercial glass pulled microelectrodes, and their ability to extract quantitative electroanalytical information from MS systems. MSM measurements are then used to demonstrate their potential for shedding new light on the fundamental properties of, and processes in, MSs, such as mass transport, charge transfer reaction rates and the selective plating/stripping and alloying reactions of liquid Bi and other metals; this will underpin the development of enhanced MS industrial processes, including pyrochemical spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. PMID:27252128

  15. Application of salt whey in process cheese food made from Cheddar cheese containing exopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Janevski, O; Hassan, A N; Metzger, L

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this work was to use salt whey in making process cheese food (PCF) from young (3-wk-old) Cheddar cheese. To maximize the level of salt whey in process cheese, low salt (0.6%) Cheddar cheese was used. Because salt reduction causes undesirable physiochemical changes during extended cheese ripening, young Cheddar cheese was used in making process cheese. An exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing strain (JFR) and a non-EPS-producing culture (DVS) were applied in making Cheddar cheese. To obtain similar composition and pH in the EPS-positive and EPS-negative Cheddar cheeses, the cheese making protocol was modified in the latter cheese to increase its moisture content. No differences were seen in the proteolysis between EPS-positive and EPS-negative Cheddar cheeses. Cheddar cheese made with the EPS-producing strain was softer, and less gummy and chewy than that made with the EPS-negative culture. Three-week-old Cheddar cheese was shredded and stored frozen until used for PCF manufacture. Composition of Cheddar cheese was determined and used to formulate the corresponding PCF (EPS-positive PCF and EPS-negative PCF). The utilization of low salt Cheddar cheese allowed up to 13% of salt whey containing 9.1% salt to be used in process cheese making. The preblend was mixed in the rapid visco analyzer at 1,000 rpm and heated at 95°C for 3 min; then, the process cheese was transferred into copper cylinders, sealed, and kept at 4°C. Process cheese foods contained 43.28% moisture, 23.7% fat, 18.9% protein, and 2% salt. No difference in composition was seen between the EPS-positive and EPS-negative PCF. The texture profile analysis showed that EPS-positive PCF was softer, and less gummy and chewy than EPS-negative PCF. The end apparent viscosity and meltability were higher in EPS-positive PCF than in EPS-negative PCF, whereas emulsification time was shorter in the former cheese. Sensory evaluation indicated that salt whey at the level used in this study did not affect

  16. Densification of salt-occluded zeolite a powders to a leach-resistant monolith

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.A.; Fischer, D.F.; Murhpy, C.D.

    1993-10-01

    Pyrochemical processing of spent fuel from the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) yields a salt waste of LiCl-KCl that contains approximately 6 wt% fission products, primarily as CsCl and SrCl{sub 2}. Past work has shown that zeolite A will preferentially sorb cesium and strontium and will encapsulate the salt waste in a leach-resistant, radiation-resistant aluminosilicate matrix. However, a method is sill needed to convert the salt-occluded zeolite powders into a form suitable for geologic disposal. We are thus investigating a method that forms bonded zeolite by hot pressing a mixture of glass frit and salt-occluded zeolite powders at 990 K (717{degree}C) and 28 MPa. The leach resistance of the bonded zeolite was measured in static leach tests run for 28 days in 363 K (90{degree}C) deionized water. Normalized release rates of all elements in the bonded zeolite were low, <1 g/m{sup 2} d. Thus, the bonded zeolite may be a suitable waste form for IFR salt waste.

  17. Process evaluation of sea salt aerosol concentrations at remote marine locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struthers, H.; Ekman, A. M.; Nilsson, E. D.

    2011-12-01

    Sea salt, an important natural aerosol, is generated by bubbles bursting at the surface of the ocean. Sea salt aerosol contributes significantly to the global aerosol burden and radiative budget and are a significant source of cloud condensation nuclei in remote marine areas (Monahan et al., 1986). Consequently, changes in marine aerosol abundance is expected to impact on climate forcing. Estimates of the atmospheric burden of sea salt aerosol mass derived from chemical transport and global climate models vary greatly both in the global total and the spatial distribution (Texor et al. 2006). This large uncertainty in the sea salt aerosol distribution in turn contributes to the large uncertainty in the current estimates of anthropogenic aerosol climate forcing (IPCC, 2007). To correctly attribute anthropogenic climate change and to veraciously project future climate, natural aerosols including sea salt must be understood and accurately modelled. In addition, the physical processes that determine the sea salt aerosol concentration are susceptible to modification due to climate change (Carslaw et al., 2010) which means there is the potential for feedbacks within the climate/aerosol system. Given the large uncertainties in sea salt aerosol modelling, there is an urgent need to evaluate the process description of sea salt aerosols in global models. An extremely valuable source of data for model evaluation is the long term measurements of PM10 sea salt aerosol mass available from a number of remote marine observation sites around the globe (including the GAW network). Sea salt aerosol concentrations at remote marine locations depend strongly on the surface exchange (emission and deposition) as well as entrainment or detrainment to the free troposphere. This suggests that the key parameters to consider in any analysis include the sea surface water temperature, wind speed, precipitation rate and the atmospheric stability. In this study, the sea salt aerosol observations

  18. PROCESS OF FORMING PLUOTONIUM SALTS FROM PLUTONIUM EXALATES

    DOEpatents

    Garner, C.S.

    1959-02-24

    A process is presented for converting plutonium oxalate to other plutonium compounds by a dry conversion method. According to the process, lower valence plutonium oxalate is heated in the presence of a vapor of a volatile non- oxygenated monobasic acid, such as HCl or HF. For example, in order to produce plutonium chloride, the pure plutonium oxalate is heated to about 700 deg C in a slow stream of hydrogen plus HCl. By the proper selection of an oxidizing or reducing atmosphere, the plutonium halide product can be obtained in either the plus 3 or plus 4 valence state.

  19. Discontinuation of data processing step: Salt adjustment on designated foods likely to be home prepared

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this report is to describe (a) the basis for and implementation of a data processing step called salt adjustment that was performed on designated foods in USDA dietary intake surveys from 1985 through 2008, (b) the rationale for discontinuing the step, and (c) the impact and implica...

  20. Savannah River Site Salt Processing Project: FY2002 Research and Development Program Plan, Rev. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, Harry D.; Leugemors, Robert K.; Schlahta, Stephan N.; Fink, Samuel D.; Thompson, Major C.; Walker, Darrell D.

    2001-12-10

    This Plan describes the technology development program for alpha/strontium removal and Caustic Side Solvent Extraction cesium removal in FY2002. Crystalline Silicotitanate and Small Tank Tetratphenylborate Precipitation are discussed as possible backup technologies. Previous results are summarized in the Savannah River Site Salt Processing Project Research and Development Summary Report.

  1. Savannah River Site Salt Processing Project: FY2002 Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, Harry D.; Leugemors, Robert K.; Schlahta, Stephan N.; Fink, Samuel D.; Thompson, Major C.; Walker, Darrell D.

    2001-10-31

    This Plan describes the technology development program for alpha/strontium removal and Caustic Side Solvent Extraction cesium removal in FY2002. Crystalline Silicotitanate and Small Tank Tetratphenylborate Precipitation are discussed as possible backup technologies. Previous results are summarized in the Savannah River Site Salt Processing Project Research and Development Summary Report

  2. Process-based management approaches for salt desert shrublands dominated by downy brome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Downy brome grass (Bromus tectorum L.) invasion has severely altered key ecological processes such as disturbance regimes, soil nutrient cycling, community assembly, and successional pathways in semi-arid Great Basin salt desert shrublands. Restoring the structure and function of these severly alte...

  3. FUSED SALT PROCESS FOR RECOVERY OF VALUES FROM USED NUCLEAR REACTOR FUELS

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.H.

    1960-08-01

    A process is given for recovering plutonium from a neutron-irradiated uranium mass (oxide or alloy) by dissolving the mass in an about equimolar alkali metalaluminum double chloride, adding aluminum metal to the mixture obtained at a temperature of between 260 and 860 deg C, and separating a uranium-containing metal phase and a plutonium-chloride- and fission-product chloridecontaining salt phase. Dissolution can be expedited by passing carbon tetrachloride vapors through the double salt. Separation without reduction of plutonium from neutron- bombarded uranium and that of cerium from uranium are also discussed.

  4. Use of ion conductors in the pyrochemical reduction of oxides

    DOEpatents

    Miller, W.E.; Tomczuk, Z.

    1994-02-01

    An electrochemical process and electrochemical cell for reducing a metal oxide are provided. First the oxide is separated as oxygen gas using, for example, a ZrO[sub 2] oxygen ion conductor anode and the metal ions from the reduction salt are reduced and deposited on an ion conductor cathode, for example, sodium ion reduced on a [beta]-alumina sodium ion conductor cathode. The generation of and separation of oxygen gas avoids the problem with chemical back reaction of oxygen with active metals in the cell. The method also is characterized by a sequence of two steps where an inert cathode electrode is inserted into the electrochemical cell in the second step and the metallic component in the ion conductor is then used as the anode to cause electrochemical reduction of the metal ions formed in the first step from the metal oxide where oxygen gas formed at the anode. The use of ion conductors serves to isolate the active components from chemically reacting with certain chemicals in the cell. While applicable to a variety of metal oxides, the invention has special importance for reducing CaO to Ca[sup o] used for reducing UO[sub 2] and PuO[sub 2] to U and Pu. 2 figures.

  5. Use of ion conductors in the pyrochemical reduction of oxides

    DOEpatents

    Miller, William E.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

    1994-01-01

    An electrochemical process and electrochemical cell for reducing a metal oxide are provided. First the oxide is separated as oxygen gas using, for example, a ZrO.sub.2 oxygen ion conductor anode and the metal ions from the reduction salt are reduced and deposited on an ion conductor cathode, for example, sodium ion reduced on a .beta.-alumina sodium ion conductor cathode. The generation of and separation of oxygen gas avoids the problem with chemical back reaction of oxygen with active metals in the cell. The method also is characterized by a sequence of two steps where an inert cathode electrode is inserted into the electrochemical cell in the second step and the metallic component in the ion conductor is then used as the anode to cause electrochemical reduction of the metal ions formed in the first step from the metal oxide where oxygen gas formed at the anode. The use of ion conductors serves to isolate the active components from chemically reacting with certain chemicals in the cell. While applicable to a variety of metal oxides, the invention has special importance for reducing CaO to Ca.degree. used for reducing UO.sub.2 and PuO.sub.2 to U and Pu.

  6. Significant Modules and Biological Processes between Active Components of Salvia miltiorrhiza Depside Salt and Aspirin

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yanming; Wang, Lianxin; Zhang, Yingying; Gu, Hao; Chai, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine and compare the similarities and differences between active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin using perspective of pharmacological molecular networks. Active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin's related genes were identified via the STITCH4.0 and GeneCards Database. A text search engine (Agilent Literature Search 2.71) and MCODE software were applied to construct network and divide modules, respectively. Finally, 32, 2, and 28 overlapping genes, modules, and pathways were identified between active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin. A multidimensional framework of drug network showed that two networks reflected commonly in human aortic endothelial cells and atherosclerosis process. Aspirin plays a more important role in metabolism, such as the well-known AA metabolism pathway and other lipid or carbohydrate metabolism pathways. S. miltiorrhiza depside salt still plays a regulatory role in type II diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, and adipocytokine signaling pathway. Therefore, this study suggests that aspirin combined with S. miltiorrhiza depside salt may be more efficient in treatment of CHD patients, especially those with diabetes mellitus or hyperlipidemia. Further clinical trials to confirm this hypothesis are still needed. PMID:27069488

  7. Significant Modules and Biological Processes between Active Components of Salvia miltiorrhiza Depside Salt and Aspirin.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Xie, Yanming; Wang, Lianxin; Zhang, Yingying; Gu, Hao; Chai, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine and compare the similarities and differences between active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin using perspective of pharmacological molecular networks. Active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin's related genes were identified via the STITCH4.0 and GeneCards Database. A text search engine (Agilent Literature Search 2.71) and MCODE software were applied to construct network and divide modules, respectively. Finally, 32, 2, and 28 overlapping genes, modules, and pathways were identified between active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin. A multidimensional framework of drug network showed that two networks reflected commonly in human aortic endothelial cells and atherosclerosis process. Aspirin plays a more important role in metabolism, such as the well-known AA metabolism pathway and other lipid or carbohydrate metabolism pathways. S. miltiorrhiza depside salt still plays a regulatory role in type II diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, and adipocytokine signaling pathway. Therefore, this study suggests that aspirin combined with S. miltiorrhiza depside salt may be more efficient in treatment of CHD patients, especially those with diabetes mellitus or hyperlipidemia. Further clinical trials to confirm this hypothesis are still needed. PMID:27069488

  8. Thermal Properties of LiCl-KCl Molten Salt for Nuclear Waste Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Sridharan, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Anderson, Mark; Simpson, Mike

    2012-11-30

    This project addresses both practical and fundamental scientific issues of direct relevance to operational challenges of the molten LiCl-KCl salt pyrochemical process, while providing avenues for improvements in the process. In order to understand the effects of the continually changing composition of the molten salt bath during the process, the project team will systematically vary the concentrations of rare earth surrogate elements, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, and neodymium, which will be added to the molten LiCl-KCl salt. They will also perform a limited number of focused experiments by the dissolution of depleted uranium. All experiments will be performed at 500 deg C. The project consists of the following tasks. Researchers will measure density of the molten salts using an instrument specifically designed for this purpose, and will determine the melting points with a differential scanning calorimeter. Knowledge of these properties is essential for salt mass accounting and taking the necessary steps to prevent melt freezing. The team will use cyclic voltammetry studies to determine redox potentials of the rare earth cations, as well as their diffusion coefficients and activities in the molten LiCl-KCl salt. In addition, the team will perform anodic stripping voltammetry to determine the concentration of the rare earth elements and their solubilities, and to develop the scientific basis for an on-line diagnostic system for in situ monitoring of the cation species concentration (rare earths in this case). Solubility and activity of the cation species are critically important for the prediction of the salt's useful lifetime and disposal.

  9. EXAMINE AND EVALUATE A PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; D. Braxton Scherz

    2003-04-24

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy cooperative research project is to define, describe, and validate, a process to utilize salt caverns to receive and store the cargoes of LNG ships. The project defines the process as receiving LNG from a ship, pumping the LNG up to cavern injection pressures, warming it to cavern compatible temperatures, injecting the warmed vapor directly into salt caverns for storage, and distribution to the pipeline network. The performance of work under this agreement is based on U.S. Patent 5,511,905, and other U.S. and Foreign pending patent applications. The cost sharing participants in the research are The National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. Department of Energy), BP America Production Company, Bluewater Offshore Production Systems (U.S.A.), Inc., and HNG Storage, L.P. Initial results indicate that a salt cavern based receiving terminal could be built at about half the capital cost, less than half the operating costs and would have significantly higher delivery capacity, shorter construction time, and be much more secure than a conventional liquid tank based terminal. There is a significant body of knowledge and practice concerning natural gas storage in salt caverns, and there is a considerable body of knowledge and practice in handling LNG, but there has never been any attempt to develop a process whereby the two technologies can be combined. Salt cavern storage is infinitely more secure than surface storage tanks, far less susceptible to accidents or terrorist acts, and much more acceptable to the community. The project team developed conceptual designs of two salt cavern based LNG terminals, one with caverns located in Calcasieu Parish Louisiana, and the second in Vermilion block 179 about 50 miles offshore Louisiana. These conceptual designs were compared to conventional tank based LNG terminals and demonstrate superior security, economy and capacity. The potential for the development of LNG receiving terminals

  10. Modeling Coupled THMC Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Blanco Martin, Laura; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-08-14

    In this report, we present FY2014 progress by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) related to modeling of coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. LBNL’s work on the modeling of coupled THMC processes in salt was initiated in FY2012, focusing on exploring and demonstrating the capabilities of an existing LBNL modeling tool (TOUGH-FLAC) for simulating temperature-driven coupled flow and geomechanical processes in salt. This work includes development related to, and implementation of, essential capabilities, as well as testing the model against relevant information and published experimental data related to the fate and transport of water. we provide more details on the FY2014 work, first presenting updated tools and improvements made to the TOUGH-FLAC simulator, and the use of this updated tool in a new model simulation of long-term THM behavior within a generic repository in a salt formation. This is followed by the description of current benchmarking and validations efforts, including the TSDE experiment. We then present the current status in the development of constitutive relationships and the dual-continuum model for brine migration. We conclude with an outlook for FY2015, which will be much focused on model validation against field experiments and on the use of the model for the design studies related to a proposed heater experiment.

  11. Process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid and salts thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I.

    1994-01-01

    A process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid (1) and salts thereof from a glucose source containing 1,4-linked glucose as a substituent is described. The process uses an alkali metal hdyroxide and hydrogen peroxide to convert the glucose source to (1). The compound (1) is useful as a chemical intermediate to naturally occurring fatty acids and is used to prepare 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid-gamma-lactone (2) and furanone (3), particularly stereoisomers of these compounds.

  12. Process For The Preparation Of 3,4-Dihyd Roxybutanoic Acid And Salts Thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I.

    1994-06-07

    A process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid (1) and salts thereof from a glucose source containing 1,4-linked glucose as a substituent is described. The process uses an alkali metal hdyroxide and hydrogen peroxide to convert the glucose source to (1). The compound (1) is useful as a chemical intermediate to naturally occurring fatty acids and is used to prepare 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid-gamma-lactone (2) and furanone (3), particularly stereoisomers of these compounds.

  13. Separation and Fixation of Toxic Components in Salt Brines Using a Water-Based Process

    SciTech Connect

    Franks, C.; Quach, A.; Birnie III, D.; Ela, W.; Saez, A.E.; Zelinski, B.; Smith, H.; Smith, G.

    2004-01-01

    Efforts to implement new water quality standards, increase water reuse and reclamation, and minimize the cost of waste storage motivate the development of new processes for stabilizing wastewater residuals that minimize waste volume, water content and the long-term environmental risk from related by-products. This work explores the use of an aqueous-based emulsion process to create an epoxy/rubber matrix for separating and encapsulating waste components from salt laden, arsenic contaminated, amorphous iron hydrate sludges. Such sludges are generated from conventional water purification precipitation/adsorption processes, used to convert aqueous brine streams to semi-solid waste streams, such as ion exchange/membrane separation, and from other precipitative heavy metal removal operations. In this study, epoxy and polystyrene butadiene (PSB) rubber emulsions are mixed together and then combined with a surrogate sludge. The surrogate sludge consists of amorphous iron hydrate with 1 part arsenic fixed to the surface of the hydrate per 10 parts iron mixed with sodium nitrate and chloride salts and water. The resulting emulsion is cured and dried at 80 °C to remove water. Microstructure characterization by electron microscopy confirms that the epoxy/PSB matrix surrounds and encapsulates the arsenic laden amorphous iron hydrate phase while allowing the salt to migrate to internal and external surfaces of the sample. Salt extraction studies indicate that the porous nature of the resulting matrix promotes the separation and removal of as much as 90% of the original salt content in only one hour. Long term leaching studies based on the use of the infinite slab diffusion model reveal no evidence of iron migration or, by inference, arsenic migration, and demonstrate that the diffusion coefficients of the unextracted salt yield leachability indices within regulations for non-hazardous landfill disposal. Because salt is the most mobile species, it is inferred that arsenic

  14. Destruction of LP XM46 using the molten salt destruction process. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R.S.; Watkins, B.E.

    1994-04-01

    The preliminary experimental work done on the destruction of the liquid gun propellant LP XM46 (the new designation for LGP-1846) using the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the US Army is described in this report. A series of 18 continuous experimental runs were made wherein a solution of LP XM46 and water was injected into a bed of molten salt comprising the carbonates of sodium, potassium and lithium, along with air. The purpose of these initial Phase 1 runs was to collect information on the applicability of the Molten Salt Destruction Process for the destruction of LP XM46, identify the key technical uncertainties, and to plan future runs. The tentative results from these experiments, described in detail in the main body of this report, indicate that: (1) LP XM46 can be safely and completely destroyed in a bed of molten salt at temperatures well below those needed for incineration; and (2) under optimum operating conditions, less than 1% of the chemically bound nitrogen in the LP XM46 is converted to NOx, and less than 1% carbon is converted to CO.

  15. The electrochemical reduction processes of solid compounds in high temperature molten salts.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wei; Wang, Dihua

    2014-05-21

    Solid electrode processes fall in the central focus of electrochemistry due to their broad-based applications in electrochemical energy storage/conversion devices, sensors and electrochemical preparation. The electrolytic production of metals, alloys, semiconductors and oxides via the electrochemical reduction of solid compounds (especially solid oxides) in high temperature molten salts has been well demonstrated to be an effective and environmentally friendly process for refractory metal extraction, functional materials preparation as well as spent fuel reprocessing. The (electro)chemical reduction of solid compounds under cathodic polarizations generally accompanies a variety of changes at the cathode/melt electrochemical interface which result in diverse electrolytic products with different compositions, morphologies and microstructures. This report summarizes various (electro)chemical reactions taking place at the compound cathode/melt interface during the electrochemical reduction of solid compounds in molten salts, which mainly include: (1) the direct electro-deoxidation of solid oxides; (2) the deposition of the active metal together with the electrochemical reduction of solid oxides; (3) the electro-inclusion of cations from molten salts; (4) the dissolution-electrodeposition process, and (5) the electron hopping process and carbon deposition with the utilization of carbon-based anodes. The implications of the forenamed cathodic reactions on the energy efficiency, chemical compositions and microstructures of the electrolytic products are also discussed. We hope that a comprehensive understanding of the cathodic processes during the electrochemical reduction of solid compounds in molten salts could form a basis for developing a clean, energy efficient and affordable production process for advanced/engineering materials. PMID:24535552

  16. PROCESS CHANGES TO DWPF TO INCREASE THROUGHPUT AND INCORPORATE SALT STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, C; David Peeler, D; Tommy Edwards, T; Michael Stone, M; Michael02 Smith, M

    2007-06-13

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been vitrifying High Level Waste sludge since 1996. Sludge batch 1a, 1b, 2, and 3 have been successfully stabilized. In the last several years, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has worked with DWPF to implement process and compositional changes to improve throughput. These changes allowed significant increases in waste throughput for processing of sludge batch 3 and will be necessary to maintain reasonable throughput for Sludge Batch 4 (SB4). SB4 processing was initiated in June 2007 and will be the first significantly HM-type sludge batch processed. This sludge is high in aluminum and other components troublesome to DWPF processing. In addition, coupled processing is scheduled to start in the next fiscal year, which will also impact throughput. Coupled processing will begin with the incorporation of waste streams from the Actinide Removal Process and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit and will eventually transition to the feed from the larger scale Salt Waste Processing Facility. A discussion of the programs to improve throughput and implement salt processing will be provided.

  17. A NOVEL PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LNG

    SciTech Connect

    Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; Marcus Krekel; James F. Davis; D. Braxton Scherz

    2005-05-31

    This cooperative research project validates use of man made salt caverns to receive and store the cargoes of LNG ships in lieu of large liquid LNG tanks. Salt caverns will not tolerate direct injection of LNG because it is a cryogenic liquid, too cold for contact with salt. This research confirmed the technical processes and the economic benefits of pressuring the LNG up to dense phase, warming it to salt compatible temperatures and then directly injecting the dense phase gas into salt caverns for storage. The use of salt caverns to store natural gas sourced from LNG imports, particularly when located offshore, provides a highly secure, large scale and lower cost import facility as an alternative to tank based LNG import terminals. This design can unload a ship in the same time as unloading at a tank based terminal. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve uses man made salt caverns to securely store large quantities of crude oil. Similarly, this project describes a novel application of salt cavern gas storage technologies used for the first time in conjunction with LNG receiving. The energy industry uses man made salt caverns to store an array of gases and liquids but has never used man made salt caverns directly in the importation of LNG. This project has adapted and expanded the field of salt cavern storage technology and combined it with novel equipment and processes to accommodate LNG importation. The salt cavern based LNG receiving terminal described in the project can be located onshore or offshore, but the focus of the design and cost estimates has been on an offshore location, away from congested channels and ports. The salt cavern based terminal can provide large volumes of gas storage, high deliverability from storage, and is simplified in operation compared to tank based LNG terminals. Phase I of this project included mathematical modeling that proved a salt cavern based receiving terminal could be built at lower capital cost, and would have significantly higher

  18. Phase Equilibrium Studies of Savannah River Tanks and Feed Streams for the Salt Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, C.F.

    2001-06-19

    A chemical equilibrium model is developed and used to evaluate supersaturation of tanks and proposed feed streams to the Salt Waste Processing Facility. The model uses Pitzer's model for activity coefficients and is validated by comparison with a variety of thermodynamic data. The model assesses the supersaturation of 13 tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS), indicating that small amounts of gibbsite and or aluminosilicate may form. The model is also used to evaluate proposed feed streams to the Salt Waste Processing Facility for 13 years of operation. Results indicate that dilutions using 3-4 M NaOH (about 0.3-0.4 L caustic per kg feed solution) should avoid precipitation and reduce the Na{sup +} ion concentration to 5.6 M.

  19. Geologic processes and Cenozoic history related to salt dissolution in southeastern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bachman, George Odell

    1974-01-01

    Salt of Permian age in the subsurface of an area near The Divide, east of Carlsbad, N. Mex., is being considered for a nuclear waste repository. The geologic history of the region indicates that dissolution of salt has occurred in the past during at least three distinct epochs: (1) after Triassic but before middle Pleistocene time; (2) during middle Pleistocene; and (3) during late Pleistocene. Thus, destructive geologic processes have been intermittent through more than I00 million years. Nash Draw, near The Divide, formed during late Pleistocene time by the coalescing of collapse sinks. The rate of its subsidence is estimated to have been about 10 cm (0.33 foot) per thousand years. The immediate area of The Divide adjacent to Nash Draw has not undergone stress by geologic processes during Pleistocene time and there are no present indications that this geologic environment will change drastically within the period of concern for the repository.

  20. Study on LiCl waste salt treatment process by layer melt crystallization

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Yung-Zun; Lee, Tae-Kyo; Choi, Jung-Hoon; Eun, Hee-Chul; Park, Hwan-Seo; Kim, In-Tae; Park, Geun-Il

    2013-07-01

    Layer melt crystallization operated in a static mode has been applied to separate Group I and II chlorides from surrogate LiCl waste salt. The effects of operating conditions such as crystal growing rate(or flux) and initial impurity concentration on separation (or concentration) of cesium, strontium and barium involved in a LiCl melts were analyzed. In a layer crystallization process, separation was impaired by occlusion of impurities and by residual melt adhering to LiCl crystal after at the end of the process. The crystal growth rate strongly affects the crystal structure, therefore the separation efficiency, while the effect of the initial Cs and Sr concentration in LiCl molten salt was nearly negligible. (authors)

  1. [Monitoring of water and salt transport in silt and sandy soil during the leaching process].

    PubMed

    Fu, Teng-Fei; Jia, Yong-Gang; Guo, Lei; Liu, Xiao-Lei

    2012-11-01

    Water and salt transport in soil and its mechanism is the key point of the saline soil research. The dynamic rule of water and transport in soil during the leaching process is the theoretical basis of formation, flush, drainage and improvement of saline soil. In this study, a vertical infiltration experiment was conducted to monitor the variation in the resistivity of silt and sandy soil during the leaching process by the self-designed automatic monitoring device. The experimental results showed that the peaks in the resistivity of the two soils went down and faded away in the course of leaching. It took about 30 minutes for sandy soil to reach the water-salt balance, whereas the silt took about 70 minutes. With the increasing leaching times, the desalination depth remained basically the same, being 35 cm for sandy soil and 10 cm for the silt from the top to bottom of soil column. Therefore, 3 and 7 leaching processes were required respectively for the complete desalination of the soil column. The temporal and spatial resolution of this monitoring device can be adjusted according to the practical demand. This device can not only achieve the remote, in situ and dynamic monitoring data of water and salt transport, but also provide an effective method in monitoring, assessment and early warning of salinization. PMID:23323426

  2. Process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid and salts thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I.

    1994-01-01

    A process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid (1) and salts thereof from a glucose source containing 1,4-1inked glucose as a substituent is described. The process uses an alkali metal hdyroxide and hydrogen peroxide to convert the glucose source to (1). The compound (1) is useful as a chemical intermediate to naturally occurring fatty acids and is used to prepare 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid-gamma-lactone (2) and furanone (3), particularly stereoisomers of these compounds.

  3. Glovebox design requirements for molten salt oxidation processing of transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, K.B.; Acosta, S.V.; Wernly, K.D.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of potential technologies for stabilization of {sup 238}Pu-contaminated combustible waste. Molten salt oxidation (MSO) provides a method for removing greater than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible waste. Implementation of MSO processing at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Plutonium Facility will eliminate the combustible matrix from {sup 238}Pu-contaminated waste and consequently reduce the cost of TRU waste disposal operations at LANL. The glovebox design requirements for unit operations including size reduction and MSO processing will be presented.

  4. The source term and waste optimization of molten salt reactors with processing

    SciTech Connect

    Gat, U.; Dodds, H.L.

    1993-07-01

    The source term of a molten salt reactor (MSR) with fuel processing is reduced by the ratio of processing time to refueling time as compared to solid fuel reactors. The reduction, which can be one to two orders of magnitude, is due to removal of the long-lived fission products. The waste from MSRs can be optimized with respect to its chemical composition, concentration, mixture, shape, and size. The actinides and long-lived isotopes can be separated out and returned to the reactor for transmutation. These features make MSRs more acceptable and simpler in operation and handling.

  5. Destruction of XM-46 (aka LGP-1846) using the Molten Salt Destruction Process

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R.S.; Watkins, B.E.

    1994-03-01

    The experimental work done on the destruction of the liquid gun propellant XM-46 (or LGP-1846) using the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the US Army is described in this report. The current methods of disposal of large quantities of high explosives (HE), propellants and wastes containing energetic materials by open burning or open detonation (OB/OD), or by incineration, are becoming undesirable. LLNL is developing MSD as an alternative to OB/OD and incineration of energetic materials. A series of 18 continuous experimental runs were made wherein a solution of XM-46 and water was injected into a bed of molten salt comprising the carbonates of sodium, potassium and lithium, along with air. The results from these experiments, described in detail in the main body of this report, show that: XM-46 can be safely and completely destroyed in a bed of molten salt at temperatures well below those needed for incineration. Under optimum operating conditions, less than 1% of the chemically bound nitrogen in the XM-46 is converted to NO{sub x}, and less than 1% carbon is converted to CO. There exist, however, a number of technical uncertainties: We need to understand better why nitrates build up in the salt bath, and what we can do to reduce this amount. We need to understand the mechanism of XM-46 oxidation and ways to minimize the formation of CO and NO{sub x}. In addition, we would like to find out ways by which a more concentrated solution of XM-46 can be introduced into the reactor, so as to increase the throughputs.

  6. OPERATIONS REVIEW OF THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INTEGRATED SALT DISPOSITION PROCESS - 11327

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Poirier, M.; Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.; Brown, S.; Geeting, M.

    2011-02-07

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is removing liquid radioactive waste from its Tank Farm. To treat waste streams that are low in Cs-137, Sr-90, and actinides, SRS developed the Actinide Removal Process and implemented the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). The Actinide Removal Process contacts salt solution with monosodium titanate to sorb strontium and select actinides. After monosodium titanate contact, the resulting slurry is filtered to remove the monosodium titanate (and sorbed strontium and actinides) and entrained sludge. The filtrate is transferred to the MCU for further treatment to remove cesium. The solid particulates removed by the filter are concentrated to {approx} 5 wt %, washed to reduce the sodium concentration, and transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility for vitrification. The CSSX process extracts the cesium from the radioactive waste using a customized solvent to produce a Decontaminated Salt Solution (DSS), and strips and concentrates the cesium from the solvent with dilute nitric acid. The DSS is incorporated in grout while the strip acid solution is transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility for vitrification. The facilities began radiological processing in April 2008 and started processing of the third campaign ('MarcoBatch 3') of waste in June 2010. Campaigns to date have processed {approx}1.2 million gallons of dissolved saltcake. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel performed tests using actual radioactive samples for each waste batch prior to processing. Testing included monosodium titanate sorption of strontium and actinides followed by CSSX batch contact tests to verify expected cesium mass transfer. This paper describes the tests conducted and compares results from facility operations. The results include strontium, plutonium, and cesium removal, cesium concentration, and organic entrainment and recovery data. Additionally, the poster describes lessons learned during operation

  7. The effect of tidal forcing on biogeochemical processes in intertidal salt marsh sediments

    PubMed Central

    Taillefert, Martial; Neuhuber, Stephanie; Bristow, Gwendolyn

    2007-01-01

    Background Early diagenetic processes involved in natural organic matter (NOM) oxidation in marine sediments have been for the most part characterized after collecting sediment cores and extracting porewaters. These techniques have proven useful for deep-sea sediments where biogeochemical processes are limited to aerobic respiration, denitrification, and manganese reduction and span over several centimeters. In coastal marine sediments, however, the concentration of NOM is so high that the spatial resolution needed to characterize these processes cannot be achieved with conventional sampling techniques. In addition, coastal sediments are influenced by tidal forcing that likely affects the processes involved in carbon oxidation. Results In this study, we used in situ voltammetry to determine the role of tidal forcing on early diagenetic processes in intertidal salt marsh sediments. We compare ex situ measurements collected seasonally, in situ profiling measurements, and in situ time series collected at several depths in the sediment during tidal cycles at two distinct stations, a small perennial creek and a mud flat. Our results indicate that the tides coupled to the salt marsh topography drastically influence the distribution of redox geochemical species and may be responsible for local differences noted year-round in the same sediments. Monitoring wells deployed to observe the effects of the tides on the vertical component of porewater transport reveal that creek sediments, because of their confinements, are exposed to much higher hydrostatic pressure gradients than mud flats. Conclusion Our study indicates that iron reduction can be sustained in intertidal creek sediments by a combination of physical forcing and chemical oxidation, while intertidal mud flat sediments are mainly subject to sulfate reduction. These processes likely allow microbial iron reduction to be an important terminal electron accepting process in intertidal coastal sediments. PMID:17567893

  8. Tanks Focus Area Alternative Salt Processing Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, Harry D.

    2000-05-15

    In March 2000, DOE-Headquarters (HQ) requested the Tanks Focus Area (TFA)to assume management responsibility for the Salt Processing Project technology development program at Savannah River Site. The TFA was requested to conduct several activities, including review and revision of the technology development roadmaps, development of down-selection criteria, and preparation of a comprehensive Research and Development (R&D) Program Plan for three candidate cesium removal technologies, as well as the Alpha and strontium removal processes that must also be carried out. The three cesium removal candidate technologies are Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Non-Elutable Ion Exchange, Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX), and Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). This plan describes the technology development needs for each process that must be satisfied in order to reach a down-selection decision, as well as continuing technology development required to support conceptual design activities.

  9. Tanks Focus Area Alternative Salt Processing Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, Harry D.

    2000-11-30

    In March 2000, DOE-Headquarters (HQ) requested the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to assume management responsibility for the Salt Processing Project technology development program at Savannah River Site. The TFA was requested to conduct several activities, including review and revision of the technology development roadmaps, development of down-selection criteria, and preparation of a comprehensive Research and Development (R&D) Program Plan for three candidate cesium removal technologies, as well as the Alpha and strontium removal processes that must also be carried out. The three cesium removal candidate technologies are Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Non-Elutable Ion Exchange, Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX), and Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). This plan describes the technology development needs for each process that must be satisfied in order to reach a down-selection decision, as well as continuing technology development required to support conceptual design activities.

  10. Nanoscopic characterization of the water vapor-salt interfacial layer reveals a unique biphasic adsorption process

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liu; He, Jianfeng; Shen, Yi; Li, Xiaowei; Sun, Jielin; Czajkowsky, Daniel M.; Shao, Zhifeng

    2016-01-01

    Our quantitative understanding of water adsorption onto salt surfaces under ambient conditions is presently quite poor owing to the difficulties in directly characterizing this interfacial layer under these conditions. Here we determine the thickness of the interfacial layer on NaCl at different relative humidities (RH) based on a novel application of atomic force spectroscopy and capillary condensation theory. In particular, we take advantage of the microsecond-timescale of the capillary condensation process to directly resolve the magnitude of its contribution in the tip-sample interaction, from which the interfacial water thickness is determined. Further, to correlate this thickness with salt dissolution, we also measure surface conductance under similar conditions. We find that below 30% RH, there is essentially only the deposition of water molecules onto this surface, typical of conventional adsorption onto solid surfaces. However, above 30% RH, adsorption is simultaneous with the dissolution of ions, unlike conventional adsorption, leading to a rapid increase of surface conductance. Thus, water adsorption on NaCl is an unconventional biphasic process in which the interfacial layer not only exhibits quantitative differences in thickness but also qualitative differences in composition. PMID:27527905

  11. Nanoscopic characterization of the water vapor-salt interfacial layer reveals a unique biphasic adsorption process.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu; He, Jianfeng; Shen, Yi; Li, Xiaowei; Sun, Jielin; Czajkowsky, Daniel M; Shao, Zhifeng

    2016-01-01

    Our quantitative understanding of water adsorption onto salt surfaces under ambient conditions is presently quite poor owing to the difficulties in directly characterizing this interfacial layer under these conditions. Here we determine the thickness of the interfacial layer on NaCl at different relative humidities (RH) based on a novel application of atomic force spectroscopy and capillary condensation theory. In particular, we take advantage of the microsecond-timescale of the capillary condensation process to directly resolve the magnitude of its contribution in the tip-sample interaction, from which the interfacial water thickness is determined. Further, to correlate this thickness with salt dissolution, we also measure surface conductance under similar conditions. We find that below 30% RH, there is essentially only the deposition of water molecules onto this surface, typical of conventional adsorption onto solid surfaces. However, above 30% RH, adsorption is simultaneous with the dissolution of ions, unlike conventional adsorption, leading to a rapid increase of surface conductance. Thus, water adsorption on NaCl is an unconventional biphasic process in which the interfacial layer not only exhibits quantitative differences in thickness but also qualitative differences in composition. PMID:27527905

  12. LITERATURE REVIEWS TO SUPPORT ION EXCHANGE TECHNOLOGY SELECTION FOR MODULAR SALT PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    King, W

    2007-11-30

    This report summarizes the results of literature reviews conducted to support the selection of a cesium removal technology for application in a small column ion exchange (SCIX) unit supported within a high level waste tank. SCIX is being considered as a technology for the treatment of radioactive salt solutions in order to accelerate closure of waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of the Modular Salt Processing (MSP) technology development program. Two ion exchange materials, spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) and engineered Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST), are being considered for use within the SCIX unit. Both ion exchange materials have been studied extensively and are known to have high affinities for cesium ions in caustic tank waste supernates. RF is an elutable organic resin and CST is a non-elutable inorganic material. Waste treatment processes developed for the two technologies will differ with regard to solutions processed, secondary waste streams generated, optimum column size, and waste throughput. Pertinent references, anticipated processing sequences for utilization in waste treatment, gaps in the available data, and technical comparisons will be provided for the two ion exchange materials to assist in technology selection for SCIX. The engineered, granular form of CST (UOP IE-911) was the baseline ion exchange material used for the initial development and design of the SRS SCIX process (McCabe, 2005). To date, in-tank SCIX has not been implemented for treatment of radioactive waste solutions at SRS. Since initial development and consideration of SCIX for SRS waste treatment an alternative technology has been developed as part of the River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) Research and Technology program (Thorson, 2006). Spherical RF resin is the baseline media for cesium removal in the RPP-WTP, which was designed for the treatment of radioactive waste supernates and is currently under construction in Hanford, WA

  13. Caustic Recycle from Hanford Tank Waste Using NaSICON Ceramic Membrane Salt Splitting Process

    SciTech Connect

    Fountain, Matthew S.; Kurath, Dean E.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Pendleton, J.; Balagopal, S.; Quist, M.; Clay, D.

    2009-02-20

    A family of inorganic ceramic materials, called sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON), has been studied at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to investigate their ability to separate sodium from radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions for treating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tank wastes. Ceramatec Inc. developed and fabricated a membrane containing a proprietary NAS-GY material formulation that was electrochemically tested in a bench-scale apparatus with both a simulant and a radioactive tank-waste solution to determine the membrane performance when removing sodium from DOE tank wastes. Implementing this sodium separation process can result in significant cost savings by reducing the disposal volume of low-activity wastes and by producing a NaOH feedstock product for recycle into waste treatment processes such as sludge leaching, regenerating ion exchange resins, inhibiting corrosion in carbon-steel tanks, or retrieving tank wastes.

  14. Simplified Reference Electrode for Electrorefining of Spent Nuclear Fuel in High Temperature Molten Salt

    SciTech Connect

    Kim Davies; Shelly X Li

    2007-09-01

    Pyrochemical processing plays an important role in development of proliferation- resistant nuclear fuel cycles. At the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a pyrochemical process has been implemented for the treatment of spent fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) in the last decade. Electrorefining in a high temperature molten salt is considered a signature or central technology in pyroprocessing fuel cycles. Separation of actinides from fission products is being demonstrated by electrorefining the spent fuel in a molten UCl3-LiCl-KCl electrolyte in two engineering scale electrorefiners (ERs). The electrorefining process is current controlled. The reference electrode provides process information through monitoring of the voltage difference between the reference and the anode and cathode electrodes. This information is essential for monitoring the reactions occurring at the electrodes, investigating separation efficiency, controlling the process rate, and determining the process end-point. The original reference electrode has provided good life expectancy and signal stability, but is not easily replaceable. The reference electrode used a vycor-glass ion-permeable membrane containing a high purity silver wire with one end positioned in ~2 grams of LiCl/KCl salt electrolyte with a low concentration (~1%) AgCl. It was, however, a complex assembly requiring specialized skill and talent to fabricate. The construction involved multiple small pieces, glass joints, ceramic to glass joints, and ceramic to metal joints all assembled in a high purity inert gas environment. As original electrodes reached end-of-life it was uncertain if the skills and knowledge were readily available to successfully fabricate replacements. Experimental work has been conducted to identify a simpler electrode design while retaining the needed long life and signal stability. This improved design, based on an ion-permeable membrane of mullite has been completed. Use of the silver wire

  15. Salt marsh response to the effects of physical and biological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roner, Marcella; D'Alpaos, Andrea; Ghinassi, Massimiliano; Franceschinis, Erica; Realdon, Nicola; Marani, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Salt marshes are widespread features of the tidal landscape governed by the interacting physical and biological processes. These crucially important ecosystems provide valuable services and are currently threatened by the effects of increasing rates of relative sea level rise (RSLR) and decreasing sediment supply. Although a few studies have analyzed the biomorphological evolution of salt marsh systems, a complete understanding of the two-way feedbacks between physical and biological processes is still lacking. The temporal evolution of marsh elevation is governed by the balance between inorganic and organic accretion rates, and the rate of RSLR. Studies based on field observations and modeling suggest that, in equilibrium conditions, marsh inorganic accretion rates, and the related platform elevations, decrease with distance from the main creek whereas the organic deposition gradually increases. In order to analyze salt marsh responses to the effect of physical and biological processes, about 100 sediment samples were collected on the San Felice salt marsh, Venice Lagoon. For each sample, local coordinates, surface elevations and vegetation cover were detected, whereas inorganic and organic sediment content, together with grain size distribution, were determined and analyzed. Loss On Ignition (LOI) and a double treatment with H2O2 and NaClO, were used to estimate the amount of organic matter in each sample. Particle size analysis was carried out on the inorganic fraction with a Mastersizer that uses laser diffraction techniques to measure the grain size. Our results show that the San Felice salt marsh is characterized by a concave-up profile, as commonly displayed by marshes worldwide. Marsh elevation is highest along the boundary and decreases toward the inner marsh. The inorganic deposition, which is maximum along the marsh edge, decreases with distance from the channel network, because as water moves across the marsh, the velocity is reduced and sediment

  16. Hydrogeologic Processes Impacting Storage, Fate, and Transport of Chloride from Road Salt in Urban Riparian Aquifers.

    PubMed

    Ledford, Sarah H; Lautz, Laura K; Stella, John C

    2016-05-17

    Detrimental effects of road salt runoff on urban streams are compounded by its facilitated routing via storm drains, ditches, and flood channels. Elevated in-stream salinity may also result from seasonal storage and discharge of chloride in groundwater, and previous work has hypothesized that groundwater discharge to streams may have the effect of diluting stream chloride concentrations in winter and enriching them in summer. However, the hydrogeological processes controlling these patterns have not been thoroughly investigated. Our research focuses on an urban stream and floodplain system in Syracuse, NY, to understand how groundwater and surface water exchange impacts chloride storage, fate, and transport. We created a 3D groundwater flow and solute transport model of the floodplain, calibrated to the distributions of floodplain hydraulic heads and groundwater fluxes to the stream throughout the reach. We used a sensitivity analysis to calibrate and evaluate the influence of model parameters, and compared model outputs to field observations. The main source mechanism of chloride to the floodplain aquifer was high-concentration, overbank flood events in winter that directly recharged groundwater. The modeled residence time and storage capacity of the aquifer indicate that restoration projects designed to promote floodplain reconnection and the frequency of overbank flooding in winter have the potential to temporarily store chloride in groundwater, buffer surface water concentrations, and reduce stream concentrations following periods of road salting. PMID:27077530

  17. Separation and Purification of Mineral Salts from Spacecraft Wastewater Processing via Electrostatic Beneficiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, John D., II; Lunn, Griffin

    2013-01-01

    Electrostatic separation is a class of material processing technologies commonly used for the sorting of coarse mixtures by means of electrical forces acting on charged or polarized particles. Most if not all of the existing tribo-electrostatic separators had been initially developed for mineral ores beneficiation. It is a well-known process that has been successfully used to separate coal from minerals. Potash (potassium) enrichment where underground salt mines containing large amounts of sodium is another use of this techno logy. Through modification this technology can be used for spacecraft wastewater brine beneficiation. This will add in closing the gap beeen traveling around Earth's Gravity well and long-term space explorations. Food has been brought on all man missions, which is why plant growth for food crops continues to be of interest to NASA. For long-term mission considerations food productions is one of the top priorities. Nutrient recovery is essential for surviving in or past low earth orbit. In our advance bio-regenerative process instead of nitrogen gas produced; soluble nitrate salts that can be recovered for plant fertilizer would be produced instead. The only part missing is the beneficiation of brine to separate the potassium from the sodium. The use of electrostatic beneficiation in this experiment utilizes the electrical charge differences between aluminum and dried brine by surface contact. The helixes within the aluminum tribocharger allows for more surface contact when being agitated. When two materials are in contact, the material with the highest affinity for electrons becomes negatively charged, while the other becomes positively charged. This contact exchange of charge may cause the particles to agglomerate depending on their residence time within the tribocharger, compromising the efficiency of separation. The aim of this experiment is to further the development in electrostatic beneficiation by optimizing the separation of ersatz and

  18. Effect of a beating process, as a means of reducing salt content in Chinese-style meatballs (kung-wan): a dynamic rheological and Raman spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Zhuang-Li; Wang, Peng; Xu, Xing-Lian; Zhu, Chao-Zhi; Zou, Yu-Feng; Li, Ke; Zhou, Guang-Hong

    2014-02-01

    Chopping and beating processes were used as meat-cutting methods in preparing kung-wan to produce low-salt products while retaining or improving the emulsion stability, sensory evaluation, and physico-chemical properties of the standard high-salt formulation. Increased salt content improved emulsion stability and dynamic rheology. However, 3% salt content decreased the overall acceptance of kung-wan. Compared with the chopping process, beating resulted in higher emulsion stability, overall acceptance, and β-sheet content (P<0.05). Additionally, the beating process formed more compact and continuous structures at the same salt content. Kung-wan produced by beating with 1% and 2% salt had similar emulsion stabilities, sensory evaluation, and secondary structures (P>0.05). Therefore, this process allows reduction of salt content, suggesting that the kung-wan produced in this manner is healthier and has better texture. PMID:24200556

  19. Heterogeneous Processes of ClO Radicals on the Sea Salts Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, I.; Loukhovitskaya, E.; Vasiliev, E.; Hack, W.

    2009-04-01

    The compositions of atmospheric aerosols vary widely. Interaction of atmospheric gases with aerosols alters the gas phase composition as well as the aerosols surface characteristics. Sea salt aerosols represent an unlimited halogen reservoir. Together with salt deposited on shelf ice they are considered the most likely source of reactive halogens in the Arctic. Heterogeneous reactions on sea salt aerosols or deposits are therefore suspected to be a potential source of gas phase halogen compounds. The heterogeneous reactivity of HOCl on solid KBr at ambient temperature reveal the formation of Br- and Cl- containing reaction products such as BrCl and Cl2. Photolysis of these reaction products with subsequent reaction with ozone lead to the chlorine oxide formation. The issue of ozone depletion within the Arctic boundary layer in springtime represents a relatively new area of uncertainty in atmospheric chemistry. However catalytic destruction, especially through reactions involving active bromine on the surface of aerosol particles, does appear to be involved. There is considerable uncertainty as to the processes by which active halogen is liberated from the organic (e.g. CH3X) and inorganic forms (e.g. sea salt) of the halogen source. This is unsurprising because a quantitative description of stratospheric heterogeneous chemistry is much less developed than the gas-phase chemistry. The reaction between chlorine atoms and ozone generates up to (2-4) 1012 ClO radicals/cm3 in the flow reactor: Cl + O3 → ClO + O2 ClO → Sea Salt (determined γ) Study of the heterogeneous processes of the halogen containing radical was carried out in the temperature range 240 - 370 K and at a total pressure ca. 1-10 mbar using the discharge-flow technique. He was used as the carrier gas. The reactants were detected by two different molecular beam mass spectrometers with electron impact detectors. Uptake coefficient measurements were obtained using an MS 7303 quadrupole mass

  20. Stability High Salt Content Waste Using Sol Gel Process. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference Number 0236

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Mixed waste sludges, soils, and homogeneous solids containing high levels of salt ( ~ greater than 15% by weight ) have proven to be difficult to stabilize due to the soluble nature of the salts. The current stabilization technique for high salt waste, grouting with Portland cement, is limited to low waste loadings. The presence of salts interfere with the hydration and curing of the cement, cause waste form deteriorating mineral expansions, or result in an undesirable separate phase altogether. Improved technologies for the stabilization of salt waste must be able to accommodate higher salt loadings, while maintaining structural integrity, chemical durability, and leach resistance. In a joint collaboration supported by the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA), the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the Arizona Materials Laboratory (AML) at the University of Arizona have developed a sol-gel (wet-chemical) based, low-temperature-processing route for the stabilization of salt-containing mixed wastes. By blending and reacting liquid precursors at room temperature with salt waste, strong, impermeable “polyceram” matrices have been formed that encapsulate the environmentally hazardous waste components. As depicted by Figure 1, polycerams are hybrid organic/inorganic materials with unique properties derived from the chemical combination of polymer (organic) and ceramic (inorganic) components. For this application, the stabilizing polyceram matrices contain polybutadiene-based polymer components and silicon dioxide (SiO2) as the inorganic component. Polybutadiene (PBD) is a strong, tough, waterresistant plastic and its use in the polyceram promotes these same characteristics in the waste form. The PBD polymer component is modified to increase its reactivity with the SiO2 precursor during sol-gel processing. When combined, the polymer and SiO2 precursors react, gel, solidify, and encapsulate the

  1. Fused-salt-liquid-metal corrosion of refractory alloys in the presence of hot cell impurities

    SciTech Connect

    Eberle, C.S.; Raraz, A.G.; Mishra, B.; Olson, D.L.

    1997-09-01

    The pyrochemical conditioning of spent nuclear fuel for the purpose of final disposal is currently being demonstrated at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). One aspect of this program is to develop a lithium preprocessing stage for the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF). Furthermore, a pilot scale of this preprocessing stage is being designed by ANL-W to demonstrate the in situ hot cell capability of this process. In this pilot scale system, fused lithium chloride salt is saturated with molten lithium to form a powerful fluxing compound with a vigorous reducing agent. During this stage of the fuel conditioning, the reduction will take place at a nominal temperature of 650 C in an argon-cell atmosphere contaminated with up to 10,000 ppm nitrogen, 100 ppm oxygen and 100 ppm of moisture. The maximum local temperature was calculated to be 725 C on the inner shell of the reduction vessel during operation. One of the significant concerns of this project is the system`s corrosion response in the presence of irradiated commercial fuel as well as atmospheric impurities. The purpose of this work was to demonstrate the potential corrosivity of the salt matrix in a worse case environment as well as provide a boundary for allowable impurities in the system during operation.

  2. In service teachers' understanding of salt dissolution process through representational animations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkoc, Ummuhan

    Animations of molecular structure and dynamics are repeatedly applied to support student comprehension in the theoretical ideas of chemistry. However, students' understanding the dynamics of the phenomena is directly related to the understanding of teachers as instructors. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate how the features of three different molecular level animations are viewed and understood by the teachers who had more than 2 years experience. Participants (n=10) are in-service science teachers, mostly high school, grouped into three groups with four participants in the first group and three people in the other two. Each group viewed short different animations and one common animation demonstrating the salt dissolution process. Teachers were asked to take pre and post-tests to measure the influence of the animations in their understandings of the content in addition to a group discussion and an interview. The study suggests that the animations improved the content knowledge of the teachers slightly.

  3. Responses of eastern Chinese coastal salt marshes to sea-level rise combined with vegetative and sedimentary processes.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zhen-Ming; Wang, Heng; Cao, Hao-Bin; Zhao, Bin; Zhou, Xiao; Peltola, Heli; Cui, Li-Fang; Li, Xiu-Zhen; Zhang, Li-Quan

    2016-01-01

    The impacts of sea-level rise (SLR) on coastal ecosystems have attracted worldwide attention in relation to global change. In this study, the salt marsh model for the Yangtze Estuary (SMM-YE, developed in China) and the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM, developed in the U.S.) were used to simulate the effects of SLR on the coastal salt marshes in eastern China. The changes in the dominant species in the plant community were also considered. Predictions based on the SLAMM indicated a trend of habitat degradation up to 2100; total salt marsh habitat area continued to decline (4-16%) based on the low-level scenario, with greater losses (6-25%) predicted under the high-level scenario. The SMM-YE showed that the salt marshes could be resilient to threats of SLR through the processes of accretion of mudflats, vegetation expansion and sediment trapping by plants. This model predicted that salt marsh areas increased (3-6%) under the low-level scenario. The decrease in the total habitat area with the SMM-YE under the high-level scenario was much lower than the SLAMM prediction. Nevertheless, SLR might negatively affect the salt marsh species that are not adapted to prolonged inundation. An adaptive strategy for responding to changes in sediment resources is necessary in the Yangtze Estuary. PMID:27334452

  4. Responses of eastern Chinese coastal salt marshes to sea-level rise combined with vegetative and sedimentary processes

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Zhen-Ming; Wang, Heng; Cao, Hao-Bin; Zhao, Bin; Zhou, Xiao; Peltola, Heli; Cui, Li-Fang; Li, Xiu-Zhen; Zhang, Li-Quan

    2016-01-01

    The impacts of sea-level rise (SLR) on coastal ecosystems have attracted worldwide attention in relation to global change. In this study, the salt marsh model for the Yangtze Estuary (SMM-YE, developed in China) and the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM, developed in the U.S.) were used to simulate the effects of SLR on the coastal salt marshes in eastern China. The changes in the dominant species in the plant community were also considered. Predictions based on the SLAMM indicated a trend of habitat degradation up to 2100; total salt marsh habitat area continued to decline (4–16%) based on the low-level scenario, with greater losses (6–25%) predicted under the high-level scenario. The SMM-YE showed that the salt marshes could be resilient to threats of SLR through the processes of accretion of mudflats, vegetation expansion and sediment trapping by plants. This model predicted that salt marsh areas increased (3–6%) under the low-level scenario. The decrease in the total habitat area with the SMM-YE under the high-level scenario was much lower than the SLAMM prediction. Nevertheless, SLR might negatively affect the salt marsh species that are not adapted to prolonged inundation. An adaptive strategy for responding to changes in sediment resources is necessary in the Yangtze Estuary. PMID:27334452

  5. Effects of a Pre-Filter and Electrolysis Systems on the Reuse of Brine in the Chinese Cabbage Salting Process

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Ho; Yoo, Jae Yeol; Jang, Keum-Il

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of a pre-filter system and electrolysis system on the safe and efficient reuse of brine in the cabbage salting process were investigated. First, sediment filter-electrolyzed brine (SF-EB) was selected as brine for reuse. Then, we evaluated the quality and microbiological properties of SF-EB and Chinese cabbage salted with SF-EB. The salinity (9.4%) and pH (4.63) of SF-EB were similar to those of control brine (CB). SF-EB turbidity was decreased (from 0.112 to 0.062) and SF-EB residual chlorine (15.86 ppm) was higher than CB residual chlorine (0.31 ppm), and bacteria were not detected. Salinity (2.0%), pH (6.21), residual chlorine (0.39 ppm), chromaticity, hardness, and chewiness of cabbage salted with SF-EB were similar to those of cabbage salted with CB. The total bacterial count in cabbage salted with CB was increased as the number of reuses increased (from 6.55 to 8.30 log CFU/g), whereas bacteria in cabbage salted with SF-EB was decreased (from 6.55 to 5.21 log CFU/g). These results show that SF-EB improved the reusability of brine by removing contaminated materials and by sterilization. PMID:27390732

  6. Effects of a Pre-Filter and Electrolysis Systems on the Reuse of Brine in the Chinese Cabbage Salting Process.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Ho; Yoo, Jae Yeol; Jang, Keum-Il

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the effects of a pre-filter system and electrolysis system on the safe and efficient reuse of brine in the cabbage salting process were investigated. First, sediment filter-electrolyzed brine (SF-EB) was selected as brine for reuse. Then, we evaluated the quality and microbiological properties of SF-EB and Chinese cabbage salted with SF-EB. The salinity (9.4%) and pH (4.63) of SF-EB were similar to those of control brine (CB). SF-EB turbidity was decreased (from 0.112 to 0.062) and SF-EB residual chlorine (15.86 ppm) was higher than CB residual chlorine (0.31 ppm), and bacteria were not detected. Salinity (2.0%), pH (6.21), residual chlorine (0.39 ppm), chromaticity, hardness, and chewiness of cabbage salted with SF-EB were similar to those of cabbage salted with CB. The total bacterial count in cabbage salted with CB was increased as the number of reuses increased (from 6.55 to 8.30 log CFU/g), whereas bacteria in cabbage salted with SF-EB was decreased (from 6.55 to 5.21 log CFU/g). These results show that SF-EB improved the reusability of brine by removing contaminated materials and by sterilization. PMID:27390732

  7. Responses of eastern Chinese coastal salt marshes to sea-level rise combined with vegetative and sedimentary processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Zhen-Ming; Wang, Heng; Cao, Hao-Bin; Zhao, Bin; Zhou, Xiao; Peltola, Heli; Cui, Li-Fang; Li, Xiu-Zhen; Zhang, Li-Quan

    2016-06-01

    The impacts of sea-level rise (SLR) on coastal ecosystems have attracted worldwide attention in relation to global change. In this study, the salt marsh model for the Yangtze Estuary (SMM-YE, developed in China) and the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM, developed in the U.S.) were used to simulate the effects of SLR on the coastal salt marshes in eastern China. The changes in the dominant species in the plant community were also considered. Predictions based on the SLAMM indicated a trend of habitat degradation up to 2100; total salt marsh habitat area continued to decline (4–16%) based on the low-level scenario, with greater losses (6–25%) predicted under the high-level scenario. The SMM-YE showed that the salt marshes could be resilient to threats of SLR through the processes of accretion of mudflats, vegetation expansion and sediment trapping by plants. This model predicted that salt marsh areas increased (3–6%) under the low-level scenario. The decrease in the total habitat area with the SMM-YE under the high-level scenario was much lower than the SLAMM prediction. Nevertheless, SLR might negatively affect the salt marsh species that are not adapted to prolonged inundation. An adaptive strategy for responding to changes in sediment resources is necessary in the Yangtze Estuary.

  8. Molten salt coal gasification process development unit. Phase 1. Volume 1. PDU operations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kohl, A.L.

    1980-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a test program conducted on the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process, which included the design, construction, and operation of a Process Development Unit. In this process, coal is gasified by contacting it with air in a turbulent pool of molten sodium carbonate. Sulfur and ash are retained in the melt, and a small stream is continuously removed from the gasifier for regeneration of sodium carbonate, removal of sulfur, and disposal of the ash. The process can handle a wide variety of feed materials, including highly caking coals, and produces a gas relatively free from tars and other impurities. The gasification step is carried out at approximately 1800/sup 0/F. The PDU was designed to process 1 ton per hour of coal at pressures up to 20 atm. It is a completely integrated facility including systems for feeding solids to the gasifier, regenerating sodium carbonate for reuse, and removing sulfur and ash in forms suitable for disposal. Five extended test runs were made. The observed product gas composition was quite close to that predicted on the basis of earlier small-scale tests and thermodynamic considerations. All plant systems were operated in an integrated manner during one of the runs. The principal problem encountered during the five test runs was maintaining a continuous flow of melt from the gasifier to the quench tank. Test data and discussions regarding plant equipment and process performance are presented. The program also included a commercial plant study which showed the process to be attractive for use in a combined-cycle, electric power plant. The report is presented in two volumes, Volume 1, PDU Operations, and Volume 2, Commercial Plant Study.

  9. Process for improving the energy density of feedstocks using formate salts

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, Marshall Clayton; van Heiningen, Adriaan R.P.; Case, Paige A.

    2015-09-01

    Methods of forming liquid hydrocarbons through thermal deoxygenation of cellulosic compounds are disclosed. Aspects cover methods including the steps of mixing a levulinic acid salt-containing feedstock with a formic acid salt, exposing the mixture to a high temperature condition to form hydrocarbon vapor, and condensing the hydrocarbon vapor to form liquid hydrocarbons, where both the formic acid salt and the levulinic acid salt-containing feedstock decompose at the high temperature condition and wherein one or more of the mixing, exposing, and condensing steps is carried out a pressure between about vacuum and about 10 bar.

  10. Arsenophilic Bacterial Processes in Searles Lake: A Salt-saturated, Arsenic-rich, Alkaline Soda Lake.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oremland, R. S.; Kulp, T. R.; Hoeft, S. E.; Miller, L. G.; Swizer Blum, J.; Stolz, J. F.

    2005-12-01

    Searles Lake, located in the Mojave Desert of California, is essentially a chemically-similar, concentrated version of Mono Lake, but having a much higher salinity (e.g., 340 vs. 90 g/L) and a greater dissolved inorganic arsenic content in its brine (e.g., 3.9 vs. 0.2 mM). The source of all this arsenic ultimately comes from hydrothermal spring inputs, thereby underscoring the importance of volcanic and fluvial processes in transporting this toxic element into these closed basin lakes. Nonetheless, the presence of microbial activities with regard to respiration of arsenate oxyanions under anaerobic conditions and the oxidation of arsenite oxyanions under aerobic conditions can be inferred from porewater profiles taken from handcores retrieved beneath Searles Lake's salt crust. Sediment slurry incubations confirmed biological arsenate respiration and arsenite oxidation, with the former processes notably enhanced by provision of the inorganic electron donor sulfide or H2. Hence, arsenic-linked chemo-autotrophy appears to be an important means of carbon fixation in this system. Subsequent efforts using 73As-arsenate as radiotracer detected dissimilatory arsenate reduction activity down the length of the core, but we were unable to detect any evidence for sulfate-reduction using 35S-sulfate. An extremely halophilic anaerobic bacterium of the order Haloanaerobiales [strain SLAS-1] was isolated from the sediments that grew via arsenate respiration using lactate or sulfide as its electron donors. These results show that, unlike sulfate-reduction, arsenic metabolism (i.e., both oxidation of arsenite and dissimilatory reduction of arsenate) is operative and even vigorous under the extreme conditions of salt-saturation and high pH. The occurrence of arsenophilic microbial processes in Searles Lake is relevant to the search for extant or extinct microbial life on Mars. It is evident from surface imagery that Mars had past episodes of volcanism, fluvial transport, and most

  11. Commercial biopreservatives combined with salt and sugar to control Listeria monocytogenes during smoked salmon processing.

    PubMed

    Montiel, Raquel; Bravo, Daniel; Medina, Margarita

    2013-08-01

    Three commercial antimicrobials, applied during the salting stage in the preparation of cold-smoked salmon, were investigated for their effect on the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes. Fresh salmon inoculated with L. monocytogenes INIA 2530 was treated with three bacteriocin-based commercial biopreservatives, which were applied in combination with a salt-sugar mix. The product was kept at 8°C for 7 days. L. monocytogenes grew by approximately 3 log CFU/g in control salmon (without the salt-sugar mix or biopreservatives). Pathogen levels were reduced by the three biopreservatives investigated. After 7 days at 8°C, L. monocytogenes counts in salmon treated with biopreservatives combined with the salt-sugar mix were significantly lower than those observed in salmon treated with only salt and sugar. At the end of storage, salmon treated with biopreservative derived from Pediococcus acidilactici had pathogen levels 3.6 log CFU/g lower than in control salmon (without the salt-sugar mix) and 1.5 log CFU/g lower than in the samples treated with only salt and sugar. The application of commercial biopreservatives to fresh salmon during the dry-salting stage might help control L. monocytogenes growth, thus enhancing the safety of cold-smoked salmon during refrigerated storage. PMID:23905807

  12. Liquid Salts as Media for Process Heat Transfer from VHTR's: Forced Convective Channel Flow Thermal Hydraulics, Materials, and Coating

    SciTech Connect

    Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark; Allen, Todd; Corradini, Michael

    2012-01-30

    The goal of this NERI project was to perform research on high temperature fluoride and chloride molten salts towards the long-term goal of using these salts for transferring process heat from high temperature nuclear reactor to operation of hydrogen production and chemical plants. Specifically, the research focuses on corrosion of materials in molten salts, which continues to be one of the most significant challenges in molten salts systems. Based on the earlier work performed at ORNL on salt properties for heat transfer applications, a eutectic fluoride salt FLiNaK (46.5% LiF-11.5%NaF-42.0%KF, mol.%) and a eutectic chloride salt (32%MgCl2-68%KCl, mole %) were selected for this study. Several high temperature candidate Fe-Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr alloys: Hastelloy-N, Hastelloy-X, Haynes-230, Inconel-617, and Incoloy-800H, were exposed to molten FLiNaK with the goal of understanding corrosion mechanisms and ranking these alloys for their suitability for molten fluoride salt heat exchanger and thermal storage applications. The tests were performed at 850C for 500 h in sealed graphite crucibles under an argon cover gas. Corrosion was noted to occur predominantly from dealloying of Cr from the alloys, an effect that was particularly pronounced at the grain boundaries Alloy weight-loss due to molten fluoride salt exposure correlated with the initial Cr-content of the alloys, and was consistent with the Cr-content measured in the salts after corrosion tests. The alloys weight-loss was also found to correlate to the concentration of carbon present for the nominally 20% Cr containing alloys, due to the formation of chromium carbide phases at the grain boundaries. Experiments involving molten salt exposures of Incoloy-800H in Incoloy-800H crucibles under an argon cover gas showed a significantly lower corrosion for this alloy than when tested in a graphite crucible. Graphite significantly accelerated alloy corrosion due to the reduction of Cr from solution by graphite and formation

  13. Polyethylene encapsulatin of nitrate salt wastes: Waste form stability, process scale-up, and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1991-07-01

    A polyethylene encapsulation system for treatment of low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Polyethylene has several advantages compared with conventional solidification/stabilization materials such as hydraulic cements. Waste can be encapsulated with greater efficiency and with better waste form performance than is possible with hydraulic cement. The properties of polyethylene relevant to its long-term durability in storage and disposal environments are reviewed. Response to specific potential failure mechanisms including biodegradation, radiation, chemical attack, flammability, environmental stress cracking, and photodegradation are examined. These data are supported by results from extensive waste form performance testing including compressive yield strength, water immersion, thermal cycling, leachability of radioactive and hazardous species, irradiation, biodegradation, and flammability. The bench-scale process has been successfully tested for application with a number of specific problem'' waste streams. Quality assurance and performance testing of the resulting waste form confirmed scale-up feasibility. Use of this system at Rocky Flats Plant can result in over 70% fewer drums processed and shipped for disposal, compared with optimal cement formulations. Based on the current Rocky Flats production of nitrate salt per year, polyethylene encapsulation can yield an estimated annual savings between $1.5 million and $2.7 million, compared with conventional hydraulic cement systems. 72 refs., 23 figs., 16 tabs.

  14. Effect of pH alkaline salts of fatty acids on the inhibition of bacteria associated with poultry processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agar diffusion assay was used to examine the effect of pH on the ability of alkaline salts of three fatty acids (FA) to inhibit growth of bacteria associated with poultry processing. FA solutions were prepared by dissolving 0.5 M concentrations of caprylic, capric, or lauric acid in separate ali...

  15. Effect of salt, smoke compound and temperature on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes in salmon during simulated smoking processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In smoked fish processes, smoking is the only step that is capable of inactivating pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, that contaminate the raw fish. The objectives of this study were to examine and develop a model to describe the survival of L. monocytogenes in salmon as affected by salt, s...

  16. Implications of sedimentological and hydrological processes on the distribution of radionuclides in a salt marsh near Sellafield, Cumbria

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, A.P.; Blackley, M.W.L.

    1985-01-01

    The report examines sedimentological and hydrological processes affecting a salt marsh in the Ravenglass estuary, which is situated south of the Sellafield nuclear-fuel-reprocessing plant. The results are discussed in the context of the distribution of low-level radioactive effluent at the site.

  17. Toxicity in lead salt spiked soils to plants, invertebrates and microbial processes: Unraveling effects of acidification, salt stress and ageing reactions.

    PubMed

    Smolders, Erik; Oorts, Koen; Peeters, Sofie; Lanno, Roman; Cheyns, Karlien

    2015-12-01

    The fate and effects of toxic trace metals in soil freshly spiked soluble metal salts do not mimic those of metals in the field. This study was set up to test the magnitude of effects of salinity, acidification, and ageing on toxicity of lead (Pb) to plants, invertebrates and soil microbial processes. Three soils were spiked with Pb2+ salts up to a concentration of 8000 mg Pb/kg and were tested either after spiking, after soil leaching followed by pH correction, or after a 5-year outdoor ageing period with free drainage followed by pH correction. Soil solution ionic strength exceeded 150 mmol/L in soils tested directly after spiking and this decreased partially after leaching and returned back to background values after 5-year outdoor equilibration. Chronic toxicity to two plants, two invertebrates, and three microbial endpoints was consistently found in all spiked soils that were not leached. This toxicity significantly decreased or became absent after 5 years of ageing in 19 of the 20 toxicity tests by a factor 8 (median factor; range: 1.4->50), measured by the factor increase of total soil Pb dose required to induce 10% inhibition. The toxicity of Pb in leached soils was intermediate between the other two treatments. The lowest detectable chronic thresholds (EC10) in aged soils ranged 350-5300 mg Pb/kg. Correlation analysis, including data of Pb2+ speciation in soil solution, suggests that reduced ionic strength rather than acidification or true ageing is the main factor explaining the soil treatment effects after spiking. It is suggested that future toxicity studies should test fine PbO powder as a relevant source for Pb in soils to exclude the confounding salt effects. PMID:26218561

  18. Molten salt extraction process for the recovery of valued transition metals from land-based and deep-sea minerals

    DOEpatents

    Maroni, Victor A.; von Winbush, Samuel

    1988-01-01

    A process for extracting transition metals and particularly cobalt and manganese together with iron, copper and nickel from low grade ores (including ocean-floor nodules) by converting the metal oxides or other compositions to chlorides in a molten salt, and subsequently using a combination of selective distillation at temperatures below about 500.degree. C., electrolysis at a voltage not more negative than about -1.5 volt versus Ag/AgCl, and precipitation to separate the desired manganese and cobalt salts from other metals and provide cobalt and manganese in metallic forms or compositions from which these metals may be more easily recovered.

  19. Molten salt extraction process for the recovery of valued transition metals from land-based and deep-sea minerals

    DOEpatents

    Maroni, V.A.; von Winbush, S.

    1987-05-01

    A process for extracting transition metals and particularly cobalt and manganese together with iron, copper and nickel from low grade ores (including ocean-floor nodules) by converting the metal oxides or other compositions to chlorides in a molten salt, and subsequently using a combination of selective distillation at temperatures below about 500/degree/C, electrolysis at a voltage not more negative that about /minus/1.5 volt versus Ag/AgCl, and precipitation to separate the desired manganese and cobalt salts from other metals and provide cobalt and manganese in metallic forms or compositions from which these metals may be more easily recovered.

  20. The on-line removal of non-regenerable salts from amine solutions using the UCARSEP{reg_sign} Process

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, D.; Gregory, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    Amine unit contamination with non-regenerable salts, whether as a result of acid or inorganic salt incursion, or solvent degradation, is a common industry problem. In MEA systems this is usually addressed by the use of a reclaimer but this is not a practical solution for DEA, MDEA or formulated solvents. Similarly, the old approach of purging solvent is no longer economically or environmentally justifiable. Neutralization of amine salts with a strong base can significantly prolong the useful life of the amine solution but eventually some of the salt may have to be removed, especially if mechanical losses are low. Electrodialysis (ED) has recently been applied to this problem and has been found to overcome many of the disadvantages of vacuum distillation and ion exchange technologies, both of which have been used in recent years for solvent clean-up. Union Carbide adapted ED technology to the unique conditions encountered in an amine system and developed the UCARSEP{reg_sign} Process. A mobile UCARSEP{reg_sign} unit has been built to achieve on-line salt removal rates of 40 lbmol/day (about 3,300 lb/day). This has been successfully used to clean up UCARSOL{reg_sign} solvents as well as DEA. Case studies are presented and the relative merits of this and other clean-up options are discussed.

  1. Growth of single crystals of organic salts with large second-order optical nonlinearities by solution processes for devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leslie, Thomas M.

    1995-01-01

    Data obtained from the electric field induced second harmonic generation (EFISH) and Kurtz Powder Methods will be provided to MSFC for further refinement of their method. A theoretical model for predicting the second-order nonlinearities of organic salts is being worked on. Another task is the synthesis of a number of salts with various counterions. Several salts with promising SHG activities and new salts will be tested for the presence of two crystalline forms. The materials will be recrystallized from dry and wet solvents and compared for SHG efficiency. Salts that have a high SHG efficiency and no tendency to form hydrates will be documented. The synthesis of these materials are included in this report. A third task involves method to aid in the growth of large, high quality single crystals by solution processes. These crystals will be characterized for their applicability in the fabrication of devices that will be incorporated into optical computers in future programs. Single crystals of optimum quality may be obtained by crystal growth in low-gravity. The final task is the design of a temperature lowering single crystal growth apparatus for ground based work. At least one prototype will be built.

  2. Pyrochemical processing of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) High Level Waste (HLW) calcine

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, M.C.; Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Riley, D.C.; Nelson, L.; Del Debbio, J.

    1994-11-15

    Inertial force damping control by micromanipulator modulation is proposed to suppress the vibrations of a micro/macro-manipulator system. The proposed controller, developed using classical control theory, is added to the existing control system. The proposed controller uses real-time measurements of macro-manipulator flexibility to adjust the motion of the micro manipulator to counteract structural vibrations. Experimental studies using an existing micro/macro flexible link manipulator testbed demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach to suppression of vibrations in the macro/micro-manipulator system using micromanipulator-based inertial active damping control.

  3. The results of HLW processing using zirconium salt of dibutyl phosphoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorov, Yury; Zilberman, Boris; Shmidt, Olga; Saprikin, Vladimir; Ryasantsev, Valery

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Zirconium salt of dibutyl-phosphoric acid (ZS HDBP) dissolved in a diluent, is a promising solvent for liquid HLW processing. The investigations carried out earlier showed that ZS HDBP can recover a series of radionuclides (TPE, RE, U, Pu, Np, Sr) and some other elements (Mo, Ca, Fe) from aqueous solutions. The possibility of TPE and RE effective recovery and separation into appropriate fractions with high purification from each other was demonstrated as well. The results of extraction tests in the mixer-settlers in the course of liquid HLW treatment in hot cells, using ZS HDBP (0.4 M HDBP and 0.044 M Zr) dissolved in 30% TBP are presented. 30 liters of the feed solution containing TPE, RE, Sr and Cs with the total specific activity of 520 MBq/L and acidity of 2 M HNO{sub 3} were processed using the two-cycle flowsheet. TPE and RE recovery with subsequent stripping was realized in the first cycle, while Sr was recovered and concentrated in the second cycle. Raffinate of the latter contained almost all Cs. The degree of TPE and RE recovery was 104, and that of Sr was {approx}10. Decontamination factor of TPE and RE from Cs and Sr was 104, and that of Sr from TPE and Cs was 103. So, ZS HDBP can be used for separation of long-lived radionuclides from HLW with respect to radio-toxic category of the process products. (authors)

  4. Laboratory measurements of seismic velocity anisotropy of salt diapirs: Implications for wellbore stability and seismic processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Meleza, Liliana; Healy, David

    2013-04-01

    A set of ten evaporite samples collected from outcrops in a single diapiric province in Cape Breton Island (Canada) have been tested for seismic velocity anisotropy using three methods: 1) conventional ultrasonic pulse transmission method, where velocities are found from the travel times and the known dimensions of the samples. In order to obtain the entire suite of elastic constants, both P- and S-wave velocity measurements were taken in three different directions of cuboid rock samples. Velocities have been measured under dry, ambient conditions of temperature and pressure in halite-, gypsum- and anhydrite-dominated samples; 2) optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy on thin sections to define the spatial distribution of minerals, their crystallographic preferred orientations (CPO); and 3) a numerical 'rock-recipe' approach based on Tatham et al. (2008) to calculate seismic velocity anisotropy using arbitrary composites of evaporite minerals and different CPOs. These three methods are then compared to understand the controlling factors of the anisotropic elastic properties. The elasticity data are used to guide geomechanical modeling for wellbore stability and to provide insights for the seismic data processing and seismic imaging of salt diapirs. Reference Tatham, D.J., Lloyd, G.E., Butler, R.W.H. and Casey, M, 2008, Amphibole and lower crustal seismic properties: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 267, 118-128.

  5. Structure/processing relationships of highly ordered lead salt nanocrystal superlattices.

    PubMed

    Hanrath, Tobias; Choi, Joshua J; Smilgies, Detlef-M

    2009-10-27

    We investigated the influence of processing conditions, nanocrystal/substrate interactions and solvent evaporation rate on the ordering of strongly interacting nanocrystals by synergistically combining electron microscopy and synchrotron-based small-angle X-ray scattering analysis. Spin-cast PbSe nanocrystal films exhibited submicrometer-sized supracrystals with face-centered cubic symmetry and (001)(s) planes aligned parallel to the substrate. The ordering of drop-cast lead salt nanocrystal films was sensitive to the nature of the substrate and solvent evaporation dynamics. Nanocrystal films drop-cast on rough indium tin oxide substrates were polycrystalline with small grain size and low degree of orientation with respect to the substrate, whereas films drop-cast on flat Si substrates formed highly ordered face-centered cubic supracrystals with close-packed (111)(s) planes parallel to the substrate. The spatial coherence of nanocrystal films drop-cast in the presence of saturated solvent vapor was significantly improved compared to films drop-cast in a dry environment. Solvent vapor annealing was demonstrated as a postdeposition technique to modify the ordering of nanocrystals in the thin film. Octane vapor significantly improved the long-range order and degree of orientation of initially disordered or polycrystalline nanocrystal assemblies. Exposure to 1,2-ethanedithiol vapor caused partial displacement of surface bound oleic acid ligands and drastically degraded the degree of order in the nanocrystal assembly. PMID:19728701

  6. Zr electrorefining process for the treatment of cladding hull waste in LiCl-KCl molten salts

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chang Hwa; Lee, You Lee; Jeon, Min Ku; Kang, Kweon Ho; Choi, Yong Taek; Park, Geun Il

    2013-07-01

    Zr electrorefining for the treatment of Zircaloy-4 cladding hull waste is demonstrated in LiCl-KCl-ZrCl{sub 4} molten salts. Although a Zr oxide layer thicker than 5 μm strongly inhibits the Zr dissolution process, pre-treatment processes increases the dissolution kinetics. For 10 g-scale experiments, the purities of the recovered Zr were 99.54 wt.% and 99.74 wt.% for fresh and oxidized cladding tubes, respectively, with no electrical contact issue. The optimal condition for Zr electrorefining has been found to improve the morphological feature of the recovered Zr, which reduces the salt incorporation by examining the effect of the process parameters such as the ZrCl{sub 4} concentration and the applied potential.

  7. Modes in the size distributions and neutralization extent of fog-processed ammonium salt aerosols observed at Canadian rural locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, X. H.; Zhang, L.

    2012-02-01

    Among the 192 samples of size-segregated water-soluble inorganic ions collected using a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) at eight rural locations in Canada, ten samples were identified to have gone through fog processing. The supermicron particle modes of ammonium salt aerosols were found to be the fingerprint of fog processed aerosols. However, the patterns and the sizes of the supermicron modes varied with ambient temperature (T) and particle acidity and also differed between inland and coastal locations. Under T > 0 °C condition, fog-processed ammonium salt aerosols were completely neutralized and had a dominant mode at 1-2 μm and a minor mode at 5-10 μm if particles were in neutral condition, and ammonium sulfate was incompletely neutralized and only had a 1-2 μm mode if particles were in acidic conditions. Under T < 0 °C at the coastal site, fog-processed aerosols exhibited a bi-modal size distribution with a dominant mode of incompletely-neutralized ammonium sulfate at about 3 μm and a minor mode of completely-neutralized ammonium sulfate at 8-9 μm. Under T < 0 °C condition at the inland sites, fog-processed ammonium salt aerosols were sometimes completely neutralized and sometimes incompletely neutralized, and the size of the supermicron mode was in the range from 1 to 5 μm. Overall, fog-processed ammonium salt aerosols under T < 0 °C condition were generally distributed at larger size (e.g., 2-5 μm) than those under T > 0 °C condition (e.g., 1-2 μm).

  8. Insights to caving processes from localization of microseismic swarms induced by salt solution mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennart Kinscher, Jannes; Bernard, Pascal; Contrucci, Isabelle; Mangeney, Anne; Piguet, Jack Pierre; Bigarre, Pascal

    2014-05-01

    In order to improve our understanding of hazardous ground failures, caving processes, and collapses of large natural or man-made underground cavities, we studied microseismicity induced by the development and collapse of a salt solution mining cavity with a diameter of ~ 200 m at Cerville-Buissoncourt in Lorraine, France. Microseismicity was recorded as part of a large geophysical, multi-parameter monitoring research project (GISOS) by a local, high resolution, triggered 40 Hz geophone monitoring system consisting of five one-component and four three-component borehole stations located around and in the center of the cavity. The recorded microseismic events are very numerous (~ 50.000 recorded event files) where the major portion (~ 80 %) appear in unusual swarming sequences constituted by complex clusters of superimposed microseismic events. Body wave phase based routine tools for microseismic event detection and localization face strong limitations in the treatment of these signals. To overcome these shortcomings, we developed two probabilistic methods being able to assess the spatio-temporal characteristics in a semi-automatic manner. The first localization approach uses simple signal amplitude estimates on different frequency bands, and an attenuation model to constrain hypocenter source location. The second approach was designed to identify significantly polarized P wave energies and the associated polarization angles. Both approaches and its probabilistic conjunction were applied to the data of a two months lasting microseismic crisis occurring one year before the final collapse that was related to caving processes leading to a maximal growth of ~ 50 m of the cavity roof. The obtained epicenter locations show systematic spatio-temporal migration trends observed for different time scales. During three phases of major swarming activity, epicenter migration trends appear in the order of several seconds to minutes, are spatially constrained, and show partially a

  9. Hazard analysis of Listeria monocytogenes contaminations in processing of salted roe from walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Takeshi, Koichi; Kitagawa, Masahiko; Kadohira, Mutsuyo; Igimi, Shizunobu; Makino, Sou-Ichi

    2009-01-01

    Hazard analysis of Listeria monocytogenes contamination during processing of salted walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) roe was performed for a seafood plant in Japan from December 2005 to February 2006. As a result, L. monocytogenes number was detected on the pallet used for transport of barrels in the salting process and one of the rollers of the roller conveyor, which rotates while in contact with the bottoms of the barrels, but was not detected in any raw materials, interim products or final products. Thus, we believe that the pallet contamination initially occurred because of insufficient washing, that it was passed on to the bottoms of the barrels and that it was then passed on the roller of the roller conveyor by cross-contamination. Therefore, it is possible that interim and final products may become contaminated by processing devices and machinery. In addition, we conducted an inoculation study designed at the 1/20 actual factory scale using interim products with or without artificial color and seeded with L. monocytogenes to observe changes in its growth. In the inoculation study, multiplication of L. monocytogenes during the salting process was not confirmed in the samples with artificial color. PMID:19194081

  10. Influence of multiple stressors on the auto-remediation processes occurring in salt marshes.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Ana I; Lillebø, Ana I; Pardal, Miguel A; Caçador, Isabel

    2011-07-01

    Due to increasing global population, salt marshes have been subjected to multiple stressors such as increasing nutrient loadings and historical contamination. In order to better understand how does the salt marsh plants auto-remediation capacity (phytoaccumulation of metals) is affected by cultural eutrophication, an experiment was performed under controlled conditions. Plants were exposure to equal metal concentrations (Zn, Cu, and Ni - micronutrients, and Cd - class B metal) simulating historical contamination and three different concentrations of nitrogen (nitrate) simulating steps of cultural eutrophication. According to our study, under the tested concentrations, cultural eutrophication does not seem to affect Zn, Cu and Ni phytoremediation of H. portulacoides, but the ecosystem service of Cd phytoremediation seems to be promoted. Nevertheless, Cd high toxicity and bioaccumulation should be taken into account, as well as the vulnerability of salt marsh ecosystems, whose reduction will have drastic consequences to the ecosystem health. PMID:21592533

  11. Response of salt structures to ice-sheet loading: implications for ice-marginal and subglacial processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Jörg; Hampel, Andrea; Brandes, Christian; Winsemann, Jutta

    2014-10-01

    During the past decades the effect of glacioisostatic adjustment has received much attention. However, the response of salt structures to ice-sheet loading and unloading is poorly understood. Our study aims to test conceptual models of the interaction between ice-sheet loading and salt structures by finite-element modelling. The results are discussed with regard to their implications for ice-marginal and subglacial processes. Our models consist of 2D plane-strain cross-sections, which represent simplified geological cross-sections from the Central European Basin System. The model layers represent (i) sedimentary rocks of elastoplastic rheology, (ii) a viscoelastic diapir and layer of salt and (iii) an elastoplastic basement. On top of the model, a temporarily variable pressure simulates the advance and retreat of an ice sheet. The durations of the individual loading phases were defined to resemble the durations of the Pleistocene ice advances in northern central Europe. The geometry and rheology of the model layers and the magnitude, spatial distribution and timing of ice-sheet loading were systematically varied to detect the controlling factors. All simulations indicate that salt structures respond to ice-sheet loading. An ice advance towards the diapir causes salt flow from the source layer below the ice sheet towards the diapir, resulting in an uplift of up to +4 m. The diapir continues to rise as long as the load is applied to the source layer but not to the crest of the diapir. When the diapir is transgressed by the ice sheet the diapir is pushed down (up to -36 m) as long as load is applied to the crest of the diapir. During and after ice unloading large parts of the displacement are compensated by a reversal of the salt flow. Plastic deformation of the overburden is restricted to the area immediately above the salt diapir. The displacements after unloading range between -3.1 and +2.7 m. Larger displacements are observed in models with deep-rooted diapirs

  12. Estimating rangeland runoff, soil erosion, and salt mobility and transport processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 55% of sediment and salts entering the Colorado River are derived from accelerated soil erosion from federal rangelands with damages estimated to be $385 million per year. About 55% of the loading is derived from rangelands. This suggests a significant potential to reduce dissolved-solids loa...

  13. Bactericidal activity of alkaline salts of fatty acids towards bacteria associated with poultry processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibacterial activity of alkaline salts of caproic, caprylic, capric, lauric, and myristic acids were determined using the agar diffusion assay. A 0.5M concentration of each fatty acid (FA) was dissolved in 1.0 M potassium hydroxide (KOH), and pH of the mixtures was adjusted to 10.5 with citric aci...

  14. A novel process for recovery of iron, titanium, and vanadium from titanomagnetite concentrates: NaOH molten salt roasting and water leaching processes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Desheng; Zhao, Longsheng; Liu, Yahui; Qi, Tao; Wang, Jianchong; Wang, Lina

    2013-01-15

    A novel process for recovering iron, titanium, and vanadium from titanomagnetite concentrates has been developed. In the present paper, the treatment of rich titanium-vanadium slag by NaOH molten salt roasting and water leaching processes is investigated. In the NaOH molten salt roasting process, the metallic iron is oxidized into ferriferous oxide, MgTi(2)O(5) is converted to NaCl-type structure of Na(2)TiO(3), and M(3)O(5) (M=Ti, Mg, Fe) is converted to α-NaFeO(2)-type structure of NaMO(2), respectively. Roasting temperature and NaOH-slag mass ratio played a considerable role in the conversion of titanium in the rich titanium-vanadium slag during the NaOH molten salt roasting process. Roasting at 500 °C for 60 min and a 1:1 NaOH-slag mass ratio produces 96.3% titanium conversion. In the water leaching process, the Na(+) was exchanged with H(+), Na(2)TiO(3) is converted to undefined structure of H(2)TiO(3), and NaMO(2) is converted to α-NaFeO(2)-type structure of HMO(2). Under the optimal conditions, 87.3% of the sodium, 42.3% of the silicon, 43.2% of the aluminum, 22.8% of the manganese, and 96.6% of the vanadium are leached out. PMID:23177244

  15. Recovery of salts from ion-exchange regeneration streams by a coupled nanofiltration-membrane distillation process.

    PubMed

    Jiříček, Tomáš; De Schepper, Wim; Lederer, Tomáš; Cauwenberg, Peter; Genné, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Ion-exchange tap water demineralization for process water preparation results in a saline regeneration wastewater (20-100 mS cm(-1)) that is increasingly problematic in view of discharge. A coupled nanofiltration-membrane distillation (NF-MD) process is evaluated for the recovery of water and sodium chloride from this wastewater. NF-MD treatment of mixed regeneration wastewater is compared to NF-MD treatment of separate anion- and cation-regenerate fractions. NF on mixed regeneration wastewater results in a higher flux (30 L m(-2) h(-1) at 7 bar) compared to NF on the separate fractions (6-9 L m(-2) h(-1) at 30 bar). NF permeate recovery is strongly limited by scaling (50% for separate and 60% for mixed, respectively). Physical signs of scaling were found during MD treatment of the NF permeates but did not result in flux decline for mixed regeneration wastewater. Final salt composition is expected to qualify as a road de-icing salt. NF-MD is an economically viable alternative compared to external disposal of wastewater for larger-scale installations (1.4 versus 2.5 euro m(-3) produced demineralized water for a 10 m3 regenerate per day plant). The cost benefits of water re-use and salt recuperation are small when compared to total treatment costs for mixed regenerate wastewater. PMID:26177408

  16. Dissipation behavior of organophosphorus pesticides during the cabbage pickling process: residue changes with salt and vinegar content of pickling solution.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuele; Yang, Zhonghua; Shen, Luyao; Liu, Zhenmin; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Diao, Jinling

    2013-03-01

    In this experiment, the behavior of 10 pesticides in three different cabbage pickling treatments has been studied. The brine used for pickling was made up with different salt and vinegar contents to determine the influence of different pickling solutions on pesticide dissipation and distribution. A modified QuECHERS and SPE method was established for the analysis of the pesticides in the cabbage and brine. It was found that different pesticides showed different dissipation patterns and finally represented dissimilar residue levels in the cabbage and brine. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the distinctions of these pesticides between each treatment and proved that salt content and pH value had certain influence on the dissipation and distribution of these pesticides during the pickling process. The data from this experiment would help to control pesticide residues in pickled cabbage and prevent potential risk to human health and environmental safety. PMID:23402557

  17. A glass-encapsulated calcium phosphate wasteform for the immobilization of actinide-, fluoride-, and chloride-containing radioactive wastes from the pyrochemical reprocessing of plutonium metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donald, I. W.; Metcalfe, B. L.; Fong, S. K.; Gerrard, L. A.; Strachan, D. M.; Scheele, R. D.

    2007-03-01

    Chloride-containing radioactive wastes are generated during the pyrochemical reprocessing of Pu metal. Immobilization of these wastes in borosilicate glass or Synroc-type ceramics is not feasible due to the very low solubility of chlorides in these hosts. Alternative candidates have therefore been sought including phosphate-based glasses, crystalline ceramics and hybrid glass/ceramic systems. These studies have shown that high losses of chloride or evolution of chlorine gas from the melt make vitrification an unacceptable solution unless suitable off-gas treatment facilities capable of dealing with these corrosive by-products are available. On the other hand, both sodium aluminosilicate and calcium phosphate ceramics are capable of retaining chloride in stable mineral phases, which include sodalite, Na 8(AlSiO 4) 6Cl 2, chlorapatite, Ca 5(PO 4) 3Cl, and spodiosite, Ca 2(PO 4)Cl. The immobilization process developed in this study involves a solid state process in which waste and precursor powders are mixed and reacted in air at temperatures in the range 700-800 °C. The ceramic products are non-hygroscopic free-flowing powders that only require encapsulation in a relatively low melting temperature phosphate-based glass to produce a monolithic wasteform suitable for storage and ultimate disposal.

  18. Studies on Dyeing Process Variables for Salt Free Reactive Dyeing of Glycine Modified Cationized Cotton Muslin Fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Ashis Kumar; Kar, Tapas Ranjan; Mukhopadhyay, Asis; Shome, Debashis; Konar, Adwaita

    2015-04-01

    Bleached cotton muslin fabric with or without pre-oxidized with NaIO4 (oxy-cotton) was chemically modified with glycine (amino acid) by pad dry calendar process to investigate the changes in textile properties and its dyeability with reactive dye. This glycine modified cotton incorporates new functional groups producing -NH3 + or -C=NH+ -ion (cationic groups) in acid bath to obtain cationized cotton making it amenable to a newer route of salt free reactive dyeing in acid bath. In the present work the process variables of reactive dyeing in the salt free acid bath for dyeing of amine (glycine) modified cationized cotton were studied and optimized. The present study also includes thorough investigation of changes in important textile related properties and dyeability with reactive dye after such chemical modifications. Between oxidized and unoxidized cotton muslin fabric, unoxidized cotton fabric shows better reactive dye uptake in both conventional alkaline bath dyeing and nonconventional salt free acid bath dyeing particularly for high exhaustion class of reactive dye with acceptable level of colour fastness and overall balance of other textile related properties. Moreover, application of dye fixing agent further improves surface colour depth (K/S) of the glycine treated cotton fabric for HE brand of reactive dyes. Corresponding reaction mechanisms for such modifications were supported by FTIR spectroscopy. Finally unoxidized cotton and pre-oxidized cotton further treated with glycine (amino acid) provide a new route of acid bath salt free reactive dyeing showing much higher dye uptake and higher degree of surface cover with amino acid residue anchored to modified cotton.

  19. A view of treatment process of melted nuclear fuel on a severe accident plant using a molten salt system

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, R.; Takahashi, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Mizuguchi, K.; Oomori, T.

    2013-07-01

    At severe accident such as Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident, the nuclear fuels in the reactor would melt and form debris which contains stable UO2-ZrO2 mixture corium and parts of vessel such as zircaloy and iron component. The requirements for solution of issues are below; -) the reasonable treatment process of the debris should be simple and in-situ in Fukushima Daiichi power plant, -) the desirable treatment process is to take out UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} or metallic U and TRU metal, and dispose other fission products as high level radioactive waste; and -) the candidate of treatment process should generate the smallest secondary waste. Pyro-process has advantages to treat the debris because of the high solubility of the debris and its total process feasibility. Toshiba proposes a new pyro-process in molten salts using electrolysing Zr before debris fuel being treated.

  20. Methods for predicting properties and tailoring salt solutions for industrial processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ally, Moonis R.

    1993-01-01

    An algorithm developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory accurately and quickly predicts thermodynamic properties of concentrated aqueous salt solutions. This algorithm is much simpler and much faster than other modeling schemes and is unique because it can predict solution behavior at very high concentrations and under varying conditions. Typical industrial applications of this algorithm would be in manufacture of inorganic chemicals by crystallization, thermal storage, refrigeration and cooling, extraction of metals, emissions controls, etc.

  1. High pressure processing alters water distribution enabling the production of reduced-fat and reduced-salt pork sausages.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huijuan; Han, Minyi; Bai, Yun; Han, Yanqing; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

    2015-04-01

    High pressure processing (HPP) was used to explore novel methods for modifying the textural properties of pork sausages with reduced-salt, reduced-fat and no fat replacement additions. A 2×7 factorial design was set up, incorporating two pressure levels (0.1 or 200 MPa) and seven fat levels (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30%). Sausages treated at 200 MPa exhibited improved tenderness at all fat levels compared with 0.1 MPa treated samples, and the shear force of sausages treated at 200 MPa with 15 or 20% fat content was similar to the 0.1 MPa treated sausages with 30% fat. HPP significantly changed the P₂ peak ratio of the four water components in raw sausages, resulting in improved textural properties of emulsion-type sausages with reduced-fat and reduced-salt. Significant correlations were found between pH, color, shear force and water proportions. The scanning and transmission micrographs revealed the formation of smaller fat globules and an improved network structure in the pressure treated sausages. In conclusion, there is potential to manufacture sausages with reduced-fat and reduced-salt by using HPP to maintain textural qualities. PMID:25553411

  2. Effect of Elevated Salt Concentrations on the Aerobic Granular Sludge Process: Linking Microbial Activity with Microbial Community Structure▿

    PubMed Central

    Bassin, J. P.; Pronk, M.; Muyzer, G.; Kleerebezem, R.; Dezotti, M.; van Loosdrecht, M. C. M.

    2011-01-01

    The long- and short-term effects of salt on biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal processes were studied in an aerobic granular sludge reactor. The microbial community structure was investigated by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) on 16S rRNA and amoA genes. PCR products obtained from genomic DNA and from rRNA after reverse transcription were compared to determine the presence of bacteria as well as the metabolically active fraction of bacteria. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to validate the PCR-based results and to quantify the dominant bacterial populations. The results demonstrated that ammonium removal efficiency was not affected by salt concentrations up to 33 g/liter NaCl. Conversely, a high accumulation of nitrite was observed above 22 g/liter NaCl, which coincided with the disappearance of Nitrospira sp. Phosphorus removal was severely affected by gradual salt increase. No P release or uptake was observed at steady-state operation at 33 g/liter NaCl, exactly when the polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs), “Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis” bacteria, were no longer detected by PCR-DGGE or FISH. Batch experiments confirmed that P removal still could occur at 30 g/liter NaCl, but the long exposure of the biomass to this salinity level was detrimental for PAOs, which were outcompeted by glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) in the bioreactor. GAOs became the dominant microorganisms at increasing salt concentrations, especially at 33 g/liter NaCl. In the comparative analysis of the diversity (DNA-derived pattern) and the activity (cDNA-derived pattern) of the microbial population, the highly metabolically active microorganisms were observed to be those related to ammonia (Nitrosomonas sp.) and phosphate removal (“Candidatus Accumulibacter”). PMID:21926194

  3. Ethylene Antagonizes Salt-Induced Growth Retardation and Cell Death Process via Transcriptional Controlling of Ethylene-, BAG- and Senescence-Associated Genes in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ya-Jie; Liu, Ling; Lin, Ying-Chao; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Li, Lei-Peng; Tang, Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The existing question whether ethylene is involved in the modulation of salt-induced cell death to mediate plant salt tolerance is important for understanding the salt tolerance mechanisms. Here, we employed Arabidopsis plants to study the possible role of ethylene in salt-induced growth inhibition and programmed cell death (PCD) profiles. The root length, DNA ladder and cell death indicated by Evan's blue detection were measured by compared to the control or salt-stressed seedlings. Secondly, the protoplasts isolated from plant leaves and dyed with Annexin V-FITC were subjected to flow cytometric (FCM) assay. Our results showed that ethylene works effectively in seedling protoplasts, antagonizing salt-included root retardation and restraining cell death both in seedlings or protoplasts. Due to salinity, the entire or partial insensitivity of ethylene signaling resulted in an elevated levels of cell death in ein2-5 and ein3-1 plants and the event were amended in ctr1-1 plants after salt treatment. The subsequent experiment with exogenous ACC further corroborated that ethylene could modulate salt-induced PCD process actively. Plant Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG) family genes are recently identified to play an extensive role in plant PCD processes ranging from growth, development to stress responses and even cell death. Our result showed that salinity alone significantly suppressed the transcripts of BAG6, BAG7 and addition of ACC in the saline solution could obviously re-activate BAG6 and BAG7 expressions, which might play a key role to inhibit the salt-induced cell death. In summary, our research implies that ethylene and salinity antagonistically control BAG family-, ethylene-, and senescence-related genes to alleviate the salt-induced cell death. PMID:27242886

  4. Ethylene Antagonizes Salt-Induced Growth Retardation and Cell Death Process via Transcriptional Controlling of Ethylene-, BAG- and Senescence-Associated Genes in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Ya-Jie; Liu, Ling; Lin, Ying-Chao; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Li, Lei-Peng; Tang, Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The existing question whether ethylene is involved in the modulation of salt-induced cell death to mediate plant salt tolerance is important for understanding the salt tolerance mechanisms. Here, we employed Arabidopsis plants to study the possible role of ethylene in salt-induced growth inhibition and programmed cell death (PCD) profiles. The root length, DNA ladder and cell death indicated by Evan's blue detection were measured by compared to the control or salt-stressed seedlings. Secondly, the protoplasts isolated from plant leaves and dyed with Annexin V-FITC were subjected to flow cytometric (FCM) assay. Our results showed that ethylene works effectively in seedling protoplasts, antagonizing salt-included root retardation and restraining cell death both in seedlings or protoplasts. Due to salinity, the entire or partial insensitivity of ethylene signaling resulted in an elevated levels of cell death in ein2-5 and ein3-1 plants and the event were amended in ctr1-1 plants after salt treatment. The subsequent experiment with exogenous ACC further corroborated that ethylene could modulate salt-induced PCD process actively. Plant Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG) family genes are recently identified to play an extensive role in plant PCD processes ranging from growth, development to stress responses and even cell death. Our result showed that salinity alone significantly suppressed the transcripts of BAG6, BAG7 and addition of ACC in the saline solution could obviously re-activate BAG6 and BAG7 expressions, which might play a key role to inhibit the salt-induced cell death. In summary, our research implies that ethylene and salinity antagonistically control BAG family-, ethylene-, and senescence-related genes to alleviate the salt-induced cell death. PMID:27242886

  5. Modeling deformation processes of salt caverns for gas storage due to fluctuating operation pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, N.; Nagel, T.; Goerke, U.; Khaledi, K.; Lins, Y.; König, D.; Schanz, T.; Köhn, D.; Attia, S.; Rabbel, W.; Bauer, S.; Kolditz, O.

    2013-12-01

    In the course of the Energy Transition in Germany, the focus of the country's energy sources is shifting from fossil to renewable and sustainable energy carriers. Since renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar power, are subjected to annual, seasonal, and diurnal fluctuations, the development and extension of energy storage capacities is a priority in German R&D programs. Common methods of energy storage are the utilization of subsurface caverns as a reservoir for natural or artificial fuel gases, such as hydrogen, methane, or the storage of compressed air. The construction of caverns in salt rock is inexpensive in comparison to solid rock formations due to the possibility of solution mining. Another advantage of evaporite as a host material is the self-healing capacity of salt rock. Gas caverns are capable of short-term energy storage (hours to days), so the operating pressures inside the caverns are fluctuating periodically with a high number of cycles. This work investigates the influence of fluctuating operation pressures on the stability of the host rock of gas storage caverns utilizing numerical models. Therefore, we developed a coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) model based on the finite element method utilizing the open-source software platform OpenGeoSys. Our simulations include the thermodynamic behaviour of the gas during the loading/ unloading of the cavern. This provides information on the transient pressure and temperature distribution on the cavern boundary to calculate the deformation of its geometry. Non-linear material models are used for the mechanical analysis, which describe the creep and self-healing behavior of the salt rock under fluctuating loading pressures. In order to identify the necessary material parameters, we perform experimental studies on the mechanical behaviour of salt rock under varying pressure and temperature conditions. Based on the numerical results, we further derive concepts for monitoring THM quantities in the

  6. Multiplicative jump processes and applications to leaching of salt and contaminants in the soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mau, Yair; Feng, Xue; Porporato, Amilcare

    2014-11-01

    We consider simple systems driven multiplicatively by white shot noise, which appear in the modeling of the dynamics of soil nutrients and contaminants. The dynamics of these systems is analyzed in two ways: solving a hierarchy of linear ordinary differential equations for the moments, which gives a time scale of convergence of the stationary probability density function; and characterizing the crossing properties, such as the mean first-passage time and the mean frequency of level crossing. These results are readily applicable to the study of geophysical systems, such as the problem of accumulation of salt in the root zone, i.e., soil salinization.

  7. Use of inorganic salts during the etching process in the fabrication of chemically modified capillaries for open tubular electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Pesek, Joseph J; Matyska, Maria T; Velpula, Sunandini

    2005-05-01

    Capillaries for use in electrophoretic analyses are etched with ammonium bifluoride and in some cases a second inorganic salt is included in the process. The effects of the presence of these inorganic components in the surface matrix on the electromigration of heterocyclic aromatic amines and enkephalins are evaluated. Resolution, efficiency, and peak shape are used to compare the various columns. In one instance, the etched surface is then modified by the addition of an octadecyl moiety using a silanization/hydrosilation procedure. The surface properties of the various etched capillaries are also compared by electroosmotic flow measurements. PMID:15938182

  8. The synthesis and properties of peptidylmethylsulphonium salts with two cationic residues as potential inhibitors of prohormone processing.

    PubMed Central

    Zumbrunn, A; Stone, S; Shaw, E

    1988-01-01

    Peptidylmethylsulphonium salts incorporating consecutive basic residues at the C-terminus of the peptidyl portion such as -Arg-Arg-, -Arg-Lys-, -Lys-Lys- and -Lys-Arg- were synthesized and examined as proteinase inhibitors. Serine proteinases with a specificity directed towards hydrolysis at cationic residues were found to be unaffected by these derivatives. On the other hand, cysteine proteinases, cathepsin B and, in particular, clostripain were readily inactivated by affinity labelling. The reagents thus are of promise for the study of prohormone processing promoted by cysteine proteinases. PMID:3223967

  9. Black Dross: Processing Salt Removal from Black Dross by Thermal Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beheshti, Reza; Moosberg-Bustnes, John; Akhtar, Shahid; Aune, Ragnhild E.

    2014-11-01

    The salt removal from black dross by thermal treatment has experimentally been studied under different conditions in both a stationary resistance furnace and in a laboratory scale rotary furnace. The experiments were designed based on partial pressure calculations using the Thermo-Calc software (Thermo-Calc Software, Stockholm, Sweden). The salt removal efficiency was evaluated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction analyses, and the optimum conditions for treatment established, i.e., temperature, gas flow rate, holding time, rotation rate, and sample size. The overall degree of chloride removal was established to increase as a function of time and temperature, as well as by reduced pressure. Under atmospheric pressure, the highest degree of chloride removal from a 20 g sample was obtained after 10 h at 1523 K resulting in a 98% removal and a final chloride content of 0.3 wt.% in the residue. Under reduced pressure, the chloride concentrate was lowered to 0.2 wt.% after thermal treatment of a 20 g sample at 1473 K for 8 h. In the case of 200 g samples treated in a rotary furnace, the chloride concentrate was 2.5 wt.% after 14 h at 1523 K, representing a removal of 87%. Below 0.3 wt.% chloride content, the material is deemed a nonhazardous waste.

  10. Interactions between salt marsh plants and Cu nanoparticles - Effects on metal uptake and phytoremediation processes.

    PubMed

    Andreotti, Federico; Mucha, Ana Paula; Caetano, Cátia; Rodrigues, Paula; Rocha Gomes, Carlos; Almeida, C Marisa R

    2015-10-01

    The increased use of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) raises the probability of finding NPs in the environment. A lot of information exists already regarding interactions between plants and metals, but information regarding interactions between metallic NPs and plants, including salt marsh plants, is still lacking. This work aimed to study interactions between CuO NPs and the salt marsh plants Halimione portulacoides and Phragmites australis. In addition, the potential of these plants for phytoremediation of Cu NPs was evaluated. Plants were exposed for 8 days to sediment elutriate solution doped either with CuO or with ionic Cu. Afterwards, total metal concentrations were determined in plant tissues. Both plants accumulated Cu in their roots, but this accumulation was 4 to 10 times lower when the metal was added in NP form. For P. australis, metal translocation occurred when the metal was added either in ionic or in NP form, but for H. portulacoides no metal translocation was observed when NPs were added to the medium. Therefore, interactions between plants and NPs differ with the plant species. These facts should be taken in consideration when applying these plants for phytoremediation of contaminated sediments in estuaries, as the environmental management of these very important ecological areas can be affected. PMID:26094036

  11. Dynamics of prolonged salt movement in the Glückstadt Graben (NW Germany) driven by tectonic and sedimentary processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warsitzka, Michael; Kley, Jonas; Jähne-Klingberg, Fabian; Kukowski, Nina

    2016-02-01

    The formation of salt structures exerted a major influence on the evolution of subsidence and sedimentation patterns in the Glückstadt Graben, which is part of the Central European Basin System and comprises a post-Permian sediment thickness of up to 11 km. Driven by regional tectonics and differential loading, large salt diapirs, salt walls and salt pillows developed. The resulting salt flow significantly influenced sediment distribution in the peripheral sinks adjacent to the salt structures and overprinted the regional subsidence patterns. In this study, we investigate the geometric and temporal evolution of salt structures and subsidence patterns in the central Glückstadt Graben. Along a key geological cross section, the post-Permian strata were sequentially decompacted and restored in order to reconstruct the subsidence history of minibasins between the salt structures. The structural restoration reveals that subsidence of peripheral sinks and salt structure growth were initiated in Early to Middle Triassic time. From the Late Triassic to the Middle Jurassic, salt movement and salt structure growth never ceased, but were faster during periods of crustal extension. Following a phase from Late Jurassic to the end of the early Late Cretaceous, in which minor salt flow occurred, salt movement was renewed, particularly in the marginal parts of the Glückstadt Graben. Subsidence rates and tectonic subsidence derived from backstripping of 1D profiles reveal that especially the Early Triassic and Middle Keuper times were periods of regional extension. Three specific types of salt structures and adjacent peripheral sinks could be identified: (1) Graben centre salt walls possessing deep secondary peripheral sinks on the sides facing away from the basin centre, (2) platform salt walls, whose main peripheral sinks switched multiple times from one side of the salt wall to the other, and (3) Graben edge pillows, which show only one peripheral sink facing the basin centre.

  12. Salt Processing Through Ion Exchange at the Savannah River Site Selection of Exchange Media and Column Configuration - 9198

    SciTech Connect

    Spires, Renee; Punch, Timothy; McCabe, Daniel

    2009-02-11

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed, modeled, and tested several different ion exchange media and column designs for cesium removal. One elutable resin and one non-elutable resin were considered for this salt processing application. Deployment of non-elutable Crystalline Silicotitanate and elutable Resorcinol Formaldehyde in several different column configurations were assessed in a formal Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE). Salt solutions were selected that would allow a grouping of non-compliant tanks to be closed. Tests were run with the elutable resin to determine compatibility with the resin configuration required for an in-tank ion exchange system. Models were run to estimate the ion exchange cycles required with the two resins in several column configurations. Material balance calculations were performed to estimate the impact on the High Level Waste (HLW) system at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Conceptual process diagrams were used to support the hazard analysis. Data from the hazard analysis was used to determine the relative impact on safety. This report will discuss the technical inputs, SEE methods, results and path forward to complete the technical maturation of ion exchange.

  13. Application of a salt gradient solar pond to a chemical process industry

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, T.L.; Johnson, S.C.; Sadan, A.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described for establishing a salinity gradient for a solar pond for the purpose of increasing the magnesium yield of an electrolysis plant on the Great Salt Lake. The method is to start with the filled pond, layer on an incremental thickness of fresh water, and allow surface wave action to mix this layer with the dense brine below. This is to be repeated until a sufficient gradient zone is produced. A rubber sheet is floated on the pond surface and water is allowed to flow slowly and continuously onto the sheet, thus avoiding turbulance and mixing at the injection site. Temperature and specific gravity profiles are given for the pond. (LEW)

  14. Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor (FHR) for Power and Process Heat

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, Charles; Hu, Lin-wen; Peterson, Per; Sridharan, Kumar

    2015-01-21

    In 2011 the U.S. Department of Energy through its Nuclear Energy University Program (NEUP) awarded a 3- year integrated research project (IRP) to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and its partners at the University of California at Berkeley (UCB) and the University of Wisconsin at Madison (UW). The IRP included Westinghouse Electric Company and an advisory panel chaired by Regis Matzie that provided advice as the project progressed. The first sentence of the proposal stated the goals: The objective of this Integrated Research Project (IRP) is to develop a path forward to a commercially viable salt-cooled solid-fuel high-temperature reactor with superior economic, safety, waste, nonproliferation, and physical security characteristics compared to light-water reactors. This report summarizes major results of this research.

  15. Chemical processes in sea-salt chloride depletion observed at a Canadian rural coastal site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Xiaohong; Zhang, Leiming

    2012-01-01

    Chloride depletion in sea-salt aerosols was studied using size-segregated inorganic ions data collected at a Canadian rural coastal site during a summer (June 29-July 15, 2002) and a fall campaign (October 25 - November 15, 2002). Three samples collected in the fall campaign had high concentrations of sea-salt and ammoniated sulfate and nitrate aerosols and were used to study the relative importance of different chemical reactions contributing to the depletion. The percentage depletion (Cl -depletion(%)) increased substantially with decreasing particle size (up to 86% for particles in the size range of 1.0-3.1 μm). For particles >6.2 μm, the observed NO 3- was responsible for all the depleted Cl -; but less than a quarter of the depletion was explained by the HCl-released reaction between NaCl and HNO 3; the rest of the depletion was likely due to the non-HCl-released reactions, e.g., between NaCl and N 2O 5. For particles in the size range of 3.1-6.2 μm, the NO 3- was responsible for nearly 80-90% of all the depleted Cl - via HCl-released and/or non-HCl-released reactions; the remaining depletion was likely due to the reactions releasing Cl 2, HOCl, etc. Particles >3.1 μm were mostly neutral acidity while a portion of particles at 1.0-3.1 μm was acidic. SO 42- was only responsible for Cl -depletion(%) in acidic particles at 1.0-3.1 μm and the highest Cl -depletion(%) was observed in acidic particles of this size range.

  16. Multi-stage process for reducing the concentration of pollutants in an effluent using an ammonium salt

    SciTech Connect

    Epperly, W.R.; Peter-Hoblyn, J.D.; Shulof, G.F.; Sullivan, J.C.; Sprague, B.N.

    1989-09-05

    This patent describes a process for reducing the concentration of nitrogen oxides in the effluent from the combustion of a carbonaceous fuel. The process comprising: injecting a first treatment agent comprising urea or ammonia into the effluent at a first temperature zone where the effluent is at a temperature of about 1700{sup 0}F. to about 2000{sup 0}F., and injecting a second treatment agent comprising an ammonium of salt of an organic acid having a carbon to nitrogen ratio of greater than 1:1 into the effluent at a second temperature zone where the effluent temperature is about 1300{sup 0}F. to about 1750{sup 0}F., wherein the treatment agents are injected under conditions effective to reduce the effluent pollution index.

  17. Faraday Discussion 160 Introductory Lecture: Interpreting and Predicting Hofmeister Salt Ion and Solute Effects on Biopolymer and Model Processes Using the Solute Partitioning Model

    PubMed Central

    Record, M. Thomas; Guinn, Emily; Pegram, Laurel; Capp, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how Hofmeister salt ions and other solutes interact with proteins, nucleic acids, other biopolymers and water and thereby affect protein and nucleic acid processes as well as model processes (e.g solubility of model compounds) in aqueous solution is a longstanding goal of biophysical research. Empirical Hofmeister salt and solute “m-values” (derivatives of the observed standard free energy change for a model or biopolymer process with respect to solute or salt concentration m3) are equal to differences in chemical potential derivatives: m-value = Δ(dμ2/dm3) = Δμ23 which quantify the preferential interactions of the solute or salt with the surface of the biopolymer or model system (component 2) exposed or buried in the process. Using the SPM, we dissect μ23 values for interactions of a solute or Hofmeister salt with a set of model compounds displaying the key functional groups of biopolymers to obtain interaction potentials (called α-values) that quantify the interaction of the solute or salt per unit area of each functional group or type of surface. Interpreted using the SPM, these α-values provide quantitative information about both the hydration of functional groups and the competitive interaction of water and the solute or salt with functional groups. The analysis corroborates and quantifies previous proposals that the Hofmeister anion and cation series for biopolymer processes are determined by ion-specific, mostly unfavorable interactions with hydrocarbon surfaces; the balance between these unfavorable nonpolar interactions and often-favorable interactions of ions with polar functional groups determine the series null points. The placement of urea and glycine betaine (GB) at opposite ends of the corresponding series of nonelectrolytes results from the favorable interactions of urea, and unfavorable interactions of GB, with many (but not all) biopolymer functional groups. Interaction potentials and local-bulk partition coefficients

  18. Rupture dimensions and rupture processes of fluid-induced microcracks in salt rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahm, T.

    2001-08-01

    We developed and applied a simple empirical Green function method to study induced microcracks observed during hydraulic fracturing experiments in salt rock. Either unidirectional ruptures on rectangular faults or allround ruptures on elliptical faults are tested to explain the observed directivity effects in body-wave amplitude spectra. Mostly, the rectangular rupture model and horizontal fault planes are favored. The average rupture lengths are between 15 and 27 mm, the average rupture durations between 14 and 26 μs. Small average rupture velocities of 30% of the S-wave velocity of the rock are indicated. The dispersive low-frequency coda-waves present in the data look similar to coda-waves observed during other hydraulic fracturing experiments and to long-period events from some volcanoes, which have been explained by the resonance of a fluid-filled crack. The radiation pattern of first motion amplitudes of most events is dominated by a dip-slip double-couple indicating slip on horizontal or vertical planes. We cannot distinguish whether the observed low-frequency coda-waves are influenced by a source effect or by a possible sensor-borehole coupling. However, a simple method using Gauss filter at different center frequencies and relocation is tested to analyze the low-frequency coda-waves in terms of source models.

  19. Geohydromechanical Processes in the Excavation Damaged Zone in Crystalline Rock, Rock Salt, and Indurated and Plastic Clays

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, Chin-Fu; Bernier, Frederic; Davies, Christophe

    2004-06-20

    The creation of an excavation disturbed zone or excavation damaged zone is expected around all man-made openings in geologic formations. Macro- and micro-fracturing, and in general a redistribution of in situ stresses and rearrangement of rock structures, will occur in this zone, resulting in drastic changes of permeability to flow, mainly through the fractures and cracks induced by excavation. Such an EDZ may have significant implications for the operation and long-term performance of an underground nuclear waste repository. Various issues of concern need to be evaluated, such as processes creating fractures in the excavation damaged zone, the degree of permeability increase, and the potential for sealing or healing (with permeability reduction) in the zone. In recent years, efforts along these lines have been made for a potential repository in four rock types-crystalline rock, salt, indurated clay, and plastic clay-and these efforts have involved field, laboratory, and theoretical studies. The present work involves a synthesis of the ideas and issues that emerged from presentations and discussions on EDZ in these four rock types at a CLUSTER Conference and Workshop held in Luxembourg in November, 2003. First, definitions of excavation disturbed and excavation damaged zones are proposed. Then, an approach is suggested for the synthesis and intercomparison of geohydromechanical processes in the EDZ for the four rock types (crystalline rock, salt, indurated clay, and plastic clay). Comparison tables of relevant processes, associated factors, and modeling and testing techniques are developed. A discussion of the general state-of-the-art and outstanding issues are also presented. A substantial bibliography of relevant papers on the subject is supplied at the end of the paper.

  20. Electrodialysis technology for salt recovery from aluminum salt cake

    SciTech Connect

    Hryn, J. N.; Krumdick, G.; Graziano, D.; Sreenivasarao, K.

    2000-02-02

    Electrodialysis technology for recovering salt from aluminum salt cake is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. Salt cake, a slag-like aluminum-industry waste stream, contains aluminum metal, salt (NaCl and KCl), and nonmetallics (primarily aluminum oxide). Salt cake can be recycled by digesting with water and filtering to recover the metal and oxide values. A major obstacle to widespread salt cake recycling is the cost of recovering salt from the process brine. Electrodialysis technology developed at Argonne appears to be a cost-effective approach to handling the salt brines, compared to evaporation or disposal. In Argonne's technology, the salt brine is concentrated until salt crystals are precipitated in the electrodialysis stack; the crystals are recovered downstream. The technology is being evaluated on the pilot scale using Eurodia's EUR 40-76-5 stack.

  1. Report of ground water monitoring for expansion of the golf course, Salt Lake City, Utah, Vitro Processing Site. Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    Ground water elevations of the shallow unconfined aquifer have been monitored at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, Vitro Processing site, Salt Lake City, Utah, for the purposes of characterizing ground water flow conditions and evaluating the effects of irrigation of the golf driving range. Data collected, to date, show that the water table reached its highest level for the year during March and April 1995. From May through July 1995, the water table elevations decreased in most monitor wells due to less precipitation and higher evapotranspiration. Review and evaluation of collected data suggest that irrigation of the golf driving range will have negligible effects on water levels and ground water flow patterns if rates of irrigation do not significantly exceed future rates of evapotranspiration.

  2. THE HYDROTHERMAL REACTIONS OF MONOSODIUM TITANATE, CRYSTALLINE SILICOTITANATE AND SLUDGE IN THE MODULAR SALT PROCESS: A LITERATURE SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F.; Pennebaker, F.; Fink, S.

    2010-11-11

    The use of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) is proposed for an at-tank process to treat High Level Waste at the Savannah River Site. The proposed configuration includes deployment of ion exchange columns suspended in the risers of existing tanks to process salt waste without building a new facility. The CST is available in an engineered form, designated as IE-911-CW, from UOP. Prior data indicates CST has a proclivity to agglomerate from deposits of silica rich compounds present in the alkaline waste solutions. This report documents the prior literature and provides guidance for the design and operations that include CST to mitigate that risk. The proposed operation will also add monosodium titanate (MST) to the supernate of the tank prior to the ion exchange operation to remove strontium and select alpha-emitting actinides. The cesium loaded CST is ground and then passed forward to the sludge washing tank as feed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Similarly, the MST will be transferred to the sludge washing tank. Sludge processing includes the potential to leach aluminum from the solids at elevated temperature (e.g., 65 C) using concentrated (3M) sodium hydroxide solutions. Prior literature indicates that both CST and MST will agglomerate and form higher yield stress slurries with exposure to elevated temperatures. This report assessed that data and provides guidance on minimizing the impact of CST and MST on sludge transfer and aluminum leaching sludge.

  3. Studies of Quaternary saline lakes - III. Mineral, chemical, and isotopic evidence of salt solution and crystallization processes in Owens Lake, California, 1969-1971

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, George I.; Friedman, Irving; McLaughlin, Robert J.

    1987-04-01

    As a consequence of the 1969-1970 flooding of normally dry Owens Lake, a 2.4-m-deep lake formed and 20% of the 2-m-thick salt bed dissolved in it. Its desiccation began August 1969, and salts started crystallizing September 1970, ending August 1971. Mineralogic, brine-composition, and stable-isotope data plus field observations showed that while the evolving brine composition established the general crystallization timetable and range of primary and secondary mineral assemblages, it was the daily, monthly, and seasonal temperature changes that controlled the details of timing and mineralogy during this depositional process. Deuterium analyses of lake brine, interstitial brine, and hydrated saline phases helped confirm the sequence of mineral crystallizations and transformations, and they documented the sources and temperatures of waters involved in the reactions. Salts first crystallized as floating rafts on the lake surface. Natron and mirabilite, salts whose solubilities decrease greatly with lowering temperatures, crystallized late at night in winter, when surface-water temperatures reached their minima; trona, nahcolite, burkeite, and halite, salts with solubilities less sensitive to temperature, crystallized during the afternoon in summer, when surface salinities reached their maxima. However, different temperatures were generally associated with crystallization (at the surface) and accumulation (on the lake floor) because short-term temperature changes were transmitted to surface and bottom waters at different rates. Consequently, even when solubilities were exceeded at the surface, salts were preserved or not as a function of bottom-water temperatures. Halite, a nearly temperature-insensitive salt, was always preserved. Monitoring the lake-brine chemistry and mineralogy of the accumulating salts shows: (1) An estimated 0.9 × 10 6 tons of CO 2 was released to the atmosphere or consumed by the lake's biomass prior to most salt crystallization. (2) After

  4. Studies of Quaternary saline lakes-III. Mineral, chemical, and isotopic evidence of salt solution and crystallization processes in Owens Lake, California, 1969-1971

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, G.I.; Friedman, I.; McLaughlin, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    As a consequence of the 1969-1970 flooding of normally dry Owens Lake, a 2.4-m-deep lake formed and 20% of the 2-m-thick salt bed dissolved in it. Its desiccation began August 1969, and salts started crystallizing September 1970, ending August 1971. Mineralogic, brine-composition, and stable-isotope data plus field observations showed that while the evolving brine composition established the general crystallization timetable and range of primary and secondary mineral assemblages, it was the daily, monthly, and seasonal temperature changes that controlled the details of timing and mineralogy during this depositional process. Deuterium analyses of lake brine, interstitial brine, and hydrated saline phases helped confirm the sequence of mineral crystallizations and transformations, and they documented the sources and temperatures of waters involved in the reactions. Salts first crystallized as floating rafts on the lake surface. Natron and mirabilite, salts whose solubilities decrease greatly with lowering temperatures, crystallized late at night in winter, when surface-water temperatures reached their minima; trona, nahcolite, burkeite, and halite, salts with solubilities less sensitive to temperature, crystallized during the afternoon in summer, when surface salinities reached their maxima. However, different temperatures were generally associated with crystallization (at the surface) and accumulation (on the lake floor) because short-term temperature changes were transmitted to surface and bottom waters at different rates. Consequently, even when solubilities were exceeded at the surface, salts were preserved or not as a function of bottom-water temperatures. Halite, a nearly temperature-insensitive salt, was always preserved. Monitoring the lake-brine chemistry and mineralogy of the accumulating salts shows: (1) An estimated 0.9 ?? 106 tons of CO2 was released to the atmosphere or consumed by the lake's biomass prior to most salt crystallization. (2) After

  5. Biogeochemical and hydrologic processes controlling mercury cycling in Great Salt Lake, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naftz, D.; Kenney, T.; Angeroth, C.; Waddell, B.; Darnall, N.; Perschon, C.; Johnson, W. P.

    2006-12-01

    Great Salt Lake (GSL), in the Western United States, is a terminal lake with a highly variable surface area that can exceed 5,100 km2. The open water and adjacent wetlands of the GSL ecosystem support millions of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds from throughout the Western Hemisphere, as well as a brine shrimp industry with annual revenues exceeding 70 million dollars. Despite the ecologic and economic significance of GSL, little is known about the biogeochemical cycling of mercury (Hg) and no water-quality standards currently exist for this system. Whole water samples collected since 2000 were determined to contain elevated concentrations of total Hg (100 ng/L) and methyl Hg (33 ng/L). The elevated levels of methyl Hg are likely the result of high rates of SO4 reduction and associated Hg methylation in persistently anoxic areas of the lake at depths greater than 6.5 m below the water surface. Hydroacoustic equipment deployed in this anoxic layer indicates a "conveyor belt" flow system that can distribute methyl Hg in a predominantly southerly direction throughout the southern half of GSL (fig. 1, URL: http://users.o2wire.com/dnaftz/Dave/AGU-abs-figs- AUG06.pdf). Periodic and sustained wind events on GSL may result in transport of the methyl Hg-rich anoxic water and bottom sediments into the oxic and biologically active regions. Sediment traps positioned above the anoxic brine interface have captured up to 6 mm of bottom sediment during cumulative wind-driven resuspension events (fig. 2, URL:http://users.o2wire.com/dnaftz/Dave/AGU-abs-figs-AUG06.pdf). Vertical velocity data collected with hydroacoustic equipment indicates upward flow > 1.5 cm/sec during transient wind events (fig. 3, URL:http://users.o2wire.com/dnaftz/Dave/AGU-abs-figs-AUG06.pdf). Transport of methyl Hg into the oxic regions of GSL is supported by biota samples. The median Hg concentration (wet weight) in brine shrimp increased seasonally from the spring to fall time period and is likely a

  6. Modeling of salt diffusion in raw hide: an optimization of the curing process

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most common method of preserving raw hides is brine curing with sodium chloride. However, this process has three important disadvantages: first, the length of time that it takes, which is a minimum of 18 hours; second, the insufficient degree of curing reached in some hides due to an overload a...

  7. Modeling of Salt Diffusion in Raw Hide: An Optimization of the Curing Process

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most common method of preserving raw hides is brine curing with sodium chloride. However, this process has three important disadvantages: first, the length of time that it takes, which is a minimum of 18 hours; second, the insufficient degree of curing reached in some hides due to an overload a...

  8. On the importance of coupled THM processes to predict the long-term response of a generic salt repository for high-level nuclear waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco Martin, L.; Rutqvist, J.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2013-12-01

    Salt is a potential medium for the underground disposal of nuclear waste because it has several assets, in particular its ability to creep and heal fractures generated by excavation and its water and gas tightness in the undisturbed state. In this research, we focus on disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste (such as spent fuel) and we consider a generic salt repository with in-drift emplacement of waste packages and subsequent backfill of the drifts with run-of-mine crushed salt. As the natural salt creeps, the crushed salt backfill gets progressively compacted and an engineered barrier system is subsequently created. In order to evaluate the integrity of the natural and engineered barriers over the long-term, it is important to consider the coupled effects of the thermal, hydraulic and mechanical processes that take place. In particular, the results obtained so far show how the porosity reduction of the crushed salt affects the saturation and pore pressure evolution throughout the repository, both in time and space. Such compaction is induced by the stress and temperature regime within the natural salt. Also, transport properties of the host rock are modified not only by thermo-mechanically and hydraulically-induced damaged processes, but also by healing/sealing of existing fractures. In addition, the THM properties of the backfill evolve towards those of the natural salt during the compaction process. All these changes are based on dedicated laboratory experiments and on theoretical considerations [1-3]. Different scenarios are modeled and compared to evaluate the relevance of different processes from the perspective of effective nuclear waste repositories. The sensitivity of the results to some parameters, such as capillarity, is also addressed. The simulations are conducted using an updated version of the TOUGH2-FLAC3D simulator, which is based on a sequential explicit method to couple flow and geomechanics [4]. A new capability for large strains and creep

  9. s-Process Element Abundance Results for 47 Tuc Stars Using SALT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worley, C. C.; Cottrell, P. L.; Wylie de Boer, E. C.

    2008-04-01

    Eleven giant branch stars in 47 Tucanæ were observed using the Robert Stobie Spectro-graph (RSS) on the Southern African Large Telescope during the performance verification phase of this instrument. These stars were analysed as part of a quest to investigate s-process element abundances throughout the colour-magnitude diagram of 47 Tucanæ. No abundance variations of Zr, Ba, Nd and Eu were found in these eleven stars, such that [X/Fe] = 0.0+/-0.5 3dex. Further, theoretical analysis indicates that the maximum resolution on RSS and AAOmega on the Anglo-Australian Telescope is sufficient to detect s-process element abundance variations. More detailed discussion on the abundance analysis of these stars and the theoretical analysis of spectrograph resolution can be found in [l].

  10. Illinois Institute of Technology Report: IITB52 Antifoamer for Alternative Salt Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.P.

    2001-06-27

    The attached report is a summary of the work performed by Dr. Darsh Wasan, Dr. Alex Nikolov, and their researchers at the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) during FY01. IIT developed the IITB52 antifoam for SRTC in FY00 to minimize the foam produced during precipitation, washing and concentration of cesium and potassium tetraphenyl borate precipitate. The IITB52 antifoam has been very successful during continuous processing (prototypical of plant operation). However, there were several key issues where SRTC needed the experience and knowledge of IIT to resolve. As a result a subcontract was set up with Dr. Wasan and Dr. Alex Nikolov during FY01. This subcontract requested IIT to perform the basic research necessary to understand the foaming mechanism and explain the effectiveness of the IITB52 antifoam agent in the Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Process (STTP).

  11. Influence Learning Tour on Salted Fish Processing Behavior in Product Development in Karangantu Nusantara Fishing Port (NFP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudaya, Yaya

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to increase revenue, salted fish processors in Karangantu NFP should be able to change the behavior of production from quantity to quality orientation. The increase in revenue will be difficult to achieve if the salted fish products produced still monotonous and traditional and only sold in sacks or cardboard. Development of a quality…

  12. Individual aerosol particles in and below clouds along a Mt. Fuji slope: Modification of sea-salt-containing particles by in-cloud processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, S.; Hirose, Y.; Miura, K.; Okochi, H.

    2014-02-01

    Sizes and compositions of atmospheric aerosol particles can be altered by in-cloud processing by absorption/adsorption of gaseous and particulate materials and drying of aerosol particles that were formerly activated as cloud condensation nuclei. To elucidate differences of aerosol particles before and after in-cloud processing, aerosols were observed along a slope of Mt. Fuji, Japan (3776 m a.s.l.) during the summer in 2011 and 2012 using a portable laser particle counter (LPC) and an aerosol sampler. Aerosol samples for analyses of elemental compositions were obtained using a cascade impactor at top-of-cloud, in-cloud, and below-cloud altitudes. To investigate composition changes via in-cloud processing, individual particles (0.5-2 μm diameter) of samples from five cases (days) collected at different altitudes under similar backward air mass trajectory conditions were analyzed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer. For most cases (four cases), most particles at all altitudes mainly comprised sea salts: mainly Na with some S and/or Cl. Of those, in two cases, sea-salt-containing particles with Cl were found in below-cloud samples, although sea-salt-containing particles in top-of-cloud samples did not contain Cl. This result suggests that Cl in the sea salt was displaced by other cloud components. In the other two cases, sea-salt-containing particles on samples at all altitudes were without Cl. However, molar ratios of S to Na (S/Na) of the sea-salt-containing particles of top-of-cloud samples were higher than those of below-cloud samples, suggesting that sulfuric acid or sulfate was added to sea-salt-containing particles after complete displacement of Cl by absorption of SO2 or coagulation with sulfate. The additional volume of sulfuric acid in clouds for the two cases was estimated using the observed S/Na values of sea-salt-containing particles. The estimation revealed that size changes by in

  13. RESULTS OF THE EXTRACTION-SCRUB-STRIP TESTING USING AN IMPROVED SOLVENT FORMULATION AND SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY SIMULATED WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-09

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent - also known as the next generation solvent (NGS) - for deployment at the Savannah River Site to remove cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is a collaborative effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). As part of the program, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has performed a number of Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests. These batch contact tests serve as first indicators of the cesium mass transfer solvent performance with actual or simulated waste. The test detailed in this report used simulated Tank 49H material, with the addition of extra potassium. The potassium was added at 1677 mg/L, the maximum projected (i.e., a worst case feed scenario) value for the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The results of the test gave favorable results given that the potassium concentration was elevated (1677 mg/L compared to the current 513 mg/L). The cesium distribution value, DCs, for extraction was 57.1. As a comparison, a typical D{sub Cs} in an ESS test, using the baseline solvent formulation and the typical waste feed, is {approx}15. The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) uses the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process to remove cesium (Cs) from alkaline waste. This process involves the use of an organic extractant, BoBCalixC6, in an organic matrix to selectively remove cesium from the caustic waste. The organic solvent mixture flows counter-current to the caustic aqueous waste stream within centrifugal contactors. After extracting the cesium, the loaded solvent is stripped of cesium by contact with dilute nitric acid and the cesium concentrate is transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), while the organic solvent is cleaned and recycled for further use. The Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), under

  14. Physicochemical, microbiological and spoilage analysis of probiotic processed cheese analogues with reduced emulsifying salts during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Ehsannia, Sheida; Sanjabi, Mohammad Reza

    2016-02-01

    Microbial quality of low-salt processed cheeses supplemented with Bacillus coagulans spores (10(7)-10(8) CFU/g) relying on their physicochemical characteristics during 60 day-cold storage was evaluated. A reduction in moisture content, water activity and pH value and a significant enhancement in proteolytic index of control and probiotic samples were obtained by prolonging storage time. Survival rate of the probiotic cells significantly decreased up to day 30, while total count of the viable cells increased by increasing storage time. A 20 and 67 % increase in total counts of coliforms and mold-yeast of the control sample were respectively observed after 60 days of cold storage. A considerable decrease in the total counts of coliforms and mold-yeast was also found in the processed cheeses containing probiotic supplement. According to the macroscopic and sensory assessment, off-odors and off-flavors in the control sample were diagnosed after day 1 of cold-storage. Noticeably, the resistance to spoilage was more prominent in samples containing the probiotic cells. PMID:27162379

  15. Modeling the Dynamics of the Great Salt Lake as an Integrator of Regional Hydrologic and Climate Processes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, I. N.; Tarboton, D. G.

    2005-12-01

    The Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, is the fourth largest, perennial, terminal lake in the world. The Great Salt Lake (GSL) level fluctuates due to the balance between inflows and outflows. These fluctuations are of interest whether they are high (flooding hazards) or low (economic impacts). Inflows are due to streamflow, primarily from the Bear River (54%), Weber River (18%) and Jordan/Provo River (28%) systems. Inflows also include precipitation directly on the lake and groundwater both from the East and West sides. The only outflow is evaporation that is controlled by the climate and area of the lake that changes with level. The GSL reached historic high levels above 1284 m in 1873 and 1986. A historic low at 1278 m occurred in 1963. These fluctuations represent the integrated effect of climate and hydrologic processes as well as the dynamic interaction between lake volume, area and salinity that impact evaporation from the lake. The topographic area-volume relationship in the GSL plays a role in the system dynamics because area is a control on the evaporation outflux. This paper examines the relationships between Basin climate (precipitation and temperature), Inflows to the lake (primarily streamflow) and outflows (evaporation). The role played by the topographic elevation-area-volume relationship on lake dynamics and the correspondence between modes in volume and area distributions and peaks in the area-volume derivative was examined. We derived, using a steady state approximation, the relationship between distributions of lake volume and lake area and the area-volume derivative from the topography/bathymetry. This analysis showed that both the topography/bathymetry and multimodality in the area distribution are required to explain the observed multimodality in the volume distribution. We also separated lake volume changes into increases in the spring (due to spring runoff) and declines in the fall (due to evaporation) and then related these volume changes to

  16. Influence of high concentrations of mineral salts on production process and NaCl accumulation by Salicornia europaea plants as a constituent of the LSS phototroph link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirova, N. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Kovaleva, N. P.; Gribovskaya, I. V.; Tikhomirov, A. A.

    Use of halophytes (salt-tolerant vegetation), in a particular vegetable Salicornia europaea plants which are capable of utilizing NaCl in rather high concentrations, is one of possible means of NaCl incorporation into mass exchange of bioregenerative life support systems. In preliminary experiments it was shown that S. europaea plants, basically, could grow on urine pretreated with physicochemical processing and urease-enzyme decomposing of urea with the subsequent ammonia distillation. But at the same time inhibition of the growth process of the plants was observed. The purpose of the given work was to find out the influence of excessive quantities of some mineral elements contained in products of physicochemical processing of urine on the production process and NaCl accumulation by S. europaea plants. As the content of mineral salts in the human liquid wastes (urine) changed within certain limits, two variants of experimental solutions were examined. In the first variant, the concentration of mineral salts was equivalent to the minimum salt content in the urine and was: K - 1.5 g/l, P - 0.5 g/l, S - 0.5 g/l, Mg - 0.07 g/l, Ca - 0.2 g/l. In the second experimental variant, the content of mineral salts corresponded to the maximum salt content in urine and was the following: K - 3.0 g/l, P - 0.7 g/l, S - 1.2 g/l, Mg - 0.2 g/l, Ca - 0.97 g/l. As the control, the Tokarev nutrient solution containing nitrogen in the form of a urea, and the Knop nutrient solution with nitrogen in the nitrate form were used. N quantity in all four variants made up 177 mg/l. Air temperature was 24 °C, illumination was continuous. Light intensity was 690 μmol/m 2s of photosynthetically active radiation. NaCl concentration in solutions was 1%. Our researches showed that the dry aboveground biomass of an average plant of the first variant practically did not differ from the control and totaled 11 g. In the second variant, S. europaea productivity decreased and the dry aboveground biomass

  17. Integrated Salt Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urai, Janos L.; Kukla, Peter A.

    2015-04-01

    The growing importance of salt in the energy, subsurface storage, and chemical and food industries also increases the challenges with prediction of geometries, kinematics, stress and transport in salt. This requires an approach, which integrates a broader range of knowledge than is traditionally available in the different scientific and engineering disciplines. We aim to provide a starting point for a more integrated understanding of salt, by presenting an overview of the state of the art in a wide range of salt-related topics, from (i) the formation and metamorphism of evaporites, (ii) rheology and transport properties, (iii) salt tectonics and basin evolution, (iv) internal structure of evaporites, (v) fluid flow through salt, to (vi) salt engineering. With selected case studies we show how integration of these domains of knowledge can bring better predictions of (i) sediment architecture and reservoir distribution, (ii) internal structure of salt for optimized drilling and better cavern design, (iii) reliable long-term predictions of deformations and fluid flow in subsurface storage. A fully integrated workflow is based on geomechanical models, which include all laboratory and natural observations and links macro- and micro-scale studies. We present emerging concepts for (i) the initiation dynamics of halokinesis, (ii) the rheology and deformation of the evaporites by brittle and ductile processes, (iii) the coupling of processes in evaporites and the under- and overburden, and (iv) the impact of the layered evaporite rheology on the structural evolution.

  18. Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process Development Unit. Phase 2. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, October-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, M. H.

    1981-01-20

    This represents the second quarterly progress report on Phase 2 of the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process Development Unit (PDU) Program. Phase 1 of this program started in March 1976 and included the design, construction, and initial operation of the PDU. On June 25, 1980, Phase 2 of the program was initiated. It covers a 1-year operations program utilizing the existing PDU and is planned to include five runs with a targeted total operating time of 9 weeks. During this report period, Run 6, the initial run of the Phase 2 program was completed. The gasification system was operated for a total of 95 h at pressures up to 10 atm. Average product gas HHV values of 100 Btu/scf were recorded during 10-atm operation, while gasifying coal at a rate of 1100 lb/h. The run was terminated when the melt overflow system plugged after 60 continuous hours of overflow. Following this run, melt withdrawal system revisions were made, basically by changing the orifice materials from Monofrax to an 80 Cobalt-20 Chromium alloy. By the end of the report period, the PDU was being prepared for Run 7.

  19. Phytoremediation of salt-affected soils: a review of processes, applicability, and the impact of climate change.

    PubMed

    Jesus, João M; Danko, Anthony S; Fiúza, António; Borges, Maria-Teresa

    2015-05-01

    Soil salinization affects 1-10 billion ha worldwide, threatening the agricultural production needed to feed the ever increasing world population. Phytoremediation may be a cost-effective option for the remediation of these soils. This review analyzes the viability of using phytoremediation for salt-affected soils and explores the remedial mechanisms involved. In addition, it specifically addresses the debate over plant indirect (via soil cation exchange enhancement) or direct (via uptake) role in salt remediation. Analysis of experimental data for electrical conductivity (ECe) + sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) reduction and plant salt uptake showed a similar removal efficiency between salt phytoremediation and other treatment options, with the added potential for phytoextraction under non-leaching conditions. A focus is also given on recent studies that indicate potential pathways for increased salt phytoextraction, co-treatment with other contaminants, and phytoremediation applicability for salt flow control. Finally, this work also details the predicted effects of climate change on soil salinization and on treatment options. The synergetic effects of extreme climate events and salinization are a challenging obstacle for future phytoremediation applications, which will require additional and multi-disciplinary research efforts. PMID:25854203

  20. Pyrochemical extraction of transition metals from Pacific Ocean deep sea nodules

    SciTech Connect

    von Winbush, S.; Maroni, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    Considerable success has been achieved in lixiviation transition metals from Pacific Ocean deep sea nodules. These nodules typically contain approx.30 wt% Mn, approx.7 wt% Fe, approx.1 wt% Ni, approx.1 wt% Cu, and approx.0.3 wt% Co. Samples of the nodules have been subjected to extraction tests at 450C using LiCl-KCl eutectic and MgCl2-NaCl-KCl eutectic. The most impressive results came from studies using the Mg, Na, K/Cl eutectic. With this salt, nearly 100% of the Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Ni are brought into solution. The dissolution reaction is quite vigorous, with nearly complete extraction occurring in a very short time (minutes) following melting of the eutectic. Quantitative recovery of cobalt is achieved with nodule-to-salt weight ratios as high as 1:3. Electronic absorption spectroscopy (carried out on the molten extract solution at the test temperature) showed that the oxidation state of the dissolved transition metals are CoS , CuS , FeT , MnS , and NiS . At temperatures greater than or equal to450C, the FeT and CuS distill out of the extract solution at a rapid rate and condense as binary halides or halide complexes. Using a combination of distillation followed by electrochemical reduction of the CoS and NiS in the extract salt, it appears possible to recover a fairly high grade of cobalt metal and nickel metal as well as high grade CuS , FeT , and MnS in the form of a halide salt (CuCl2, FeCl3) or an oxide precipitate (Mn2O3).

  1. Forcing functions governing salt transport processes in coastal navigation canals and connectivity to surrounding marshes in South Louisiana using Houma Navigation Canal as a surrogate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snedden, Gregg

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how circulation and mixing processes in coastal navigation canals influence the exchange of salt between marshes and coastal ocean, and how those processes are modulated by external physical processes, is critical to anticipating effects of future actions and circumstance. Examples of such circumstances include deepening the channel, placement of locks in the channel, changes in freshwater discharge down the channel, changes in outer continental shelf (OCS) vessel traffic volume, and sea level rise. The study builds on previous BOEM-funded studies by investigating salt flux variability through the Houma Navigation Canal (HNC). It examines how external physical factors, such as buoyancy forcing and mixing from tidal stirring and OCS vessel wakes, influence dispersive and advective fluxes through the HNC and the impact of this salt flux on salinity in nearby marshes. This study quantifies salt transport processes and salinity variability in the HNC and surrounding Terrebonne marshes. Data collected for this study include time-series data of salinity and velocity in the HNC, monthly salinity-depth profiles along the length of the channel, hourly vertical profiles of velocity and salinity over multiple tidal cycles, and salinity time series data at three locations in the surrounding marshes along a transect of increasing distance from the HNC. Two modes of vertical current structure were identified. The first mode, making up 90% of the total flow field variability, strongly resembled a barotropic current structure and was coherent with alongshelf wind stress over the coastal Gulf of Mexico. The second mode was indicative of gravitational circulation and was linked to variability in tidal stirring and the longitudinal salinity gradients along the channel’s length. Diffusive process were dominant drivers of upestuary salt transport, except during periods of minimal tidal stirring when gravitational circulation became more important. Salinity in the

  2. Bile salt-stimulated carboxyl ester lipase influences lipoprotein assembly and secretion in intestine: a process mediated via ceramide hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Kirby, R Jason; Zheng, Shuqin; Tso, Patrick; Howles, Philip N; Hui, David Y

    2002-02-01

    Bile salt-stimulated carboxyl ester lipase (CEL), also called cholesterol esterase, is one of the major proteins secreted by the pancreas. The physiological role of CEL was originally thought to be its mediation of dietary cholesterol absorption. However, recent studies showed no difference between wild type and CEL knockout mice in the total amount of cholesterol absorbed in a single meal. The current study tests the hypothesis that CEL in the intestinal lumen may influence the type of lipoproteins produced. A lipid emulsion containing 4 mm phospholipid, 13.33 mm [(3)H]triolein, and 2.6 mm [(14)C]cholesterol in 19 mm taurocholate was infused into the duodenum of lymph fistula CEL(+/+) and CEL(-/-) mice at a rate of 0.3 ml/h. Results showed no difference between CEL(+/+) and CEL(-/-) mice in the rate of cholesterol and triglyceride transport from the intestinal lumen to the lymph. However, CEL(-/-) mice produced predominantly smaller lipoproteins, whereas the CEL(+/+) mice produced primarily large chylomicrons and very low density lipoprotein. The proximal intestine of CEL(-/-) mice was also found to possess significantly less ceramide hydrolytic activity than that present in CEL(+/+) mice. By using Caco2 cells grown on Transwell membranes as a model, sphingomyelinase treatment inhibited the secretion of larger chylomicron-like lipoproteins without affecting total cholesterol secretion. In contrast, the addition of CEL to the apical medium increased the amount of large lipoproteins produced and alleviated the inhibition induced by sphingomyelinase. Taken together, this study identified a novel and physiologically significant role for CEL, namely the promotion of large chylomicron production in the intestine. The mechanism appears to be mediated through CEL hydrolysis of ceramide generated during the lipid absorption process. PMID:11733511

  3. The Difference of Chemical Components and Biological Activities of the Crude Products and the Salt-Processed Product from Semen Cuscutae.

    PubMed

    Yang, Song; Xu, Hefang; Zhao, Baosheng; Li, Shasha; Li, Tingting; Xu, Xinfang; Zhang, Tianjiao; Lin, Ruichao; Li, Jian; Li, Xiangri

    2016-01-01

    Semen Cuscutae is a well-known Chinese medicine which has been used to nourish kidney in China for thousands of years. The crude product of semen Cuscutae (CP) and its salt-processed product (SPP) are separately used in clinic for their different effects. The study was designed to investigate the influence of processing from semen Cuscutae on chemical components and biological effects. The principal component analysis and quantitative analysis were used to study the differences of the chemical components. The effects of nourishing kidney were detected to compare the differences between the CP and SPP. The PCA results showed that the obvious separation was achieved in the CP and SPP samples. The results of quantitative analysis showed that quercetin and total flavonoids had significantly increased after salt processing while hyperoside had decreased. The comparison of CP and SPP on biological activities showed that both of them could ameliorate the kidney-yang deficiency syndrome by restoring the level of sex hormone, improving the immune function and antioxidant effect. However, SPP was better in increasing the level of T and the viscera weight of testicle and epididymis, improving the antioxidant effect. The results suggested that salt processing changed its chemical profile, which in turn enhanced its biological activities. PMID:27610186

  4. The Difference of Chemical Components and Biological Activities of the Crude Products and the Salt-Processed Product from Semen Cuscutae

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Song; Xu, Hefang; Zhao, Baosheng; Li, Shasha; Li, Tingting; Xu, Xinfang; Zhang, Tianjiao; Lin, Ruichao

    2016-01-01

    Semen Cuscutae is a well-known Chinese medicine which has been used to nourish kidney in China for thousands of years. The crude product of semen Cuscutae (CP) and its salt-processed product (SPP) are separately used in clinic for their different effects. The study was designed to investigate the influence of processing from semen Cuscutae on chemical components and biological effects. The principal component analysis and quantitative analysis were used to study the differences of the chemical components. The effects of nourishing kidney were detected to compare the differences between the CP and SPP. The PCA results showed that the obvious separation was achieved in the CP and SPP samples. The results of quantitative analysis showed that quercetin and total flavonoids had significantly increased after salt processing while hyperoside had decreased. The comparison of CP and SPP on biological activities showed that both of them could ameliorate the kidney-yang deficiency syndrome by restoring the level of sex hormone, improving the immune function and antioxidant effect. However, SPP was better in increasing the level of T and the viscera weight of testicle and epididymis, improving the antioxidant effect. The results suggested that salt processing changed its chemical profile, which in turn enhanced its biological activities. PMID:27610186

  5. Effect of iron salt counter ion in dose-response curves for inactivation of Fusarium solani in water through solar driven Fenton-like processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurioles-López, Verónica; Polo-López, M. Inmaculada; Fernández-Ibáñez, Pilar; López-Malo, Aurelio; Bandala, Erick R.

    2016-02-01

    The inactivation of Fusarium solani in water was assessed by solar driven Fenton-like processes using three different iron salts: ferric acetylacetonate (Fe(acac)3), ferric chloride (FeCl3) and ferrous sulfate (FeSO4). The experimental conditions tested were [Fe] ≈ 5 mg L-1, [H2O2] ≈ 10 mg L-1 and [Fe] ≈ 10 mg L-1; [H2O2] ≈ 20 mg L-1 mild and high, respectively, and pH 3.0 and 5.0, under solar radiation. The highest inactivation rates were observed at high reaction conditions for the three iron salts tested at pH 5.0 with less than 3.0 kJ L-1 of accumulate energy (QUV) to achieve over 99.9% of F. solani inactivation. Fe(acac)3 was the best iron salt to accomplishing F. solani inactivation. The modified Fermi equation was used to fix the experimental inactivation, data showed it was helpful for modeling the process, adequately describing dose-response curves. Inactivation process using FeSO4 at pH 3.0 was modeled fairly with r2 = 0.98 and 0.99 (mild and high concentration, respectively). Fe(acac)3, FeCl3 and FeSO4 at high concentration (i.e. [Fe] ≈ 10 mg L-1; [H2O2] ≈ 20 mg L-1) and pH 5.0 showed the highest fitting values (r2 = 0.99). Iron salt type showed a remarkable influence on the Fenton-like inactivation process.

  6. Recovery of 238PuO2 by Molten Salt Oxidation Processing of 238PuO2 Contaminated Combustibles (Part II)

    SciTech Connect

    Remerowski, Mary Lynn; Dozhier, C.; Krenek, K.; VanPelt, C. E.; Reimus, M. A.; Spengler, D.; Matonic, J.; Garcia, L.; Rios, E.; Sandoval, F.; Herman, D.; Hart, R.; Ewing, B.; Lovato, M.; Romero, J. P.

    2005-02-06

    Pu-238 heat sources are used to fuel radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) used in space missions. The demand for this fuel is increasing, yet there are currently no domestic sources of this material. Much of the fuel is material reprocessed from other sources. One rich source of Pu-238 residual material is that from contaminated combustible materials, such as cheesecloth, ion exchange resins and plastics. From both waste minimization and production efficiency standpoints, the best solution is to recover this material. One way to accomplish separation of the organic component from these residues is a flameless oxidation process using molten salt as the matrix for the breakdown of the organic to carbon dioxide and water. The plutonium is retained in the salt, and can be recovered by dissolution of the carbonate salt in an aqueous solution, leaving the insoluble oxide behind. Further aqueous scrap recovery processing is used to purify the plutonium oxide. Recovery of the plutonium from contaminated combustibles achieves two important goals. First, it increases the inventory of Pu-238 available for heat source fabrication. Second, it is a significant waste minimization process. Because of its thermal activity (0.567 W per gram), combustibles must be packaged for disposition with much lower amounts of Pu-238 per drum than other waste types. Specifically, cheesecloth residues in the form of pyrolyzed ash (for stabilization) are being stored for eventual recovery of the plutonium.

  7. Recovery of 238PuO2 by Molten Salt Oxidation Processing of 238PuO2 Contaminated Combustibles (Part II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remerowski, Mary Lynn; Dozhier, C.; Krenek, K.; VanPelt, C. E.; Reimus, M. A.; Spengler, D.; Matonic, J.; Garcia, L.; Rios, E.; Sandoval, F.; Herman, D.; Hart, R.; Ewing, B.; Lovato, M.; Romero, J. P.

    2005-02-01

    Pu-238 heat sources are used to fuel radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) used in space missions. The demand for this fuel is increasing, yet there are currently no domestic sources of this material. Much of the fuel is material reprocessed from other sources. One rich source of Pu-238 residual material is that from contaminated combustible materials, such as cheesecloth, ion exchange resins and plastics. From both waste minimization and production efficiency standpoints, the best solution is to recover this material. One way to accomplish separation of the organic component from these residues is a flameless oxidation process using molten salt as the matrix for the breakdown of the organic to carbon dioxide and water. The plutonium is retained in the salt, and can be recovered by dissolution of the carbonate salt in an aqueous solution, leaving the insoluble oxide behind. Further aqueous scrap recovery processing is used to purify the plutonium oxide. Recovery of the plutonium from contaminated combustibles achieves two important goals. First, it increases the inventory of Pu-238 available for heat source fabrication. Second, it is a significant waste minimization process. Because of its thermal activity (0.567 W per gram), combustibles must be packaged for disposition with much lower amounts of Pu-238 per drum than other waste types. Specifically, cheesecloth residues in the form of pyrolyzed ash (for stabilization) are being stored for eventual recovery of the plutonium.

  8. The effect of dry-cured salt contents on accumulation of non-volatile compounds during dry-cured goose processing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, C Y; Wang, Y; Cao, J X; Chen, Y J; Liu, Y; Sun, Y Y; Pan, D D; Ou, C R

    2016-09-01

    Twenty-four Eastern Zhejiang White Geese were slaughtered, dry-cured by 2 different kinds of salt contents (12 geese with 4% low salt level [LS]; 12 geese with 8% high salt level [HS]) for one d, marinated in brine for one d, and air dry-ripened at 16 °C for 7 d. The effect of dry-curing salt contents on the changes in myofibril proteins, potential proteolysis activities, and total free amino acid (TFAA) in dry-cured goose was investigated. Compared to the raw, cathepsin B+L and calpains activities decreased at the end of dry-curing and the third d of dry-ripening. At the final products, the activities of cathepsin B+L and calpains were about half of those in raw meat. There was no difference in proteolysis activities except for the end of dry-curing (P < 0.05) and the 3 d of dry-ripening (P < 0.05) for cathepsin B+L, and the end of dry-curing (P < 0.05) for calpains (P < 0.05) between groups. Myosin light chain (MLC) and troponin-I were cleaved. Compared to the raw, TFAA increased by 36.64 and 31.82% in the final products for HS (P < 0.001) and LS (P < 0.01), respectively. The increase of TFAA could be attributed to the proteolysis of myofibril proteins and retained proteolysis activities. No significant difference on TFAA and MLC and troponin-I bands was observed between groups in final products. This means that different proteolysis activities during processing did not cause the difference in quality of final products between groups, and that 4% low salt can be used in future applications. PMID:27083543

  9. A Hypermedia Environment To Explore and Negotiate Students' Conceptions: Animation of the Solution Process of Table Salt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebenezer, Jazlin V.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the characteristics and values of hypermedia for learning chemistry. Reports on how a hypermedia environment was used to explore a group of 11th grade chemistry students' conceptions of table salt dissolving in water. Indicates that a hypermedia environment can be used to explore, negotiate, and assess students' conceptions of…

  10. Influence of high concentrations of mineral salts on production process and NaCl accumulation by Salicornia europaea plants as a constituent of the LSS phototroph link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirova, N. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Kovaleva, N. P.; Gribovskaya, I. V.; Tikhomirov, A. A.

    Use of halophytes, in particular vegetable Salicornia europaea plants which are capable to utilize NaCl in rather high concentrations, is one of possible means of NaCl incorporation into mass exchange of biological life support systems (BLSS). In preliminary experiments it was shown, that S.europaea plants, basically, can grow on urine subjected to physicochemical processing and urease-fermentative decomposing of urea with the subsequent ammonia distillation, but for all that oppression of plants growth process was observed. In this connection, the purpose of the given work was to find out the influence of excessive quantity of some mineral elements contained in products of physicochemical processing of urine on production process and NaCl accumulation by S. europaea plants. As the content of mineral salts in the human's fluid excretions changed within certain limits two variants of modeling solutions were prepared. In the first variant concentration of mineral salts was equivalent to minimum salt content in the human's fluid excretions and compounded: K - 1,5 g/l, P - 0,5 g/l, S - 0,5 g/l, Mg - 0,07 g/l, Ca - 0,2 g/l. In the second variant the content of mineral salts corresponded to maximum salt content in the human's fluid excretions and was the following: K - 3,0 g/l, P - 0,7g/l, S - 1,2 g/l, Mg - 0,2 g/l, Ca - 0,97 g/l. As the control the modified solution under B.I.Tokarev's formulation containing nitrogen in the form of a urea, and Knop's solution with nitrogen in the nitrate form were used. N quantity in all 4 variants made up 177 mg/l. Air temperature was 24°, illumination was continuous. Light intensity was 150 W/m2 PAR. NaCl concentration in solutions compounded 1 %. The researches conducted showed that the dry above-ground biomass of an average plant of the first variant practically did not differ from the control and compounded 11,2 g. In the second variant S.europaea productivity decreased, and the dry above-ground biomass of an average plant

  11. DC electrophoresis and viscosity of realistic salt-free concentrated suspensions: non-equilibrium dissociation-association processes.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Reina, Emilio; Carrique, Félix; Lechuga, Luis

    2014-03-01

    Most of the suspensions usually found in industrial applications are concentrated, aqueous and in contact with the atmospheric CO2. The case of suspensions with a high concentration of added salt is relatively well understood and has been considered in many studies. In this work we are concerned with the case of concentrated suspensions that have no ions different than: (1) those stemming from the charged colloidal particles (the added counterions, that counterbalance their surface charge); (2) the H(+) and OH(-) ions from water dissociation, and (3) the ions generated by the atmospheric CO2 contamination. We call this kind of systems "realistic salt-free suspensions". We show some theoretical results about the electrophoretic mobility of a colloidal particle and the electroviscous effect of realistic salt-free concentrated suspensions. The theoretical framework is based on a cell model that accounts for particle-particle interactions in concentrated suspensions, which has been successfully applied to many different phenomena in concentrated suspensions. On the other hand, the water dissociation and CO2 contamination can be described following two different levels of approximation: (a) by local equilibrium mass-action equations, because it is supposed that the reactions are so fast that chemical equilibrium is attained everywhere in the suspension, or (b) by non-equilibrium dissociation-association kinetic equations, because it is considered that some reactions are not rapid enough to ensure local chemical equilibrium. Both approaches give rise to different results in the range from dilute to semidilute suspensions, causing possible discrepancies when comparing standard theories and experiments concerning transport properties of realistic salt-free suspensions. PMID:24407659

  12. The impact of salt replacers and flavor enhancer on the processing characteristics and consumer acceptance of restructured cooked hams.

    PubMed

    Pietrasik, Z; Gaudette, N J

    2014-03-01

    Two salt replacers (Ocean's Flavor - OF45, OF60) and one flavor enhancer [Fonterra™ 'Savoury Powder' (SP)] were evaluated for their ability to effectively reduce sodium, while maintaining the functional and sensory properties of restructured hams. Product functionality and safety were assessed using instrumental measures (yield, purge, pH, expressible moisture, proximate composition, sodium content, color, texture) and microbiological assessment. Sensory attributes were evaluated using consumer sensory panelists. All alternative formulations resulted in products with sodium contents below the Health Check(TM) Program guidelines, without detrimental effect on water binding and texture in treatments when NaCl was substituted with sea salt replacers (OF45, OF60). Sodium reduction had no effect on the shelf life of the cooked ham with up to 60 days of refrigerated storage. Consumer hedonics for flavor and aftertaste were lower for OF45 and OF60 compared to control, suggesting that these salt replacers may not be appropriate for inclusion in these products. PMID:24334036

  13. Fission Product Separation from Pyrochemical Electrolyte by Cold Finger Melt Crystallization

    SciTech Connect

    Versey, Joshua R.

    2013-08-01

    This work contributes to the development of pyroprocessing technology as an economically viable means of separating used nuclear fuel from fission products and cladding materials. Electrolytic oxide reduction is used as a head-end step before electrorefining to reduce oxide fuel to metallic form. The electrolytic medium used in this technique is molten LiCl-Li2O. Groups I and II fission products, such as cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr), have been shown to partition from the fuel into the molten LiCl-Li2O. Various approaches of separating these fission products from the salt have been investigated by different research groups. One promising approach is based on a layer crystallization method studied at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Despite successful demonstration of this basic approach, there are questions that remain, especially concerning the development of economical and scalable operating parameters based on a comprehensive understanding of heat and mass transfer. This research explores these parameters through a series of experiments in which LiCl is purified, by concentrating CsCl in a liquid phase as purified LiCl is crystallized and removed via an argon-cooled cold finger.

  14. Rheology Of MonoSodium Titanate (MST) And Modified Mst (mMST) Mixtures Relevant To The Salt Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D. C.; Martino, C. J.; Shehee, T. C.; Poirier, M. R.

    2013-07-31

    The Savannah River National Laboratory performed measurements of the rheology of suspensions and settled layers of treated material applicable to the Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility. Suspended solids mixtures included monosodium titanate (MST) or modified MST (mMST) at various solid concentrations and soluble ion concentrations with and without the inclusion of kaolin clay or simulated sludge. Layers of settled solids were MST/sludge or mMST/sludge mixtures, either with or without sorbed strontium, over a range of initial solids concentrations, soluble ion concentrations, and settling times.

  15. Microbial community of salt crystals processed from Mediterranean seawater based on 16S rRNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Baati, Houda; Guermazi, Sonda; Gharsallah, Neji; Sghir, Abdelghani; Ammar, Emna

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA was used to investigate for the first time the structure of the microbial community that inhabits salt crystals retrieved from the bottom of a solar saltern, located in the coastal area of the Mediterranean Sea (Sfax, Tunisia). This community lives in an extremely salty environment of 250-310 g/L total dissolved salt. A total of 78 bacterial 16S rRNA clone sequences making up to 21 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), determined by the DOTUR program to 97% sequence similarity, was analyzed. These OTUs were affiliated to Bacteroidetes (71.4% of OTUs), and gamma-Proteobacteria and alpha-Proteobacteria (equally represented by 14.2% of the OTUs observed). The archaeal community composition appeared more diverse with 68 clones, resulting in 44 OTUs, all affiliated with the Euryarchaeota phylum. Of the bacterial and archaeal clones showing <97% 16S rRNA sequence identity with sequences in public databases, 47.6% and 84.1% respectively were novel clones. Both rarefaction curves and diversity measurements (Simpson, Shannon-Weaver, Chao) showed a more diverse archaeal than bacterial community at the Tunisian solar saltern pond. The analysis of an increasing clone's number may reveal additional local diversity. PMID:20130693

  16. Phosphate salts

    MedlinePlus

    ... taken by mouth or used as enemas. Indigestion. Aluminum phosphate and calcium phosphate are FDA-permitted ingredients ... Phosphate salts containing sodium, potassium, aluminum, or calcium are LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth short-term, when sodium phosphate is inserted into the ...

  17. Thallium (I), soluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Thallium ( I ) , soluble salts ; CASRN Various Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  18. Uranium, soluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Uranium , soluble salts ; no CASRN Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  19. Nickel, soluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nickel , soluble salts ; CASRN Various Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  20. Chlorite (sodium salt)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chlorite ( sodium salt ) ; CASRN 7758 - 19 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  1. Dalapon, sodium salt

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dalapon , sodium salt ; CASRN 75 - 99 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  2. Production of chlorine from chloride salts

    DOEpatents

    Rohrmann, Charles A.

    1981-01-01

    A process for converting chloride salts and sulfuric acid to sulfate salts and elemental chlorine is disclosed. A chloride salt and sulfuric acid are combined in a furnace where they react to produce a sulfate salt and hydrogen chloride. Hydrogen chloride from the furnace contacts a molten salt mixture containing an oxygen compound of vanadium, an alkali metal sulfate and an alkali metal pyrosulfate to recover elemental chlorine. In the absence of an oxygen-bearing gas during the contacting, the vanadium is reduced, but is regenerated to its active higher valence state by separately contacting the molten salt mixture with an oxygen-bearing gas.

  3. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

    2012-11-01

    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  4. Pilot-scale equipment development for pyrochemical reduction of spent oxide fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, S.D.; King, R.W.; Durstine, K.R.; Eberl, C.S.

    1998-07-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed and is presently demonstrating the electrometallurgical conditioning of sodium-bonded spent metal fuel from Experimental Breeder Reactor II, resulting in uranium, ceramic, and metal waste forms. Equipment is being developed at ANL which will precondition irradiated oxide fuel and demonstrate the application of electrometallurgical conditioning to such non-metallic fuels as well. The oxide reduction process preconditions irradiated oxide fuel such that uranium and transuranic (TRU) constituents are chemically reduced into metallic form via a molten Li/LiCl-based reduction system. In this form the spent fuel is further conditioned in an electrorefiner and waste handling equipment, thereby placing the uranium, TRU elements, and fissions products into stable forms suitable for placement in a long-term repository. Development of the Li/LiCl-based oxide reduction process has proceeded at lab- (nominally 50 grams of heavy metal (HM)) and engineering-scale (nominally 10-kg of HM) for unirradiated oxide fuel. The presentation described the process and equipment design for scale-up from lab- and engineering-scale reduction of unirradiated oxide fuel in gloveboxes to pilot-scale (up to 100-kg of HM) reduction of irradiated oxide fuel in a hot cell. [Abstract only.

  5. The economics of salt cake recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Graziano, D.; Hryn, J.N.; Daniels, E.J.

    1996-03-01

    The Process Evaluation Section at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a major program aimed at developing cost-effective technologies for salt cake recycling. This paper addresses the economic feasibility of technologies for the recovery of aluminum, salt, and residue-oxide fractions from salt cake. Four processes were assessed for salt recovery from salt cake: (1) base case: leaching in water at 25{degree}C, with evaporation to crystallize salts; (2) high-temperature case: leaching in water at 250{degree}C, with flash crystallization to precipitate salts; (3) solventlantisolvent case: leaching in water at 25{degree}C, concentrating by evaporation, and reacting with acetone to precipitate salts; and (4) electrodialysis: leaching in water at 25{degree}C, with concentration and recovery of salts by electrodialysis. All test cases for salt recovery had a negative present value, given current pricing structure and 20% return on investment. Although manufacturing costs (variable plus fixed) could reasonably be recovered in the sales price of the salt product, capital costs cannot. The economics for the recycling processes are improved, however, if the residueoxide can be sold instead of landfilled. For example, the base case process would be profitable at a wet oxide value of $220/metric ton. The economics of alternative scenarios were also considered, including aluminum recovery with landfilling of salts and oxides.

  6. Complexity of the flooding/drying process in an estuarine tidal-creek salt-marsh system: An application of FVCOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Changsheng; Qi, Jianhua; Li, Chunyan; Beardsley, Robert C.; Lin, Huichan; Walker, Randy; Gates, Keith

    2008-07-01

    The tidal flooding/drying process in the Satilla River Estuary was examined using an unstructured-grid finite-volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM). Driven by tidal forcing at the open boundary and river discharge at the upstream end, FVCOM produced realistic tidal flushing in this estuarine tidal-creek intertidal salt-marsh complex, amplitudes and phases of the tidal wave, and salinity observed at mooring sites and along hydrographic transects. The model-predicted residual flow field is characterized by multiscale eddies in the main channel, which are verified by ship-towed ADCP measurements. To examine the impact of complex coastal geometry on water exchange in an estuarine tidal-creek salt-marsh system, FVCOM was compared with our previous structured-grid finite difference Satilla River Estuary model (ECOM-si). The results suggest that by failing to resolve the complex coastal geometry of tidal creeks, barriers and islands, a model can generate unrealistic flow and water exchange and thus predict the wrong dynamics for this estuary. A mass-conservative unstructured-grid model is required to accurately and efficiently simulate tidal flow and flushing in a complex geometrically controlled estuarine dynamical system.

  7. Synthesis of hollow cobalt oxide nanopowders by a salt-assisted spray pyrolysis process applying nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion and their electrochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Ju, Hyeon Seok; Cho, Jung Sang; Kim, Jong Hwa; Choi, Yun Ju; Kang, Yun Chan

    2015-12-21

    A new concept for preparing hollow metal oxide nanopowders by salt-assisted spray pyrolysis applying nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion is introduced. The composite powders of metal oxide and indecomposable metal salt are prepared by spray pyrolysis. Post-treatment under a reducing atmosphere and subsequent washing using distilled water produce aggregation-free metal nanopowders. The metal nanopowders are then transformed into metal oxide hollow nanopowders by nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion. Co3O4 hollow nanopowders are prepared as first target materials. A cobalt oxide-NaCl composite powder prepared by spray pyrolysis transforms into several Co3O4 hollow nanopowders by several treatment processes. The discharge capacities of the Co3O4 nanopowders with filled and hollow structures at a current density of 1 A g(-1) for the 150th cycle are 605 and 775 mA h g(-1), respectively. The hollow structure formed by nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion improves the lithium-ion storage properties of Co3O4 nanopowders. PMID:26571144

  8. Effects of metal salt addition on odor and process stability during the anaerobic digestion of municipal waste sludge.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Timothy; Eskicioglu, Cigdem

    2015-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an effective way to recover energy and nutrients from organic waste; however, several issues including the solubilization of bound nutrients and the production of corrosive, highly odorous and toxic volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in AD biogas can limit its wider adoption. This study explored the effects of adding two different doses of ferric chloride, aluminum sulfate and magnesium hydroxide directly to the feed of complete mix semi-continuously fed mesophilic ADs on eight of the most odorous VSCs in AD biogas at three different organic loading rates (OLR). Ferric chloride was shown to be extremely effective in reducing VSCs by up to 87%, aluminum sulfate had the opposite effect and increased VSC levels by up to 920%, while magnesium hydroxide was not shown to have any significant impact. Ferric chloride, aluminum sulfate and magnesium hydroxide were effective in reducing the concentration of orthophosphate in AD effluent although both levels of alum addition caused digester failure at elevated OLRs. Extensive foaming was observed within the magnesium hydroxide dosed digesters, particularly at higher doses and high OLRs. Certain metal salt additions may be a valuable tool in overcoming barriers to AD and to meet regulatory targets. PMID:26260964

  9. Position paper on the applicability of supplemental standards to the uppermost aquifer at the Uranium Mill Tailings Vitro Processing Site, Salt Lake City, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This report documents the results of the evaluation of the potential applicability of supplemental standards to the uppermost aquifer underlying the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, Vitro Processing Site, Salt Lake City, Utah. There are two goals for this evaluation: provide the landowner with information to make an early qualitative decision on the possible use of the Vitro property, and evaluate the proposed application of supplemental standards as the ground water compliance strategy at the site. Justification of supplemental standards is based on the contention that the uppermost aquifer is of limited use due to wide-spread ambient contamination not related to the previous site processing activities. In support of the above, this report discusses the site conceptual model for the uppermost aquifer and related hydrogeological systems and establishes regional and local background water quality. This information is used to determine the extent of site-related and ambient contamination. A risk-based evaluation of the contaminants` effects on current and projected land uses is also provided. Reports of regional and local studies and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site investigations provided the basis for the conceptual model and established background ground water quality. In addition, a limited field effort (4 through 28 March 1996) was conducted to supplement existing data, particularly addressing the extent of contamination in the northwestern portion of the Vitro site and site background ground water quality. Results of the field investigation were particularly useful in refining the conceptual site model. This was important in light of the varied ground water quality within the uppermost aquifer. Finally, this report provides a critical evaluation, along with the related uncertainties, of the applicability of supplemental standards to the uppermost aquifer at the Salt Lake City Vitro processing site.

  10. Evaluation of climate and land use changes on hydrologic processes in the Salt River Basin, Missouri, United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of climate and land use changes on hydrologic processes at the watershed scale is needed by land managers and policy makers to properly assess potential adaptation strategies. While numerous studies have been conducted on hydrologic processes in the Midwest, only a few have analyzed the l...

  11. EFFECT OF NUTRIENT LOADING ON BIOGEOCHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL PROCESSES IN A NEW ENGLAND HIGH SALT MARSH, SPARTINA PATNES, (AITON MUHL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal marshes represent an important transitional zone between uplands and estuaries and can assimilate nutrient inputs from uplands. We examined the effects of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization on biogeochemical and microbial processes during the summer growing sea...

  12. Phase equilibria in the system H{sub 2}O-NaCl-KCl-MgCl{sub 2} relevant to salt cake processing

    SciTech Connect

    Bodnar, R.J.; Vityk, M.O.; Hryn, J.N.; Mavrogenes, J.

    1997-02-01

    One waste product in recycling of Al is salt cake, a mixture of Al, salts, and residue oxides. Several methods have been proposed to recycle salt cake, one involving high-temperature leaching of salts from the salt cake. The salt composition can be approximated as a mixture predominantly of NaCl and KCl salts, with lesser amounts of Mg chloride. In order to better assess the feasibility of recycling salt cake, an experimental study was conducted of phase equilibria in the system H{sub 2}O-NaCl-KCl-MgCl{sub 2} at pressure (P), temperature (T), and composition conditions appropriate for high- temperature salt cake recycling. These experiments were designed to evaluate the effect of small amounts (2-10 wt%) of MgCl{sub 2} on solubilities of halite (NaCl) and sylvite (KCl) in saturated solutions (30-50 wt% NaCl+KCl; NaCl:KCl = 1:1 and 3:1) at elevated P and T.

  13. Ultrasonic characterization of pork meat salting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Pérez, J. V.; De Prados, M.; Pérez-Muelas, N.; Cárcel, J. A.; Benedito, J.

    2012-12-01

    Salting process plays a key role in the preservation and quality of dry-cured meat products. Therefore, an adequate monitoring of salt content during salting is necessary to reach high quality products. Thus, the main objective of this work was to test the ability of low intensity ultrasound to monitor the salting process of pork meat. Cylindrical samples (diameter 36 mm, height 60±10 mm) of Biceps femoris were salted (brine 20% NaCl, w/w) at 2 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. During salting and at each experimental time, three cylinders were taken in order to measure the ultrasonic velocity at 2 °C. Afterwards, the cylinders were split in three sections (height 20 mm), measuring again the ultrasonic velocity and determining the salt and the moisture content by AOAC standards. In the whole cylinders, moisture content was reduced from 763 (g/kg sample) in fresh samples to 723 (g/kg sample) in samples salted for 7 days, while the maximum salt gain was 37.3 (g/kg sample). Although, moisture and salt contents up to 673 and 118 (g/kg sample) were reached in the sections of meat cylinders, respectively. During salting, the ultrasonic velocity increased due to salt gain and water loss. Thus, significant (p<0.05) linear relationships were found between the ultrasonic velocity and the salt (R2 = 0.975) and moisture (R2 = 0.863) contents. In addition, the change of the ultrasonic velocity with the increase of the salt content showed a good agreement with the Kinsler equation. Therefore, low intensity ultrasound emerges as a potential technique to monitor, in a non destructive way, the meat salting processes carried out in the food industry.

  14. Recycling of aluminum salt cake

    SciTech Connect

    Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Karvelas, D.E.

    1991-12-01

    The secondary aluminum industry generates more than 110 {times} 10{sup 3} tons of salt-cake waste every year. This waste stream contains about 3--5% aluminum, 15--30% aluminum oxide, 30--40% sodium chloride, and 20--30% potassium chloride. As much as 50% of the content of this waste is combined salt (sodium and potassium chlorides). Salt-cake waste is currently disposed of in conventional landfills. In addition, over 50 {times} 10{sup 3} tons of black dross that is not economical to reprocess a rotary furnace for aluminum recovery ends up in landfills. The composition of the dross is similar to that of salt cake, except that it contains higher concentrations of aluminum (up to 20%) and correspondingly lower amounts of salts. Because of the high solubility of the salts in water, these residues, when put in landfills, represent a potential source of pollution to surface-water and groundwater supplies. The increasing number of environmental regulations on the generation and disposal of industrial wastes are likely to restrict the disposal of these salt-containing wastes in conventional landfills. Processes exist that employ the dissolution and recovery of the salts from the waste stream. These wet-processing methods are economical only when the aluminum concentration in that waste exceeds about 10%. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a study in which existing technologies were reviewed and new concepts that are potentially more cost-effective than existing processes were developed and evaluated. These include freeze crystallization, solvent/antisolvent extraction, common-ion effect, high-pressure/high-temperature process, and capillary-effect systems. This paper presents some of the technical and economic results of the aforementioned ANL study.

  15. Report of ground water monitoring for expansion of the golf course, Salt Lake City, Utah, vitro processing site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    To determine the potential impacts of the proposed golf course expansion on the south side of the Vitro site, ground water data from the UMTRA Vitro processing site were evaluated in response to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office request. Golf in the Round, Inc., has proposed an expansion of the present driving range to include a 9-hole golf course on the UMTRA Vitro processing site, which is owned by the Central Valley Water Reclamation Facility (CVWRF). An expanded golf course would increase irrigation and increase the amount of water that could infiltrate the soil, recharging the unconfined aquifer. Increased water levels in the aquifer could alter the ground water flow regime; contaminants in the shallow ground water could then migrate off the site or discharge to surface water in the area. Dewatering of the unconfined aquifer on CVWRF property could also impact site contaminant migration; a significant amount of ground water extraction at CVWRF could reduce the amount of contaminant migration off the site. Since 1978, data have been collected at the site to determine the distribution of tailings materials (removed from the site from 1985 to 1987) and to characterize the presence and migration of contaminants in sediments, soils, surface water, and ground water at the former Vitro processing site. Available data suggest that irrigating an expanded golf course may cause contamination to spread more rapidly within the unconfined aquifer. The public is not at risk from current Vitro processing site activities, nor is risk expected due to golf course expansion. However, ecological risk could increase with increased surface water contamination and the development of ground water seeps.

  16. Start-up of a combined anaerobic/partial nitritation/anammox process for high-salt mustard wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, You-Peng; Ma, Teng-Fei; Hu, Xiao; Fang, Fang; Shen, Yu; Yang, Ji-Xiang; Guo, Jin-Song; Bao, Zhen-Guo; Yan, Peng

    2015-01-01

    To treat high salinity wastewater from the mustard pickling industry, a combined anaerobic, partial nitritation (PN), and anammox process was employed using three connected reactors: an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (ASBBR) for anaerobic treatment, a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for PN, and an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) for anammox. The start-up of the three individual reactors was investigated. Results showed that each reactor started up successfully, notwithstanding the stepwise increase of influent salinity to about 16.1 g NaCl/L. In the ASBBR, 89.7 % of chemical oxygen demand in the influent was removed and organic nitrogen was converted to ammonium (NH4 (+)-N). The SBR performed well with NO3 (-)-N concentration of 4.9 mg/L and ratio of NO2 (-)-N to NH4 (+)-N at the range of 1.0 to 1.3 in the effluent, which favored the anammox process. After the start-up of the UASB, the anammox process also showed stability and efficiency with a high total nitrogen removal efficiency of 86.2 % under high salinity of 12.0 g NaCl/L and nitrogen loading rate of 258 mg/(L · day). PMID:25240848

  17. Robot development for nuclear material processing

    SciTech Connect

    Pedrotti, L.R.; Armantrout, G.A.; Allen, D.C.; Sievers, R.H. Sr.

    1991-07-01

    The Department of Energy is seeking to modernize its special nuclear material (SNM) production facilities and concurrently reduce radiation exposures and process and incidental radioactive waste generated. As part of this program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) lead team is developing and adapting generic and specific applications of commercial robotic technologies to SNM pyrochemical processing and other operations. A working gantry robot within a sealed processing glove box and a telerobot control test bed are manifestations of this effort. This paper describes the development challenges and progress in adapting processing, robotic, and nuclear safety technologies to the application. 3 figs.

  18. High performance organic thin film transistors with solution processed TTF-TCNQ charge transfer salt as electrodes.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Biswanath; Mukherjee, Moumita

    2011-09-01

    Fabrication of high-performance organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) with solution processed organic charge transfer complex (TTF-TCNQ) film as bottom contact source-drain electrodes is reported. A novel capillary based method was used to deposit the source-drain electrodes from solution and to create the channel between the electrodes. Both p- and n-type OTFTs have been fabricated with solution deposited organic charge transfer film as contact electrodes. Comparison of the device performances between OTFTs with TTF-TCNQ as source-drain electrodes and those with Au electrodes (both top and bottom contact) indicate that better results have been obtained in organic complex film contacted OTFT. The high mobility, low threshold voltage, and efficient carrier injection in both types of OTFTs implies the potential use of the TTF-TCNQ based complex material as low-cost contact electrodes. The lower work function of the TTF-TCNQ electrode and better contact of the complex film with the organic thin film owing to the organic-organic interface results in efficient charge transfer into the semiconductor yielding high device performance. The present method having organic metal as contact materials promises great potential for the fabrication of all-organics and plastic electronics devices with high throughput and low-cost processing. PMID:21812432

  19. Ground water elevation monitoring at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Salt Lake City, Utah, Vitro processing site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    In February 1994, a ground water level monitoring program was begun at the Vitro processing site. The purpose of the program was to evaluate how irrigating the new golf driving range affected ground water elevations in the unconfined aquifer. The program also evaluated potential impacts of a 9-hole golf course planned as an expansion of the driving range. The planned golf course expansion would increase the area to be irrigated and, thus, the water that could infiltrate the processing site soil to recharge the unconfined aquifer. Increased water levels in the aquifer could alter the ground water flow regime; contaminants in ground water could migrate off the site or could discharge to bodies of surface water in the area. The potential effects of expanding the golf course have been evaluated, and a report is being prepared. Water level data obtained during this monitoring program indicate that minor seasonal mounding may be occurring in response to irrigation of the driving range. However, the effects of irrigation appear small in comparison to the effects of precipitation. There are no monitor wells in the area that irrigation would affect most; that data limitation makes interpretations of water levels and the possibility of ground water mounding uncertain. Limitations of available data are discussed in the conclusion.

  20. Synthesis of luminescent SnO2:Eu3+ nanorods via a salt-assisted solution combustion process.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weifan; Liu, Ming; Liu, Yue; Lin, Yucui; Yu, Lixing; Hong, Jianming

    2014-07-01

    SnO2:Eu3+ nanorods have been successfully synthesized by annealing products from microwave-induced KCl-assisted solution combustion reaction, which uses tin (IV) chloride pentahydrate and europium nitrate as cationic source, ethyl glycol as fuel and ammonium nitrate as combustion-supporting agent. The structural and photoluminescent properties of SnO2:Eu3+ nanorods were investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), selected area electron diffractometry (SAED), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The phase transformation in the synthetic process was observed by X-ray diffraction pattern. Accordingly, the growth mechanism of SnO2:Eu3+ nanorods was discussed. The results showed that the SnO2:Eu3+ nanorods were rutile-structured single crystals with 10-15 nm in diameter and 200-250 nm in length. Proper addition of KCl into redox mixture solution is critical to the formation of SnO2:Eu3+ nanorods. The doped Eu3+ concentration has obvious effect on the photoluminescence of SnO2:Eu3+ nanorods. The approach is convenient, inexpensive and efficient for the high yield preparation of SnO2:Eu3+ nanorods. PMID:24758061

  1. Precipitation of jarosite-type double salts from spent acid solutions from a chemical coal cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, G.

    1990-09-21

    The precipitation of jarosite compounds to remove Na, K, Fe, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} impurities from spent acid solutions from a chemical coal cleaning process was studied. Simple heating of model solutions containing Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} caused jarosite (KFe{sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(OH){sub 6}) to form preferentially to natrojarosite (NaFe{sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(OH){sub 6}). Virtually all of the K, about 90% of the Fe, and about 30% of the SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} could be precipitated from those solutions at 95{degree}C, while little or no Na was removed. However, simple heating of model solutions containing only Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} up to 95{degree}C for {le}12 hours produced low yields of jarosite compounds, and the Fe concentration in the solution had to be increased to avoid the formation of undesirable Fe compounds. Precipitate yields could be increased dramatically in model solutions of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} containing excess Fe by using either CaCO{sub 3}, Ca(OH){sub 2}, or ZnO to neutralize H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} released during hydrolysis of the Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and during the precipitation reactions. Results obtained from the studies with model solutions were applied to spent acids produced during laboratory countercurrent washing of coal which had been leached with a molten NaOH/KOH mixture. Results indicated that jarosite compounds can be precipitated effectively from spent acid solutions by heating for 6 hours at 80{degree}C while maintaining a pH of about 1.5 using CaCO{sub 3}.

  2. Effect of high pressure processing on the gel properties of salt-soluble meat protein containing CaCl2 and κ-carrageenan.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fei; Chen, Conggui; Zheng, Lei; Zhou, Cunliu; Cai, Kezhou; Han, Zhuo

    2013-09-01

    The effects of high pressure processing (HPP) on the water-binding capacity and texture profile (TPA) of salt-soluble meat protein (SSMP) containing 0.2% CaCl2 and 0.6% κ-carrageenan (SSMP-CK) gels were investigated. The results showed that 300-400 MPa improved water-binding capacity and decreased TPA parameters of SSMP-CK gels (P<0.05), while 100 MPa could increase hardness and chewiness of the gels. The thermal transition temperature peak for the myosin head (Tpeak1) of SSMP disappeared on addition of CaCl2 and κ-carrageenan. 300 MPa produced a new peak, and caused a shift of the NH-stretching left peak and amide I and the disappearance of NH-stretching right peak. The destruction of network structure and the weakening of molecular interaction within the pressurized gels could result in the decrease of TPA parameters. Thus gelling properties could be modified by HPP, κ-carrageenan and Ca(2+). It is of interest to develop low-fat and sodium-reduced meat products. PMID:23644049

  3. Volatile and biogenic amines, microbiological counts, and bacterial amino acid decarboxylase activity throughout the salt-ripening process of anchovies (Engraulis encrasicholus).

    PubMed

    Pons-Sánchez-Cascado, S; Veciana-Nogués, M T; Bover-Cid, S; Mariné-Font, A; Vidal-Carou, M C

    2005-08-01

    Chemical and microbiological parameters were studied during the industrial production of salt-ripened anchovies (Engraulis encrasicholus). Gradual acidification and increases in the proteolysis index and in total volatile basic nitrogen were observed. At the end of the maturing process, the values reached pH 5.55 +/- 0.03, 21.33 +/- 5.82%, and 44.06 +/- 12.47 mg/ 100 g, respectively. In the three studied anchovy batches, the biogenic amines tyramine, histamine, putrescine, cadaverine, and agmatine increased during ripening. The highest values were found in the batch where initial microbial load was highest (batch 1), especially for enterobacteria and enterococci. Tyramine was the most abundant amine, reaching values from nondetectable to 90 mg/kg, whereas histamine did not surpass 20 mg/kg. Among the microorganisms isolated, Enterobacter cloacae, Aerococcus viridans, Kocuria varians, and Staphylococcus chromogenes were able to decarboxylate amino acids and produce biogenic amines in vitro. Most (70.59%) of the microorganisms identified were able to produce histamine, 23.53% were able to produce the diamines putrescine and cadaverine, and only 11.76% were able to produce tyramine, although this substance was the major biogenic amine found in anchovy samples. PMID:21132979

  4. Screening and optimization of some inorganic salts for the production of ergot alkaloids from Penicillium species using surface culture fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Memuna Ghafoor; Nadeem, Muhammad; Baig, Shahjehan; Cheema, Tanzeem Akbar; Atta, Saira; Ghafoor, Gul Zareen

    2016-03-01

    The present study deals with the production of ergot alkaloids from Penicillium commune and Penicillium citrinum, using surface culture fermentation process. Impact of various inorganic salts was tested on the production of ergot alkaloids during the optimization studies of fermentation medium such as impact of various concentration levels of succinic acid, ammonium chloride, MgSO4, FeSO4, ZnSO4, pH and the effect of various incubation time periods was also determined on the production of ergot alkaloids from Penicillium commune and Penicillium citrinum. Highest yield of ergot alkaloids was obtained when Penicillium commune and Penicillium citrinum that were grown on optimum levels of ingredients such as 2 g succinic acid, 1.5 and 2 g NH4Cl, 1.5 g MgSO4, 1 g FeSO4, 1 and 1.5 g ZnSO4 after 21 days of incubation time period using pH 5 at 25(°)C incubation temperature in the fermentation medium. Ergot alkaloids were determined using Spectrophotometry and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) techniques. PMID:27087069

  5. Thermophysical properties of reconsolidating crushed salt.

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Stephen J.; Urquhart, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Reconsolidated crushed salt is being considered as a backfilling material placed upon nuclear waste within a salt repository environment. In-depth knowledge of thermal and mechanical properties of the crushed salt as it reconsolidates is critical to thermal/mechanical modeling of the reconsolidation process. An experimental study was completed to quantitatively evaluate the thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt as a function of porosity and temperature. The crushed salt for this study came from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In this work the thermal conductivity of crushed salt with porosity ranging from 1% to 40% was determined from room temperature up to 300oC, using two different experimental methods. Thermal properties (including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat) of single-crystal salt were determined for the same temperature range. The salt was observed to dewater during heating; weight loss from the dewatering was quantified. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt decreases with increasing porosity; conversely, thermal conductivity increases as the salt consolidates. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt for a given porosity decreases with increasing temperature. A simple mixture theory model is presented to predict and compare to the data developed in this study.

  6. Structure and Properties of a Non-processive, Salt-requiring, and Acidophilic Pectin Methylesterase from Aspergillus niger Provide Insights into the Key Determinants of Processivity Control.

    PubMed

    Kent, Lisa M; Loo, Trevor S; Melton, Laurence D; Mercadante, Davide; Williams, Martin A K; Jameson, Geoffrey B

    2016-01-15

    Many pectin methylesterases (PMEs) are expressed in plants to modify plant cell-wall pectins for various physiological roles. These pectins are also attacked by PMEs from phytopathogens and phytophagous insects. The de-methylesterification by PMEs of the O6-methyl ester groups of the homogalacturonan component of pectin, exposing galacturonic acids, can occur processively or non-processively, respectively, describing sequential versus single de-methylesterification events occurring before enzyme-substrate dissociation. The high resolution x-ray structures of a PME from Aspergillus niger in deglycosylated and Asn-linked N-acetylglucosamine-stub forms reveal a 10⅔-turn parallel β-helix (similar to but with less extensive loops than bacterial, plant, and insect PMEs). Capillary electrophoresis shows that this PME is non-processive, halophilic, and acidophilic. Molecular dynamics simulations and electrostatic potential calculations reveal very different behavior and properties compared with processive PMEs. Specifically, uncorrelated rotations are observed about the glycosidic bonds of a partially de-methyl-esterified decasaccharide model substrate, in sharp contrast to the correlated rotations of processive PMEs, and the substrate-binding groove is negatively not positively charged. PMID:26567911

  7. Electrolyte salts for power sources

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1995-11-28

    Electrolyte salts are disclosed for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts. 2 figs.

  8. SEPARATION OF INORGANIC SALTS FROM ORGANIC SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Katzin, L.I.; Sullivan, J.C.

    1958-06-24

    A process is described for recovering the nitrates of uranium and plutonium from solution in oxygen-containing organic solvents such as ketones or ethers. The solution of such salts dissolved in an oxygen-containing organic compound is contacted with an ion exchange resin whereby sorption of the entire salt on the resin takes place and then the salt-depleted liquid and the resin are separated from each other. The reaction seems to be based on an anion formation of the entire salt by complexing with the anion of the resin. Strong base or quaternary ammonium type resins can be used successfully in this process.

  9. Materials processing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldron, R. D.; Criswell, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    Processing-refining of raw materials from extraterrestrial sources is detailed for a space materials handling facility. The discussion is constrained to those steps necessary to separate desired components from raw or altered input ores, semi-purified feedstocks, or process scrap and convert the material into elements, alloys, and consumables. The materials are regarded as originating from dead satellites and boosters, lunar materials, and asteroids. Strong attention will be given to recycling reagent substances to avoid the necessity of transporting replacements. It is assumed that since no aqueous processes exist on the moon, the distribution of minerals will be homogeneous. The processing-refining scenario will include hydrochemical, pyrochemical, electrochemical, and physical techniques selected for the output mass rate/unit plant mass ratio. Flow charts of the various materials processing operations which could be performed with lunar materials are provided, noting the necessity of delivering several alloying elements from the earth due to scarcities on the moon.

  10. Community solar salt production in Goa, India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Traditional salt farming in Goa, India has been practised for the past 1,500 years by a few communities. Goa’s riverine estuaries, easy access to sea water and favourable climatic conditions makes salt production attractive during summer. Salt produced through this natural evaporation process also played an important role in the economy of Goa even during the Portuguese rule as salt was the chief export commodity. In the past there were 36 villages involved in salt production, which is now reduced to 9. Low income, lack of skilled labour, competition from industrially produced salt, losses incurred on the yearly damage of embankments are the major reasons responsible for the reduction in the number of salt pans. Salt pans (Mithagar or Mithache agor) form a part of the reclaimed waterlogged khazan lands, which are also utilised for aquaculture, pisciculture and agriculture. Salt pans in Goa experience three phases namely, the ceased phase during monsoon period of June to October, preparatory phase from December to January, and salt harvesting phase, from February to June. After the monsoons, the salt pans are prepared manually for salt production. During high tide, an influx of sea water occurs, which enters the reservoir pans through sluice gates. The sea water after 1–2 days on attaining a salinity of approximately 5ºBé, is released into the evaporator pans and kept till it attains a salinity of 23 - 25ºBé. The brine is then released to crystallizer pans, where the salt crystallises out 25 - 27ºBé and is then harvested. Salt pans form a unique ecosystem where succession of different organisms with varying environmental conditions occurs. Organisms ranging from bacteria, archaea to fungi, algae, etc., are known to colonise salt pans and may influence the quality of salt produced. The aim of this review is to describe salt farming in Goa’s history, importance of salt production as a community activity, traditional method of salt production and the

  11. Community solar salt production in Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Mani, Kabilan; Salgaonkar, Bhakti B; Das, Deepthi; Bragança, Judith M

    2012-01-01

    Traditional salt farming in Goa, India has been practised for the past 1,500 years by a few communities. Goa's riverine estuaries, easy access to sea water and favourable climatic conditions makes salt production attractive during summer. Salt produced through this natural evaporation process also played an important role in the economy of Goa even during the Portuguese rule as salt was the chief export commodity. In the past there were 36 villages involved in salt production, which is now reduced to 9. Low income, lack of skilled labour, competition from industrially produced salt, losses incurred on the yearly damage of embankments are the major reasons responsible for the reduction in the number of salt pans.Salt pans (Mithagar or Mithache agor) form a part of the reclaimed waterlogged khazan lands, which are also utilised for aquaculture, pisciculture and agriculture. Salt pans in Goa experience three phases namely, the ceased phase during monsoon period of June to October, preparatory phase from December to January, and salt harvesting phase, from February to June. After the monsoons, the salt pans are prepared manually for salt production. During high tide, an influx of sea water occurs, which enters the reservoir pans through sluice gates. The sea water after 1-2 days on attaining a salinity of approximately 5ºBé, is released into the evaporator pans and kept till it attains a salinity of 23 - 25ºBé. The brine is then released to crystallizer pans, where the salt crystallises out 25 - 27ºBé and is then harvested.Salt pans form a unique ecosystem where succession of different organisms with varying environmental conditions occurs. Organisms ranging from bacteria, archaea to fungi, algae, etc., are known to colonise salt pans and may influence the quality of salt produced.The aim of this review is to describe salt farming in Goa's history, importance of salt production as a community activity, traditional method of salt production and the biota

  12. The effects of pre-salting methods on salt and water distribution of heavily salted cod, as analyzed by (1)H and (23)Na MRI, (23)Na NMR, low-field NMR and physicochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Gudjónsdóttir, María; Traoré, Amidou; Jónsson, Ásbjörn; Karlsdóttir, Magnea Gudrún; Arason, Sigurjón

    2015-12-01

    The effect of different pre-salting methods (brine injection with salt with/without polyphosphates, brining and pickling) on the water and salt distribution in dry salted Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) fillets was studied with proton and sodium NMR and MRI methods, supported by physicochemical analysis of salt and water content as well as water holding capacity. The study indicated that double head brine injection with salt and phosphates lead to the least heterogeneous water distribution, while pickle salting had the least heterogeneous salt distribution. Fillets from all treatments contained spots with unsaturated brine, increasing the risk of microbial denaturation of the fillets during storage. Since a homogeneous water and salt distribution was not achieved with the studied pre-salting methods, further optimizations of the salting process, including the pre-salting and dry salting steps, must be made in the future. PMID:26041245

  13. Investigation of Salt Loss from the Bonneville Salt Flats, Northwestern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, James L.; Kipp, Kenneth L.

    1997-01-01

    The Bonneville Salt Flats study area is located in the western part of the Great Salt Lake Desert in northwestern Utah, about 110 miles west of Salt Lake City. The salt crust covers about 50 square miles, but the extent varies yearly as a result of salt being dissolved by the formation and movement of surface ponds during the winter and redeposited with the evaporation of these ponds during the summer. A decrease in thickness and extent of the salt crust on the Bonneville Salt Flats has been documented during 1960-88 (S. Brooks, Bureau of Land Management, written commun., 1989). Maximum salt-crust thickness was 7 feet in 1960 and 5.5 feet in 1988. No definitive data are available to identify and quantify the processes that cause salt loss. More than 55 million tons of salt are estimated to have been lost from the salt crust during the 28-year period. The Bureau of Land Management needs to know the causes of salt loss to make appropriate management decisions.

  14. Rheological contrasts in salt and their effects on flow in salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urai, Janos L.; Kukla, Peter A.

    2014-05-01

    The majority of numerical and analogue models of salt tectonics assume homogeneous rheological models, and consequently produce simple internal structures. This is in contrast to observations in salt mines and 3D seismic, showing complex folding at a wide range of scales, in combination with boudinage and fracturing, which point to large rheological contrasts in salt bodies. The rheology of rock salt during slow deformation can be both Newtonian and Power law. Dislocation creep and dissolution-precipitation processes, such as solution-precipitation creep and dynamic recrystallisation, both play a significant role and grain boundary healing in deforming salt may result in cyclic softening and hardening behaviour. The switch between these processes can cause major changes in rock salt rheology, at time scales both relevant to geologic evolution and subsurface operations. In the dislocation creep field, a compilation of laboratory data show that different rock salts can creep at four orders of magnitude different strain rates under otherwise the same conditions. Potassium - Magnesium salts are in turn much weaker, and Anhydrite much stronger than rock salt. Anhydrite - carbonate inclusions embedded in deforming salt bodies respond to the movements of the salt in a variety of ways including boudinage and folding. New methods of microstructure analysis integrated with paleorheology indicators observed in natural laboratories allows an integration of these data and the development of a unified model for salt creep for both underground cavities and natural deformation, including the effect of high fluid pressures in salt which lead to a dramatic increases in permeability. For example, modeling of anhydrite stringer sinking is an important way to obtain the long term rheology of the halite, indicating that the rheology of Zechstein salt during the Tertiary was dominated by dislocation creep. These form the basis of a new generation of mechanical models to predict the

  15. Production of carboxylic acid and salt co-products

    DOEpatents

    Hanchar, Robert J.; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V.

    2014-09-09

    This invention provide processes for producing carboxylic acid product, along with useful salts. The carboxylic acid product that is produced according to this invention is preferably a C.sub.2-C.sub.12 carboxylic acid. Among the salts produced in the process of the invention are ammonium salts.

  16. Salt splitting with ceramic membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Kurath, D.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop ceramic membrane technologies for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions. This technology has the potential to reduce the low-level waste (LLW) disposal volume, the pH and sodium hydroxide content for subsequent processing steps, the sodium content of interstitial liquid in high-level waste (HLW) sludges, and provide sodium hydroxide free of aluminum for recycle within processing plants at the DOE complex. Potential deployment sites include Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The technical approach consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON). As the name implies, sodium ions are transported rapidly through these ceramic crystals even at room temperatures.

  17. Salt: a sacred substance.

    PubMed

    De Santo, N G; Bisaccia, C; De Santo, R M; De Santo, L S; Petrelli, L; Gallo, L; Cirillo, M; Capasso, G

    1997-11-01

    Salt is the last relic of the ocean where life was born. Its presence has influenced the whole gamut of history and its name is linked to hundred of geographical locations. Its importance for nutrition is supported by the discovery of Aeneolithic salt cellars. Salt cellars and pyramids of salt have been included in paintings and other works of art. In Japan where salt was and still is obtained from the sea, a salt culture has developed that can be traced in the rituals of everyday life, including meal preparation, sports, and Shinto ceremonies. PMID:9350697

  18. Long-Term Modeling of Coupled Processes in a Generic Salt Repository for Heat-Generating Nuclear Waste: Analysis of the Impacts of Halite Solubility Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco Martin, L.; Rutqvist, J.; Battistelli, A.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Rock salt is a potential medium for the underground disposal of nuclear waste because it has several assets, such as its ability to creep and heal fractures and its water and gas tightness in the undisturbed state. In this research, we focus on disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste and we consider a generic salt repository with in-drift emplacement of waste packages and crushed salt backfill. As the natural salt creeps, the crushed salt backfill gets progressively compacted and an engineered barrier system is subsequently created [1]. The safety requirements for such a repository impose that long time scales be considered, during which the integrity of the natural and engineered barriers have to be demonstrated. In order to evaluate this long-term integrity, we perform numerical modeling based on state-of-the-art knowledge. Here, we analyze the impacts of halite dissolution and precipitation within the backfill and the host rock. For this purpose, we use an enhanced equation-of-state module of TOUGH2 that properly includes temperature-dependent solubility constraints [2]. We perform coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical modeling and we investigate the influence of the mentioned impacts. The TOUGH-FLAC simulator, adapted for large strains and creep, is used [3]. In order to quantify the importance of salt dissolution and precipitation on the effective porosity, permeability, pore pressure, temperature and stress field, we compare numerical results that include or disregard fluids of variable salinity. The sensitivity of the results to some parameters, such as the initial saturation within the backfill, is also addressed. References: [1] Bechthold, W. et al. Backfilling and Sealing of Underground Repositories for Radioactive Waste in Salt (BAMBUS II Project). Report EUR20621 EN: European Atomic Energy Community, 2004. [2] Battistelli A. Improving the treatment of saline brines in EWASG for the simulation of hydrothermal systems. Proceedings, TOUGH Symposium 2012

  19. Salt tectonics on Venus

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, C.A.; Amsbury, D.

    1986-05-01

    The discovery of a surprisingly high deuterium/hydrogen ratio on Venus immediately led to the speculation that Venus may have once had a volume of surface water comparable to that of the terrestrial oceans. The authors propose that the evaporation of this putative ocean may have yielded residual salt deposits that formed various terrain features depicted in Venera 15 and 16 radar images. By analogy with models for the total evaporation of the terrestrial oceans, evaporite deposits on Venus should be at least tens to hundreds of meters thick. From photogeologic evidence and in-situ chemical analyses, it appears that the salt plains were later buried by lava flows. On Earth, salt diapirism leads to the formation of salt domes, anticlines, and elongated salt intrusions - features having dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 km. Due to the rapid erosion of salt by water, surface evaporite landforms are only common in dry regions such as the Zagros Mountains of Iran, where salt plugs and glaciers exist. Venus is far drier than Iran; extruded salt should be preserved, although the high surface temperature (470/sup 0/C) would probably stimulate rapid salt flow. Venus possesses a variety of circular landforms, tens to hundreds of kilometers wide, which could be either megasalt domes or salt intrusions colonizing impact craters. Additionally, arcurate bands seen in the Maxwell area of Venus could be salt intrusions formed in a region of tectonic stress. These large structures may not be salt features; nonetheless, salt features should exist on Venus.

  20. What Are Bath Salts?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are bath salts becoming more popular? Marsha Lopez Hi, Lauren. Nope! Actually quite the opposite! This family ... and how dangerous for your body? Michelle Rankin Hi ParkerPanella - Bath salts are drugs known as synthetic ...

  1. Low-salt diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... seasonings. Pepper, garlic, herbs, and lemon are good choices. Avoid packaged spice blends. They often contain salt. Use garlic and onion powder, not garlic and onion salt. Do not eat foods with monosodium glutamate (MSG). When you go out ...

  2. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    A molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication.

  3. Utah: Salt Lake Region

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Winter and Summer Views of the Salt Lake Region     View Larger Image Magnificent views of the region surrounding Salt Lake City, Utah are captured in these winter and summer images from the ...

  4. Chromium(III), insoluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chromium ( III ) , insoluble salts ; CASRN 16065 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments

  5. Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts ; CASRN Various Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Non

  6. Retrospective salt tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.P.A.

    1996-12-31

    The conceptual breakthroughs in understanding salt tectonics can be recognized by reviewing the history of salt tectonics, which divides naturally into three parts: the pioneering era, the fluid era, and the brittle era. The pioneering era (1856-1933) featured the search for a general hypothesis of salt diapirism, initially dominated by bizarre, erroneous notions of igneous activity, residual islands, in situ crystallization, osmotic pressures, and expansive crystallization. Gradually data from oil exploration constrained speculation. The effects of buoyancy versus orogeny were debated, contact relations were characterized, salt glaciers were discovered, and the concepts of downbuilding and differential loading were proposed as diapiric mechanisms. The fluid era (1933-{approximately}1989) was dominated by the view that salt tectonics resulted from Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in which a dense fluid overburden having negligible yield strength sinks into a less dense fluid salt layer, displacing it upward. Density contrasts, viscosity contrasts, and dominant wavelengths were emphasized, whereas strength and faulting of the overburden were ignored. During this era, palinspastic reconstructions were attempted; salt upwelling below thin overburdens was recognized; internal structures of mined diapirs were discovered; peripheral sinks, turtle structures, and diapir families were comprehended; flow laws for dry salt were formulated; and contractional belts on divergent margins and allochthonous salt sheets were recognized. The 1970s revealed the basic driving force of salt allochthons, intrasalt minibasins, finite strains in diapirs, the possibility of thermal convection in salt, direct measurement of salt glacial flow stimulated by rainfall, and the internal structure of convecting evaporites and salt glaciers. The 1980`s revealed salt rollers, subtle traps, flow laws for damp salt, salt canopies, and mushroom diapirs.

  7. Molten salt technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lovering, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    In this volume, the historical background, scope, problems, economics, and future applications of molten salt technologies are discussed. Topics presented include molten salts in primary production of aluminum, general principles and handling and safety of the alkali metals, first-row transition metals, group VIII metals and B-group elements, solution electrochemistry, transport phenomena, corrosion in different molten salts, cells with molten salt electrolytes and reactants, fuel cell design, hydrocracking and liquefaction, heat storage in phase change materials, and nuclear technologies.

  8. Salt weathering on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, M. C.

    1974-01-01

    Mariner 9 photographs of Mars indicate that significant erosion has occurred on that planet. Although several possible erosion mechanisms have been proposed, most terrestrial weathering mechanisms cannot function in the present Martian environment. Salt weathering, believed to be active in the Antarctic dry valleys, is especially suited to Mars, given the presence of salts and small amounts of water. Volcanic salts are probably available, and the association of salts and water is likely from both thermodynamic and geologic considerations.

  9. Use of agar diffusion assay to measure bactericidal activity of alkaline salts of fatty acids against bacteria associated with poultry processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agar diffusion assay was used to examine antibacterial activity of alkaline salts of caproic, caprylic, capric, lauric, and myristic acids. A 0.5M concentration of each fatty acid was dissolved in 1.0 M potassium hydroxide (KOH), and pH of the mixtures was adjusted to 10.5 with citric acid. Solu...

  10. Use of agar diffusion assay to evaluate bactericidal activity of formulations of alkaline salts of fatty acids against bacteria associated with poultry processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agar diffusion assay was used to examine antibacterial activity of alkaline salts of fatty acids (FA). Wells in agar media seeded with bacteria were filled with FA-potassium hydroxide (KOH) solutions, plates were incubated, and zones of inhibition were measured. The relationship between bacteric...

  11. Fracture and Healing of Rock Salt Related to Salt Caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, K.S.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1999-03-01

    In recent years, serious investigations of potential extension of the useful life of older caverns or of the use of abandoned caverns for waste disposal have been of interest to the technical community. All of the potential applications depend upon understanding the reamer in which older caverns and sealing systems can fail. Such an understanding will require a more detailed knowledge of the fracture of salt than has been necessary to date. Fortunately, the knowledge of the fracture and healing of salt has made significant advances in the last decade, and is in a position to yield meaningful insights to older cavern behavior. In particular, micromechanical mechanisms of fracture and the concept of a fracture mechanism map have been essential guides, as has the utilization of continuum damage mechanics. The Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which is summarized extensively in this work was developed specifically to treat both the creep and fracture of salt, and was later extended to incorporate the fracture healing process known to occur in rock salt. Fracture in salt is based on the formation and evolution of microfractures, which may take the form of wing tip cracks, either in the body or the boundary of the grain. This type of crack deforms under shear to produce a strain, and furthermore, the opening of the wing cracks produce volume strain or dilatancy. In the presence of a confining pressure, microcrack formation may be suppressed, as is often the case for triaxial compression tests or natural underground stress situations. However, if the confining pressure is insufficient to suppress fracture, then the fractures will evolve with time to give the characteristic tertiary creep response. Two first order kinetics processes, closure of cracks and healing of cracks, control the healing process. Significantly, volume strain produced by microfractures may lead to changes in the permeability of the salt, which can become a major concern in

  12. Photosensitization with benzochlorin iminium salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessel, David; Woodburn, Kathryn W.

    1994-07-01

    The photobiology of a group of iminium salts was examined. The nonfluorescent copper derivative (CDS1) had an almost undetectable triplet yield, but could catalyze phototoxic effects in cell culture and experimental animal tumors, apparently without the involvement of singlet oxygen. The Zn analog and the metal-free iminium salt both exhibited fluorescence, and were somewhat more efficacious that CDS1, perhaps because both type I and type II processes were available. The nonfluorescent Ni analog was inactive as a photosensitizer. Fluorescent probes indicated that CDS1 and its zinc analog catalyzed photodamage at mitochondrial loci, the metal-free derivative at membrane loci. Because of its very low fluorescence yield, the metal-free iminium salt showed only faint intracellular fluorescence, but the Zn analog was unusual in this regard, with irradiation leading to a photoproduct with very intense intracellular fluorescence which was not readily photobleached.

  13. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  14. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  15. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  16. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  17. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  18. The influence of salt formation on electrostatic and compression properties of flurbiprofen salts.

    PubMed

    Supuk, Enes; Ghori, Muhammad U; Asare-Addo, Kofi; Laity, Peter R; Panchmatia, Pooja M; Conway, Barbara R

    2013-12-15

    Salt formation is an effective method of improving physicochemical properties of acidic and basic drugs. The selection of a salt form most suitable for drug development requires a well-designed screening strategy to ensure various issues are addressed in the early development stages. Triboelectrification of pharmaceutical powders may cause problems during processing such as segregation of components due to the effects of particle adhesion. However, very little work has been done on the effect of salt formation on triboelectrification properties. In this paper, salts of flurbiprofen were prepared by combining the drug with a selection of closely related amine counter ions. The aim of the work was to investigate the impact of the counter ion on electrostatic charge of the resultant salts to inform the salt selection process. The experimental results show the magnitude of charge and polarity of the flurbiprofen salts to be highly dependent on the type of counter ion selected for the salt formation. Furthermore, particle adhesion to the stainless steel surface of the shaking container and the salts' compression properties were measured. The formed salts had lower electrostatic charges, improved tabletability, and resulted in reduced adhesion of these powders compared with the parent drug. PMID:24140338

  19. Interior cavern conditions and salt fall potential

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, D.E.; Molecke, M.A.; Myers, R.E.

    1998-03-01

    A relatively large number of salt caverns are used for fluid hydrocarbon storage, including an extensive set of facilities in the Gulf Coast salt domes for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Program. Attention is focused on the SPR caverns because of available histories that detail events involving loss and damage of the hanging string casing. The total number of events is limited, making the database statistically sparse. The occurrence of the events is not evenly distributed, with some facilities, and some caverns, more susceptible than others. While not all of these events could be attributed to impacts from salt falls, many did show the evidence of such impacts. As a result, a study has been completed to analyze the potential for salt falls in the SPR storage caverns. In this process, it was also possible to deduce some of the cavern interior conditions. Storage caverns are very large systems in which many factors could possibly play a part in casing damage. In this study, all of the potentially important factors such as salt dome geology, operational details, and material characteristics were considered, with all being logically evaluated and most being determined as secondary in nature. As a result of the study, it appears that a principal factor in determining a propensity for casing damage from salt falls is the creep and fracture characteristics of salt in individual caverns. In addition the fracture depends strongly upon the concentration of impurity particles in the salt. Although direct observation of cavern conditions is not possible, the average impurity concentration and the accumulation of salt fall material can be determined. When this is done, there is a reasonable correlation between the propensity for a cavern to show casing damage events and accumulation of salt fall material. The accumulation volumes of salt fall material can be extremely large, indicating that only a few of the salt falls are large enough to cause impact damage.

  20. Aqueous and non-aqueous soil processes on the northern plains of Mars: Insights from the distribution of perchlorate salts at the Phoenix landing site and in Earth analog environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cull, Selby; Kennedy, Erin; Clark, Alice

    2014-06-01

    In 2008, the Phoenix lander returned chemical evidence of perchlorate salts in the soils at its landing site on the northern plains of Mars. Subsequent spectral mapping of the perchlorate using Phoenix's multispectral Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) showed that concentrated patches of the salt exist in the subsurface. Because atmospheric formation of Martian perchlorate should form a highly-concentrated layer of salt on the surface, subsurface concentrated patches have been interpreted as evidence that Phoenix soils experienced minor amounts of aqueous reworking after perchlorate formation. Here, we present results from a wide-scale mapping of the Phoenix landing site using SSI multispectral data. We report that, contrary to preliminary case studies, limited occurrences of rocks and soil clods with perchlorate coatings are also found on the undisturbed surface. The discovery of these patches on undisturbed surfaces points to more complex processes operating on modern-day polar soils, perhaps including a combination of aqueous and mechanical processes, such as cryoturbation. Finally, we combine results from this study with an analysis of perchlorate redistribution mechanisms on Earth to illustrate the mechanisms likely responsible for modern processing of soils on the northern plains of Mars. Concentrated perchlorate coatings found on the undisturbed surface at the Phoenix site. Phoenix soils likely processed by both aqueous and non-aqueous processes. Small-volumes of water likely responsible for producing perchlorate coatings. Non-aqueous mechanical processing could bring coated rocks back to the surface. Perchlorate may not be found on the top-most surface at equatorial sites.

  1. V5 AND V10 CONTACTOR TESTING WITH THE NEXT GENERATION (CSSX) SOLVENT FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INTEGRATED SALT DISPOSITION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Restivo, M.; Peters, T.; Pierce, R.; Fondeur, F.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.; Giddings, B.; Hickman, B.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-17

    A solvent extraction system for removal of cesium (Cs) from alkaline solutions was developed utilizing a novel solvent invented at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This solvent consists of a calix[4]arene-crown-6 extractant dissolved in an inert hydrocarbon matrix. A Modifier is added to the solvent to enhance the extraction power of the calixarene and to prevent the formation of a third phase. An additional additive, called a suppressor, is used to improve stripping performance. The process that deploys this solvent system is known as Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX). The solvent system has been deployed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) since 2008. Subsequent development efforts by ORNL identified an improved solvent system that can raise the expected decontamination factor (DF) in MCU from {approx}200 to more than 40,000. The improved DF is attributed to an improved distribution ratio for cesium [D(Cs)] in extraction from {approx}15 to {approx}60, an increased solubility of the calixarene in the solvent from 0.007 M to >0.050 M, and use of boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}) stripping that also yields improved D(Cs) values. Additionally, the changes incorporated into the Next Generation CSSX Solvent (NGS) are intended to reduce solvent entrainment by virtue of more favorable physical properties. The MCU and Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) facilities are actively pursuing the changeover from the current CSSX solvent to the NGS solvent. To support this integration of the NGS into the MCU and SWPF facilities, the Savannah River Remediation (SRR)/ARP/MCU Life Extension Project requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) perform testing of the new solvent for the removal of Cs from the liquid salt waste stream. Additionally, SRNL was tasked with characterizing both strip (20-in long, 10 micron pore size) and extraction (40-in long, 20 micron pore size) coalescers. SRNL designed a pilot-scale experimental

  2. Stress Evolution in Sediments Around a Rising Salt Diapir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolinakou, M. A.; Flemings, P. B.; Hudec, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    We model the evolution of a salt diapir during sedimentation and study how deposition and salt movement affect stresses within the sedimentary wall rocks. We model the salt as a solid visco-plastic material and the sediments as a poro-elastoplastic materials, using a generalized Modified Cam Clay model. The salt flows because ongoing sedimentation increases the average density within the overburden sediments, pressurizing the salt. Stresses rotate within the sediments, such that the maximum principal stress is perpendicular to the contact with the salt. The minimum principal stress is in the circumferential direction, and drops near the salt. The mean stress increases near the upper parts of the diapir, leading to a porosity that is lower than predicted for uniaxial burial at the same depth. We built this axisymmetric model within the large-strain finite-element program Elfen. Because we simulate sedimentation simultaneously with the movement of the salt, our study offers two major achievements distinct from previous work on salt-diapir and sediment interaction: the salt is not kinematically prescribed and the stresses within the basin develop as a function of both the depositional process and the loading from the salt. Our results highlight the fact that forward modeling can provide a detailed understanding of the stress history of sediments close to salt diapirs; this is critical for predicting stress, porosity, and pore pressure in the wall rocks and more generally understanding earth processes related to salt systems.

  3. Method for preparing salt solutions having desired properties

    DOEpatents

    Ally, Moonis R.; Braunstein, Jerry

    1994-01-01

    The specification discloses a method for preparing salt solutions which exhibit desired thermodynamic properties. The method enables prediction of the value of the thermodynamic properties for single and multiple salt solutions over a wide range of conditions from activity data and constants which are independent of concentration and temperature. A particular application of the invention is in the control of salt solutions in a process to provide a salt solution which exhibits the desired properties.

  4. SALT Science Conference 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, David; Schroeder, Anja

    The Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) has seen great changes in the last years following the beginning of full time science operations in 2011. The three first generation instruments, namely the SALTICAM imager, the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) and its multiple modes and finally in 2014, the new High Resolution Spectrograph (HRS), have commissioned it. The SALT community now eagerly anticipate the installation and commissioning of the near-infrared arm of RSS, likely to commence in 2016. The the third "Science with SALT" conference was held at the Stellenbosch Institute of Advanced Study from 1-5 June 2015. The goals of this conference were to: -Present and discuss recent results from SALT observations; -Anticipate scientific programs that will be carried out with new SALT instrumentation such as RSS-NIR; -Provide a scientific environment in which to foster inter-institutional and inter-facility collaborations between scientists at the different SALT partners; -Provide an opportunity for students and postdocs to become more engaged in SALT science and operations; -Encourage the scientific strategic planning that will be necessary to insure an important role for SALT in an era of large astronomical facilities in the southern hemisphere such as MeerKAT, the SKA, LSST, and ALMA; -Consider options for future instrumentation and technical development of SALT; and, -Present, discuss, and engage in the SALT Collateral Benefits program led by SAAO. Conference proceedings editors: David Buckley and Anja Schroeder

  5. Biogeomorphically driven salt pan formation in Sarcocornia-dominated salt-marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escapa, Mauricio; Perillo, Gerardo M. E.; Iribarne, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Salt-marshes are under increasing threat, particularly from sea-level rise and increased wave action associated with climate change. The development and stability of these valuable habitats largely depend on complex interactions between biotic and abiotic processes operating at different scales. Also, interactions between biotic and abiotic processes drive internal morphological change in salt-marshes. In this paper we used a biogeomorphological approach to assess the impact of biological activities and interactions on salt pan formation in Sarcocornia-dominated salt marshes. Salt pans represent a key physiographic feature of salt-marshes and recent studies hypothesized that biogeomorphic processes could be related to salt pan formation in SW Atlantic salt-marshes. The glasswort Sarcocornia perennis is one of the dominant plants in the salt-marshes of the Bahía Blanca Estuary (Argentina) where they form patches up to 8 m in diameter. These salt-marshes are also inhabited in great densities by the burrowing crab Neohelice (Chasmagnathus) granulata whose bioturbation rates are among the highest reported for salt-marshes worldwide. A set of biological interactions between N. granulata and S. perennis appears to be responsible for salt pan development in these areas which has not been described elsewhere. The main objective of this work was to determine the ecological interactions occurring between plants and crabs that lead to salt pan formation by using field-based sampling and manipulative experiments. Our results showed that S. perennis facilitated crab colonization of the salt-marsh by buffering otherwise stressful physical conditions (e.g., temperature, desiccation). Crabs preferred to construct burrows underneath plants and, once they reach high densities (up to 40 burrows m- 2), the sediment reworking caused plant die-off in the central area of patches. At this state, the patches lose elevation and become depressed due to the continuous bioturbation by crabs

  6. SEPARATION OF METAL SALTS BY ADSORPTION

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.

    1959-01-20

    It has been found that certain metal salts, particularly the halides of iron, cobalt, nickel, and the actinide metals, arc readily absorbed on aluminum oxide, while certain other salts, particularly rare earth metal halides, are not so absorbed. Use is made of this discovery to separate uranium from the rare earths. The metal salts are first dissolved in a molten mixture of alkali metal nitrates, e.g., the eutectic mixture of lithium nitrate and potassium nitrate, and then the molten salt solution is contacted with alumina, either by slurrying or by passing the salt solution through an absorption tower. The process is particularly valuable for the separation of actinides from lanthanum-group rare earths.

  7. Photochemistry of triarylsulfonium salts

    SciTech Connect

    Dektar, J.L.; Hacker, N.P. )

    1990-08-01

    The photolysis of triphenylsulfonium, tris(4-methylphenyl)sulfonium, tris(4-chlorophenyl)sulfonium, several monosubstituted (4-F, 4-Cl, 4-Me, 4-MeO, 4-PhS, and 4-PhCO), and disubstituted (4,4{prime}-Me{sub 2} and 4,4{prime}-(MeO){sub 2}) triphenylsulfonium salts was examined in solution. It was found that direct irradiation of triphenylsulfonium salts produced new rearrangement products, phenylthiobiphenyls, along with diphenyl sulfide, which had been previously reported. Similarly, the triarylsulfonium salts, with the exception of the (4-(phenylthio)phenyl)diphenylsulfonium salts produced new rearrangement products, phenylthiobiphenyls, along with diphenyl sulfide, which had been previously reported. Similarly, the triarylsulfonium salts, with the exception of the (4-(phenylthio)phenyl)diphenylsulfonium salts, gave the new rearrangement products. The mechanism for direct photolysis is proposed to occur from the singlet excited states to give a predominant heterolytic cleavage along with some homolytic cleavage.

  8. Swelling of phospholipids by monovalent salt

    PubMed Central

    Petrache, Horia I.; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Harries, Daniel; Kučerka, Norbert; Nagle, John F.; Parsegian, V. Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Critical to biological processes such as membrane fusion and secretion, ion-lipid interactions at the membrane-water interface still raise many unanswered questions. Using reconstituted phosphatidylcholine membranes, we confirm here that multilamellar vesicles swell in salt solutions, a direct indication that salt modifies the interactions between neighboring membranes. By varying sample histories, and by comparing with data from ion carrier-containing bilayers, we eliminate the possibility that swelling is an equilibration artifact. Although both attractive and repulsive forces could be modified by salt, we show experimentally that swelling is driven primarily by weakening of the van der Waals attraction. To isolate the effect of salt on van der Waals interactions, we focus on high salt concentrations at which any possible electrostatic interactions are screened. By analysis of X-ray diffraction data, we show that salt does not alter membrane structure or bending rigidity, eliminating the possibility that repulsive fluctuation forces change with salt. By measuring changes in interbilayer separation with applied osmotic stress, we have determined, using the standard paradigm for bilayer interactions, that 1 M concentrations of KBr or KCl decrease the van der Waals strength by 50%. By weakening van der Waals attractions, salt increases energy barriers to membrane contact, possibly affecting cellular communication and biological signaling. PMID:16267342

  9. Salt Acclimation of Cyanobacteria and Their Application in Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Pade, Nadin; Hagemann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The long evolutionary history and photo-autotrophic lifestyle of cyanobacteria has allowed them to colonize almost all photic habitats on Earth, including environments with high or fluctuating salinity. Their basal salt acclimation strategy includes two principal reactions, the active export of ions and the accumulation of compatible solutes. Cyanobacterial salt acclimation has been characterized in much detail using selected model cyanobacteria, but their salt sensing and regulatory mechanisms are less well understood. Here, we briefly review recent advances in the identification of salt acclimation processes and the essential genes/proteins involved in acclimation to high salt. This knowledge is of increasing importance because the necessary mass cultivation of cyanobacteria for future use in biotechnology will be performed in sea water. In addition, cyanobacterial salt resistance genes also can be applied to improve the salt tolerance of salt sensitive organisms, such as crop plants. PMID:25551682

  10. A history of salt.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, M; Capasso, G; Di Leo, V A; De Santo, N G

    1994-01-01

    The medical history of salt begins in ancient times and is closely related to different aspects of human history. Salt may be extracted from sea water, mineral deposits, surface encrustations, saline lakes and brine springs. In many inland areas, wood was used as a fuel source for evaporation of brine and this practice led to major deafforestation in central Europe. Salt played a central role in the economies of many regions, and is often reflected in place names. Salt was also used as a basis for population censuses and taxation, and salt monopolies were practised in many states. Salt was sometimes implicated in the outbreak of conflict, e.g. the French Revolution and the Indian War of Independence. Salt has also been invested with many cultural and religious meanings, from the ancient Egyptians to the Middle Ages. Man's innate appetite for salt may be related to his evolution from predominantly vegetarian anthropoids, and it is noteworthy that those people who live mainly on protein and milk or who drink salty water do not generally salt their food, whereas those who live mainly on vegetables, rice and cereals use much more salt. Medicinal use tended to emphasize the positive aspects of salt, e.g. prevention of putrefaction, reduction of tissue swelling, treatment of diarrhea. Evidence was also available to ancient peoples of its relationship to fertility, particularly in domestic animals. The history of salt thus represents a unique example for studying the impact of a widely used dietary substance on different important aspects of man's life, including medical philosophy. PMID:7847480

  11. Dosimetry using silver salts

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Benjamin P.

    2003-06-24

    The present invention provides a method for detecting ionizing radiation. Exposure of silver salt AgX to ionizing radiation results in the partial reduction of the salt to a mixture of silver salt and silver metal. The mixture is further reduced by a reducing agent, which causes the production of acid (HX) and the oxidized form of the reducing agent (R). Detection of HX indicates that the silver salt has been exposed to ionizing radiation. The oxidized form of the reducing agent (R) may also be detected. The invention also includes dosimeters employing the above method for detecting ionizing radiation.

  12. Plutonium and americium recovery from spent molten-salt-extraction salts with aluminum-magnesium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Cusick, M.J.; Sherwood, W.G.; Fitzpatrick, R.F.

    1984-04-23

    Development work was performed to determine the feasibility of removing plutonium and americium from spent molten-salt-extraction (MSE) salts using Al-Mg alloys. If the product buttons from this process are compatible with subsequent aqueous processing, the complex chloride-to-nitrate aqueous conversion step which is presently required for these salts may be eliminated. The optimum alloy composition used to treat spent 8 wt % MSE salts in the past yielded poor phase-disengagement characteristics when applied to 30 mol % salts. After a limited investigation of other alloy compositions in the Al-Mg-Pu-Am system, it was determined that the Al-Pu-Am system could yield a compatible alloy. In this system, experiments were performed to investigate the effects of plutonium loading in the alloy, excess magnesium, age of the spent salt on actinide recovery, phase disengagement, and button homogeneity. Experimental results indicate that 95 percent plutonium recoveries can be attained for fresh salts. Further development is required for backlog salts generated prior to 1981. A homogeneous product alloy, as required for aqueous processing, could not be produced.

  13. Mechanical stratification of autochthonous salt: Implications from basin-scale numerical models of rifted margin salt tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ings, Steven; Albertz, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Deformation of salt and sediments owing to the flow of weak evaporites is a common phenomenon in sedimentary basins worldwide, and the resulting structures and thermal regimes have a significant impact on hydrocarbon exploration. Evaporite sequences ('salt') of significant thickness (e.g., >1km) are typically deposited in many cycles of seawater inundation and evaporation in restricted basins resulting in layered autochthonous evaporite packages. However, analogue and numerical models of salt tectonics typically treat salt as a homogeneous viscous material, often with properties of halite, the weakest evaporite. In this study, we present results of two-dimensional plane-strain numerical experiments designed to illustrate the effects of variable evaporite viscosity and embedded frictional-plastic ('brittle') sediment layers on the style of salt flow and associated deformation of the sedimentary overburden. Evaporite viscosity is a first-order control on salt flow rate and the style of overburden deformation. Near-complete evacuation of low-viscosity salt occurs beneath expulsion basins, whereas significant salt is trapped when viscosity is high. Embedded frictional-plastic sediment layers (with finite yield strength) partition salt flow and develop transient contractional structures (folds, thrust faults, and folded faults) in a seaward salt-squeeze flow regime. Multiple internal sediment layers reduce the overall seaward salt flow during sediment aggradation, leaving more salt behind to be re-mobilized during subsequent progradation. This produces more seaward extensive allochthonous salt sheets. If there is a density difference between the embedded layers and the surrounding salt, then the embedded layers 'fractionate' during deformation and either float to the surface or sink to the bottom (depending on density), creating a thick zone of pure halite. Such a process of 'buoyancy fractionation' may partially explain the apparent paradox of layered salt in

  14. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1996-07-09

    The patent describes a molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication. 5 figs.

  15. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  16. Progress in Studying Salt Secretion from the Salt Glands in Recretohalophytes: How Do Plants Secrete Salt?

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Fang; Leng, Bingying; Wang, Baoshan

    2016-01-01

    To survive in a saline environment, halophytes have evolved many strategies to resist salt stress. The salt glands of recretohalophytes are exceptional features for directly secreting salt out of a plant. Knowledge of the pathway(s) of salt secretion in relation to the function of salt glands may help us to change the salt-tolerance of crops and to cultivate the extensive saline lands that are available. Recently, ultrastructural studies of salt glands and the mechanism of salt secretion, particularly the candidate genes involved in salt secretion, have been illustrated in detail. In this review, we summarize current researches on salt gland structure, salt secretion mechanism and candidate genes involved, and provide an overview of the salt secretion pathway and the asymmetric ion transport of the salt gland. A new model recretohalophyte is also proposed. PMID:27446195

  17. Molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, W.A.; Upadhye, R.S.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1995-07-18

    A molten salt destruction process is used to treat and destroy energetic waste materials such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels. The energetic material is pre-blended with a solid or fluid diluent in safe proportions to form a fluid fuel mixture. The fuel mixture is rapidly introduced into a high temperature molten salt bath. A stream of molten salt is removed from the vessel and may be recycled as diluent. Additionally, the molten salt stream may be pumped from the reactor, circulated outside the reactor for further processing, and delivered back into the reactor or cooled and circulated to the feed delivery system to further dilute the fuel mixture entering the reactor. 4 figs.

  18. Molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, William A.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Pruneda, Cesar O.

    1995-01-01

    A molten salt destruction process is used to treat and destroy energetic waste materials such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels. The energetic material is pre-blended with a solid or fluid diluent in safe proportions to form a fluid fuel mixture. The fuel mixture is rapidly introduced into a high temperature molten salt bath. A stream of molten salt is removed from the vessel and may be recycled as diluent. Additionally, the molten salt stream may be pumped from the reactor, circulated outside the reactor for further processing, and delivered back into the reactor or cooled and circulated to the feed delivery system to further dilute the fuel mixture entering the reactor.

  19. [Salt and cancer].

    PubMed

    Strnad, Marija

    2010-05-01

    Besides cardiovascular disease, a high salt intake causes other adverse health effects, i.e., gastric and some other cancers, obesity (risk factor for many cancer sites), Meniere's disease, worsening of renal disease, triggering an asthma attack, osteoporosis, exacerbation of fluid retention, renal calculi, etc. Diets containing high amounts of food preserved by salting and pickling are associated with an increased risk of cancers of the stomach, nose and throat. Because gastric cancer is still the most common cancer in some countries (especially in Japan), its prevention is one of the most important aspects of cancer control strategy. Observations among Japanese immigrants in the U.S.A. and Brazil based on the geographic differences, the trend in cancer incidence with time, and change in the incidence patterns indicate that gastric cancer is closely associated with dietary factors such as the intake of salt and salted food. The findings of many epidemiological studies suggest that high dietary salt intake is a significant risk factor for gastric cancer and this association was found to be strong in the presence of Helicobacter (H.) pylori infection with atrophic gastritis. A high-salt intake strips the lining of the stomach and may make infection with H. pylori more likely or may exacerbate the infection. Salting, pickling and smoking are traditionally popular ways of preparing food in Japan and some parts of Asia. In addition to salt intake, cigarette smoking and low consumption of fruit and vegetables increase the risk of stomach cancer. However, it is not known whether it is specifically the salt in these foods or a combination of salt and other chemicals that can cause cancer. One study identified a mutagen in nitrite-treated Japanese salted fish, and chemical structure of this mutagen suggests that it is derived from methionine and that salt and nitrite are precursors for its formation. Working under conditions of heat stress greatly increased the workers

  20. International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Development of Computational Models for Pyrochemical Electrorefiners of Nuclear Waste Transmutation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    M.F. Simpson; K.-R. Kim

    2010-12-01

    In support of closing the nuclear fuel cycle using non-aqueous separations technology, this project aims to develop computational models of electrorefiners based on fundamental chemical and physical processes. Spent driver fuel from Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) is currently being electrorefined in the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). And Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is developing electrorefining technology for future application to spent fuel treatment and management in the Republic of Korea (ROK). Electrorefining is a critical component of pyroprocessing, a non-aqueous chemical process which separates spent fuel into four streams: (1) uranium metal, (2) U/TRU metal, (3) metallic high-level waste containing cladding hulls and noble metal fission products, and (4) ceramic high-level waste containing sodium and active metal fission products. Having rigorous yet flexible electrorefiner models will facilitate process optimization and assist in trouble-shooting as necessary. To attain such models, INL/UI has focused on approaches to develop a computationally-light and portable two-dimensional (2D) model, while KAERI/SNU has investigated approaches to develop a computationally intensive three-dimensional (3D) model for detailed and fine-tuned simulation.

  1. Water purification using organic salts

    DOEpatents

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  2. Crushed Salt Constitutive Model

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.

    1999-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well.

  3. Molten fluoride fuel salt chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, L.M.; Del Cul, G.D.; Dai, S.; Metcalf, D.H.

    1994-09-01

    The chemistry of molten fluorides is traced from their development as fuels in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment with important factors in their selection being discussed. Key chemical characteristics such as solubility, redox behavior, and chemical activity are explained as they relate to the behavior of molten fluoride fuel systems. Fission product behavior is described along with processing experience. Development requirements for fitting the current state of the chemistry to modern nuclear fuel system are described. It is concluded that while much is known about molten fluoride behavior, processing and recycle of the fuel components is a necessary factor if future systems are to be established.

  4. Analytical chemistry of aluminum salt cake

    SciTech Connect

    Graczyk, D.G.; Essling, A.M.; Huff, E.A.; Smith, F.P.; Snyder, C.T.

    1997-02-01

    Component phases of Al salt cake or products from processing salt cake, resist dissolution, a key first step in most analysis procedures. In this work (analysis support to a study of conversion of salt cake fines to value-added oxide products), analysis methods were adapted or devised for determining leachable salt, total halides (Cl and F), Al metal, and elemental composition. Leaching of salt cake fines was by ultrasonic agitation with deionized water. The leachate was analyzed for anions by ion chromatography and for cations by ICP-atomic emission spectroscopy. Only chloride could be measured in the anions, and charge balances between cations and chloride were near unity, indicating that all major dissolved species were chloride salts. For total halides, the chloride and fluorides components were first decomposed by KOH fusion, and the dissolved chloride and fluoride were measured by ion chromatography. Al metal in the fines was determined by a hydrogen evolution procedure adapted for submilligram quantities of metallic Al: the Al was reacted with HCl in a closed system containing a measured amount of high-purity He. After reaction, the H/He ratio was measured by mass spectroscopy. Recoveries of Al metal standards (about 30mg) averaged 93%. Comparison of the acid evolution with caustic reaction of the Al metal showed virtually identical results, but reaction was faster in the acid medium. Decomposition of the salt cake with mineral acids left residues that had to be dissolved by fusion with Na carbonate. Better dissolution was obtained by fusing the salt cake with Li tetraborate; the resulting solution could be used for accurate Al assay of salt cake materials by classical 8-hydroxyquinolate gravimetry.

  5. The effect of different composition of ternary mixtures of emulsifying salts on the consistency of processed cheese spreads manufactured from Swiss-type cheese with different degrees of maturity.

    PubMed

    Salek, R N; Černíková, M; Maděrová, S; Lapčík, L; Buňka, F

    2016-05-01

    The scope of this work was to investigate the dependence of selected textural (texture profile analysis, TPA) and viscoelastic properties of processed cheese on the composition of ternary mixtures of emulsifying salts [disodium hydrogenphosphate, DSP; tetrasodium diphosphate, TSPP; sodium salt of polyphosphate (with mean length n ≈ 20), P20; and trisodium citrate, TSC] during a 60-d storage period (6±2°C). The processed cheese samples [40% wt/wt dry matter (DM) content, 50% wt/wt fat in DM content] were manufactured using Swiss-type cheese (as the main raw material) with 4 different maturity degrees (4, 8, 12, and 16 wk of ripening). Moreover, the pH of the samples was adjusted (the target values within the range of 5.60-5.80), corresponding to the standard pH values of spreadable processed cheese. With respect to the individual application of emulsifying salts (regardless of the maturity degree of the Swiss-type cheese applied), the samples prepared with P20 were the hardest, followed by those prepared with TSPP, TSC, and DSP. Furthermore, a specific ratio of DSP:TSPP (1:1) led to a significant increase in the hardness of the samples. On the whole, the hardness of all processed cheese samples increased with the prolonging storage period, whereas their hardness significantly dropped with the rising ripening stage of the raw material utilized. In all of the cases, the trends of hardness development remained analogous, and only the absolute values differed significantly. Moreover, the findings of TPA were in accordance with those of the rheological analysis. In particular, the specific ratio of DSP:TSPP (1:1) resulted in the highest gel strength and interaction factor values, followed by P20, TSPP, TSC, and DSP (used individually), reporting the same trend which was demonstrated by TPA. The monitored values of the gel strength and interaction factor decreased with the increasing maturity degree of the Swiss-type cheese used. The intensity of the rigidity of the

  6. Salt splitting using ceramic membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Kurath, D.E.

    1997-10-01

    Many radioactive aqueous wastes in the DOE complex have high concentrations of sodium that can negatively affect waste treatment and disposal operations. Sodium can decrease the durability of waste forms such as glass and is the primary contributor to large disposal volumes. Waste treatment processes such as cesium ion exchange, sludge washing, and calcination are made less efficient and more expensive because of the high sodium concentrations. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City UT) are developing an electrochemical salt splitting process based on inorganic ceramic sodium (Na), super-ionic conductor (NaSICON) membranes that shows promise for mitigating the impact of sodium. In this process, the waste is added to the anode compartment, and an electrical potential is applied to the cell. This drives sodium ions through the membrane, but the membrane rejects most other cations (e.g., Sr{sup +2}, Cs{sup +}). The charge balance in the anode compartment is maintained by generating H{sup +} from the electrolysis of water. The charge balance in the cathode is maintained by generating OH{sup {minus}}, either from the electrolysis of water or from oxygen and water using an oxygen cathode. The normal gaseous products of the electrolysis of water are oxygen at the anode and hydrogen at the cathode. Potentially flammable gas mixtures can be prevented by providing adequate volumes of a sweep gas, using an alternative reductant or destruction of the hydrogen as it is generated. As H{sup +} is generated in the anode compartment, the pH drops. The process may be operated with either an alkaline (pH>12) or an acidic anolyte (pH <1). The benefits of salt splitting using ceramic membranes are (1) waste volume reduction and reduced chemical procurement costs by recycling of NaOH; and (2) direct reduction of sodium in process streams, which enhances subsequent operations such as cesium ion exchange, calcination, and vitrification.

  7. Chemistry control and corrosion mitigation of heat transfer salts for the fluoride salt reactor (FHR)

    SciTech Connect

    Kelleher, B. C.; Sellers, S. R.; Anderson, M. H.; Sridharan, K.; Scheele, R. D.

    2012-07-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) was a prototype nuclear reactor which operated from 1965 to 1969 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The MSRE used liquid fluoride salts as a heat transfer fluid and solvent for fluoride based {sup 235}U and {sup 233}U fuel. Extensive research was performed in order to optimize the removal of oxide and metal impurities from the reactor's heat transfer salt, 2LiF-BeF{sub 2} (FLiBe). This was done by sparging a mixture of anhydrous hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen gas through the FLiBe at elevated temperatures. The hydrofluoric acid reacted with oxides and hydroxides, fluorinating them while simultaneously releasing water vapor. Metal impurities such as iron and chromium were reduced by hydrogen gas and filtered out of the salt. By removing these impurities, the corrosion of reactor components was minimized. The Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison is currently researching a new chemical purification process for fluoride salts that make use of a less dangerous cleaning gas, nitrogen trifluoride. Nitrogen trifluoride has been predicted as a superior fluorinating agent for fluoride salts. These purified salts will subsequently be used for static and loop corrosion tests on a variety of reactor materials to ensure materials compatibility for the new FHR designs. Demonstration of chemistry control methodologies along with potential reduction in corrosion is essential for the use of a fluoride salts in a next generator nuclear reactor system. (authors)

  8. High temperature desulfurization using molten salt carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Nobuhiro; Iwahashi, Takashi; Kosaka, Hitoshi; Tsuji, Kiyoshi; Yoshikawa, Kunio; Yamashita, Keijiro; Murata, Keiji; Hori, Michio

    1998-07-01

    A new desulfurization process using molten salt carbonate as an absorber is proposed. Main feature of this process is its high operating temperature (600{approximately}800 C) as well as the possibility of simultaneous desulfurization and dechlorination. Some chemical equilibrium calculations and basic experiments of this process have been done as the first step of basic theoretical investigations for this new gas cleanup concept. It is confirmed from this calculation that this new gas cleanup concept has enough ability of desulfurization and regeneration of molten salt carbonate.

  9. Cooking without salt

    MedlinePlus

    ... flavor and nutrition. Plant-based foods -- carrots, spinach, apples, and peaches -- are naturally salt-free. Sun-dried ... types of pepper, including black, white, green, and red. Experiment with vinegars (white and red wine, rice ...

  10. Shaking the Salt Habit

    MedlinePlus

    ... use the pepper shaker or mill. Add fresh lemon juice instead of salt to season fish and ... soups, salads, vegetables, tomatoes, potatoes Ginger: Chicken, fruits Lemon juice: Lean meats, fish, poultry, salads, vegetables Mace: ...

  11. Amine salts of nitroazoles

    DOEpatents

    Kienyin Lee; Stinecipher, M.M.

    1993-10-26

    Compositions of matter, a method of providing chemical energy by burning said compositions, and methods of making said compositions are described. These compositions are amine salts of nitroazoles. 1 figure.

  12. Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Salt Lake City, Utah, will host the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. The city is located on the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake and sits to the west of the Wasatch Mountains, which rise more than 3,500 meters (10,000 feet) above sea level. The city was first settled in 1847 by pioneers seeking relief from religious persecution. Today Salt Lake City, the capital of Utah, is home to more than 170,000 residents. This true-color image of Salt Lake City was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), flying aboard Landsat 7, on May 26, 2000. The southeastern tip of the Great Salt Lake is visible in the upper left of the image. The furrowed green and brown landscape running north-south is a portion of the Wasatch Mountains, some of which are snow-capped (white pixels). The greyish pixels in the center of the image show the developed areas of the city. A number of water reservoirs can be seen east of the mountain range. Salt Lake City International Airport is visible on the northwestern edge of the city. About 20 miles south of the airport is the Bingham Canyon Copper Mine (tan pixels), the world's largest open pit excavation. See also this MODIS image of Utah. Image courtesy NASA Landsat7 Science Team and USGS Eros Data Center

  13. Salt stains from evaporating droplets.

    PubMed

    Shahidzadeh, Noushine; Schut, Marthe F L; Desarnaud, Julie; Prat, Marc; Bonn, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The study of the behavior of sessile droplets on solid substrates is not only associated with common everyday phenomena, such as the coffee stain effect, limescale deposits on our bathroom walls , but also very important in many applications such as purification of pharmaceuticals, de-icing of airplanes, inkjet printing and coating applications. In many of these processes, a phase change happens within the drop because of solvent evaporation, temperature changes or chemical reactions, which consequently lead to liquid to solid transitions in the droplets. Here we show that crystallization patterns of evaporating of water drops containing dissolved salts are different from the stains reported for evaporating colloidal suspensions. This happens because during the solvent evaporation, the salts crystallize and grow during the drying. Our results show that the patterns of the resulting salt crystal stains are mainly governed by wetting properties of the emerging crystal as well as the pathway of nucleation and growth, and are independent of the evaporation rate and thermal conductivity of the substrates. PMID:26012481

  14. Salt effects in electromembrane extraction.

    PubMed

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Kieu, Thanh Elisabeth; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2014-06-20

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed on samples containing substantial amounts of NaCl to investigate how the presence of salts affected the recovery, repeatability, and membrane current in the extraction system. A group of 17 non-polar basic drugs with various physical chemical properties were used as model analytes. When EME was performed in a hollow fiber setup with a supported liquid membrane (SLM) comprised of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), a substantial reduction in recovery was seen for eight of the substances when 2.5% (w/v) NaCl was present. No correlation between this loss and the physical chemical properties of these substances was seen. The recovery loss was hypothesized to be caused by ion pairing in the SLM, and a mathematical model for the extraction recovery in the presence of salts was made according to the experimental observations. Some variations to the EME system reduced this recovery loss, such as changing the SLM solvent from NPOE to 6-undecanone, or by using a different EME setup with more favorable volume ratios. This was in line with the ion pairing hypothesis and the mathematical model. This thorough investigation of how salts affect EME improves the theoretical understanding of the extraction process, and can contribute to the future development and optimization of the technique. PMID:24792700

  15. Salt stains from evaporating droplets

    PubMed Central

    Shahidzadeh, Noushine; Schut, Marthe F. L.; Desarnaud, Julie; Prat, Marc; Bonn, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The study of the behavior of sessile droplets on solid substrates is not only associated with common everyday phenomena, such as the coffee stain effect, limescale deposits on our bathroom walls , but also very important in many applications such as purification of pharmaceuticals, de-icing of airplanes, inkjet printing and coating applications. In many of these processes, a phase change happens within the drop because of solvent evaporation, temperature changes or chemical reactions, which consequently lead to liquid to solid transitions in the droplets. Here we show that crystallization patterns of evaporating of water drops containing dissolved salts are different from the stains reported for evaporating colloidal suspensions. This happens because during the solvent evaporation, the salts crystallize and grow during the drying. Our results show that the patterns of the resulting salt crystal stains are mainly governed by wetting properties of the emerging crystal as well as the pathway of nucleation and growth, and are independent of the evaporation rate and thermal conductivity of the substrates. PMID:26012481

  16. Recovery of transuranics from process residues

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J.H.; Gray, L.W.

    1987-01-01

    Process residues are generated at both the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) and the Savannah River Plant (SRP) during aqueous chemical and pyrochemical operations. Frequently, process operations will result in either impure products or produce residues sufficiently contaminated with transuranics to be nondiscardable as waste. Purification and recovery flowsheets for process residues have been developed to generate solutions compatible with subsequent Purex operations and either solid or liquid waste suitable for disposal. The ''scrub alloy'' and the ''anode heel alloy'' are examples of materials generated at RFP which have been processed at SRP using the developed recovery flowsheets. Examples of process residues being generated at SRP for which flowsheets are under development include LECO crucibles and alpha-contaminated hydraulic oil.

  17. Linking external and internal salt geometries - a key to understanding salt dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukla, Peter; Urai, Janos

    2014-05-01

    Considering the growing importance of salt in the energy, food and waste disposal industries, this paper reviews the status quo and major developments in salt research over the last decade. As a way forward in order to close identified gaps in knowledge, an integrated salt basin evaluation concept is proposed appreciating both external and internal geometries and properties. Examples of key studies in the Central European Basin and the South Oman Salt basin show that such a model may improve our understanding of the multi-scale processes operating in salt terrains. The workflow proposed allows to better asses (i) the initiation and maintenance of salt dynamics, (ii) the evolution of the internal structure of evaporites during halokinesis in salt giants, (iii) the coupling of processes in the evaporites and the salt's under- and overburden. It will lead to a better integration of the different data sets and resulting models, which will provide new insights into the structural evolution of salt giants. Finally it will also stimulate new concepts for (i) the initiation dynamics of halokinesis, (ii) the rheology and mechanics of the evaporites by brittle and ductile processes, (iii) the coupling of processes in the evaporites and the under- and overburden, and (iv) the impact of the layered evaporite rheology on the structural evolution. As an outlook for future research to be initiated in salt terrains we still need to improve our database on evaporite rocks especially the ones which take changes of properties in time into account. This includes for example the dependencies of thermal and mechanical properties on changes in strain, pressure and temperature or external and internal geometry changes relating to slow geological processes. Also geomechanical modelling efforts can be significantly improved by making full use of the data available on the effects of water, and some of the discrepancies seen in experimental data on different salts can probably be explained in

  18. Improved Design and Fabrication of Hydrated-Salt Pills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirron, Peter J.; DiPirro, Michael J.; Canavan, Edgar R.

    2011-01-01

    A high-performance design, and fabrication and growth processes to implement the design, have been devised for encapsulating a hydrated salt in a container that both protects the salt and provides thermal conductance between the salt and the environment surrounding the container. The unitary salt/container structure is known in the art as a salt pill. In the original application of the present design and processes, the salt is, more specifically, a hydrated paramagnetic salt, for use as a refrigerant in a very-low-temperature adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). The design and process can also be applied, with modifications, to other hydrated salts. Hydrated paramagnetic salts have long been used in ADRs because they have the desired magnetic properties at low temperatures. They also have some properties, disadvantageous for ADRs, that dictate the kind of enclosures in which they must be housed: Being hydrated, they lose water if exposed to less than 100-percent relative humidity. Because any dehydration compromises their magnetic properties, salts used in ADRs must be sealed in hermetic containers. Because they have relatively poor thermal conductivities in the temperature range of interest (<0.1 K), integral thermal buses are needed as means of efficiently transferring heat to and from the salts during refrigeration cycles. A thermal bus is typically made from a high-thermal-conductivity met al (such as copper or gold), and the salt is configured to make intimate thermal contact with the metal. Commonly in current practice (and in the present design), the thermal bus includes a matrix of wires or rods, and the salt is grown onto this matrix. The density and spacing of the conductors depend on the heat fluxes that must be accommodated during operation.

  19. Brine flow in heated geologic salt.

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

    2013-03-01

    This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes' governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

  20. FT-IR and FT-Raman studies of cross-linking processes with Ca(2+) ions, glutaraldehyde and microwave radiation for polymer composition of poly(acrylic acid)/sodium salt of carboxymethyl starch--part I.

    PubMed

    Grabowska, Beata; Sitarz, Maciej; Olejnik, Ewa; Kaczmarska, Karolina

    2015-01-25

    FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic methods allowed to identify the cross-linking process of the aqueous composition of poly(acrylic acid)/sodium salt of carboxymethyl starch (PAA/CMS-Na) applied as a binder for moulding sands. The cross-linking was performed by chemical methods by introducing cross-linking substances with Ca(2+) ions or glutaraldehyde and by physical way, applying the microwave radiation. It was found that Ca(2+) ions cause formation of cross-linking ionic bonds within carboxyl and carboxylate groups. Glutaraldehyde generates formation of cross-linking bonds with hemiacetal and acetal structures. Whereas in the microwave radiation field, due to dehydration, lattices are formed by anhydride bonds. PMID:25123942

  1. Delivery system for molten salt oxidation of solid waste

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, William A.; Squire, Dwight V.; Robinson, Jeffrey A.; House, Palmer A.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is a delivery system for safety injecting solid waste particles, including mixed wastes, into a molten salt bath for destruction by the process of molten salt oxidation. The delivery system includes a feeder system and an injector that allow the solid waste stream to be accurately metered, evenly dispersed in the oxidant gas, and maintained at a temperature below incineration temperature while entering the molten salt reactor.

  2. Immobilization of IFR salt wastes in mortar

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.F.; Johnson, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    Portland cement-base mortars are being considered for immobilizing chloride salt wastes produced by the fuel cycles of Integral Fast Reactors (IFR). The IFR is a sodium-cooled fast reactor with metal alloy fuels. It has a close-coupled fuel cycle in which fission products are separated from the actinides in an electrochemical cell operating at 500/degree/C. This cell has a liquid cadmium anode in which the fuels are dissolved and a liquid salt electrolyte. The salt will be a mixture of either lithium, potassium, and sodium chlorides or lithium, calcium, barium, and sodium chlorides. One method being considered for immobilizing the treated nontransuranic salt waste is to disperse the salt in a portland cement-base mortar that will be sealed in corrosion-resistant containers. For this application, the grout must be sufficiently fluid that it can be pumped into canister-molds where it will solidify into a strong, leach-resistant material. The set times must be longer than a few hours to allow sufficient time for processing, and the mortar must reach a reasonable compressive strength (/approximately/7 MPa) within three days to permit handling. Because fission product heating will be high, about 0.6 W/kg for a mortar containing 10% waste salt, the effects of elevated temperatures during curing and storage on mortar properties must be considered.

  3. Thermal Characterization of Molten Salt Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson

    2011-09-01

    The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner (ER) may be adversely affected by the buildup of sodium, fission products, and transuranics in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are the following: (1) salt freezing due to an unexpected change in the liquidus temperature, (2) phase separation or non-homogeneity of the molten salt due to the precipitation of solids or formation of immiscible liquids, and (3) any mechanism that can result in the separation and concentration of fissile elements from the molten salt. Any of these situations would result in an off-normal condition outside the established safety basis for electrorefiner (ER) operations. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This report describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, which consist of chlorides of potassium, lithium, strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium chlorides as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium, used for the processing of used nuclear fuels.

  4. Plant salt tolerance: adaptations in halophytes

    PubMed Central

    Flowers, Timothy J.; Colmer, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Most of the water on Earth is seawater, each kilogram of which contains about 35 g of salts, and yet most plants cannot grow in this solution; less than 0·2 % of species can develop and reproduce with repeated exposure to seawater. These ‘extremophiles’ are called halophytes. Scope Improved knowledge of halophytes is of importance to understanding our natural world and to enable the use of some of these fascinating plants in land re-vegetation, as forages for livestock, and to develop salt-tolerant crops. In this Preface to a Special Issue on halophytes and saline adaptations, the evolution of salt tolerance in halophytes, their life-history traits and progress in understanding the molecular, biochemical and physiological mechanisms contributing to salt tolerance are summarized. In particular, cellular processes that underpin the ability of halophytes to tolerate high tissue concentrations of Na+ and Cl−, including regulation of membrane transport, their ability to synthesize compatible solutes and to deal with reactive oxygen species, are highlighted. Interacting stress factors in addition to salinity, such as heavy metals and flooding, are also topics gaining increased attention in the search to understand the biology of halophytes. Conclusions Halophytes will play increasingly important roles as models for understanding plant salt tolerance, as genetic resources contributing towards the goal of improvement of salt tolerance in some crops, for re-vegetation of saline lands, and as ‘niche crops’ in their own right for landscapes with saline soils. PMID:25844430

  5. Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh, Christi D.; Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from United

  6. Direct esterification of ammonium salts of carboxylic acids

    DOEpatents

    Halpern, Yuval

    2003-06-24

    A non-catalytic process for producing esters, the process comprising reacting an ammonium salt of a carboxylic acid with an alcohol and removing ammonia from the reaction mixture. Selectivities for the desired ester product can exceed 95 percent.

  7. Numerical simulation of salt cementation in the porous rocks adjacent to salt diapirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allstadt, Raphael; Li, Shiyuan; Marquart, Gabriele; Reuning, Lars; Niederau, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Porosity and permeability are among the most important petrophysical properties of reservoirs rocks in oil systems. Observations during exploration indicate that in the vicinity of salt domes the porosity of reservoir rocks is often reduced by halite cementation. In this study we present results of simulating the process of salt precipitation near salt diapirs by using a schematic model of a Zechstein diapir in the North Sea basin. The numerical simulation is based on solving the transport equations for heat, porous flow and dispersive and reactive chemical species. Chemical reaction and equilibrium is based on the PHREEQC computer code. In our model over-pressured brine is entering from below and is deflected towards the diapir due to an intermediate layer of low permeability. The high thermal conductivity of salt yields a lateral temperature gradient starting from the diapir. Due to this effect the simulated temperature profile shows lower temperatures close to the salt dome than in comparable depths further away. Caused by the temperature-controlled solubility of NaCl in the brine and supplied ions by the diapir, halite first precipitates near the salt diapir by cementing the pore spaces and thus reducing the porosity. Salt-precipitation in the simulation starts after 840 000 years and reduces the porosity from 10 % to 5.5 % after 19 Mill. years. The permanent influx of brine causes growth of the cementation area and the related reduction of porosity in the reservoir.

  8. Gas releases from salt

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, B.; Neal, J.; Hinkebein, T.

    1998-06-01

    The occurrence of gas in salt mines and caverns has presented some serious problems to facility operators. Salt mines have long experienced sudden, usually unexpected expulsions of gas and salt from a production face, commonly known as outbursts. Outbursts can release over one million cubic feet of methane and fractured salt, and are responsible for the lives of numerous miners and explosions. Equipment, production time, and even entire mines have been lost due to outbursts. An outburst creates a cornucopian shaped hole that can reach heights of several hundred feet. The potential occurrence of outbursts must be factored into mine design and mining methods. In caverns, the occurrence of outbursts and steady infiltration of gas into stored product can effect the quality of the product, particularly over the long-term, and in some cases renders the product unusable as is or difficult to transport. Gas has also been known to collect in the roof traps of caverns resulting in safety and operational concerns. The intent of this paper is to summarize the existing knowledge on gas releases from salt. The compiled information can provide a better understanding of the phenomena and gain insight into the causative mechanisms that, once established, can help mitigate the variety of problems associated with gas releases from salt. Outbursts, as documented in mines, are discussed first. This is followed by a discussion of the relatively slow gas infiltration into stored crude oil, as observed and modeled in the caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. A model that predicts outburst pressure kicks in caverns is also discussed.

  9. Mechanism for salt scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenza, John J., II

    Salt scaling is superficial damage caused by freezing a saline solution on the surface of a cementitious body. The damage consists of the removal of small chips or flakes of binder. The discovery of this phenomenon in the early 1950's prompted hundreds of experimental studies, which clearly elucidated the characteristics of this damage. In particular it was shown that a pessimum salt concentration exists, where a moderate salt concentration (˜3%) results in the most damage. Despite the numerous studies, the mechanism responsible for salt scaling has not been identified. In this work it is shown that salt scaling is a result of the large thermal expansion mismatch between ice and the cementitious body, and that the mechanism responsible for damage is analogous to glue-spalling. When ice forms on a cementitious body a bi-material composite is formed. The thermal expansion coefficient of the ice is ˜5 times that of the underlying body, so when the temperature of the composite is lowered below the melting point, the ice goes into tension. Once this stress exceeds the strength of the ice, cracks initiate in the ice and propagate into the surface of the cementitious body, removing a flake of material. The glue-spall mechanism accounts for all of the characteristics of salt scaling. In particular, a theoretical analysis is presented which shows that the pessimum concentration is a consequence of the effect of brine pockets on the mechanical properties of ice, and that the damage morphology is accounted for by fracture mechanics. Finally, empirical evidence is presented that proves that the glue-small mechanism is the primary cause of salt scaling. The primary experimental tool used in this study is a novel warping experiment, where a pool of liquid is formed on top of a thin (˜3 mm) plate of cement paste. Stresses in the plate, including thermal expansion mismatch, result in warping of the plate, which is easily detected. This technique revealed the existence of

  10. Molten Salts for High Temperature Reactors: University of Wisconsin Molten Salt Corrosion and Flow Loop Experiments -- Issues Identified and Path Forward

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Matt Ebner; Manohar Sohal; Phil Sharpe; Thermal Hydraulics Group

    2010-03-01

    Considerable amount of work is going on regarding the development of high temperature liquid salts technology to meet future process needs of Next Generation Nuclear Plant. This report identifies the important characteristics and concerns of high temperature molten salts (with lesson learned at University of Wisconsin-Madison, Molten Salt Program) and provides some possible recommendation for future work

  11. Corrosion of aluminides by molten nitrate salt

    SciTech Connect

    Tortorelli, P.F.; Bishop, P.S.

    1990-01-01

    The corrosion of titanium-, iron-, and nickel-based aluminides by a highly aggressive, oxidizing NaNO{sub 3}(-KNO{sub 3})-Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} has been studied at 650{degree}C. It was shown that weight changes could be used to effectively evaluate corrosion behavior in the subject nitrate salt environments provided these data were combined with salt analyses and microstructural examinations. The studies indicated that the corrosion of relatively resistant aluminides by these nitrate salts proceeded by oxidation and a slow release from an aluminum-rich product layer into the salt at rates lower than that associated with many other types of metallic materials. The overall corrosion process and resulting rate depended on the particular aluminide being exposed. In order to minimize corrosion of nickel or iron aluminides, it was necessary to have aluminum concentrations in excess of 30 at. %. However, even at a concentration of 50 at. % Al, the corrosion resistance of TiAl was inferior to that of Ni{sub 3}Al and Fe{sub 3}Al. At higher aluminum concentrations, iron, nickel, and iron-nickel aluminides exhibited quite similar weight changes, indicative of the principal role of aluminum in controlling the corrosion process in NaNO{sub 3}(-KNO{sub 3})-Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} salts. 20 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Effects of Heat Generation on Nuclear Waste Disposal in Salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, D. J.

    2008-12-01

    Disposal of nuclear waste in salt is an established technology, as evidenced by the successful operations of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) since 1999. The WIPP is located in bedded salt in southeastern New Mexico and is a deep underground facility for transuranic (TRU) nuclear waste disposal. There are many advantages for placing radioactive wastes in a geologic bedded-salt environment. One desirable mechanical characteristic of salt is that it flows plastically with time ("creeps"). The rate of salt creep is a strong function of temperature and stress differences. Higher temperatures and deviatoric stresses increase the creep rate. As the salt creeps, induced fractures may be closed and eventually healed, which then effectively seals the waste in place. With a backfill of crushed salt emplaced around the waste, the salt creep can cause the crushed salt to reconsolidate and heal to a state similar to intact salt, serving as an efficient seal. Experiments in the WIPP were conducted to investigate the effects of heat generation on the important phenomena and processes in and around the repository (Munson et al. 1987; 1990; 1992a; 1992b). Brine migration towards the heaters was induced from the thermal gradient, while salt creep rates showed an exponential dependence on temperature. The project "Backfill and Material Behavior in Underground Salt Repositories, Phase II" (BAMBUS II) studied the crushed salt backfill and material behavior with heat generation at the Asse mine located near Remlingen, Germany (Bechthold et al. 2004). Increased salt creep rates and significant reconsolidation of the crushed salt were observed at the termination of the experiment. Using the data provided from both projects, exploratory modeling of the thermal-mechanical response of salt has been conducted with varying thermal loading and waste spacing. Increased thermal loading and decreased waste spacing drive the system to higher temperatures, while both factors are desired to

  13. Hydrogen generation during melter feed preparation of Tank 42 sludge and salt washed loaded CST in the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, W.E.

    1999-12-08

    The main objective of these scoping tests was to measure the rate of hydrogen generation in a series of experiments designed to duplicate the expected SRAT and SME processing conditions in laboratory scale vessels. This document details the testing performed to determine the maximum hydrogen generation expected with a coupled flowsheet of sludge, loaded CST [crystalline silicotitanate], and frit.

  14. 13. VIEW OF THE MOLTEN SALT EXTRACTION LINE. THE MOLTEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF THE MOLTEN SALT EXTRACTION LINE. THE MOLTEN SALT EXTRACTION PROCESS WAS USED TO PURIFY PLUTONIUM BY REMOVING AMERICIUM, A DECAY BY-PRODUCT OF PLUTONIUM. (1/98) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  15. Alternative Waste Forms for Electro-Chemical Salt Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Sundaram, S. K.; Riley, Brian J.; Matyas, Josef; Arreguin, Shelly A.; Vienna, John D.

    2009-10-28

    This study was undertaken to examine alternate crystalline (ceramic/mineral) and glass waste forms for immobilizing spent salt from the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) electrochemical separations process. The AFCI is a program sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and demonstrate a process for recycling spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The electrochemical process is a molten salt process for the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel in an electrorefiner and generates spent salt that is contaminated with alkali, alkaline earths, and lanthanide fission products (FP) that must either be cleaned of fission products or eventually replaced with new salt to maintain separations efficiency. Currently, these spent salts are mixed with zeolite to form sodalite in a glass-bonded waste form. The focus of this study was to investigate alternate waste forms to immobilize spent salt. On a mole basis, the spent salt is dominated by alkali and Cl with minor amounts of alkaline earth and lanthanides. In the study reported here, we made an effort to explore glass systems that are more compatible with Cl and have not been previously considered for use as waste forms. In addition, alternate methods were explored with the hope of finding a way to produce a sodalite that is more accepting of as many FP present in the spent salt as possible. This study was done to investigate two different options: (1) alternate glass families that incorporate increased concentrations of Cl; and (2) alternate methods to produce a mineral waste form.

  16. Salt Lake Community College Strategic Vision, September 2001-June 2006.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salt Lake Community Coll., UT.

    This document reviews July 2001 findings from a team of Salt Lake Community College administrators, faculty, and staff who were appointed by the college President to prepare a strategic plan that defines the strategic vision of Salt Lake Community College. The team utilized a planning process that began with an evaluation of the external and…

  17. An approach to better understanding of salt weathering on stone monuments - the "petraSalt" research project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrichs, K.; Azzam, R.

    2012-04-01

    Salt weathering is known as a major cause of damage on stone monuments. However, processes and mechanisms of salt weathering still can not be explained satisfactorily. From the expertś point of view, better understanding of salt weathering deserves further comprehensive in-situ investigation jointly addressing active salt weathering processes and controlling factors. The 'petraSalt' research project takes this approach. The rock-cut monuments of Petra / Jordan were selected for studies, since stone type and spectra of monument exposure regimes, environmental influences, salt loading and weathering damage are representative for many stone monuments worldwide. The project aims at real-time / real-scale weathering models that depict characteristic interdependencies between stone properties, monument exposure regimes, environmental influences, salt loading and salt weathering damage. These models are expected to allow reliable rating and interpretation of aggressiveness and damage potential of the salt weathering regimes considering their variability under range of lithology, monument exposure scenarios, environmental conditions and time. The methodological approach systematically combines assessment of weathering damage (type, extent, spatial distribution and progression of damage), assessment of monument exposure characteristics and environmental influences acting on the monuments (monument orientation / geometry, lithology, rain impact, water run-off, rising humidity, wind impact, insolation, heating-cooling and drying-wetting behaviour, etc.), engineering geological studies (structural discontinuities and related failure processes) and investigation of salt loading (type, concentration, spatial distribution and origin of salt, salt crystallization / dissolution, phase transitions, etc.). Besides established methods, very innovative technologies are applied in the course of investigation such as high-resolution 3D terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and wireless

  18. SALT WORKS, School by School: A School-Centered Plan To Improve Teaching and Learning. Book One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island State Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Providence.

    This document describes Rhode Island's School Accountability for Learning and Teaching (SALT) process. It defines SALT's vision, outlines Article 31 (which requires schools to engage in self-study and goal setting and sets rigorous requirements for schools), and explains how SALT concepts mirror and respond to Article 31 demands. SALT's vision is…

  19. Utah: Salt Lake City

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... mountains surrounding Salt Lake City are renowned for the dry, powdery snow that results from the arid climate and location at the ... should be used with the red filter placed over your left eye. The canyons and peaks of the Uinta and Wasatch Mountains are ...

  20. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  1. Unitized paramagnetic salt thermometer

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, B.M.

    1982-06-01

    The details of construction and assembly of a cerous magnesium nitrate (CMN) paramagnetic thermometer are presented. The thermometer is a small unit consisting of a primary, two secondaries, the salt pill, and thermal links. The thermometer calibration changes very little on successive coolings and is reliable to 35 mK. A typical calibration curve is also presented.

  2. Salt repository design approach

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a summary discussion of the approaches that have been and will be taken in design of repository facilities for use with disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations. Since specific sites have yet to be identified, the discussion is at a general level, supplemented with illustrative examples where appropriate. 5 references, 1 figure.

  3. Electrolytic recycling of a carbonate salt in a process with a dissolution of spent nuclear fuel in a strong alkaline carbonate media

    SciTech Connect

    Kwang-Wook Kim; In-Tae Kim; Seong-Min Kim; Yeon-Hwa Kim; Eil-Hee Lee; Kwang-Yong Jee

    2007-07-01

    A removal of only uranium from spent nuclear fuel with the concepts of a high proliferation-resistance and a minimal generation of waste is helpful for a spent fuel management in view of a volume reduction of the high level radioactive waste generated from the spent fuel treatment. That can be accomplished by a process using a selective oxidative dissolution of the spent fuel in a carbonate solution of high alkalinity. In this work, an electrolytic method for a de-carbonation and a recovery of CO{sub 2} for recycling the used carbonate solution contaminated with some impurity metal ions generated in such a process with a concept of zero-release of waste solution was studied. A carbonate solution generated from such a system was confirmed to be completely recycled within the system, while the impurity ions being separated from the carbonate solution. (authors)

  4. Impact of pulsed electric field on electrodialysis process performance and membrane fouling during consecutive demineralization of a model salt solution containing a high magnesium/calcium ratio.

    PubMed

    Cifuentes-Araya, Nicolás; Pourcelly, Gérald; Bazinet, Laurent

    2011-09-01

    Pulsed electric fields (PEFs), hashed modes of current consisting in the application of a constant current density during a fixed time (Ton) followed by a pause lapse (Toff), were recently demonstrated as an effective alternative for mineral fouling mitigation and process intensification during electrodialysis (ED) treatments. Recent ED studies have continuously reported a considerable mineral fouling formation on ion-exchange membranes, especially during the demineralization of solutions containing a high Mg/Ca ratio and a basified concentrate solution. The aim of this study was to evaluate the process performance under two different PEF conditions on a mineral solution containing a mineral mixture giving a high Mg(2+)/Ca(2+) ratio of 2/5. Two different pause-lapse durations (PEF ratio 1 (Ton/Toff 10s/10s); PEF ratio 0.3 (Ton/Toff 10s/33.3 s)) during consecutive ED treatments and their comparison with dc current were evaluated at a current density of 40 mA/cm(2). Our results showed that PEFs resulted in an intensification of ED process, enhancing the demineralization rates (DRs), reducing the system resistance (SR), and reducing the fouling and energy consumption (EC). PEF ratio 1 was the most optimal condition among the current regimes applied, leading to faster and higher demineralization rates due to a lower fouling and with low energy consumption during all consecutive runs. PMID:21676408

  5. Metals removal from spent salts

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Peter C.; Von Holtz, Erica H.; Hipple, David L.; Summers, Leslie J.; Brummond, William A.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing metal contaminants from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents may be added to precipitate the metal oxide and/or the metal as either metal oxide, metal hydroxide, or as a salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as waste or can be immobilized as ceramic pellets. More than about 90% of the metals and mineral residues (ashes) present are removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be spray-dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 1.0 ppm of contaminants.

  6. Actinide removal from spent salts

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Peter C.; von Holtz, Erica H.; Hipple, David L.; Summers, Leslie J.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A method for removing actinide contaminants (uranium and thorium) from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents are added to precipitate the thorium as thorium oxide and/or the uranium as either uranium oxide or as a diuranate salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as radioactive waste. About 90% of the thorium and/or uranium present is removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 0.1 ppm of thorium or uranium.

  7. Sodium (Salt or Sodium Chloride)

    MedlinePlus

    ... reduce the salt in your diet and for information, strategies, and tools you need to lead a healthier ... reduce the salt in your diet and get information, strategies, and tools you need to lead a healthier ...

  8. Molten salts and energy related materials.

    PubMed

    Fray, Derek

    2016-08-15

    Molten salts have been known for centuries and have been used for the extraction of aluminium for over one hundred years and as high temperature fluxes in metal processing. This and other molten salt routes have gradually become more energy efficient and less polluting, but there have been few major breakthroughs. This paper will explore some recent innovations that could lead to substantial reductions in the energy consumed in metal production and in carbon dioxide production. Another way that molten salts can contribute to an energy efficient world is by creating better high temperature fuel cells and novel high temperature batteries, or by acting as the medium that can create novel materials that can find applications in high energy batteries and other energy saving devices, such as capacitors. Carbonate melts can be used to absorb carbon dioxide, which can be converted into C, CO and carbon nanoparticles. Molten salts can also be used to create black silicon that can absorb more sunlight over a wider range of wavelengths. Overall, there are many opportunities to explore for molten salts to play in an efficient, low carbon world. PMID:27276650

  9. Combined Evaporation and Salt Precipitation in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisbrod, N.; Dragila, M. I.; Nachshon, U.; Or, D.; Shaharani, E.; Grader, A.

    2012-12-01

    The vadose zone pore water contains dissolved salts and minerals; therefore, evaporation results in high rates of salt accumulation that may change the physical and chemical properties of the porous media. Here, a series of experiments, together with a mathematical model, are presented to shed new light on these processes. Experiments included: (1) long-term column evaporation experiments to quantify changes in evaporation rates due to salt precipitation; (2) CT scans of evaporated porous media samples saturated with salt solutions, to observe salt precipitation from micro to macro scales; and (3) Infrared thermography analysis to quantify evaporation rates from porous media surfaces for homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions and constant water table, in the presence of salt precipitation. As expected, the majority of salt crystallization occurs in the upper parts of the matrix, near the evaporation front. For heterogeneous porous matrices, salt precipitation will occur mainly in the fine pore regions as preferential evaporation takes place in these locations. In addition, it was found that the precipitated NaCl salt crust diffusion coefficient for water vapor is one to two orders of magnitude lower than the vapor diffusion coefficient in free air, depending on environmental conditions and salt crystallization rates. Three new stages of evaporation were defined for saline solutions: SS1, SS2 and SS3. SS1 exhibits a low and gradual decrease in the evaporation rate due to osmotic pressure. During SS2, the evaporation rate falls progressively due to salt precipitation; SS3 is characterized by a constant low evaporation rate and determined by the diffusion rate of water vapor through the precipitated salt layer. Even though phenomenologically similar to the classical evaporation stages of pure water, these stages correspond to different mechanisms and the transition between stages can occur regardless the hydraulic conditions. As well, it was shown that matrix

  10. Use of steel and tantalum apparatus for molten Cd-Mg-Zn alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, G. A.; Burris, L., Jr.; Kyle, M. L.; Nelson, P. A.

    1966-01-01

    Steel and tantalum apparatus contains various ternary alloys of cadmium, zinc, and magnesium used in pyrochemical processes for the recovery of uranium-base reactor fuels. These materials exhibit good corrosion resistance at the high temperatures necessary for fuel separation in liquid metal-molten salt solvents.

  11. Salt stress or salt shock: which genes are we studying?

    PubMed

    Shavrukov, Yuri

    2013-01-01

    Depending on the method of NaCl application, whether gradual or in a single step, plants may experience either salt stress or salt shock, respectively. The first phase of salt stress is osmotic stress. However, in the event of salt shock, plants suffer osmotic shock, leading to cell plasmolysis and leakage of osmolytes, phenomena that do not occur with osmotic stress. Patterns of gene expression are different in response to salt stress and salt shock. Salt stress initiates relatively smooth changes in gene expression in response to osmotic stress and a more pronounced change in expression of significant numbers of genes related to the ionic phase of salt stress. There is a considerable time delay between changes in expression of genes related to the osmotic and ionic phases of salt stress. In contrast, osmotic shock results in strong, rapid changes in the expression of genes with osmotic function, and fewer changes in ionic-responsive genes that occur earlier. There are very few studies in which the effects of salt stress and salt shock are described in parallel experiments. However, the patterns of changes in gene expression observed in these studies are consistently as described above, despite the use of diverse plant species. It is concluded that gene expression profiles are very different depending the method of salt application. Imposition of salt stress by gradual exposure to NaCl rather than salt shock with a single application of a high concentration of NaCl is recommended for genetic and molecular studies, because this more closely reflects natural incidences of salinity. PMID:23186621

  12. A Great Salt Lake waterspout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Joanne; Mccumber, M.; Roff, G.; Morton, B. R.; Labas, K.; Dietachmayer, G.; Penc, R.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented of observations of a waterspout funnel and spray ring performed under a cumulus line over the Great Salt Lake for about 5 min shortly after sunrise on June 26, 1985. These observations were used as the basis for a study of the initiation and evolution of waterspouts through a series of numerical experiments at two scales, that of a cloud and a waterspout. The cloud scale was simulated using an improved Goddard-Schlesinger model with nearby Salt Lake City soundings. Results showed that for each mode of cloud initiation, the vortex that started at the anticyclonic center grew faster than those started at other centers. This result strongly suggests that the cloud vorticity was important in its initiation. The greatest azimuthal speed for the bubble-initiated cloud was 11 m/s, when the vortex model was started at 28-min cloud time with time-varying boundary conditions, whereas it was 21 m/s when started at 12 min in the line-initiated cloud. The results support the hypothesis that, at least in some circumstances, cloud processes alone can produce waterspouts in the absence of external vorticity sources such as surface convergence lines or other shear features.

  13. Micro-investigation of EPICA Dome C bottom ice: evidence of long term in situ processes involving acid-salt interactions, mineral dust, and organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, M.; Tison, J.-L.; Morel-Fourcade, M.-C.; Susini, J.

    2013-10-01

    The EPICA Dome C ice core (EDC) reached a final depth of 3260 m, at a maximum height of about 15 m above the ice-bedrock interface in December 2004. We present here data gained from a detailed investigation of selected samples of the deeper part of the core located below 3200 m and referred to as bottom ice. This part of the core has been poorly investigated so far mainly because there are significant challenges in interpreting paleo-records that were very likely modified by long term in situ processes. Our study combines high resolution ion chromatography, high resolution synchrotron X-Ray micro-fluorescence (micro XRF), scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Our aim was to identify the long term physico-chemical processes at work close to the bedrock, to determine how they have altered the initial registers, and, ultimately to extract information on the very ancient Antarctic environment. The ubiquitous presence of nanometer iron oxide crystals at the surface of wind-borne dust aggregates containing also large amount of organic matter raises the possibility that the consolidation of windborne dust clusters formed during ice recrystallization could be related to microbial iron reduction and, thus, to the progressive reactivation of dormant bacterial activity in warming ice. Inclusions of size and number density increasing with depth observed in the 12 last meters (3248-3260 m) contain liquid and solid species, among them marine biogenic acids, numerous wind-borne dust aggregates and clusters of large reversible calcium carbonate particles precipitated once the inclusion was formed and often covered by secondary gypsum. The refreezing of slush lenses is discussed as a potential cause of the formation of such heterogeneous and complex mixtures. In addition to the very fine micrometer size minerals windborne from extra-Antarctic continental sources and often accreted in large aggregates, single medium size particles (a few to ca 20 μm and among them organic

  14. The effect of hydrocarbons on the microstructural evolution in rock salt: a case study on hydrocarbon bearing Ara salt from the South Oman Salt Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmatz, Joyce; Urai, Janos L.; Wübbeler, Franziska M. M.; Sadler, Marc

    2014-05-01

    It has been shown that dilatant deformation promotes the incorporation of hydrocarbons into typically low permeable rock salt (Schoenherr et al., 2007). However, there is not much knowledge on subsequent mechanisms related to recrystallization processes, which cause morphological and chemical changes of the carbonic inclusions. This work aims to contribute to an increased understanding of fluid inclusion dynamics related to grain boundary migration recrystallization and hence to facilitate the interpretation of complex microstructures in recrystallized, multiphase salt rocks. In this case study we investigate hydrocarbon-impregnated salt from the Cambrian Ara Group in the South Oman Salt Basin. The samples were cored from cm-m thick anhydrite-salt sequences overlying hydrocarbon bearing carbonate stringers in 3300 m depth. The anhydrite layers consist mainly of fine-grained anhydrite, which contains calcite, dolomite, and olivine inclusions. Solid bitumen and lighter hydrocarbon phases are observed in between the anhydrite grains and along cracks. Anhydrite layers host salt veins, which contain fragments of anhydrite. These fragments do not differ in composition or structure from the host material and the related vein microstructures indicate crack-seal mechanisms. Halite in the salt layers is almost entirely recrystallized with solid inclusions consisting of anhydrite, calcite, dolomite and olivine with hydrocarbon-coatings present inside grains and along grain boundaries. Solid inclusions cause pinning indicated by a decreased recrystallized grain size and by the presence of grains with preserved substructures representing earlier deformation phases. We observe two types of carbonic inclusions: I) solid bitumen coatings along grain boundaries and microcracks, interpreted to be incorporated into the salt in an overpressure state that allowed dilatancy of the salt, and II) less degraded, liquid hydrocarbons along grain boundaries in the vicinity of the anhydrite

  15. An Overview of Liquid Fluoride Salt Heat Transport Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Eugene; Cetiner, Sacit M

    2010-09-01

    Heat transport is central to all thermal-based forms of electricity generation. The ever increasing demand for higher thermal efficiency necessitates power generation cycles transitioning to progressively higher temperatures. Similarly, the desire to provide direct thermal coupling between heat sources and higher temperature chemical processes provides the underlying incentive to move toward higher temperature heat transfer loops. As the system temperature rises, the available materials and technology choices become progressively more limited. Superficially, fluoride salts at {approx}700 C resemble water at room temperature being optically transparent and having similar heat capacity, roughly three times the viscosity, and about twice the density. Fluoride salts are a leading candidate heat-transport material at high temperatures. Fluoride salts have been extensively used in specialized industrial processes for decades, yet they have not entered widespread deployment for general heat transport purposes. This report does not provide an exhaustive screening of potential heat transfer media and other high temperature liquids such as alkali metal carbonate eutectics or chloride salts may have economic or technological advantages. A particular advantage of fluoride salts is that the technology for their use is relatively mature as they were extensively studied during the 1940s-1970s as part of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's program to develop molten salt reactors (MSRs). However, the instrumentation, components, and practices for use of fluoride salts are not yet developed sufficiently for commercial implementation. This report provides an overview of the current understanding of the technologies involved in liquid salt heat transport (LSHT) along with providing references to the more detailed primary information resources. Much of the information presented here derives from the earlier MSR program. However, technology has evolved over the intervening years, and

  16. Target Salt 2025: A Global Overview of National Programs to Encourage the Food Industry to Reduce Salt in Foods

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Jacqui; Trieu, Kathy; Dunford, Elizabeth; Hawkes, Corinna

    2014-01-01

    Reducing population salt intake has been identified as a priority intervention to reduce non-communicable diseases. Member States of the World Health Organization have agreed to a global target of a 30% reduction in salt intake by 2025. In countries where most salt consumed is from processed foods, programs to engage the food industry to reduce salt in products are being developed. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of national initiatives to encourage the food industry to reduce salt. A systematic review of the literature was supplemented by key informant questionnaires to inform categorization of the initiatives. Fifty nine food industry salt reduction programs were identified. Thirty eight countries had targets for salt levels in foods and nine countries had introduced legislation for some products. South Africa and Argentina have both introduced legislation limiting salt levels across a broad range of foods. Seventeen countries reported reductions in salt levels in foods—the majority in bread. While these trends represent progress, many countries have yet to initiate work in this area, others are at early stages of implementation and further monitoring is required to assess progress towards achieving the global target. PMID:25195640

  17. Consumption and Sources of Dietary Salt in Family Members in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Fang; Zhang, Puhong; Zhang, Lu; Niu, Wenyi; Gao, Jianmei; Lu, Lixin; liu, Caixia; Gao, Xian

    2015-01-01

    In China, few people are aware of the amount and source of their salt intake. We conducted a survey to investigate the consumption and sources of dietary salt using the “one-week salt estimation method” by weighing cooking salt and major salt-containing food, and estimating salt intake during dining out based on established evidence. Nine hundred and three families (1981 adults and 971 children) with students in eight primary or junior high schools in urban and suburban Beijing were recruited. On average, the daily dietary salt intake of family members in Beijing was 11.0 (standard deviation: 6.2) g for children and adolescents (under 18 years old), 15.2 (9.1) g for adults (18 to 59 years old), and 10.2 (4.8) g for senior citizens (60 years old and over), respectively. Overall, 60.5% of dietary salt was consumed at home, and 39.5% consumed outside the home. Approximately 90% of the salt intake came from cooking (household cooking and cafeteria or restaurant cooking), while less than 10% came from processed food. In conclusion, the dietary salt intake in Beijing families far surpassed the recommended amounts by World Health Organization, with both household cooking and dining-out as main sources of salt consumption. More targeted interventions, especially education about major sources of salt and corresponding methods for salt reduction should be taken to reduce the risks associated with a high salt diet. PMID:25867952

  18. Consumption and sources of dietary salt in family members in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fang; Zhang, Puhong; Zhang, Lu; Niu, Wenyi; Gao, Jianmei; Lu, Lixin; Liu, Caixia; Gao, Xian

    2015-04-01

    In China, few people are aware of the amount and source of their salt intake. We conducted a survey to investigate the consumption and sources of dietary salt using the "one-week salt estimation method" by weighing cooking salt and major salt-containing food, and estimating salt intake during dining out based on established evidence. Nine hundred and three families (1981 adults and 971 children) with students in eight primary or junior high schools in urban and suburban Beijing were recruited. On average, the daily dietary salt intake of family members in Beijing was 11.0 (standard deviation: 6.2) g for children and adolescents (under 18 years old), 15.2 (9.1) g for adults (18 to 59 years old), and 10.2 (4.8) g for senior citizens (60 years old and over), respectively. Overall, 60.5% of dietary salt was consumed at home, and 39.5% consumed outside the home. Approximately 90% of the salt intake came from cooking (household cooking and cafeteria or restaurant cooking), while less than 10% came from processed food. In conclusion, the dietary salt intake in Beijing families far surpassed the recommended amounts by World Health Organization, with both household cooking and dining-out as main sources of salt consumption. More targeted interventions, especially education about major sources of salt and corresponding methods for salt reduction should be taken to reduce the risks associated with a high salt diet. PMID:25867952

  19. Hydrophobic interaction chromatography in dual salt system increases protein binding capacity.

    PubMed

    Senczuk, Anna M; Klinke, Ralph; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Vedantham, Ganesh; Yigzaw, Yinges

    2009-08-01

    Hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) uses weakly hydrophobic resins and requires a salting-out salt to promote protein-resin interaction. The salting-out effects increase with protein and salt concentration. Dynamic binding capacity (DBC) is dependent on the binding constant, as well as on the flow characteristics during sample loading. DBC increases with the salt concentration but decreases with increasing flow rate. Dynamic and operational binding capacity have a major raw material cost/processing time impact on commercial scale production of monoclonal antibodies. In order to maximize DBC the highest salt concentration without causing precipitation is used. We report here a novel method to maintain protein solubility while increasing the DBC by using a combination of two salting-out salts (referred to as dual salt). In a series of experiments, we explored the dynamic capacity of a HIC resin (TosoBioscience Butyl 650M) with combinations of salts. Using a model antibody, we developed a system allowing us to increase the dynamic capacity up to twofold using the dual salt system over traditional, single salt system. We also investigated the application of this novel approach to several other proteins and salt combinations, and noted a similar protein solubility and DBC increase. The observed increase in DBC in the dual salt system was maintained at different linear flow rates and did not impact selectivity. PMID:19382248

  20. Reproductive parameters and oxidative stress status of male rats fed with low and high salt diet

    PubMed Central

    Iranloye, Bolanle O.; Oludare, Gabriel O.; Morakinyo, Ayodele O.; Esume, Naomi A.; Ekeh, Lucy C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deficiency of minerals and micronutrients has been reported to impair the process of spermatogenesis. Historically, salt has been used by women on their husbands to increase their libido, however, the role of salt diet on sperm parameters are yet to be ascertained. AIM: The present study was designed to determine the effect of low and high salt diet on sperm parameters, oxidative status and reproductive hormone levels of male rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 18 rats were divided into three groups: Group I: (control) received 0.3% salt diet, Group II: low salt (received 0.14% salt diet) and Group III: high salt (received 8% salt diet). All animals were treated for 6 weeks; after which epididymal sperm parameters; oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase) in the testes and epididymal tissues, as well as follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone levels were determined. RESULTS: The results showed decreased sperm count in the low salt diet rats while increased sperm count was observed in the high salt diet treated rats. Both low salt and high salt diet fed rats exhibited increased abnormal sperm cells and increased epididymal oxidative stress when compared with their respective control. FSH and testosterone levels were increased in the high salt fed rats while LH level was decreased when compared with the control values. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that both low and high salt diet play a negative role in the fertility of male rats. PMID:24672168

  1. A Trail of Salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This graph shows the relative abundances of sulfur (in the form of sulfur tri-oxide) and chlorine at three Meridiani Planum sites: soil measured in the small crater where Opportunity landed; the rock dubbed 'McKittrick' in the outcrop lining the inner edge of the crater; and the rock nicknamed 'Guadalupe,' also in the outcrop. The 'McKittrick' data shown here were taken both before and after the rover finished grinding the rock with its rock abrasion tool to expose fresh rock underneath. The 'Guadalupe' data were taken after the rover grounded the rock. After grinding both rocks, the sulfur abundance rose to high levels, nearly five times higher than that of the soil. This very high sulfur concentration reflects the heavy presence of sulfate salts (approximately 30 percent by weight) in the rocks. Chloride and bromide salts are also indicated. Such high levels of salts strongly suggest the rocks contain evaporite deposits, which form when water evaporates or ice sublimes into the atmosphere.

  2. Bases, Assumptions, and Results of the Flowsheet Calculations for the Decision Phase Salt Disposition Alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, H.H.

    2001-07-11

    The HLW salt waste (salt cake and supernate) now stored at the SRS must be treated to remove insoluble sludge solids and reduce the soluble concentration of radioactive cesium radioactive strontium and transuranic contaminants (principally Pu and Np). These treatments will enable the salt solution to be processed for disposal as saltstone, a solid low-level waste.

  3. The material flow of salt

    SciTech Connect

    Kostick, D.S. )

    1993-01-01

    Salt (NaCl) is a universal mineral commodity used by virtually every person in the world. Although a very common mineral today, at one time it was considered as precious as gold in certain cultures. This study traces the material flow of salt from its origin through the postconsumer phase of usage. The final disposition of salt in the estimated 14,000 different uses, grouped into several macrocategories, is traced from the dispersive loss of salt into the environment to the ultimate disposal of salt-base products into the waste stream after consumption. The base year for this study is 1990, in which an estimated 196 million short tons of municipal solid waste was discarded by the US population. Approximately three-fourths of domestic salt consumed is released to the environment and unrecovered while about one-fourth is discharged to landfills and incinerators as products derived from salt. Cumulative historical domestic production, trade, and consumption data have been compiled to illustrate the long-term trends within the US salt industry and the cumulative contribution that highway deicing salt has had on the environment. Salt is an important component of drilling fluids in well drilling. It is used to flocculate and to increase the density of the drilling fluid in order to overcome high down-well gas pressures. Whenever drilling activities encounter salt formations, salt is added to the drilling fluid to saturate the solution and minimize the dissolution within the salt strata. Salt is also used to increase the set rate of concrete in cemented casings. This subsector includes companies engaged in oil, gas, and crude petroleum exploration and in refining and compounding lubricating oil. It includes SIC major groups 13 and 29. 13 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Moens, Luc

    2003-06-24

    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

  5. Fuel production from wastes using molten salts

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, R.L.; Barclay, K.M.; Grantham, L.F.; Yosim, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Rockwell International molten salt process for gasification of wastes with resource recovery has been shown here to be well-suited for the processing of a variety of wastes. A variety of waste forms may be processed, that is, solids, liquids, and solid-liquid mixtures. The process is suitable for applications which involve either small or large throughputs. The gasification medium, sodium carbonate, is stable, non-volatile, inexpensive, and nontoxic. Sulfur-containing pollutants are retained in the melt when sulfur-containing wastes are gasified. In the same manner, halogen-containing pollutants are retained during gasification of halogen-containing wastes. The gasification of a high-nitrogen-content waste (leather scraps) produces very little NO/sub x/ in the off-gas. Valuable minerals may be recovered by processing of the salt after gasification of mineral-laden wastes. In general, the molten salt process is best applied to waste materials involving potential pollutants (such as sulfur or chromium) or to wastes where gasification and resource recovery are important (such as the recovery of silver with simultaneous gasification of x-ray film).

  6. System Requirements Document for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Aigner, R.D.

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of the conversion process is to convert the {sup 233}U fluoride compounds that are being extracted from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) equipment to a stable oxide for long-term storage at Bldg. 3019.

  7. Assessing the soil microbial carbon budget: Probing with salt stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, Kristin; Rousk, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    The amount of carbon stored as soil organic matter (SOM) constitutes a pool more than double the size of the atmospheric carbon pool. Soil respiration represents one of the largest fluxes of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. A large fraction of the CO2 released by soils is produced by the microbial decomposition of SOM. The microbial carbon budget is characterized by their carbon use efficiency, i.e. the partitioning of substrate into growth and respiration. This will shape the role of the soil as a net source or sink for carbon. One of the canonical factors known to influence microbial processes in soil is pH. In aquatic systems salinity has been found to have a comparably strong influence as pH. However salinity remains understudied in soil, despite its growing relevance due to land use change and agricultural practices. The aim of this project is to understand how microbial carbon dynamics respond to disturbance by changing environmental conditions, using salinity as a reversible stressor. First, we compiled a comparative analysis of the sensitivity of different microbial processes to increasing salt concentrations. Second, we compared different salts to determine whether salt toxicity depended on the identity of the salt. Third, we used samples from a natural salinity gradient to assess if a legacy of salt exposure can influence the microbial response to changing salt concentrations. If salt had an ecologically significant effect in shaping these communities, we would assume that microbial processes would be less sensitive to an increase in salt concentrations. The sensitivity of microbial processes to salt was investigated by establishing inhibition curves in order to estimate EC50 values (the concentration resulting in 50% inhibition). These EC50 values were used to compare bacterial and fungal growth responses, as well as catabolic processes such as respiration and nitrogen mineralisation. Initial results suggest that growth related

  8. Accelerator-driven molten-salt blankets: Physics issues

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, M.G.; Beard, C.A.; Buksa, J.J.; Davidson, J.W.; Durkee, J.W.; Perry, R.T.; Poston, D.I.

    1994-10-01

    A number of nuclear physics issues concerning the Los Alamos molten-salt accelerator-driven plutonium converter are discussed. General descriptions of several concepts using internal and external moderation are presented. Burnup and salt processing requirement calculations are presented for four concepts, indicating that both the high power density externally moderated concept and an internally moderated concept achieve total plutonium burnups approaching 90% at salt processing rates of less than 2 m{sup 3} per year. Beginning-of-life reactivity temperature coefficients and system kinetic response are also discussed. Future research should investigate the effect of changing blanket composition on operational and safety characteristics.

  9. Salt and ice crystallisation in porous sandstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruedrich, Joerg; Siegesmund, Siegfried

    2007-03-01

    Salt and ice crystallisation in the pore spaces causes major physical damage to natural building stones. The damaging effect of these processes can be traced back to physically induced stress inside of the rock while crystallizing. The increasing scientific research done during the past century has shown that there are numerous parameters that have an influence on the weathering resulting from these processes. However, the working mechanisms of the stress development within the rock and its material dependency are still subject to discussion. This article gives an overview of salt and ice weathering. Additionally, laboratory results of various sandstones examined are presented. Salt crystallisation tests and freeze/thaw tests were done to obtain information about how crystallisation weathering depends on material characteristics such as pore space, water transportation, and mechanical features. Simultaneous measuring of the length alternating during the salt and ice crystallisation has revealed detailed information on the development of crystal in the pore spaces as well as the development of stress. These findings can help to understand the damaging mechanisms.

  10. Fast Spectrum Molten Salt Reactor Options

    SciTech Connect

    Gehin, Jess C; Holcomb, David Eugene; Flanagan, George F; Patton, Bruce W; Howard, Rob L; Harrison, Thomas J

    2011-07-01

    During 2010, fast-spectrum molten-salt reactors (FS-MSRs) were selected as a transformational reactor concept for light-water reactor (LWR)-derived heavy actinide disposition by the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC) program and were the subject of a preliminary scoping investigation. Much of the reactor description information presented in this report derives from the preliminary studies performed for the ARC project. This report, however, has a somewhat broader scope-providing a conceptual overview of the characteristics and design options for FS-MSRs. It does not present in-depth evaluation of any FS-MSR particular characteristic, but instead provides an overview of all of the major reactor system technologies and characteristics, including the technology developments since the end of major molten salt reactor (MSR) development efforts in the 1970s. This report first presents a historical overview of the FS-MSR technology and describes the innovative characteristics of an FS-MSR. Next, it provides an overview of possible reactor configurations. The following design features/options and performance considerations are described including: (1) reactor salt options-both chloride and fluoride salts; (2) the impact of changing the carrier salt and actinide concentration on conversion ratio; (3) the conversion ratio; (4) an overview of the fuel salt chemical processing; (5) potential power cycles and hydrogen production options; and (6) overview of the performance characteristics of FS-MSRs, including general comparative metrics with LWRs. The conceptual-level evaluation includes resource sustainability, proliferation resistance, economics, and safety. The report concludes with a description of the work necessary to begin more detailed evaluation of FS-MSRs as a realistic reactor and fuel cycle option.

  11. Exploring the use of Low-intensity Ultrasonics as a Tool for Assessing the Salt Content in Pork Meat Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Pérez, J. V.; de Prados, M.; Martínez-Escrivá, G.; González, R.; Mulet, A.; Benedito, J.

    Meat industry demands non-destructive techniques for the control of the salting process to achieve a homogeneous final salt content in salted meat products. The feasibility of using low-intensity ultrasound for characterizing the salting process of pork meat products was evaluated. The ultrasonic velocity (V) and time of flight (TF) were measured by through-transmission and pulse-echo methods, respectively, in salted meat products. Salting involved an increase of the V in meat muscles and a decrease of the time of flight in whole hams. Measuring the V before and after salting, the salt content could be estimated. Moreover, online monitoring of the salting process by computing the TF could be considered a reliable tool for quality control purposes.

  12. Dynamics of salt playa polygons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goehring, L.; Fourrière, A.

    2014-12-01

    In natural salt playa or in evaporation pools for the salt extraction industry, one can sometimes see surprising regular structures formed by ridges of salt. These ridges connect together to form a self-organized network of polygons one to two meters in diameter, which we call salt polygons. Here we propose a mechanism based on porous media convection of salty water in soil to explain the formation and the scaling of the salt polygons. Surface evaporation causes a steady upward flow of salty water, which can cause precipitation near the surface. A vertical salt gradient then builds up in the porous soil, with heavy salt-saturated water lying over the less salty source water. This can drive convection when a threshold is reached, given by a critical Rayleigh number of about 7. We suggest that the salt polygons are the surface expression of the porous medium convection, with salt crystallizing along the positions of the convective downwellings. To study this instability directly, we developed a 2D analogue experiment using a Hele-Shaw cell filled with a porous medium saturated with a salt solution and heated from above. We perform a linear stability analysis of this system, and find that it is unstable to convection, with a most unstable wavelength that is set by a balance between salt diffusion and water evaporation. The Rayleigh number in our experiment is controlled by the particle size of our model soil, and the evaporation rate. We obtain results that scale with the observation of natural salt polygons. Using dye, we observe the convective movement of salty water and find downwelling convective plumes underneath the spots where surface salt ridges form, as shown in the attached figure.

  13. A novel non-vacuum process for the preparation of CuIn(Se,S)2 thin-film solar cells from air-stable, eco-friendly, metal salts based solution ink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Paifeng; Liu, Zhaofan; Ding, Yuankui; Cheng, Jigui

    2015-01-01

    A facile solution-based non-vacuum process for deposition of CuIn(Se,S)2 (CISeS) absorber layers is presented in this work, which indicates a promising way for the low-cost applications in thin-film solar cells. Firstly, low-boiling-point solvents Monobutylamine C4H11N and Carbon disulfide CS2 are selected as the complexing and thickening agents and added into the Cu/In metal salts based solution. Thus the air-stable, eco-friendly solution ink is successfully synthesized through a simple solution synthesis route. The detailed chemical reaction mechanism and the influence of the composition of precursor solution have been discussed intensively as well. After sequential spin-coating, hot-treatment and selenization process, the high-quality CISeS films are obtained and then characterized by XRD, Raman, SEM, EDS, Metallographic microscope, Hall Effect measurement and UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy, respectively. It is found that the compact CISeS films with chalcopyrite α-phase possess a double-layer structure, and also incorporate with a little ordered vacancy compounds (OVCs) and Cu2-xSe impurities. The typical near stoichiometric CISeS films without Carbon residuals have superior photoelectric properties with carrier concentration of 3.46 × 1016 N cm-3 and band gap of 1.15 eV. Finally, the original first-made PV devices provide a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.25%, which can be further improved by increasing the thickness of CISeS films and/or optimizing the selenization and sulfuration technologies.

  14. A stop-restart solid propellant study with salt quench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to gain insight into the unsatisfactory performance of the salt quench system of solid propellants in earlier studies. Nine open-air salt spray tests were conducted and high-speed cinematographic coverage was obtained of the events. It is shown that the salt spray by the detonator is generally a two-step process yielding two different fractions. The first fraction consists of finely powdered salt and moves practically unidirectionally at a high velocity (thousand of feet per second) while the second fraction consists of coarse particles and moves randomly at a low velocity (a few feet per second). Further investigation is required to verify the speculation that a lower quench charge ratio (weight of salt/propellant burning area) than previously employed may lead to an efficient quench

  15. Submarine allochthonous salt sheets: Gravity-driven deformation of North African Cretaceous passive margin in Tunisia - Bled Dogra case study and nearby salt structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masrouhi, Amara; Bellier, Olivier; Ben Youssef, Mohamed; Koyi, Hemin

    2014-09-01

    We used structural, stratigraphic and sedimentologic data, together with a comparison of nearby structures and a Bouguer gravity map, to evaluate the evolution of the Bled Dogra salt structure (northern Tunisia) during the Cretaceous. Triassic salt sheets are recognized in the northwestern region of the Tunisian Atlas. These salt sheets are the result of Cretaceous thick and/or thin-skinned extension along the south Tethyan margin. The Bled Dogra salt structure is one of these submarine allochthonous salt sheets, which was emplaced during the Early Cretaceous. The geologic framework, during this period, produces conditions for a predominantly gravity-driven deformation: extension has produced space for the salt to rise; vigorous differential sedimentation created differential loading that resulted in the emplacement and extrusion of a large volume of Triassic salt and formation of large submarine salt sheets. Geologic field data suggest an interlayered Triassic salt sheet within Albian sequences. Salt was extruded at the sea floor during the Early-Middle Albian and was initially buried by Middle-Late Albian strata. The Coniacian corresponds to a second transgressive cover onto the salt sheet after the gliding of the first salt cover (Late Albian-Turonian). In addition, this northwest Tunisian area exposes evidences for salt flow and abundant slump features at the base of a northward facing submarine slope, which was probably dominant from the Early Cretaceous to Santonian. Two gravity deformation processes are recognized: gravity gliding and gravity spreading. Acting concurrently, these two processes appear indistinguishable in this geologic context. Like the present-day salt-involved passive margins - such as the northern Gulf of Mexico, the Atlantic margin of Morocco, the Brazilian Santos basin, the Angola margin, Cadiz in western Iberia, and the Red Sea - the North African Cretaceous passive margin in Tunisia provides evidences that deformation in a passive

  16. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D.; Poris, Jaime; Huggins, Robert A.

    1983-01-01

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  17. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, I.D.; Poris, J.; Huggins, R.A.

    1980-07-18

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell which may be operated at temperatures between about 100 to 170/sup 0/C. The cell is comprised of an electrolyte, which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode.

  18. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D.; Poris, Jaime; Huggins, Robert A.

    1982-02-09

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  19. Electrolyte salts for nonaqueous electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Amine, Khalil; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Chen, Zonghai

    2012-10-09

    Metal complex salts may be used in lithium ion batteries. Such metal complex salts not only perform as an electrolyte salt in a lithium ion batteries with high solubility and conductivity, but also can act as redox shuttles that provide overcharge protection of individual cells in a battery pack and/or as electrolyte additives to provide other mechanisms to provide overcharge protection to lithium ion batteries. The metal complex salts have at least one aromatic ring. The aromatic moiety may be reversibly oxidized/reduced at a potential slightly higher than the working potential of the positive electrode in the lithium ion battery. The metal complex salts may also be known as overcharge protection salts.

  20. Estimation of Retained Crude Oil Associated with Crushed Salt and Salt Cores in the Presence of Near-Saturated Brine

    SciTech Connect

    Grasser, T.W.; Hinkebein, T.E.; O'Hern, T.J.

    1999-02-01

    This paper describes three experiments whose purpose is to determine the amount of retained oil on massive salt surfaces and in crushed salt in the presence of water and brine. These experiments have application to the decommissioning process for the Weeks Island mine. In the first experiment, oil-coated salt cores were immersed in either fresh water or in 85% brine. In the case of both fluids, the oil was completely removed from the cores within several hours. In the second experiment, oil-coated salt pieces were suspended in air and the oil was allowed to drain. The weight of retained oil clinging to the salt was determined. This experiment was used to estimate the total amount of oil clinging to the roofs of the mine. The total amount of oil clinging to the roofs of the mine is estimated to be between 240 and 400 m3 (1500 and 2500 BBL). In the third experiment, a pan of oil-soaked crushed salt was immersed in 85% brine, and oil removal from the salt was monitored as a function of time. At the start of the experiment, prior to immersion, 16% of the bulk volume of the crushed salt was determined to be interstitial oil. After the pan of crushed salt was immersed in 85% brine, 80% of the oil, which had been in the interstitial spaces of the crushed salt, immediately floated to the surface of the brine. This oil was not bound and was immediately released. During the next 380 hours, oil continued to separate from the salt and the rate of transfer was governed by a mass-transfer rate limitation.

  1. Electrochromic salts, solutions, and devices

    DOEpatents

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Warner, Benjamin P.; McClesky,7,064,212 T. Mark

    2006-06-20

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  2. Salt appetite in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Hendi, Khadeja; Leshem, Micah

    2014-11-28

    The present study investigated whether salt appetite in the elderly is impaired similar to thirst because of the commonality of their physiological substrates and whether alterations in salt appetite are related to mood. Elderly (65-85 years, n 30) and middle-aged (45-58 years, n 30) men and women were compared in two test sessions. Thirst, psychophysical ratings of taste solutions, dietary Na and energy intakes, seasoning with salt and sugar, number of salty and sweet snacks consumed, preferred amounts of salt in soup and sugar in tea, and an overall measure of salt appetite and its relationship with mood, nocturia and sleep were measured. Elderly participants were found to be less thirsty and respond less to thirst. In contrast, no impairment of salt appetite was found in them, and although they had a reduced dietary Na intake, it dissipated when corrected for their reduced dietary energy intake. Diet composition and Na intake were found to be similar in middle-aged and elderly participants, despite the lesser intake in elderly participants. There were no age-related differences in the intensity of taste or hedonic profile of Na, in salting habits, in tests of salting soup, or number of salty snacks consumed. No relationship of any measure of salt appetite with mood measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, frequency of nocturia, or sleep duration was observed. The age-related impairment of the physiology of mineralofluid regulation, while compromising thirst and fluid intake, spares salt appetite, suggesting that salt appetite in humans is not regulated physiologically. Intact salt appetite in the elderly might be utilised judiciously to prevent hyponatraemia, increase thirst and improve appetite. PMID:25287294

  3. Batteries using molten salt electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Guidotti, Ronald A.

    2003-04-08

    An electrolyte system suitable for a molten salt electrolyte battery is described where the electrolyte system is a molten nitrate compound, an organic compound containing dissolved lithium salts, or a 1-ethyl-3-methlyimidazolium salt with a melting temperature between approximately room temperature and approximately 250.degree. C. With a compatible anode and cathode, the electrolyte system is utilized in a battery as a power source suitable for oil/gas borehole applications and in heat sensors.

  4. Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices

    DOEpatents

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Warner, Benjamin P.; McClesky, T. Mark

    2008-10-14

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  5. Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices

    DOEpatents

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Warner, Benjamin P.; McClesky, T. Mark

    2008-11-11

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  6. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  7. Ion chromatography to detect salts in stone structures and to assess salt removal methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Lopez-Arce, P.; Fort, R.

    2012-04-01

    Stone - and in general all materials- from built heritage is very often damaged by salt crystallisation processes. Such processes usually derive into a loss of material compactness, as salts - given specific conditions and parameters- crystallize inside the material pores, exerting a pressure against the material pore walls higher than what they can resist - similar to the effect of liquid water when converts to solid water or ice-, thus breaking and disrupting the material by generating fissures and increasing the pore volume ratio, loosing its initial cohesion. When these deterioration processes take place inside a structure, salts - from different sources: material itself, restoration materials, from the ground, etc.- may come up to the stone surface - either temporarily or in permanently-, from beneath it, as efflorescences, depending mainly on the microclimatic conditions of the environment and the salts source. Efflorescences can be analysed and their nature identified (e.g. by means of X ray diffraction, in which the mineralogical composition of the salt is obtained), which can be, general, of aid not only for restoration but for preventive conservation measures. But what we do not know a priori when only characterising salt compounds- is the extent of the damage due to the presence of salts inside a structure (sub- and cryptoefflorescences). In this work we present a procedure in which the depth of the salt content can be measured, and its nature identified, based on the use of the ion chromatography technique. This technique allows identifying the existing ions in a specific sample, both anions and cations. The procedure consists of drilling (with a drilling core ranging from 5 to 8 mm in diameter, therefore causing the minimum damage to the material) in a same point at different depths from the surface and several depths from the bottom. The samples obtained are analysed and the ion content determined, qualitative and quantitatively. By means of a

  8. Bioenergetics of salt tolerance. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Packer, L.

    1986-10-28

    Major findings are presented on how Synechococcus responds to a transition from low salt (12mM NaCl) to high salt (0.5 M NaCl) medium; we have studied immediate and long-term osmotic responses, identified deleterious effects of NaCl on cellular processes, and analyzed adaptations of the bioenergetic systems that permit the organism to tolerate a high salt environment. We have also developed new electron spin resonance methods for measuring intracellular O/sub 2/ concentrations and intracellular pH. In addition studies on the physiology and molecular mechanism of light-driven chloride transport by halorhodopsin in the halobacteria are reported. The ion-transport ATPase of halobacteria and the respiration-linked sodium transport system of the halotolerant bacterium, Bal were studied with respect to the role and functioning of ionic pumps. Chloride transport was shown to be an integral componet of the overall ion circulation in halobacterial cells, one which maintains internal salt concentration and therefore cellular volume. How halorhodopsin functions, its photointermediates, the nature of chloride-binding sites, the role of the deprotonation of the retinal Schiff-base, and how removal of most of the arginine residues, does not affect chloride-binding are reported. Methods were developed for the study of membrane-bound halobacterial ATPase, its solubilization and partial purification. 43 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Salt repository project closeout status report

    SciTech Connect

    1988-06-01

    This report provides an overview of the scope and status of the US Department of Energy (DOE`s) Salt Repository Project (SRP) at the time when the project was terminated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The report reviews the 10-year program of siting a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste in rock salt formations. Its purpose is to aid persons interested in the information developed during the course of this effort. Each area is briefly described and the major items of information are noted. This report, the three salt Environmental Assessments, and the Site Characterization Plan are the suggested starting points for any search of the literature and information developed by the program participants. Prior to termination, DOE was preparing to characterize three candidate sites for the first mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The sites were in Nevada, a site in volcanic tuff; Texas, a site in bedded salt (halite); and Washington, a site in basalt. These sites, identified by the screening process described in Chapter 3, were selected from the nine potentially acceptable sites shown on Figure I-1. These sites were identified in accordance with provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. 196 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. Synergistic topical application of salt-processed Phellodendron amurense and Sanguisorba officinalis Linne alleviates atopic dermatitis symptoms by reducing levels of immunoglobulin E and pro-inflammatory cytokines in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Kim, Da Sol; Kang, Suna; Shin, Bae Keun

    2015-11-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, and salt-processed Phellodendron amurense (CPE) and Sanguisorba officinalis Linne (SOE) are widely used as anti-inflammatory agents in Asia. Therefore, the present study investigated the efficacy of CPE, SOE, and CPE+SOE in the treatment of atopic dermatitis-like symptoms in mice. Following topical application of 1,3‑butylen glycol (control), 30% CPE, 30% SOE, 15% CPE+15% SOE or 0.1% hydrocortisone (HC) on the atopic dermatitis‑like skin lesions of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene‑treated NC/Nga mice for 5 weeks, the severity of clinical atopic dermatitis, mast cell infiltration, serum expression levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)E, IgG1, interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-γ, and cytokine expression in the dorsal skin were measured. Compared with the control group, treatment with CPE alleviated the clinical severity of the AD symptoms, with decreased numbers of mast cells, decreased expression levels of serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α, IL‑4 and IFN‑γ, and decreased expression levels of inflammatory cytokines in the dorsal lesions. Treatment with SOE did not reduce these expression levels, however, the serum expression levels of IgE and IgG1 were suppressed to similar levels as those in the CPE group. Furthermore, synergistic treatment with CPE and SOE relieved the clinical severity of atopic dermatitis, reduced the serum expression levels of IgE, IgG1, TNF‑α, IL‑4 and IFN‑γ, and suppressed the mRNA expression levels of TNF‑α, IL‑4, IL‑13, and IFN‑γ in the dorsal skin lesions. Treatment with CPE+SOE was superior to treatment with HC alone for reducing dermal thickness and suppressing the production of several cytokines. Therefore, combined treatment with CPE and SOE may be an effective alternative intervention for the management of atopic dermatitis. PMID:26397864

  11. Salt in the wound: The interfering effect of road salt on acidified forest catchments.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, Andreas H; Audorff, Volker; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2015-11-01

    Atmospheric acidic depositions have strongly altered the functioning and biodiversity of Central European forest ecosystems. Most impacts occurred until the end of the 20(th) century but the situation substantially improved thereafter caused by legal regulations in the late 1980's to reduce acidifying atmospheric pollution. Since then slow recovery from acidification has been observed in forested catchments and adjacent waters. However, trends of recovery are inconsistent and underlying mechanisms diminishing recovery are still poorly understood. We propose that the input of road salt can significantly affect acidity regime and acidification recovery of forest ecosystems. By comparing the discharge hydro-chemistry and plant community composition of springs fed by forested catchments with and without high levels of salt input over two decades we observed a significant suppression of recovery and elevated levels of nutrient leaching (K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) in highly salt contaminated catchments. We show that the pollution of near-surface groundwater (interflow) by road salt application can have lasting effects on ecosystem processes over distances of several hundred metres apart from the salt emitting road. PMID:26115338

  12. Polyethylene encapsulation of molten salt oxidation mixed low-level radioactive salt residues

    SciTech Connect

    Lageraaen, P.R.; Kalb, P.D.; Grimmett, D.L.; Gay, R.L.; Newman, C.D.

    1995-10-01

    A limited scope treatability study was conducted for polyethylene encapsulation of salt residues generated by a Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) technology demonstration at the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), operated by Rockwell International for the US Department of Energy (DOE). During 1992 and 1993, ETEC performed a demonstration with a prototype MSO unit and treated approximately 50 gallons of mixed waste comprised of radioactively contaminated oils produced by hot cell operations. A sample of the mixed waste contaminated spent salt was used during the BNL polyethylene encapsulation treatability study. A nominal waste loading of 50 wt % was successfully processed and waste form test specimens were made for Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing. The encapsulated product was compared with base-line TCLP results for total chromium and was found to be well within allowable EPA guidelines.

  13. Theory Of Salt Effects On Protein Solubility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahal, Yuba; Schmit, Jeremy

    Salt is one of the major factors that effects protein solubility. Often, at low salt concentration regime, protein solubility increases with the salt concentration(salting in) whereas at high salt concentration regime, solubility decreases with the increase in salt concentration(salting out). There are no quantitative theories to explain salting in and salting out. We have developed a model to describe the salting in and salting out. Our model accounts for the electrostatic Coulomb energy, salt entropy and non-electrostatic interaction between proteins. We analytically solve the linearized Poisson Boltzmann equation modelling the protein charge by a first order multipole expansion. In our model, protein charges are modulated by the anion binding. Consideration of only the zeroth order term in protein charge doesn't help to describe salting in phenomenon because of the repulsive interaction. To capture the salting in behaviour, it requires an attractive electrostatic interaction in low salt regime. Our work shows that at low salt concentration, dipole interaction is the cause for salting in and at high salt concentration a salt-dependent depletion interaction dominates and gives the salting out. Our theoretical result is consistent with the experimental result for Chymosin protein NIH Grant No R01GM107487.

  14. Stationary phase deposition based on onium salts

    DOEpatents

    Wheeler, David R.; Lewis, Patrick R.; Dirk, Shawn M.; Trudell, Daniel E.

    2008-01-01

    Onium salt chemistry can be used to deposit very uniform thickness stationary phases on the wall of a gas chromatography column. In particular, the stationary phase can be bonded to non-silicon based columns, especially microfabricated metal columns. Non-silicon microfabricated columns may be manufactured and processed at a fraction of the cost of silicon-based columns. In addition, the method can be used to phase-coat conventional capillary columns or silicon-based microfabricated columns.

  15. Lowering Salt in Your Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... needs some salt to function. Also known as sodium chloride, salt helps maintain the body's balance of fluids. ... select foods that provide 5% or less for sodium, per serving. back to ... substitutes contain potassium chloride and can be used by individuals to replace ...

  16. CHED Events: Salt Lake City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wink, Donald J.

    2009-03-01

    The Division of Chemical Education (CHED) Committee meetings planned for the Spring 2009 ACS Meeting in Salt Lake City will be in the Marriott City Center Hotel. Check the location of other CHED events, the CHED Social Event, the Undergraduate Program, Sci-Mix, etc. because many will be in the Salt Palace Convention Center.

  17. Structure of liquid trivalent salts

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.L.; Saboungi, M.L.; Howells, W.S.; Tosi, M.P.

    1993-04-01

    Total neutron scattering measurements have been made on three trivalent molten salts: InCl{sub 3} (605C), BiCl{sub 3}(300C) and BiI{sub 3} (420C). Results are discussed in the general context of ordering, bonding and macroscopic properties of trivalent molten salts.

  18. Structure of liquid trivalent salts

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.L.; Saboungi, M.L. . Materials Science Div.); Howells, W.S. ); Tosi, M.P. )

    1993-04-01

    Total neutron scattering measurements have been made on three trivalent molten salts: InCl[sub 3] (605C), BiCl[sub 3](300C) and BiI[sub 3] (420C). Results are discussed in the general context of ordering, bonding and macroscopic properties of trivalent molten salts.

  19. Salt extraction from hydrogen-sulfide scrubber solution using electrodialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jamaluddin, A.K.M.; Kennedy, M.W.; McManus, D.; Nazarko, T.W.

    1995-05-01

    The buildup of undesirable sulfur compounds (sulfates and thiosulfates) reduces the scrubbing effectiveness of the LO-CAT I autocirculation sulfur recovery process from acid-gas stream. Among various processes, withdrawing and disposing of a portion of the scrubber solution and replacing this blowdown with fresh solution have been the practice in the industry. The application of the electrodialysis system to recycle the blowdown is presented. Experiments were carried out using electrodialysis to separate salts (sulfates and thiosulfates) from the LO-CAT I autocirculation scrubber solution containing organic chelating agents, iron, and various alkali-metal inorganic salts. The results indicated that the electrodialysis was successful in removing 50% of the salts from the scrubber solution with less than 8% loss of organic and 8% loss of carbonates. The fluxes of the undesired salt species were high even at low current densities (200 to 400 A/m{sup 2}).

  20. Plant salt-tolerance mechanisms

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Deinlein, Ulrich; Stephan, Aaron B.; Horie, Tomoaki; Luo, Wei; Xu, Guohua; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2014-06-01

    Crop performance is severely affected by high salt concentrations in soils. To engineer more salt-tolerant plants it is crucial to unravel the key components of the plant salt-tolerance network. Here we review our understanding of the core salt-tolerance mechanisms in plants. Recent studies have shown that stress sensing and signaling components can play important roles in regulating the plant salinity stress response. We also review key Na+ transport and detoxification pathways and the impact of epigenetic chromatin modifications on salinity tolerance. In addition, we discuss the progress that has been made towards engineering salt tolerance in crops, including marker-assisted selectionmore » and gene stacking techniques. We also identify key open questions that remain to be addressed in the future.« less

  1. Plant salt-tolerance mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Deinlein, Ulrich; Stephan, Aaron B.; Horie, Tomoaki; Luo, Wei; Xu, Guohua; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2014-06-01

    Crop performance is severely affected by high salt concentrations in soils. To engineer more salt-tolerant plants it is crucial to unravel the key components of the plant salt-tolerance network. Here we review our understanding of the core salt-tolerance mechanisms in plants. Recent studies have shown that stress sensing and signaling components can play important roles in regulating the plant salinity stress response. We also review key Na+ transport and detoxification pathways and the impact of epigenetic chromatin modifications on salinity tolerance. In addition, we discuss the progress that has been made towards engineering salt tolerance in crops, including marker-assisted selection and gene stacking techniques. We also identify key open questions that remain to be addressed in the future.

  2. Long- and Short-Term Processes Indicated by the Displacement of the Chamber Roofs in the Monumental Wieliczka Salt Mine / Długo- i krótkotrwałe procesy sygnalizowane przemieszczeniami stropu komór w zabytkowej kopalni soli wieliczka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortas, Grzegorz

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents several processes that are characteristic for the salt rock mass, which have been found upon analysis of observations of the chamber roof displacements in the monumental Wieliczka Salt Mine. Those processes are revealed in different time frames and they range from short- to long-term ones. A regular long-term increase or decrease of creeping rate in the chamber roof is expressed by power function of time. It was found that an annual component of that process consists in the season cycle, marked by increased displacement rates in the summer and reduced ones in the winter. The seasonal changes in air humidity are the cause of those cycles. A rock slip cycle is observed in some chambers during several months. In those periods, we can identify displacements that happen when internal static and dynamic friction is overcome. In 2007-2009, single signals from large-area rock-mass movements were recorded in several chambers. They were probably associated with the change of geo-mechanical conditions in northern region of rock mass after a leak had been plugged in the cross-corridor Mina. The results of our analysis have revealed new cognitive components contributing to the description of rock behaviour in specific geological and mining conditions of Miocene salt deposits.

  3. A perspective on liquid salts for energy and materials.

    PubMed

    Irvine, J T S

    2016-08-15

    Liquid salts comprising molten salts and ionic liquids offer important media to address both energy and materials challenges. Here we review topics presented in this Faraday Discussion volume related to improved electrowinning of metals, optimisation of processes, new electrochemical device concepts, chemistry in ionic liquids, conversion of biomass, carbon chemistry and nuclear applications. The underlying phenomenology is then reviewed and commentary given. Some future applications are then discussed, further exemplifying the high potential rewards achievable from these chemistries. PMID:27483385

  4. Salting-out and Salting-in in Polyelectrolyte Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Wu, Jianzhong; Wang, Zhen-Gang

    The phase behavior of polyelectrolyte (PE) solutions is governed by complicated interplay involving the mixing entropy, excluded volume, chain connectivity, and electrostatic interactions. Here we study the phase behavior of PE solutions in both salt-free condition and with added salt using a liquid-state (LS) theory based thermodynamic model. The LS model accounts or the hard-core repulsion by the Canahan-Starling equation of state, correlations due to chain connectivity by the first-order thermodynamic perturbation theory, and electrostatic correlations by the mean-spherical approximation. In comparison to the prediction from the well-known Voorn-Overbeek theory, the LS model predicts loop-type binodal curves in the salt-PE concentration diagram at temperatures slightly above the critical temperature of PE solution in salt-free case, consistent with the experimental study. The phase separated region shrinks with increasing temperature. Three scenarios of salting-out and salting-in phenomenon are predicted with addition of salts based, depending on the PE concentration.

  5. Molten Salt Promoting Effect in Double Salt CO2 Absorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Keling; Li, Xiaohong S.; Chen, Haobo; Singh, Prabhakar; King, David L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the concept of molten salts as catalysts for CO2 absorption by MgO, and extend these observations to the MgO-containing double salt oxides. We will show that the phenomena involved with CO2 absorption by MgO and MgO-based double salts are similar and general, but with some important differences. This paper focuses on the following key concepts: i) identification of conditions that favor or disfavor participation of isolated MgO during double salt absorption, and investigation of methods to increase the absorption capacity of double salt systems by including MgO participation; ii) examination of the relationship between CO2 uptake and melting point of the promoter salt, leading to the recognition of the role of pre-melting (surface melting) in these systems; and iii) extension of the reaction pathway model developed for the MgO-NaNO3 system to the double salt systems. This information advances our understanding of MgO-based CO2 absorption systems for application with pre-combustion gas streams.

  6. Wetting and evaporation of salt-water nanodroplets: A molecular dynamics investigation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Borg, Matthew K; Sefiane, Khellil; Reese, Jason M

    2015-11-01

    We employ molecular dynamics simulations to study the wetting and evaporation of salt-water nanodroplets on platinum surfaces. Our results show that the contact angle of the droplets increases with the salt concentration. To verify this, a second simulation system of a thin salt-water film on a platinum surface is used to calculate the various surface tensions. We find that both the solid-liquid and liquid-vapor surface tensions increase with salt concentration and as a result these cause an increase in the contact angle. However, the evaporation rate of salt-water droplets decreases as the salt concentration increases, due to the hydration of salt ions. When the water molecules have all evaporated from the droplet, two forms of salt crystals are deposited, clump and ringlike, depending on the solid-liquid interaction strength and the evaporation rate. To form salt crystals in a ring, it is crucial that there is a pinned stage in the evaporation process, during which salt ions can move from the center to the rim of the droplets. With a stronger solid-liquid interaction strength, a slower evaporation rate, and a higher salt concentration, a complete salt crystal ring can be deposited on the surface. PMID:26651708

  7. Wetting and evaporation of salt-water nanodroplets: A molecular dynamics investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Borg, Matthew K.; Sefiane, Khellil; Reese, Jason M.

    2015-11-01

    We employ molecular dynamics simulations to study the wetting and evaporation of salt-water nanodroplets on platinum surfaces. Our results show that the contact angle of the droplets increases with the salt concentration. To verify this, a second simulation system of a thin salt-water film on a platinum surface is used to calculate the various surface tensions. We find that both the solid-liquid and liquid-vapor surface tensions increase with salt concentration and as a result these cause an increase in the contact angle. However, the evaporation rate of salt-water droplets decreases as the salt concentration increases, due to the hydration of salt ions. When the water molecules have all evaporated from the droplet, two forms of salt crystals are deposited, clump and ringlike, depending on the solid-liquid interaction strength and the evaporation rate. To form salt crystals in a ring, it is crucial that there is a pinned stage in the evaporation process, during which salt ions can move from the center to the rim of the droplets. With a stronger solid-liquid interaction strength, a slower evaporation rate, and a higher salt concentration, a complete salt crystal ring can be deposited on the surface.

  8. Multiphase salt tectonic evolution in NW Germany: seismic interpretation and retro-deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, M.; Kukla, P. A.; Urai, J. L.; Bresser, G.

    2005-12-01

    The Central European Basin is a classic area of salt tectonics, characterized by heterogeneous structural evolution and complex salt movement history. We studied an area on its SW margin, based on prestack depth-migrated 2D and 3D seismic data. We use seismic interpretation and retro-deformation to obtain a better understanding of salt tectonics, structural control, and sedimentary response in this region. The first phase of salt tectonic evolution started with two main events of NW-SE extension and rafting in the Triassic before the Upper Bunter and before the Upper Muschelkalk. Rafting was accompanied by first salt diapirism and an increased sedimentary thickness adjacent to the salt structure. After salt supply ceased updip to the salt structure, a mini-basin grew in the intra-raft area. This sedimentary differential loading caused salt movement and growth of a pillow structure basinward. The second phase of salt movement was initiated by the formation of a NNW-SSE striking basement graben in the Middle Keuper that triggered reactive diapirism, the breakthrough of the pillow’s roof and salt extrusion. The following downbuilding process was characterized by sedimentary wedges with basal unconformities, onlap structures and salt extrusions that ceased in the Jurassic. The third and latest phase of salt tectonic evolution was activated in the Late Cretaceous to Lower Tertiary by compressional tectonics indicated by salt rise and a small horizontal shortening of the diapir. The interpreted salt tectonic processes and the resulting geometries can now be better tied in with the regional heterogeneous framework of the basin.

  9. Direct Grout Stabilization of High Cesium Salt Waste: Salt Alternative Phase III Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.

    1998-12-07

    The direct grout alternative is a viable option for treatment/stabilization and disposal of salt waste containing Cs-137 concentrations of 1-3 Ci/gal. The composition of the direct grout salt solution is higher in sodium salts and contains up to a few hundred ppm Cs-137 more than the current reference salt solution. However it is still similar to the composition of the current reference salt solution. Consequently, the processing, setting, and leaching properties (including TCLP for Cr and Hg) of the direct grout and current saltstone waste forms are very similar. The significant difference between these waste solutions is that the high cesium salt solution will contain between 1 and 3 Curies of Cs-137 per gallon compared to a negligible amount in the current salt solution. This difference will require special engineering and shielding for a direct grout processing facility and disposal units to achieve acceptable radiation exposure conditions. The Cs-137 concentration in the direct grout salt solution will also affect the long-term curing temperature of the waste form since 4.84 Watts of energy are generated per 1000 Ci of Cs-137. The temperature rise of the direct grout during long-term curing has been calculated by A. Shaddy, SRTC.1 The effect of curing temperature on the strength, leaching and physical durability of the direct grout saltstone is described in this report. At the present time, long term curing at 90 degrees C appears to be unacceptable because of cracking which will affect the structural integrity as evaluated in the immersion test. (The experiments conducted in this feasibility study do not address the effect of cracking on leaching of contaminants other than Cr, Hg, and Cs.) No cracking of the direct grout or reference saltstone waste forms was observed for samples cured at 70 degrees C. At the present time the implications of waste form cracking at elevated curing temperatures has not been fully addressed. The direct grout falls within the

  10. Great Salt Lake and Bonneville Salt Flats, UT, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This is a view of the Great Salt Lake and nearby Bonneville Salt Flats, UT, (41.0N, 112.5W). A railroad causeway divides the lake with a stark straight line changing the water level and chemistry of the lake as a result. Fresh water runoff enters from the south adding to the depth and reducing the salinity. The north half receives little frsh water and is more saline and shallow. The Bonnieville Salt Flats is the lakebed of a onetime larger lake.

  11. Ecogeomorphic Heterogeneity Sculpts Salt Marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonardi, N.; Fagherazzi, S.

    2014-12-01

    state for marsh boundaries, which would make the prediction of failure events impossible. Internal physical processes allowing salt marshes to reach self-organized criticality are geotechnical, biological, and related to the non-homogeneity of salt marshes whose material discontinuities act as stress raisers.

  12. The biopsychology of salt hunger and sodium deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Seth W; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2015-03-01

    Sodium is a necessary dietary macromineral that tended to be sparsely distributed in mankind's environment in the past. Evolutionary selection pressure shaped physiological mechanisms including hormonal systems and neural circuits that serve to promote sodium ingestion. Sodium deficiency triggers the activation of these hormonal systems and neural circuits to engage motivational processes that elicit a craving for salty substances and a state of reward when salty foods are consumed. Sodium deficiency also appears to be associated with aversive psychological states including anhedonia, impaired cognition, and fatigue. Under certain circumstances the psychological processes that promote salt intake can become powerful enough to cause "salt gluttony," or salt intake far in excess of physiological need. The present review discusses three aspects of the biopsychology of salt hunger and sodium deficiency: (1) the psychological processes that promote salt intake during sodium deficiency, (2) the effects of sodium deficiency on mood and cognition, and (3) the sensitization of sodium appetite as a possible cause of salt gluttony. PMID:25572931

  13. Laboratory simulation of salt dissolution during waste removal

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B.J.; Parish, W.R.

    1997-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to support the field demonstration of improved techniques for salt dissolution in waste tanks at the Savannah River Site. The tests were designed to investigate three density driven techniques for salt dissolution: (1) Drain-Add-Sit-Remove, (2) Modified Density Gradient, and (3) Continuous Salt Mining. Salt dissolution was observed to be a very rapid process as salt solutions with densities between 1.38-1.4 were frequently removed. Slower addition and removal rates and locating the outlet line at deeper levels below the top of the saltcake provided the best contact between the dissolution water and the saltcake. It was observed that dissolution with 1 M sodium hydroxide solution resulted in salt solutions that were within the current inhibitor requirements for the prevention of stress corrosion cracking. This result was independent of the density driven technique. However, if inhibited water (0.01 M sodium hydroxide and 0.011 M sodium nitrite) was utilized, the salt solutions were frequently outside the inhibitor requirements. Corrosion testing at conditions similar to the environments expected during waste removal was recommended.

  14. Selecting, Scheduling and Carrying Out Observing Programmes at SALT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, David A. H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the manner in which Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) observations are carried out, from the observation proposal process to the final distribution of data to the SALT users. As a background, the general operational model for SALT is also described. In addition I discuss the main top-level design and performance characteristics of both the telescope and instruments, which informs the nature of SALT observing programmes and leads to a natural selection of competitive science projects. Since SALT is a 100% queue-scheduled and service-observing telescope, there is a significant level of flexibility regarding how observations are undertaken. A single observation block can involve different instruments and modes, including calibrations. To support the often complex manner in which observations can be configured, a set of observation proposal and planning tools have been developed for both users and support staff, and these are described in this paper. SALT users can plan their observations using these tools and submit their proposals over the internet in two phases. The Phase~1 proposal contains the scientific and technical justification and target information, but only a basic description of the instrumental and observation configurations. Following approval of the proposals, the Phase~2 proposal is completed which contains all of the details of every observing block, including configurations, exposure times, signal-to-noise requirements, time windows (if applicable), total block observation time and calibration requirements. How SALT observations are undertaken, monitored and reduced is also described.

  15. Iodized Salt Sales in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Maalouf, Joyce; Barron, Jessica; Gunn, Janelle P.; Yuan, Keming; Perrine, Cria G.; Cogswell, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Iodized salt has been an important source of dietary iodine, a trace element important for regulating human growth, development, and metabolic functions. This analysis identified iodized table salt sales as a percentage of retail salt sales using Nielsen ScanTrack. We identified 1117 salt products, including 701 salt blends and 416 other salt products, 57 of which were iodized. When weighted by sales volume in ounces or per item, 53% contained iodized salt. These findings may provide a baseline for future monitoring of sales of iodized salt. PMID:25763528

  16. Disposal of soluble salt waste from coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    McKnight, C.E.

    1980-06-01

    This paper addresses pollutants in the form of soluble salts and resource recovery in the form of water and land. A design for disposal of soluble salts has been produced. The interactions of its parameters have been shown by a process design study. The design will enable harmonious compliance with United States Public Laws 92-500 and 94-580, relating to water pollution and resource recovery. In the disposal of waste salt solutions, natural water resources need not be contaminated, because an encapsulation technique is available which will immobilize the salts. At the same time it will make useful landforms available, and water as a resource can be recovered. There is a cost minimum when electrodialysis and evaporation are combined, which is not realizable with evaporation alone, unless very low-cost thermal energy is available or unless very high-cost pretreatment for electrodialysis is required. All the processes making up the proposed disposal process are commercially available, although they are nowhere operating commercially as one process. Because of the commercial availability of the processes, the proposed process may be a candidate 'best commercially available treatment' for soluble salt disposal.

  17. Integrated demonstration of molten salt oxidation with salt recycle for mixed waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, P.C.

    1997-11-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal, nonflame process that has the inherent capability of completely destroying organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials while retaining inorganic and radioactive constituents in the salt. For this reason, MSO is considered a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has prepared a facility and constructed an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system in which tests and demonstrations are performed under carefully controlled (experimental) conditions. The system consists of a MSO processor with dedicated off-gas treatment, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and equipment for preparing ceramic final waste forms. This integrated system was designed and engineered based on laboratory experience with a smaller engineering-scale reactor unit and extensive laboratory development on salt recycle and final forms preparation. In this paper we present design and engineering details of the system and discuss its capabilities as well as preliminary process demonstration data. A primary purpose of these demonstrations is identification of the most suitable waste streams and waste types for MSO treatment.

  18. Influence of the salting time on volatile compounds during the manufacture of dry-cured pork shoulder "lacón".

    PubMed

    Purriños, Laura; Franco, Daniel; Carballo, Javier; Lorenzo, José M

    2012-12-01

    The effect of the length of salting time on volatile compounds throughout the manufacture of dry-cured "lacón" was studied using a purge-and-trap extraction and GC/MS analysis. For this study, six treatments of "lacón" were salted with different amounts of salt (LS (3 days of salting), MS (4 days of salting) and HS (5 days of salting)). The total area of volatile compounds increased significantly (P<0.001) as the length of salting time increased. Significant differences were found for the total area of all aldehydes for each salting time at the end of process. Hexanal presented the most relative abundance, showing highest content in HS treatments while LS treatments showed the lowest one at the end of salting, post-salting and drying-ripening stage. The influence of salting time on the content of 3-Octen-2-one was significant on salting stage (P<0.001) and drying-ripening stage (P<0.01). The salting time affected (P<0.001) the relative abundance of esters at the end of salting and at the end of drying-ripening stage. The salting time affected significantly (P<0.001) on alcohols content at the end of drying-ripening process. However, no significant effect of salt level (P>0.05) was detected on total hydrocarbons and total furans at the end of process. PMID:22749430

  19. Salt tectonics and shallow subseafloor fluid convection: models of coupled fluid-heat-salt transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, A.; Ruppel, C.

    2007-01-01

    Thermohaline convection associated with salt domes has the potential to drive significant fluid flow and mass and heat transport in continental margins, but previous studies of fluid flow associated with salt structures have focused on continental settings or deep flow systems of importance to petroleum exploration. Motivated by recent geophysical and geochemical observations that suggest a convective pattern to near-seafloor pore fluid flow in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoMex), we devise numerical models that fully couple thermal and chemical processes to quantify the effects of salt geometry and seafloor relief on fluid flow beneath the seafloor. Steady-state models that ignore halite dissolution demonstrate that seafloor relief plays an important role in the evolution of shallow geothermal convection cells and that salt at depth can contribute a thermal component to this convection. The inclusion of faults causes significant, but highly localized, increases in flow rates at seafloor discharge zones. Transient models that include halite dissolution show the evolution of flow during brine formation from early salt-driven convection to later geothermal convection, characteristics of which are controlled by the interplay of seafloor relief and salt geometry. Predicted flow rates are on the order of a few millimeters per year or less for homogeneous sediments with a permeability of 10−15 m2, comparable to compaction-driven flow rates. Sediment permeabilities likely fall below 10−15 m2 at depth in the GoMex basin, but such thermohaline convection can drive pervasive mass transport across the seafloor, affecting sediment diagenesis in shallow sediments. In more permeable settings, such flow could affect methane hydrate stability, seafloor chemosynthetic communities, and the longevity of fluid seeps.

  20. Liquid Salt Heat Exchanger Technology for VHTR Based Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Mark; Sridhara, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Peterson, Per

    2012-10-11

    The objective of this research is to evaluate performance of liquid salt fluids for use as a heat carrier for transferring high-temperature process heat from the very high-temperature reactor (VHTR) to chemical process plants. Currently, helium is being considered as the heat transfer fluid; however, the tube size requirements and the power associated with pumping helium may not be economical. Recent work on liquid salts has shown tremendous potential to transport high-temperature heat efficiently at low pressures over long distances. This project has two broad objectives: To investigate the compatibility of Incoloy 617 and coated and uncoated SiC ceramic composite with MgCl2-KCl molten salt to determine component lifetimes and aid in the design of heat exchangers and piping; and, To conduct the necessary research on the development of metallic and ceramic heat exchangers, which are needed for both the helium-to-salt side and salt-to-process side, with the goal of making these heat exchangers technologically viable. The research will consist of three separate tasks. The first task deals with material compatibility issues with liquid salt and the development of techniques for on-line measurement of corrosion products, which can be used to measure material loss in heat exchangers. Researchers will examine static corrosion of candidate materials in specific high-temperature heat transfer salt systems and develop an in situ electrochemical probe to measure metallic species concentrations dissolved in the liquid salt. The second task deals with the design of both the intermediate and process side heat exchanger systems. Researchers will optimize heat exchanger design and study issues related to corrosion, fabrication, and thermal stresses using commercial and in-house codes. The third task focuses integral testing of flowing liquid salts in a heat transfer/materials loop to determine potential issues of using the salts and to capture realistic behavior of the salts in a

  1. Subsurface Salts in Antarctic Dry Valley Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englert, P.; Bishop, J. L.; Gibson, E. K.; Koeberl, C.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of water-soluble ions, major and minor elements, and other parameters were examined to determine the extent and effects of chemical weathering on cold desert soils. Patterns at the study sites support theories of multiple salt forming processes, including marine aerosols and chemical weathering of mafic minerals. Periodic solar-mediated ionization of atmospheric nitrogen might also produce high nitrate concentrations found in older sediments. Chemical weathering, however, was the major contributor of salts in Antarctic Dry Valleys. The Antarctic Dry Valleys represent a unique analog for Mars, as they are extremely cold and dry desert environments. Similarities in the climate, surface geology, and chemical properties of the Dry Valleys to that of Mars imply the possible presence of these soil formation mechanisms on Mars, other planets and icy satellites.

  2. ISDP salt batch #2 supernate qualification

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.; Nash, C. A.; Fink, S. D.

    2009-01-05

    This report covers the laboratory testing and analyses of the second Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) salt supernate samples, performed in support of initial radioactive operations of Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Major goals of this work include characterizing Tank 22H supernate, characterizing Tank 41H supernate, verifying actinide and strontium adsorption with a standard laboratory-scale test using monosodium titanate (MST) and filtration, and checking cesium mass transfer behavior for the MCU solvent performance when contacted with the liquid produced from MST contact. This study also includes characterization of a post-blend Tank 49H sample as part of the Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation (NCSE). This work was specified by Task Technical Request and by Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP). In addition, a sampling plan will be written to guide analytical future work. Safety and environmental aspects of the work were documented in a Hazard Assessment Package.

  3. Will salt repositories be dry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredehoeft, John D.

    The National Academy of Science committee that considered geologic disposal of nuclear waste in the mid-1950s recommended salt as a repository medium, partly because of its high thermal conductivity and because it was believed to be “dry” (perhaps the appropriate thought is “impermeable”). Certainly, the fact that Paleozoic salt deposits exist in many parts of t h e world is evidence for very low rates of dissolution by moving groundwater. The fact that the dissolution rates were so small led many scientists to the conclusion that the salt beds were nearly impermeable. The major source of brine within the salt beds was thought to be fluid inclusions within salt crystals, which could migrate through differential solution toward a source of high heat. The idea that salt was uniformly “dry” was revised when exploratory drilling in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico encountered brines within the Castile Formation, an evaporite deposit below the Salado Formation. The brine reservoirs were thought to be isolated pockets of brine in an otherwise “impermeable” salt section.

  4. Developing a national salt reduction strategy for Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Enkhtungalag, Batsaikhan; Batjargal, Jamayan; Chimedsuren, Ochir; Tsogzolmaa, Bayandorj; Anderson, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The increase in prevalence of risk factors such as hypertension has contributed to an incremental rise in non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Mongolia over recent decades, such that they now account for 80% of all deaths in the country. Salt reduction is one of the most cost-effective interventions to reduce the burden of NCDs. Methods In 2011, the Ministry of Health (MOH) instigated the development of a national salt reduction strategy for Mongolia. As part of a 2-week national consultation and training program on salt reduction, it established an inter-sectoral working party and organized a series of bilateral meetings and visits to factories. Actions arising included a baseline survey of population salt consumption patterns and the implementation of a series of pilot salt reduction initiatives. Results The results of the baseline assessment revealed that average daily intake of salt, based on 24 hour urine samples from a representative national sample (n=1,027), was 11.06±5.99 g in 2011, more than double the World Health Organization (WHO) five grams recommendation. Moreover, while most participants knew that salt was bad for health, few were taking efforts to reduce intake, and many were consuming highly salty meals and tea; salt in tea alone was estimated to contribute 30% of daily salt intake. A pilot Pinch Salt intervention to reduce salt consumption of factory workers was undertaken in Ulaanbaatar (UB) city between 2012 and 2013, and was associated with a reduction of 2.8 g of salt intake. Ongoing food industry initiatives have led to significant reductions in salt levels in bread, and companies producing processed meat have indicated a willingness to reduce salt. Relevant stakeholders have also supported the campaign by participating in annual World Salt Awareness Week events. The activities to date have demonstrated the potential for action and there is now a need scale these up to a national level to ensure that Mongolia is in a strong

  5. Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This simulated natural color image presents a late spring view of north central Utah that includes all of the Olympic sites. The image extends from Ogden in the north, to Provo in the south; and includes the snow-capped Wasatch Mountains and the eastern part of the Great Salt Lake.

    This image was acquired on May 28, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution

  6. Salt enrichment of municipal sewage: New prevention approaches in Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Baruch; Avnimelech, Yoram; Juanico, Marcelo

    1996-07-01

    Wastewater irrigation is an environmentally sound wastewater disposal practice, but sewage is more saline than the supplied fresh water and the salts are recycled together with the water. Salts have negative environmental effects on crops, soils, and groundwater. There are no inexpensive ways to remove the salts once they enter sewage, and the prevention of sewage salt enrichment is the most immediately available solution. The body of initiatives presently structured by the Ministry of the Environment of Israel are herein described, with the aim to contribute to the search for a long-term solution of salinity problems in arid countries. The new initiatives are based on: (1) search for new technologies to reduce salt consumption and discharge into sewage; (2) different technologies to cope with different situations; (3) raising the awareness of the public and industry on the environmental implications of salinity pollution; and (4) an elastic legal approach expressed through new state-of-the-art regulations. The main contributor to the salinity of sewage in Israel is the watersoftening process followed by the meat koshering process. Some of the adopted technical solutions are: the discharge of the brine into the sea, the substitution of sodium by potassium salts in the ion-exchangers, the construction of centralized systems for the supply of soft water in industrial areas, the precipitation of Ca and Mg in the effluents from ion-exchangers and recycling of the NaCI solution, a reduction of the discharge of salts by the meat koshering process, and new membrane technology for salt recovery.

  7. Brine migration in salt in a thermal gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, M.; Lerche, M.; Lesher, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Salt deposits have long been considered viable repositories for long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste. However, brine trapped in salt tends to migrate up thermal gradients, such as can develop around radioactive waste storage containers, potentially promoting corrosion of containment structures. Brine inclusions move up the temperature gradient through the three main steps: 1) the dissolution of salt at the hot side of the inclusion caused by increased salt solubility, 2) ordinary and thermal diffusion of dissolved salt ions within the inclusion, and 3) precipitation of salt at the cold side of the inclusion due to local supersaturation. This process of brine transport through salt under a thermal gradient is generally referred to as thermal migration. Here we investigated thermal migration of brine inclusion in salts for a wide range of mean temperatures (~ 50 °C to ~200 °C) and temperature gradients (~ 10 °C/cm to ~57 °C/cm). With time brine inclusions moving towards the heat source become elongated parallel to the thermal gradient. We quantified the rate of brine migration as a function of mean temperature and thermal gradient using time-lapse optical microscope. X -ray and neutron tomography were used to visualize and quantify 3D spatial distribution of brine inclusion in a salt crystal at different stages of thermal migration. Migration velocities are shown to increase with temperature, temperature gradient and size of inclusion. We find an abrupt increase in migration velocity at certain time steps of thermal migration. Migration velocities of brine inclusions ranged from 0.1 m/year to 30.7 m/year. Empirical equations at different velocity regions for brine inclusions were obtained by fitting exponential equations to the experimental data with high coefficient of determination values (R2> 0.94).The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical migration rates obtained using a previous analytical model.

  8. Interaction of Pipeline Materials with Molten Fluoride Salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimo, Tomáš; Matal, Oldřich; Nesvadba, Lukáś; Dvořák, Vladimír; Kanický, Viktor; Sulovský, Petr; Machát, Jiří

    2007-12-01

    Molten fluoride salts are very promising carriers for the transport of large amounts of heat for example from a high temperature nuclear reactor to a plant which generates hydrogen by chemical processes or from a nuclear reactor to a heat exchanger being a part of the equipment needed to realize the Brayton cycle with a very high power efficiency. Therefore, in the framework of our project, experimental and theoretical investigations of the interactions of fluoride salts as heat carriers needed as high potential and structural materials for pipelines in order to transport heat at temperatures above 600◦C were started. Experimental investigations of Fe-based and Ni-based materials in molten fluoride salts at high temperatures and with different exposure times were performed. Two components salts (LiF-NaF and NaF-NaBF4) and three components salts (LiF-NaF-ZrF4 and LiF-NaF-RbF) were chosen in the experiments. The salt analysis was focussed on the content of metallic elements before and after the exposure of the samples to the salt melts. It was done by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and by titrimetric techniques. The thickness of the material zone affected by the salt melts, characterized by an enriched / reduced content of elements in comparison to the mean original content, and the material attacked zone, characterized by very tiny channels or chains of pores or pits formed preferably at grain boundaries, were the subject of the analysis performed by electron microscopy / microprobe techniques. Theoretical models for the transport of elements in the material samples exposed to salt melts using experimental data were also developed.

  9. The World Hypertension League: where now and where to in salt reduction.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Norm R C; Lackland, Daniel T; Lisheng, Liu; Zhang, Xin-Hua; Nilsson, Peter M; Niebylski, Mark L

    2015-06-01

    High dietary salt is a leading risk for death and disability largely by causing increased blood pressure. Other associated health risks include gastric and renal cell cancers, osteoporosis, renal stones, and increased disease activity in multiple sclerosis, headache, increased body fat and Meniere's disease. The World Hypertension League (WHL) has prioritized advocacy for salt reduction. WHL resources and actions include a non-governmental organization policy statement, dietary salt fact sheet, development of standardized nomenclature, call for quality research, collaboration in a weekly salt science update, development of a process to set recommended dietary salt research standards and regular literature reviews, development of adoptable power point slide sets to support WHL positions and resources, and critic of weak research studies on dietary salt. The WHL plans to continue to work with multiple governmental and non-governmental organizations to promote dietary salt reduction towards the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. PMID:26090335

  10. Does salt increase thirst?

    PubMed

    Leshem, Micah

    2015-02-01

    Our diet is believed to be overly rich in sodium, and it is commonly believed that sodium intake increases drinking. Hence the concern of a possible contribution of dietary sodium to beverage intake which in turn may contribute to obesity and ill health. Here we examine whether voluntary, acute intake of a sodium load, as occurs in routine eating and snacking, increases thirst and drinking. We find that after ingesting 3.5 or 4.4 g NaCl (men) and 1.9 or 3.7 g (women) on nuts during 15 minutes, there is no increase in thirst or drinking of freely available water in the following 2 h compared with eating similar amounts of sugared or unflavored nuts. This suggests that routine ingestion of boluses of salt (~30-40% of daily intake for men, ~ 20-40% for women) does not increase drinking. Methodological concerns such as about nuts as vehicle for sodium suggest further research to establish the generalizability of this unexpected result. PMID:25447020

  11. CONTRIBUTION FROM DEICING SALT TO CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SALT SUPPLYED TO AREA UNDER THE BRIDGES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takebe, Masamichi; Ohya, Makoto; Hirose, Nozomu; Ochibe, Keishi; Aso, Toshihiko

    Salt is known to accelerate the corrosion of weathering steel bridges. The origin of salt around girders is valuable information in terms of the maintenance for anti-corrosion of steel bridges. Salt around girders generally originates from sea-salt and deicing salt. Since salt of both origin increases in winter, contribution of deicing salt is hard to be estimated only from fluctuation of total abundance of salt around the bridge. In this study, abundance of Mg2+ as well as that of Cl- in salt sampled under bridges is analyzed. As a result, this study revealed that the supply of deicing salt declines Mg2+/Cl- ratio of salt on the girder. In addition, examination of Mg2+/Cl- ratio of salt sampled under the examined bridge near sea revealed that the fluctuation of quantity of air-born salt under the bridge is ascribed to the fluctuation of supply of sea salt.

  12. Engineering Evaluation of Proposed Alternative Salt Transfer Method for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiement for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Carlberg, Jon A.; Roberts, Kenneth T.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Little, Leslie E.; Brady, Sherman D.

    2009-09-30

    This evaluation was performed by Pro2Serve in accordance with the Technical Specification for an Engineering Evaluation of the Proposed Alternative Salt Transfer Method for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (BJC 2009b). The evaluators reviewed the Engineering Evaluation Work Plan for Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Residual Salt Removal, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2008). The Work Plan (DOE 2008) involves installing a salt transfer probe and new drain line into the Fuel Drain Tanks and Fuel Flush Tank and connecting them to the new salt transfer line at the drain tank cell shield. The probe is to be inserted through the tank ball valve and the molten salt to the bottom of the tank. The tank would then be pressurized through the Reactive Gas Removal System to force the salt into the salt canisters. The Evaluation Team reviewed the work plan, interviewed site personnel, reviewed numerous documents on the Molten Salt Reactor (Sects. 7 and 8), and inspected the probes planned to be used for the transfer. Based on several concerns identified during this review, the team recommends not proceeding with the salt transfer via the proposed alternate salt transfer method. The major concerns identified during this evaluation are: (1) Structural integrity of the tanks - The main concern is with the corrosion that occurred during the fluorination phase of the uranium removal process. This may also apply to the salt transfer line for the Fuel Flush Tank. Corrosion Associated with Fluorination in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fluoride Volatility Process (Litman 1961) shows that this problem is significant. (2) Continued generation of Fluorine - Although the generation of Fluorine will be at a lower rate than experienced before the uranium removal, it will continue to be generated. This needs to be taken into consideration regardless of what actions are taken with the salt. (3) More than one phase of material

  13. Electrodialysis-ion exchange for the separation of dissolved salts

    SciTech Connect

    Baroch, C.J.; Grant, P.J.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy generates and stores a significant quantity of low level, high level, and mixed wastes. As some of the DOE facilities are decontaminated and decommissioned, additional and possibly different forms of wastes will be generated. A significant portion of these wastes are aqueous streams containing acids, bases, and salts, or are wet solids containing inorganic salts. Some of these wastes are quite dilute solutions, whereas others contain large quantities of nitrates either in the form of dissolved salts or acids. Many of the wastes are also contaminated with heavy metals, radioactive products, or organics. Some of these wastes are in storage because a satisfactory treatment and disposal processes have not been developed. There is considerable interest in developing processes that remove or destroy the nitrate wastes. Electrodialysis-Ion Exchange (EDIX) is a possible process that should be more cost effective in treating aqueous waste steams. This report describes the EDIX process.

  14. Modeling of Shales in Salt-Hydrocarbon Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolinakou, Maria A.; Flemings, Peter B.; Hudec, Michael R.

    2016-02-01

    We model the stress-strain response of shale wall rocks to large deformations associated with the emplacement of salt bodies. We further identify the implications of these stress changes for hydrocarbon exploration. We model the mudrocks as porous elastoplastic materials. We employ both static and evolutionary approach for the modeling of salt systems and show that while the static one can model actual geologic geometries, only the evolutionary approach can provide a detailed description of the stress changes associated with the emplacement of salt. Hence, the evolutionary approach can register the overall stress history of the shale wall rocks, which is essential for predicting the present-day state of stress, porosity, and pore pressure. More generally, the evolutionary approach can provide useful insights for understanding Earth processes related to salt-hydrocarbon systems.

  15. Salting out of proteins using ammonium sulfate precipitation.

    PubMed

    Duong-Ly, Krisna C; Gabelli, Sandra B

    2014-01-01

    Protein solubility is affected by ions. At low ion concentrations (<0.5 M), protein solubility increases along with ionic strength. Ions in the solution shield protein molecules from the charge of other protein molecules in what is known as 'salting-in'. At a very high ionic strength, protein solubility decreases as ionic strength increases in the process known as 'salting-out'. Thus, salting out can be used to separate proteins based on their solubility in the presence of a high concentration of salt. In this protocol, ammonium sulfate will be added incrementally to an E. coli cell lysate to isolate a recombinantly over-expressed protein of 20 kDa containing no cysteine residues or tags. PMID:24674064

  16. SALT-RESPONSIVE ERF1 Regulates Reactive Oxygen Species–Dependent Signaling during the Initial Response to Salt Stress in Rice[W

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Romy; Mieulet, Delphine; Hubberten, Hans-Michael; Obata, Toshihiro; Hoefgen, Rainer; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Fisahn, Joachim; San Segundo, Blanca; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Schippers, Jos H.M.; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Early detection of salt stress is vital for plant survival and growth. Still, the molecular processes controlling early salt stress perception and signaling are not fully understood. Here, we identified SALT-RESPONSIVE ERF1 (SERF1), a rice (Oryza sativa) transcription factor (TF) gene that shows a root-specific induction upon salt and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment. Loss of SERF1 impairs the salt-inducible expression of genes encoding members of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade and salt tolerance–mediating TFs. Furthermore, we show that SERF1-dependent genes are H2O2 responsive and demonstrate that SERF1 binds to the promoters of MAPK KINASE KINASE6 (MAP3K6), MAPK5, DEHYDRATION-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT BINDING2A (DREB2A), and ZINC FINGER PROTEIN179 (ZFP179) in vitro and in vivo. SERF1 also directly induces its own gene expression. In addition, SERF1 is a phosphorylation target of MAPK5, resulting in enhanced transcriptional activity of SERF1 toward its direct target genes. In agreement, plants deficient for SERF1 are more sensitive to salt stress compared with the wild type, while constitutive overexpression of SERF1 improves salinity tolerance. We propose that SERF1 amplifies the reactive oxygen species–activated MAPK cascade signal during the initial phase of salt stress and translates the salt-induced signal into an appropriate expressional response resulting in salt tolerance. PMID:23800963

  17. Understanding Jurassic salt tectonics: An integrated approach utilizing visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, D.R.

    1996-12-31

    Understanding the mechanisms of salt deformation are critical in the identification of key prospects in a Jurassic salt basin. Understanding the geometry of the complex salt body significantly reduces risk in such prospects. A volume of 3D data was depth migrated to improve the delineation of the salt geometry. The major velocity changes with depth were interpreted in a state of the art seismic interpretation package. The results were then analyzed in 3D velocity visualization package which permitted refinement of the original model and validation via ray tracing. This velocity model was then reapplied to the Omega KK post stack depth migration process to create a final depth volume. The main prospects were interpreted using floodfill autopicking technology and mapped using conventional gridding and contouring techniques. The interpretations were then validated in a visual 3D palinspastic restoration package. Backstripping through time allowed the analysis of the salt deformation with respect to sediment loading. The validated interpretations were then analyzed in 3D voxel space to gain a true understanding of the salt geometry and its effect on the two key prospective reservoirs. Reservoir volumes were estimated using 3D sub volume detection. Finally a deviated wellbore was designed in order to test both prospects. The entire process shows the manner in which 3D visualization tools may be applied in a multi-disciplinary environment to better understand the prospect and communicate this understanding among team members.

  18. Understanding Jurassic salt tectonics: An integrated approach utilizing visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, D.R. )

    1996-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of salt deformation are critical in the identification of key prospects in a Jurassic salt basin. Understanding the geometry of the complex salt body significantly reduces risk in such prospects. A volume of 3D data was depth migrated to improve the delineation of the salt geometry. The major velocity changes with depth were interpreted in a state of the art seismic interpretation package. The results were then analyzed in 3D velocity visualization package which permitted refinement of the original model and validation via ray tracing. This velocity model was then reapplied to the Omega KK post stack depth migration process to create a final depth volume. The main prospects were interpreted using floodfill autopicking technology and mapped using conventional gridding and contouring techniques. The interpretations were then validated in a visual 3D palinspastic restoration package. Backstripping through time allowed the analysis of the salt deformation with respect to sediment loading. The validated interpretations were then analyzed in 3D voxel space to gain a true understanding of the salt geometry and its effect on the two key prospective reservoirs. Reservoir volumes were estimated using 3D sub volume detection. Finally a deviated wellbore was designed in order to test both prospects. The entire process shows the manner in which 3D visualization tools may be applied in a multi-disciplinary environment to better understand the prospect and communicate this understanding among team members.

  19. Consumer Knowledge, Attitudes and Salt-Related Behavior in the Middle-East: The Case of Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Nasreddine, Lara; Akl, Christelle; Al-Shaar, Laila; Almedawar, Mohamad M.; Isma’eel, Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Sodium intake is high in Lebanon, a country of the Middle East region where rates of cardiovascular diseases are amongst the highest in the world. This study examines salt-related knowledge, attitude and self-reported behaviors amongst adult Lebanese consumers and investigates the association of socio-demographic factors, knowledge and attitudes with salt-related behaviors. Using a multicomponent questionnaire, a cross-sectional study was conducted in nine supermarkets in Beirut, based on systematic random sampling (n = 442). Factors associated with salt-related behaviors were examined by multivariate regression analysis. Specific knowledge and attitude gaps were documented with only 22.6% of participants identifying processed foods as the main source of salt, 55.6% discerning the relationship between salt and sodium, 32.4% recognizing the daily limit of salt intake and 44.7% reporting being concerned about the amount of salt in their diet. The majority of participants reported behavioral practices that increase salt intake with only 38.3% checking for salt label content, 43.7% reporting that their food purchases are influenced by salt content and 38.6% trying to buy low-salt foods. Knowledge, attitudes and older age were found to significantly predict salt-related behaviors. Findings offer valuable insight on salt-related knowledge, attitude and behaviors in a sample of Lebanese consumers and provide key information that could spur the development of evidence-based salt-reduction interventions specific to the Middle East. PMID:25401502

  20. Nucleophilic arylation with tetraarylphosphonium salts

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Zuyong; Lin, Jin-Hong; Xiao, Ji-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Organic phosphonium salts have served as important intermediates in synthetic chemistry. But the use of a substituent on the positive phosphorus as a nucleophile to construct C–C bond remains a significant challenge. Here we report an efficient transition-metal-free protocol for the direct nucleophilic arylation of carbonyls and imines with tetraarylphosphonium salts in the presence of caesium carbonate. The aryl nucleophile generated from phosphonium salt shows low basicity and good nucleophilicity, as evidenced by the successful conversion of enolizable aldehydes and ketones. The reaction is not particularly sensitive to water, shows wide substrate scope, and is compatible with a variety of functional groups including cyano and ester groups. Compared with the arylmetallic reagents that are usually moisture sensitive, the phosphonium salts are shelf-stable and can be easily handled. PMID:26822205

  1. Salts Are Mostly NOT Ionized.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, Stephen J.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the misconception that salts are completely ionizing in solution, the presence of this error in textbooks, probable origins of the error, covalent bonding and ion pairs, and how to tell students the truth. (MKR)

  2. Molten salt spectroelectrochemistry: recent developments

    SciTech Connect

    Mamantov, G.; Chapman, D.M.; Harward, B.L.; Klatt, L.N.; Smith, G.P.

    1985-01-01

    Molten salt spectroelectrochemistry will be reviewed in this paper. UV-visible transmission, infrared reflectance, resonance and normal Raman, and electron spin resonance spectroelectrochemistry have been used for molten salt studies. Two recent applications of uv-visible transmission spectroelectrochemistry to studies of organic and inorganic solutes in molten SbCl/sub 3/-AlCl/sub 3/-N-(1-butyl)pyridinium chloride and AlCl/sub 3/-NaCl will be described.

  3. Microbiology of solar salt ponds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javor, B.

    1985-01-01

    Solar salt ponds are shallow ponds of brines that range in salinity from that of normal seawater (3.4 percent) through NaCl saturation. Some salterns evaporate brines to the potash stage of concentration (bitterns). All the brines (except the bitterns, which are devoid of life) harbor high concentrations of microorganisms. The high concentrations of microorganisms and their adaptation to life in the salt pond are discussed.

  4. Creep healing of fractures in rock salt

    SciTech Connect

    Costin, L. S.; Wawersik, W. R.

    1980-08-01

    Fracture and healing experiments were performed on specimens of bedded salt from the Salado formation, southeastern New Mexico. Short rod specimens (100 mm in diameter) were loaded to failure in tension. During each test, a crack was initiated along the axis of the specimen. The fracture toughness of the salt was determined from the resulting load-crack opening displacement record. After the test, each specimen was pieced back together, jacketed and placed in a pressure vessel under hydrostatic pressure for several days. The confining pressure (10 to 35 MPa), temperature (22 to 100/sup 0/C) and healing time (4 to 8 days) were varied to determine the effect of each on the healing process. Upon removal from the pressure vessel, each sample was retested and the toughness of the healed fracture was determined. Results show that the salt specimens regained 70 to 80% of their original strength under all conditions except at the lowest temperature and pressure where specimens regained only 20 to 30% of their original strength. It is suspected that the primary mechanism involved is creep of asperities along the fracture surface which forms an interlocking network. Thus, the healing pressure is probably the most significant variable.

  5. Reference repository design concept for bedded salt

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, D.W.; Martin, R.W.

    1980-10-08

    A reference design concept is presented for the subsurface portions of a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. General geologic, geotechnical, hydrologic and geochemical data as well as descriptions of the physical systems are provided for use on generic analyses of the pre- and post-sealing performance of repositories in this geologic medium. The geology of bedded salt deposits and the regional and repository horizon stratigraphy are discussed. Structural features of salt beds including discontinuities and dissolution features are presented and their effect on repository performance is discussed. Seismic hazards and the potential effects of earthquakes on underground repositories are presented. The effect on structural stability and worker safety during construction from hydrocarbon and inorganic gases is described. Geohydrologic considerations including regional hydrology, repository scale hydrology and several hydrological failure modes are presented in detail as well as the hydrological considerations that effect repository design. Operational phase performance is discussed with respect to operations, ventilation system, shaft conveyances, waste handling and retrieval systems and receival rates of nuclear waste. Performance analysis of the post sealing period of a nuclear repository is discussed, and parameters to be used in such an analysis are presented along with regulatory constraints. Some judgements are made regarding hydrologic failure scenarios. Finally, the design and licensing process, consistent with the current licensing procedure is described in a format that can be easily understood.

  6. Liking, salt taste perception and use of table salt when consuming reduced-salt chicken stews in light of South Africa's new salt regulations.

    PubMed

    De Kock, H L; Zandstra, E H; Sayed, N; Wentzel-Viljoen, E

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of salt reduction on liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt when consuming chicken stew in light of South Africa's new salt recommendations. In total, 432 South-African consumers (aged 35.2 ± 12.3 years) consumed a full portion of a chicken stew meal once at a central location. Four stock cube powders varying in salt content were used to prepare chicken stews: 1) no reduction - 2013 Na level; regular salt level as currently available on the South African market (24473 mg Na/100 g), 2) salt reduction smaller than 2016 level, i.e. 10%-reduced (22025 mg Na/100 g), 3) 2016 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (18000 mg Na/100 g), 4) 2019 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (13000 mg Na/100 g). Consumers were randomly allocated to consume one of the four meals. Liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt and pepper were measured. Chicken stews prepared with reduced-salt stock powders were equally well-liked as chicken stews with the current salt level. Moreover, a gradual reduction of the salt in the chicken stews resulted in a reduced salt intake, up to an average of 19% for the total group compared to the benchmark 2013 Na level stew. However, 19% of consumers compensated by adding salt back to full compensation in some cases. More salt was added with increased reductions of salt in the meals, even to the point of full compensation. Further investigation into the impacts of nutrition communication and education about salt reduction on salt taste perception and use is needed. This research provides new consumer insights on salt use and emphasises the need for consumer-focused behaviour change approaches, in addition to reformulation of products. PMID:26415915

  7. HLW Salt Disposition Alternatives Preconceptual Phase II Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Piccolo, S.F.

    1999-07-09

    The purpose of the report is to summarize the process used to identify the Short List alternatives that will be evaluated during Phase III and to document the results of the selection process. The Phase III evaluation will result in the determination of the preferred alternative(s) to be used for final disposition of the HLW salt to a permitted waste form.

  8. Characterization of bedded salt for storage caverns -- A case study from the Midland Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Hovorka, Susan D.; Nava, Robin

    2000-06-13

    The geometry of Permian bedding salt in the Midland Basin is a product of interaction between depositional facies and postdepositional modification by salt dissolution. Mapping high-frequency cycle patterns in cross section and map view using wireline logs documents the salt geometry. Geologically based interpretation of depositional and dissolution processes provides a powerful tool for mapping and geometry of salt to assess the suitability of sites for development of solution-mined storage caverns. In addition, this process-based description of salt geometry complements existing data about the evolution of one of the best-known sedimentary basins in the world, and can serve as a genetic model to assist in interpreting other salts.

  9. PLAT X41601 EAST (SALT LAKE CITY CEMETERY LOCATER), SALT LAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PLAT X-4-160-1 EAST (SALT LAKE CITY CEMETERY LOCATER), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH AT CEMETERY BETWEEN OLIVE STREET (1020 EAST) AND 1000 EAST STREET, REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 12049, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  10. Cycles of passive versus active diapirism recorded along an exposed salt wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsop, G. I.; Weinberger, R.; Levi, T.; Marco, S.

    2016-03-01

    Although it has long been recognised that passive salt diapirism may encompass sub-ordinate cycles of active diapirism, where sedimentary overburden is periodically shed off the roof of the rising salt, there has been very little study of this process around exposed salt (halite) diapirs. However, the Late Miocene-Pliocene Sedom salt wall, on the western side of the Dead Sea Basin, presents an opportunity for detailed outcrop analysis of diapiric salt and the associated depositional and deformational record of its movement during both passive and active phases of diapirism. The sub-seismic scale record of diapirism includes sedimentary breccia horizons interpreted to reflect sediments being shed off the crest of the growing salt wall, together with exceptional preservation of rotated unconformities and growth faults. Areas of more pronounced dips directed towards the salt wall are capped by unconformities, and interpreted to represent withdrawal basins within the overburden that extend for at least 1500 m from the salt margin. Elsewhere, broad areas of upturn directed away from the salt extend for up to 1250 m and are marked by a sequence of rotated unconformities which are interpreted to bound halokinetic sequences. The margins of the salt wall are defined by steep extensional boundary faults that cut upturned strata, and have enabled rapid and active uplift of the salt since the Holocene. The Sedom salt wall therefore charts the transition from passive growth marked by withdrawal basins, growth faults and unconformities, to more active intrusion associated with major boundary faults that enable the rapid uplift of overburden deposited on top of the salt to ∼100 m above regional elevations in the past 43 ka. Individual cycles of passive and active diapirism occur over timescales of <30 ka, which is up to an order of magnitude less than typically suggested for other settings, and highlights the dynamic interplay between salt tectonics and sedimentation in an

  11. Salt reduction in the United Kingdom: a successful experiment in public health.

    PubMed

    He, F J; Brinsden, H C; MacGregor, G A

    2014-06-01

    The United Kingdom has successfully implemented a salt reduction programme. We carried out a comprehensive analysis of the programme with an aim of providing a step-by-step guide of developing and implementing a national salt reduction strategy, which other countries could follow. The key components include (1) setting up an action group with strong leadership and scientific credibility; (2) determining salt intake by measuring 24-h urinary sodium, identifying the sources of salt by dietary record; (3) setting a target for population salt intake and developing a salt reduction strategy; (4) setting progressively lower salt targets for different categories of food, with a clear time frame for the industry to achieve; (5) working with the industry to reformulate food with less salt; (6) engaging and recruiting of ministerial support and potential threat of regulation by the Department of Health (DH); (7) clear nutritional labelling; (8) consumer awareness campaign; and (9) monitoring progress by (a) frequent surveys and media publicity of salt content in food, including naming and shaming, (b) repeated 24-h urinary sodium at 3-5 year intervals. Since the salt reduction programme started in 2003/2004, significant progress has been made as demonstrated by the reductions in salt content in many processed food and a 15% reduction in 24-h urinary sodium over 7 years (from 9.5 to 8.1 g per day, P<0.05). The UK salt reduction programme reduced the population's salt intake by gradual reformulation on a voluntary basis. Several countries are following the United Kingdom's lead. The challenge now is to engage other countries with appropriate local modifications. A reduction in salt intake worldwide will result in major public health improvements and cost savings. PMID:24172290

  12. LIFE Materails: Molten-Salt Fuels Volume 8

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R; Brown, N; Caro, A; Farmer, J; Halsey, W; Kaufman, L; Kramer, K; Latkowski, J; Powers, J; Shaw, H; Turchi, P

    2008-12-11

    The goals of the Laser Inertial Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) is to use fusion neutrons to fission materials with no enrichment and minimum processing and have greatly reduced wastes that are not of interest to making weapons. Fusion yields expected to be achieved in NIF a few times per day are called for with a high reliable shot rate of about 15 per second. We have found that the version of LIFE using TRISO fuel discussed in other volumes of this series can be modified by replacing the molten-flibe-cooled TRISO fuel zone with a molten salt in which the same actinides present in the TRISO particles are dissolved in the molten salt. Molten salts have the advantage that they are not subject to radiation damage, and hence overcome the radiation damage effects that may limit the lifetime of solid fuels such as TRISO-containing pebbles. This molten salt is pumped through the LIFE blanket, out to a heat exchanger and back into the blanket. To mitigate corrosion, steel structures in contact with the molten salt would be plated with tungsten or nickel. The salt will be processed during operation to remove certain fission products (volatile and noble and semi-noble fission products), impurities and corrosion products. In this way neutron absorbers (fission products) are removed and neutronics performance of the molten salt is somewhat better than that of the TRISO fuel case owing to the reduced parasitic absorption. In addition, the production of Pu and rare-earth elements (REE) causes these elements to build up in the salt, and leads to a requirement for a process to remove the REE during operation to insure that the solubility of a mixed (Pu,REE)F3 solid solution is not exceeded anywhere in the molten salt system. Removal of the REE will further enhance the neutronics performance. With molten salt fuels, the plant would need to be safeguarded because materials of interest for weapons are produced and could potentially be removed.

  13. Aqueous DMSO Mediated Conversion of (2-(Arylsulfonyl)vinyl)iodonium Salts to Aldehydes and Vinyl Chlorides.

    PubMed

    Zawia, Eman; Moran, Wesley J

    2016-01-01

    Vinyl(aryl)iodonium salts are useful compounds in organic synthesis but they are under-utilized and their chemistry is under-developed. Herein is described the solvolysis of some vinyl(phenyl)iodonium salts, bearing an arylsulfonyl group, in aqueous DMSO leading to aldehyde formation. This unusual process is selective and operates under ambient conditions. Furthermore, the addition of aqueous HCl and DMSO to these vinyl(aryl)iodonium salts allows their facile conversion to vinyl chlorides. PMID:27537866

  14. Chronopotentiometry of refractory metals, actinides and oxyanions in molten salts: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1992-01-01

    The applications of chronopotentiometry to the study of electrochemical behavior of three technologically important areas of refractory metals, actinides, and oxyanions in molten salts are critically reviewed. Chronopotentiometry is a very versatile diagnostic tool to understand the reaction mechanism of the electrode processes for the electrochemical reduction/oxidation of these electroactive species in molten salt solutions. Well adherent, compact, and uniformly thick coatings of refractory metals may be electrodeposited from their solutions in molten salts.

  15. Oxidation of hydrogen halides to elemental halogens with catalytic molten salt mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Rohrmann, Charles A.

    1978-01-01

    A process for oxidizing hydrogen halides by means of a catalytically active molten salt is disclosed. The subject hydrogen halide is contacted with a molten salt containing an oxygen compound of vanadium and alkali metal sulfates and pyrosulfates to produce an effluent gas stream rich in the elemental halogen. The reduced vanadium which remains after this contacting is regenerated to the active higher valence state by contacting the spent molten salt with a stream of oxygen-bearing gas.

  16. Method for immobilizing mixed waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and other hazardous wastes

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Michele A.; Johnson, Terry R.

    1993-01-01

    The invention is a method for the encapsulation of soluble radioactive waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as strontium, cesium and hazardous wastes such as barium so that they may be permanently stored without future threat to the environment. The process consists of contacting the salts containing the radionuclides and hazardous wastes with certain zeolites which have been found to ion exchange with the radionuclides and to occlude the chloride salts so that the resulting product is leach resistant.

  17. Method for immobilizing mixed waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and other hazardous wastes

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Michele A.; Johnson, Terry R.

    1993-09-07

    The invention is a method for the encapsulation of soluble radioactive waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as strontium, cesium and hazardous wastes such as barium so that they may be permanently stored without future threat to the environment. The process consists of contacting the salts containing the radionuclides and hazardous wastes with certain zeolites which have been found to ion exchange with the radionuclides and to occlude the chloride salts so that the resulting product is leach resistant.

  18. Salt Neutrino Detector for Ultrahigh-Energy Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Chiba, M.; Yasuda, O.; Kamijo, T.; Chikashige, Y.; Kon, T.; Takeoka, Y.; Yoshida, R.

    2004-11-01

    Rock salt and limestone are studied to determine their suitability for use as a radio-wave transmission medium in an ultrahigh energy (UHE) cosmic neutrino detector. A sensible radio wave would be emitted by the coherent Cherenkov radiation from negative excess charges inside an electromagnetic shower upon interaction of a UHE neutrino in a high-density medium (Askar'yan effect). If the attenuation length for the radio wave in the material is large, a relatively small number of radio-wave sensors could detect the interaction occurring in the massive material. We measured the complex permittivity of the rock salt and limestone by the perturbed cavity resonator method at 9.4 and 1 GHz to good precision. We obtained new results of measurements at the frequency at 1.0 GHz. The measured value of the radio-wave attenuation length of synthetic rock salt samples is 1080 m. The samples from the Hockley salt mine in the United States show attenuation length of 180 m at 1 GHz, and then we estimate it by extrapolation to be as long as 900 m at 200 MHz. The results show that there is a possibility of utilizing natural massive deposits of rock salt for a UHE neutrino detector. A salt neutrino detector with a size of 2 x 2 x 2 km would detect 10 UHE neutrino/yr generated through the GZK process.

  19. Catalytic Gasification of Coal using Eutectic Salt Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Atul Sheth; Pradeep Agrawal; Yaw D. Yeboah

    1998-12-04

    The objectives of this study are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. A review of the collected literature was carried out. The catalysts which have been used for gasification can be roughly classified under the following five groups: alkali metal salts; alkaline earth metal oxides and salts; mineral substances or ash in coal; transition metals and their oxides and salts; and eutectic salt mixtures. Studies involving the use of gasification catalysts have been conducted. However, most of the studies focused on the application of individual catalysts. Only two publications have reported the study of gasification of coal char in CO2 and steam catalyzed by eutectic salt mixture catalysts. By using the eutectic mixtures of salts that show good activity as individual compounds, the gasification temperature can be reduced possibly with still better activity and gasification rates due to improved dispersion of the molten catalyst on the coal particles. For similar metal/carbon atomic ratios, eutectic catalysts were found to be consistently more active than their respective single salts. But the exact roles that the eutectic salt mixtures play in these are not well understood and details of the mechanisms remain unclear. The effects of the surface property of coals and the application methods of eutectic salt mixture catalysts with coal chars on the reactivity of gasification will be studied. Based on our preliminary evaluation of the literature, a ternary

  20. Aluminium salt slag characterization and utilization--a review.

    PubMed

    Tsakiridis, P E

    2012-05-30

    Aluminium salt slag (also known as aluminium salt cake), which is produced by the secondary aluminium industry, is formed during aluminium scrap/dross melting and contains 15-30% aluminium oxide, 30-55% sodium chloride, 15-30% potassium chloride, 5-7% metallic aluminium and impurities (carbides, nitrides, sulphides and phosphides). Depending on the raw mix the amount of salt slag produced per tonne of secondary aluminium ranges from 200 to 500 kg. As salt slag has been classified as toxic and hazardous waste, it should be managed in compliance with the current legislation. Its landfill disposal is forbidden in most of the European countries and it should be recycled and processed in a proper way by taking the environmental impact into consideration. This paper presents a review of the aluminium salt slag chemical and mineralogical characteristics, as well as various processes for metal recovery, recycling of sodium and potassium chlorides content back to the smelting process and preparation of value added products from the final non metallic residue. PMID:22480708

  1. Grating formation in diazo salt (sensitized) gelatin.

    PubMed

    Gladden, J W

    1980-05-01

    Diazo (sensitized) gelatins are photosensitive recording materials that, unlike dichromated gelatin, have a long shelf life. Because of their stability, the diazo emulsions have replaced the dichromated colloids used in the photolithographic field and enabled commercialization of presensitized printing plates. We have produced plane wave gratings with peak efficiencies near 67% at an exposure of 625 mJ/cm(2) and a recording wavelength of 488.0 nm in one diazo recording material. Called diazo salt (sensitized) gelatin, the photosensitive material produces gratings in gelatin by a complex process that we found not to be a function of exposure. The methods used are described. PMID:20221070

  2. A Pilot Study to Validate a Standardized One-Week Salt Estimation Method Evaluating Salt Intake and Its Sources for Family Members in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lu; Zhao, Fang; Zhang, Puhong; Gao, Jianmei; Liu, Caixia; He, Feng J.; Lin, Ching-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a new method named the “one-week salt estimation method” that could estimate an individual’s salt intake and the sources of salt in the diet, and to evaluate this new method with a 24-h urine collection. The new method estimates salt intake from: (1) household cooking by weighing the family salt container and other high-salt condiments or sauces at the beginning and end of a week; (2) processed food according to established China food composition figures; and (3) cafeteria or restaurant meals using the results of previous studies. Consumption of salt additives and major salt contained foods and salt intake related eating habits were collected using a structured simple seven-day questionnaire. In order to validate the method, we studied 37 individuals from 11 families using the new method and 26 of these participants collected seven concurrent 24-h urine samples. The average salt intake for the 26 participants was 15.6 ± 5.5 g/person/day (mean ± standard deviation) by the 24-h urine collection and 13.7 ± 6.5 g/person/day by the new method. The difference was 1.8 ± 4.2 g/day/person (p = 0.037). The Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.762 (p < 0.001) and the partial correlation coefficient was 0.771 (p < 0.001) when adjusted for family code. Bland-Altman Plot showed the average of the difference between the two methods was −1.83, with 95% limits of −10.1 to 6.5 g/person/day. The new method showed that 43.7% of salt intake came from household cooking (33.5% from cooking salt, 10.2% from other condiments and sauces), 12.9% from processed food, and 43.4% from eating out. In conclusion, despite its limitations of underestimating salt intake, the “one-week salt estimation method” is easier for people to implement and is likely to provide useful information that highlights the excessively high intake of salt and its sources, and in turn is helpful in guiding dietary salt reduction. PMID:25621504

  3. A pilot study to validate a standardized one-week salt estimation method evaluating salt intake and its sources for family members in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Zhao, Fang; Zhang, Puhong; Gao, Jianmei; Liu, Caixia; He, Feng J; Lin, Ching-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a new method named the "one-week salt estimation method" that could estimate an individual's salt intake and the sources of salt in the diet, and to evaluate this new method with a 24-h urine collection. The new method estimates salt intake from: (1) household cooking by weighing the family salt container and other high-salt condiments or sauces at the beginning and end of a week; (2) processed food according to established China food composition figures; and (3) cafeteria or restaurant meals using the results of previous studies. Consumption of salt additives and major salt contained foods and salt intake related eating habits were collected using a structured simple seven-day questionnaire. In order to validate the method, we studied 37 individuals from 11 families using the new method and 26 of these participants collected seven concurrent 24-h urine samples. The average salt intake for the 26 participants was 15.6±5.5 g/person/day (mean±standard deviation) by the 24-h urine collection and 13.7±6.5 g/person/day by the new method. The difference was 1.8±4.2 g/day/person (p=0.037). The Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.762 (p<0.001) and the partial correlation coefficient was 0.771 (p<0.001) when adjusted for family code. Bland-Altman Plot showed the average of the difference between the two methods was -1.83, with 95% limits of -10.1 to 6.5 g/person/day. The new method showed that 43.7% of salt intake came from household cooking (33.5% from cooking salt, 10.2% from other condiments and sauces), 12.9% from processed food, and 43.4% from eating out. In conclusion, despite its limitations of underestimating salt intake, the "one-week salt estimation method" is easier for people to implement and is likely to provide useful information that highlights the excessively high intake of salt and its sources, and in turn is helpful in guiding dietary salt reduction. PMID:25621504

  4. Particle formation above natural and simulated salt lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamilli, Katharina; Ofner, Johannes; Sattler, Tobias; Krause, Torsten; Zetzsch, Cornelius; Held, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    formation above Australian salt lakes. This work was funded by German Research Foundation (DFG) under grants HE 5214/5-1 and ZE792/5-2. References: Buxmann, J., Balzer, N., Bleicher, S., Platt, U., and Zetzsch, C.: Observations of bromine explosions in smog chamber experiments above a model salt pan, Int. J. Chem. Kinet., 44, 312-326, 2012. Junkermann, W., Hacker, J., Lyons, T., and Nair, U.: Land use change suppresses precipitation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 6531-6539, 2009. Ofner, J., Balzer, N., Buxmann, J., Grothe, H., Schmitt-Kopplin, Ph., Platt, U., and Zetzsch, C.: Halogenation processes of secondary organic aerosol and implications on halogen release mechanisms, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 5787-5806, 2012.

  5. Sedimentation dynamics about salt features

    SciTech Connect

    Lowrie, A.; Blake, D.W.

    1985-02-01

    Detailed side-scan sonar and gridded bathymetric surveys on continental margins reveal the existence of numerous submarine canyons. Recently published compilations of current velocities in submarine canyons indicate that alternating and undirectionaly flows often exceed 20-30 cm/sec with peak velocities ranging from 70 to 100 cm/sec. Current meters attached to the ocean floor have been lost at current velocities of 190 cm/sec. Such velocities are ample to transport sand-size sediments. The results of DSDP Leg 96 show the existence of massive sands and gravels on the Louisiana slope, deposited during the last glacial advance. Thus, present physical oceanographic data may be an analog to conditions during glacially induced lowered sea levels. Salt ridges and domes underlie much of the Louisiana slope, determining morphology. Submarine canyons lace the slope. Given a prograding shelf, the net sediment transport routes will be down the submarine canyons. Sediment deposition patterns around the salt ridges and domes include parallel-bedded foredrifts on the upslope side, lee drifts on the downslope side, and moats along the lateral flanks of the salt features. Major differences exist between the sedimentation patterns around a ridge and a dome. The size and shape of the flow pattern will determine whether there can be a flow over the salt feature with a resulting turbulent wave that may influence sedimentation. Sedimentation patterns about salt features on the present slope should be applicable to similar paleoenvironments.

  6. Microstructural observations of reconsolidated granular salt to 250°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, M. M.; Hansen, F.; Bauer, S. J.; Stormont, J.

    2014-12-01

    Very low permeability is a principal reason salt formations are considered viable hosts for disposal of nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. Granular salt is likely to be used as back-fill material and as a seal system component. Granular salt is expected to reconsolidate to a low permeability condition because of external pressure from the surrounding salt formation. Understanding the consolidation processes--known to depend on the stress state, moisture availability and temperature--is important for predicting achievement of sealing functions and long-term repository performance. As granular salt consolidates, initial void reduction is accomplished by brittle processes of grain rearrangement and cataclastic flow. At porosities of less than 10%, grain boundary processes and crystal-plastic mechanisms govern further porosity reduction. We investigate the micro-mechanisms operative in granular salt that has been consolidated under high temperatures to relatively low porosity. These conditions would occur proximal to heat-generating canisters. Mine-run salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant was used to create cylindrical samples which were consolidated at 250°C and stresses to 20 MPa. From samples consolidated to fractional densities of 86% and 97% polished thin sections, etched cleavage chips, and fragments were fabricated. Microstructural techniques included scanning electron and optical microscopy. Microstructure of undeformed mine-run salt was compared to the deformed granular salt. Observed deformation mechanisms include glide, cross slip, climb, fluid-assisted creep, pressure-solution redeposition, and annealing. Documentation of operative deformation mechanisms within the consolidating granular salt, particularly at grain boundaries, is essential to establish effects of moisture, stress, and temperature. Future work will include characterization of pore structures. Information gleaned in these studies supports evaluation of a constitutive model for

  7. COMPLEX EVOLUTION OF BILE SALTS IN BIRDS

    PubMed Central

    Hagey, Lee R.; Vidal, Nicolas; Hofmann, Alan F.; Krasowski, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    Bile salts are the major end-metabolites of cholesterol and are important in lipid digestion and shaping of the gut microflora. There have been limited studies of bile-salt variation in birds. The purpose of our study was to determine bile-salt variation among birds and relate this variation to current avian phylogenies and hypotheses on the evolution of bile salt pathways. We determined the biliary bile-salt composition of 405 phylogenetically diverse bird species, including 7 paleognath species. Bile salt profiles were generally stable within bird families. Complex bile-salt profiles were more common in omnivores and herbivores than in carnivores. The structural variation of bile salts in birds is extensive and comparable to that seen in surveys of bile salts in reptiles and mammals. Birds produce many of the bile salts found throughout nonavian vertebrates and some previously uncharacterized bile salts. One difference between birds and other vertebrates is extensive hydroxylation of carbon-16 of bile salts in bird species. Comparison of our data set of bird bile salts with that of other vertebrates, especially reptiles, allowed us to infer evolutionary changes in the bile salt synthetic pathway. PMID:21113274

  8. Protein aggregation in salt solutions

    PubMed Central

    Kastelic, Miha; Kalyuzhnyi, Yurij V.; Hribar-Lee, Barbara; Dill, Ken A.; Vlachy, Vojko

    2015-01-01

    Protein aggregation is broadly important in diseases and in formulations of biological drugs. Here, we develop a theoretical model for reversible protein–protein aggregation in salt solutions. We treat proteins as hard spheres having square-well-energy binding sites, using Wertheim’s thermodynamic perturbation theory. The necessary condition required for such modeling to be realistic is that proteins in solution during the experiment remain in their compact form. Within this limitation our model gives accurate liquid–liquid coexistence curves for lysozyme and γ IIIa-crystallin solutions in respective buffers. It provides good fits to the cloud-point curves of lysozyme in buffer–salt mixtures as a function of the type and concentration of salt. It than predicts full coexistence curves, osmotic compressibilities, and second virial coefficients under such conditions. This treatment may also be relevant to protein crystallization. PMID:25964322

  9. Salt site performance assessment activities

    SciTech Connect

    Kircher, J.F.; Gupta, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    During this year the first selection of the tools (codes) for performance assessments of potential salt sites have been tentatively selected and documented; the emphasis has shifted from code development to applications. During this period prior to detailed characterization of a salt site, the focus is on bounding calculations, sensitivity and with the data available. The development and application of improved methods for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is a focus for the coming years activities and the subject of a following paper in these proceedings. Although the assessments to date are preliminary and based on admittedly scant data, the results indicate that suitable salt sites can be identified and repository subsystems designed which will meet the established criteria for protecting the health and safety of the public. 36 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  10. Sulfate salt dynamics in the glaciated plains of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachshon, Uri; Ireson, Andrew; van der Kamp, Garth; Wheater, Howard

    2013-08-01

    The semiarid glaciated plains of the North American continent, known as the prairies, are characterized by an undulating terrain rich in sulfate salts in the subsurface, with ephemeral streams and large numbers of wetlands containing seasonal or semi-permanent ponds. Salinization is a potential concern for the diverse community of vegetation, aquatic ecosystems, wildlife and agricultural production supported by the prairies, especially as a result of land use changes and climate change. In this paper, a literature review of prairie salt dynamics and distribution is presented. On the basis of observations from past field studies, a conceptual model describing prairie sulfate salt dynamics is proposed, which identifies a number of important zones of salt accumulation in the subsurface and in surface water. As is the case in any other environment, the distribution of salts is determined by the hydrological conditions, in particular subsurface flow pathways and evapotranspiration front locations. However, the semi-arid climate and glacial geology of the region result in unique and characteristic hydrological conditions and distributions of accumulated salts. The hydrology of the prairies is sensitive to land use, with the major changes over the past 100 years or so being conversion of prairie grasslands to annual dryland crops and drainage of wetlands. Moreover, in semi-arid environments the hydrological system is highly sensitive to climate variability and change. Hence, even small hydrological changes may result in mobilization of salts concentrated in the shallow subsurface, and, if sustained, may generate ground surface, wetland and surface water salinization. However, these changes are difficult to predict, involving multiple interacting processes, and it is therefore necessary to develop an improved, quantitative understanding of the coupled hydrological and geochemical processes in order to manage or adapt to future changes.

  11. Acoustic and Elastodynamic Redatuming for VSP Salt Dome Flank Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, R.; Willis, M.; Toksoz, N.

    2007-12-01

    We apply an extension of the concept of Time Reversed Acoustics (TRA) for imaging salt dome flanks using Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP) data. We demonstrate its performance and capabilities on both synthetic acoustic and elastic seismic data from a Gulf of Mexico (GOM) model. This target-oriented strategy eliminates the need for the traditional complex process of velocity estimation, model building, and iterative depth migration to remove the effects of the salt canopy and surrounding overburden. In this study, we use data from surface shots recorded in a well from a walkaway VSP survey. The method, called redatuming, creates a geometry as if the source and receiver pairs had been located in the borehole at the positions of the receivers. This process generates effective downhole shot gathers without any knowledge of the overburden velocity structure. The resulting shot gathers are less complex since the VSP ray paths from the surface source are shortened and moved to be as if they started in the borehole, then reflected off the salt flank region and captured in the borehole. After redatuming, we apply multiple passes of prestack migration from the reference datum of the borehole. In our example, the first pass migration, using only simple vertical velocity gradient model, reveals the outline of the salt edge. A second pass of reverse-time prestack depth migration using the full, two-way wave equation, is performed with an updated velocity model that now consists of the velocity gradient and the salt dome. The second pass migration brings out the dipping sediments abutting the salt flank because these reflectors were illuminated by energy that bounced off the salt flank forming prismatic reflections.

  12. Salt leaching leads to drier soils in disturbed semiarid woodlands of central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Marchesini, Victoria A; Fernández, R J; Jobbágy, E G

    2013-04-01

    Disturbances in semiarid environments have revealed a strong connection between water, salt and vegetation dynamics highlighting how the alteration of water fluxes can drive salt redistribution process and long-term environmental degradation. Here, we explore to what extent the reciprocal effect, that of salt redistribution on water fluxes, may play a role in dictating environmental changes following disturbance in dry woodlands. We assessed salt and water dynamics comparing soil-solution electrical conductivity, chloride concentration, soil water content (SWC) and soil matric and osmotic water potential (Ψm, Ψos) between disturbed and undisturbed areas. A large pool of salts and chlorides present in undisturbed areas was absent in disturbed plots, suggesting deep leaching. Unexpectedly, this was associated with slight but consistently lower SWC in disturbed versus undisturbed situations during two growing seasons. The apparent paradox of increased leaching but diminishing SWC after disturbance can be explained by the effect of native salt lowering Ψos enough to prevent full soil drying. Under disturbed conditions, the onset of deep drainage and salt leaching would raise Ψos allowing a decline of Ψm and SWC. Soil water storage seems to be modulated by the presence (under natural conditions) and partial leaching (following selective shrub disturbance) of large salt pools. This counterintuitive effect of disturbances may be important in semiarid regions where deep soil salt accumulation is a common feature. Our results highlight the importance of water-salt-vegetation coupling for the understanding and management of these systems. PMID:23015213

  13. Proteomic Characterisation of the Salt Gland-Enriched Tissues of the Mangrove Tree Species Avicennia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wee-Kee; Lim, Teck-Kwang; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Kumar, Prakash; Lin, Qingsong

    2015-01-01

    Plant salt glands are nature's desalination devices that harbour potentially useful information pertaining to salt and water transport during secretion. As part of the program toward deciphering secretion mechanisms in salt glands, we used shotgun proteomics to compare the protein profiles of salt gland-enriched (isolated epidermal peels) and salt gland-deprived (mesophyll) tissues of the mangrove species Avicennia officinalis. The purpose of the work is to identify proteins that are present in the salt gland-enriched tissues. An average of 2189 and 977 proteins were identified from the epidermal peel and mesophyll tissues, respectively. Among these, 2188 proteins were identified in salt gland-enriched tissues and a total of 1032 selected proteins were categorized by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. This paper reports for the first time the proteomic analysis of salt gland-enriched tissues of a mangrove tree species. Candidate proteins that may play a role in the desalination process of the mangrove salt glands and their potential localization were identified. Information obtained from this study paves the way for future proteomic research aiming at elucidating the molecular mechanism underlying secretion in plant salt glands. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000771. PMID:26193361

  14. Proteomic Characterisation of the Salt Gland-Enriched Tissues of the Mangrove Tree Species Avicennia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wee-Kee; Lim, Teck-Kwang; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Kumar, Prakash; Lin, Qingsong

    2015-01-01

    Plant salt glands are nature’s desalination devices that harbour potentially useful information pertaining to salt and water transport during secretion. As part of the program toward deciphering secretion mechanisms in salt glands, we used shotgun proteomics to compare the protein profiles of salt gland-enriched (isolated epidermal peels) and salt gland-deprived (mesophyll) tissues of the mangrove species Avicennia officinalis. The purpose of the work is to identify proteins that are present in the salt gland-enriched tissues. An average of 2189 and 977 proteins were identified from the epidermal peel and mesophyll tissues, respectively. Among these, 2188 proteins were identified in salt gland-enriched tissues and a total of 1032 selected proteins were categorized by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. This paper reports for the first time the proteomic analysis of salt gland-enriched tissues of a mangrove tree species. Candidate proteins that may play a role in the desalination process of the mangrove salt glands and their potential localization were identified. Information obtained from this study paves the way for future proteomic research aiming at elucidating the molecular mechanism underlying secretion in plant salt glands. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000771. PMID:26193361

  15. Electrodialysis-ion exchange for the separation of dissolved salts

    SciTech Connect

    Baroch, C.J.; Grant, P.J.

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy generates and stores a significant quantity of low level, high level, and mixed wastes. As some of the DOE facilities are decontaminated and decommissioned, additional and possibly different forms of wastes will be generated. A significant portion of these wastes are aqueous streams containing acids, bases, and salts, or are wet solids containing inorganic salts. Some of these wastes are quite dilute solutions, whereas others contain large quantities of nitrates either in the form of dissolved salts or acids. Many of the wastes are also contaminated with heavy metals, radioactive products, or organics. Some of these wastes are in storage because a satisfactory treatment and disposal processes have not been developed. This report describes the process of electrodialysis-ion exchange (EDIX) for treating aqueous wastes streams consisting of nitrates, sodium, organics, heavy metals, and radioactive species.

  16. Handling observation proposals for SALT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hettlage, Christian; Buckley, David A. H.; Charles, Anne C.; Cordiner, Martin; Harbeck, Daniel R.; Husser, Tim-Oliver; Nordsieck, Kenneth H.; Percival, Jeffrey W.; Romero Colmenero, Encarni; Still, Martin D.

    2010-07-01

    SALT uses the Principal Investigator Proposal Tool (PIPT) for generating, checking, submitting and editing proposals. The PIPT maps XML into Java classes with immediate error and consistency checking, and thus prevents non-feasible observation requests. Various tools allow the user to simulate SALT observations. These include standard source spectra (e.g. black body, power law, Kurucz model atmospheres), and allow users to add their own library spectra. The PIPT is complemented by the Web Manager for administering submitted proposals. It is discussed how the code of these tools can easily be extended for future instruments and used for other projects.

  17. Salt distribution in the Norwegian-Danish Basin, Central North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassier, Caroline; Jarsve, Erlend; Heeremans, Michel; Mansour Abdelmalak, Mohamed; Faleide, Jan Inge; Helge Gabrielsen, Roy

    2014-05-01

    also corresponds to the main depocenter of the first Triassic sequence. We suggest that both the salt thickness and the sedimentary differential loading, combined with the subsidence of the basin, have influenced the change of the salt pattern in domain 2. In domain 3, the reactivation of pre-salt faults might have triggered some of the salt structures. This area also received a large amount of sediments from the Skagerrak area during the Triassic subsidence, which may have influenced the distribution and evolution of salt diapirs and turtle structures. The combination of the different triggering processes and the different basin geometry of domain 3, which is bounded by highs to the South and North, in comparison to domain 2 which is open towards the Central Graben, are probably the key parameters that have controlled the salt pattern in this area. Finally, salt tectonics reactivations were likely controlled by the distribution of younger sediments and the successive tectonic regimes.

  18. INNOVATIVE THERMAL TREATMENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper contains discussions of several innovative thermal processes for treating or destroying hazardous wastes. Processes discussed can be included in the categories wet oxidation, molten glass, fluidized bed incineration, pyrolysis, molten salt, electric reactors, and plasma...

  19. Technical review of Molten Salt Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The process was reviewed for destruction of mixed low-level radioactive waste. Results: extensive development work and scaleup has been documented on coal gasification and hazardous waste which forms a strong experience base for this MSO process; it is clearly applicable to DOE wastes such as organic liquids and low-ash wastes. It also has potential for processing difficult-to-treat wastes such as nuclear grade graphite and TBP, and it may be suitable for other problem waste streams such as sodium metal. MSO operating systems may be constructed in relatively small units for small quantity generators. Public perceptions could be favorable if acceptable performance data are presented fairly; MSO will likely require compliance with regulations for incineration. Use of MSO for offgas treatment may be complicated by salt carryover. Figs, tabs, refs.

  20. Effect of water in salt repositories. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baes, C.F. Jr.; Gilpatrick, L.O.; Kitts, F.G.; Bronstein, H.R.; Shor, A.J.

    1983-09-01

    Additional results confirm that during most of the consolidation of polycrystalline salt in brine, the previously proposed rate expression applies. The final consolidation, however, proceeds at a lower rate than predicted. The presence of clay hastens the consolidation process but does not greatly affect the previously observed relationship between permeability and void fraction. Studies of the migration of brine within polycrystalline salt specimens under stress indicate that the principal effect is the exclusion of brine as a result of consolidation, a process that evidently can proceed to completion. No clear effect of a temperature gradient could be identified. A previously reported linear increase with time of the reciprocal permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine was confirmed, though the rate of increase appears more nearly proportional to the product of sigma ..delta..P rather than sigma ..delta..P/sup 2/ (sigma is the uniaxial stress normal to the interface and ..delta..P is the hydraulic pressure drop). The new results suggest that a limiting permeability may be reached. A model for the permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine is developed that is reasonably consistent with the present results and may be used to predict the permeability of bedded salt. More measurements are needed, however, to choose between two limiting forms of the model.