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Sample records for samos island greece

  1. Geochemistry and diagenesis of Miocene lacustrine siliceous sedimentary and pyroclastic rocks, Mytilinii basin, Samos Island, Greece

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamatakis, M.G.; Hein, J.R.; Magganas, A.C.

    1989-01-01

    A Late Miocene non-marine stratigraphic sequence composed of limestone, opal-CT-bearing limestone, porcelanite, marlstone, diatomaceous marlstone, dolomite, and tuffite crops out on eastern Samos Island. This lacustrine sequence is subdivided into the Hora Beds and the underlying Pythagorion Formation. The Hora Beds is overlain by the clastic Mytilinii series which contains Turolian (Late Miocene) mammalian fossils. The lacustrine sequence contains volcanic glass and the silica polymorphs opal-A, opal-CT, and quartz. Volcanic glass predominantly occurs in tuffaceous rocks from the lower and upper parts of the lacustrine sequence. Opal-A (diatom frustules) is confined to layers in the upper part of the Hora Beds. Beds rich in opal-CT underlie those containing opal-A. The occurrence of opal-CT is extensive, encompassing the lower Hora Beds and the sedimentary rocks and tuffs of the Pythagorion Formation. A transition zone between the opal-A and opal-CT zones is identified by X-ray diffraction patterns that are intermediate between those of opal-CT and opal-A, perhaps due to a mixture of the two polymorphs. Diagenesis was not advanced enough for opal-CT to transform to quartz or for volcanic glass to transform to opal-C. Based on geochemical and mineralogical data, we suggest that the rate of diagenetic transformation of opal-A to opal-CT was mainly controlled by the chemistry of pore fluids. Pore fluids were characterized by high salinity, moderately high alkalinity, and high magnesium ion activity. These pore fluid characteristics are indicated by the presence of evaporitic salts (halite, sylvite, niter), high boron content in biogenic silica, and by dolomite in both the opal-A and opal-CT-bearing beds. The absence of authigenic K-feldspar, borosilicates, and zeolites also support these pore fluid characteristics. Additional factors that influenced the rate of silica diagenesis were host rock lithology and the relatively high heat flow in the Aegean region from

  2. Depositional ages of clastic metasediments from Samos and Syros, Greece: results of a detrital zircon study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwen, Kersten; Bröcker, Michael; Berndt, Jasper

    2015-01-01

    Siliciclastic metasediments from the islands of Samos and Syros, Cycladic blueschist unit, Greece, were studied to determine maximum sedimentation ages. Four samples from the Ampelos unit on Samos yielded age distribution spectra that range from ~320 Ma to ~3.2 Ga with a dominance of Cambrian-Neoproterozoic zircons (500-1,100 Ma). The youngest well-constrained age groups cluster at 500-550 Ma. Our results allow to link the Samos metasediments with occurrences showing similar age distribution patterns elsewhere in the eastern Mediterranean region (Greece, Turkey, Libya, Israel and Jordan) that record the influx of `Pan-African' detritus. The lack of post-500-Ma zircons in the Samos samples is in marked contrast to the data from Syros that indicates Triassic to Cretaceous depositional ages. The samples from Syros were collected from the matrix of a meta-ophiolitic mélange that is exposed near the top of the metamorphic succession as well as from outcrops representing the basal part of the underlying marble-schist sequence. The zircon populations from Syros were mainly supplied by Mesozoic sources dominated by Triassic protolith ages. Subordinate is the importance of pre-Triassic zircons, but this may reflect bias induced by the research strategy. Sediment accumulation continued until Late Cretaceous time, but the overall contribution of Jurassic to Cretaceous detritus is more limited. Zircon populations are dominated by grains with small degree of rounding suggesting relatively short sediment transportation. Available observations are in accordance with a model suggesting deposition close to the magmatic source rocks.

  3. Unraveling protolith ages of meta-gabbros from Samos and the Attic-Cycladic Crystalline Belt, Greece: Results of a U-Pb zircon and Sr-Nd whole rock study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bröcker, Michael; Löwen, Kersten; Rodionov, Nikolay

    2014-06-01

    The focus of this study is on meta-ophiolitic rocks from Samos and the Attic-Cycladic Crystalline Belt, Greece. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon geochronology, Sr-Nd isotope and bulk-rock geochemistry have been applied to meta-gabbros that occur as blocks and lenses in blueschist-facies mélanges on Samos and Evia, and in the greenschist-facies Upper Unit on Tinos. The geodynamic significance of these meta-ophiolite fragments within the overall pattern of the Eastern Mediterranean region is unclear. Regional correlations within the Cyclades archipelago and with the Jurassic meta-ophiolites of the Balkan region or the Cretaceous occurrences in Turkey are uncertain. Although field, petrological and geochemical similarities among some mélange occurrences suggest a common genetic relationship, such interpretations remain speculative if not supported by robust geochronological data. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating of three meta-gabbro blocks from Samos yielded Cretaceous ages with weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 78.3 ± 1.3 Ma, 76.8 ± 1.4 Ma and 77.8 ± 1.4 Ma and almost identical intercept ages, interpreted to indicate the time of magmatic crystallization. These results further substantiate models suggesting a correlative relationship with mélanges on the islands of Syros and Tinos, central Aegean Sea, where similar rocks yielded almost identical U-Pb zircon ages. Published and new Sr-Nd isotope data of meta-gabbros from Andros, Samos, Tinos (Lower Unit) and from mainland Greece (Pindos, Othris) reveal distinctive differences among ion probe-dated samples with Jurassic and Cretaceous protolith ages. Three groups can clearly be distinguished in a 87Sr/86Sr vs. 143Nd/144Nd diagram. However, these geochemical parameters do not allow assigning tentative age estimates for yet undated meta-gabbros from southern Evia and the Upper Unit of Tinos. The situation is further complicated by the observation that the Jurassic and Cretaceous meta-gabbros do not show other discriminating geochemical

  4. The Tunnels of Samos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apostol, Tom M. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This 'Project Mathematics' series video from CalTech presents the tunnel of Samos, a famous underground aquaduct tunnel located near the capital of Pithagorion (named after the famed Greek mathematician, Pythagoras, who lived there), on one of the Greek islands. This tunnel was constructed around 600 BC by King Samos and was built under a nearby mountain. Through film footage and computer animation, the mathematical principles and concepts of why and how this aquaduct tunnel was built are explained.

  5. The zeolite deposits of Greece

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamatakis, M.G.; Hall, A.; Hein, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Zeolites are present in altered pyroclastic rocks at many localities in Greece, and large deposits of potential economic interest are present in three areas: (1) the Evros region of the province of Thrace in the north-eastern part of the Greek mainland; (2) the islands of Kimolos and Poliegos in the western Aegean; and (3) the island of Samos in the eastern Aegean Sea. The deposits in Thrace are of Eocene-Oligocene age and are rich in heulandite and/or clinoptilolite. Those of Kimolos and Poliegos are mainly Quaternary and are rich in mordenite. Those of Samos are Miocene, and are rich in clinoptilolite and/or analcime. The deposits in Thrace are believed to have formed in an open hydrological system by the action of meteoric water, and those of the western Aegean islands in a similar way but under conditions of high heat flow, whereas the deposits in Samos were formed in a saline-alkaline lake.

  6. [Leishmaniasis in Greece: the sandflies of the Ionian islands and Aegean Sea].

    PubMed

    Pesson, B; Leger, N; Madulo-Leblond, G

    1984-01-01

    Three entomological investigations have been carried out during the summers 1979, 1980 and 1982 in Ionian islands: Corfu, Cephalonia and Zante and in four Aegean Sea islands: the western Andros and Tinos (Cyclades) and eastern Samos and Ikaria. Systematic sampling with oiled paper traps produced 24 184 sandflies. Captures are analysed for each species. PMID:6465795

  7. Variscan tectonics in Dodecanese, Kalymnos island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatziioannou, Eleftheria; Grasemann, Bernhard; Schneider, David; Hubmann, Bernhard; Soukis, Konstantinos

    2015-04-01

    Kalymnos island is located in the Dodecanese, southeastern Aegean Sea, and geologically appears to be part of the external Hellenides. Pre-Alpidic basement rocks on the Dodecanese islands have been suggested to record compelling similarities with the basement rocks in Eastern Crete with respect to their lithologies and pre-Alpidic metamorphic evolution. The lithotectonic units experienced greenschist to amphibolite facies conditions during the Variscan orogeny. Whereas the rocks in Eastern Crete reveal Alpine high-pressure overprint, the Variscan basement units in the Dodecanese record no or low-grade Alpine metamorphism. A field study of basement rocks below Mesozoic limestones and dolomites in the NW part of Kalymnos near Emporios uncovered a complex history of metamorphism, folding and faulting. Three different tectonic units can be discriminated from top to bottom: a) a quartz-mica schist, b) a white-grey, fossiliferous coarse grained marble and c) a fine-grained fossiliferous blue-grey marble. In the marbles macrofossils such as brachiopods, ammonoid cephalopods (Goniatids?) and crinoids suggest a Middle-Upper Devonian deposition age (Givetian- Frasnian). Structural mapping the area resolved a dominant W-E shortening event, resulting in an overall inverted metamorphic gradient. The lowermost blue-grey marble unit is folded into large-scale upright folds, which are truncated by top-to-east overthrusting of the white-grey marble unit. Whereas deformation mechanisms in the blue-grey marble unit are dominated by dissolution-precipitation creep, the white-grey marble suffered intense crystal plastic deformation with localized high-strain mylonitic shear zones. The uppermost quartz-mica schist unit is separated from the lower units by a cataclastic phyllonitic shear zone. 40Ar/39Ar geochronological dating on white micas from the quartz-mica schists yielded cooling ages between 240 and 334 Ma indicative of Variscan cooling. Our data suggest that this part of the

  8. Greece.

    PubMed

    1985-04-01

    A brief description of the population characteristics, geographical features, history, current political situation, economy, energy supply, foreign relations of Greece is presented. Greece's population of 9.95 million is 98% Greek, and the official language is Greek. 97% of the population is Greek Orthodox, and 2% is Muslim. Schooling is compulsory for 9 years, and the literacy rate is 89% for women and 96% for men. The infant mortality rate is 13.8, and life expectancy is 72 years for males and 75 years for female. Greece is situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula and consists of the mainland, the Peleponnesos, and numerous islands including Crete. Most of the land mass is mountainous, large areas are dry, and only 28% of the land is arable. From the earliest time until recently, emigration from Greece to other countries was a common pattern. Since the 1960s, internal migration to urban areas was the dominant migration trend. Currently, 30% of the population lives in Athens. Despite the growing industrialization and urbanization of the population, the Greeks retain many traditional family and social values. Greece was part of the cradle of civilization, and its history is characterized by the rise of the Minoan culture on Crete, the rise and fall of the Myceneans on the Peleponnesos, the development of the city states of Athens and Sparta, the destruction of Athens during the Peloponnesian War, domination by the Macedonians, the creation of the Hellenistic cilivization, conquest by the Roman Empire, the establishment of the Byzantine Empire, and in 1459 conquest by the Ottoman Empire. In the 1820's Greece fought for and finally won its independence, In World War I Greece fought on the side of the Allies. In World War II, the Greeks successfully resisted an invasion from Italy. In 1941, the country was taken over by the Germans, but the Greek resistance movement continued to fight the Germans until liberation. Between 1944-49, there were 2 unsuccessful

  9. SAMOS Surface Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Shawn; Bourassa, Mark

    2014-05-01

    The development of a new surface flux dataset based on underway meteorological observations from research vessels will be presented. The research vessel data center at the Florida State University routinely acquires, quality controls, and distributes underway surface meteorological and oceanographic observations from over 30 oceanographic vessels. These activities are coordinated by the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS) initiative in partnership with the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) project. Recently, the SAMOS data center has used these underway observations to produce bulk flux estimates for each vessel along individual cruise tracks. A description of this new flux product, along with the underlying data quality control procedures applied to SAMOS observations, will be provided. Research vessels provide underway observations at high-temporal frequency (1 min. sampling interval) that include navigational (position, course, heading, and speed), meteorological (air temperature, humidity, wind, surface pressure, radiation, rainfall), and oceanographic (surface sea temperature and salinity) samples. Vessels recruited to the SAMOS initiative collect a high concentration of data within the U.S. continental shelf and also frequently operate well outside routine shipping lanes, capturing observations in extreme ocean environments (Southern, Arctic, South Atlantic, and South Pacific oceans). These observations are atypical for their spatial and temporal sampling, making them very useful for many applications including validation of numerical models and satellite retrievals, as well as local assessments of natural variability. Individual SAMOS observations undergo routine automated quality control and select vessels receive detailed visual data quality inspection. The result is a quality-flagged data set that is ideal for calculating turbulent flux estimates. We will describe the bulk flux algorithms that have been applied to the

  10. Facing and managing natural disasters in the Sporades islands, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karanikola, P.; Panagopoulos, T.; Tampakis, S.; Karantoni, M. I.; Tsantopoulos, G.

    2014-04-01

    The region of the Sporades islands located in central Greece is at the mercy of many natural phenomena, such as earthquakes due to the marine volcano Psathoura and the rift of Anatolia, forest fires, floods, landslides, storms, hail, snowfall and frost. The present work aims at studying the perceptions and attitudes of the residents regarding how they face and manage natural disasters. A positive public response during a hazard crisis depends not only upon the availability and good management of a civil defense plan but also on the knowledge and perception of the possible hazards by the local population. It is important for the stakeholders to know what the citizens expect so that the necessary structures can be developed in the phase of preparation and organization. The residents were asked their opinion about what they think should be done by the stakeholders after a catastrophic natural disaster, particularly about the immediate response of stakeholders and their involvement and responsibilities at different, subsequent intervals of time following the disaster. The residents were also asked about the most common disasters that happen in their region and about the preparation activities of the stakeholders.

  11. Facing and managing natural disasters in the Sporades Islands, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karanikola, P.; Panagopoulos, T.; Tampakis, S.; Karantoni, M. I.; Tsantopoulos, G.

    2013-11-01

    The region of the Sporades Islands located in central Greece is at the mercy of many natural phenomena, such as earthquakes, due to the marine volcano "Psathoura", and the rift of Anatolia, forest fires, floods, landslides, storms, hail, snowfall and frost. The present work aims at studying the perceptions and attitudes of the residents regarding how they face and manage natural disasters. A positive public response during a hazard crisis depends not only upon the availability and good management of a civil defence plan but also on the knowledge and perception of the possible hazards by the local population. It is important for the stakeholders to know what the citizens expect from each of the separate stakeholders so that the necessary structures can be developed in the phase of preparation and organization. The residents were asked about their opinion about what they think should be done by the stakeholders after a catastrophic natural disaster, particularly the immediate response of stakeholders and their involvement and responsibilities at different, subsequent intervals of time following the disaster. The residents were also asked about the most common disasters that happen in their region and about the preparation activities of the stakeholders.

  12. Biogenicity of an Early Quaternary iron formation, Milos Island, Greece.

    PubMed

    Chi Fru, E; Ivarsson, M; Kilias, S P; Frings, P J; Hemmingsson, C; Broman, C; Bengtson, S; Chatzitheodoridis, E

    2015-05-01

    A ~2.0-million-year-old shallow-submarine sedimentary deposit on Milos Island, Greece, harbours an unmetamorphosed fossiliferous iron formation (IF) comparable to Precambrian banded iron formations (BIFs). This Milos IF holds the potential to provide clues to the origin of Precambrian BIFs, relative to biotic and abiotic processes. Here, we combine field stratigraphic observations, stable isotopes of C, S and Si, rock petrography and microfossil evidence from a ~5-m-thick outcrop to track potential biogeochemical processes that may have contributed to the formation of the BIF-type rocks and the abrupt transition to an overlying conglomerate-hosted IF (CIF). Bulk δ(13) C isotopic compositions lower than -25‰ provide evidence for biological contribution by the Calvin and reductive acetyl-CoA carbon fixation cycles to the origin of both the BIF-type and CIF strata. Low S levels of ~0.04 wt.% combined with δ(34) S estimates of up to ~18‰ point to a non-sulphidic depository. Positive δ(30) Si records of up to +0.53‰ in the finely laminated BIF-type rocks indicate chemical deposition on the seafloor during weak periods of arc magmatism. Negative δ(30) Si data are consistent with geological observations suggesting a sudden change to intense arc volcanism potentially terminated the deposition of the BIF-type layer. The typical Precambrian rhythmic rocks of alternating Fe- and Si-rich bands are associated with abundant and spatially distinct microbial fossil assemblages. Together with previously proposed anoxygenic photoferrotrophic iron cycling and low sedimentary N and C potentially connected to diagenetic denitrification, the Milos IF is a biogenic submarine volcano-sedimentary IF showing depositional conditions analogous to Archaean Algoma-type BIFs. PMID:25645266

  13. Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in a population sample from continental Greece, and the islands of Crete and Chios.

    PubMed

    Robino, C; Varacalli, S; Gino, S; Chatzikyriakidou, A; Kouvatsi, A; Triantaphyllidis, C; Di Gaetano, C; Crobu, F; Matullo, G; Piazza, A; Torre, C

    2004-10-01

    Eight Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs)--DYS19, DYS389-I, DYS389-II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, and DYS385--were typed in a population sample (n = 113) of unrelated males from seven different regions of Greece (Macedonia, Thessaly, Epirus, Central Greece, Peloponnese, Crete Island, and Chios Island). PMID:15374596

  14. Tsunami Questionnaire Survey in Heraklion Test Site, Crete Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papageorgiou, Antonia; Tsimi, Christina; Orfanogiannaki, Katerina; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos; Sachpazi, Maria; Lavigne, Franck; Grancher, Delphine

    2015-04-01

    The Heraklion city (Crete Island, Greece) has been chosen as one of the test-sites for the EU-FP7ASTARTE tsunami project. Heraklion is the biggest city in Crete Isl. and the fourth biggest in Greece with a population of about 120,000 which, however, during the summer vacation period nearly doubles. In the past, Heraklion was hit by strong, destructive tsunamis such as the ones of AD 8 August 1303, 10 October 1650 and 9 July 1956. The first and the third were caused by large tectonic earthquakes associated with the eastern segment of the Hellenic Arc the first and with the back-arc extensional regime the third. The one of 1650 was associated with the eruption of the Columbo submarine volcano in the Santorini volcanic complex. One of the activities scheduled for WP9 of ASTARTE project, which aims at building tsunami resilient societies in Europe, is dedicated to organize questionnaire surveys among the populations of the several ASTARTE test-sites. Although the questionnaire is comprised by more than 50 questions, the central concept is to better understand what people know about tsunamis and if they are ready to cope with risks associated with future tsunami occurrences. In Heraklion the survey was conducted during tourism peak season of July 2014, thus questionnaires were collected by both local people and tourists, thus representing a variety of countries. We attempted to keep balance between males and females, while the age ranged from 15 to 65. Totally, 113 persons were interviewed of which 62 were females and 51 males. From the point of view of origin, 58 out of 113 were local people and residents, 22 were Greek tourists and 29 foreign tourists. Generally, the questionnaire consists of four parts. In the first, people were asked about their relation with the area of Heraklion. In the second part, the questions considered the knowledge that people have on tsunamis as a natural, hazardous phenomenon. More precisely, people were asked questions such as what a

  15. Greece

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... MD. The MISR data were obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science Data Center in Hampton, VA. Image ... Maria Kanakidou and Nikos Mihalopoulos, Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece. Other formats ...

  16. Greece

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... from north to south and between Greece and western Turkey, are uniquely situated at the intersection of Europe, Asia and Africa. ... Cyclades, Dodecanese and Crete, as well as part of mainland Turkey. Many sites important to ancient and modern history can be found here. ...

  17. Static stress changes and fault interactions in Lefkada Island, Western Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsakaki, C.; Rondoyanni, Th.; Anastasiou, D.; Papazissi, K.; Marinou, A.; Sakellariou, M.

    2013-07-01

    The complicated tectonics of the Mediterranean region, dominated by the subduction of the African plate under Eurasia, affects the whole of Greece. A significant extension rate across the Aegean sea is estimated from satellite geodetic observations, while intense seismicity is observed in parts of the Hellenic arc, manifested by strong earthquakes (Ms > 6) of intermediate depth that take place along it. In Western Greece, the Ionian Islands are situated in a transitional zone (from the Hellenic subduction to the Adriatic collision), characterised by a high crustal deformation rate as revealed by the high seismicity of this zone, the highest in Greece, and the GPS velocity field estimated for the region. In this part of the Aegean plate, transcurrent fault systems dominate, one of which is the Kephalonia Transform Fault (KTF), located offshore the Kephalonia and Lefkada Islands, with a right-lateral slip of the order of 3 cm/year. In the present work an attempt is made to assess the Coulomb stress change associated with well documented earthquake activity, from 1973 to 2003, in the Ionian Island of Lefkada. The results of this study suggest that the early 1973 event did not influence any subsequent moderate earthquakes in the area. On the other hand, the 1994 earthquake may have triggered the north segment of the 2003 event, while the 2003 earthquake ruptured two segments with the north one initiating rupture on the south segment.

  18. Nestedness in centipede (Chilopoda) assemblages on continental islands (Aegean, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simaiakis, Stylianos Michail; Martínez-Morales, Miguel Angel

    2010-05-01

    In natural ecosystems, species assemblages among isolated ecological communities such as continental islands often show a nested pattern in which biotas of sites with low species richness are non-random subsets of biotas of richer sites. The distribution of centipede (Chilopoda) species in the central and south Aegean archipelago was tested for nestedness. To achieve this aim we used distribution data for 53 species collected on 24 continental Aegean islands (Kyklades and Dodekanisa). Based on the first-order jackknife estimator, most of islands were comprehensively surveyed. In order to quantify nestedness, we used the nestedness temperature calculator (NTC) as well as the nestedness metric based on overlap and decreasing Fill (NODF). NTC indicated that data exhibited a high degree of nestedness in the central and south Aegean island complexes. As far as the Kyklades and Dodekanisa are concerned, NTC showed less nested centipede structures than the 24 islands. Likewise, NODF revealed a significant degree of nestedness in central and south Aegean islands. It also showed that biotas matrices without singletons were more nested than the complete ones (Aegean, Kyklades and Dodekanisa). The two commonest centipede taxa (lithobiomorphs and geophilomorphs) contributed differently to centipede assemblages. In the Kyklades and Dodekanisa, geophilomorphs did not show a reliable nested arrangement unlike lithobiomorphs. In relation to the entire data set, nestedness was positively associated with the degree of isolation. In the Kyklades altitudinal range best explained nestedness patterns, while in Dodekanisa habitat heterogeneity proved to be more important for the centipede communities. Island area does not seem to be a significant explanatory variable. Some of our results from the Kyklades were critically compared with those for terrestrial isopod and land snail nested assemblages from the same geographical area. The complex geological and palaeogeographical history of

  19. Oil seeps of the Ionian Islands, western Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, S.P.; Doran, T.

    1988-08-01

    Many Greeks believe the tarry deposits commonly observed on the beaches of Levkas, Meganissi, Cephalonia, Ithaca, and Zakinthos originate from Turkish tankers. Geologists would propose an origin from source rocks which feed the large oil pools exposed at Limni Keriou on the southwestern tip of the island of Zakinthos. Samples of this oil seep have been studied in detail, together with oil samples collected around the islands of Zakinthos, Cephalonia, Ithaca, and Meganissi, from which it can be seen a geologic origin is plausible. Examination of possible source rock intervals (for both maturity and source potential) occurring within the pre-flysch succession (Triassic-Eocene) of rocks exposed in the same area has also been completed. From these findings, conjecture as to the possible source of the oil seeps has been made.

  20. Assessment of bioclimatic conditions in Crete Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleta, A.; Nastos, P. T.; Matzarakis, A.

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study is to assess and analyze the human bioclimatic conditions of Crete Island, using the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET), which is one of the most popular human thermal indices derived from the human energy balance. Bioclimatic studies provide a framework linking biophysical climate sensitivity to social/economic factors that mitigate or amplify the consequences of environmental changes. PET is defined as the physiological equivalent temperature at any given place (outdoors or indoors). It is equivalent to the air temperature at which, in a typical indoor setting, the heat balance of the human body (work metabolism 80 W of light activity, added to basic metabolism; heat resistance of clothing 0.9 clo) is maintained with core and skin temperatures equal to those of the under assessment conditions. It has been realized that, to estimate the thermal effect of the environment to the human body, the total of effects of all of the thermal components, not only as individual parameters, should be taken into account. The climatic data (air temperature, relative humidity, cloudiness, wind speed) for Crete Island, were obtained by archives of fifteen meteorological stations of the Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS). These data of period 1955-2010 were used for the calculation of PET in order to interpret the grade of the thermo-physiological stress. Crete Island, as it is located in the Southeastern Mediterranean basin, is of great touristic interest due to its splendid landscapes, archaeological sites and coastal areas combined with its excellent climatic conditions. However, Crete Island is frequently affected by Saharan outbreaks which are associated with miscellaneous phenomena, such as Föhn winds - hot and dry winds - causing extreme bioclimatic conditions (strong heat stress). The exploitation of the results of this analysis, such as bioclimatic diagrams, temporal and spatial distributions of PET as well as trends and

  1. Distribution of sandflies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in two Ionian Islands and northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Xanthopoulou, Kyriaki; Anagnostou, Vassiliki; Ivovic, Vladimir; Djurkovic-Djakovic, Olgica; Rogozi, Elton; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Papa, Anna

    2011-12-01

    A field study on the distribution of phlebotomine sandflies was carried out during summer months of 2009 and 2010 in eight sites in two Ionian islands and in northern Greece. A total of 490 sandflies (74.5% females) were collected. Six species of the Phlebotomus genus and two of the Sergentomyia genus were identified. The species with the widest distribution in the islands were Phlebotomus neglectus (32.8%), Phlebotomus similis (30.3%), Phlebotomus tobbi (16.7%), and P. perfiliewi (15.9%), whereas P. simici (50%), P. neglectus (24.5%), and P. tobbi (9.6%) predominated in the mainland. As most of these species are proven or suspected vectors of human and animal pathogens, prevention measures have to be taken in these areas during the summer months when sandflies are active. PMID:21919729

  2. Tamarix minoa (Tamaricaceae), a new species from the island of Crete (Greece) based on morphological and plastid molecular sequence data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tamarix minoa is described from material collected on the S Aegean island of Crete (Kriti), Greece. A morphological comparison with the species considered to be closest, T. africana and T. hampeana, is provided. An original illustration showing the main morphological characters of the new species is...

  3. Holocene evolution and sedimentation rate of Alikes Lagoon, Zakynthos island, Western Greece: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avramidis, P.; Kontopoulos, N.

    2009-07-01

    In the present study we present preliminary results from Alikes lagoon in Zakynthos island, an area that is one of the most seismically active regions of Greece. In order to estimate - interpret the Holocene evolution of the area and to reconstruct the palaeoenvironmental changes, we based on data derived from a 21 m sediment core. Sediment types, structure, colour, as well as contact depths and bed characteristics were recorded in the field. Standarised sedimentological analysis was carried out, on 46 samples including grain size analysis, calculation of moment measures, and micro- and molluscan fossils of 17 selected samples. Moreover, radiocarbon age determinations have been made on individual Cardium shells from two horizons and whole - core Magnetic Susceptibility (MS) measurements were taken. The interpretation of depositional environments suggests a coastal environment (restricted-shallow) with reduced salinity such as a lagoon margin and in a tidal flat and/or marsh particularly. The maximum age of the studied sediments is about 8500 BP. The rate of sedimentation between 8280 BP while 5590 BP was 5.3 mm/yr and between 5590 BP and modern times is on the order of 1.03 mm/yr. These sedimentation rates results are similar to other coastal areas of western Greece.

  4. Cymrite and celsian in manganese-rich metamorphic rocks from Andros Island/Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinecke, Thomas

    1982-07-01

    Manganese-rich rocks from the island of Andros (Cyclades/Greece) contain cymrite (BaAl2Si2O8·H2O) and celsian. The textural relationships indicate replacement of celsian by cymrite. Several microprobe analyses of cymrites show a solid solution of 0.7 6.1 mole% KAlSi3O8·H2O. The relic celsians have similar K contents. Thus the described rocks from Andros represent the first natural example for the reaction celsian+water= cymrite. The rocks from Andros underwent an Eocene high pressure metamorphism. Lateron, the high pressure parageneses were nearly effaced by a Late Oligocene Barrovian type metamorphism. It is assumed that both cymrite and celsian were formed at conditions near the reaction curve celsianss+water= cymritess during the Barrovian type event.

  5. Development of an operational modeling system for urban heat islands: an application to Athens, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannaros, T. M.; Melas, D.; Daglis, I. A.; Keramitsoglou, I.

    2014-02-01

    The urban heat island (UHI) effect is one prominent form of localized anthropogenic climate modification. It represents a significant urban climate problem since it occurs in the layer of the atmosphere where almost all daily human activities take place. This paper presents the development of a high-resolution modeling system that could be used for simulating the UHI effect in the context of operational weather forecasting activities. The modeling system is built around a state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction model, properly modified to allow for the better representation of the urban climate. The model performance in terms of simulating the near-surface air temperature and thermal comfort conditions over the complex urban area of Athens, Greece, is evaluated during a 1.5-month operational implementation in the summer of 2010. Results from this case study reveal an overall satisfactory performance of the modeling system. The discussion of the results highlights the important role that, given the necessary modifications, a meteorological model can play as a supporting tool for developing successful heat island mitigation strategies. This is further underlined through the operational character of the presented modeling system.

  6. Development of an operational modelling system for urban heat islands: an application to Athens, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannaros, T. M.; Melas, D.; Daglis, I. A.; Keramitsoglou, I.

    2013-09-01

    The urban heat island (UHI) effect is one prominent form of localized anthropogenic climate modification. It represents a significant urban climate problem since it occurs in that layer of the atmosphere where almost all daily human activities take place. This paper presents the development of a high-resolution modelling system that could be used for simulating the UHI effect in the context of operational weather forecasting activities. The modelling system is built around a state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction model, properly modified to allow for the better representation of the urban climate. The model performance in terms of simulating the near-surface air temperature and thermal comfort conditions over the complex urban area of Athens, Greece, is evaluated during a 1.5-month operational implementation in the summer of 2010. Results from this case study reveal an overall satisfactory performance of the modelling system. The discussion of the results highlights the important role that, given the necessary modifications, a meteorological model can play as a supporting tool for developing successful heat island mitigation strategies. This is further underlined through the operational character of the presented modelling system.

  7. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air from Nisyros Island (Dodecanese Archipelago, Greece): Natural versus anthropogenic sources.

    PubMed

    Tassi, F; Capecchiacci, F; Giannini, L; Vougioukalakis, G E; Vaselli, O

    2013-09-01

    This study presents the chemical composition of VOCs in air and gas discharges collected at Nisyros Island (Dodecanese Archipelago, Greece). The main goals are i) to discriminate between natural and anthropogenic VOC sources and ii) to evaluate their impact on local air quality. Up to 63 different VOCs were recognized and quantitatively determined in 6 fumaroles and 19 air samples collected in the Lakki caldera, where fumarolic emissions are located, and the outer ring of the island, including the Mandraki village and the main harbor. Air samples from the crater area show significant concentrations of alkanes, alkenes, cyclic, aromatics, and S- and O-bearing heterocycles directly deriving from the hydrothermal system, as well as secondary O-bearing compounds from oxidation of primary VOCs. At Mandraki village, C6H6/Σ(methylated aromatics) and Σ(linear)/Σ(branched) alkanes ratios <1 allow to distinguish an anthropogenic source related to emissions from outlet pipes of touristic and private boats and buses. PMID:23747819

  8. Chronostratigraphy of uplifted Quaternary hemipelagic deposits from the Dodecanese island of Rhodes (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quillévéré, Frédéric; Cornée, Jean-Jacques; Moissette, Pierre; López-Otálvaro, Gatsby Emperatriz; van Baak, Christiaan; Münch, Philippe; Melinte-Dobrinescu, Mihaela Carmen; Krijgsman, Wout

    2016-07-01

    An integrated magneto-biostratigraphic study, based on calcareous nannofossils and foraminifers, together with the radiometric dating of a volcaniclastic layer found in several outcrops, was carried out on the hemipelagic deposits of the Lindos Bay Formation (LBF) at six localities on the island of Rhodes (Greece). Our highly refined chronostratigraphic framework indicates that the lower and upper lithostratigraphic boundaries of the LBF are diachronous. Associated with the 40Ar/39Ar age determination of 1.85 ± 0.08 Ma for the volcaniclastic layer, our data show that among the investigated outcrops, the Lindos Bay type locality section provides the longest record (1.1 Ma) of the LBF. Hemipelagic deposition occurred continuously from the late Gelasian (∼1.9 Ma) to the late Calabrian (∼0.8 Ma), i.e., from Chrons C2n (Olduvai) to C1r.1r (Matuyama) and from nannofossil Zones CNPL7 to CNPL10. This long record, together with the hemipelagic nature of the deposits, make the Lindos Bay type locality section a unique element in the eastern Mediterranean region, allowing future comparisons with other early Quaternary deep-sea sections available in the central and western Mediterranean regions.

  9. Seismic hazard assessment in central Ionian Islands area (Greece) based on stress release models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votsi, Irene; Tsaklidis, George; Papadimitriou, Eleftheria

    2011-08-01

    The long-term probabilistic seismic hazard of central Ionian Islands (Greece) is studied through the application of stress release models. In order to identify statistically distinct regions, the study area is divided into two subareas, namely Kefalonia and Lefkada, on the basis of seismotectonic properties. Previous results evidenced the existence of stress transfer and interaction between the Kefalonia and Lefkada fault segments. For the consideration of stress transfer and interaction, the linked stress release model is applied. A new model is proposed, where the hazard rate function in terms of X(t) has the form of the Weibull distribution. The fitted models are evaluated through residual analysis and the best of them is selected through the Akaike information criterion. Based on AIC, the results demonstrate that the simple stress release model fits the Ionian data better than the non-homogeneous Poisson and the Weibull models. Finally, the thinning simulation method is applied in order to produce simulated data and proceed to forecasting.

  10. Maximum sedimentation ages and provenance of metasedimentary rocks from Tinos Island, Cycladic blueschist belt, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinsken, Tim; Bröcker, Michael; Berndt, Jasper; Gärtner, Claudia

    2015-10-01

    U-Pb zircon ages of five metasedimentary rocks from the Lower Unit on Tinos Island (Cycladic blueschist belt, Greece) document supply of detritus from various Proterozoic, Paleozoic and Mesozoic source rocks as well as post-depositional metamorphic zircon formation. Essential features of the studied zircon populations are Late Cretaceous (70-80 Ma) maximum sedimentation ages for the lithostratigraphic succession above the lowermost dolomite marble, significant contributions from Triassic to Neoproterozoic source rocks, minor influx of detritus recording Paleoproterozoic and older provenance (1.9-2.1, 2.4-2.5 and 2.7-2.8 Ga) and a lack or paucity of zircons with Mesoproterozoic ages (1.1-1.8 Ga). In combination with biostratigraphic evidence, the new dataset indicates that Late Cretaceous or younger rocks occur on top of or very close to the basal Triassic metacarbonates, suggesting a gap in the stratigraphic record near the base of the metamorphic succession. The time frame for sediment deposition is bracketed by the youngest detrital zircon ages (70-80 Ma) and metamorphic overgrowths that are related to high-pressure/low-temperature overprinting in the Eocene. This time interval possibly indicates a significant difference to the sedimentation history of the southern Cyclades, where Late Cretaceous detrital zircons have not yet been detected.

  11. Paleoenvironmental and sclerochronological reconstruction of Crassostrea gryphoides Miocene biostromes from Crete island (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koskeridou, E.; Agiadi, K.

    2012-04-01

    The mangrove oyster Crassostrea gasar (Adanson, 1757) is a keystone species mainly along the African Atlantic coasts. It forms biostromes on muddy coasts and typically associated with river mouths in the intertidal zone in depths of 0.60 up to 1 m1. Similarly, many biostrome structures of the fossilized Crassostrea gryphoides are found within Cenozoic deposits of Greece2. Since Crassostrea gasar is the phyllogenetically corresponding species of Crassostrea gryphoides, it is investigated whether the fossil biostromes formed under environmental conditions similar to those favored by modern Crassostrea gasar and if growth rate and longevity are comparable. A biostrome from the Tortonian of Heraklion district, Crete island (southern Greece) was studied to investigate the paleoenvironmental conditions and the life history of these oysters. The shells are big, ranging up to 40 cm in length, thick and positioned mainly horizontally. The biostrome is approximately 2 m in thickness and a few meters in length. Individual oysters, associated fauna and lithologic samples were collected. Paleoenvironmental interpretation was based on the analysis of the oyster taphonomy, the associated fauna and the sclerochronology/stable isotopic geochemistry of the oyster shells. The biostrome is observed in sandy marl which laterally contains Veneridae, Melongena, Terebralia bidentata and oligospecific microfossils, mainly Ammonia beccarii and Miliolids. Borings by many ichnotaxa occur on the external and internal surface of the oyster shells during the pre and /or post-mortem. Using a micromill, successive samples were taken along the hinge/ligament region of an oyster for isotopic analyses. The δ18O values ranged from -2.9 to 0.1. The wide range of values supports the interpretation of changing environmental conditions. The δ13C values ranged from -2.6 to -0.1. A correlation between δ18O and δ13C was observed. The profiles exhibit cyclicity with respect to isotopic and Sr/Ca ratios

  12. CO2 fertilization and enhanced drought resistance in Greek firs from Cephalonia Island, Greece.

    PubMed

    Koutavas, Athanasios

    2013-02-01

    Growth-climate relationships were investigated in Greek firs from Ainos Mountain on the island of Cephalonia in western Greece, using dendrochronology. The goal was to test whether tree growth is sensitive to moisture stress, whether such sensitivity has been stable through time, and whether changes in growth-moisture relationships support an influence of atmospheric CO2 on growth. Regressions of tree-ring indices (ad 1820-2007) with instrumental temperature, precipitation, and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) indicate that growth is fundamentally limited by growing-season moisture in late spring/early summer, most critically during June. However, this simple picture obscures a pattern of sharply evolving growth-climate relationships during the 20th century. Correlations between growth and June temperature, precipitation, and PDSI were significantly greater in the early 20th century but later degraded and disappeared. By the late 20th-early 21st century, there remains no statistically significant relationship between moisture and growth implying markedly enhanced resistance to drought. Moreover, growth experienced a net increase over the last half-century culminating with a sharp spike in ad 1988-1990. This recent growth acceleration is evident in the raw ring-width data prior to standardization, ruling out artifacts from statistical detrending. The vanishing relationship with moisture and parallel enhancement of growth are all the more notable because they occurred against a climatic backdrop of increasing aridity. The results are most consistent with a significant CO2 fertilization effect operating through restricted stomatal conductance and improved water-use efficiency. If this interpretation is correct, atmospheric CO2 is now overcompensating for growth declines anticipated from drier climate, suggesting its effect is unusually strong and likely to be detectable in other up-to-date tree-ring chronologies from the Mediterranean. PMID:23504790

  13. Present and Future Human Thermal Bioclimatic Conditions and Impacts on Respiratory Admissions in Crete Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleta, Anastasia; Nastos, Panagiotis

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is to assess and quantify the association between present and future human thermal bioclimatic conditions and daily counts of respiratory problems in Heraklion city, Crete Island, Greece. The bioclimatic conditions were analyzed in terms of the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) and Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), which are two of the most popular human thermal indices based on the human energy balance. The PET and UTCI analysis was performed by the application of the bioclimate model, "RayMan", which is well-suited to calculate radiation fluxes and human biometeorological indices. Future changes in meteorological parameters such as air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and cloudiness (used as input variables in the estimation of PET and UTCI) were derived by the simulations of the regional atmospheric climate model KNMI under SRES A1B, for the near (2021-2050) and far (2071-2100) future with respect to the reference period 1961-1990. Generalized linear models (GLM) with Poisson distribution were applied to the time series of daily numbers of outpatients (total, males and females) with respiratory problems against present and future bioclimatic changes, after controlling for possible confounders and adjustment for season and trends. The interpretation of the results of this analysis suggests a significant association between cold weather and increased respiratory admissions. For the near future, the projected increase of 1.6oC in PET may result in reducing the incidence of respiratory problemsby almost 3% against 7.5% in the far future, when PET is projected to increase by 4oC.

  14. The spatially extended 2006 April Zakynthos (Ionian Islands, Greece) seismic sequence and evidence for stress transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadimitriou, Panayotis; Chousianitis, Konstantinos; Agalos, Apostolos; Moshou, Alexandra; Lagios, Evangelos; Makropoulos, Konstantinos

    2012-08-01

    The seismic sequence at the southern part of Zakynthos Island (Ionian Sea, Western Greece) during April and May of 2006 is investigated. It consists of four moderate earthquakes (5.3 ≤Mw≤ 5.7) that were followed by significant seismic activity. Source parameters of the significant events were determined using two different techniques. Teleseismic body-wave modelling was employed for the major events of the sequence (Mw > 5.6), although for the moderate ones the frequency-wavenumber integration method was used. The calculated fault plane solutions of the 2006 April seismic sequence revealed compressional regime in all cases. More than 3500 microearthquakes were recorded and located using a local temporary network. Their spatial distribution indicated high concentration of seismic activity within an expanded area, taking into account the magnitudes of the major events. Within this expanded area (approximately 10 × 30 km2), the focal depths varied between 10 and 25 km. Two main clusters were revealed. The major events occurred in an area of low seismic activity that separates the two clusters. Seismic cross-sections indicated a complex pattern of the hypocentre distribution with the activation of two nearly antithetical faults, consistent with the determined focal mechanisms. The northern cluster can be associated with a fault plane trending NNW-SSE and dipping towards SW, although the southern cluster with a fault plane striking NW-SE and dipping towards ENE. Finally, Coulomb stress analysis was performed to calculate the stress transfer and correlate it with the activated area. Positive lobes with stress more than 0.3 bars were obtained, indicating that these values are large enough to increase the seismicity towards the observed NNW-SSE direction.

  15. Hepatitis C virus genotyping in Greece: unexpected high prevalence of genotype 5a in a Greek island.

    PubMed

    Karatapanis, Stylianos; Tsoplou, Panagiota; Papastergiou, Vasilios; Vasiageorgi, Aggeliki; Stampori, Maria; Saitis, Ioannis; Tsitsopoulos, Eustathios; Lisgos, Phillipos; Skorda, Lamprini; Ketikoglou, Ioannis; Goulis, Ioannis

    2012-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 5 (G5) is a rare genotype reported mainly in South Africa. However, increasing data suggest the sporadic presence of this genotype in different European countries. To assess the epidemiology of HCV-G5 in Greece, genotyping was performed in 973 consecutive patients infected with HCV, referred to 7 hepatology centers throughout Greece, from January 2005 to December 2009. Genotype 5a (19 patients, 1.9%) was the fifth most prevalent genotype after genotype 1 (408 patients, 41.9%), genotype 3 (318 patients, 32.7%), genotype 4 (158 patients, 16.2%), and genotype 2 (70 patients, 7.2%). The majority of patients infected with G5 (16/19,84.2%) were referred to the General Hospital of Rhodes, an island in south-east Greece. The HCV genotype distribution in that particular island, indicates a particularly high G5 prevalence of 12.8%, after genotype 1 (40%), genotype 3 (28%), and genotype 4 (15%). Among the patients from Rhodes infected with G5 (n = 16), 13 (81.2%) were females. The mean age was 62.3 ± 6.5 years, significantly older than the patients infected with other HCV genotypes (mean age 40.6 ± 7.2, P < 0.0001). Nine out of the 16 cases (56.2%) presented features of high pre-treatment viral loads. Advanced liver fibrosis (Metavir F3-F4) was found in four out of five performed liver biopsies. Ten patients received treatment with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin and a sustained viral response were achieved in six cases. The source of infection is unknown but parenteral iatrogenic routes of transmission seem to have contributed significantly to the spread of genotype 5a in this region. PMID:22170541

  16. Recent seismic activity at Cephalonia island (Greece): a study through candidate electromagnetic precursors in terms of nonlinear dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potirakis, S. M.; Contoyiannis, Y.; Melis, N. S.; Kopanas, J.; Antonopoulos, G.; Balasis, G.; Kontoes, C.; Nomicos, C.; Eftaxias, K.

    2015-12-01

    The preparation process of two recent earthquakes (EQs) occurred in Cephalonia (Kefalonia) island, Greece, (38.22° N, 20.53° E), 26 January 2014, Mw =6.0, depth =21 km, and (38.25° N, 20.39° E), 3 February 2014, Mw =5.9, depth =10 km, respectively, is studied in terms of the critical dynamics revealed in observables of the involved non-linear processes. Specifically, we show, by means of the method of critical fluctuations (MCF), that signatures of critical, as well as tricritical, dynamics were embedded in the fracture-induced electromagnetic emissions (EME) recorded by two stations in locations near the epicenters of these two EQs. It is worth noting that both, the MHz EME recorded by the telemetric stations on the island of Cephalonia and the neighboring island of Zante (Zakynthos), reached simultaneously critical condition a few days before the occurrence of each earthquake. The critical characteristics embedded in the EME signals were further verified using the natural time (NT) method. Moreover, we show, in terms of the NT method, that the foreshock seismic activity also presented critical characteristics before each one of these events. Importantly, the revealed critical process seems to be focused on the area corresponding to the west Cephalonia zone, following the seismotectonic and hazard zoning of the Ionian Islands area near Cephalonia.

  17. The strong Mw6 earthquake of 26th January 2014 in Cephalonia island, Ionian Sea, Greece: a first report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karastathis, Vassilis; Koukouvelas, Ioannis; Ganas, Athanasios; Moschou, Alexandra; Mouzakiotis, Aggelos; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Spanos, Dimitrios

    2014-05-01

    On 26 January 2014 a strong (Mw6) shallow earthquake ruptured the western side of Cephalonia island in the Ionian Sea, Greece. The main shock was followed by abundant aftershocks, one of them of Mw5.4. The earthquake caused damage but no human victims mainly in the area of Lixouri town in the western part of the island. However, the rest part of the island was only slightly affected. The earthquake caused also a series of ground failures, such as landslides and rockfalls which are geographically distributed in the meizoseismal area mainly along two tectonic lines trending NE-SW the first and about N-S the other. A spot of soil liquefaction was observed in the coastal zone near the port of Lixouri. According to first results the peak ground acceleration may have exceeded 0.35 g. The seismotectonic field appears complicated since the main shock was associated with about NE-SW strike-slip faulting while some of the strong aftershocks were associated with nearly N-S thrust. A relocation of the main shock and aftershocks was performed. We discuss the faulting associated with the earthquake sequence generation in relation to the relocated events and the ground failures observed in the field.

  18. Long-term precipitation variability in the Ionian Islands, Greece (Central Mediterranean): climatic signal analysis and future projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalimeris, A.; Founda, D.; Giannakopoulos, C.; Pierros, F.

    2012-07-01

    The present study examines the variability of the precipitation regime across the Ionian Islands complex, Greece (Central Mediterranean), for a period spanning more than one century. Significant negative long-term linear trends in the annual precipitation totals are observed, more pronounced in the southern parts of the studied area, while a climatic discontinuity possibly occurred during the 1970s, manifested first in the southern Ionian. Statistically significant nonlinear trends and subdecadal intermittent oscillations were detected using Monte Carlo singular spectral analysis. The correlation of the winter precipitation variability at Ionian complex with the North Atlantic Oscillation anomalies was also investigated and extended in the frequency domain. Finally, future projections were performed using an ensemble of Regional Climatic Models. Model simulations suggested a decrease of the order of ˜20% or more in the mean annual precipitation of the area by the end of the century.

  19. Energy flux parametrization as an opportunity to get Urban Heat Island insights: The case of Athens, Greece (Thermopolis 2009 Campaign).

    PubMed

    Loupa, G; Rapsomanikis, S; Trepekli, A; Kourtidis, K

    2016-01-15

    Energy flux parameterization was effected for the city of Athens, Greece, by utilizing two approaches, the Local-Scale Urban Meteorological Parameterization Scheme (LUMPS) and the Bulk Approach (BA). In situ acquired data are used to validate the algorithms of these schemes and derive coefficients applicable to the study area. Model results from these corrected algorithms are compared with literature results for coefficients applicable to other cities and their varying construction materials. Asphalt and concrete surfaces, canyons and anthropogenic heat releases were found to be the key characteristics of the city center that sustain the elevated surface and air temperatures, under hot, sunny and dry weather, during the Mediterranean summer. A relationship between storage heat flux plus anthropogenic energy flux and temperatures (surface and lower atmosphere) is presented, that results in understanding of the interplay between temperatures, anthropogenic energy releases and the city characteristics under the Urban Heat Island conditions. PMID:26520258

  20. Local tsunami early warning: the case of Rhodes island, Greece, and the NEARTOWARN (EU-DG ECHO) prevention project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Gerassimos; Argyris, Ilias; Fokaefs, Anna

    2013-04-01

    Local, that is near-field, tsunamis occur in the global ocean including the Mediterranean Sea and its connected seas. For such tsunamis the first wave has very short travel time of arrival (less than 30 min.) to the closest coastal zone thus making the early warning a very difficult task. An efficient, end-to-end early tsunami warning system in local conditions should fulfill the condition that the time needed for the earthquake detection, plus the time needed for the warning message transmission to the authorities and afterwards to the general public and/or other task groups, plus the time needed for response and real evacuation is less than the travel time of the first wave. In the physiographic conditions of the Mediterranean Sea it is extremely hard to satisfy such a condition unless the total time needed to response in early warning is drastically minimized. The project Near-Field Tsunami Warning and Emergency Planning (NEARTOWARN, which is supported by the EU DG-ECHO prevention programme, aims, among others, to establish a system in Rhodes island, Greece, with the purpose to meet needs for local early tsunami warning. To minimize the time for emergency in less than 30 sec, seismic alert devices (SED's) make the core component of the system. SED's are activated and send alerting signals as soon as a P-phase of seismic wave is detected in the near-field but for a predetermined threshold of ground motion. Then, emergency starts while SED's activate remotely other devices, such as computers with data bases of pre-calculated tsunami simulations, surveillance cameras etc. The system is completed with tide-gauges, simulated tsunami scenarios and emergency planning supported by a Geographical Management System. Rhodes island in Dodecanese, South Aegean Sea, Greece, has been selected as a test-area for the development of the prototype system given that it was hit by large tsunamigenic earthquakes several times in the past.

  1. The Messinian/Early Pliocene transition in Eastern Mediterranean: New palaeoenvironmental data from the Kalamaki section (Zakynthos Island, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drinia, Hara; Antonarakou, Assimina; Tsourou, Theodora; Tzortzaki, Evi; Filippidi, Amalia; Nikolaou, Konstantinos

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the Miocene-Pliocene microfaunal development, and to discuss its palaeoenvironmental and palaeogeographical significance. The studied section (Kalamaki section) is located in the eastern part of Zakynthos Island (western Greece). Details on lithology and stratigraphy of the section are given in Dermitzakis (1978) and Nikolaou (1986). Planktonic species indicate that sediments span the interval which corresponds to MPL1 Zone (Zanclean, early Pliocene) which is in accordance with the biostratigraphic configuration of Rouchy et al. (1992) and Pierre et al. (2006). The studied interval is characterized by the Sphaeroidinellopsis Acme Zone and the presence of Globorotalia margaritae. The recognized succession of microfossil assemblages serves to interpret the evolution of some palaeoenvironmental factors (waterdepth, salinity and oxygen content), whereas the planktonic foraminiferal zonation allows an age assignment to the events. During the Late Messinian brackish conditions became dominant. The early Pliocene is characterized by a sudden return to well oxygenated, open marine, outer shelf conditions. At the basal part of the record, the high abundance of the 'shallow water component' of the benthic foraminiferal fauna indicates a well-vegetated environment with either normal marine salinity or a tendency to hyposalinity (e.g. Murray, 2006). Open marine conditions are indicated by the diversity of benthic and planktonic foraminifera. The abundance of Lenticulina spp., Cibicidoides pseudoungerianus, Planulina ariminensis, Pullenia, Gyroidina, and the virtual absence of Cibicidoides dutemplei and other typical shelf-taxa, suggest an upper bathyal waterdepth of 300-400 m (cf. Pujos, 1976; Jorissen, 1988). Partly, the abundance of Cibicidoides pseudoungerianus, Bulimina costata and Uvigerina peregrina reflect fluctuations in oxygen content of the bottom waters. However, extreme conditions were never reached during deposition. The

  2. Holocene evolution and sedimentation rate of Alikes Lagoon, Zakynthos island, Western Greece - preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avramidis, P.; Kontopoulos, N.

    2009-03-01

    In the present study we present preliminary results of Zakynthos Alikes lagoon, which is one of the most seismically active regions of Greece. In order to estimate - interpret the Holocene evolution of the area and to reconstruct the palaeonvironmental changes, we based on the data of a 21 m sediment core. Sediment types, structure, colour, as well as contact depths and bed characteristics, were recorded in the field. Standarised sedimentological analysis were carried out, on 46 samples including grain size analysis, calculation of moment measures, and micro- and molluscan fossils of 17 selected samples. Moreover, radiocarbon age determinations have been made on individual Cardium shells from two horizons and whole - core Magnetic Susceptibility (MS) measurements were taken. The interpretation of depositional environments suggests a coastal environment (restricted-shallow) with reduced salinity such as a lagoon margin and in a tidal flat and/or marsh particularly. The maximum age of the study sediments is about 8500 BP. The rate of sedimentation between 8280 BP and 5590 BP was 5.3 mm/yr and between 5590 BP and modern times 1.03 mm/yr. The rate of sedimentation was higher until mid-Holocene while decrease after to 1.03 mm/yr, results which are similar to other coastal areas of western Greece.

  3. Seismic sequence near Zakynthos Island, Greece, April 2006: Identification of the activated fault plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpetsidaki, A.; Sokos, E.; Tselentis, G.-A.; Zahradnik, J.

    2010-01-01

    The April 2006 earthquake sequence near Zakynthos (Western Greece) is analysed to identify the fault plane(-s). The sequence (33 events) was relocated to assess physical insight into the hypocenter uncertainty. Moment tensor solution of three major events was performed, simultaneously with the determination of the centroid position. Joint analysis of the hypocenter position, centroid position and nodal planes indicated sub-horizontal fault planes. Moment tensor solutions of 15 smaller events were performed under assumption that the source positions are those of the hypocenters (without seeking centroids). Their focal mechanisms are highly similar and agree with the analysis of the three major events. The preferable seismotectonic interpretation is that the whole sequence activated a single sub-horizontal fault zone at a depth of about 13 km, corresponding to the interplate subduction boundary. Considering that the Ionian Sea is a high-seismicity area, the identification of the seismic fault is significant for the seismic hazard investigation of the region.

  4. An Alternative Georoute: Approaching the Geological Heritage of the SE Part of Milos Island, Greece, via Hiking, Kayaking and Snorkeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavrogonatos, Constantinos; Galanopoulos, Evangelos; Anastasatou, Marianthi; Chadjimpaloglou, Petros; Xydous, Stamatios

    2015-04-01

    Milos Island is located at the southwest edge of the Cyclades island complex, in the central part of the Aegean archipelago. It is part of the modern South Aegean Volcanic Arc (SAVA), which belongs to the Hellenic subduction zone. This on-going process has resulted in the coexistence of complex geological formations and geodynamic phenomena with sceneries of incomparable natural beauty, in many areas along the arc. Among them, Milos Island is widely known to be a place of astonishing geological and natural wealth, combined with a cultural heritage that dates back to the 8th millennium BC. As geotourism has been rapidly evolving worldwide over the last years, Milos Island was among the first places in Greece that developed a network of geotrails and featured many sites of special interest in terms of geology, volcanology and geoarchaeology. This study proposes an original georoute through land and sea, which aims t? emerge both overland and underwater areas of special interest. It is a novel way to approach the geological and cultural wealth of Milos and focuses on the Aghia Kiriaki area, at the South part of the island. This alternative georoute includes hiking, kayaking and snorkeling, and anyone who follows it, can be guided to a significant number of important geological, volcanic, morphological and geoarcheological sites, in a relatively narrow area, combining athletic activities as well. The proposed georoute has a total length of 3,2 km and an estimated time of completion of about 4 hours. It starts from Aghia Kiriaki area, where visitors can see remnants of one of the island's collapsed calderic domes in a panoramic view towards the East. In the same site, volcanic emanations create impressive scenery, which introduces the participants to aspects of the island's geologic and volcanic history. After about 800 meters of hiking, throughout an area that is dominated by products of phreatic eruptions, Aghia Kiriaki beach is the next stop. Impressive findings of

  5. Interactions between plutonism and detachments during metamorphic core complex formation, Serifos Island (Cyclades, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabillard, Aurélien; Arbaret, Laurent; Jolivet, Laurent; Le Breton, Nicole; Gumiaux, Charles; Augier, Romain; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2015-06-01

    In order to better understand the interactions between plutonic activity and strain localization during metamorphic core complex formation, the Miocene granodioritic pluton of Serifos (Cyclades, Greece) is studied. This pluton (11.6-9.5 Ma) intruded the Cycladic Blueschists during thinning of the Aegean domain along a system of low-angle normal faults belonging to the south dipping West Cycladic Detachment System (WCDS). Based on structural fieldwork, together with microstructural observations and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility, we recognize a continuum of deformation from magmatic to brittle conditions within the magmatic body. This succession of deformation events is kinematically compatible with the development of the WCDS. The architecture of the pluton shows a marked asymmetry resulting from its interaction with the detachments. We propose a tectonic scenario for the emplacement of Serifos pluton and its subsequent cooling during the Aegean extension: (1) A first stage corresponds to the metamorphic core complex initiation and associated southwestward shearing along the Meghàlo Livadhi detachment. (2) In the second stage, the Serifos pluton has intruded the dome at shallow crustal level, piercing through the ductile/brittle Meghàlo Livadhi detachment. Southwest directed extensional deformation was contemporaneously transferred upward in the crust along the more localized Kàvos Kiklopas detachment. (3) The third stage was marked by synmagmatic extensional deformation and strain localization at the contact between the pluton and the host rocks resulting in nucleation of narrow shear zones, which (4) continued to develop after the pluton solidification.

  6. Anatomy of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit on Sifnos Island (Cyclades, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, Vincent; Laurent, Valentin; Cardello, Giovanni Luca; Jolivet, Laurent; Scaillet, Stéphane

    2016-07-01

    Since 35 Ma, the kinematics of the Aegean domain has been mainly controlled by the southward retreat of the African slab, inducing back-arc extension. The main structures and associated kinematics are well constrained, but the kinematics of deformation before 35 Ma, coeval with the exhumation of blueschists and eclogites of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit, is still poorly understood. The earlier Eocene syn-orogenic evolution is strongly debated and very different geometrical interpretations and kinematic histories have been proposed in the literature. This study focuses on the high-pressure and low-temperature (HP-LT) parageneses spectacularly exposed and well preserved on Sifnos Island. The new field work provides new structural constraints on the tectonic history of HP-LT units generated in the subduction zone during the Eocene. It further shows how lithological heterogeneities localize strain within an accretionary wedge and how the localisation of strain evolves through time during exhumation. We show, through new geological and metamorphic maps, cross-sections and analyses of kinematic indicators, that Sifnos is characterized by shallow-dipping shear zones reactivating weak zones due to competence contrasts or earlier tectonic contacts. Structures and kinematics associated with these shear zones, show a top-to-the-N to -NE ductile deformation. The lower part of the tectonic pile shows a downward gradient of shearing deformation and is actually a thick top-to-the-NE shear zone, which we name the Apollonia Shear Zone. Through time shearing deformation tends to localize downward, leaving the upper part of the subduction complex preserved from late deformation. The present-day shape and topography of the island is largely controlled by late brittle faults reworking the earlier ductile shear zones. Comparing with the nearby island of Syros, we propose a new tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit, which partly explains the different degrees of

  7. Socioeconomic Dimensions of Changes in the Agricultural Landscape of the Mediterranean Basin: A Case Study of the Abandonment of Cultivation Terraces on Nisyros Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petanidou, Theodora; Kizos, Thanasis; Soulakellis, Nikolaos

    2008-02-01

    Agricultural landscapes illustrate the impact of human actions on physical settings, and differential human pressures cause these landscapes to change with time. Our study explored changes in the terraced landscapes of Nisyros Island, Greece, focusing on the socioeconomic aspects during two time periods using field data, cadastral research, local documents, and published literature, as well as surveys of the islanders. Population increases during the late 19th to early 20th centuries marked a significant escalation of terrace and dry stone wall construction, which facilitated cultivation on 58.4% of the island. By the mid-20th century, the economic collapse of agricultural activities and consequent emigration caused the abandonment of cultivated land and traditional management practices, dramatically reducing farm and field numbers. Terrace abandonment continued in recent decades, with increased livestock grazing becoming the main land management tool; as a result, both farm and pasture sizes increased. Neglect and changing land use has led to deterioration and destruction of many terraces on the island. We discuss the socioeconomic and political backgrounds responsible for the land-use change before World War II (annexation of Nisyros Island by the Ottoman Empire, Italy, and Greece; overseas migration opportunities; and world transportation changes) and after the war (social changes in peasant societies; worldwide changes in agricultural production practices). The adverse landscape changes documented for Nisyros Island appear to be inevitable for modern Mediterranean rural societies, including those on other islands in this region. The island’s unique terraced landscapes may qualify Nisyros to become an archive or repository of old agricultural management techniques to be used by future generations and a living resource for sustainable management.

  8. Internal structure and emplacement of an Upper Pliocene dacite cryptodome, Milos Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Andrew L.; McPhie, Jocelyn

    2003-05-01

    The Upper Pliocene Kalogeros cryptodome is exposed on the northeastern part of Milos, Greece. The dacite cryptodome is 800-1300 m across and at least 120 m high. It is inferred to have intruded wet, unconsolidated pumiceous sediments in a shallow marine environment. The Kalogeros cryptodome includes five facies. The coherent dacite facies (80 vol%) consists of massive, non-vesicular dacite and is characterised by radial columnar joints 20-250 cm across. The banded dacite facies (15 vol%) encircles the coherent core and is up to 40 m thick. It comprises alternating bands (0.5-4 m thick) of pale grey and black dacite. The fractured dacite facies (<1 vol%) forms an irregular zone (1-3 m thick) at the outer margin of the cryptodome. The outermost massive dacite breccia facies (<2 vol%) consists of blocky to polyhedral dacite clasts (1-40 cm in diameter) and is characterised by domains of jigsaw-fit and clast-rotated breccia. The stratified dacite breccia (2 vol%) is clast-to-matrix supported, monomictic, poorly sorted and composed of dacite clasts up to several metres in diameter. The facies association collectively records endogenous growth of a cryptodome that involved a continuous magma supply during a single intrusive phase and simple expansion (inflation). During emplacement, the margins of the Kalogeros cryptodome were quench fragmented, forming an outer domain of intrusive hyaloclastite and intensely fractured dacite. The near-solid outer carapace insulated the hotter, less viscous interior. Laminar shear accompanied inflation, generating large-scale flow banding around the outer part of the core. Once stagnant, concentric isotherms were established within the cryptodome and controlled the orientation of columnar joints. Cryptodomes are characterised by a well-developed internal concentric distribution of distinctive textural domains, modest autoclastic breccia, and the absence of redeposited autoclastic facies.

  9. Impact of climate change on water resources status: A case study for Crete Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutroulis, Aristeidis G.; Tsanis, Ioannis K.; Daliakopoulos, Ioannis N.; Jacob, Daniela

    2013-02-01

    SummaryAn assessment of the impact of global climate change on the water resources status of the island of Crete, for a range of 24 different scenarios of projected hydro-climatological regime is presented. Three "state of the art" Global Climate Models (GCMs) and an ensemble of Regional Climate Models (RCMs) under emission scenarios B1, A2 and A1B provide future precipitation (P) and temperature (T) estimates that are bias adjusted against observations. The ensemble of RCMs for the A1B scenario project a higher P reduction compared to GCMs projections under A2 and B1 scenarios. Among GCMs model results, the ECHAM model projects a higher P reduction compared to IPSL and CNCM. Water availability for the whole island at basin scale until 2100 is estimated using the SAC-SMA rainfall-runoff model And a set of demand and infrastructure scenarios are adopted to simulate potential water use. While predicted reduction of water availability under the B1 emission scenario can be handled with water demand stabilized at present values and full implementation of planned infrastructure, other scenarios require additional measures and a robust signal of water insufficiency is projected. Despite inherent uncertainties, the quantitative impact of the projected changes on water availability indicates that climate change plays an important role to water use and management in controlling future water status in a Mediterranean island like Crete. The results of the study reinforce the necessity to improve and update local water management planning and adaptation strategies in order to attain future water security.

  10. Human thermal bioclimatic conditions associated with acute cardiovascular syndromes in Crete Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleta, Anastasia G.; Nastos, Panagiotis T.

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the association between bioclimatic conditions and daily counts of admissions for non-fatal acute cardiovascular (acute coronary syndrome, arrhythmia, decompensation of heart failure) syndromes (ACS) registered by the two main hospitals in Heraklion, Crete Island, during a five-year period 2008-2012. The bioclimatic conditions analyzed are based on human thermal bioclimatic indices such as the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). Mean daily meteorological parameters, such as air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and cloudiness, were acquired from the meteorological station of Heraklion (Hellenic National Meteorological Service). These parameters were used as input variables in modeling the aforementioned thermal indices, in order to interpret the grade of the thermo-physiological stress. The PET and UTCI analysis was performed by the use of the radiation and bioclimate model, "RayMan", which is well-suited to calculate radiation fluxes and human biometeorological indices. Generalized linear models (GLM) were applied to time series of daily numbers of outpatients with ACS against bioclimatic variations, after controlling for possible confounders and adjustment for season and trends. The interpretation of the results of this analysis suggests a significant association between cold weather and increased coronary heart disease incidence, especially in the elderly and males. Additionally, heat stress plays an important role in the configuration of daily ACS outpatients, even in temperate climate, as that in Crete Island. In this point it is worth mentioning that Crete Island is frequently affected by Saharan outbreaks, which are associated in many cases with miscellaneous phenomena, such as Föhn winds - hot and dry winds - causing extreme bioclimatic conditions (strong heat stress). Taking into consideration the projected increased ambient temperature in the future, ACS

  11. Prevalence of Toscana virus antibodies in residents of two Ionian islands, Greece.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna; Andriotis, Vasilis; Tzilianos, Michalis

    2010-09-01

    The prevalence of Toscana virus (TOSV) IgG antibodies was determined among 128 residents of two Greek islands in the Ionian Sea, Corfu and Cephalonia. In total, 47.7% of tested persons had TOSV IgG antibodies; 51.7% among residents of Corfu and 39% among residents of Cephalonia. The prevalence was higher among persons older than 60 years, who were living in the coastal areas, while no relation with occupation was observed. The high seroprevalence, combined with the high antibody titers observed, suggest that TOSV, or an antigenically-related virus, circulates or has been circulating extensively in the region. PMID:20971440

  12. The Messinian/Early Pliocene transition in Eastern Mediterranean: New palaeoenvironmental data from the Kalamaki section (Zakynthos Island, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drinia, Hara; Antonarakou, Assimina; Tsourou, Theodora; Tzortzaki, Evi; Filippidi, Amalia; Nikolaou, Konstantinos

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the Miocene-Pliocene microfaunal development, and to discuss its palaeoenvironmental and palaeogeographical significance. The studied section (Kalamaki section) is located in the eastern part of Zakynthos Island (western Greece). Details on lithology and stratigraphy of the section are given in Dermitzakis (1978) and Nikolaou (1986). Planktonic species indicate that sediments span the interval which corresponds to MPL1 Zone (Zanclean, early Pliocene) which is in accordance with the biostratigraphic configuration of Rouchy et al. (1992) and Pierre et al. (2006). The studied interval is characterized by the Sphaeroidinellopsis Acme Zone and the presence of Globorotalia margaritae. The recognized succession of microfossil assemblages serves to interpret the evolution of some palaeoenvironmental factors (waterdepth, salinity and oxygen content), whereas the planktonic foraminiferal zonation allows an age assignment to the events. During the Late Messinian brackish conditions became dominant. The early Pliocene is characterized by a sudden return to well oxygenated, open marine, outer shelf conditions. At the basal part of the record, the high abundance of the 'shallow water component' of the benthic foraminiferal fauna indicates a well-vegetated environment with either normal marine salinity or a tendency to hyposalinity (e.g. Murray, 2006). Open marine conditions are indicated by the diversity of benthic and planktonic foraminifera. The abundance of Lenticulina spp., Cibicidoides pseudoungerianus, Planulina ariminensis, Pullenia, Gyroidina, and the virtual absence of Cibicidoides dutemplei and other typical shelf-taxa, suggest an upper bathyal waterdepth of 300-400 m (cf. Pujos, 1976; Jorissen, 1988). Partly, the abundance of Cibicidoides pseudoungerianus, Bulimina costata and Uvigerina peregrina reflect fluctuations in oxygen content of the bottom waters. However, extreme conditions were never reached during deposition. The

  13. Transitional directions from Early Miocene Lavas at Samothraki Island, N. Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondopoulou, Despina; Valet, Jean-Pierre; Zananiri, Irene; Voidomatis, Philippos

    2014-05-01

    The North Hellenic orogen was formed at the expenses of the Variscan and Jurassic oceanic crust, preserved in scattered ophiolitic massifs. Strong post-orogenic extension with coeval emplacement of granodioritic plutons, deposition of clastic sediments and calc-alkaline volcanism appeared from the Middle-Late Eocene to the Middle Miocene. These widespread Tertiary volcanic products, outcropping also in north and central Aegean, have been extensively studied as far as their emplacement conditions are concerned. In parallel, they have been the object of several palaeomagnetic studies, all consistently indicating a general pattern of clockwise rotations. The island of Samothraki belongs to the Circum-Rhodope Zone, a series of Triassic-Jurassic continental margin sedimentary and volcanic rocks that surround the crystalline Serbo-Macedonian and Rhodope Massifs. The geochronological data, along with the morphology and the eruption mode of the Samothraki Tertiary volcanic rocks, allow a division into three groups, namely the "old", the "intermediate" and the "young" ones. Several radiometric ages have been assigned to the three groups, spanning from 25 to 19 Ma. Isotope and trace-element modeling do not favor a continuous evolution of these magmas. The major granitic and volcanic formations of the island have been subjected to paleomagnetic studies. The results revealed a complex pattern with coexisting straightforward directions and puzzling ones, only within the younger lavas, mostly domes. These samples are characterized by a medium temperature component with an eastward declination and a positive inclination and a high temperature one with a negative inclination. Experiments of absolute paleointensity have been conducted on twenty-eight samples from 3 separate domes with ages between 22-19 Ma using a modified Thellier technique with very narrow 4°C to 10°C temperature steps between 500°C and 595°C. The results indicate significantly low field values at two sites

  14. The search for arsenotrophs in the arsenic-rich marine shallow-water hydrothermal system off Milos Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, R. E.; LaRowe, D. E.; Planer-Friedrich, B.; Gilhooly, W. P.; Fike, D. A.; Druschel, G.; Amend, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    The highest arsenic concentrations discovered to date for any submarine hydrothermal vent system were recently measured in fluids discharging in the shallow waters (<20 m) off the southeast coast of Milos Island, Greece [1]. Hydrothermal fluids are highly sulfidic (> 3mM), hot (50-115C), and acidic (pH 5). However, as a result of subsurface phase separation, both high Cl (47% more than in seawater) and low Cl fluid (depleted by up to 66%), have been observed. Arsenic concentrations were enriched in both types of fluids, and reached as high as 79 μM, far exceeding the concentrations typically found in mid-ocean ridge (MOR) and back-arc basin (BAB) fluids (typically <10 μM). Arsenic speciation analysis of the hydrothermal fluids revealed abundant arsenite, arsenate, as well as mono-, di-, and trithioarsenates, suggesting several possibilities for arsenic metabolism in this unique environment. Preliminary thermodynamic calculations inidicate that several arsenic-based metabolisms are possible in this shallow hydrothermal system. Arsenite oxidation, in particular, is among the most exergonic reactions. For instance, As(III) coupled to oxygen is the most favorable, with approximate energy yields of -67 kJ per mole of electron transferred, followed by arsenite coupled with nitrate (-61 kJ (mol e-)-1. Arsenate is also a plausible, though less exergonic, metabolite, when coupled to H2, CH4, H2S, and NH4+ (-37, -50, -22, and -27 kJ (mole e-)-1, respectively). Thioarsenic reactions, at least at 25C, can also be sources of energy, though sparingly at the concentrations at which they have been measured. Geochemical data and thermodynamic calculations guided the design of growth media focusing on arsenic metabolism, and inoculations were performed using hydrothermal fluids and sediment slurries. Thus far, enrichments in autotrophic As(V) reduction with H2S as the electron donor were successful, and efforts to enrich other arsenotrophs from this environment continue. DNA was

  15. Optimization of water resources management using SWOT analysis: the case of Zakynthos Island, Ionian Sea, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamantopoulou, P.; Voudouris, K.

    2008-03-01

    Zakynthos, an island of 408 km2 in the Ionian Sea, is completely dependent on its groundwater resources for fulfilling the demands of the water supplies. The use of groundwater resources has become particularly intensive during the last decades because of the intense urbanization, the tourist development and the irrigated land expansion that took place. The main aquifers are developed in limestones (karstic), sandstones of neogene deposits (confined) and alluvial deposits (phreatic). This paper focuses on the assessment of their hydrogeological characteristics and the groundwater quality. For this investigation, groundwater level measurements, drilling data, pumping tests and chemical analyses of groundwater samples were used. The average annual consumption that is abstracted from the aquifer systems, is 4.9 × 106 m3 year-1. The exploitable groundwater reserves were estimated to be 3.3 × 106 m3 year-1. In the last decades, the total abstractions exceed the natural recharge, due to the tourist development; therefore the aquifer systems are not used safely. The results of chemical analyses showed a deterioration of the groundwater quality. According to the analyses the shallow alluvial aquifer and the confined aquifer are polluted by nitrates at concentrations in excess of 25 mg L-1. High sulphate concentrations might be related to the dissolution of gypsum. Seawater intrusion phenomena are recorded in coastal parts of aquifer systems. The increased Cl- concentrations in karstic aquifer indicate signs of overexploitation. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis was applied in order to evaluate the SWOT of the groundwater resources. Moreover, some recommendations are made to assist the rational management that aim at improving the sustainability of the groundwater resources of Zakynthos Island.

  16. Spatial Heterogeneity of Bacterial Populations along an Environmental Gradient at a Shallow Submarine Hydrothermal Vent near Milos Island (Greece)

    PubMed Central

    Sievert, Stefan M.; Brinkhoff, Thorsten; Muyzer, Gerard; Ziebis, Wiebke; Kuever, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The spatial heterogeneity of bacterial populations at a shallow-water hydrothermal vent in the Aegean Sea close to the island of Milos (Greece) was examined at two different times by using acridine orange staining for total cell counts, cultivation-based techniques, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments. Concurrent with measurements of geochemical parameters, samples were taken along a transect from the center of the vent to the surrounding area. Most-probable-number (MPN) counts of metabolically defined subpopulations generally constituted a minor fraction of the total cell counts; both counting procedures revealed the highest cell numbers in a transition zone from the strongly hydrothermally influenced sediments to normal sedimentary conditions. Total cell counts ranged from 3.2 × 105 cells ml−1 in the water overlying the sediments to 6.4 × 108 cells g (wet weight) of sediment−1. MPN counts of chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria varied between undetectable and 1.4 × 106 cells g−1. MPN counts for sulfate-reducing bacteria and dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria ranged from 8 to 1.4 × 105 cells g−1 and from undetectable to 1.4 × 106 cells g−1, respectively. DGGE revealed a trend from a diverse range of bacterial populations which were present in approximately equal abundance in the transition zone to a community dominated by few populations close to the center of the vent. Temperature was found to be an important parameter in determining this trend. However, at one sampling time this trend was not discernible, possibly due to storm-induced disturbance of the upper sediment layers. PMID:10473383

  17. Diversity and phylogenetic analyses of bacteria from a shallow-water hydrothermal vent in Milos island (Greece)

    PubMed Central

    Giovannelli, Donato; d'Errico, Giuseppe; Manini, Elena; Yakimov, Michail; Vetriani, Costantino

    2013-01-01

    Studies of shallow-water hydrothermal vents have been lagging behind their deep-sea counterparts. Hence, the importance of these systems and their contribution to the local and regional diversity and biogeochemistry is unclear. This study analyzes the bacterial community along a transect at the shallow-water hydrothermal vent system of Milos island, Greece. The abundance and biomass of the prokaryotic community is comparable to areas not affected by hydrothermal activity and was, on average, 1.34 × 108 cells g−1. The abundance, biomass and diversity of the prokaryotic community increased with the distance from the center of the vent and appeared to be controlled by the temperature gradient rather than the trophic conditions. The retrieved 16S rRNA gene fragments matched sequences from a variety of geothermal environments, although the average similarity was low (94%), revealing previously undiscovered taxa. Epsilonproteobacteria constituted the majority of the population along the transect, with an average contribution to the total diversity of 60%. The larger cluster of 16S rRNA gene sequences was related to chemolithoautotrophic Sulfurovum spp., an Epsilonproteobacterium so far detected only at deep-sea hydrothermal vents. The presence of previously unknown lineages of Epsilonproteobacteria could be related to the abundance of organic matter in these systems, which may support alternative metabolic strategies to chemolithoautotrophy. The relative contribution of Gammaproteobacteria to the Milos microbial community increased along the transect as the distance from the center of the vent increased. Further attempts to isolate key species from these ecosystems will be critical to shed light on their evolution and ecology. PMID:23847607

  18. Concentrations and source apportionment of PM10 and associated major and trace elements in the Rhodes Island, Greece.

    PubMed

    Argyropoulos, Georgios; Manoli, Evangelia; Kouras, Athanasios; Samara, Constantini

    2012-08-15

    Ambient concentrations of PM(10) and associated major and trace elements were measured over the cold and the warm season of 2007 at two sites located in the Rhodes Island (Greece), in Eastern Mediterranean, aimed at source apportionment by Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor modeling. Source chemical profiles, necessary in CMB modeling, were obtained for a variety of emission sources that could possibly affect the study area, including sea spray, geological material, soot emissions from the nearby oil-fuelled thermal power plant, and other anthropogenic activities, such as vehicular traffic, residential oil combustion, wood burning, and uncontrolled open-air burning of agricultural biomass and municipal waste. Source apportionment of PM(10) and elemental components was carried out by employing an advanced CMB version, the Robotic Chemical Mass Balance model (RCMB). Vehicular emissions were found to be major PM(10) contributor accounting, on average, for 36.8% and 31.7% during the cold period, and for 40.9% and 39.2% in the warm period at the two sites, respectively. The second largest source of ambient PM(10), with minor seasonal variation, was secondary sulfates (mainly ammonium and calcium sulfates), with total average contribution around 16.5% and 18% at the two sites. Soil dust was also a remarkable source contributing around 22% in the warm period, whereas only around 10% in the cold season. Soot emitted from the thermal power plant was found to be negligible contributor to ambient PM(10) (<1%), however it appeared to appreciably contribute to the ambient V and Ni (11.3% and 5.1%, respectively) at one of the sites during the warm period, when electricity production is intensified. Trajectory analysis did not indicate any transport of Sahara dust; on the contrary, long range transport of soil dust from arid continental regions of Minor Asia and of biomass burning aerosol from the countries surrounding the Black Sea was considered possible. PMID:22705902

  19. Mineralogy and petrography of metagabbros and metapyroxenites from NW Tinos Island, Cyclades, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavrogonatos, Constantinos; Magganas, Andreas; Kati, Marianna; Voudouris, Panagiotis

    2015-04-01

    Tinos Island, located at the Cyclades island complex in the central Aegean Sea, is dominated by three major tectonometamoprhic units that are separated by low angle normal faults. The uppermost unit consists of varying lithological sequences from Permian to Tertiary metasediments and Mesozoic ophiolitic relics, metamorphosed under greenschist facies. This study refers to blocks of metabasic rocks that were found, ca. 4km north of the Marlas village, in the NW part of Tinos Island and are enclosed in the greenschist unit. The blocks have irregular or ellipsoidal shapes and reach a length of about 20m and a mean thickness of approximately 10m. Two major lithologies were discriminated: banded metagabbros and metapyroxenites. The metagabbros are mainly characterized by alternation of dark-green and white bands. The dark-coloured zones consist of stubbyprismatic olive-green crystals with a mean length of about 1cm, while the light-colored zones are dominated by the presence of a whitish matrix and usually are wider than the mafic zones. A few green-colored prismatic crystals float in this leucocratic matrix, and seem to have a systematic orientation that tends to be parallel to the schistosity of the surrounding greenschists. The metapyroxenites are fewer than the metagabbros and consist of stubbyprismatic green-colored crystals set in minor matrix of green-greyish color. In some cases, especially along the contact of the metapyroxenites with the metagabbros, the crystals follow a systematic orientation which is parallel to the general schistosity of the greenschists, which consist of typical mineralogical assemblages of metabasic rocks that have been metamorphosed under greenschist facies: albite, chlorite, epidote, actinolite and white mica predominate, while biotite, titanite, rutile, calcite and hematite are the main accessory phases. Detailed microscopic investigation revealed that the mafic minerals in both lithologies are typical pleochroic pyroxenes that have

  20. Trace metal-rich Quaternary hydrothermal manganese oxide and barite deposit, Milos Island, Greece

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, J.R.; Stamatakis, G.; Dowling, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    The Cape Vani Mn oxide and barite deposit on Milos Island offers an excellent opportunity to study the three-dimensional characteristics of a shallow-water hydrothermal system. Milos Island is part of the active Aegean volcanic arc. A 1 km long basin located between two dacitic domes in northwest Milos is filled with a 35-50 m thick section of Quaternary volcaniclastic and pyroclastic rocks capped by reef limestone that were hydrothermally mineralized by Mn oxides and barite. Manganese occurs as thin layers, as cement of sandstone and as metasomatic replacement of the limestone, including abundant fossil shells. Manganese minerals include chiefly δ-MnO2, pyrolusite and ramsdellite. The MnO contents for single beds range up to 60%. The Mn oxide deposits are rich in Pb (to 3.4%), BaO (to 3.1%), Zn (to 0.8%), As (to 0.3%), Sb (to 0.2%) and Ag (to 10 ppm). Strontium isotopic compositions of the Mn oxide deposits and sulphur isotopic compositions of the associated barite show that the mineralizing fluids were predominantly sea water. The Mn oxide deposit formed in close geographical proximity to sulphide-sulphate-Au-Ag deposits and the two deposit types probably formed from the same hydrothermal system. Precipitation of Mn oxide took place at shallow burial depths and was promoted by the mixing of modified sea water (hydrothermal fluid) from which the sulphides precipitated at depth and sea water that penetrated along faults and fractures in the Cape Vani volcaniclastic and tuff deposits. The hydrothermal fluid was formed from predominantly sea water that was enriched in metals leached from the basement and overlying volcanogenic rocks. The hydrothermal fluids were driven by convection sustained by heat from cooling magma chambers. Barite was deposited throughout the time of Mn oxide mineralization, which occurred in at least two episodes. Manganese mineralization occurred by both focused and diffuse flow, the fluids mineralizing the beds of greatest porosity and

  1. Strain and flow in the metamorphic core complex of Ios Island (Cyclades, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizera, Marcel; Behrmann, Jan H.

    2015-10-01

    We have analysed strain and flow kinematics in the footwall of the South Cyclades Shear Zone (SCSZ), an important tectonic boundary within the Attic-Cycladic Crystalline Complex exposed on Ios Island, Cyclades, Aegean Sea. Coarse-grained augen gneisses in the basement unit flooring the SCSZ and forming a metamorphic core complex are excellently suited to measure finite strain using the Fry method and estimate the vorticity number (W k) of flow with the "blocked-object" method. The results show that Oligo-Miocene exhumation of the basement unit during extension brought approximately 70 % N-S crustal stretching and up to 40 % subvertical shortening in a plane strain environment (k = 0.99). Linear down-section strain decrease constrains a zone of contact deformation of the SCSZ of about 1.5 km thick. Kinematic vorticity number estimates suggest little deviation from pure shear (W k = 0.26). Finite strain and W k are not correlated, indicating that the Ios basement and the overlying cover units were stretched compatibly. While the SCSZ is a localized zone of high strain, net displacement, however, may be restricted to about ten kilometres. This has important repercussions on large-scale tectonic models for extension in the Aegean.

  2. Morbidity and Outcomes of Foreign Travelers in Zakynthos Island, Greece: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Plessa, Eleni; Tansarli, Giannoula S.; Xanthopoulos, Dimitrios; Falagas, Matthew E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although there is satisfactory recording of diseases affecting travelers visiting developing countries, little is known regarding morbidity of travelers when visiting developed countries. We sought to evaluate the morbidity of foreign travelers in Zakynthos, a popular Greek island attracting large number of foreign tourists every summer. Methods Data from foreign travelers that accommodated in Zakynthos and sought medical services from the private offices of Zante Medical Care from May 1 to October 30 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Results Two thousand six hundred and eighty-eight patients were included in the study. The mean age (±SD) of the patients whom the age was recorded was 29.6 (±18.3) and 51.5% of them were from 18 to 40 years old. Disorders of the respiratory tract (32.7%), dermatologic conditions (21.1%), musculoskeletal injuries (16.4%), and gastrointestinal disorders (16.3%) were the four most prevalent clinical categories among patients. Ear disorder was the most common syndromic description (14.5%) among which 81.2% were ear infections; otitis externa and otitis media were diagnosed in 8.5% and 3.3% patients in total. The most common specific diagnosis was gastroenteritis (14.3%). Insect bite and sunburn were the most common diagnosis (6.5% and 3.8%, respectively) among patients with a dermatologic condition. Ear infection was the most common diagnosis in pediatric patients. Conclusion Disorders mainly of the upper respiratory tract were the predominant causes of illness among foreign travelers in Zakynthos. Traveler's diarrhea was the most common specific diagnosis but the prevalence within the total population was not very high. PMID:24728297

  3. The Mt. Ochi melange (South Evvia Island, Greece): a case study for HP metamorphism and syn-convergent exhumation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustaka, Eleni; Soukis, Konstantinos; Huet, Benjamin; Lozios, Stylianos; Magganas, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The Attic-Cycladic complex (central Aegean Sea, Greece) experienced profound extension since at least the Oligo-Miocene boundary during which the previously thickened crust was reworked by a series of detachments forming the NE directed North Cycladic Detachment System (NCDS) and the SSW directed West Cycladic Detachment System (WCDS). South Evvia Island is located at the northwestern part of the Attic Cycladic complex linking the highly thinned and polymetamorphosed central part of the complex with mainland Greece. Furthermore, greenschists-facies retrograde metamorphism has only partially overprinted the HP mineral assemblages. Consequently, it is an ideal area to study tectonic processes associated with subduction, HP metamorphism and subsequent exhumation from eclogitic depths to the surface. Geological mapping in 1:2:000 scale revealed that the tectonostratigraphy of Mt. Ochi includes three distinct units all metamorphosed in HP conditions followed by greenschist facies overprint. These units are from top to bottom a) the Ochi Unit, a thick metavolcanosedimentary sequence with some intensely folded cipoline marble intercalations and isolated occurrences of metabasic rocks b) the ophiolitic mélange (metagabbros, metawherlites, peridotites, metabasites within a metasedimentary+serpentinite matrix) and c) the lowermost Styra Unit, a cipoline marble-dominated unit with thin mica schists and rare quartzitic layers often boudinaged. The thrust fault that was responsible for the juxtaposition of these three units acted in an early stage during HP metamorphism and it was isoclinally folded and sheared by the following syn-metamorphic deformation events. Detailed structural study in meso- and microscopic scale combined with petrological and geochemical analyses of the Mt Ochi rocks led to the distinction of at least three syn-metamorphic and two post-metamorphic deformation episodes that affected all units. The oldest structure identified is a relic foliation formed

  4. Structural and thermochronometric evidence for multi-stage exhumation of southern Syros, Cycladic islands, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soukis, Konstantinos; Stockli, Daniel F.

    2013-06-01

    The Attic-Cycladic metamorphic-core complex province was formed during Miocene to recent regional back-arc extension in response to slab-rollback and gravitational collapse. The development of several metamorphic-core complexes along extensional low-angle detachment faults resulted in the exhumation of lower-plate rocks and the tectonic denudation of the upper plate that is only sparsely exposed throughout the Aegean Sea. One of these areas is in southern Syros where the tectonic configuration includes three tectonometamorphic units separated by two detachment faults. The lower-plate Cycladic Blueschist Unit underwent late Cretaceous-Eocene HP/LT metamorphism and subsequent greenschist-facies overprint during Oligo-Miocene times. The tectonically overlying greenschist-facies Upper Unit is a tectonic sliver between the Cycladic Blueschist Unit and the structurally highest unit, the Vari Unit, which is dominated by quartzofeldspathic gneisses that are affected by four distinct deformation events (D1-D4). The late Cretaceous upper greenschist-facies D1 episode is related to late Cretaceous-Eocene subduction while D2-D4 fabrics were formed in response to late Cenozoic extension and exhumation. Field relations and structural data suggest that the late Miocene brittle Vari Detachment juxtaposes both Vari Unit and Upper Unit against the Cycladic Blueschist Unit. Mylonitic rocks observed at the base of Vari Unit along the contact with Upper Unit and zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronometry corroborate this scenario with lower-plate Cycladic Blueschist Unit rocks recording rapid cooling at ~ 8-10 Ma. In contrast, cooling ages from the Vari Unit cluster at ~ 13-15 Ma, indicating rapid exhumation coeval with activity along the Livadi Detachment on the neighboring island of Tinos. These data document new evidence that Vari Unit was affected by a major middle Miocene phase of exhumation and an older semi-brittle episode, both unrelated to late Miocene detachment faulting

  5. Non extensive statistical physics properties of the 2003 (Mw6.2), Lefkada, Ionian island Greece, aftershock sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallianatos, F.; Karakostas, V.; Papadimitriou, E.

    2012-04-01

    On 14 August 2003, Lefkada Island (Central Ionian) was affected by an Mw=6.2 earthquake. Due to a dense temporary seismic network that operating immediately after the main shock occurrence, hundreds of aftershocks were recorded and located with high precision whereas relocation of the main shock and early strong aftershocks became also feasible. Thus, the spatio-temporal distribution of aftershocks onto the main and the neighboring fault segments was investigated in detail enabling the recognition of four distinctive seismicity clusters separated by less active patches. The aftershock spatiotemporal properties studied here using the concept of Non-Extensive Statistical Physics (NESP). The cumulative distribution functions of the inter-event times and the inter-event distances are estimated for the data set in each seismicity cluster and the analysis results to a value of the statistical thermodynamic qT and qD parameters for each cluster, where qT varies from 1.15 to 1.47 and qD from 0.5 to 0.77 for the interevent times and distances distributions respectively. These values confirm the complexity and non-additivity of the spatiotemporal evolution of seismicity and the usefulness of NESP in investigating such phenomena. The temporal structure is also discussed using the complementary to NESP approach of superstatistics, which is based on a superposition of ordinary local equilibrium statistical mechanics. The result indicates that the temporal evolution of the Lefkada aftershock sequence in clusters A, B and C governed by very low number of degrees of freedom while D is less organized seismicity structure with a much higher number of degrees of freedom. Acknowledgments. This work was supported in part by the THALES Program of the Ministry of Education of Greece and the European Union in the framework of the project entitled "Integrated understanding of Seismicity, using innovative Methodologies of Fracture mechanics along with Earthquake and non extensive

  6. Brittle-ductile deformation and kinematics during exhumation of metamorphic complexes below detachments: examples from Sifnos and Syros Islands (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardello, Giovanni Luca; Roche, Vincent; Laurent, Valentin; Jolivet, Laurent

    2014-05-01

    Exhumation of metamorphic core complexes is accompanied by progressive strain localization within large-scale shear zones, which may evolve into long-lived bounding detachments affected by ductile to brittle deformation. Despite the well-studied P-T-t patterns of individual nappes, their relative timing, mode and kinematics of exhumation are debated. In this study, in the frame of the Mediterranean syn- and post-orogenic deformation, examples of shear zone hierarchization and strain localization from Sifnos and Syros islands (Cyclades, Greece) are documented in detail in order to explain 3D-geometries and regional kinematics and are here tentatively related to the Ar/Ar ages available in literature. During the Eocene syn-orogenic uplift, the degree of strain localization increases progressively from blue- to green-schists deformation. Some of these shear zones where then reworked during the Oligo-Miocene post-orogenic deformation in different, usually warmer P-T conditions and a new episode of strain localisation, and an evolution toward brittle faulting, either along the main detachments or along newly created faults (as in Sifnos). Such shear zones demonstrate long-lived efficiency, especially where fluid circulation enhance retrograde metamorphic reactions. During Neogene, the final shape and exhumation of domes is the result of crustal thinning and brittle-ductile deformation in the whole Cycladic region. Although stretching directions along individual kilometric scale shear zones may be complex in the details, a simple general picture is shown for the Oligo-Miocene episode, less so for the Eocene one. Most Cycladic islands show a top-to-the-North sense of ductile shear from the syn-orogenic to the post-orogenic stage, this is the case of Sifnos for instance. The syn-orogenic stretching is however often more E-W trending, as exemplified by Syros and Tinos. The top-North or Top-East sense of shear is attributed to the NCDS for the post-orogenic stage and to a

  7. Pythagoras of Samos (c. 580-c. 500 BC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Mathematician, born in Samos, Ionia, taught by Thales and Anaximander on Miletus, founded a philosophical and religious school in Croton (in southern Italy) whose members, as well as having various beliefs that we would recognize as religious, believed that at its deepest level, reality is mathematical in nature. Pythagoras observed that vibrating strings produce harmonious tones when the ratios ...

  8. Exposing SAMOS Data and Vocabularies within the Semantic Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dockery, Nkemdirim; Elya, Jocelyn; Smith, Shawn

    2014-05-01

    As part of the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP), we at the Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies (COAPS) will present the development process for the exposure of quality-controlled data and core vocabularies managed by the Shipboard Automated Meteorological Oceanographic System (SAMOS) initiative using Semantic Web technologies. Participants in the SAMOS initiative collect continuous navigational (position, course, heading, speed), meteorological (winds, pressure, temperature, humidity, radiation), and near-surface oceanographic (sea temperature, salinity) parameters while at sea. One-minute interval observations are packaged and transmitted back to COAPS via daily emails, where they undergo standardized formatting and quality control. The authors will present methods used to expose these daily datasets. The Semantic Web, a vision of the World Wide Web Consortium, focuses on extending the principles of the web from connecting documents to connecting data. The creation of a web of Linked Data that can be used across different applications in a machine-readable way is the ultimate goal. The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is the standard language and format used in the Semantic Web. RDF pages may be queried using the SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL). The authors will showcase the development of RDF resources that map SAMOS vocabularies to internationally served vocabularies such as those found in the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Vocabulary Server. Each individual SAMOS vocabulary term (data parameter and quality control flag) will be described in an RDF resource page. These RDF resources will define each SAMOS vocabulary term and provide a link to the mapped vocabulary term (or multiple terms) served externally. Along with enhanced retrieval by parameter, time, and location, we will be able to add additional parameters with the confidence that they follow an international standard. The production of RDF

  9. Brachyopa minima (Diptera: Syrphidae), a new species from Greece with notes on the biodiversity and conservation of the genus Brachyopa Meigen in the Northern Aegean Islands.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bañón, Celeste; Radenković, Snezana; Vujić, Ante; Petanidou, Theodora

    2016-01-01

    An on-going study of the hoverfly fauna of the Northern Aegean Islands (Greece) has revealed the presence of four species of the genus Brachyopa Meigen. During the survey the following species were found: B. bicolor (Fallén), B. quadrimaculosa Thompson in Kaplan & Thompson, B. minima Vujić & Pérez-Bañón sp. nov. and an unidentified species very close to B. pilosa (Collin). Morphological characters and mitochondrial COI barcodes were used to link different life stages of B. minima, and to identify a larval specimen of B. bicolor. In this study adult and larval morphology and habitat preferences for B. minima are described. The description of larval morphology of B. bicolor and Brachyopa sp. aff. pilosa is amended too. An identification key to the adults of the B. quadrimaculosa group sensu Kassebeer (2002) in the Eastern Mediterranean (Greece, Israel and Turkey) is provided. The importance of specific microhabitats for the continued existence of these taxa is discussed. PMID:27395920

  10. Reconstruction of Holocene coastal depositional environments based on sedimentological and palaeontological analyses, Zakynthos Island, Western Greece Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avramidis, Pavlos; Iliopoulos, George; Papadopoulou, Penelope; Nikolaou, Konstantinos; Kontopoulos, Nikolaos; Wijngaarden, Gert

    2014-05-01

    Zakynthos Island is one of the most seismically active regions in Europe and the Holocene coastal depositional environments were influenced both by tectonic activity and sea level rise. In the present study detailed sedimentological, palaeontological and 14C dating analyses were used in order to reconstruct the Holocene coastal depositional environments as well as the different rates of sedimentation, based on data from three cores up to 30 m deep. The results of the analyses indicate changes in depositional environments from marine to brackish lagoonal and lagoon / barrier systems with temporary intrusions of marine water via storms or tsunamigenic events. High sedimentation rates in coastal areas of Zakynthos Island correspond well to the most widespread Holocene warm and humid phases. The interpretation of the sedimentological environments reveals that Zakynthos Island before 8300 BP was constituted by two islands, where the present southern part of the island was separated from the northern one by a shallow and narrow sea channel.

  11. On the influence of the urban heat island on the cooling load of a school building in Athens, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagiorgas, H. S.; Mihalakakou, G.

    2016-02-01

    The present study investigates the effect of the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon, measured in the Greater Athens Area (GAA), on the energy consumption of a typical modern school building. The energy performance of the selected building has been calculated using an accurate, extensively validated, transient simulation model for 17 different sites of the GAA, for the summer period. Calculations showed that the urban heat island phenomenon affects remarkably the thermal behavior of the school building, as suburban areas presented much lower cooling loads. The cooling load values fluctuated between 3304.3 kWh for the rural stations and 14,585.1 kWh for the central stations (for the year 2011) or between 3206.5 kWh and 14,208.3 kWh (for the year 2012), respectively. Moreover, the mean monthly cooling load values varied between 0.4-2 kWh/m2 for the rural stations and 4-6.9 kWh/m2 for the central stations, for the selected time period. Furthermore, a neural network model was designed and developed in order to quantify the contribution of various meteorological parameters (such as the mean daily air temperature values, the mean daily solar radiation values, the average wind speed and the urban heat island intensity) to the energy consumption of the building and it was found that the urban heat island intensity is the predominant parameter, influencing remarkably the energy consumption of the typical school building.

  12. Interplay between active and past tectonics in the Hellenic Arc (Greece): Geological and geomorphic evidences from Kythira Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Blanco, David; de Gelder, Gino; Delorme, Arthur; Lacassin, Robin; Armijo, Rolando

    2016-04-01

    The Hellenic Arc undergoes the largest convergence velocity and highest seismic activity among Mediterranean subduction systems. The outer-arc high islands of the Hellenic Arc are thus key to understand the mode of deformation of the crust during subduction and the mechanisms behind vertical motions at the front of overriding plates, here and elsewhere. Kythira Island, located between SW Peloponnese and NE Crete, provides an exceptional opportunity to understand the interaction between past and active tectonics in the Hellenic Arc. The recent uplift of the Kythira Island is marked in its landscape as paleosurfaces, marine terraces, abandon valleys and gorges. Together with the sedimentary record of the island and its geologic structures, we attempt to reconstruct its tectonic evolution since the latest Miocene. Here, we present exceptionally detailed geological and geomorphological maps of the Kythira Island based on fieldwork, Pleiades satellite imagery and 2-m resolution DEM, as well as the analyses of marine terraces and river network morphometrics. Pliocene or younger infill sequences rest atop of Palaeocene or older rocks in several marine basins in the island. In the largest marine basin, we found a stratigraphic sequence with a (tilted) continental conglomerate at the base, passing upwards to a disconformal subhorizontal conglomerate, calcarenites and fine sands, and terminating with a marine conglomerate. This marine conglomerate acts as a "cap rock" that marks the topography and shapes the highermost, and most extensive, low-relief surface. Overall, the infill sequence onlaps basement with the exception of the western margin where normal faults partly controlled the deposition of its lower sector. These faults reactivated older Hellenic fold-and-thrust structures, parallel to the subduction trench, and were not active during the maximum marine transgression that led to the deposition of the subhorizontal part of the infill sequence, including the topmost

  13. Analysis of post-Byzantine icons from the Church of the Assumption in Cephalonia, Ionian Islands, Greece: a multi-method approach.

    PubMed

    Kouloumpi, Eleni; Vandenabeele, Peter; Lawson, Graham; Pavlidis, Vassilios; Moens, Luc

    2007-08-13

    A multi-method approach has been developed for the characterisation of the proteinaceous binding media, drying oils and pigments present in samples from the panel paintings of the Church of the Assumption in Cephalonia (Ionian Islands, Greece). The analytical protocol involved the use of scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX), Raman spectroscopy and gas chromatography. The identification of the pigments was achieved by SEM/EDX and Raman spectroscopy. The latter technique was also used for the detection of the binding media, while their characterisation was achieved by gas chromatographic analysis of ethyl chloroformate derivatives. The aim of this multi-method protocol was to obtain as much information as possible from the panel paintings of the Church of the Assumption, through non-destructive methods, before proceeding to gas chromatography. Little scientific information is available for the understanding of the construction technique and the materials used by the post-Byzantine artists and whatever is available comes mainly from artists' manuals. One of the aims of this paper is to provide a scientific background to the technology of the Ionian post-Byzantine icons. PMID:17693322

  14. Interdecadal variations and trends of the Urban Heat Island in Athens (Greece) and its response to heat waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Founda, D.; Pierros, F.; Petrakis, M.; Zerefos, C.

    2015-07-01

    The study explores the interdecadal and seasonal variability of the urban heat island (UHI) intensity in the city of Athens. Daily air temperature data from a set of urban and surrounding non urban stations over the period 1970-2004 were used. Nighttime and daytime heat island revealed different characteristics as regards the mean amplitude, seasonal variability and temporal variation and trends. The difference of the annual mean air temperature between urban and rural stations exhibited a progressive statistically significant increase over the studied period, with rates equal to + 0.2 °C/decade. A gradual and constant increase of the daytime UHI intensity was detected, in contrast to the nighttime UHI intensity which increases only in summer, after the mid 1980s. UHI phenomenon was found to be related to higher increasing rates of hot days frequency at the urban stations. It was found that the interaction between heat waves and heat island in Athens, results to pronounced amplification of nocturnal UHI intensity under exceptionally hot weather.

  15. Two-cells phase separation in shallow submarine hydrothermal system at Milos Island, Greece: Boron isotopic evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shein-Fu; You, Chen-Feng; Wang, Bo-Shian; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Baltatzis, Emmanuel

    2011-04-01

    Three types of hydrothermal vent fluids, herein referred to as cave, submarine-brine and seawater-like, were recovered from a shallow submerged system at Milos in the Aegean Sea, Greece, for detailed chemical and isotopic analyses. The cave fluids discharge through rock fissures near sea-level and have low pH, chlorinity, and B concentrations relative to seawater. The submarine-brine fluids are characterized by high Cl and contain >10 times seawater B concentrations. A scenario involving a two-cells circulation is proposed; one occurs at 1-2 km and another at shallower depth. The deeper saline reservoir has experienced subcritical phase separation, partitioning 0.42 mM B in vapor and 6.8 mM in brine with no detectable isotopic fractionation. The reaction temperature in the saline reservoir is 313°C calculated from the Na-K-Ca geothermometry. The vapors rise directly to form the cave vents, whereas the saline fluids transport in different pathways and are influenced by seawater mixing to form the variable submarine-brine fluids. The seawater-like fluids circulate at shallower depths, where calculated temperature is 248°C and show slightly diluted B (0.36-0.41 mM) and seawater δ11B. These fluids probably resulted from heating of down-flow seawater and may have experienced groundwater discharge and partial Mg removal. This study represents the first two-cells circulation occurring at Milos and emphasizes the important role of phase separation in shallow submarine hydrothermal system.

  16. Respiratory Disease Related Mortality and Morbidity on an Island of Greece Exposed to Perlite and Bentonite Mining Dust

    PubMed Central

    Sampatakakis, Stefanos; Linos, Athena; Papadimitriou, Eleni; Petralias, Athanasios; Dalma, Archontoula; Papasaranti, Eirini Saranti; Christoforidou, Eleni; Stoltidis, Melina

    2013-01-01

    A morbidity and mortality study took place, focused on Milos Island, where perlite and bentonite mining sites are located. Official data concerning number and cause of deaths, regarding specific respiratory diseases and the total of respiratory diseases, for both Milos Island and the Cyclades Prefecture were used. Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) were computed, adjusted specifically for age, gender and calendar year. Tests of linear trend were performed. By means of a predefined questionnaire, the morbidity rates of specific respiratory diseases in Milos, were compared to those of the municipality of Oinofita, an industrial region. Chi-square analysis was used and the confounding factors of age, gender and smoking were taken into account, by estimating binary logistic regression models. The SMRs for Pneumonia and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) were found elevated for both genders, although they did not reach statistical significance. For the total of respiratory diseases, a statistically significant SMR was identified regarding the decade 1989–1998. The morbidity study revealed elevated and statistically significant Odds Ratios (ORs), associated with allergic rhinitis, pneumonia, COPD and bronchiectasis. An elevated OR was also identified for asthma. After controlling for age, gender and smoking, the ORs were statistically significant and towards the same direction. PMID:24129114

  17. Respiratory disease related mortality and morbidity on an island of Greece exposed to perlite and bentonite mining dust.

    PubMed

    Sampatakakis, Stefanos; Linos, Athena; Papadimitriou, Eleni; Petralias, Athanasios; Dalma, Archontoula; Papasaranti, Eirini Saranti; Christoforidou, Eleni; Stoltidis, Melina

    2013-10-01

    A morbidity and mortality study took place, focused on Milos Island, where perlite and bentonite mining sites are located. Official data concerning number and cause of deaths, regarding specific respiratory diseases and the total of respiratory diseases, for both Milos Island and the Cyclades Prefecture were used. Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) were computed, adjusted specifically for age, gender and calendar year. Tests of linear trend were performed. By means of a predefined questionnaire, the morbidity rates of specific respiratory diseases in Milos, were compared to those of the municipality of Oinofita, an industrial region. Chi-square analysis was used and the confounding factors of age, gender and smoking were taken into account, by estimating binary logistic regression models. The SMRs for Pneumonia and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) were found elevated for both genders, although they did not reach statistical significance. For the total of respiratory diseases, a statistically significant SMR was identified regarding the decade 1989-1998. The morbidity study revealed elevated and statistically significant Odds Ratios (ORs), associated with allergic rhinitis, pneumonia, COPD and bronchiectasis. An elevated OR was also identified for asthma. After controlling for age, gender and smoking, the ORs were statistically significant and towards the same direction. PMID:24129114

  18. Coseismic deformation and slip model of the 17 November 2015 M=6.5 earthquake, Lefkada Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganas, Athanassios; Melgar, Diego; Briole, Pierre; Geng, Jianghui; Papathanassiou, George; Bozionelos, George; Avallone, Antonio; Valkaniotis, Sotirios; Mendonidis, Evangelos; Argyrakis, Panagiotis; Moshou, Alexandra; Elias, Panagiotis

    2016-04-01

    On November 17, 2015 a strong, shallow earthquake, Mw 6.5, occurred on the island of Lefkada along a strike-slip fault with right-lateral sense of slip. The event triggered widespread environmental effects that were mainly reported at the south and western part of the island while moving towards the eastern part, the intensity and severity of these earthquake-induced deformations were decreased. Coseismic deformation was measured in the order of tens of centimeters of horizontal motion by continuous GPS stations of NOANET (the NOA GPS network) and by InSAR (Sentinel 1A image pairs). Released interferograms from various groups show a large decorrelation area that extends almost along all the western coast of Lefkada, observation which provides strong support of landsliding. We also found extensive landslides during field work and no surface ruptures. A coseismic slip model was produced from the ascending InSAR, which it's cleaner than the GPS only and both data sets have ~90% variance reduction. The fault dips to the east-southeast at an angle of 65-70 degrees.

  19. A new metamorphic map of Syros Island (Aegean Sea, Greece): implications for strain localization from prograde to retrograde path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Valentin; Jolivet, Laurent; Roche, Vincent; Augier, Romain; Scaillet, Stéphane; Cardello, Luca

    2015-04-01

    The Aegean domain is located in the eastern part of the Mediterranean and has undergone a complex Alpine history that can be summarized in two successive episodes: (1) The formation of the Hellenides-Taurides belt due to the convergence between Eurasia and Africa; during this episode, a series of oceanic and continental nappes entered the subduction zone and were thrust on top of each other in a HP-LT metamorphic context. (2) From 35-30 Ma, an acceleration of slab retreat led to the collapse of the belt and the formation of large detachments. The island of Syros (Cycladic Blueschists belt) is worldwide known for the excellent preservation of HP-LT tectonic and metamorphic features associated with these processes, possibly providing one of the best places to study the deformation and metamorphic evolution of the subduction interface. Syros has recorded a complex deformation history during both the prograde and retrograde phase that resulted in the juxtaposition of two main units: (1) the Cycladic Blueschists Unit (CBU), and (2) the Vari unit cropping out in the SE of the island. Conflicting tectonic interpretations have been proposed to explain the evolution of the island, in part reflecting the lack of consensus about the detailed tectonic structure of the CBU. A new geological and metamorphic map of Syros is proposed to better characterize the different structures related to prograde and/or retrograde deformation stages. High-resolution field-mapping, combined with detailed structural-petrological observations, allows us to subdivide the CBU into three sub-units separated by major ductile shear zones. From top to bottom, these are: 1) the Kampos, 2) the Chroussa, and 3) the Posidonia units. Each of these units experienced similar peak eclogite-facies conditions (ca. 20 kbar - 550 °C), variably overprinted under blueschist- and greenschist-facies conditions across the nappe pile. New ductile structures have been discovered. Among those, a new large-scale top

  20. Spatial and temporal diversity of microbial mats in the shallow-water hydrothermal system of Milos Island (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannelli, D.; Foustoukos, D.; Le Bris, N.; Sievert, S. M.; Yucel, M.; Vetriani, C.

    2014-12-01

    Shallow-water hydrothermal vents are ubiquitous but poorly studied geothermal environments. The shallow-water hydrothermal system of Milos Island is a unique study site with vents exhibiting steep geothermal gradients in the presence of light that allows the co-occurrence of photosynthesis and chemosynthesis. The active hydrothermal emissions of the Milos hydrothermal system support complex microbial mats, which are fundamental in engineering the environmental niche in which extremophiles thrive. Because of the shallow depth, the mat community is wiped out during every major storm, when swell and wave action increase, and then it reconstitutes itself over a brief period of time (days). While most studies are focused on the diversity of the community residing in the underlying sediments, little information is available on the diversity and functioning of the mat community, and how it responds to abrupt geodynamic events. Here we report the results of a joint geochemical and microbiological survey of the microbial mats of Milos island, and analyze the spatial and temporal evolution of the mat community following a major storm. Our results show that the community is dominated by Epsilonproteobacteria, although significant variability is present within the systemm. The observed variability correlates with spatial profiles and in situ measurement of temperature and sulfide carried out over a 6 days periods, showing that tides, winds, and abrupt geodynamic events generate intermittent mixing conditions lasting for several hours to days. Diversity and metagenomic analyses of the mature mat provide further information on the metabolic potential of the community and on the influence of environmental factors on ecosystem functioning. Our work lays the basis for studies aimed at resolving the spatial and temporal dynamics of chemoautotrophic microbial communities in shallow-water hydrothermal systems.

  1. Mapping the optimal forest road network based on the multicriteria evaluation technique: the case study of Mediterranean Island of Thassos in Greece.

    PubMed

    Tampekis, Stergios; Sakellariou, Stavros; Samara, Fani; Sfougaris, Athanassios; Jaeger, Dirk; Christopoulou, Olga

    2015-11-01

    The sustainable management of forest resources can only be achieved through a well-organized road network designed with the optimal spatial planning and the minimum environmental impacts. This paper describes the spatial layout mapping for the optimal forest road network and the environmental impacts evaluation that are caused to the natural environment based on the multicriteria evaluation (MCE) technique at the Mediterranean island of Thassos in Greece. Data analysis and its presentation are achieved through a spatial decision support system using the MCE method with the contribution of geographic information systems (GIS). With the use of the MCE technique, we evaluated the human impact intensity to the forest ecosystem as well as the ecosystem's absorption from the impacts that are caused from the forest roads' construction. For the human impact intensity evaluation, the criteria that were used are as follows: the forest's protection percentage, the forest road density, the applied skidding means (with either the use of tractors or the cable logging systems in timber skidding), the timber skidding direction, the visitors' number and truck load, the distance between forest roads and streams, the distance between forest roads and the forest boundaries, and the probability that the forest roads are located on sights with unstable soils. In addition, for the ecosystem's absorption evaluation, we used forestry, topographical, and social criteria. The recommended MCE technique which is described in this study provides a powerful, useful, and easy-to-use implement in order to combine the sustainable utilization of natural resources and the environmental protection in Mediterranean ecosystems. PMID:26463090

  2. The seismic sequence of January-February 2014 at Cephalonia Island (Greece): constraints from SAR interferometry and GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briole, P.; Elias, P.; Parcharidis, I.; Bignami, C.; Benekos, G.; Samsonov, S.; Kyriakopoulos, C.; Stramondo, S.; Chamot-Rooke, N.; Drakatou, M. L.; Drakatos, G.

    2015-12-01

    We analysed the ground deformation produced by the Mw = 6.1 2014 January 26 and Mw = 6.0 2014 February 3 Cephalonia earthquakes, western Greece. Campaign GPS measurements and RADARSAT-2 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry provide constraints on the overall deformation produced by the sequence. TerraSAR-X and COSMO-SkyMed SAR interferometry provide constraints on the second earthquake separately. Two permanent GPS stations captured the two coseismic offsets and show no pre- or post-seismic transients. Most of the deformation is concentrated in the Paliki peninsula which is consistent with the location of the seismicity and the damages. Both GPS and SAR interferometry indicate areas with large deformation gradients probably due to shallow effects. Given the limitations on the data and on the knowledge of the structure and rheology of the crust, we used a simple elastic model to fit the ground displacements. Although such model cannot fit all the detail of the deformation, it is expected to provide a robust estimate of the overall geometry and slip of the fault. The good data coverage in azimuth and distance contributes to the robustness of the model. The entire sequence is modelled with a strike slip fault dipping 70° east and cutting most of the brittle crust beneath Paliki, with an upper edge located at 2.5 km depth and a deeper edge at 8.5 km. This fault is oriented N14° which corresponds to the azimuth of the Cephalonia Transform Fault (CTF). The fit to the data is significantly improved by adding a secondary shallow strike-slip fault with low dip angle (30°) with a component of reverse faulting on that shallow fault. The modelling of the February 3 event indicates that the faulting is shallow in the north of Paliki, with a centroid depth of ˜3.2 km. The fit is improved when a single planar fault is replaced by a bent fault dipping ˜30° in the uppermost 2 km and ˜70° below. The fault of the January 26 earthquake, inferred from the difference

  3. Cinnabar, arsenian pyrite and thallium-enrichment in active shallow submarine hydrothermal vents at Paleochori Bay, Milos Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kati, Marianna; Voudouris, Panagiotis; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Magganas, Andreas; Baltatzis, Emmanouil; Kanellopoulos, Christos; Mavrogonatos, Constantinos

    2015-04-01

    We herein report the discovery of active cinnabar-depositing hydrothermal vents in a submarine setting at Paleochori Bay, within the offshore southeastern extension of the Milos Island Geothermal Field, South Aegean Active Volcanic Arc. Active, low temperature (up to 115 °C) hydrothermal venting through volcaniclastic material has led to a varied assemblage of sulfide and alteration mineral phases in an area of approximately 1 km2. Our samples recovered from Paleochori Bay are hydrothermal edifices composed of volcaniclastic detrital material cemented by pyrite, or pure sulfide (mainly massive pyrite) mounts. Besides pyrite and minor marcasite, the hydrothermal minerals include cinnabar, amorphous silica, hydrous ferric oxides, carbonates (aragonite and calcite), alunite-jarosite solid solution and Sr-rich barite. Among others, growth textures, sieve-textured pyrite associated with barite, alunite-jarosite solid solution and hydrous ferric oxides rims colloform-banded pyrite layers. Overgrowths of arsenian pyrite layers (up to 3.2 wt. % As and/or up to 1.1 wt. % Mn) onto As-free pyrite indicate fluctuation in As content of the hydrothermal fluid. Mercury, in the form of cinnabar, occurs in up to 5 μm grains within arsenian pyrite layers, usually forming distinct cinnabar-enriched micro-layers. Hydrothermal Sr-rich barite (barite-celestine solid solution), pseudocubic alunite-jarosite solid solution and Mn- and Sr-enriched carbonates occur in various amounts and closely associated with pyrite and/or hydrous ferric oxides. Thallium-bearing sulfides and/or sulfosalts were not detected during our study; however, hydrous ferric oxides show thallium content of up to 0.5 wt. % Tl. The following scenarios may have played a role in pyrite precipitation at Paleochori: (a) H2S originally dissolved in the deep fluid but separated upon boiling could have reacted with oxygenated seawater under production of sulphuric acid, thus causing leaching and dissolution of primary iron

  4. Preliminary results of trace elements mobility in soils and plants from the active hydrothermal area of Nisyros island (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskalopoulou, Kyriaki; Calabrese, Sergio; Milazzo, Silvia; Brusca, Lorenzo; D'Alessandro, Walter; Kyriakopoulos, Konstantinos; Tassi, Franco; Parello, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Trace elements, i.e. chemical constituents of rocks with concentration <1000 ppm, play a structural role in the organisms and use proteins as a carrier to their target site. Their toxicity depends on their concentration, speciation and reactions with other elements. In volcanic environments, significant amounts of trace elements discharged from gas emissions, contribute to produce air particulate. Nisyros Island is a stratovolcano located at the South Aegean active Volcanic Arc. Intense hydrothermal activity characterise the Lakki caldera. In particular, the fumaroles located in the craters of Stefanos, Kaminakia, Lofos Dome and the area comprising Phlegeton, Polyvotes Micros and Polyvotes Megalos discharge hydrothermal fluids rich in H2O (91- 99%), SO2 and H2S. Their temperatures are almost 100o C and H2S is highly abundant accounting for 8-26 % of the released dry gas phase. On June 2013, during a multidisciplinary field trip on Nisyros island, 39 samples of top soils and 31 of endemic plants (Cistus Creticus and Salvifolius and Erica Arborea and Manipuliflora) were collected in the caldera area, with the aim to investigate the distribution of concentrations of trace elements related to the contribution of deep originated fluids. Moreover, one sample of plant and soil was collected outside the caldera as local background, for comparison. All the soil samples were powdered avoiding metal contamination and they were extracted twice, using HNO3 + HCl for one extraction (closed microwave digestion) and ultrapure de- ionized water for the other one (leaching extraction). The leaves of plants were gently isolated, dried and powdered for acid microwave extraction (HNO3 + H2O2). All the solutions were analysed for major and trace elements contents by using ionic chromatography (IC) and inductively plasma spectrometry (ICP-MS and ICP-OES). The preliminary results showed high enrichment of many trace elements both in plant and soils respect to the local background, in

  5. Submarine canyon, slope, and shelf sedimentation in an upper Eocene-Oligocene progradational system (Limnos Island, north Aegean Sea, Greece)

    SciTech Connect

    Roussos, N.

    1988-08-01

    The only well-exposed outcrops of a post-Alpine late Eocene-Oligocene basin in the north Aegean Sea are at Limnos Island. These mostly consist of typical slope deposits overlain by remnants of shallow marine shelf and continental (braided-river) deposits. Three main slope lithofacies are distinguished. Canyon deposits consist of thick-bedded, massive, and pebbly sandstones (facies B), conglomerates (facies A), pebbly mudstone where the matrix shows flow (facies F), rock falls (nummulitic limestones), and zones of slump folds in sandstones (facies F). Channelized facies of massive sandstones, classical turbidites, and thin interbeds of sandstone and mudstone (facies E - probably overbank or levee deposits) are associated with canyon deposits. Pelagic and hemipelagic slope deposits consist of mudstone (facies G) and thin-bedded sandstone (facies D) with occasional small to medium-scale slump folds. These mud-rich slope deposits are incised by several channels filled with conglomerates, thick massive sandstones with well-developed dish structures, and turbidites interbedded with thin layers of mudstone (facies C). This unit composes a typical thinning and fining-upward sequence.

  6. Nondestructive imaging of small size voids at Akrotiri archaeological site, Thera Island, Greece, by seismic inversion techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis, Filippos I.; Clark, Roger A.; Louis, Ioannis F.; Makropoulos, Costas C.

    2005-07-01

    High-resolution travel time tomography was used to explore the volcanic basement rock at the Akrotiri archaeological site, Thera (Santorini) Island. The survey was carried out in the context of a large scale project, in which the protective roof cover of old monuments is being replaced by a new environmentally friendly structure, which will be supported by 95 pillars drilled into the volcanic basement rock. Man-made or natural cavities (empty or half-filled with stones), ceramics, and other materials of archaeological interest were unveiled during the excavation of foundation shafts. The objective of this geophysical investigation was the detection of such voids in the vicinity of the excavated shafts, so that the overhead structure can be better supported and protected in the case of an earthquake event. The cross-hole seismic tomography technique was adopted for this purpose. A number of synthetic examples and a calibration experiment at a shaft with a known natural cavity clearly indicated that the tomographic inversion is capable of providing high-resolution 2-D velocity models. High S/N ratios ensured field seismic records of high quality. A set of stability tests was run to check the consistency of the method. Travel time residuals verified the validity of the final velocity depth sections, while model complexity trends showed a consistency between models after a certain number of iterations. The reconstructed velocity fields were quite consistent with the expected velocity structures based on the geologic descriptions of formations encountered during the drilling of the shafts. Impressive low-velocity structures attributed to natural or man-made cavities were reported to the constructing group of engineers, and a remedial action plan was being undertaken to support and improve the ground behavior.

  7. Quality Aspects of a Marine Aggregate Deposit off the SE Euboea Island, Greece, for its Exploitation - Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasatou, Marianthi; Kapsimalis, Vasilios; Stamatakis, Michael; Tsoutsia, Antonia; Poulos, Serafeim; Rousakis, Grigoris; Karditsa, Aikaterini; Petrakis, Stelios; Aspiotis, Konstantinos; Papavlasopoulou, Nafsika; Stamatakis, Giorgos

    2015-04-01

    Aggregates are inert materials, such as terrestrial or marine sand and gravel, composed mainly of limestone, igneous rocks and sandstone. There is an international trend of increasing demand for aggregates during the last 30 years. Thus, marine aggregate (MA) demand has been displayed a remarkably increased due to limited terrestrial deposits and strict environmental issues related to their exploitation, induced by mining legislation. Regarding offshore MA extraction, important physical and biological seabed impacts that may persist long after the completion of the MA dredging, should be addressed, according to European directives, that deal with aspects such as restoration of the influenced subaqueous mining area. The present contribution focuses on the qualitative determination of the marine sediments on inner continental shelf of SE Euboea (central Aegean Sea), concerning primarily its silica content and secondarily the various environmental issues, in order to evaluate whether or not this subaqueous deposit fulfils the requirements for its exploitation. This MA deposit was found during the implementation of the research project THALES-MARE (MIS 375655) and after taking into consideration the presence of highly siliceous coastal lithology of the South Euboea Island. The area belongs to the Attico-Cycladic geotectonic zone, and especially in the Blueschist Unit, Styra and Ochi nappes. It consists mainly of metamorphosed clastic siliceous sedimentary and calcareous, mafic and felsic volcanic rocks and serpentinites. Sixteen representative samples were analysed out of 48 were collected in June 2014, during the scientific cruise of the M/V Aegaio (Hellenic Centre for Marine Research). The grain size analysis shows that seabed sediments are granulometrically classified mostly as sand, with contaminants of finer fractions and with the sand content often to be >90%. X-Ray Diffraction analysis revealed that the predominant crystalline phase is quartz (often >70

  8. Human thermal perception related to Föhn winds due to Saharan dust outbreaks in Crete Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, P. T.; Bleta, A. G.; Matsangouras, I. T.

    2016-01-01

    Crete Island is located in the southmost border of East Mediterranean basin, facing exacerbating atmospheric conditions (mainly concentrations of particulates) due to Saharan dust outbreaks. It is worth to note that these episodes are more frequent during spring and autumn, when mild biometeorological conditions become intolerable due to the synergy of the so called Föhn winds. Cretan mountains, especially Psiloritis Mt. (summit at 2456 m), are orientated perpendicularly to the southwest air mass flow, generating the Föhn winds. Propagating from the leeward of the mountains, these dry, hot winds have an effect on prevailing biometeorological conditions. While descending to the lowlands on the leeward side of the range, the wind becomes strong, gusty, and desiccating. This wind often lasts less than an hour to several days, with gradual weakening after the first or the second day. Sometimes, it stops very abruptly. In this work, the authors examined and analyzed the abrupt changes of human thermal perception within specific case studies during which Föhn winds appeared in Heraklion city at the leeward of Psiloritis Mt, associated with extreme Saharan dust episodes, observed within the period 2006-2010. In order to verify the development of Föhn winds, Meteorological Terminal Aviation Routine Weather Reports (METARs, meteorological observations every half hour), were acquired from the Heraklion meteorological station installed by the Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS). The biometeorological conditions analyzed are based on human thermal bioclimatic indices such as the Physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). METAR recordings of meteorological variables, such as air temperature, vapor pressure, wind speed, and cloudiness, were used as input variables in modeling the aforementioned thermal indices, so that to interpret the grade of the thermo-physiological stress. The PET and UTCI analysis was

  9. Distribution of Culicoides in Greece.

    PubMed

    Patakakis, Michael J; Papazahariadou, Margarita; Wilson, Anthony; Mellor, Philip S; Frydas, Stavros; Papadopoulos, Orestis

    2009-12-01

    Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were trapped between 1999 and 2004 at 122 locations in mainland Greece and on most of the larger Aegean and Ionian islands, using OVI light traps, in order to determine the distribution and seasonal activity of bluetongue virus vectors and other Culicoides species. Thirty-nine Culicoides species were identified, six of which (C. furcillatus, C. impunctatus, C. paolae, C. pictipennis, C. riethi, and C. scoticus) were identified for the first time in Greece. Two of these (C. impunctatus and C. scoticus) may be of veterinary importance due to their role as vectors of bluetongue virus and related orbiviruses. In addition, C. imicola was detected for the first time in mainland Greece. PMID:20836829

  10. Tornadoes and waterspouts in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sioutas, Michalis V.

    Tornadoes and waterspouts occur in various parts of Greece and may often reach the media as remarkable events, depending of their intensity and the level of damage. This paper is based on a research started from the beginning of 2000 for identifying and recording tornadoes and waterspouts in Greece and evaluating their intensity and other fundamental characteristics. Search of historical events for obtaining more comprehensive tornado climatology is in progress. In an almost 3-year period, January 2000-September 2002, tornadoes and waterspouts have been reported from various parts of Greece, including western Greece, the Ionian islands and western Peloponnese mainly during autumn and winter. Northern Greece is affected by tornadic activity mostly during summer and early autumn. The geographical distribution showed a preference for tornado occurrence mainly in coastal areas. Based on this almost 3-year data sample, a mean number of six tornadoes per year has resulted, corresponding to a density of 0.45 10 -4 km -2 year -1. Maximum intensity of tornadoes recorded was rated as T6 of the Tornado and Storm Research Organization (TORRO) scale (F3 of the Fujita scale). A basic synoptic typing scheme is presented, including four synoptic circulation patterns associated to tornado occurrence.

  11. Mineralogical, stable isotope, and fluid inclusion studies of spatially related porphyry Cu and epithermal Au-Te mineralization, Fakos Peninsula, Limnos Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornadel, Andrew P.; Voudouris, Panagiotis Ch.; Spry, Paul G.; Melfos, Vasilios

    2012-05-01

    The Fakos porphyry Cu and epithermal Au-Te deposit, Limnos Island, Greece, is hosted in a ~20 Ma quartz monzonite and shoshonitic subvolcanic rocks that intruded middle Eocene to lower Miocene sedimentary basement rocks. Metallic mineralization formed in three stages in quartz and quartz-calcite veins. Early porphyry-style (Stage 1) metallic minerals consist of pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena, bornite, sphalerite, molybdenite, and iron oxides, which are surrounded by halos of potassic and propylitic alteration. Stage 2 mineralization is composed mostly of quartz-tourmaline veins associated with sericitic alteration and disseminated pyrite and molybdenite, whereas Stage 3, epithermal-style mineralization is characterized by polymetallic veins containing pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, enargite, bournonite, tetrahedrite-tennantite, hessite, petzite, altaite, an unknown cervelleite-like Ag-telluride, native Au, and Au-Ag alloy. Stage 3 veins are spatially associated with sericitic and argillic alteration. Fluid inclusions in quartz from Stage 1 (porphyry-style) mineralization contain five types of inclusions. Type I, liquid-vapor inclusions, which homogenize at temperatures ranging from 189.5°C to 403.3°C have salinities of 14.8 to 19.9 wt. % NaCl equiv. Type II, liquid-vapor-NaCl, Type III liquid-vapor-NaCl-XCl2 (where XCl is an unknown chloride phase, likely CaCl2), and Type IV, liquid-vapor-hematite ± NaCl homogenize to the liquid phase by liquid-vapor homogenization or by daughter crystal dissolution at temperatures of 209.3 to 740.5 °C, 267.6 to 780.8 °C, and 357.9 to 684.2 °C, respectively, and, Type V, vapor-rich inclusions. Stage 2 veins are devoid of interpretable fluid inclusions. Quartz from Stage 3 (epithermal-style) veins contains two types of fluid inclusions, Type I, liquid-vapor inclusions that homogenize to the liquid phase (191.6 to 310.0 °C) with salinities of 1.40 to 9.73 wt. % NaCl equiv., and Type II, vapor-rich inclusions. Mixing

  12. The Mw6.5 earthquake of 17 November 2015 in Lefkada Island and the seismotectonics in the Cephalonia Transform Fault (Ionian Sea, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Agalos, Apostolos; Bocchini, Gian Maria; Chousianitis, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Vassilis; Triantafyllou, Ioanna; Kontoes, Charis; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Svigkas, Nikos; Koukouvelas, Ioannis; Zygouri, Vasiliki; Tselentis, Akis

    2016-04-01

    On 17 November 2015 a Mw6.5 earthquake ruptured offshore Lefkada Isl. in Ionian Sea, Greece, causing two victims, damage and ground failures particularly in the SW part of the island, which is consistent with the ground deformation pattern shown by InSAR analysis. Fault plane solutions released by CMT, NOA and other institutes are consistent indicating strike-slip right-lateral faulting, which is typical for the area, e.g. 2003 earthquake in the same fault zone. The analysis of 30-s daily observations of the permanent GPS stations operated by NOA showed displacement vectors with a motion pattern which is in agreement with the right-lateral kinematics of the rupture. The seismic plane was striking/dipping about N24E/W75.The seismic sequence for the period from 17 Nov. to 8 Dec. 2015 was relocated, with and without the use of time residuals, applying the NNLoc algorithm on a slightly modified 9-layer seismic velocity model (Haslinger et al., 1999) and by using only phases at stations closer than 120 km from the mainshock in order to avoid the use of Pn phases. The relocation procedure obtained without the use of residuals was repeated with the HypoDD algorithm. All relocations showed that the aftershock cloud follows the fault plane strike and consists of one north and one south clusters distributed in the seismogenic layer of 4-12 km. The south cluster started to develop a few hours after the mainshock, while it presents different statistical properties as compared to the north one. These results indicate that the south cluster was likely the result of triggering effect. Digital broadband P-wave teleseismic records, selected from GDSN stations to achieve the best possible azimuthal coverage, were used to invert for the mainshock rupture history. The teleseismic waveforms were corrected for instrument response, integrated to displacement, band-pass filtered from 0.01 to 1 Hz using a Butterworth filter and finally re-sampled to 0.2 samples/s. The finite fault

  13. 41 CFR 102-33.30 - What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)? 102-33.30 Section 102-33.30 Public Contracts... § 102-33.30 What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)? The...

  14. 41 CFR 102-33.30 - What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)? 102-33.30 Section 102-33.30 Public Contracts... § 102-33.30 What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)? The...

  15. 41 CFR 102-33.30 - What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)? 102-33.30 Section 102-33.30 Public Contracts... § 102-33.30 What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)? The...

  16. 41 CFR 102-33.30 - What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)? 102-33.30 Section 102-33.30 Public Contracts... § 102-33.30 What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)? The...

  17. 41 CFR 102-33.30 - What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)? 102-33.30 Section 102-33.30 Public Contracts... § 102-33.30 What are the duties of an agency's Senior Aviation Management Official (SAMO)? The...

  18. The Data Management System for the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS) Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. R.; Arko, R. A.; Bourassa, M. A.; Hu, J.; McDonald, M.; Rettig, J.; Rolph, J.

    2009-12-01

    The data assembly center (DAC) for the SAMOS initiative has developed and implemented an automated data management system that collects, formats, quality controls, distributes, and archives near real-time surface marine data from research vessels. A SAMOS is a computerized data logging system that continuously records navigational (ship’s position, course, speed, and heading), meteorological (winds, air temperature, pressure, moisture, rainfall, and radiation), and near-surface oceanographic (sea temperature, salinity, conductivity, florescence) parameters while the vessel is at sea. The SAMOS initiative relies on the high-quality instrumentation purchased and deployed by the research vessel operators and does not provide instrumentation to the vessels. Currently, the SAMOS initiative receives measurements recorded at 1-min intervals and derived from higher frequency samples (on the order of 1 Hz). As of 2009, 21 research vessels provide routine SAMOS observations to the DAC. The data management system automatically tracks progress of the daily data acquisition and quality processing, stores metadata on instrumentation and ships, and provides data monitoring capability via a user-friendly web interface. An SQL database stores essential parameters to support tracking, data quality control, and version control for each file throughout the process. Presently, SAMOS data are acquired directly from research vessels at sea via a daily email transfer protocol. The steps of this NOAA funded protocol will be described along with lessons learned through the development process. A new DAC initiative, funded by NSF, to develop a 2nd SAMOS data acquisition protocol, via collaboration with the Rolling deck to Repository (R2R) project, will be outlined. The new protocol is envisioned to include transmission of the higher frequency meteorological and surface oceanic samples from participating vessels to real-time servers at R2R. The SAMOS DAC will access these samples for data

  19. Crystal chemistry and reaction relations of piemontites and thulites from highly oxidized low grade metamorphic rocks at Vitali, Andros Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinecke, Thomas

    1986-03-01

    Piemontite- and thulite-bearing assemblages from highly oxidized metapelitic and metacalcareous schists associated with braunite quartzites at Vitali, Andros island, Greece, were chemically investigated. The Mn-rich metasediments are intercalated in a series of metapelitic quartzose schists, marbles, and basic metavolcanites which were affected by a regional metamorphism of the high P/T type ( T=400 500° C, P>9 kb) and a later Barrovian-type greenschist metamorphism ( T=400 500° C, P˜-5 6 kb). Texturally and chemically two generations of piemontite (I and II) can be distinguished which may show complex compositional zoning. Piemontite I coexisted at high P/T conditions with braunite, manganian phengite (alurgite), Mn3+-Mn2+-bearing Na-pyroxene (violan), carbonate, quartz, hollandite, and hematite. Zoned grains generally exhibit a decreasing Mn3+ and an increasing Fe3+ and Al content towards the rim. Chemical compositions of piemontite I range from 2.0 to 32.1 mole % Mn3+, 0 to 25.6 mole % Fe3+, and 60.2 to 81.2 mole % Al. Up to 12.5 mole % Ca on the A(2) site can be substituted by Sr. Piemontites formed in contact or close to braunite (±hematite) attained maximum (Mn3++Fe3+)Al-1 substitution corrresponding to about 33 mole % Mn3++Fe3+ in lowiron compositions and up to about 39 mole % Mn3++ Fe3+ at intermediate Fe3+/(Fe3++Mn3+) ratios. Piemontite II which discontinuously overgrows piemontite I or occurs as separate grains may have been formed by greenschist facies decomposition of manganian Na-pyroxenes according to the reaction: (1) 410_2004_Article_BF00963585_TeX2GIFE1.gif begin{gathered} {text{Mn}}^{{text{3 + }}} - Mn^{2 + } - bearing omphacite/chloromelanite \\ + CO_2 + H_2 O + HCl ± hermatite \\ = piemontite + tremolite + albite + chlorite \\ + calcite + quartz + NaCl ± O_2 . \\ Thulites crystallized in coexistence with Al-rich piemontite II. All thulites analysed are low-Fe3+ manganian orthozoisites with Mntot˜-Mn3+ substituting for Al on the M(3) site

  20. A tornado and waterspout climatology for Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sioutas, Michalis V.

    2011-06-01

    The results of a systematic investigation and recording of tornado and waterspout occurrence in Greece for the 10-year period 2000-2009 are presented. This is the first database developed in Greece in an attempt to collect and record comprehensive information about tornadoes, waterspouts, funnel clouds, dust devils and other whirlwind phenomena. The primary research purpose of this database is to search, diagnose and record tornado and waterspout occurrences and identify their morphological and climatological features. Based on the 10-year data, a mean annual number of 1.1 tornadoes per unit area of 10 4 km 2, is depicted for Greece. The seasonality appears differently for various parts, with winter most active tornado season for western Greece and summer for northern Greece. Spatial distribution showed that tornadoes are more frequent over western Greece and the Ionian coasts with a local maximum over northwest Peloponnese. Waterspouts occur in both the Aegean and the Ionian Sea mostly in summer and autumn, with a peak in September, while a considerable geographical maximum is located over north off the shore of Iraklion, Crete Island. A preliminary estimate of probability of tornado occurrence for each of the 51 Greek prefectures plus the Mount Athos area, showed highest values for Kerkyra Island and Elias prefectures, western Greece. Analysis based on intensities as assessed by damage data, indicated that the majority of tornadoes reached T4 of the T-scale or F2 of the F-scale. Short wave trough is found as the most relevant synoptic circulation pattern to tornadic activity. Thermodynamic and wind parameters showed a wide range of values, suggesting that threat levels should be adjusted for various areas since tornadoes and waterspouts can occur in different environments.

  1. Reconstruction of the paleo-coastline of Santorini island (Greece), after the 1613 BC volcanic eruption: A GIS-based quantitative methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikonomidis, Dimitrios; Albanakis, Konstantinos; Pavlides, Spyridon; Fytikas, Michael

    2016-02-01

    A catastrophic volcanic explosion took place in Thera/Santorini island around 1613 BC, known as the `Minoan' eruption. Many papers have dealt with the shape of the shoreline of the island before the eruption, but none with the shape of the shoreline exactly after it, assuming that it would be the same with the contemporary one. However, this is not correct due to the wave erosion. In this paper, a new DEM was constructed, covering both land and submarine morphology, then topographic sections were drawn around the island. Using these sections, the `missing parts' (sea-wave erosion) were calculated, the shoreline was reconstructed as it was one day after the eruption and finally the erosion rate was calculated.

  2. Santorini, Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This ASTER image of Santorini was acquired on November 21, 2000 and covers an area of 18 by 18 km. The eruption of Santorini in 1650 B.C. was one of the largest in the last 10,000 years. About 30 cubic kilometers of magma was erupted, forming a plinian column 36 km high. The removal of such a large volume of magma caused the volcano to collapse, producing a caldera. Ash fell over a large area of the eastern Mediterranean. The eruption probably caused the end of the Minoan civilization on the island of Crete. The largest island is Thera, and the smaller is Therasia. The Kameni Islands (dark in the image center) formed after the caldera., with the most recent eruptions occurring in 1950.

    The image is centered at 36.4 degrees north latitude, 25.4 degrees east longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes

  3. Fault zones ruptured during the early 2014 Cephalonia Island (Ionian Sea, Western Greece) earthquakes (January 26 and February 3, Mw 6.0) based on the associated co-seismic surface ruptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekkas, Efthymios L.; Mavroulis, Spyridon D.

    2016-01-01

    The early 2014 Cephalonia Island (Ionian Sea, Western Greece) earthquake sequence comprised two main shocks with almost the same magnitude (moment magnitude (Mw) 6.0) occurring successively within a short time (January 26 and February 3) and space (Paliki peninsula in Western Cephalonia) interval. Εach earthquake was induced by the rupture of a different pre-existing onshore active fault zone and produced different co-seismic surface rupture zones. Co-seismic surface rupture structures were predominantly strike-slip-related structures including V-shaped conjugate surface ruptures, dextral and sinistral strike-slip surface ruptures, restraining and releasing bends, Riedel structures ( R, R', P, T), small-scale bookshelf faulting, and flower structures. An extensional component was present across surface rupture zones resulting in ground openings (sinkholes), small-scale grabens, and co-seismic dip-slip (normal) displacements. A compressional component was also present across surface rupture zones resulting in co-seismic dip-slip (reverse) displacements. From the comparison of our field geological observations with already published surface deformation measurements by DInSAR Interferometry, it is concluded that there is a strong correlation among the surface rupture zones, the ruptured active fault zones, and the detected displacement discontinuities in Paliki peninsula.

  4. High-precision relocation of seismic sequences above a dipping Moho: the case of the January-February 2014 seismic sequence on Cephalonia island (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karastathis, V. K.; Mouzakiotis, E.; Ganas, A.; Papadopoulos, G. A.

    2015-02-01

    Detailed velocity structure and Moho mapping is of crucial importance for a high precision relocation of seismicity occurring out of, or marginal to, the geometry of seismological networks. Usually the seismographic networks do not cover the boundaries of converging plates such as the Hellenic arc. The crustal thinning from the plate boundary towards the back-arc area creates significant errors in accurately locating the earthquake, especially when distant seismic phases are included in the analysis. The case of the Cephalonia (Ionian Sea, Greece) sequence of January-February 2014 provided an excellent example where the hypocentral precision was greatly affected by the crustal thinning from the plate boundary at the Ionian sea towards the Aegean sea. This effect was examined in detail by testing various velocity models of the region in order to determine an optimal model. Our tests resulted in the adoption of a velocity model that resembles the crustal thinning of the region. Then, a relocation procedure was performed in the Cephalonia sequence for the time period of 26 January to 15 May 2014 by applying probabilistic non-linear location algorithms. The high-precision relocation resulted in an improved spatial distribution of the seismicity with respect to the preliminary locations and provided a reliable basis to examine seismotectonic implications of the Cephalonia sequence.

  5. The wind energy potential of western Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Katsoulis, B.D.; Metaxas, D.A. )

    1992-12-01

    In this study wind data were used to determine the monthly and annual variations of the wind at 13 meterological stations in western Greece. An analysis of the available wind data for the Ionian Sea islands and the western coasts of Greece is carried out to ascertain its potential for wind energy development. The effect of the limited number of daily observations available on the accuracy of the mean wind speed and annual wind energy estimates is ascertained. The wind speed and direction distributions are represented with Weibull functions. Besides, a mass-consistent numerical mesoscale model was used to give an overview of the wind prospecting and siting problem, and an example of its use for Corfu (Kerkira), an island in the Ionian Sea, is given. The comparison of the accuracy of the stimulation results versus measured wind at an available site is quite encouraging even though it cannot be conclusive since only one station is available.

  6. Epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Greece.

    PubMed

    Stratigos, J; Tosca, A; Nicolis, G; Papavasiliou, S; Capetanakis, J

    1980-03-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease endemic in Greece. Cases collected between the years 1975 and 1979 are analyzed from a clinico-epidemiologic point of view. Prevalence is highest in the Ionian islands and Crete. The disease most commonly affects individuals 10 to 20 years of age. The exposed parts of the body are most commonly involved, particularly the face. The period of highest incidence is mid-winter. PMID:7358449

  7. Adult Education in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkos, Alexios

    2008-01-01

    The central aim of this article is to analyse the current situation of adult education in Greece. The article focuses on the following points: (a) the degree of participation in programmes of continuing professional training and general adult education courses, (b) the quality and the outcomes of the adult education provision in Greece, and (c)…

  8. The anatomy of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit on Sifnos Island (Cyclades, Greece): implications for exhumation model of high-pressure rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, Vincent; Laurent, Valentin; Jolivet, Laurent; Cardello, Giovanni Luca; Scaillet, Stéphane

    2015-04-01

    Key words.- Aegean sea, Cyclades, Sifnos, high pressure and low temperature metamorphism, syn-orogenic exhumation, post-orogenic extension, strain localization. Since 35 Ma, the kinematics of the Aegean domain has been mainly controlled by the southward retreat of the African slab, inducing backarc extension. The main structures and associated kinematic are well constrained, but the kinematics of deformation before 35 Ma, coeval with the exhumation of blueschists and eclogites of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit, has been so far poorly studied. Hence, syn-orogenic deformation and exhumation mechanisms of the Cycladic Blueschists Unit remain disputed in part because the structure and kinematic history of High Pressure and Low Temperature (HP-LT) rocks are interpreted differently in the literature. In order to understand and constrain the exhumation history of HP-LT rocks, Sifnos Island is particularly relevant because HP-LT parageneses are exceptionally well preserved and different degree of retrogression are observed in two main units. The aims of this work attempts at firstly solving uncertainties on the position and geometry of major contacts between units and, secondly, to provide new structural constraints on the tectonic history of HP-LT units generated in the subduction zone during the Eocene. We show, through new geological and metamorphic maps, cross-sections and analyses of kinematic indicators and their relation to metamorphism, that Sifnos is characterized by shallow-dipping shear zones reactivating weak zones due to competence contrasts or earlier tectonic contacts (i.e., syn-orogenic). Structures and kinematics, associated with these shear zones, show a top-to-the-N to -NE ductile shearing deformation. A continuum of deformation can be observed from the Eocene syn-orogenic blueschist-facies to the Oligocene-Miocene post-orogenic greenschist-facies with the same top-to-the-NE sense of shear showing that the same shear zones, formed during syn

  9. Soil gas composition from the 2001-2002 fissure in the Lakki Plain (Nisyros Island, Greece): evidences for shallow hydrothermal fluid circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturi, Stefania; Tassi, Franco; Kanellopoulos, Christos; Vaselli, Orlando; Caponi, Chiara; Ricci, Andrea; Raspanti, Alessio; Gallorini, Andrea; Cabassi, Jacopo; Vougioukalakis, Georges

    2016-04-01

    Nisyros volcano (Aegean Sea, Greece) is currently classified in the "Very High Threat" category (Kinvig et al., 2010). Although the last volcanic activity, consisting of phreatic eruptions, occurred in the 19th century, Nisyros experienced an intense seismic activity during 1996-1998 accompanied by ground deformation and changes in the chemistry of fumarolic gases (Chiodini et al., 2002), pointing to a renewed unrest. Between November 2001 and December 2002, a NNE-oriented 600 m long fissure opened in the vegetated central part of the Lakki Plain. The fissure, 1-5 m wide and up to 15-20 m deep, showed neither vertical displacements nor gas release. No changes in the seismic and volcanic activity were observed during or after this event, which was interpreted as related to collapse of the upper caldera floor fine sediment cover (<50 m thick) induced by hydrothermal fluid circulation (Vougioukalakis and Fytikas, 2005). In June 2015, diffuse CO2 flux measurements, in combination with sampling and chemical analysis of the interstitial soil gases, were performed in (i) the fissure bottom, (ii) the adjacent vegetated areas in the Lakki Plain, (iii) the near hydrothermal craters (Stefanos, Kaminakia, Lofos domes), and (iv) sites located outside the caldera (blank values). The fissure showed neither temperature (<30 °C) nor CO2 fluxes (<10 gm-2d-1) anomalies with respect to the blank sites and the Lakki Plain, with values strikingly lower than those measured in the hydrothermal craters (up to 98 °C and 208 gm-2d-1, respectively). Contrarily, the CO2 concentrations in the interstitial soil gases from the fissure (up to 513 mmol/mol) were markedly higher than the background values and comparable with those measured in the craters (up to 841 mmol/mol). Relatively high H2S, H2 and CH4 contents in soil gases from the fissure confirm the hydrothermal origin of these soil gases. However, their CH4/CO2 ratio were lower than those measured in the soil gases from the craters

  10. Interplay of thrust, back-thrust, strike-slip and salt tectonics in a fold and thrust belt system: an example from Zakynthos Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelilidis, A.; Papatheodorou, G.; Maravelis, A. G.; Christodoulou, D.; Tserolas, P.; Fakiris, E.; Dimas, X.; Georgiou, N.; Ferentinos, G.

    2016-01-01

    The southwestern flank of the Hellenic fold and thrust belt, situated along the southern edge of the Dinarides-Albanides-Hellenides continental convergent zone, was examined for reconstructing the tectonic deformation. This investigation presents an integrated study of onshore sedimentological and structural analyses, as well as offshore seismic lines, across the Pliocene-Pleistocene sedimentary succession in Zakynthos Island. Back-thrust faults, using the Triassic evaporites as decollement surface, during the Pliocene, and coeval diapiric intrusions formed three sub-basins on the hangingwall of the Kalamaki back-thrust fault. This interaction is responsible for the growth of the Skopos Mountain and the soft sediment deformation that formed synclines and slumps, respectively. Back-thrust and strike-slip faults were active during the early Pleistocene, and diapiric intrusions modified the bathymetry on the sea floor, giving rise to slumps and recumbent folds. At least five events of synsedimentary diapiric intrusions have been recognized and are marked by five slump horizons. During the Holocene, the diapiric intrusions between the Kalamaki back-thrust and the Vrachionas anticline could be either related to normal faults or gravitationally driven.

  11. Mode of Strong Earthquake Recurrence In Central Ionian Islands (greece). Possible Triggering Due To Coulomb Stress Changes Generated By The Occurrence of Previous Strong Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadimitriou, E.

    The spatial-temporal distribution of shallow strong (M>6.3) earthquakes occurring in the area of central Ionian Islands is analyzed. These shocks generated on two adja- cent fault segments with different strike, but both associated with strike-slip faulting, constituting the boundary between continental collision to the north and oceanic sub- duction to the south. Seismic activity is confined in short time intervals alternating by much longer relatively quiescent periods. Each active period consists of a relatively large event or series (two to four) of events occurring closely both in space and time. This alteration was observed to happen four times since 1867, from when complete data exist for the study area. Since the phenomenon is not strictly periodic and during each active period multiple events occurred, it is attempted to interpret the seismic behavior on the basis of possible triggering. It is then investigated how changes in Coulomb Failure Function (DCFF) associated with one or more earthquakes may trig- ger subsequent events. Both the coseismic slip due to the generation of the strong earthquakes and stress build up associated with the two major fault segments were taken into account for the DCFF calculation. Earthquakes can be modeled as static dislocations in elastic half-space, and the stress pattern has been inverted according to the geometry and slip of each of the faults that ruptured in the chain of events. These calculations show that 13 out of 14 earthquakes with M>6.3 were preceded by a static stress change that encouraged failure. The magnitude of the stress increases transferred from one earthquake to another ranged from 0.01 MPa (0.1 bar) to over 0.1 MPa (1 bar). Maps of current DCFF provide additional information to long-term earthquake prediction. Areas of positive DCFF have been identified at two sites in Ke- falonia and Lefkada faults, respectively, where the next strong events are expected to occur.

  12. New boron isotopic evidence for sedimentary and magmatic fluid influence in the shallow hydrothermal vent system of Milos Island (Aegean Sea, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shein-Fu; You, Chen-Feng; Lin, Yen-Po; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Baltatzis, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Magmatic sources may contribute a significant amount of volatiles in geothermal springs; however, their role is poorly understood in submarine hydrothermal systems worldwide. In this study, new results of B and δ11B in 41 hydrothermal vent waters collected from the shallow hydrothermal system of Milos island in the Aegean Sea were combined with previously published data from other tectonic settings and laboratory experiments to quantify the effects of phase separation, fluid/sediment interaction and magmatic contribution. Two Cl-extreme solutions were identified, high-Cl waters (Cl as high as 2000 mM) and low-Cl waters (Cl < 80 mM). Both sets of waters were characterized by high B/Cl (~ 1.2-5.3 × 10- 3 mol/mol) and extremely low δ11B (1.4-6.3‰), except for the waters with Mg content of near the seawater value and δ11B = 10.3-17.4‰. These high-Cl waters with high B/Cl and low δ11B plot close to the vent waters in sediment-hosted hydrothermal system (i.e., Okinawa Trough) or fumarole condensates from on-land volcanoes, implying B addition from sediment or magmatic fluids plays an important role. This is in agreement with fluid/sediment interactions resulting in the observed B and δ11B, as well as previously reported Br/I/Cl ratios, supporting a scenario of slab-derived fluid addition with elevated B, 11B-rich, and low Br/Cl and I/Cl, which is derived from the dehydration of subducted-sediments. The slab fluid becomes subsequently mixed with the parent magma of Milos. The deep brine reservoir is partially affected by injections of magmatic fluid/gases during degassing. The results presented here are crucial for deciphering the evolution of the brine reservoirs involved in phase separation, fluid/sediment interaction and magmatic contribution in the deep reaction zone of the Milos hydrothermal system; they also have implications in the understanding of the formation of metallic vein mineralization.

  13. The importance of geological data and derived information in seismic response assessment for urban sites. An example from the Island of Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsangaratos, Paraskevas; Loupasakis, Constantinos; Rozos, Dimitrios; Rondoyianni, Theodora; Vafidis, Antonios; Savvaidis, Alexandros; Soupios, Pantelis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Sarris, Apostolos

    2015-04-01

    The magnitude, frequency content and duration of an earthquake ground motion depends mainly on the surrounding geological, tectonic and geomorphological conditions. Numerous reports have been contacted illustrating the necessity of providing accurate geological information in order to estimate the level of seismic hazard. In this context, geological information is the outcome of processing primary, raw field data and geotechnical investigation data that are non - organized and associated with the geological model of the study area. In most cases, the geological information is provided as an advance element, a key component of the "function" that solves any geo-environmental problem and is primarily reflected on analogue or digital maps. The main objective of the present study is to illustrate the importance of accurate geological information in the thirteen (13) selected sites of the Hellenic Accelerometric Network (HAN) in the area of Crete Island, in order to estimate the seismic action according to Eurocode (EC8). As an example the detailed geological-geotechnical map of the area around HAN site in Rethymno city, Crete is presented. The research area covers a 250m radius surrounding the RTHE HAN-station at a scale of 1: 2000 with detail description of the geological and geotechnical characteristics of the formations as well as the tectonic features (cracks, upthrust, thrust, etc) of the rock mass. The field survey showed that the RTHE station is founded over limestones and dolomites formations. The formations exhibit very good geomechanical behaviour; however they present extensive fragmentation and karstification. At this particular site the identification of a fault nearby the station proved to be significant information for the geophysical research as the location and orientation of the tectonic setting provided new perspective on the models of seismic wave prorogation. So, the geological data and the induced information along with the tectonic structure of

  14. Near surface geotechnical and geophysical data cross validated for site characterization applications. The cases of selected accelerometric stations in Crete island (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loupasakis, Constantinos; Tsangaratos, Paraskevas; Rozos, Dimitrios; Rondoyianni, Theodora; Vafidis, Antonis; Steiakakis, Emanouil; Agioutantis, Zacharias; Savvaidis, Alexandros; Soupios, Pantelis; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Sarris, Apostolos; Mangriotis, Maria-Dafni; Dikmen, Unal

    2015-04-01

    The near surface ground conditions are highly important for the design of civil constructions. These conditions determine primarily the ability of the foundation formations to bear loads, the stress - strain relations and the corresponding deformations, as well as the soil amplification and corresponding peak ground motion in case of dynamic loading. The static and dynamic geotechnical parameters as well as the ground-type/soil-category can be determined by combining geotechnical and geophysical methods, such as engineering geological surface mapping, geotechnical drilling, in situ and laboratory testing and geophysical investigations. The above mentioned methods were combined for the site characterization in selected sites of the Hellenic Accelerometric Network (HAN) in the area of Crete Island. The combination of the geotechnical and geophysical methods in thirteen (13) sites provided sufficient information about their limitations, setting up the minimum tests requirements in relation to the type of the geological formations. The reduced accuracy of the surface mapping in urban sites, the uncertainties introduced by the geophysical survey in sites with complex geology and the 1-D data provided by the geotechnical drills are some of the causes affecting the right order and the quantity of the necessary investigation methods. Through this study the gradual improvement on the accuracy of the site characterization data in regards to the applied investigation techniques is presented by providing characteristic examples from the total number of thirteen sites. As an example of the gradual improvement of the knowledge about the ground conditions the case of AGN1 strong motion station, located at Agios Nikolaos city (Eastern Crete), is briefly presented. According to the medium scale geological map of IGME the station was supposed to be founded over limestone. The detailed geological mapping reveled that a few meters of loose alluvial deposits occupy the area, expected

  15. The ophiolite of the Eohellenic nappe in the island of Skyros, Greece: Geotectonic environment of formation and metamorphic conditions inferred by mineralogical and geochemical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karkalis, Christos; Magganas, Andreas; Koutsovitis, Petros

    2014-05-01

    The island of Skyros is located in the Sporades-Aegean region. It includes an ophiolitic mélange sequence consisting of serpentinites, gabbroic and doleritic rocks, and also lavas which mostly appear in massive form, but in rare cases as deformed pillows. The ophiolitic mélange sequence also includes rodingites, ophicalcites, as well as radiolarites. This formation belongs to the Eohellenic tectonic nappe, which encompasses marbles, sandstones and schists and was emplaced onto the Pelagonian Zone during Early Cretaceous [1, 2]. Serpentinites were most likely formed after serpentinization of harzburgitic protoliths and consist of serpentine, bastite, spinel and magnetite. The chemistry of spinels (TiO2=0.14-0.25 wt.%, Al2O3=35.1-35.21 wt.%, Cr#=37.38-38.87), shows that the harzburgitic protoliths plausibly resemble back-arc basin peridotites [3]. Gabbros and dolerites present mostly subophitic textures, between the hornblende/clinopyroxene and plagioclase grains. Based upon their petrography and on their mineral chemistry hornblendes have been distinguished into magmatic and metamorphic hornblendes, with the first occurring mostly in gabbroic rocks. Magmatic hornblendes exhibit relatively high TiO2 (1.42-1.62 wt.%), Al2O3 (5.11-5.86 wt.%) and Na2O (1.01-1.09 wt.%) contents, with their presence implying that the magma was at least to some degree hydrous. Lavas are tholeiitic basalts with relatively high FeOt≡12 wt.% and low K2O and Th contents, consisting mostly albite, altered clinopyroxene and devitrified glass. Tectonomagmatic discrimination diagrams [4, 5] illustrate that the studied gabbros and lavas of Skyros are most likely associated with SSZ processes. Gabbroic rocks, subvolcanic dolerites and lavas have been subjected to greenschist/subgreenschist metamorphic processes, as confirmed by the presence of secondary amphiboles (metamorphic hornblende, actinolite/tremolite), epidote, pumpellyite and chlorite in all of the studied samples. On the other hand

  16. Relative Photoionization Cross Sections of Super-Atom Molecular Orbitals (SAMOs) in C60.

    PubMed

    Bohl, Elvira; Sokół, Katarzyna P; Mignolet, Benoit; Thompson, James O F; Johansson, J Olof; Remacle, Francoise; Campbell, Eleanor E B

    2015-11-25

    The electronic structure and photoinduced dynamics of fullerenes, especially C60, is of great interest because these molecules are model systems for more complex molecules and nanomaterials. In this work we have used Rydberg Fingerprint Spectroscopy to determine the relative ionization intensities from excited SAMO (Rydberg-like) states in C60 as a function of laser wavelength. The relative ionization intensities are then compared to the ratio of the photoionization widths of the Rydberg-like states, computed in time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). The agreement is remarkably good when the same photon order is required to energetically access the excited states. This illustrates the predictive potential of quantum chemistry for studying photoionization of large, complex molecules as well as confirming the assumption that is often made concerning the multiphoton excitation and rapid energy redistribution in the fullerenes. PMID:26551039

  17. English Language Teaching in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adoniou, Misty

    2001-01-01

    Highlights English language teaching in Greece, both in the government school system and in private English language education, focusing on the teachers, the classrooms, the classroom and syllabus, and inservice support. Discusses English in higher education, opportunities for teachers in Greece, and support for all teachers of English in Greece.…

  18. Medical education in Greece.

    PubMed

    Georgantopoulou, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to present an overview of current medical education in Greece. Greece has a centuries-long tradition in practising and teaching medicine. Medical training, although rigorous, is particularly humane. All Medical Schools in Modern Greece are currently, undergoing a series of changes in an effort to modernize training. The medical education system is also getting harmonized to European Standards for Higher Education, relating to Undergraduate, Postgraduate and Continuous Medical Education of doctors. A specific strength of the Greek educational system is its ethos that emphasises good working conditions and excellent support and supervision at all levels. The current overhauls in Higher Education occupy students, academics and the society at large. Political issues, such as accountability, regulation and autonomy of academia are generating debate. The two-cycle, Bachelor-Master, Undergraduate Model, as described in the Bologna Declaration is still to be implemented. Quality control measures are currently introduced in all academic sectors. PMID:19253151

  19. Counseling in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malikiosi-Loizos, Maria; Ivey, Allen E.

    2012-01-01

    There is rapid growth in Greece's professional and research activity in counseling, despite the lack of a clear professional identity for the field. It is hoped this will be overcome through the newly started graduate programs. Opportunities, objectives, and strategies for counseling's advancement should be directed toward close and essential…

  20. Greece. [CME Country Reports].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    There is no immigration problems in Greece today. On the contrary, the country's economic development makes it necessary for Greek workers who have emigrated temporarily to return and be integrated into the production system. The educational policy for emigrant workers' children involves: (1) ensuring that children who have settled abroad know…

  1. Preparing Faculty in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kioumourtzoglou, Efthimis

    2003-01-01

    The current article aimed to describe the process followed for faculty preparation and development in Greece. More specifically, it includes information regarding (a) the possibilities for professional development through Master and PhD programs, (b) the existing faculty categories, (c) the procedure followed by the departments in collaboration…

  2. Alternative Use in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEB Exchange, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Situating the University of Thessaly in Volos and Larissa, Greece, represents the idea that the university has a role to play in the community, and, therefore, its facilities are integrated within the city. Describes an old factory warehouse converted to create "a building within a building," while preserving style of the former factory in terms…

  3. Tsunami disaster risk management capabilities in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marios Karagiannis, Georgios; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    Greece is vulnerable to tsunamis, due to the length of the coastline, its islands and its geographical proximity to the Hellenic Arc, an active subduction zone. Historically, about 10% of all world tsunamis occur in the Mediterranean region. Here we review existing tsunami disaster risk management capabilities in Greece. We analyze capabilities across the disaster management continuum, including prevention, preparedness, response and recovery. Specifically, we focus on issues like legal requirements, stakeholders, hazard mitigation practices, emergency operations plans, public awareness and education, community-based approaches and early-warning systems. Our research is based on a review of existing literature and official documentation, on previous projects, as well as on interviews with civil protection officials in Greece. In terms of tsunami disaster prevention and hazard mitigation, the lack of tsunami inundation maps, except for some areas in Crete, makes it quite difficult to get public support for hazard mitigation practices. Urban and spatial planning tools in Greece allow the planner to take into account hazards and establish buffer zones near hazard areas. However, the application of such ordinances at the local and regional levels is often difficult. Eminent domain is not supported by law and there are no regulatory provisions regarding tax abatement as a disaster prevention tool. Building codes require buildings and other structures to withstand lateral dynamic earthquake loads, but there are no provisions for resistance to impact loading from water born debris Public education about tsunamis has increased during the last half-decade but remains sporadic. In terms of disaster preparedness, Greece does have a National Tsunami Warning Center (NTWC) and is a Member of UNESCO's Tsunami Program for North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas (NEAM) region. Several exercises have been organized in the framework of the NEAM Tsunami Warning

  4. Divergence preceding island formation among Aegean insular populations of the freshwater snail genus Pseudorientalia (Caenogastropoda: Truncatelloidea).

    PubMed

    Szarowska, Magdalena; Hofman, Sebastian; Osikowski, Artur; Falniowski, Andrzej

    2014-10-01

    Freshwater snails that inhabit islands are excellent model organisms for testing relationships between geological events and phylogeography, especially in the Aegean region. Although many Aegean islands were searched in the present study, species of the genus Pseudorientalia were only found on Lesvos, Samos, and Chios. Phylogenetic relationships between specimens living on these three islands were analysed using COI and 16S rRNA molecular markers and morphological data. A high level of diversity was found between islands. Genetic distances between clades showed differences high enough for the samples from different islands to be considered distinct species (p-distance: 0.105-0.133). These results are also supported by obvious morphological differences in shell morphology between islands. The mean divergence time between the Lesvos clade and Samos/Chios clade was 24.13 ± 3.30 Mya; between the Samos and Chios clades the divergence time was 14.80 ± 1.11 Mya. Our data suggest that high divergence may have occurred between Pseudorientalia populations during the Upper and Middle Miocene, when the Aegean region was part of a united landmass. It is possible that the observed highly divergent Pseudorientalia clades are relicts of high regional diversity that existed in the past. PMID:25284387

  5. Leishmaniases in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Ntais, Pantelis; Sifaki-Pistola, Dimitra; Christodoulou, Vasiliki; Messaritakis, Ippokratis; Pratlong, Francine; Poupalos, George; Antoniou, Maria

    2013-01-01

    During the last 35 years, visceral leishmaniasis has spread in Greece with autochthonous human cases appearing in 41 of the 54 prefectures. The occurrence of the disease was mapped and related to dog seropositivity, environmental and geospatial risk factors. Average dog seropositivity was 22.1% and positive animals were found in 43 of 54 prefectures. Factors like: altitude, presence of water bodies, land use, wind speed, mean land surface temperature, mean relative humidity, and mean annual rainfall were found to affect dog seropositivity. Cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania tropica are also increasing. Phlebotomus similis believed to be the potential vector of L. tropica in Greece, was found in areas where the disease is widespread but also where cases have never been reported implying a danger of introduction of this anthroponotic parasite to new regions. PMID:24062479

  6. Access to health for refugees in Greece: lessons in inequalities.

    PubMed

    Kousoulis, Antonis A; Ioakeim-Ioannidou, Myrsini; Economopoulos, Konstantinos P

    2016-01-01

    Eastern Greek islands have been direct passageways of (mainly Syrian) refugees to the European continent over the past year. However, basic medical care has been insufficient. Despite calls for reform, the Greek healthcare system has for many years been costly and dysfunctional, lacking universal equity of access. Thus, mainly volunteers look after the refugee camps in the Greek islands under adverse conditions. Communicable diseases, trauma related injuries and mental health problems are the most common issues facing the refugees. The rapid changes in the epidemiology of multiple conditions that are seen in countries with high immigration rates, like Greece, demand pragmatic solutions. Best available knowledge should be used in delivering health interventions. So far, Greece is failed by international aid, and cross-border policies have not effectively tackled underlying reasons for ill-health in this context, like poverty, conflict and equity of access. PMID:27485633

  7. Leptospirosis in Greece.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna; Kotrotsiou, Tzimoula

    2015-09-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease with increased public health concern worldwide. The disease occurs more often in temperate and tropical regions. The present study analyzes the demographic, epidemiological and clinical data of 168 leptospirosis cases laboratory diagnosed in northern Greece during 1998-2014. Most patients were males, aged 50-69 years, working in animal husbandry or farming. Cases were observed more frequently in summer and autumn. Severity of the disease was correlated with presence of pulmonary involvement and hemorrhagic manifestations. PMID:26026714

  8. Greece and Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Summer is in full swing in this stunning true-color image of the southeastern European countries and Turkey captured by MODIS on June 29, 2002. Clockwise from left, the mountains of Greece, Albania, Macedonia, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, and Turkey are swathed in brilliant greens and shades of golden brown; meanwhile (counterclockwise from left) the Ionian, Mediterranean, Aegean, and Black Seas are beautifully blue and green.Running diagonally across the image from the bottom middle to the top right is a gray streak that is caused by the angle of reflection of the sun on the water (called sun glint). The darker areas within this gray swath denote calmer water, and make visible currents that would not otherwise be noticeable.Surprisingly few fires were burning hot enough to be detectable by MODIS when this image was acquired during the height of the summer dry season. A single fire is visible burning in mainland Greece, six are visible in northwestern Turkey, and one burns on the western coast (marked with red outlines). Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  9. Geochemical correlation of surface and subsurface oils, western Greece

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palacas, J.G.; Monopolis, D.; Nicolaou, C.A.; Anders, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    Biodegraded seep oils, devoid of n-alkanes and most isoprenoid hydrocarbons, were successfully correlated with subsurface crude oils in western Greece primarily using carbon isotopes and the more microbially resistant tricyclic terpane and aromatic steroid hydrocarbon distributions. All the studied oils seem to fit into three major genetic groups which are consistent with the geologic, tectonic, and geographic settings and are presumably related to different source-rock facies. Group I oils are typical of the abundant oil shows in the Epirus province, northwest Greece. Minor but consistent biomarker differences necessitated subgrouping of the Epirus oils, implying derivation from slightly different sources. Group II oils are located in the Katakolon area, northwestern Peloponnese. Group III oils, which are clearly distinct from the other groups, are centered in Zakynthos Island. An oil seep at Trifos, west central Greece, and a subsurface oil from Paxi Island, because of uncertain correlations, are classed intermediate between Group I and II oils. An aromatic steroid hydrocarbon measurement, modified after Mackenzie et al. (1981), appears useful in determining the relative maturity of biodegraded and conventional oils and carbonate rock extracts. ?? 1986.

  10. Recalculation of an artificially released avalanche with SAMOS and validation with measurements from a pulsed Doppler radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sailer, R.; Rammer, L.; Sampl, P.

    A joint experiment was carried out on 10 February 1999 by the Swiss Federal Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research (SFISAR) and the Austrian Institute for Avalanche and Torrent Research (AIATR, of the Federal Office and Re-search Centre for Forests, BFW) to measure forces and velocities at the full scale experimental site CRÊTA BESSE in VALLÉE DE LA SIONNE, Canton du Valais, Switzerland. A huge avalanche could be released artificially, which permitted extensive investigations (dynamic measurements, im-provement of measurement systems, simulation model verification, design of protective measures, etc.). The results of the velocity measurements from the dual frequency pulsed Doppler avalanche radar of the AIATR and the recalculation with the numerical simulation model SAMOS are explained in this paper.

  11. Fire in Southern Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The last major fire in southern Greece was brought under control this weekend, but not until over 469,000 acres of mostly forest and farmland were destroyed. An estimated 4000 people lost their homes, and over 60 deaths were reported. These were the worst fires ever to occur in Greece. In this Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image acquired September 4 over the western coast of the Peloponnesus Peninsula, burned areas appear in dark red, and unburned vegetation is green. The area includes the ancient site of Olympia, the site of the Olympic Games in classical times. The fires came within 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) of the archaeological site, but spared it.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 56.4 by

  12. Greek Islands, Western Asia Minor as seen from STS-58

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This north-looking view shows the western margin of Turkey (right) and the Dodecanese Islands of Greece between the Aegean Sea (left) and the Sea of Crete (foreground). The largest island is Crete (foreground) with the semicircular island of Thira beyond. Thira is dominated by the volcanoe Santorini. Two airplane contrails appear between the Turkish mainland and the large island of Rhodes immediately offshore. The narrow straits of the Dardanelles, joining the Black Sea to the Mediterranean, can be detected top left.

  13. Corinth Canal, Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The Isthmus of Corinth has played a very important role in the history of Greece. It is the only land bridge between the country's north (Attica) and south (Peloponnese). It is a 6 km wide tongue of land separating the Gulf of Corinth from the Saronic Sea. Populations, armies and commodities have got to move through it. In the 6th century BCE, the Greeks built the Diolkos, a 10 meter-wide stone roadway to pull ships across the Isthmus on wooden cylinders and wheeled vehicles. In 1882, a canal was started and completed 11 years later. It is 6343 meters long, 25 meters wide, and 8 meters deep.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 25.3 by 37.7 kilometers (15.7 by 23.4 miles) Location: 37.9 degrees North latitude, 23 degrees East longitude

  14. Street Children in Contemporary Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altanis, Panagiotis; Goddard, Jim

    2004-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the problem of street children in Greece, within the context of global research on street children. The article draws on preliminary findings from recent research on street children in the urban centre of Athens. This is an under-researched area, with weak policy responses to a problem associated with recent…

  15. School Building Organisation in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEB Exchange, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the past and current organizational structure of Greece's School Building Organisation, a body established to work with government agencies in the design and construction of new buildings and the provisioning of educational equipment. Future planning to incorporate culture and creativity, sports, and laboratory learning in modern school…

  16. [Monastery asylum. A contribution to the ethno-psychiatry of Greece].

    PubMed

    Ruisinger, Marion Maria

    2004-01-01

    The history of the mentally ill in Greece, at least from the foundation of the Kingdom of Greece in 1832 until the incorporation of the Ionian Islands in 1864, is without either lunatic asylums or specialised psychiatrists. Instead, it is a history of the intermingling of two psychiatric concepts. On the one hand, the imported "professional psychiatry" supported by government and Western education physicians and, on the other hand, the indigenous (autochthon) "folk psychiatry" supported by the majority of the people and by the Orthodox church. The interaction of both systems resulted in the phenomenon of the Greek "monastery asylum". This paper, based on rich archival material, presents this little-known chapter of Greece psychiatry from the view-point of social history. PMID:16025619

  17. Burns during Easter festivities in Greece.

    PubMed

    Pallantzas, A; Kourakos, P; Stampolidis, N; Papagianni, E; Balagoura, A; Stathopoulos, A; Polizoi, A; Emvalomata, A; Evaggelopoulou, M; Castana, O

    2012-12-31

    Easter is the most important holiday for the Greek Church. It is rich in traditions and rituals but during the Greek Easter festivities, especially at midnight Mass on Easter Saturday night, it is customary to throw fireworks around. These fireworks are not part of the true Easter tradition and they are potentially fatal. Unfortunately, in the past few years, the custom has become more and more popular in Greece. There are some local variations, mainly in the Aegean islands, where homemade rockets are used to have a "rocket war". The rockets consist of wooden sticks loaded with an explosive mixture containing gunpowder and launched from special platforms. Many severe injuries involving loss of sight and limbs as well as major burns are also caused by the use of illegal fireworks at Easter. Every year numerous burn victims are hospitalized. The most affected areas are the face, the upper extremities, and the chest, often in association with slight or severe wounds and injuries. This study presents our department's experience with incidents due to the use of fireworks during Easter festivities. PMID:23766749

  18. 61 FR 25729 - Security Measures; Hellenikon International Airport, Athens, Greece

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1996-05-22

    ... Security Measures; Hellenikon International Airport, Athens, Greece Summary The Secretary of Transportation has now determined that Hellenikon International Airport, Athens, Greece, maintains and carries out... that Hellenikon International Airport, Athens, Greece, did not maintain and carry out...

  19. History of leucotomies in Greece.

    PubMed

    Ploumpidis, D; Tsiamis, C; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E

    2015-03-01

    In order to present the social, scientific and institutional context which permitted the use of leucotomies in Greece, we have reviewed the Archives of the Medical Associations, the medical literature of the years 1946-56, a reader's dissertation and the memoirs of two psychiatrists. More than 250 leucotomies were done in the two public psychiatric hospitals in Athens from 1947 to 1954, as well as 40 leucotomies in the public psychiatric hospital in Thessaloniki. Although aware of the side effects, psychiatrists justified the use of the procedure. The performance of leucotomies in Greece declined because of reports of the dangers of the operation and its unpredictable outcome for the patients, but mainly because of the encouraging results with psychotropic drugs in the early 1950s. PMID:25698687

  20. Ancient Celestial Spheres from Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrakoudis, S.; Papaspyrou, P.; Petoussis, V.; Moussas, X.

    2006-08-01

    We present several ancient celestial spheres from the 8th century B.C. found throughout Greece, mainly in Thessaly, at the temple of Itonia Athena, but also in Olympia and other places. These celestial spheres have an axis, equator and several meridians and they have several markings with the symbol of stars (today's symbol for the Sun) $\\odot$. Such instruments could have been used to measure the time, the latitude of a location, or the coordinates of stars.

  1. Proceedings of the International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM) (5th, Chania, Greece, June 19-21, 2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Educational Data Mining Society, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The 5th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM 2012) is held in picturesque Chania on the beautiful Crete island in Greece, under the auspices of the International Educational Data Mining Society (IEDMS). The EDM 2012 conference is a leading international forum for high quality research that mines large data sets of educational…

  2. A Quantitative Analysis of Rift Processes in the Northern North Sea and Central Greece.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryon, J. G.; White, N. J.

    2003-12-01

    Actively extending sedimentary basins provide a snapshot of the way in which basins evolve. Our observations from such regions are temporally limited: we have little understanding of the long-term processes involved but an excellent understanding of the short-term motions (100-102 years). The converse is true of tectonically dead basins where the deformation has ceased and only the end product can be observed. Studies of active basin formation in central Greece have provided a quantitative understanding of the kinematics of extensional tectonics. The use of GPS, SAR interferometry and geomorphological analysis has constrained the rate of extension and fault kinematics and geometries. Central Greece has often been cited as a present-day analogue for formation of the now inactive East Shetland Basin (ESB) in the northern North Sea. A large 3D seismic dataset has been compiled giving complete coverage of the ESB, a region comparable in size to central Greece ( ˜10,000 km2). A quantitative comparison between Greece and the ESB will close the gap in knowledge between short-term and long-term motions. Whilst the two regions have many features in common, such as tilted fault blocks, fault segments of comparable length and similar fault geometries, there are also important differences. For example, one difference between Greece and the northern North Sea is the rate of extension. The North Sea had a peak strain rate that was an order of magnitude slower than the rate at which Greece is currently extending across the gulfs of Corinth and Evia. Another difference is that the distance between large active faults in Greece appears to be significantly longer than in the ESB. A specific example of this difference in scale is the Tern-Eider ridge, which is a horst block in the ESB that appears superficially similar to the island of Evia in Greece. However, the rigid island of Evia is significantly wider than the Tern-Eider ridge. A link between this inter-fault distance and

  3. [Suicide rates and mental health services in Greece].

    PubMed

    Giotakos, O; Tsouvelas, G; Kontaxakis, V

    2012-01-01

    Some studies have shown that access to mental health services can have an impact on mental health outcomes, including the suicide rates. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between regional and prefecture suicide rates (suicides per 100.000 residents) and both the number of primary and mental health-care service providers and the number of mental health infrastructures in Greece. Data were taken mainly from the Hellenic Statistical Authority (EL.STAT.) and the Ministry of Health for the period 2002-2009. Spearman correlations were used to examine the relationship between primary health-care, mental health providers and suicide rates per 100,000 residents at the prefecture, administrative region and geographical region levels. Men showed significantly higher suicide rates than women (U=-7.20, p<0.001). For the period 2002-2009, the highest suicide rate at the prefecture level were in Rethymno (6.99), Rodopi (5.62) and Zakynthos (5.28). For the same period, the highest suicide rates at the geographical level were in Peloponnisos (4.01), Ionian Islands (4.03) and Grete (3.65). Increase in suicide rates (2009 vs 2002-2009) was observed in the following geographical regions of Greece: Crete (4.76 vs 3.65), Thrace (4.45 vs 2.02) Central Greece (3.61 vs 1.39) Aegean Islands (3.03 vs 1.28). The highest correlations between suiciderutes and health services at the geographic regional level were found to be during the period 2007-2009, where suicide rates showed a significant negative correlation with privately practicing psychiatrists (rho=-0.71, p<0.05), privately practicing psychologists (rho=-0.56, p<0.05), pathologists (rho=-0.73, p<0.01), and the number of the official mental health services (psychiatric clinics, day centers, mobile mental health units etc.) (rho=-0.73, p<0.01). In conclusion it was found that at all regional levels, suicide rates were reversely related to the number of primary health-care and mental health service providers, as

  4. Investigation of orography impact on extreme dry spells over Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikonomou, C.; Flocas, H.; Manola, I.; Hatzaki, M.; Asimakopoulos, D. N.

    2009-04-01

    Precipitation regime over Greece is controlled by the atmospheric circulation, orography sea surface temperature distribution and land/sea interaction. Previous studies have shown that the precipitation amounts are increased in Western Greece, which is located in the upstream side of the largest mountain range of the central mainland. Furthermore, the longest dry spells were identified in south eastern part of Greece during summer and in northern Greek area during winter. The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of topography on prolonged dry periods over Greece, using the third generation hydrostatic Regional Climate Model RegCM3, which shows a noticeable improvement in the representation of the surface hydrological cycle in mountainous regions. More specifically, an attempt is made to study the distribution of prolonged dry spells during two seasons, summer of 1993 and winter of 1989, over the Greek area, under two different simulation scenarios: the first employs the real orography of the Greek area while in the second one the orography is eliminated, by transforming the models terrain code. Both simulation experiments were conducted with the high spatial resolution of 10 Km, while the MIT-Emanuel Convective Precipitation Scheme was selected for the computation of convective precipitation, as it offers more physical representation of convection compared to the other oldest schemes of RegCM. The model was firstly validated through comparisons of the model outputs with observed precipitation amount data, employing 20 stations over Greece for the two selected seasons. The validation demonstrated that the model can simulate precipitation amount quite well over the Greek area, except for the south Dodecanese Islands, where precipitation is underestimated, and the eastern continental Greece, where the daily precipitation is overestimated. For the identification of the extreme dry spells, the climatic index CDD (Maximum number of consecutive dry days

  5. Evaluation of the TRMM gridded precipitation estimates over Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, Panagiotis T.; Kapsomenakis, John; Philandras, Konstantinos M.

    2013-04-01

    The goal of this study is the assessment of the reliability of the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) 3B-43 gridded precipitation estimates over Greece. The evaluation was made using gridded precipitation data based on data from meteorological stations for the wider region of Greece. The TRMM gridded estimates are on a calendar month temporal resolution and 0.25°×0.25° spatial resolution concerning the 11-year period 1998-2008. In order to compare directly the TRMM with the observational data, the data from the meteorological stations (~70 stations) were upscaled exactly to the same resolution as the TRMM data, using Kriging spatial interpolation method, taking into account the altitude of the meteorological stations. The annual and seasonal spatial distribution of the differences between the two datasets along with the spatial distribution of the correlation coefficients are presented and analyzed. The TRMM gridded data due to their high spatial resolution, perform quite well the spatial distribution of precipitation in Greece and especially the orographic precipitation over the Pindus mountainous area. The spatial distribution of correlations between the two different gridded bases is quite high (correlation coefficient > 0.8) for the entire Greek territory with minor exceptions over mountainous continental areas, which is very likely due to the lack of data from high altitude stations. The TRMM gridded data overestimate the precipitation (> 50mm) mostly during the winter, spring and autumn, especially in the region of the Aegean Sea and the coasts of Asia Minor, and underestimate the precipitation over central highlands (Pindus Mt.) and northern areas (all seasons), over southern Ionian Sea and the Crete Island (winter). Additionally, high positive anomalies (> 50mm) appear during autumn over Ionian Sea and Peloponnese, while the summer is generally characterized by small anomalies.

  6. Blood transfusion economics in Greece.

    PubMed

    Kyriopoulos, J E; Michail-Merianou, V; Gitona, M

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the organizational structure and the economic impact of blood donation and transfusion in Greece and discusses some alternative aspects of its financing and its costing policy. The cost of blood transfusion is rising in Greece and amounts to nearly 15 billion drachmas per year due to the constant increase in demand and consequently, the price of each unit of blood. The production and distribution of blood on national scale involves meeting the demand for 500.000 units. Blood is mostly given by the friends and relatives of patients (55%) and by voluntary blood donation (30%). Approximately 50% of the blood produced is used in surgery, 20% for cases of beta-thalassaemia, 10% for emergencies and 20% for internal medicine cases. The blood transfusion system is totally funded by the state budget and the value to users is free of charge. The way in which blood is collected and processed differs from one geographical area to another and the unit cost depends on the size of the department concerned, ranging from 60-150 $. The need to control costs and restrain expenditure, in conjunction with guarantees of sufficiency and quality, makes it essential that measures should be taken to introduce economies of scale and encourage competition among blood providers, for increased production, components preparation and rational usage of blood. The introduction of a costing policy becomes necessary in this effort to achieve cost-containment techniques. PMID:8581182

  7. Metallic mineral resources of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsirambides, Ananias; Filippidis, Anestis

    2012-12-01

    Today Greece produces and exports raw bauxite and alumina, concentrates of galena and sphalerite and ferronickel. The indicated reserves of bauxite, located in the Mt Helikon-Mt Parnassus-Mt Giona-Mt Iti zone, are estimated at approximately 100 mt and those of aluminum 2.5 mt. The probable and indicated reserves of lead and zinc from Chalkidiki are approximately 3.125 mt. The total production of concentrates of galena and sphalerite is approximately 220,000 tpa. The proven reserves of nickel are approximately 1.392 mt and the production of ferronickel is approximately 18,500 tpa. Production of copper, silver and gold is pending in 2015. The probable and indicated reserves of copper from Skouries Chalkidiki are approximately 1.943 mt. In the Prefecture Units of Chalkidiki and Evros the probable and indicated reserves of gold are approximately 19.37 million ounces and those of silver 131.6 million ounces. Chromium, manganese and molybdenum present good prospects of exploitation. Calculated at current prices, the total gross value of the probable and indicated reserves of the metallic minerals of Greece is €79.4 billion.

  8. Using Educational Webcasts in Small Multigrade Schools of Isolated Islands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannakos, Michail N.; Vlamos, Panayiotis

    2012-01-01

    In this study primary schools' educational system in small and isolated islands of Greece is presented. These areas are characterized by inaccessibility and isolation as it happens in most multigrade schools. For facing the difficulties of multigrade schooling, curriculums should be engaged with different learning strategies. In this case study…

  9. Features of criticality in precursory seismic electric signals and earthquakes in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dologlou, E.

    2013-06-01

    Very recently the recordings of precursory seismic electric signals (SESsf) in the island of Kozu-shima, Japan, have been reported, and their interrelation with subsequent earthquakes was shown to be beyond chance. Almost simultaneously, the recording of SES activity in northern Greece was also reported, which was followed by a magnitude 5.7 earthquake in northern Greece. These facts strengthen the aspects on the precursory nature of SESs and also enable the updating of a previously found power law relation between the earthquake stress drop and the lead time of SESs. They led to an exponent of 0.330, which falls in the range of critical exponents for fracture. The stability of this exponent, which results from a large amount of data during the last 30 yr, is remarkable and may thus confirm features of criticality in the pre-seismic region after the SES emission. The underlying physics are also discussed.

  10. Pleural calcification in northwest Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Bazas, T.; Oakes, D.; Gilson, J.C.; Bazas, B.; McDonald, J.C.

    1985-12-01

    Mass miniature radiography in 1969 detected a high prevalence of pleural calcification in three villages in northwest Greece. In 1980 a survey of a 15% sample of the population over the age of 10 was carried out with a 80% response rate. Full-size radiographs, ventilatory capacity measurements, and a detailed questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, type of work, and residence were used. Independent classification of the 408 films by two readers using the ILO/UC scheme showed very few small opacities but a very high prevalence of pleural calcification first evident in young adults and rising to 70% in the elderly. The overall prevalence was 34.7% in men and 21.5% in women. A comparison with the 1969 survey showed a progression rate of 5% per annum. In neither sex was there a significant relation of pleural calcification to smoking, ventilatory capacity, nor type of work, though those classified as field croppers had a slightly higher prevalence. There was no obvious evidence of increased lung cancer or mesothelioma in the village. The agent responsible for this apparently benign condition was not identified.

  11. GREECE Sounding Rocket Mission Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samara, M.; Michell, R.; Grubbs, G. A., II; Bonnell, J. W.; Ogasawara, K.; Hampton, D. L.; Jahn, J. M.; Donovan, E.; Gustavsson, B.; Lanchester, B. S.; McHarg, M. G.; Spanswick, E.; Trondsen, T. S.; Valek, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    On 03 March 2014 at 11:09:50 UT the Ground-to-Rocket Electrodynamics-Electrons Correlative Experiment (GREECE) sounding rocket successfully launched from Poker Flat, Alaska . It reached an apogee of approximately 335 km over the native village of Venetie during a dynamic post-midnight auroral event. A wide range of precipitating electrons were measured with the Acute Precipitating Electron Spectrometer (APES) and Medium-energy Electron SPectrometer (MESP), cumulatively covering 300 ev to 200 keV in varying time resolutions. DC to low frequency electric and magnetic fields were measured at the same time and a langmuir probe was also employed. In addition to the on board instrumentation a suite of ground based imagers was deployed under apogee. We used several electron-multiplying charge-coupled devices (EMCCDs) with different filters and field of views imaging along magnetic zenith. This yielded multi-emission line information about the auroral brightness at the magnetic footprint of the rocket critical for our main goal of exploring the correlation of the sheer flows often observed in high resolution imagery during aurora and the in situ signatures of precipitating particles and waves. The instruments used will be discussed in further detail along with preliminary results of an event rich in particle and wave signatures.

  12. Greece licensing round to focus on western sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Roussos, N.; Marnelis, F. )

    1995-03-06

    New opportunities for international oil companies to explore for hydrocarbons in Greece will emerge shortly. Parliament ratified a new petroleum law in January 1995, and DEP-EKY SA will undertake an international licensing round for offshore-onshore areas mainly in western Greece during second half 1995. The paper describes the fold and thrust belt of western Greece; the Katakolon oil field; the tertiary basins of eastern Greece; the Prinos and Prinos North oil fields; and the Epanomi gas field.

  13. Harmonic analysis of the precipitation in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, P. T.; Zerefos, C. S.

    2009-04-01

    Greece is a country with a big variety of climates due to its geographical position, to the many mountain ranges and also to the multifarious and long coastline. The mountainous volumes are of such orientation that influences the distribution of the precipitation, having as a result, Western Greece to present great differentiations from Central and Eastern Greece. The application of harmonic analysis to the annual variability of precipitation is the goal of this study, so that the components, which compose the annual variability, be elicited. For this purpose, the mean monthly precipitation data from 30 meteorological stations of National Meteorological Service were used for the time period 1950-2000. The initial target is to reduce the number of variables and to detect structure in the relationships between variables. The most commonly used technique for this purpose is the application of Factor Analysis to a table having as columns the meteorological stations-variables and rows the monthly mean precipitation, so that 2 main factors were calculated, which explain the 98% of total variability of precipitation in Greece. Factor 1, representing the so-called uniform field and interpreting the most of the total variance, refers in fact to the Mediterranean depressions, affecting mainly the West of Greece and also the East Aegean and the Asia Minor coasts. In the process, the Fourier Analysis was applied to the factor scores extracted from the Factor Analysis, so that 2 harmonic components are resulted, which explain above the 98% of the total variability of each main factor, and are due to different synoptic and thermodynamic processes associated with Greece's precipitation construction. Finally, the calculation of the time of occurrence of the maximum precipitation, for each harmonic component of each one of the two main factors, gives the spatial distribution of appearance of the maximum precipitation in the Hellenic region.

  14. Assessment of gamma radiation exposure and distribution of natural radioactivity in beach sands associated with plutonic rocks of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Argyrios; Koroneos, Antonios; Christofides, Georgios; Stoulos, Stylianos

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to evaluate the activity concentrations of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th, 228Th and 40K along beaches of Greece associated with plutonic rocks. They range from 6-940, 1-2292, 5-10143, 5-9953 and 27-1319 Bq/kg respectively, with some of them representing the highest values of natural radioactivity measured in sediments in Greece. The investigated beaches include Sithonia peninsula (Chalkidiki, N. Greece), some islands of the Aegean Sea (Mykonos, Paros, Naxos, Serifos, Ikaria), the area of Kavala (N. Greece), Samothraki island, NE Chalkidiki and Maronia (NE Greece). Several of these places are associated with high touristic activity such as Mykonos, Naxos, Paros, Serifos, Ikaria, Sithonia and Kavala. The (% wt.) heavy magnetic fraction (HM) (allanite, amphibole, mica, clinopyroxene, magnetite and hematite), the heavy non-magnetic fraction (HNM) (monazite, zircon, titanite and apatite) and the total heavy fraction (TH), were correlated with the concentrations of the measured radionuclides in the bulk samples. The heavy fractions seem to control the activity concentrations of 238U and 232Th of all the samples, showing some local differences in the main 238U and 232Th mineral carrier. The measured radionuclides in the beach sands were normalized to the respective values measured in the granitic rocks, which are their most probable parental rocks, so as to provide data upon their enrichment or depletion. The highest values of the equivalent dose have been reported in Mykonos, Naxos, Kavala and Sithonia. The annual equivalent dose which should be limited to at least 1 mSv y-1, varies between 0.003 and 0.759 mSv y-1 for tourists and from 0.012 to 3.164 mSv y-1 for local people working on the beach.

  15. New archaeointensity results from archaeological sites and variation of the geomagnetic field intensity for the last 7 millennia in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marco, E.; Spatharas, V.; Gómez-Paccard, M.; Chauvin, A.; Kondopoulou, D.

    In this study six new intensity determinations are presented, obtained from five well dated archaeological sites, located in northern Greece and in Paros, Cyclades Islands. The fired structures consisted of ceramic and pottery kilns belonging to the Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine periods. Between 8 and 21 samples of highly fired baked clays, tiles and bricks were taken, homogeneously distributed over the structures. The samples were analysed using the classical Thellier method, providing the past intensities and directions of the geomagnetic field recorded at each site. The intensity values have been corrected for anisotropy of thermal remanent magnetisation and cooling rate effects. Differences in the mean archaeointensities per site ranging from 1% to 11%, before and after TRM anisotropy and cooling rate corrections, were obtained. The new results indicate a decrease of 20% of the geomagnetic field strength in Greece, during the last four centuries BC. In order to compare our results with previously published data, a catalogue of archaeo- and palaeointensity results for the Aegean area has been established, covering the last 7 millennia. It consists of 336 data from Greece, western Turkey and Former Yugoslavia, collected from various authors. Weighting factors have been applied to these data, that then have been treated with a hierarchical Bayesian modelling, and a geomagnetic field intensity variation curve for Greece was constructed. A good agreement is observed when comparing the curve for Greece with the Bulgarian secular variation curve (SVC) for intensity. Satisfactory coincidence is also found with the archaeointensity data from Mesopotamia. Despite the presence of some time gaps, a more precise secular variation intensity curve has been constructed for Greece which, combined with a forthcoming directional SVC, will help for dating purposes.

  16. Parameters affecting seat belt use in Greece.

    PubMed

    Yannis, G; Laiou, A; Vardaki, S; Papadimitriou, E; Dragomanovits, A; Kanellaidis, G

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this research is the exploration of seat belt use in Greece and particularly the identification of the parameters affecting seat belt use in Greece. A national field survey was conducted for the analytical recording of seat belt use. A binary logistic regression model was developed, and the impact of each parameter on seat belt use in Greece was quantified. Parameters included in the model concern characteristics of car occupants (gender, age and position in the car), the type of the car and the type of the road network. The data collection revealed that in Greece, the non-use of seat belt on the urban road network was higher than on the national and rural road network and young and older men use seat belts the least. The developed model showed that travelling on a national road is negative for not wearing the seat belt. Finally, the variable with the highest impact on not wearing a seat belt is being a passenger on the back seats. PMID:21452095

  17. Survey of Beta nana in Greece

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wild species Beta nana is a crop wild relative of cultivated beets and a potential genetic resource for beet breeding. It is a rare but currently not threatened alpine species endemic to Greece which may be prone to extinction risk from climate warming in future. A plant exploration was conducte...

  18. Women of Ancient Greece: Participating in Sport?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Brett D.

    Based on evidence obtained from Greek literature and artifacts, this paper examines the extent to which women in ancient Greece participated in physical activity, sports, and games. Homer's "Odyssey" describes women playing ball and driving chariots; vases dating back to 700-675 B.C. portray women driving light chariots in a procession; a girl…

  19. The Preparation of School Psychologists in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatzichristou, Chryse; Polychroni, Fotini

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes the preparation of school psychologists in Greece. It discusses the social and cultural contexts that have influenced the evolution of the discipline of psychology, the beginning of training programs in school psychology, and the current status of school psychological services. The structure of the Graduate Program of School…

  20. Higher Education in Greece Compared to Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miliotis, Helen

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares and contrasts higher education in Canada and Greece. An overview of the systems in place is followed by an analysis centred on the triad of funding, access and quality. Similarities and differences are highlighted, and the current challenges and issues faced by both nations will be examined, especially in terms of world…

  1. Development of a Coastal Inventory in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karditsa, Aikaterini; Poulos, Serafim; Velegrakis, Adonis; Ghionis, George; Petrakis, Stelios; Alexandrakis, George; Andreadis, Olympos; Monioudi, Isavella

    2015-04-01

    Greek coastline that accounts more than 16.000 km hosts hundreds of beaches, which constitute a great touristic destination. However, no gathered information exists relative to its qualitative and quantitative characteristics (e.g. physicogeographical characteristics, artificial structures, nearby land use). Therefore, the development of a coastal database that would successfully concentrate all relative data, in the form of a National Inventory, could be a valuable tool for the management and the sustainable use and exploitation of beaches and the coastal zone. This work presents an example of the development of a beach inventory in the case of the beach zones of Heraklion and Lassithi counties in the Island of Crete, which is one of the most touristic areas in Greece. Data were initially abstracted from satellite images and combined with in situ observations carried out along 98 beaches with shoreline length >100 m. The collected data included geomorphological, topographic and bathymetric mapping, sediment sampling from the subaerial and underwater part and recording of artificial structures. The initial mapping showed that beaches represent only the 18%, with 74% of the total coastline to be rocky while 8% of the coastline host some kind of artificial intervention. The combination of satellite and in situ mapping led to the development of a coastal geomorphological map. Beach widths were found to be limited with the majority of beaches (59%) to have maximum widths less than 25 m, 35% to range between 25 and 50m and about 6% with maximum widths >50m. Concerning beach length, the threshold of 1000 m is overcome only by the 46% of the beaches. Beaches with very smooth slopes (<2.5) are infrequent (~6%), whilst beaches with low slopes (2.5-5%) are the majority (42%) along with beaches with moderate slopes (5-7.5%) that account approximately the 32%. Beaches with high slopes (7.5-10%) are about 11%, whereas very high slopes and extremely high slopes are much less

  2. Crustal motion and deformation in Greece from a decade of GPS measurements, 1993 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollenstein, Ch.; Müller, M. D.; Geiger, A.; Kahle, H.-G.

    2008-03-01

    The Hellenic plate boundary region, located in the collision zone between the Nubian/Arabian and Eurasian lithospheric plates, is one of the seismo-tectonically most active areas of Europe. During the last 15 years, GPS measurements have been used to determine the crustal motion in the area of Greece with the aim to better understand the geodynamical processes of this region. An extended reoccupation network covering whole Greece has been measured periodically in numerous GPS campaigns since the late eighties, and a continuous GPS network has been operated in the region of the Ionian Sea since 1995. In this paper, we present a new detailed high-quality solution of continuous and campaign-type measurements acquired between 1993 and 2003. During the GPS processing, a special effort was made to obtain consistent results with highest possible accuracies and reliabilities. Data of 54 mainly European IGS and EUREF sites were included in the GPS processing in order to obtain results which are internally consistent with the European kinematic field and order to allow for a regional interpretation. After an overview of the results of the IGS/EUREF sites, the results from more than 80 stations in Greece are presented in terms of velocities, time series, trajectories and strain rates. Previous geodetic, geological and seismological findings are generally confirmed and substantially refined. New important results include the observation of deformation zones to the north and to the south of the North Aegean Trough and in the West Hellenic arc region, arc-parallel extension of about 19 mm/yr along the Hellenic arc, and compression between the Ionian islands and the Greek mainland. Due to continuous long-term observations of 4-8 years, it was possible to extract height changes from the GPS time series. In Greece, we observe a differential subsidence of the order of 2 mm/yr between the northern and central Ionian islands across the Kefalonia fault zone. The differential subsidence

  3. Seasonality analysis of hydrological characteristics and flash flood events in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutroulis, A. G.; Tsanis, I. K.

    2009-04-01

    The seasonality of flash flood occurrence is strongly connected to the climate forcing mechanisms of each region. Hydrological characteristics such as precipitation and stream flow depict the regional climate mechanisms. Comparison of daily and mean monthly seasonality of selected precipitation and runoff characteristics reveals valuable information within the context of flood occurrence. The present study presents the preliminary findings of the seasonality analysis of flash flood events that occurred in Greece during the 1925 - 2007 period in combination with a seasonality analysis of their hydrological characteristics. A two level approach at national (Greece) and regional (Crete Island) level was followed, using a total of 206 flood events. Twenty two of these flood events enriched the European Flash Flood database, which is being developed in the HYDRATE project. The analysis of hydrological characteristics through seasonality indices was based on a dataset of 83 monthly and daily precipitation stations and additionally 22 monthly and 15 daily flow stations. Analysis concludes that on the island of Crete, the flood event-based seasonality coincides with the seasonality of the daily precipitation maxima during December and January. The seasonality of the 3 largest long term daily precipitation maxima indicates that 50% of the maximum precipitation events occur during and the November -December - January (NDJ) period. The event based seasonality analysis for Greece indicated that 57% of the events occur during the NDJ period. The annual maximum daily precipitation is lagging behind by approximately one month to the maximum annual stream flows for Crete. This is due to the snow melting process, the low soil percolation rates of winter period and the high baseflow of the local karstic aquifers that contribute to the maximum flows. The results will be compared with six different hydrometeorological regions within Europe in the frame of HYDRATE project, in order to

  4. Coastal erosion and accretion rates in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foteinis, Spyros; Papadopoulos, Costas; Koutsogiannaki, Irini; Synolakis, Costas

    2010-05-01

    Erosion threatens many coastal regions of Greece. Anthropogenic changes of landforms such as coastal roads built on even narrow beaches, sand mining for construction, poor design of coastal structures that interfere with sediment, and dams without sediment bypasses have significantly reduced beach widths. We present erosion rates for different beaches, some of which are in sensitive ecosystems, otherwise "protected" by local and EU ordinances. By comparing inferences of beach widths in varying intervals from 1933 to 2006, we infer that the construction of dams in Acheloos river in western Greece, built in a faraonic attempt to partially divert its flows to eastern Greece, this is responsible for up to 20m/year erosion rates observed in certain locales in the Acheloos delta. More characteristic erosion rates in the region are ~ 2m/year. By contrast, there appears rapid accretion of up to 4m/year in the beaches around the Nestos delta in northern Greece (Papadopoulos, 2009). In beaches that are not near large river deltas, erosion rates range from 0.5m/year to 1m/year. While we have not done comprehensive comparisons among coastlines with different levels of coastal development, it does appear that rapid coastal development correlates well with erosion rates. The underlying problem is the complete lack of any semblance of coastal zone management in Greece and substandard design of coastal structures, which are often sited without any measurements of waves and currents offshore (Synolakis et al, 2008). Beach maintenance remains an exotic concept for most local authorities, who invariably prefer to build hard coastal structures to "protect" versus nourish, siting lack of experience with nourishment and "environmental" concerns. In certain cases, choices are dictated by costs, the larger the cost the easier the project gets approved by regulatory authorities, hence the preference for concrete or rubble structures. We conclude that, unless urgent salvage measures are

  5. Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  6. 69 FR 11040 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Australia, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-03-09

    ... COMMISSION Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Australia, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa AGENCY... terminating its antidumping investigations on electrolytic manganese dioxide from Australia, Greece, Ireland... dioxide from Australia, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa (investigations Nos. 731-TA-1048 and...

  7. 61 FR 13917 - Hellenikon International Airport, Athens, Greece; Notification of Ineffective Security Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1996-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Hellenikon International Airport, Athens, Greece; Notification of Ineffective... Republic of Greece that I had determined that Hellenikon International Airport, Athens, Greece, did...

  8. Nectar Secretion and Bee Guild Characteristics of Yellow Star-Thistle on Santa Cruz Island and Lesvos: Where Have the Honey Bees Gone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared nectar secretion rates and bee guilds of yellow star-thistle, Centaurea solstitialis on Santa Cruz Island (USA) and the Northeast Aegean Island of Lesvos (Greece). This plant species is non-native and highly invasive in the western USA but native to Eurasia (including Lesvos). "Nectar ...

  9. Extreme precipitation events in NW Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houssos, E. E.; Bartzokas, A.

    2006-02-01

    In this work, the extreme precipitation events in NW Greece are studied. The data used are daily precipitation totals recorded at the meteorological station of Ioannina University for the period 1970-2002. 156 days with precipitation totals above 35 mm (5% upper limit) are only considered. It is seen that, a minimum frequency of extreme precipitation events appears in the period 1986-1991, which is characterized by a high positive NAO index. For each of the 156 extreme precipitation days, at first, the mean sea level pressure pattern over Europe is constructed by using 273 grid point values. Using Factor Analysis, the dimensionality of the 156×273 data matrix is reduced to 156×5 (84% of the total variance) and then, Cluster Analysis is applied on the results of Factor Analysis. Thus, the 156 cases are grouped objectively to 11 clusters, revealing the main pressure patterns, which favour extreme precipitation in NW Greece. Seven of the patterns are encountered in winter and autumn, while three of them cover a period from autumn to spring and one appears mainly in summer. In all of them the cause of the extreme precipitation event is a low pressure system centred west of Greece or a low pressure trough extended eastwards or southwards up to Greece. In some cases the depression is so strong and extended that it covers the whole Europe and the Mediterranean. In the single summer pattern, rainfall is caused by an extension of the SW Asia thermal low up to the central Mediterranean.

  10. Anthropogenic Erosion in Aghios Nikolaos, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foteinis, Spyros; Skanavis, Vassilis; Maravelakis, Nikos; Kalligeris, Nikos; Sartzetakis, George; Voukouvalas, Vangelis; Koutsongiannaki, Irini; Synolakis, Costas

    2013-04-01

    The beaches of Greece has been eroding rapidly in the past three decades, at rates, that in some cases, reach 1m/year. We report measurements from Agios Nicolaos, Crete based on beach profiles, historic aerial photos, satellite imagery and eyewitness report. We discuss the findings in the context of antropogenic factors. We correlate our measurements, qualitatively, with different indices and produce a risk map to allow decision makers to prioritize mitigation policies.

  11. Akpatok Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Akpatok Island lies in Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. Accessible only by air, Akpatok Island rises out of the water as sheer cliffs that soar 500 to 800 feet (150 to 243 m) above the sea surface. The island is an important sanctuary for cliff-nesting seabirds. Numerous ice floes around the island attract walrus and whales, making Akpatok a traditional hunting ground for native Inuit people. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 22, 2001. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  12. First description of a fossil chamaeleonid from Greece and its relevance for the European biogeographic history of the group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgalis, Georgios L.; Villa, Andrea; Delfino, Massimo

    2016-02-01

    The fossil record of Chamaeleonidae is very scarce and any new specimen is therefore considered important for our understanding of the evolutionary and biogeographic history of the group. New specimens from the early Miocene of Aliveri (Evia Island), Greece constitute the only fossils of these lizards from southeastern Europe. Skull roofing material is tentatively attributed to the Czech species Chamaeleo cf. andrusovi, revealing a range extension for this taxon, whereas tooth-bearing elements are described as indeterminate chamaeleonids. The Aliveri fossils rank well among the oldest known reptiles from Greece, provide evidence for the dispersal routes of chameleons out of Africa towards the European continent and, additionally, imply strong affinities with coeval chamaeleonids from Central Europe.

  13. Medical Informatics Education & Research in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Chouvarda, I.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives This paper aims to present an overview of the medical informatics landscape in Greece, to describe the Greek ehealth background and to highlight the main education and research axes in medical informatics, along with activities, achievements and pitfalls. Methods With respect to research and education, formal and informal sources were investigated and information was collected and presented in a qualitative manner, including also quantitative indicators when possible. Results Greece has adopted and applied medical informatics education in various ways, including undergraduate courses in health sciences schools as well as multidisciplinary postgraduate courses. There is a continuous research effort, and large participation in EU-wide initiatives, in all the spectrum of medical informatics research, with notable scientific contributions, although technology maturation is not without barriers. Wide-scale deployment of eHealth is anticipated in the healthcare system in the near future. While ePrescription deployment has been an important step, ICT for integrated care and telehealth have a lot of room for further deployment. Conclusions Greece is a valuable contributor in the European medical informatics arena, and has the potential to offer more as long as the barriers of research and innovation fragmentation are addressed and alleviated. PMID:26123910

  14. Novel phleboviruses detected in ticks, Greece.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna; Kontana, Anastasia; Tsioka, Katerina; Chaligiannis, Ilias; Sotiraki, Smaragda

    2016-07-01

    Since 2009, when severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus and Heartland virus have been identified and associated with disease in humans, the interest on tick-borne phleboviruses is increasing rapidly. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of tick-borne phleboviruses in Greece and compare them with respective ones detected worldwide. Ticks collected from goats and sheep in 60 sites of 13 regional units of Greece were grouped in pools (1-3 ticks per pool) and tested for the presence of phleboviral RNA. Six of 210 pools were positive; they consisted of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks collected from sheep in 3 regional units of Greece: Pella (2/30, 6.7%), Imathia (2/21, 9.5%), and Ioannina (2/28, 7.1%). The overall tick minimum infection rate was 2.1%. The sequences of the Greek phlebovirus (provisionally named Antigone virus) form a distinct clade in the tick-borne phleboviruses, differing by >40% from the currently known phleboviruses. Any probable implication of these viruses to public health remains to be elucidated. PMID:26935112

  15. Island Hopping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    At some institutions, it may feel as though faculty live on one island and advancement staff on another. The islands form part of an archipelago, and they exchange ambassadors and send emissaries occasionally, but interactions are limited. It may even seem as though the two groups speak different languages, deal in different currencies, and abide…

  16. Educational Reform in Greece: Central Concepts and a Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gounari, Panayota; Grollios, George

    2012-01-01

    The case of Greece as the most recent neoliberal experiment can provide valuable insights not only about a generalized attack on the welfare state and the public good, but also about the radical changes in public education that are altering its public mission, vision, and goals. In this paper first we trace the educational landscape in Greece as…

  17. 64 FR 23675 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-05-03

    ... orders on imports of electrolytic manganese dioxide from Greece and Japan (54 FR 15243). The Commission..., including the text of subpart F of part 207, are published at 63 FR 30599, June 5, 1998, and may be... COMMISSION Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece and Japan AGENCY: United States International...

  18. Conducting Qualitative Research on Desertification in Western Lesvos, Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iosifides, Theodoros; Politidis, Theodoros

    2005-01-01

    The main aim of this article is to present some critical methodological strategies employed in a qualitative research study on local socioeconomic development and desertification in western Lesvos, Greece. Through in-depth qualitative interviews with local producers in western Lesvos, Greece, an effort was made to identify and analyze the links…

  19. A Comprehensive Mathematical Model for the Correlation of Earthquake Magnitude with Geochemical Measurements. A Case Study: the Nisyros Volcano in Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Verros, G. D.; Latsos, T.; Liolios, C.; Anagnostou, K. E.

    2009-08-13

    A comprehensive mathematical model for the correlation of geological phenomena such as earthquake magnitude with geochemical measurements is presented in this work. This model is validated against measurements, well established in the literature, of {sup 220}Rn/{sup 222}Rn in the fumarolic gases of the Nisyros Island, Aegean Sea, Greece. It is believed that this model may be further used to develop a generalized methodology for the prediction of geological phenomena such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions in the vicinity of the Nisyros Island.

  20. Distributional effects of environmental policies in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekakis, Joseph N.

    1990-07-01

    Environmental protection policies generate an equity question concerning the fair allocation of environmental benefits and costs. This paper presents evidence from Greece during the 1980s. The findings reveal that Greek environmental policies, in the form of government self-regulatory programs, are mostly regressive in nature. At the regional level these programs combine all forms of vertical equity. Since the public sector finances the majority of related expenditures out of taxes, the regressive elements of environmental policies have been reinforced by discretionary fiscal measures and tax evasion, accompanied by inflation, which have distorted the country's progressive tax system.

  1. Community noise levels in Patras, Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Stathis, T.C.

    1981-02-01

    In the city of Patras (Greece), noise measurements were made for the purposes of determining the present noise-pollution levels and the reaction of the people to them. Noise pollution is ranked second in order after air pollution, and traffic was the principal noise pollutant. The mean noise levels, in 25 monitorig stations throughout the city, were found to be high and definitely unacceptable. For three representative locations, corresponding to high, medium, and low traffic volume, various statistical noise descriptors were used, together with the other measurements, to estimate the noise environment of the entire city.

  2. Legal capacity of the elderly in Greece.

    PubMed

    Giannouli, Vaitsa; Tsolaki, Magda

    2014-01-01

    Legal capacity of the elderly people in Greece is of great legal, medical and social importance, but has received little attention till now from medical literature. This paper aims to study whether elderly people with dementia are able to participate in legal contracts like sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We tried to introduce a new test for the above legal-financial contracts and show some preliminary findings. The test consists of six examined relevant domains concerning basic monetary skills, cash transactions, bank statement management, financial conceptual knowledge, knowledge of potential heirs (beneficiaries) and assets/estate and finally the decision making process for different dilemmas on sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We studied 203 people. Eighty three people were healthy, 64 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (10 with severe AD, 22 with moderate, and 32 with mild AD), 10 with Parkinson's disease (PD), and 46 with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI). Individuals were included in the study only if they were aged 60 and over and only if they had a partner or a guardian who could give information on the individual's daily living. The exclusion criteria were predefined as follows: history of any other mental health disease and/or any other serious somatic health disease except for their official diagnosis of dementia. Results showed statistically significant differences with all three groups of patients characterized as incapable for legal-financial actions. Patients with severe AD (P<0.001), patients with moderate AD (P<0.001), patients with mild AD (P<0.001), patients with PD (P<0.001) and aMCI patients (P<0.001) differed significantly from healthy controls. Further research should include more extensive sampling of elderly patients with varying demographic characteristics in Greece, to confirm and expand our initial findings. In conclusion, our new test which is based on Marson's theoretical model

  3. Siberian Islands

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Distinguishing Clouds from Ice over the East Siberian Sea, Russia     View Larger Image ... clouds from snow and ice. The central portion of Russia's East Siberian Sea, including one of the New Siberian Islands, Novaya ...

  4. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  5. The 1956 earthquake and tsunami in Amorgos, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okal, Emile A.; Synolakis, Costas E.; Uslu, Burak; Kalligeris, Nikos; Voukouvalas, Evangelos

    2009-09-01

    We conduct a comprehensive study of the Amorgos, Greece earthquake and tsunami of 1956 July 09, the largest such event in the Aegean Sea in the 20th century. Systematic relocation of the main shock and 34 associated events defines a rupture area measuring 75 × 40 km. The use of the Preliminary Determination of Focal Mechanism algorithm resolves the longstanding controversy about the focal geometry of the event, yielding a normal faulting mechanism along a plane dipping to the southeast, which expresses extensional tectonics in the back arc behind the Hellenic subduction zone. The seismic moment of 3.9 × 1027 dyn cm is the largest measured in the past 100 yr in the Mediterranean Basin. A quantitative database of 68 values of tsunami run-up was built through the systematic interview, over the past 5 yr, of elderly eyewitness residents of 16 Aegean islands and the Turkish coast of Asia Minor. It confirms values of up to 20 m on the southern coast of Amorgos, 10 m on Astypalaia, and up to 14 m on the western coast of Folegandros, 80 km to the west of the epicentre. These values, largely in excess of the inferred seismic slip at the source, and their concentration along isolated segments of fault, are incompatible with the generation of the tsunami by the seismic dislocation, and require an ancillary source, in the form of a series of landslides triggered by the earthquake and/or its main aftershocks, a model confirmed by hydrodynamic simulations using both the dislocation source and models of landslide sources.

  6. Isotopic composition of precipitation in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argiriou, Athanassios A.; Lykoudis, Spyros

    2006-08-01

    SummaryThe contribution of stable isotopes in meteorological, climatological and hydrological research is well known. Until this date and despite the fact that several hydrological studies of water sources in Greece have been published, no systematic isotopic study of precipitation has been performed in the country. This paper presents all the available isotopic data collected since 1960 in several Hellenic measurement stations. This data is divided in two periods: the first covers data that was collected in the past, in the frame of a preliminary survey of the isotope composition of precipitation in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea and specific hydrological studies; the second is the result of a three-year coordinated research project of the International Atomic Energy Agency, in which the authors participated, aiming at the systematic study of stable isotopes ( 2H and 18O) and 3H in precipitation around the Mediterranean basin. No statistically significant behavior between the two periods of data was found. The isotopic content of precipitation presents characteristics intermediate of those of the Eastern and Western Mediterranean. The tritium concentration in precipitation declines as expected towards the pre-bomb levels, however there is an indication that tritium concentrations are higher in Northern Greece.

  7. Data Analysis of cGPS stations in central Greece: station velocities and 1-D strain estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganas, Athanassios; Chousianitis, Konstantinos; Gianniou, Michalis

    2013-04-01

    We processed 30-s GPS data from permanent GNSS stations in central Greece, available at NOA since 2006. We obtained position time series along with horizontal and vertical velocities using the Kalman filtering approach and accounting for time-correlated noise content. The station distribution allowed us to draw velocity profiles and to calculate rates of baseline length change (1-D strain). In central Greece, the coherent picture of the velocity pattern for Attica and north-eastern Peloponnese (Corinth) stations (effectively a velocity "plateau" at 30 mm/yr) indicates that these areas belong to the same crustal block, although some internal strain is present within Attica's crust as well as across the Saronic Gulf. Our 1-D strain estimates are in general agreement with geological data (fault slip rates) in central Greece, implying accommodation of this crustal extension along E-W striking active normal faults. Some NE-SW directed shortening is mapped in the wider area to the west of the termination of the North Anatolian Fault (Sporades islands).

  8. The Late Glacial/Holocene transition and its consequences on coastal environment in northwestern Greece (Epirus) : geoarchaeological and palaeogeographical prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabrol, A.; Fouache, E.; Le Coeur, C.; Ghilardi, M.

    2009-04-01

    At the scale of the Mediterranean Basin, the Glacial/Interglacial transition (15 000 - 6 000 BP) corresponds successively to the hunthers-gatherers from the Late Upper Paleolithic societies, to the Mesolithic and then to the farming societies from the Neolithic. The area of research (Epirus and particularly the Ionian coast) reveals original archaeological data: in this area, archaeologists didn't find much prehistoric settlements comparing to other places in Greece. Furthermore, the neolithisation became later than in Thessaly or in Boeotia. Geomorphologic researches and regional palaeogeographical reconstructions should help us to explain the prehistoric human dynamics and the adaptation of these societies to a rapid changing area due in particular to the post glacial sea level rise. The research focuses on Northwestern Epirus: the island of Corfu and the delta of the Kalamas river correspond to a promising area of research. Indeed, this area revealed us different interesting and complementary sedimentary archives for our study: the probable palaeo-lake between Corfu and the continental Greece and the delta of the Kalamas river. The poster for the scientific congress will explain the originality of the area of research and the originality of the geoarchaeological prospects in northwestern Greece. Particularly, the methodology will be explained: archaeological and geomorphologic cartography, geophysical prospection in the delta (electric vertical profiles, seismic profiles) and core sampling activities. Palaeogeographical and geoarchaeological prospects and the first results will be discussed.

  9. 14C dating of the Early to Late Bronze Age stratigraphic sequence of Aegina Kolonna, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, E. M.; Gauß, W.; Forstenpointner, G.; Lindblom, M.; Smetana, R.; Steier, P.; Thanheiser, U.; Weninger, F.

    2010-04-01

    Aegina Kolonna, located in the center of the Saronic Gulf in the Aegean Mediterranean (Greece), is one of the major archaeological sites of the Aegean Bronze Age with a continuous stratigraphic settlement sequence from the Late Neolithic to the Late Bronze Age. Due to its position next to the maritime cross roads between central mainland Greece, the northeast Peloponnese, the Cyclades and Crete, the island played an important role in the trade between these regions. In the course of new excavations, which focused on the exploration of the Early, Middle and Late Bronze Age at Kolonna, several short lived samples from different settlement phases have been 14C-dated with the AMS method at the VERA laboratory. Bayesian sequencing of the 14C data according to the stratigraphic position of the samples in the profile was performed to enable estimates of the transition time between the cultural phases. The Aegina Kolonna 14C sequence is one of the longest existing so far for the Aegean Bronze Age, and therefore of major importance for the absolute Bronze Age chronology in this region. Preliminary results indicate that the Middle Helladic period seems to have started earlier and lasted longer than traditionally assumed. Further, at the present stage of our investigation we can give also a very tentative time frame for the Santorini volcanic eruption which seems to be in agreement with the science derived VDL date.

  10. InSAR application for geodynamic study of the 14 August 2003 Lefkada, Greece earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilieva, M.; Elias, P.; Briole, P.; Dimitrov, D.

    2009-04-01

    The area of the Central Ionian Islands, one of which is the Lefkada Island, is the transition zone between the West Hellenic arc and the Apulian plate and it is recognized as Kephalonia Fault Zone (KFZ) with strike-slip faulting. This zone is characterized by high seismicity and natural hazard potential. One of the most significant recent events (Mw = 6.3) occurred on August 14, 2003 northwest of the Lefkada island. The maximum intensity has been evaluated as Io = VII+ to VIII in the town of Lefkada. Using 20 available SAR images acquired by the ESA ENVISAT satellite, we produced 191 interferograms that we used to examine the co- and post-seismic crustal deformations caused by this earthquake. On the base of quality of the backscattered signal the results are divided in groups and from each group a map of coherence is produced. As a result an analysis of the coherent quality of the terrain and a choice of the most proper group for crustal deformation detecting is made. Whereupon seven ascending and nine descending ENVISAT images are used for generating of 21 best ascending and 36 best descending interferograms, respectively. From them, 6 ascending and 8 descending are co-seismic interferograms, sufficiently coherent to show a deformation of the Earth's surface of 5.6 cm in the western part of the Lefkada Island. These results are compared with the GPS measurements available on the island, and show adequate agreement. A dislocation model using the Okada formalism is proposed. References: Hollenstein Ch., M.D. Müller, A.Geiger, H.-G. Kahle (2008). GPS-Derived Coseismic Displacements Associated with the 2001 Skyros and 2003 Lefkada Earthquakes in Greece. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 98, No. 1, pp. 149-161.

  11. Variation of the Earth tide-seismicity compliance parameter during the recent seismic activity of Fthiotida, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contadakis, Michael; Aarabelos, Dimitrios; Vergos, Georgios; Spatalas, Spyridon

    2014-05-01

    Applying the Hi(stogram)Cum(ulation) method, which was introduced recently by Cadicheanu, van Ruymbecke and Zhu (2007), we analyze the series of the earthquakes occurred in the last 50 years in seismic active areas of Greece, i.e. the areas (a) of the Mygdonian Basin(Contadakis et al. 2007), (b) of the Ionian Islands (Contadakis et al. 2012 ) and (c) of the Hellenic Arc (Vergos et al. 2012 ) . The result of the analysis for all the areas indicate that the monthly variation of the frequencies of earthquake occurrence is in accordance with the period of the tidal lunar monthly and semi-monthly (Mm and Mf) variations and the same happens with the corresponding daily variations of the frequencies of earthquake occurrence with the diurnal luni-solar (K1) and semidiurnal lunar (M2) tidal variations. In addition the confidence level for the identifiation of such period accordance between earthquakes occurrence frequency and tidal periods varies with seismic activity, i.e. the higher confidence level corresponds to periods with stronger seismic activity. These results are in favor of a tidal triggering process on earthquakes when the stress in the focal area is near the critical level. Based on these results, we consider the confidence level of earthquake occurrence - tidal period accordance, p, as an index of tectonic stress criticality for earthquake occurrence and we check on posterior if the variation of the confidence level index, p, indicate the fault matureness in the case of the recent seismic activity at Fthiotida, Greece. In this paper we present the results of this test. References Cadicheanu, N., van Ruymbeke, M andZhu P.,2007:Tidal triggering evidence of intermediate depth earthquakes in Vrancea zone(Romania), NHESS 7,733-740. Contadakis, M. E., Arabelos, D. N., Spatalas, S., 2009, Evidence for tidal triggering on the shallow earthquakes of the seismic area of Mygdonia basin, North Greece, in Terrestrial and Stellar Environment, eds.D. Arabelos, M

  12. Olive Tree-Ring Problematic Dating: A Comparative Analysis on Santorini (Greece)

    PubMed Central

    Cherubini, Paolo; Humbel, Turi; Beeckman, Hans; Gärtner, Holger; Mannes, David; Pearson, Charlotte; Schoch, Werner; Tognetti, Roberto; Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2013-01-01

    Olive trees are a classic component of Mediterranean environments and some of them are known historically to be very old. In order to evaluate the possibility to use olive tree-rings for dendrochronology, we examined by various methods the reliability of olive tree-rings identification. Dendrochronological analyses of olive trees growing on the Aegean island Santorini (Greece) show that the determination of the number of tree-rings is impossible because of intra-annual wood density fluctuations, variability in tree-ring boundary structure, and restriction of its cambial activity to shifting sectors of the circumference, causing the tree-ring sequences along radii of the same cross section to differ. PMID:23382949

  13. Olive tree-ring problematic dating: a comparative analysis on Santorini (Greece).

    PubMed

    Cherubini, Paolo; Humbel, Turi; Beeckman, Hans; Gärtner, Holger; Mannes, David; Pearson, Charlotte; Schoch, Werner; Tognetti, Roberto; Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2013-01-01

    Olive trees are a classic component of Mediterranean environments and some of them are known historically to be very old. In order to evaluate the possibility to use olive tree-rings for dendrochronology, we examined by various methods the reliability of olive tree-rings identification. Dendrochronological analyses of olive trees growing on the Aegean island Santorini (Greece) show that the determination of the number of tree-rings is impossible because of intra-annual wood density fluctuations, variability in tree-ring boundary structure, and restriction of its cambial activity to shifting sectors of the circumference, causing the tree-ring sequences along radii of the same cross section to differ. PMID:23382949

  14. Centipede assemblages along an urbanization gradient in the city of Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    PubMed Central

    Papastefanou, Gabriella; Panayiotou, Eleni; Mylonas, Moisis; Simaiakis, Stylianos Michail

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Global urbanization is a major force that causes alteration and loss of natural habitats. Urban ecosystems are strongly affected by humans and there is a gradient of decreasing human influence from city centers to natural habitats. To study ecological changes along this continuum, researchers introduced the urban-rural gradient approach. The responses of centipedes to an urbanization gradient (urban-suburban-rural areas) were studied using pitfall traps in and near the city of Heraklion, in the island of Crete, Greece, from November 2010 to November 2011. Our results do not support the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, in which suburban areas located in the transitional zone between urban and rural habitats failed to indicate significant increase in terms of species richness and diversity. PMID:26257541

  15. Centipede assemblages along an urbanization gradient in the city of Heraklion, Crete (Greece).

    PubMed

    Papastefanou, Gabriella; Panayiotou, Eleni; Mylonas, Moisis; Simaiakis, Stylianos Michail

    2015-01-01

    Global urbanization is a major force that causes alteration and loss of natural habitats. Urban ecosystems are strongly affected by humans and there is a gradient of decreasing human influence from city centers to natural habitats. To study ecological changes along this continuum, researchers introduced the urban-rural gradient approach. The responses of centipedes to an urbanization gradient (urban-suburban-rural areas) were studied using pitfall traps in and near the city of Heraklion, in the island of Crete, Greece, from November 2010 to November 2011. Our results do not support the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, in which suburban areas located in the transitional zone between urban and rural habitats failed to indicate significant increase in terms of species richness and diversity. PMID:26257541

  16. Greece's health crisis: from austerity to denialism.

    PubMed

    Kentikelenis, Alexander; Karanikolos, Marina; Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2014-02-22

    Greece's economic crisis has deepened since it was bailed out by the international community in 2010. The country underwent the sixth consecutive year of economic contraction in 2013, with its economy shrinking by 20% between 2008 and 2012, and anaemic or no growth projected for 2014. Unemployment has more than tripled, from 7·7% in 2008 to 24·3% in 2012, and long-term unemployment reached 14·4%. We review the background to the crisis, assess how austerity measures have affected the health of the Greek population and their access to public health services, and examine the political response to the mounting evidence of a Greek public health tragedy. PMID:24560058

  17. Twins in Ancient Greece: a synopsis.

    PubMed

    Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne

    2016-01-01

    This brief outline associates twins with several aspects of life in Ancient Greece. In Greek mythology twins caused ambivalent reactions and were believed to have ambivalent feelings for each other. Very often, they were viewed as the representatives of the dualistic nature of the universe. Heteropaternal superfecundation, which dominates in ancient myths, explains on one hand, the god-like qualities and, on the other hand, the mortal nature of many twins. An assumption is presented that legends referring to twins might reflect the territorial expansions of Ancient Greeks in Northern Mediterranean, around the Black Sea, in Asia Minor, as well as North East Africa. In conclusion, in Greek antiquity, twins have been used as transitional figures between myth and reality. PMID:26135766

  18. Suicide in Greece: 2001-2011.

    PubMed

    Kontaxakis, V; Papaslanis, Th; Havaki-Kontaxaki, B; Tsouvelas, G; Giotakos, O; Papadimitriou, G Ν

    2013-01-01

    Since 2008 several European countries have fallen into a financial crisis. This crisis has mainly affected the Greek population. The lower of income and the increase of unemployment as consequences of crisis lead to negative effects on people's mental health. Usually, in periods of economic crisis there is an increase of suicidality of population. The aim of this study is to examine the changes of suicide rates in Greece during the last decade (2001-2011) with particular consideration in the recent period of economic crisis (2008-2011). Data regarding the greek general population and the crude data on suicides were obtained from the Hellenic Statistical Authority (ELSTAT). We assessed the specific suicide rate, i.e. the number of suicide cases per 100.000 inhabitants (SSR) using population data on the 2001 and 2011 census. Yearly and mean total, age and sex-SSR were calculated in five years age groups. There were no suicide cases among children under the age of fifteen. We compared total and male, female SSR during the period before the crisis (2001-2007) and during the crisis (2008-2011). During the decade 2001-2011 a total number of 4133 suicide cases were recorded. There were 3423 (82.8%) male suicides and 710 (17.2%) female suicides. During the decade 2001-2011 total SSR increased by 38.4%. In males increased by 33.1% and in females by 69.6%. In the period before the crisis (2001-2007) total SSR decreased by 3.9%. In males decreased by 8.4% but in females increased by 22.3%. During the period of crisis (2008-2011) total SSR increased by 27.2%. In males increased by 26.9% and in females by 28.5%. There was a statistically significant increase in total SSR during the crisis regarding subjects 50-54 years old (t=3.43, p=0.007) and in total SSR of males (t=2.31, p=0.047) as well as of the males age groups 50-54 (t=3.56, p=0.006), 45-49 (t=2.87, p=0.02), 30-34 (t=2.96, p=0.02). There were no statistically significant differences both in total SSR and in SSR of all

  19. Greece Financial Crisis and Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Mechili, Aggelos E; Kalokairinou, Athena; Kaitelidou, Dafni; Diomidous, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    The last six years the global community is facing an economic crisis that first appeared in USA. This crisis has a lot of impacts especially in health sector. Unemployment, job insecurity and the loss of disposable income have a significant impact in health too. The main objective of this research was to investigate the quality of life of the general population in Greece during the financial crisis. To collect the data it has been used the Greek version of Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36v2). In general, income, level of education, cohabitation and parenthood had a significant impact in quality of life. As a conclusion, unemployed participants' score was lower in the entire dimensions and in the two summary scales too. PMID:26152994

  20. Health inequalities after austerity in Greece.

    PubMed

    Karanikolos, Marina; Kentikelenis, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of economic crisis, Greece has been experiencing unprecedented levels of unemployment and profound cuts to public budgets. Health and welfare sectors were subject to severe austerity measures, which have endangered provision of as well as access to services, potentially widening health inequality gap. European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions data show that the proportion of individuals on low incomes reporting unmet medical need due to cost doubled from 7 % in 2008 to 13.9 % in 2013, while the relative gap in access to care between the richest and poorest population groups increased almost ten-fold. In addition, austerity cuts have affected other vulnerable groups, such as undocumented migrants and injecting drug users. Steps have been taken in attempt to mitigate the impact of the austerity, however addressing the growing health inequality gap will require persistent effort of the country's leadership for years to come. PMID:27245588

  1. European Patient Summary Guideline: Focus on Greece.

    PubMed

    Berler, Alexander; Tagaris, Anastassios; Chronaki, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The European Patient Summary (PS) guideline specifies a minimal dataset of essential and important information for unplanned or emergency care initially defined in the epSOS project with aim to improve patients' safety and quality of Care. The eHealth Network of European Union (EU) Member State (MS) representatives established under Article 14 of the EU directive 2011/24 on patient rights to cross-border healthcare adopted PS guideline in November 2013 and since then the guideline has been part of MS strategic eHealth implementation plans, standardization efforts, and concrete regional, national, European and international projects. This paper reviews implementation efforts for the implementation of an operational patient summary service in Greece drawing on challenges and lessons learned for sustainable standards-based large scale eHealth deployment in Europe and abroad, as well as the reuse of best practices from international standards and integration profiles. PMID:27225544

  2. Validation of satellite rainfall products over Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feidas, H.

    2010-01-01

    Six widely available satellite precipitation products were extensively validated and intercompared on monthly-to-seasonal timescales and various spatial scales, for the period 1998-2006, using a dense station network over Greece. Satellite products were divided into three groups according to their spatial resolution. The first group had high spatial (0.5°) resolution and consists only of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) products: the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) precipitation product (3A12) and the TRMM multisatellite precipitation analysis products (3B42 and 3B43). The second group comprised products with medium spatial (1°) resolution. These products included the TRMM 3B42 and 3B43 estimates (remapped to 1° resolution) and the Global Precipitation Climatology Project one-degree daily (GPCP-1DD) analysis. The third group consisted of low spatial (2.5°) resolution products and included the 3B43 product (remapped to 2.5° resolution), the GPCP Satellite and Gauge (GPCP-SG) product, and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration Climate Prediction Center (NOAA-CPC) Merged Analysis (CMAP). Rain gauge data were first gridded and then compared with monthly and seasonal precipitation totals as well as with long-term averages of the six satellite products at different spatial resolutions (2.5°, 1°, and 0.5°). The results demonstrated the excellent performance of the 3B43 product over Greece in all three spatial scales. 3B42 from the first and second group and CMAP from the third exhibited a reasonable skill.

  3. Devon Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Mars Researchers Rendezvous on Remote Arctic Island   ... equipment and technology that may be deployed during a human mission to Mars. One of the many objectives of the project scientists is to ... Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed by NASA's ...

  4. Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) image of five Hawaiian Islands was acquired by the instrument's vertical- viewing (nadir) camera on June 3, 2000. The image shows the islands of Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe. The prevailing Pacific trade winds bring higher levels of rainfall to the eastern slopes of the islands, leading to a greater abundance of vegetation on the windward coasts. The small change in observation angle across the nadir camera's field-of- view causes the right-hand portion of the image to be more affected by Sun glint, making the ocean surface appear brighter. Oahu is the westernmost of the islands seen in this image. Waikiki Beach and the city of Honolulu are located on the southern shore, to the west of Diamond Head caldera. MISR is one of several Earth-observing instruments on the Terra satellite, launched in December 1999. The Terra spacecraft, the flagship of a fleet of satellites dedicated to understanding our global environment, is part of NASA's Earth Sciences Enterprise, a long-term research program dedicated to understanding how human-induced and natural changes affect our world. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/JPL, MISR Team

  5. Anatahan Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... Snorkelers around this island are likely to encounter the fish Achilles Tang and the Moorish Idol (Acanthurus achilles and Zanclus ... Terra circles the Earth in the same orbit as Landsat 7, flying at an altitude of about 700 kilometers above the Earth's surface. ...

  6. Streamlined Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-514, 15 October 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a streamlined island in Marte Vallis, a large outflow channel system that crosses the 180oW meridian between the Elysium and Amazonis regions of Mars. The flow patterns on the floor of Marte Vallis might be the remains of lava flows or mud flows. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Most of the largest valleys on the red planet are named for 'Mars' in various languages. This island is located near 21.8oN, 175.3oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  7. Classifying Pacific islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.

    2016-12-01

    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (<20 years) transient islands are not included. The principal aim of the classification is to assess the spatial diversity of the geologic and geomorphic attributes of Pacific islands. It is intended to be valid at a regional scale and based on two attributes: five types of lithology (volcanic, limestone, composite, continental, surficial) and a distinction between high and low islands. These attributes yielded eight island types: volcanic high and low islands; limestone high and low islands; composite high and low islands; reef (including all unconsolidated) islands; and continental islands. Most common are reef islands (36 %) and volcanic high islands (31 %), whereas the least common are composite low islands (1 %). Continental islands, 18 of the 1779 islands examined, are not included in maps showing the distribution of island attributes and types. Rationale for the spatial distributions of the various island attributes is drawn from the available literature and canvassed in the text. With exception of the few continental islands, the distribution of island types is broadly interpretable from the proximity of island-forming processes. It is anticipated the classification will become the basis for more focused investigation of spatial variability of the climate and ocean setting as well as the biological attributes of Pacific islands. It may also be used in spatial assessments of second-order phenomena associated with the islands, such as their vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as

  8. Coastal Transport Integrated System in the Aegean Sea Islands: Framework, Methodology, Data Issues and Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantazis, D. N.; Stratakis, P.; Karathanasis, C.; Gkadolou, E.; Pagounis, V.; Chronis, K.; Gatsiou, M.; Moumouri-Frag, F.; Tsekos, P.

    2013-05-01

    Greece has more than one hundred inhabited islands, the majority of them are geographically scattered in small distances in the Aegean Sea. The Aegean Sea suffers systematically from two major issues. First, many islands are not served quite frequently with the continent or other islands' major ports. It is a situation rather problematic for the habitants of the islands who wish to travel, for the patients in need to be transferred to metropolitan hospitals, for the goods transport from and to islands. Second, there is a crucial issue in the Aegean Sea regarding the so-called "thin lines". Governments spend every year tens of million euros in subsidies in order to sustain the thin lines. Our aim is the development of an integrated and holistic spatial information system to effectively design coastal transportation lines to combat the above mentioned problems. This paper will present the project framework, the methodology followed, data issues and preliminary results.

  9. 65 FR 12575 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece and Japan; Notice of Commission Determination To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece and Japan; Notice of Commission Determination To..., a portion of the Commission's hearing in Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide from Greece and Japan,...

  10. Asperity break after 12 years: The Mw6.4 2015 Lefkada (Greece) earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokos, E.; Zahradník, J.; Gallovič, F.; Serpetsidaki, A.; Plicka, V.; Kiratzi, A.

    2016-06-01

    The Mw6.4 earthquake sequence of 2015 in western Greece is analyzed using seismic data. Multiple point source modeling, nonlinear slip patch, and linear slip inversions reveal a coherent rupture image with directivity toward the southwest and several moment release episodes, reflected in the complex aftershock distribution. The key feature is that the 2015 earthquake ruptured a strong asperity, which was left unbroken in between two large subevents of the Mw6.2 Lefkada doublet in 2003. This finding and the well-analyzed Cephalonia earthquake sequence of 2014 provide strong evidence of segmentation of the major dextral Cephalonia-Lefkada Transform Fault (CTF), being related to extensional duplex transform zones. We propose that the duplexes extend farther to the north and that the CTF runs parallel to the western coast of Lefkada and Cephalonia Islands, considerably closer to the inhabited islands than previously thought. Generally, this study demonstrates faulting complexity across short time scales (earthquake doublets) and long time scales (seismic gaps).

  11. Phlebovirus infection in Greece: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Papa, A; Kesisidou, Ch; Kontana, A; Arapidou, Z; Petropoulou, D

    2015-01-01

    Background Sandfly-transmitted phleboviruses cause to humans an asymptomatic or mild infection to severe meningitis or encephalitis. Phleovirus infections are common in the Mediterranean countries during the summertime when sandflies are active. It is estimated that several cases remain undiagnosed. Description of case In July 2013, a 45-year-old Greek male, was admitted to the General Hospital of Florina in northwestern Greece with two-day history of fever, myalgia, arthralgia, mild headache, and hemorrhagic exanthema. A serum sample obtained from the patient on the 6th day of illness was tested negative for West Nile virus infection. Instead, high titers of IgM and IgG antibodies against Toscana virus (TOSV) were detected, with low titers against sandfly fever Naples virus and no reactivity against sandfly fever Sicilian and Cyprus viruses, suggesting that the causative agent was TOSV or other phlebovirus with antigenic similarity to TOSV. Conclusion Phleboviruses have to be included in the differential diagnosis of acute summer febrile cases, accompanied or not by neurological symptoms. Effort has to be paid to test clinical samples during the first days of the disease when the virus is detectable by molecular or isolation methods, in order to elucidate the complex epidemiology of phleboviruses in the Mediterranean area. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (2):189-191.

  12. Groundwater hydrogeochemistry of Trikala municipality, central Greece.

    PubMed

    Skordas, Konstantinos; Papastergios, Georgios; Tziantziou, Lamprini; Neofitou, Nikolaos; Neofitou, Christos

    2013-01-01

    Sixty-four samples from the groundwater resources of Trikala municipality, central Greece, were collected during two periods (2006 and 2007) and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, specific electrical conductivity, and total dissolved solids), major ions (Ca(2+), Cl(-), HCO(3)(-), K(+), Mg(2+), Na(+), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-)), and several potentially toxic elements (Al, B, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sc, Si, Sn, Sr, U, V, Y, Zn). European Council directives and USEPA guidelines were used to assess the water quality. The results indicate that all samples are fresh water, suitable for human consumption. All basic ions and physico-chemical parameters have average concentrations below their recommended optimum limits with the exception of electrical conductivity, for January 2007, and nitrate for October 2006 and January 2007 sampling periods. This exceedance is the result of dissolution of minerals such as calcite and dolomite that are present in the surrounding rocks and the application of fertilizers, respectively. Lead is the only element with an average value that exceeds the recommended EC guideline, while special attention should be paid to one borehole (T9) which has elevated NO(3)(-) values which may pose a risk to human health. PMID:22282351

  13. Monitoring Santorini volcano (Greece) breathing from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foumelis, Michael; Trasatti, Elisa; Papageorgiou, Elena; Stramondo, Salvatore; Parcharidis, Issaak

    2013-04-01

    Since its last eruption in 1950, Santorini volcano (Greece) remained in a dormant state. This is also evidenced for the period 1992-2010 by the gradual deflation signal over Nea Kameni as measured by satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) with low rates of about 5-6 mm yr-1 as well as by the absence of seismic activity within the caldera. However, at the beginning of 2011 the volcano showed signs of unrest with increased microseismic activity and significant ground uplift, reaching 14 cm within a year (2011 March-2012 March), according to InSAR time-series. ALOS PALSAR data indicate the onset of the phenomenon in early 2010 where an aseismic pre-unrest phase of increased subsidence (1-3 cm) preceded the uplift. Joint inversions of SAR and GPS velocities using spherical and spheroidal magmatic source types indicate their location offshore at about 1 km north of Nea Kameni and between 3.5 and 3.8 km depth. The estimated volume variation rate is 6 × 106 m3 yr-1 to 9 × 106 m3 yr-1. A gradual slowing in the rate of inflation within the first quarter of 2012 is apparent by ENVISAT data, while subsequent observations from RADARSAT-2 confirm the observed trend.

  14. Space Radar Image of Athens, Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This space radar image of Athens, Greece, shows the sprawling, modern development of this ancient capital city. Densely populated urban areas appear in shades of pink and light green. The Acropolis the dark green triangular patch in the center of the image. Archaeological discoveries indicate Athens has been continuously occupied for at least the last 5,000 years. Numerous ships, shown as bright dots, are seen in the harbor areas in the upper left part of the image. The port city of Piraeus is at the left center. This image is 45 kilometers by 45 kilometers (28 miles by 28 miles) and is centered at 37.9 degrees north latitude, 23.7 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations are as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 2, 1994 onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  15. 66 FR 54642 - Change in Disease Status of Greece Because of BSE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2001-10-30

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 94 Change in Disease Status of Greece Because of... comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the regulations by adding Greece to the list of regions where bovine.... Greece is currently listed among the regions that present an undue risk of introducing bovine...

  16. 59 FR- Agreement on Social Security Between the United States and Greece; Entry Into Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-11-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agreement on Social Security Between the United States and Greece; Entry Into Force The... social security systems is effective beginning September 1, 1994. The agreement with Greece, which was... United States to work in Greece for 5 years or less remains covered only by the U.S. system....

  17. 62 FR 61036 - Changes in Disease Status of Belgium, France, Greece, Luxembourg, Portugal, and Spain

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-11-14

    ... specified conditions, based on the regions' disease status (see 62 FR 56000-56033, October 28, 1997, Dockets..., Greece, Luxembourg, Portugal, and Spain AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION...-mouth disease; Greece free of rinderpest; France, Greece, Luxembourg, and Spain free of exotic...

  18. 61 FR 352 - National Bank of Greece, et al.; Acquisitions of Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1996-01-04

    ... National Bank of Greece, et al.; Acquisitions of Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The.... Rutledge, Senior Vice President) 33 Liberty Street, New York, New York 10045: 1. National Bank of Greece, Athens, Greece; to retain shares of Worthington Limited Partnership, New York, New York, and...

  19. 66 FR 15399 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2001-03-19

    ...: Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide from Greece, 66 FR 1950 (January 10, 2001) (Preliminary Results). Scope of... International Trade Administration Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... antidumping duty order on electrolytic manganese dioxide from Greece. The review covers one...

  20. Strong Performers and Successful Reformers in Education: Education Policy Advice for Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The future of Greece's well-being will depend on improving educational performance to boost productivity and improve social outcomes. In the current economic context, with the need to get best value for spending, Greece must and can address inefficiencies in its education system. The challenges are significant. For example, Greece lags behind many…

  1. 65 FR 68978 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-11-15

    ... Administrative Review: Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide from Greece, 65 FR 26570 (May 8, 2000) (Preliminary Results... INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION (A-484-801) Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece: Final Results of... the antidumping duty order on electrolytic manganese dioxide from Greece. The review covers...

  2. 64 FR 85 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece: Notice of Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-01-04

    ... International Trade Administration Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece: Notice of Extension of Time... antidumping duty order on electrolytic manganese dioxide from Greece. The period of review is April 1, 1997... Greece. On May 29, 1998, the Department initiated this administrative review covering the period April...

  3. 64 FR 67861 - Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review: Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-12-03

    ... antidumping duty order on electrolytic manganese dioxide from Greece (64 FR 23596) pursuant to section 751(c... as an ``all others'' rate (54 FR 8771, March 2, 1989). The antidumping duty order on EMD from Greece... antidumping duty order on EMD from Greece (64 FR 23596), pursuant to section 751(c) of the Act. The...

  4. Adult Education in Greece. Monographs on Comparative and Area Studies in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucouvalas, Marcie

    This monograph is intended to foster an understanding of the history, context, and current status of adult education in Greece. The first part, which is devoted to the history of lifelong learning and adult education in Greece, consists of two chapters. The first chapter examines ancient and medieval Greece, and the second one covers the history…

  5. Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    1988-06-01

    The Solomon Islands, which form an archipelago in the Southwest Pacific about 1900 km northeast of Australia, are described. Included are brief descriptions about such points as geography, people, history, type of government, political conditions, economy, and foreign relations. In 1987 the population was 301,180 (49% under age 14); the annual growth rate was 3.67%. The infant mortality rate is 46/1000; the life expectancy, 54 years. Health conditions in the Solomons generally are adequate, and the country does not suffer from serious endemic diseases other than malaria, in both the vivax and falsiparum strains. Hospitals and pharmacies are limited to population centers and missions. PMID:12177986

  6. Epidemiological Observations on Cryptosporidiosis in Diarrheic Goat Kids in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Giadinis, Nektarios D.; Papadopoulos, Elias; Lafi, Shawkat Q.; Papanikolopoulou, Vasiliki; Karanikola, Sofia; Diakou, Anastasia; Vergidis, Vergos; Xiao, Lihua; Ioannidou, Evi; Karatzias, Harilaos

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in diarrheic goat kids in Greece and the risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis. Altogether, 292 diarrheic 4–15-day-old goat kids from 54 dairy goat herds of Northern Greece were examined. Oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 223 of 292 (76.4%) goat kids and the intensity of infection was scored as “high” in 142 samples, “moderate” in 45 samples, and “low” in 36 samples. Larger herds (>200 animals) had higher infection rates than smaller ones, although this difference was not statistically significant. Significantly higher infection rates were observed in herds during late kidding season (1 January to 30 April) compared to the early one (1 September to 31 December). These results suggest that cryptosporidiosis is very common in diarrheic goat kids in Greece, especially in large herds during the late parturition season. PMID:26819799

  7. Immigration to Greece: a critical evaluation of Greek policy.

    PubMed

    Lazaridis, G

    1996-04-01

    "In the light of the EU's interest in the movement of labour within the Union, the first part of this article looks at the character of Greek migrant labour with the aim of providing an overview of changes in the flow of migrant labour into Greece and of the policies adopted in relation to immigrant labour. It discusses the failure of the Greek government to formulate strategic measures to combat illegal immigration...and the limited (if any) efforts being made to aid the integration of Albanians. The second part of the article concentrates on [the experiences of] Albanian migrant labourers in Greece....[It] also assesses the similarities and differences in the employment positions of Albanian men and women in Greece and the way in which mechanisms of marginalisation differently affect these two categories." PMID:12179830

  8. Determination of perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) in drinking water from the Netherlands and Greece.

    PubMed

    Zafeiraki, Effrosyni; Costopoulou, Danae; Vassiliadou, Irene; Leondiadis, Leondios; Dassenakis, Emmanouil; Traag, Wim; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J

    2015-01-01

    In the present study 11 perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) were analysed in drinking tap water samples from the Netherlands (n = 37) and from Greece (n = 43) by applying LC-MS/MS and isotope dilution. PFASs concentrations above the limit of quantification, LOQ (0.6 ng/l) were detected in 20.9% of the samples from Greece. Total PFAS concentrations ranged between islands Mykonos, Kalymnos and Syros and for the town Tripoli in the Peloponnese. In the Dutch situation, total PFASs concentrations above the LOQ were detected in 48.6% of the samples, varying from 8) were only rarely detected. In the drinking water samples from the eastern part of the Netherlands, where drinking water is sourced from groundwater reservoirs, no PFASs were detected. This demonstrates that exposure to PFASs through drinking water in the Netherlands is dependent on the source. Additionally, five samples of bottled water from each country were analysed in the current study, with all of them originating from ground wells. In these samples, all PFASs were below the LOQ. PMID:26366629

  9. Malaria in Greece, 1975 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Vakali, A; Patsoula, E; Spanakos, G; Danis, K; Vassalou, E; Tegos, N; Economopoulou, A; Baka, A; Pavli, A; Koutis, C; Hadjichristodoulou, C; Kremastinou, T

    2012-01-01

    Malaria, which was endemic in Greece in the past, was officially eliminated in 1974. Since that time and up to 2010, a number of imported cases (ranging from 19 to 76) have been annually reported. The total number of reported laboratory-confirmed cases between 1975 and 2010 was 1,419. Plasmodium falciparum was identified in 628 (44%) of these cases, while P. vivax was found in 524 (37%). Of the total cases, 1,123 (79%) were male (ratio males vs. females: 3.78). Age was only available for 490 cases, of which 352 (72%) belonged to the 18-40 year-age group. Of the 382 malaria cases reported from 1999 to 2010 for which the region/country of acquisition was known, 210 (55%) were from Africa and 142 (37%) from Asia. The massive introduction of economic migrants, in the period from 1990 to 1991 and from 2006 onwards, mainly from countries where malaria is endemic, resulted in the appearance of introduced sporadic cases. In Peloponnese, Central and East Macedonia, Thrace and East Attica, mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles (e.g. Anopheles sacharovi, A. superpictus and A. maculipenis) that can act as plasmodia vectors are abundant and during the summer of 2011, 27 P. vivax cases were reported in Greek citizens residing in the agricultural area of Evrotas in Lakonia and without travel history. As further P. vivax malaria cases occurred in the Lakonia and East Attica areas in 2012, it is becoming urgent to strengthen surveillance and perform integrated mosquito control that will help eliminate the potential risk of malaria reintroduction and reestablishment. PMID:23231856

  10. Travelling to Greece for the summer 2011 Special Olympics.

    PubMed

    Pavli, Androula; Maltezou, Helena C

    2011-05-01

    The Special Olympics is a non-profit organization that was officially founded in 1968. Nowadays, the Special Olympics have evolved to a Global Movement that offers the opportunity to more than 3 million athletes with mental or physical disabilities from 185 countries to participate. The Special Olympics will take place in Greece from June 25 until July 4, 2011, where 7500 athletes from 185 countries will participate in 22 Olympic-type games. Mass gatherings such as Olympic Games represent a significant challenge for public health. This paper focuses on relevant health and safety issues for all travellers travelling to Greece for the summer 2011 Special Olympic Games. PMID:21570357

  11. Islands in the Midst of the World

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Greek islands of the Aegean Sea, scattered across 800 kilometers from north to south and between Greece and western Turkey, are uniquely situated at the intersection of Europe, Asia and Africa. This image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer includes many of the islands of the East Aegean, Sporades, Cyclades, Dodecanese and Crete, as well as part of mainland Turkey. Many sites important to ancient and modern history can be found here. The largest modern city in the Aegean coast is Izmir, situated about one quarter of the image length from the top, southeast of the large three-pronged island of Lesvos. Izmir can be located as a bright coastal area near the greenish waters of the Izmir Bay, about one quarter of the image length from the top, southeast of Lesvos. The coastal areas around this cosmopolitan Turkish city were a center of Ionian culture from the 11th century BC, and at the top of the image (north of Lesvos), once stood the ancient city of Troy.

    The image was acquired before the onset of the winter rains, on September 30, 2001, but dense vegetation is never very abundant in the arid Mediterranean climate. The sharpness and clarity of the view also indicate dry, clear air. Some vegetative changes can be detected between the western or southern islands such as Crete (the large island along the bottom of the image) and those closer to the Turkish coast which appear comparatively green. Volcanic activities are evident by the form of the islands of Santorini. This small group of islands shaped like a broken ring are situated to the right and below image center. Santorini's Thera volcano erupted around 1640 BC, and the rim of the caldera collapsed, forming the shape of the islands as they exist today.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and views almost the entire globe every 9 days. This natural-color image was acquired by MISR's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera, and is a

  12. GPS-derived estimates of crustal deformation in the central and north Ionian Sea, Greece: 3-yr results from NOANET continuous network data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganas, A.; Marinou, A.; Anastasiou, D.; Paradissis, D.; Papazissi, K.; Tzavaras, P.; Drakatos, G.

    2013-07-01

    Ionian Sea (western Greece) is a plate-boundary region of high seismicity and complex tectonics, dominated by frequent earthquake activity along the right-lateral Cephalonia transform fault. We present an analysis of 30-s GPS data from five (5) continuous stations of NOANET (NOA permanent GPS network) spanning the period 2007-2010. Our results show N-S crustal shortening onshore Lefkada island of the order of 2-3 mm/yr which is probably related to increased locking on the offshore Lefkada fault. We also calculated a large difference (1:3) in the principal strain rate amplitude between extension and shortening for the central Ionian Sea.

  13. Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

  14. The pyramids of Greece: Ancient meridian observatories?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, Efstratios; Manimanis, Vassilios N.; Dimitrijević, Milan S.; Katsiotis, Marco

    Pyramids, "Dragon Houses" ("Drakospita") and megalithic structures in general create always a special interest. We postulate that, as happens with the Drakospita of Euboea, the pyramid-like structures of Argolis (Eastern Peloponnese) were constructed by the Dryops. It is known that, in addition to Euboea and some Cyclades islands, this prehellenic people had also settled in Argolis, where they founded the city of Asine. We also propose that the pyramids of Argolis and in particular the pyramid of Hellinikon village were very likely, besides being a burial monument or guard house, might be served also for astronomical observations.

  15. [Financial crisis and mental health in Greece].

    PubMed

    Giotakos, O; Karabelas, D; Kafkas, A

    2011-01-01

    Several studies indicate an association between economic crises and psychological burden. To investigate the possible impact of the current economic crisis on mental health in Greece, the association between two economic indicators (unemployment and average income) and mental health variables (psychiatric clinic admittance, visits to outpatients' departments and emergency units, suicides, homicides, mortality rates and divorces) was studied. The data were gathered by the Greek Statistical Service and some others were provided by the following hospitals: Eginition Hospital, Psychiatric Hospital of Attica, Athens General Hospital and Evaggelismos Hospital. Simple and multiple regression analyses were performed on the data. There was no significant correlation between the level of unemployment, as well as the average income, and admittance to the psychiatric clinics. A significant correlation was isolated between unemployment and visits to outpatients' department (R2 = 0.40, p = 0.001) and emergency unit (R2 = 0.49, p = 0.0002) of Eginition Hospital. The unemployment rate during the period 1981-2008 was positively associated with the number of homicides (R2 = 0.16, beta = 0.000049, p = 0.03), as well as the number of divorces (R2 = 0.20, beta = 0.005, p = 0.02) during the same period. The average income showed positive association with the visits to both outpatients' department (R2 = 0.55, p < 0.001) and emergency unit (R2 = 0,37, p = 0.004) of Eginition Hospital. However, the data from the 4 hospitals of the study revealed a negative correlation between average income and visits to outpatients' departments (R2 = 0.70, p = 0.02) and emergency units (R2 = 0.90, p < 0.001). Furthermore, a significant negative correlation between the average income and suicide rates (R2 = 0.37, p = 0.007), as well as a positive correlation between the average income and divorce rates (R2 = 0.73, p < 0.001) were found. The findings show several similarities with previous surveys in

  16. The EUROSEISTEST Experimental Test Site in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitilakis, K.; Manos, G.; Raptakis, D.; Anastasiadis, A.; Makra, K.; Manakou, M.

    2009-04-01

    The European experimental site EUROSEISTEST has been established since 1993 in the epicentral area of the June 20th 1978 earthquake (40.8˚ N, 23.2˚ E, Ms 6.5, Imax VIII+ MSK, Papazachos et al., 1979), located in the active tectonic Mygdonian basin, 30km NNE from Thessaloniki, Greece. Euroseistest has been funded by the European Commission - Directorate General for Research and Development under the framework of consecutive EC research projects (EuroseisTest, EuroseisMod and Eurroseisrisk). It is specially designed and dedicated to conduct experimental and theoretical studies on site effects, soil and site characterization and soil-foundation-structure interaction phenomena. The geological, geophysical and geotechnical conditions of the Euroseistest valley (Mygdonian graben) is very well constrained through numerous in situ campaigns and laboratory tests. The permanent accelerometric network comprises 21 digital 3D stations, including vertical arrays down to 200m (schist bedrock), covering a surface of about 100 sq Km. The site is also covered by a permanent seismological network. A number of high quality recordings, from temporary and permanent arrays, gave the possibility to perform advanced experimental and theoretical studies on site effects (e.g. Raptakis et al., 1998; Pitilakis et al., 1999; Raptakis et al., 2000; Chávez-García et al., 2000; Makra, 2000; Makra et al., 2001 & 2005). The main advantage of Euroseistest is the detailed knowledge of the 3D geological-geotechnical structure of the basin (Manakou, 2007) and its dense permanent accelerometric network. For this reason the site has been recently selected by CEA to validate and check the advanced numerical codes to be used in Cadarache ITER project. Besides the study of site effects, Euroseistest offers interesting possibilities to study SSI problems through two model structures (scaled 1:3). A 6-storey building and a bridge pier, which have been constructed and instrumented in the centre of the

  17. Gold and gold working in Late Bronze Age Northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Vavelidis, M; Andreou, S

    2008-04-01

    Numerous objects of gold displaying an impressive variety of types and manufacturing techniques are known from the Late Bronze Age (LBA) contexts of Mycenaean Greece, but very little is known about the origin and processing of gold during the second millennium B.C: . Ancient literature and recent research indicate that northern Greece is probably the richest gold-bearing region in Greece, and yet, very little evidence exists regarding the exploitation of its deposits and the production as well as use of gold in the area during prehistory. The unusual find of a group of small stone crucibles at the prehistoric settlement of Thessaloniki Toumba, one with visible traces of gold melting, proves local production and offers a rare opportunity to examine the process of on-site gold working. Furthermore, the comparison of the chemical composition of prehistoric artefacts from two settlements with those of gold deposits in their immediate areas supports the local extraction of gold and opens up the prospect for some of the Mycenaean gold to have originated in northern Greece. The scarcity of gold items in northern Greek LBA contexts may not represent the actual amount of gold produced and consumed, but could be a result of the local social attitudes towards the circulation and deposition of artefacts from precious metals. PMID:18087685

  18. Implementing Innovation in Primary EFL: A Case Study in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karavas, Evdokia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight and discuss the strategies used to diffuse and manage a primary ELT innovation in Greece, strategies that proved essential for developing stakeholders' acceptance and ownership of the innovation, thereby facilitating its further development and sustainability. The PEAP Programme, launched in 2010,…

  19. The Uncertain Character of Recent Educational Reform in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traianou, Anna

    2009-01-01

    This article outlines the main education reforms that have taken place in Greece from the 1960s until the present. The author discusses how the direction of these reforms has been influenced not only by "global" pressures for "modernization" but also by the distinctive socio-cultural Greek context. The conclusion stresses that despite the various…

  20. Secondary Education in Greece. Guide to Secondary Education in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallen, Denis

    Cultural and national history have profoundly modeled Greek society and continue to play a vital role in Greek policy and in cultural and social life. This handbook provides a brief overview of secondary education in Greece. The first part describes the country's societal, historical, and political background; educational history and current…

  1. Literacy in Ancient Greece: The Evidence from History and Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollis, Karyn

    In examining the nature of literacy in ancient Athens, this paper reviews the work of key modern scholars and their positions in the debates concerning the development of literacy in Greece, the oral culture preceeding this, and the technology that enabled it to occur. Following an introduction surveying the viewpoints of Rhys Carpenter, L. H.…

  2. Health Needs: Policy Plan and School Practice in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soultatou, Pelagia; Duncan, Peter; Athanasiou, Kyriacos; Papadopoulos, Irena

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of health-related needs on a policy design and curriculum enactment basis in terms of the national school health education curriculum in Greek secondary education. Design/methodology/approach: A single case study, using an ethnographic approach, was conducted in Greece, seeking to…

  3. Notions of "Rhetoric as Epistemic" in Ancient Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, William L.

    The notion that rhetoric (and to a lesser extent, argument) is epistemic is an increasingly popular one today, although it can be traced to ancient Greece. The notion holds that rhetoric, or the art of persuasion, creates and shapes knowledge. Two ancient authors--Aristophanes and Plato--provide evidence that others had notions of rhetoric as…

  4. The History of Teaching Quantum Mechanics in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tampakis, Constantin; Skordoulis, Constantin

    2007-01-01

    In this work, our goal is to examine the attitude of the Greek scientific community towards Quantum Mechanics and establish the history of teaching of this theory in Greece. We have examined Physics textbooks written by professors of the University of Athens, as well as records of public speeches, university yearbooks from 1923 to 1970, articles…

  5. Identification and Overidentification of Special Learning Disabilities (Dyslexia) in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasiou, Dimitris; Polychronopoulou, Stavroula

    2009-01-01

    The present study analyzed identification procedures and explored the possibility of dyslexia overidentification in Greece. Data from various institutional sources provided evidence that the prevalence rate of dyslexia in the school population, aged 6-18, was slightly higher than 1%. Compared to the corresponding percentages from the United States…

  6. Inclusive Discourse in Greece: Strong Voices, Weak Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoniou-Sideri, Athina; Deropoulou-Derou, Eudoxia; Karagianni, Panagiota; Spandagou, Ilektra

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the inclusive discourse in Greece at a period characterized by change in policy and practice. The aim is to discuss critically the distance between the strong voices and weak practices that characterizes the Greek inclusive discourse. The first part focuses on disability and presents the ways that a "common sense" understanding…

  7. Vocational Training in the Textiles and Clothing Industries in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drimousis, I.; Zisimopoulos, A.

    This document examines the circumstances under which vocational training in Greece is provided for jobs in the textile and clothing industries. Its objective is to identify guidelines for vocational training for a skilled work force at regional and national levels and to contribute to job mobility between industries. Statistical data,…

  8. School Psychology in Greece: A System of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodore, Lea A.; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Dioguardi, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses origin of school psychology in Greece which emerged with services for mentally disabled in 1937. Explains how laws were instituted with the growing demand for educational services for students with social and emotional needs. Includes discussions on diverse roles of school psychologists, present status of special education, and influence…

  9. Mismanagement, Ambiguity and Delusion: Training Primary Teachers in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Bryan J.; Koutouzis, Emmanuel

    1997-01-01

    Examines the influence of social origins, characteristics, and qualifications of entrants to primary teaching in Greece and its role in social mobility. Research based on first-year student teachers along with unpublished research from government sources show a greater need for creative and strategic planning in the training of primary teachers.…

  10. Mutual relationship between mathematics and astronomy in the ancient Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obradovic, S.

    2006-05-01

    In the paper we consider the foundations of mathematics in the ancient Greece as a deductive system, especially the Euclidean geometry. We investigate the concepts of continuum and discreteness in mathematics and nature. A special attention is given to the mathematics applied to the foundation of the Pythagorean concept of the universe and adoption of Aristotle's and Ptolemy's worldviews.