Science.gov

Sample records for samoyed auxiliary verb

  1. Verb and auxiliary movement in agrammatic Broca’s aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Bastiaanse, Roelien; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2011-01-01

    Verb production in agrammatic Broca’s aphasia has repeatedly been shown to be impaired by a number of investigators. Not only is the number of verbs produced often significantly reduced, but verb inflections and auxiliaries are often omitted as well (e.g., Bastiaanse, Jonkers, & Moltmaker-Osinga, 1996; Saffran, Berndt, & Schwartz, 1989; Thompson, Shapiro, Li, & Schendel, 1994, 1997). It has been suggested that these problems are, in part, caused by the fact that finite verbs need to be moved from their base-generated position to inflectional nodes in the syntactic tree (e.g., Bastiaanse & Van Zonneveld, 1998). Others have suggested that production deficits in agrammatism can be predicted based on the position that certain structures take in the syntactic tree (Friedmann & Grodzinsky, 1997; Hagiwara, 1995). If the former theory is correct, several predictions can be made. First of all, the discrepancy between production of finite verbs in the matrix and embedded clause that has been found for Dutch (Bastiaanse & Van Zonneveld, 1998) should not be observed in English, since the word order of the matrix and embedded clause are the same in the latter language. Second, if verb movement (including movement of auxiliaries) is problematic for speakers with agrammatic aphasia, then a hierarchy in the production of auxiliaries in yes/no questions, auxiliaries, and finite verbs in declarative sentences in English would be expected, since the former has been moved and the two latter are in base-generated position. In the present paper, these hypotheses were tested in a cross-linguistic study of Dutch and English. Results showed the position in the syntactic tree does not predict deficit patterns; rather the critical factor appears to relate to whether or not verb or auxiliary movement is required. PMID:12590917

  2. How Does Dissociation between Written and Oral Forms Affect Reading: Evidence from Auxiliary Verbs in Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Raphiq

    2011-01-01

    In Arabic, auxiliary verbs are necessary in the written language, but absent from the oral language. This is contrary to languages such as English and French in which auxiliary verbs are mandatory in both written and oral languages. This fact was exploited to examine if dissociation between written and oral forms affects reading measures like…

  3. World-Making and World-Revealing: Semantics and Pragmatics of Modal Auxiliary Verbs during the Third Year of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pea, Roy D.; And Others

    Extensive longitudinal data were gathered on a child's entry into the symbolically mediated modal world by examining changes in the semantics and pragmatics of her uses of modal auxiliary verbs. The data are 53 transcripts of natural conversations between a girl, Nina, and her mother recorded periodically from her 23rd month to her 39th month. The…

  4. Verb-Final Typology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogihara, Saeko

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a typological study of verb-final languages, the purpose of which is to examine various grammatical phenomena in verb-final languages to discover whether there are correlations between the final position of the verb and other aspects of grammar. It examines how finality of the verb interacts with argument coding in simple…

  5. Los problemas de contenido y de empleo del verbo haber (Problems of Meaning and Use of the Verb "Haber.")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez Botero, Luis A.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the derivation, meaning and both past and present uses of the Spanish verb "haber." The verb refers to relationships of possession, duration and existence, and is used as an auxiliary. Extant derivative forms of the verb in other languages and earlier Spanish meanings are noted. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  6. Learning Verbs without Arguments: The Problem of Raising Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Misha

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of learning the class of raising verbs (e.g. seem). These verbs are potentially problematic for learners in that unlike typical main verbs, these verbs do not stand in a semantic relation with any Noun Phrase (NP) arguments. Moreover, a second class of verbs, known as control verbs, shares certain distributional…

  7. Bulgarian Verbs of Motion: Slavic Verbs in a Balkan Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Traci Speed

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the motion verb system of Bulgarian, focusing both on the structure of the Bulgarian motion verb itself, and on the information typically encoded in the Bulgarian verb of motion. It then compares the Bulgarian motion verb system with the motion verb systems of two other Slavic languages, Russian and Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian…

  8. The German and English Auxiliary Systems and Complex Predicates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Terrence C.

    1976-01-01

    This paper explores the auxiliary systems of English and German and the use of the auxiliary verbs in various complex predicate structures in the two languages. It aims at alleviating two types of problems in learning German involving governing patterns and ordering problems in clauses. (CHK)

  9. The English Verb System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorayska, Barbara

    1978-01-01

    Techniques of teaching the English finite verb to speakers of other languages must account for meaning that is signalled by the structure alone and meaning derived from the context. Accordingly, this study attempts to distinguish the semantic components of the finite verb structure. The structure is viewed as being always composed of the following…

  10. Albanian. Verbs: Reference Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This supplementary volume to "Albanian: Basic Course" is divided into two sections. The first is a summary of Albanian verb forms (tense and mood) and their use. The second section consists of a set of paradigms for the conjugation of regular and irregular Albanian verbs. (JB)

  11. Light Verbs and Polysemy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brugman, Claudia

    2001-01-01

    Examines the relationship between the polysemic structure of main verbs and their light counterparts. Suggests that light verbs are systematically related to their heavy counterparts in retaining the force-dynamic properties of the heavy sense, but that the conceptual domain in which that force-dynamic structure applies shifts from the physical to…

  12. New Mexican Spanish Verb Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, J. Donald

    This paper presents a morphophonemic analysis of the characteristics that distinguish verb structure in New Mexican Spanish from that of Standard Spanish. Verb structure and classification are discussed, and verbs are analyzed as being composed of four components: stem, thematic vowel, tense-aspect, and person-number. Verbs are classified as…

  13. Chuave Medial Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurman, Robert C.

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses two syntactic processes known as chaining and linkage, insofar as they are relevant to Chuave, a Papuan language spoken in the East New Guinea Highlands. These processes are discussed in relation to Chuave medial verbs. (CLK)

  14. Irregularities of a Regular Verb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales-Mena de Lo-Coco, Veronica

    1974-01-01

    Report of a study conducted to test the verbal behavior of native speakers of Spanish who were asked to provide a verb form not commonly used, the first person singular present tense of the verb "roer." (KM)

  15. How to Teach Phrasal Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mart, Cagri Tugrul

    2012-01-01

    Teaching phrasal verbs is a difficult area. Many a study has proved that contextualization has an important positive effect on the ability of the students to decipher the correct meaning of a phrasal verb. In this article you will read some useful approaches to the presentation of phrasal verbs through context to improve the students' level of…

  16. Modal Auxiliaries and Their Semantic Functions Used by Advanced EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torabiardakani, Najmeh; Khojasteh, Laleh; Shokrpour, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    Since modal auxiliary verbs have been proved to be one of the most troublesome grammatical structures in English, the researchers of this study decided to do an analysis on the ways in which advanced EFL Iranian students use modal auxiliaries focusing specially on nine modals' semantic functions. Consequently, was conducted based on the following…

  17. Italian Verb Inflection in Alzheimer Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colombo, Lucia; Fonti, Cristina; Stracciari, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    A group of 20 patients with probable Alzheimer disease (AD) and a control group were tested in a verb generation task, in a verb synonym task and several cognitive tests. Three types of verbs and novel verbs were presented in simple sentence frames, in two different conditions. In one condition participants were presented with the verb in the…

  18. Modal Auxiliary Verbs in Prescribed Malaysian English Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukundan, Jayakaran; Khojasteh, Laleh

    2011-01-01

    The use of corpus-based findings in order to inform L2 teaching materials have been emphasized by many researchers owing to the fact that the studies of authentic texts have revealed some inconsistencies between the use of grammatical structures in corpora, and those found in language textbooks that are based purely on hunch. Therefore, by…

  19. RESULTATIVE VERBS AND OTHER PROBLEMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HASHIMOTO, ANNE YUE

    THE SO-CALLED RESULTATIVE VERBS IN MANDARIN CHINESE ARE STUDIED WITHIN THE GENERAL FRAMEWORK OF A TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMAR. THE RESULTATIVE VERBS ARE GENERALLY CONSIDERED AS CONSISTING OF TWO COMPONENTS--A VERBAL COMPONENT FOLLOWED BY A RESULTATIVE OR DIRECTIONAL COMPLEMENT. OTHER PROBLEMS RELATED TO COMPLEMENTS ARE ALSO TOUCHED UPON, FOR EXAMPLE,…

  20. String Vacuous Overt Verb Raising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koisumi, Masatoshi

    2000-01-01

    Presents evidence for overt verb raising in Japanese, thereby defending the validity of the head parameter with its two values (head initial and head final). Explores consequences of the overt verb raising analysis of Japanese to various aspects of syntactic theory. (Author/VWL)

  1. Aspects of the Chinese Verb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, J. Charles

    1968-01-01

    It has long been realized that tense is not a feature of the Chinese verb system, which is controlled by a set of particles attached to the verb or to the sentence as a whole. The various usages involving these particles have been listed and described, the author points out, but the system as a whole has not been clearly defined. He suggests the…

  2. Semantic Weight and Verb Retrieval in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barde, Laura H. F.; Schwartz, Myrna F.; Boronat, Consuelo B.

    2006-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic aphasia may have difficulty with verb production in comparison to nouns. Additionally, they may have greater difficulty producing verbs that have fewer semantic components (i.e., are semantically "light") compared to verbs that have greater semantic weight. A connectionist verb-production model proposed by Gordon and…

  3. Overextension in verb conjunctions.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, Martin L

    2015-11-01

    Hampton (1988) discovered that people are subject to overextension-they categorize some things as falling under a conjunction (e.g., they categorize chess as a sport which is also a game) but not as falling under both of the corresponding conjuncts (e.g., they do not categorize chess as a sport). Although subsequent literature has replicated this effect with a wider range of constructions than those originally used by Hampton, the research so far has been exclusively concerned with various forms of noun compounds. This article generalizes the previous findings to the domain of verb conjunctions. By using a novel paradigm for studying overextension effects, this study demonstrates a very strong overextension effect for conjunctions of gerunds (e.g., walking and smoking). The author discusses the implications of the new findings for available explanations of overextension. PMID:26052787

  4. The Single-Stem Verb System Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Channon, Robert

    1975-01-01

    Linguistic theories cannot always be successfully applied to language teaching, but this article advocates the use of the single-stem verb system in teaching Russian. This system simplifies both teaching and learning Russian verb conjugation. (CHK)

  5. Objects, Events and "to Be" Verbs in Spanish--An ERP Study of the Syntax-Semantics Interface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone-Fernandez, Barbara; Molinaro, Nicola; Carreiras, Manuel; Barber, Horacio A.

    2012-01-01

    In Spanish, objects and events at subject position constrain the selection of different forms of the auxiliary verb "to be": locative predicates about objects require "estar en", while those relating to events require "ser en", both translatable as "to be in". Subjective ratings showed that while the "object + ser + en" is considered as incorrect,…

  6. The Schetic Categories of the Tlingit Verb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leer, Jeffry A.

    An analysis of verbs in Tlingit, a U.S. Northwest Coast Indian language, begins with an overview of its situation and usage and of previous research. The second chapter sketches its phonological and syntactic characteristics. Subsequent chapters deal specifically with the verb. An analysis of verb categories distinguishes two groups: argumental…

  7. Topics in the Nez Perce Verb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Amy Rose

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates several topics in the morphology, syntax and semantics of the Nez Perce verb and verbal clause. The first part of the dissertation focuses on the morphological segmentation of the Nez Perce verb and on the semantic description of the verb and clause. Chapter 1 provides a grammar sketch. Chapter 2 discusses the…

  8. Implicit Learning of Semantic Preferences of Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paciorek, Albertyna; Williams, John N.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies of semantic implicit learning in language have only examined learning grammatical form-meaning connections in which learning could have been supported by prior linguistic knowledge. In this study we target the domain of verb meaning, specifically semantic preferences regarding novel verbs (e.g., the preference for a novel verb to…

  9. Intensifying Modifiers for Chinese Modal Verbs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Xiaozhao

    While English modal verbs have been studied extensively, Chinese modal verbs have only been analyzed in a general way. A discussion of the six properties of Chinese modal verbs by Li and Thompson (1981, 1997) examined this area, though some of the properties that they proposed appear to be inaccurate or flawed. This paper concentrates on one of…

  10. The First Noun Principle and Ambitransitive Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tight, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored native English speakers' interpretations of second-language Spanish sentences featuring an animate subject and an ambitransitive verb (e.g., "Escuchan bien los ninos" "The children listen well"). First- (N=37), third- (N=39), and fifth-semester (N=23) participants heard eight subject-verb (SV) and eight verb-subject (VS)…

  11. Body Parts and Early-Learned Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maouene, Josita; Hidaka, Shohei; Smith, Linda B.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports the structure of associations among 101 common verbs and body parts. The verbs are those typically learned by children learning English prior to 3 years of age. In a free association task, 50 adults were asked to provide the single body part that came to mind when they thought of each verb. Analyses reveal highly systematic…

  12. Understanding Passives with Non-Action Verbs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Villiers, Jill; And Others

    Research in the active-passive verb relation has indicated that there is an interaction between syntactic form and verb semantics among children of preschool age. The present study examines the contribution of active-passive syntax and verb semantics to comprehension difficulty for preschoolers, 6-year-olds, 7-year-olds, and adults. An additional…

  13. Are Modal Auxiliaries in Malaysian English Language Textbooks in Line with Their Usage in Real Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khojasteh, Laleh; Kafipour, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Based on the discrepancies found in many Malaysian English language textbooks, a detailed analysis on the way modal auxiliary verb forms and their semantic functions were introduced and presented in texts and exercises in five Malaysian textbooks was done. For that to be achieved, a qualitative page-by-page content analysis was applied. From the…

  14. 575 Tlingit Verbs: A Study of Tlingit Verb Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggleston, Keri M.

    2013-01-01

    The Tlingit language, indigenous to Southeast Alaska and neighboring parts of British Columbia and the Yukon territory, is related to the Athabascan languages and the recently extinct language Eyak. Like Athabascan and Eyak, Tlingit verbal morphology is highly complex. The conjugation of Tlingit verbs is unpredictable in certain respects, making…

  15. Kinematic Parameters of Signed Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malaia, Evie; Wilbur, Ronnie B.; Milkovic, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Sign language users recruit physical properties of visual motion to convey linguistic information. Research on American Sign Language (ASL) indicates that signers systematically use kinematic features (e.g., velocity, deceleration) of dominant hand motion for distinguishing specific semantic properties of verb classes in production…

  16. Cinque's Functional Verbs in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowlett, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the syntax of a number of subcategories of verb in French which are compatible with a following bare infinitive and which express various kinds of grammatical tense, mood, modality, aspect and voice, as well as such (more lexical?) notions as perception, causation and locomotion. The article starts by cataloguing a number…

  17. The Zulu Ditransitive Verb Phrase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Nikki

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, several related aspects of arguments to ditransitive verbs are explored. The aim is to discover in what ways certain asymmetries in what is frequently referred to as a "symmetric object" language are interconnected while still allowing the other symmetric object behavior. These asymmetries are: (1) The requirement that the…

  18. Czech Basic Course: Verb List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoner, William; Vit, Karel V.

    This compilation of verbs, intended for students of the Defense Language Institute (DLI) Basic Course, provides brief definitions for each entry. No sentence examples are included. The text is intended to serve as a compact reference and study aid. Examples are selected from the Basic Course and the DLI Czech-English Dictionary. Entries are listed…

  19. Japanese; Particles, Verbs, and Adjectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This volume has been prepared as a reference book on particles, verbs, and "true" adjectives, as presented in the Defense Language Institute's Basic Course in Japanese. Forty-six particles are listed, with varying numbers of different usages explained and illustrated by examples. (AMM)

  20. Neural Correlates of Verb Argument Structure Processing

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Cynthia K.; Bonakdarpour, Borna; Fix, Stephen C.; Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Parrish, Todd B.; Gitelman, Darren R.; Mesulam, M.-Marsel

    2008-01-01

    Neuroimaging and lesion studies suggest that processing of word classes, such as verbs and nouns, is associated with distinct neural mechanisms. Such studies also suggest that subcategories within these broad word class categories are differentially processed in the brain. Within the class of verbs, argument structure provides one linguistic dimension that distinguishes among verb exemplars, with some requiring more complex argument structure entries than others. This study examined the neural instantiation of verbs by argument structure complexity: one-, two-, and three-argument verbs. Stimuli of each type, along with nouns and pseudowords, were presented for lexical decision using an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging design. Results for 14 young normal participants indicated largely overlapping activation maps for verbs and nouns, with no areas of significant activation for verbs compared to nouns, or vice versa. Pseudowords also engaged neural tissue overlapping with that for both word classes, with more widespread activation noted in visual, motor, and peri-sylvian regions. Examination of verbs by argument structure revealed activation of the supramarginal and angular gyri, limited to the left hemisphere only when verbs with two obligatory arguments were compared to verbs with a single argument. However, bilateral activation was noted when both two- and three-argument verbs were compared to one-argument verbs. These findings suggest that posterior peri-sylvian regions are engaged for processing argument structure information associated with verbs, with increasing neural tissue in the inferior parietal region associated with increasing argument structure complexity. These findings are consistent with processing accounts, which suggest that these regions are crucial for semantic integration. PMID:17958479

  1. European auxiliary propulsion, 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, L. B.

    1972-01-01

    The chemical and electric auxiliary propulsion technology of the United Kingdom, France, and West Germany is discussed in detail, and the propulsion technology achievements of Italy, India, Japan, and Russia are reviewed. A comparison is presented of Shell 405 catalyst and a European spontaneous hydrazine catalyst called CNESRO I. Finally, conclusions are drawn regarding future trends in European auxiliary propulsion technology development.

  2. Why are some verbs learned before other verbs? Effects of input frequency and structure on children's early verb use.

    PubMed

    Naigles, L R; Hoff-Ginsberg, E

    1998-02-01

    This study investigated the extent to which the nature of verb input accounts for the order in which children acquire verbs. We assessed the nature of verb input using a combined sample of the speech of 57 mothers addressing their Stage I children. We assessed the order of verb acquisition using as our database a combined sample of those children's speech 10 weeks later and using as our measure of order of acquisition the frequency of verb occurrence. The first set of analyses established the validity of this measure of acquisition order by comparing it with order of acquisition data obtained from checklist and diary data. The second set of analyses revealed that three properties of the input were significant predictors of the order of acquisition of the 25 verbs that were the focus of this study. The predictive properties of input were the total frequency, final position frequency, and diversity of syntactic environments in which the verbs appeared. These findings suggest that the way verbs appear in input influences their ease of acquisition. More specifically, the effect of syntactic diversity in input provides support for the syntactic bootstrapping account of how children use structural information to learn the meaning of new verbs. PMID:9604570

  3. The Effects of Verb Argument Complexity on Verb Production in Persons with Aphasia: Evidence from a Subject-Object-Verb Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Jee Eun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of verb argument complexity on verb production in individuals with aphasia using a verb-final language. The verb-argument complexity was examined by the number of arguments (1-, 2-, and 3-place) and the types of arguments (unaccusative vs. unergative comparisons). Fifteen Korean-speaking…

  4. Learning transitive verbs from single-word verbs in the input by young children acquiring English.

    PubMed

    Ninio, Anat

    2016-09-01

    The environmental context of verbs addressed by adults to young children is claimed to be uninformative regarding the verbs' meaning, yielding the Syntactic Bootstrapping Hypothesis that, for verb learning, full sentences are needed to demonstrate the semantic arguments of verbs. However, reanalysis of Gleitman's (1990) original data regarding input to a blind child revealed the context of single-word parental verbs to be more transparent than that of sentences. We tested the hypothesis that English-speaking children learn their early verbs from parents' single-word utterances. Distribution of single-word transitive verbs produced by a large sample of young children was strongly predicted by the relative token frequency of verbs in parental single-word utterances, but multiword sentences had no predictive value. Analysis of the interactive context showed that objects of verbs are retrievable by pragmatic inference, as is the meaning of the verbs. Single-word input appears optimal for learning an initial vocabulary of verbs. PMID:26329330

  5. Toddlers' Verb Lexicon Diversity and Grammatical Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, Pamela A.; Rispoli, Matthew; Hsu, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The goals of this study were to quantify longitudinal expectations for verb lexicon growth and to determine whether verb lexicon measures were better predictors of later grammatical outcomes than noun lexicon measures. Method: Longitudinal parent-report measures from the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (Fenson et al.,…

  6. The Causes and Consequences Explicit in Verbs

    PubMed Central

    Hartshorne, Joshua K.; O’Donnell, Timothy J.; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of a pronoun in one clause can be systematically affected by the verb in the previous clause. Compare Archibald angered Bartholomew because he… (he=Archibald) with Archibald criticized Bartholomew because he… (he=Bartholomew). While it is clear that meaning plays a critical role, it is unclear whether that meaning is directly encoded in the verb or, alternatively, inferred from world knowledge. We report evidence favoring the former account. We elicited pronoun biases for 502 verbs from seven Levin verb classes in two discourse contexts (implicit causality and implicit consequentiality), showing that in both contexts, verb class reliably predicts pronoun bias. These results confirm and extend recent findings about implicit causality and represent the first such study for implicit consequentiality. We discuss these findings in the context of recent work in semantics, and also develop a new, probabilistic generative account of pronoun interpretation. PMID:26052518

  7. Theory vs. Taxonomy: On Teaching 'Syntactically Irregular' Verbs in Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plewes, S. Frank

    This paper suggests methods for teaching the Russian verbs that govern what are loosely termed "objects" in oblique cases. The case government of such verbs is not necessarily an individual irregularity. Definite patterns emerge, both morphological and semantic, to facilitate grouping these verbs into classes. Russian verbs requiring genitive…

  8. The Electrophysiological Manifestation of Dutch Verb Second Violations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Ouden, Dirk-Bart; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the processing of violations of the verb position in Dutch, in a group of healthy subjects, by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) through electroencephalography (EEG). In Dutch, the base position of the verb is clause final, but in matrix clauses, the finite verb is in second position, a construction known as "Verb Second".…

  9. The Use of Subject-Verb Agreement and Verb Argument Structure in Monolingual and Bilingual Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spoelman, Marianne; Bol, Gerard W.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure in the spoken Dutch of monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) and bilingual Frisian-Dutch children with SLI. Both SLI groups appeared to be less efficient in their use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure than the…

  10. Familiar Verbs Are Not Always Easier than Novel Verbs: How German Pre-School Children Comprehend Active and Passive Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittmar, Miriam; Abbot-Smith, Kirsten; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Many studies show a developmental advantage for transitive sentences with familiar verbs over those with novel verbs. It might be that once familiar verbs become entrenched in particular constructions, they would be more difficult to understand (than would novel verbs) in non-prototypical constructions. We provide support for this hypothesis…

  11. The Effects of Word Order on Subject-Verb and Object-Verb Agreement: Evidence from Basque

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santesteban, Mikel; Pickering, Martin J.; Branigan, Holly P.

    2013-01-01

    We report two experiments investigating subject-verb and object-verb agreement in Basque. Participants repeated and completed preambles containing singular or plural subjects and objects in sentences with canonical subject-object-verb (SOV) or non-canonical object-subject-verb (OSV) order; in Experiment 2, they did so while remembering two…

  12. Dental Auxiliary Occupations. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Richard D.

    As part of a dental auxiliaries project, a Dental Auxiliary National Technical Advisory Committee was established, and its major undertaking was to assist in the development of a functional inventory for each of the three dental auxiliary occupations (dental assisting, dental hygiene, and dental laboratory technology). The analysis consisted of…

  13. Is More Always Better for Verbs? Semantic Richness Effects and Verb Meaning

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, David M.; Heard, Alison; Pexman, Penny M.

    2016-01-01

    We examined how several semantic richness variables contribute to verb meaning, across a number of tasks. Because verbs can vary in tense, and the manner in which tense is coded (i.e., regularity), we also examined how these factors moderated the effects of semantic richness. In Experiment 1 we found that age of acquisition (AoA), valence, arousal and embodiment predicted faster response times in LDT. In Experiment 2 we examined a particular semantic richness variable, verb embodiment, and found that it was moderated by tense and regularity. In Experiment 3a we found that AoA predicted faster response times in verb reading. Finally, in Experiment 3b, semantic diversity predicted response times in a past tense generation task, either facilitating or inhibiting responses for regular or irregular verbs, respectively. These results demonstrate that semantic richness variables contribute to verb meaning even when verbs are presented in isolation, and that these effects depend on several factors unique to verbs. PMID:27303353

  14. Auxiliary supply system

    SciTech Connect

    Mylar, J.L.; O'toole, J.P.

    1982-10-19

    An internal combustion engine has a carburetor, with a throttle valve and a choke valve, that delivers a fuel-air mixture to the intake manifold. An auxiliary system uses a blending chamber which feeds the manifold exclusive of the engine carburetor and through a metering valve that responds to engine vacuum level for controlling the amount of blend drawn through the blending chamber. At the inlet of the blending chamber is an atomizing throat fed with fuel and air. The drawing of the blend from the outlet of the chamber draws air through the throat and into comminglement with liquid fuel which is atomized by action of the throat. Under normal operating conditions and adjustment, the auxiliary system improves engine performance by increasing fuel economy and reducing engine exhaust pollution.

  15. Decomposability and mental representation of French verbs

    PubMed Central

    Estivalet, Gustavo L.; Meunier, Fanny E.

    2015-01-01

    In French, regardless of stem regularity, inflectional verbal suffixes are extremely regular and paradigmatic. Considering the complexity of the French verbal system, we argue that all French verbs are polymorphemic forms that are decomposed during visual recognition independently of their stem regularity. We conducted a behavioral experiment in which we manipulated the surface and cumulative frequencies of verbal inflected forms and asked participants to perform a visual lexical decision task. We tested four types of verbs with respect to their stem variants: a. fully regular (parler “to speak,” [parl-]); b. phonological change e/E verbs with orthographic markers (répéter “to repeat,” [répét-] and [répèt-]); c. phonological change o/O verbs without orthographic markers (adorer “to adore,” [ador-] and [adOr-]); and d. idiosyncratic (boire “to drink,” [boi-] and [buv-]). For each type of verb, we contrasted four conditions, forms with high and low surface frequencies and forms with high and low cumulative frequencies. Our results showed a significant cumulative frequency effect for the fully regular and idiosyncratic verbs, indicating that different stems within idiosyncratic verbs (such as [boi-] and [buv-]) have distinct representations in the mental lexicon as different fully regular verbs. For the phonological change verbs, we found a significant cumulative frequency effect only when considering the two forms of the stem together ([répét-] and [répèt-]), suggesting that they share a single abstract and under specified phonological representation. Our results also revealed a significant surface frequency effect for all types of verbs, which may reflect the recombination of the stem lexical representation with the functional information of the suffixes. Overall, these results indicate that all inflected verbal forms in French are decomposed during visual recognition and that this process could be due to the regularities of the French

  16. Verb and sentence production and comprehension in aphasia: Northwestern Assessment of Verbs and Sentences (NAVS)

    PubMed Central

    Cho-Reyes, Soojin; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Verbs and sentences are often impaired in individuals with aphasia, and differential impairment patterns are associated with different types of aphasia. With currently available test batteries, however, it is challenging to provide a comprehensive profile of aphasic language impairments because they do not examine syntactically important properties of verbs and sentences. Aims This study presents data derived from the Northwestern Assessment of Verbs and Sentences (NAVS; Thompson, 2011), a new test battery designed to examine syntactic deficits in aphasia. The NAVS includes tests for verb naming and comprehension, and production of verb argument structure in simple active sentences, with each examining the effects of the number and optionality of arguments. The NAVS also tests production and comprehension of canonical and non-canonical sentences. Methods & Procedures A total of 59 aphasic participants (35 agrammatic and 24 anomic) were tested using a set of action pictures. Participants produced verbs or sentences for the production subtests and identified pictures corresponding to auditorily provided verbs or sentences for the comprehension subtests. Outcomes & Results The agrammatic group, compared to the anomic group, performed significantly more poorly on all subtests except verb comprehension, and for both groups comprehension was less impaired than production. On verb naming and argument structure production tests both groups exhibited difficulty with three-argument verbs, affected by the number and optionality of arguments. However, production of sentences using three-argument verbs was more impaired in the agrammatic, compared to the anomic, group. On sentence production and comprehension tests, the agrammatic group showed impairments in all types of non-canonical sentences, whereas the anomic group exhibited difficulty primarily with the most difficult, object relative, structures. Conclusions Results show that verb and sentence deficits seen in

  17. The On-Line Processing of Verb-Phrase Ellipsis in Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Lewis P.; Love, Tracy; Grodzinsky, Yosef

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the on-line processing of verb-phrase ellipsis (VPE) constructions in two brain injured populations: Broca’s and Anomic aphasics. VPE constructions are built from two simple clauses; the first is the antecedent clause and the second is the ellipsis clause. The ellipsis clause is missing its verb and object (i.e., its verb phrase (VP)), which receives its reference from the fully specified VP in the antecedent clause. VPE constructions are unlike other sentence types that require displacement of an argument NP; these latter constructions (e.g., object-relatives, wh-questions) yield either on-time or delayed antecedent reactivation. Our results demonstrate that Anomics, like unimpaired individuals, evince reactivation of the direct object NP (within the VP) at the elided position. Broca’s patients, on the other hand, do not show reactivation of the antecedent. We consider several interpretations for our data, including explanations focusing on the larger ‘grain size’ of the reconstructed material in the ellipsis clause, the properties of the auxiliary that carries tense and agreement features, and the possibility that the cost-free syntactic copy procedure claimed to underlie VPE may be modulated by the functional deficit in Broca’s aphasia. PMID:19350393

  18. Multipurpose auxiliary power unit

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, C.

    1990-04-17

    This patent describes a gas turbine alternately usable as an auxiliary power unit, load compressor, air turbine started or the like. It comprises: a centrifugal compressor mounted for rotation; a turbine wheel mounted for rotation; a clutch interconnecting the compressor and the turbine wheel and selectively operable to couple or decouple the compressor and the turbine wheel; and inlet to the compressor; variable inlet guide vanes in the inlet and movable between positions substantially opening and substantially closing the inlet; a compressed air outlet from the compressor; a gas inlet to the turbine wheel, a combustor interconnecting the gas inlet and the turbine wheel.

  19. Children Use Gesture to Interpret Novel Verb Meanings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumford, Katherine H.; Kita, Sotaro

    2014-01-01

    Children often find it difficult to map verbs to specific referents within complex scenes, often believing that additional features are part of the referents. This study investigated whether 3-year-olds could use iconic gestures to map novel verbs to specific referents. One hundred and twenty children were taught verbs that could be interpreted as…

  20. A New Approach to the Russian Verb System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grebenschikov, Vladimir

    1973-01-01

    Describes and advocates a different approach to teaching the Russian verbal system based on determination of a "full or basic stem" for each verb. Relates verb conjugation system and morphological classification of verbs to basic stem. (Text is in Russian.) (DH)

  1. Toddlers Recognize Verbs in Novel Situations and Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naigles, Letitia R.; Bavin, Edith L.; Smith, Melissa A.

    2005-01-01

    Toddlers' (MA = 22 and 27 months) ability to extend newly taught verbs to new situational and sentential contexts was investigated. Children were interactively taught two novel verbs, presented in only the transitive frame (e.g. "You're lorping the ball"), in a playroom setting. They then viewed the verb actions presented on side-by-side monitors…

  2. Harder Words: Learning Abstract Verbs with Opaque Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Misha; Estigarribia, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Highly abstract predicates (e.g. "think") present a number of difficulties for language learners (Gleitman et al., 2005). A partial solution to learning these verbs is that learners exploit regularities in the syntactic frames in which these verbs occur. While agreeing with this general approach to learning verbs, we caution that this…

  3. An Examination of the Initial Mapping of Verb Meanings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrend, Douglas A.

    A study investigated children's hypotheses about the meanings of novel verbs on the child's first exposure to the verb. The study focused on the properties (action, result, or instrument) ascribed to the verbs before any information was given about word meaning. Subjects were 3-year-olds, 5-year-olds, and adults. The stimuli were six sets of…

  4. Attention to Explicit and Implicit Contrast in Verb Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, Jane B.; Hirshkowitz, Amy; Benavides, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Contrast information could be useful for verb learning, but few studies have examined children's ability to use this type of information. Contrast may be useful when children are told explicitly that different verbs apply, or when they hear two different verbs in a single context. Three studies examine children's attention to different…

  5. Impaired Verb Fluency: A Sign of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostberg, Per; Fernaeus, Sven-Erik; Hellstrom, Ake; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Wahlund, Lars Olof

    2005-01-01

    We assessed verb fluency vs. noun and letter-based fluency in 199 subjects referred for cognitive complaints including Subjective Cognitive Impairment, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. ANCOVAs and factor analyses identified verb, noun, and letter-based fluency as distinct tasks. Verb fluency performance in Mild Cognitive…

  6. Time Reference of Verbs in Biblical Hebrew Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwyghuizen, Jill E.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation suggests that the time reference of verbs in Hebrew poetry can be determined from a combination of form (aspect) and "Aktionsart" (stative vs. fientive). Specifically, perfective forms of stative verbs have past or present time reference. Perfective forms of fientive verbs have past time reference. Imperfective forms of…

  7. Verb Aspect and the Activation of Event Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferretti, Todd R.; Kutas, Marta; McRae, Ken

    2007-01-01

    The authors show that verb aspect influences the activation of event knowledge with 4 novel results. First, common locations of events (e.g., arena) are primed following verbs with imperfective aspect (e.g., was skating) but not verbs with perfect aspect (e.g., had skated). Second, people generate more locative prepositional phrases as…

  8. Verb-raising and Numeral Classifiers in Japanese: Incompatible Bedfellows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukushima, Kazuhiko

    2003-01-01

    Examines verb raising in Japanese and looks at Koizumi's (2000) evidence for verb-raising based on data involving, among other things, numeral classifiers. Demonstrates that Koizumi's evidence based on numeral classifiers does not support his claim that verb-raising occurs in Japanese. (Author/VWL)

  9. Idea Sharing: Reporting Verbs in Research Writing: Lessons from Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaroongkhongdach, Woravut

    2015-01-01

    Using reporting verbs in research writing seems to be a problem for graduate students (or novice researchers) when writing a research paper. The aim of this paper is to raise the awareness of students in using reporting verbs. The main argument in this paper is based on the comparison of reporting verbs used by two expert researchers and two Thai…

  10. Agrammatic Sentence Production: Is Verb Second Impaired in Dutch?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kok, Peter; Kolk, Herman; Haverkort, Marco

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates effects of verb movement in nine Dutch-speaking agrammatic aphasics. According to linguistic theory, in verb second languages such as Dutch and German, the verb remains in its clause-final base position in embedded clauses, whereas it moves to second position in main clauses. In recent linguistic accounts of agrammatic…

  11. Effects of Noun-Verb Conceptual/ Phonological Relatedness on Verb Production Changes in Broca’s Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Goral, Mira; Verkuilen, Jay; Kempler, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Background Individuals with Broca’s aphasia show better performance on nouns than on verbs, but distinction between nouns and verbs is not always clear; some verbs are conceptually and/ or phonologically related to nouns, while others are not. Inconsistent results on effects of noun-verb relatedness on verb production have been reported in the literature. Aims We investigated (1) whether verb instrumentality (a conceptual relationship to nouns) or homonymy (a phonological relationship to nouns) would affect verb production in individuals with Broca’s aphasia and (2) whether conceptual/ phonological noun-verb relationship would affect responsiveness to aphasia therapy that focused on verb production. Methods & Procedures Three English speaking individuals with Broca’s aphasia produced 96 verbs in sentences in response to picture stimuli. The target verbs included those that use an instrument and those that do not (e.g., to hammer vs. to yawn) and verbs that are phonologically identical to a related noun (e.g., to comb – a comb), morpho-phonologically-related to a noun (e.g., to grind – a grinder), and verbs for which there is no phonologically similar noun (e.g., to lean). The participants’ verb retrieval ability was assessed before and after a 4-week period of aphasia therapy. Outcomes & Results The participants produced more accurate instrumental than non-instrumental verbs both pre- and post-treatment. They also produced more verbs correctly that are homonyms of nouns than verbs that are phonologically related or unrelated to nouns before treatment. However, the effect of homonymy was not observed following treatment. Conclusion Individuals with Broca’s aphasia were more accurate in their production of verbs that were conceptually and phonologically related to nouns than on verb that were not. The performance on verb production improved significantly after therapy. We interpret the results to indicate that whereas prior to treatment the participants

  12. The timing of verb selection in Japanese sentence production.

    PubMed

    Momma, Shota; Slevc, L Robert; Phillips, Colin

    2016-05-01

    Many influential models of sentence production (e.g., Bock & Levelt, 1994; Kempen & Hoenkamp, 1987; Levelt, 1989) emphasize the central role of verbs in structural encoding, and thus predict that verbs should be selected early in sentence formulation, possibly even before the phonological encoding of the first constituent (Ferreira, 2000). However, the most direct experimental test of this hypothesis (Schriefers, Teruel, & Meinshausen, 1998) found no evidence for advance verb selection in verb-final (subject-verb and subject-object-verb) utterances in German. The current study, based on a multiword picture-word interference task (Meyer, 1996; Schriefers et al., 1998), demonstrates that in Japanese, a strongly verb-final language, verbs are indeed planned in advance, but selectively before object noun articulation and not before subject noun articulation. This contrasting pattern of advance verb selection may reconcile the motivation for advance verb selection in structural encoding while explaining the previous failures to demonstrate it. Potential mechanisms that might underlie this contrasting pattern of advance verb selection are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26569434

  13. Computense: Verb Drills on a Microcomputer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolphin, Emil

    1989-01-01

    A microcomputer program providing extensive and constantly changing practice with 35 irregular French verbs in 6 tenses is described. The program's objectives are to establish lateral associations between tense forms, provide continuous opportunity for recall, and shorten correct response time. (Author/MSE)

  14. Signs of Tense in ASL Verbs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobowitz, E. Lynn; Stokoe, William C.

    1988-01-01

    American Sign Language verbs have several ways to indicate time: 1)reference to a specific time; 2) extension at wrist, elbow, or shoulder to indicate future time; 3) flexion at wrist, elbow, or shoulder to indicate past tense. (Author/LMO)

  15. Southern White English: The Changing Verb Phrase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feagin, Louise Crawford

    In a sociolinguistic study of the verb phrase in Southern White English, a pattern of change in progress was observed. The 14 variables studied showed that certain variants were increasing, others decreasing, and yet others stable across time within the community, and that each variable's change was progressing in a wave sensitive to age, social…

  16. Compound Verbs in Persian: An Euphemistic Phraseology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salies, Tania Gastao

    An analysis of the compound verb system of Persian marks constructions euphemistically by producing an indirect order effect and by alternating different compound and simple forms that bear the same denotation but are governed by a rigorous code of ethics. What really carries the semantic reference in these cases is the process of construing…

  17. Facilitation and Practice in Verb Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keren-Portnoy, Tamar

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a model of syntax acquisition, whose main points are as follows: Syntax is acquired in an item-based manner; early learning facilitates subsequent learning--as evidenced by the accelerating rate of new verbs entering a given structure; and mastery of syntactic knowledge is typically achieved through practice--as evidenced by…

  18. Sound Symbolism Facilitates Early Verb Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro; Nagumo, Miho; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Some words are sound-symbolic in that they involve a non-arbitrary relationship between sound and meaning. Here, we report that 25-month-old children are sensitive to cross-linguistically valid sound-symbolic matches in the domain of action and that this sound symbolism facilitates verb learning in young children. We constructed a set of novel…

  19. Does Verb Bias Modulate Syntactic Priming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernolet, Sarah; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    In a corpus analysis of spontaneous speech Jaeger and Snider (2007) found that the strength of structural priming is correlated with verb alternation bias. This finding is consistent with an implicit learning account of syntactic priming: because the implicit learning model implemented by Chang (2002), Chang, Dell, and Bock (2006), and Chang,…

  20. Verb-Form Errors in EAP Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Roselind; Sim, Jacqueline; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify and describe the written verb-form errors found in the EAP writing of 39 second year learners pursuing a three-year Diploma Programme from a public university in Malaysia. Data for this study, which were collected from a written 350-word discursive essay, were analyzed to determine the types and frequency of…

  1. Fast Mapping Verb Meaning from Argument Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Valerie E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine lexical knowledge in children through a fast mapping task. Method: This study compared the performance of 60 African American English-speaking and general American English-speaking children between the ages of 4 and 6 years. They were presented with a comprehension task involving the fast mapping of novel verbs in 4 different…

  2. Productivity of Noun Slots in Verb Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theakston, Anna L.; Ibbotson, Paul; Freudenthal, Daniel; Lieven, Elena V. M.; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Productivity is a central concept in the study of language and language acquisition. As a test case for exploring the notion of productivity, we focus on the noun slots of verb frames, such as __"want"__, __"see"__, and __"get"__. We develop a novel combination of measures designed to assess both the flexibility and…

  3. A behavioral study of the nature of verb production deficits in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Beber, Bárbara Costa; Cruz, Aline Nunes da; Chaves, Márcia L

    2015-10-01

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) may experience greater difficulty with verb production than with noun production. In this study, we sought to assess the nature of verb production deficits in AD by using verb fluency and verb naming tasks. We designed two hypotheses for this verb deficit: (1) executive impairment drives the deficit; (2) semantic impairment drives the deficit. Thirty-five patients with AD and 35 matched healthy controls participated in the study. Both groups performed a verb naming task composed of 45 pictures (low-, medium-, and high-frequency subsets) and a verb fluency task (scored for total correct words and for mean word frequency). Patients with AD were equally impaired in verb naming and verb fluency, with an effect of disease severity on verb naming. Word frequency influenced verb naming, but not verb fluency, performance. Our results indicate that verb production deficits in AD seem to be driven more by semantic than by executive impairment. PMID:26291288

  4. Vacuuming with My "Mouth"?: Children's Ability to Comprehend Novel Extensions of Familiar Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seston, Rebecca; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Ma, Weiyi; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Can 6- and 8-year-olds (and adults) comprehend common instrument verbs when extended to novel situations? Participants heard eight unusual extensions of common verbs and were asked to paraphrase the verbs' meanings. Half of the verbs used were "specified instrument" verbs that include the name of the instrument used to perform the action (e.g., a…

  5. A Pedagogic Corpus Analysis: Modal Auxiliary Verbs in Malaysian English Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khojasteh, Laleh; Mukundan, Jayakaran

    2011-01-01

    Using corpus approach, over the past two decades, a growing number of researchers started to blame textbooks for neglecting important information on the use of grammatical structures in real language use and provided ample information about the mismatch between language used in textbooks and real language in use. Likewise, the prescribed Malaysian…

  6. Intersection auxiliary signal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian

    1995-12-01

    Many intersection accidents are related to drivers' inappropriate responses to an amber signal light, due to their misjudgment on the traffic situation and/or their aggressive behavior. To reduce intersection accidents of this nature, this paper proposes the Intersection Auxiliary Signal System (IAS). IAS can be installed at selected intersections, where information regarding signal phasing, intersection geometry and speed limit is transmitted from an ultrasonic/infra-red transmitter. An on-vehicle device receivers and processes the information, the provides the driver with explicit suggestions on the correct action to take (continue to pass or decelerate to stop), or warnings against on-going incorrect actions. IAS is expected to be more effective in suburban intersections, which are usually characterized by greater dimension, longer amber phases, and higher vehicle speeds. Both the intersection transmitters and the on-vehicle processors are expected to have simple structures and low costs. Simulation results show that IAS has a significant effect on reducing red signal violation, especially when there is no significant dilemma zones.

  7. Live action: can young children learn verbs from video?

    PubMed

    Roseberry, Sarah; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Parish-Morris, Julia; Golinkoff, Roberta M

    2009-01-01

    The availability of educational programming aimed at infants and toddlers is increasing, yet the effect of video on language acquisition remains unclear. Three studies of 96 children aged 30-42 months investigated their ability to learn verbs from video. Study 1 asked whether children could learn verbs from video when supported by live social interaction. Study 2 tested whether children could learn verbs from video alone. Study 3 clarified whether the benefits of social interaction remained when the experimenter was shown on a video screen rather than in person. Results suggest that younger children only learn verbs from video with live social interaction whereas older children can learn verbs from video alone. Implications for verb learning and educational media are discussed. PMID:19765005

  8. Productivity of Noun Slots in Verb Frames.

    PubMed

    Theakston, Anna L; Ibbotson, Paul; Freudenthal, Daniel; Lieven, Elena V M; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Productivity is a central concept in the study of language and language acquisition. As a test case for exploring the notion of productivity, we focus on the noun slots of verb frames, such as __want__, __see__, and __get__. We develop a novel combination of measures designed to assess both the flexibility and creativity of use in these slots. We do so using a rigorously controlled sample of child speech and child directed speech from three English-speaking children between the ages of 2-3 years and their caregivers. We find different levels of creativity and flexibility between the adult and child samples for some measures, for some slots, and for some developmental periods. We discuss these differences in the context of verb frame semantics, conventionality versus creativity and child errors, and draw some tentative conclusions regarding developmental changes in children's early grammatical representations. PMID:25604137

  9. Verb aspect, event structure, and coreferential processing

    PubMed Central

    Ferretti, Todd R.; Rohde, Hannah; Kehler, Andrew; Crutchley, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    We used an off-line story continuation task and an online ERP reading task to investigate coreferential processing following sentences that portrayed transfer-of-possession events as either ongoing or completed, using imperfective and perfective verb aspect (e.g., Amanda was shifting/shifted some poker chips to Scott). The story continuation task demonstrated that people were more likely to begin continuations with references to the Goal than to the Source, but that perfective aspect strengthened this bias. In the ERP task we probed expectations for Source and Goal referents by employing pronouns that matched one of the referents in gender. The ERP results were consistent with the biases revealed in the story continuation task and demonstrate that the difference in Goal bias for the two forms of aspect was manifested differently in the brain. These results provide novel behavioral and neurocognitive evidence that verb aspect influences the construction of situation models during language comprehension. PMID:22690039

  10. The Emergence of Grammar: Early Verbs and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armon-Lotem, Sharon; Berman, Ruth A.

    2003-01-01

    The paper examines the first twenty verb-forms recorded for six Hebrew-speaking children aged between 1;2 and 2;1, and how they evolve into fully inflected verbs for three of these children. Discussion focuses first on what word-forms children initially select for the verbs they produce, what role these forms play in children's emergent grammar,…

  11. 33 CFR 5.47 - Auxiliary ensign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Auxiliary ensign. 5.47 Section 5.47 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AUXILIARY § 5.47 Auxiliary ensign. (a) The Coast Guard Auxiliary ensign is a distinguishing mark, authorized by the Secretary, and may be displayed...

  12. Vacuuming with my mouth?: Children's ability to comprehend novel extensions of familiar verbs

    PubMed Central

    Seston, Rebecca; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Ma, Weiyi; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Can 6- and 8-year-olds (and adults) comprehend common instrument verbs when extended to novel situations? Participants heard eight unusual extensions of common verbs and were asked to paraphrase the verbs' meanings. Half of the verbs used were specified instrument verbs that include the name of the instrument used to perform the action (e.g., a vacuum is used to vacuum); the other half were open instrument verbs (e.g., write) whose function can be performed with a range of objects. Results suggest that children's ability to interpret verb extensions increases with age, that open instrument verb extensions were more difficult to comprehend than specified instrument verb extensions and that performance on verb extension correlates with scores on a standardized test of language acquisition. Verb knowledge continues to develop well beyond the preschool years. PMID:20161104

  13. Interpretation of Verb Phrase Telicity: Sensitivity to Verb Type and Determiner Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogiela, Diane A.; Schmitt, Cristina; Casby, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examine how adults use linguistic information from verbs, direct objects, and particles to interpret an event description as encoding a logical endpoint to the event described (in which case, it is telic) or not (in which case, it is atelic). Current models of aspectual composition predict that quantity-sensitive verbs…

  14. Grammar Learning and Teaching: Time, Tense and Verb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhuang, Xin

    2010-01-01

    The learning of English tenses and verbs is obviously the major and challenging part of second language learning and acquisition for Chinese students. The paper analyzes the features of simple present tense, simple past tense and verbs in them from the aspect of Sidney Greenbaum and Randolph Quirk's student grammar book as an instructive example.…

  15. On the Retrieval and Lexical Structure of Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKay, Donald G.

    1976-01-01

    A study is described which examined the retrieval of regular and irregular past tense verbs. Results suggested that preterites such as "taught" are not stored as separate and independent lexical units but are formed from the verb stem by means of derivational rules. (Author/RM)

  16. Instructional Architecture for Teaching Past and Past Participle Verb Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronnell, Bruce

    Noting that using correct verb forms is a problem for many elementary school students, and especially for those who are speakers of nonstandard English, this paper presents an instructional program for teaching past and past participle verb forms in writing to students in grade 3 through 6. The paper outlines the content of the instructional…

  17. The Role of NP Animacy and Expletives in Verb Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Misha

    2009-01-01

    I describe the results of an experiment that bears on how children learn the lexical and syntactic properties of abstract verbs ("seem," "try") in order to distinguish the subclasses of raising ("seem") and control verbs ("try"). Previous research suggested that an inanimate subject in certain contexts leads children to suppose that the subject…

  18. Comparing Nouns and Verbs in a Lexical Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordier, Francoise; Croizet, Jean-Claude; Rigalleau, Francois

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the differential processing of nouns and verbs in a lexical decision task. Moderate and high-frequency nouns and verbs were compared. The characteristics of our material were specified at the formal level (number of letters and syllables, number of homographs, orthographic neighbors, frequency and age of acquisition), and at the…

  19. Neural Correlates of Dutch Verb Second in Speech Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Ouden, Dirk-Bart; Hoogduin, Hans; Stowe, Laurie A.; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2008-01-01

    Dutch speakers with agrammatic Broca's aphasia are known to have problems with the production of finite verbs in main clauses. This performance pattern has been accounted for in terms of the specific syntactic complexity of the Dutch main clause structure, which requires an extra syntactic operation (Verb Second), relative to the basic…

  20. Parallelism Effects and Verb Activation: The Sustained Reactivation Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Sarah M.; Shapiro, Lewis P.; Love, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the processes underlying parallelism by evaluating the activation of a parallel element (i.e., a verb) throughout "and"-coordinated sentences. Four points were tested: (1) approximately 1,600ms after the verb in the first conjunct (PP1), (2) immediately following the conjunction (PP2), (3) approximately 1,100ms after the…

  1. A characterization of verb use in Turkish agrammatic narrative speech.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Seçkin; Bamyacı, Elif; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of narrative-speech production and the use of verbs in Turkish agrammatic speakers (n = 10) compared to non-brain-damaged controls (n = 10). To elicit narrative-speech samples, personal interviews and storytelling tasks were conducted. Turkish has a large and regular verb inflection paradigm where verbs are inflected for evidentiality (i.e. direct versus indirect evidence available to the speaker). Particularly, we explored the general characteristics of the speech samples (e.g. utterance length) and the uses of lexical, finite and non-finite verbs and direct and indirect evidentials. The results show that speech rate is slow, verbs per utterance are lower than normal and the verb diversity is reduced in the agrammatic speakers. Verb inflection is relatively intact; however, a trade-off pattern between inflection for direct evidentials and verb diversity is found. The implications of the data are discussed in connection with narrative-speech production studies on other languages. PMID:27030545

  2. Learning to Construct Verbs in Navajo and Quechua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Ellen H.; Saville-Troike, Muriel

    2002-01-01

    Navajo and Quechua, both languages with a highly complex morphology, provide intriguing insights into the acquisition of inflectional systems. The development of the verb in the two languages is especially interesting, since the morphology encodes diverse grammatical notions, with the complex verb often constituting the entire sentence. While the…

  3. Noun-Verb Ambiguity in Chronic Undifferentiated Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfarb, Robert; Bekker, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated noun-verb retrieval patterns of 30 adults with chronic undifferentiated schizophrenia and 67 typical adults, to determine if schizophrenia affected nouns (associated with temporal lobe function) differently from verbs (associated with frontal lobe function). Stimuli were homophonic homographic homonyms, balanced according…

  4. Verb Tense and ESL Composition: A Discourse Level Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappel, Virginia A.; Rodby, Judith

    The problems encountered by English as second language (ESL) students in selecting verb tenses for their written discourse were investigated. Tape recorded interviews with four freshman composition students who had been referred for intensive work on verb errors were analyzed for students' explanations of their errors and the contexts in which…

  5. Children's Knowledge of Verb-Structure: Data from Hebrew.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Ruth A.

    The acquisition of morpheme-structure constraints by children is discussed. The focus is a subset of verbs in modern Hebrew and the language-specific knowledge that children acquire of what constitutes a possible verb in their language, from the point of view of both internal form and of categorical appropriateness for naming a certain semantic…

  6. Cerebellum engages in automation of verb-generation skill.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi; Wu, Paula; Weng, Xuchu; Bandettini, Peter A

    2014-03-01

    Numerous studies have shown cerebellar involvement in item-specific association, a form of explicit learning. However, very few have demonstrated cerebellar participation in automation of non-motor cognitive tasks. Applying fMRI to a repeated verb-generation task, we sought to distinguish cerebellar involvement in learning of item-specific noun-verb association and automation of verb generation skill. The same set of nouns was repeated in six verb-generation blocks so that subjects practiced generating verbs for the nouns. The practice was followed by a novel block with a different set of nouns. The cerebellar vermis (IV/V) and the right cerebellar lobule VI showed decreased activation following practice; activation in the right cerebellar Crus I was significantly lower in the novel challenge than in the initial verb-generation task. Furthermore, activation in this region during well-practiced blocks strongly correlated with improvement of behavioral performance in both the well-practiced and the novel blocks, suggesting its role in the learning of general mental skills not specific to the practiced noun-verb pairs. Therefore, the cerebellum processes both explicit verbal associative learning and automation of cognitive tasks. Different cerebellar regions predominate in this processing: lobule VI during the acquisition of item-specific association, and Crus I during automation of verb-generation skills through practice. PMID:24738536

  7. Preliminary Evidence for Impaired Rapid Verb Generation in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Steven Paul; Weinborn, Michael; Posada, Carolina; O'Grady, Joy

    2007-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that nouns and verbs are processed within relatively separable semantic memory networks. Although abnormal semantic processing is a common feature of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, no prior studies have specifically examined the comparability of noun and verb generation deficits in schizophrenia. In the current study,…

  8. Children Use Different Cues to Guide Noun and Verb Extensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, Jane B.; Heard, M. Elaine; Ring, Kolette; Pai, Anushka; Sallquist, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Learning new words involves decoding both how a word fits the current situation and how it could be used in new situations. Three studies explore how two types of cues--sentence structure and the availability of multiple instances--affect children's extensions of nouns and verbs. In each study, 2.5-year-olds heard nouns, verbs, or no new word…

  9. Mandarin Learners Use Syntactic Bootstrapping in Verb Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joanne N.; Naigles, Letitia R.

    2008-01-01

    Mandarin Chinese allows pervasive ellipsis of noun arguments (NPs) in discourse, which casts doubt concerning child learners' use of syntax in verb learning. This study investigated whether Mandarin learning children would nonetheless extend verb meanings based on the number of NPs in sentences. Forty-one Mandarin-speaking two- and three-year-olds…

  10. A Conceptual Approach to the Instruction of Phrasal Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Benjamin J.

    2012-01-01

    Phrasal verbs present numerous challenges to second language learners of English, who often view verb + particle combinations as random (Side, 1990). This article proposes a pedagogical approach that focuses on particles as a means of spotlighting systematicity within this traditionally problematic area of English vocabulary. Informed by cognitive…

  11. Models of Causation and the Semantics of Causal Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Phillip; Song, Grace

    2003-01-01

    This research examines the relationship between the concept of CAUSE as it is characterized in psychological models of causation and the meaning of causal verbs, such as the verb "cause" itself. According to focal set models of causation ([Cheng (1997]; [Cheng and Novick (1991 and Cheng and Novick (1992]), the concept of CAUSE should be more…

  12. Finiteness and Verb-Second in German Agrammatism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzlaff, Michaela; Clahsen, Harald

    2005-01-01

    This study presents results from sentence-completion and grammaticality-judgement tasks with seven German-speaking agrammatic aphasics and seven age-matched control subjects examining verb finiteness marking and verb-second (V2) placement. The patients were found to be selectively impaired in tense marking in the face of preserved mood and…

  13. The Trouble with Nouns and Verbs in Greek Fluent Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kambanaros, Maria

    2008-01-01

    In the past verb retrieval problems were associated primarily with agrammatism and noun retrieval difficulties with fluent aphasia. With regards to fluent aphasia, so far in the literature, three distinct patterns of verb/noun dissociations have been described for individuals with fluent anomic aphasia in languages with different underlying forms;…

  14. Counting the Nouns: Simple Structural Cues to Verb Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Sylvia; Fisher, Cynthia; Snedeker, Jesse

    2012-01-01

    Two-year-olds use the sentence structures verbs appear in--"subcategorization frames"--to guide verb learning. This is syntactic bootstrapping. This study probed the developmental origins of this ability. The structure-mapping account proposes that children begin with a bias toward one-to-one mapping between nouns in sentences and participant…

  15. The Role of Semantic Features in Verb Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnotte, Isabelle

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the general hypothesis that, as for nouns, stable representations of semantic knowledge relative to situations expressed by verbs are available and accessible in long term memory in normal people. Regular associations between verbs and past tenses in French adults allowed to abstract two superordinate semantic features…

  16. Live Action: Can Young Children Learn Verbs from Video?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseberry, Sarah; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Parish-Morris, Julia; Golinkoff, Roberta M.

    2009-01-01

    The availability of educational programming aimed at infants and toddlers is increasing, yet the effect of video on language acquisition remains unclear. Three studies of 96 children aged 30-42 months investigated their ability to learn verbs from video. Study 1 asked whether children could learn verbs from video when supported by live social…

  17. Implementations Are Not Conceptualizations: Revising the Verb Learning Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacWhinney, Brian; Leinbach, Jared

    A model of the child's learning of the past tense forms of English verbs is discussed. This connectionist model takes as input a present-tense verb and provides as output a past tense form. A new simulation is applied to 13 problems raised by critics of the model, presented as fundamental flaws in the conceptualizations underlying connectionism.…

  18. The Timing of Verb Selection in Japanese Sentence Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momma, Shota; Slevc, L. Robert; Phillips, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Many influential models of sentence production (e.g., Bock & Levelt, 1994; Kempen & Hoenkamp, 1987; Levelt, 1989) emphasize the central role of verbs in structural encoding, and thus predict that verbs should be selected early in sentence formulation, possibly even before the phonological encoding of the first constituent (Ferreira, 2000).…

  19. Remarks on Causative Verbs and Object Deletion in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onozuka, Hiromi

    2007-01-01

    Rappaport Hovav and Levin [Rappaport Hovav, M., Levin, B., 1998. "Building verb meanings." In: Butt, M., Geuder, W. (Eds.), "The Projection of Arguments: Lexical and Compositional Factors." CSLI Publications, Stanford, pp. 97-134] contend that result verbs disallow object deletion because of their lexical semantic properties. Their point is that…

  20. Exploring Atypical Verb+Noun Combinations in Learner Technical Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luzon Marco, Maria Jose

    2011-01-01

    Professional and academic discourse is characterised by a specific phraseology, which usually poses problems for students. This paper investigates atypical verb+noun collocations in a corpus of English technical writing of Spanish students. I focus on the type of verbs that most frequently occurred in these awkward or questionable combinations and…

  1. Improving Energy Efficiency of Auxiliaries

    SciTech Connect

    Carl T. Vuk

    2001-12-12

    The summaries of this report are: Economics Ultimately Dictates Direction; Electric Auxiliaries Provide Solid Benefits. The Impact on Vehicle Architecture Will be Important; Integrated Generators With Combined With Turbo Generators Can Meet the Electrical Demands of Electric Auxiliaries; Implementation Will Follow Automotive 42V Transition; Availability of Low Cost Hardware Will Slow Implementation; Industry Leadership and Cooperation Needed; Standards and Safety Protocols Will be Important. Government Can Play an Important Role in Expediting: Funding Technical Development; Incentives for Improving Fuel Economy; Developing Standards, Allowing Economy of Scale; and Providing Safety Guidelines.

  2. The Time Course of Verb Processing in Dutch Sentences

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Lewis P.; Wester, Femke; Swinney, David A.; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2012-01-01

    The verb has traditionally been characterized as the central element in a sentence. Nevertheless, the exact role of the verb during the actual ongoing comprehension of a sentence as it unfolds in time remains largely unknown. This paper reports the results of two Cross-Modal Lexical Priming (CMLP) experiments detailing the pattern of verb priming during on-line processing of Dutch sentences. Results are contrasted with data from a third CMLP experiment on priming of nouns in similar sentences. It is demonstrated that the meaning of a matrix verb remains active throughout the entire matrix clause, while this is not the case for the meaning of a subject head noun. Activation of the meaning of the verb only dissipates upon encountering a clear signal as to the start of a new clause. PMID:19452278

  3. Acquiring and Producing Sentences: Whether Learners Use Verb-Specific or Verb-General Information Depends on Cue Validity

    PubMed Central

    Thothathiri, Malathi; Rattinger, Michelle G.

    2016-01-01

    Learning to produce sentences involves learning patterns that enable the generation of new utterances. Language contains both verb-specific and verb-general regularities that are relevant to this capacity. Previous research has focused on whether one source is more important than the other. We tested whether the production system can flexibly learn to use either source, depending on the predictive validity of different cues in the input. Participants learned new sentence structures in a miniature language paradigm. In three experiments, we manipulated whether individual verbs or verb-general mappings better predicted the structures heard during learning. Evaluation of participants’ subsequent production revealed that they could use either the structural preferences of individual verbs or abstract meaning-to-form mappings to construct new sentences. Further, this choice varied according to cue validity. These results demonstrate flexibility within the production architecture and the importance of considering how language was learned when discussing how language is used. PMID:27047428

  4. A Conceptual Approach to Existential Verbs in Japanese: The Case of Aru versus Iru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative analysis of the two Japanese existential verbs: aru and iru. By appealing to the notion of conceptualisation that pervades the cognitive linguistic literature, I demonstrate that the two verbs pattern as motion verbs, and not simply as verbs of existence and/or location. Throughout the paper, I demonstrate that…

  5. Facilitation and practice in verb acquisition.

    PubMed

    Keren-Portnoy, Tamar

    2006-08-01

    This paper presents a model of syntax acquisition, whose main points are as follows: Syntax is acquired in an item-based manner; early learning facilitates subsequent learning--as evidenced by the accelerating rate of new verbs entering a given structure; and mastery of syntactic knowledge is typically achieved through practice--as evidenced by intensive use and common word order errors--and this slows down learning during the early stages of acquiring a structure. The facilitation and practice hypotheses were tested on naturalistic production samples of six Hebrew-acquiring children ranging from ages 1;1 to 2;7 (average ages 1;6 to 2;4 months). Results show that most structures did in fact accelerate; the notion of 'practice' is supported by the inverse correlation found between number of verbs and number of errors in the earliest productions in a given structure; and the absence of acceleration in a minority of the structures is due to the fact that they involve relatively less practice. PMID:17017277

  6. 33 CFR 5.47 - Auxiliary ensign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the Auxiliary ensign is medium blue (Coast Guard blue) with a broad diagonal white slash upon which a matching blue Coast Guard Auxiliary emblem is centered. The white slash shall be at a 70 degree...

  7. 33 CFR 5.47 - Auxiliary ensign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the Auxiliary ensign is medium blue (Coast Guard blue) with a broad diagonal white slash upon which a matching blue Coast Guard Auxiliary emblem is centered. The white slash shall be at a 70 degree...

  8. Left-right compatibility in the processing of trading verbs.

    PubMed

    Vicario, Carmelo M; Rumiati, Raffaella I

    2014-01-01

    The research investigating the nature of cognitive processes involved in the representation of economical outcomes is growing. Within this research, the mental accounting model proposes that individuals may well use cognitive operations to organize, evaluate, and keep track of their financial activities (Thaler, 1999). Here we wanted to test this hypothesis by asking to a group of participants to detect a syntax mistake of verbs indicating incoming and going out activities related to economical profit (trading verbs), swapping (swapping verbs) and thinking (thinking verbs). We reported a left-right compatibility for trading verbs (i.e., participants were faster with their right hand while detecting verb referring to a monetary gain with respect to a monetary loss; and faster with their left hand while detecting a monetary loss with respect to a monetary gain). However, this pattern of result was not reported while detecting swapping verbs. Results are discussed taking into account the mental accounting theory as well as to the spatial mapping of valence hypothesis. PMID:24478662

  9. An ontology for tactical behaviors derived from verb frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esterline, Albert C., Jr.; BouSaba, Chafic W.

    2008-04-01

    We present an initial ontology for tactical behaviors conducted by unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs). We focus on activities, which are the denotations of verbs, notably 'move' but also 'look (for)' and several others. These take collective subjects, allowing activities to be attributed to units at various hierarchical levels. The semantics of verbs must consider the denotations of their grammatical complements; that is, we must consider entire verb frames. The thematic relations of the noun-phrase complements are critical, but prepositions also play an important role. FrameNet is an online lexical database of frames derived from text corpora. Our other major resource is Levin's classification of verbs according to how changes in their frames affect their meanings. Although natural languages have a large variety of words for aspects of tactical behaviors, there is motivation to get by with as few basic verbs as possible. A variety of meanings can often be associated with a verb by altering its frame, and we can impose co-reference constraints on combinations of frames to generate structures denoting more complex activities. A simple grammar is developed for the verbs of interest. Protege-Frames ontologies include classes that inherit from linguistically inspired classes but capture domain-specific notions.

  10. Attention to Explicit and Implicit Contrast in Verb Learning

    PubMed Central

    Childers, Jane B.; Hirshkowitz, Amy; Benavides, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    Contrast information could be useful for verb learning, but few studies have examined children’s ability to use this type of information. Contrast may be useful when children are told explicitly that different verbs apply, or when they hear two different verbs in a single context. Three studies examine children’s attention to different types of contrast as they learn new verbs. Study 1 shows that 3 ½-year-olds can use both implicit contrast (“I’m meeking it. I’m koobing it.”) and explicit contrast (“I’m meeking it. I’m not meeking it.”) when learning a new verb, while a control group’s responses did not differ from chance. Study 2 shows that even though children at this age who hear explicit contrast statements differ from a control group, they do not reliably extend a newly learned verb to events with new objects. In Study 3, children in three age groups were given both comparison and contrast information, not in blocks of trials as in past studies, but in a procedure that interleaved both cues. Results show that while 2 ½-year-olds were unable to use these cues when asked to compare and contrast, by 3 ½, children are beginning to be able to process these cues and use them to influence their verb extensions, and by 4 ½ years, children are proficient at integrating multiple cues when learning and extending new verbs. Together these studies examine children’s use of contrast in verb learning, a potentially important source of information that has been rarely studied. PMID:24982599

  11. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary...

  12. 45 CFR 707.10 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary aids. 707.10 Section 707.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS ENFORCEMENT OF... § 707.10 Auxiliary aids. (a) The Agency shall furnish appropriate auxiliary aids where necessary...

  13. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary...

  14. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary...

  15. 45 CFR 707.10 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Auxiliary aids. 707.10 Section 707.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS ENFORCEMENT OF... § 707.10 Auxiliary aids. (a) The Agency shall furnish appropriate auxiliary aids where necessary...

  16. 45 CFR 707.10 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Auxiliary aids. 707.10 Section 707.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS ENFORCEMENT OF... § 707.10 Auxiliary aids. (a) The Agency shall furnish appropriate auxiliary aids where necessary...

  17. 45 CFR 707.10 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Auxiliary aids. 707.10 Section 707.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS ENFORCEMENT OF... § 707.10 Auxiliary aids. (a) The Agency shall furnish appropriate auxiliary aids where necessary...

  18. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary...

  19. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary...

  20. 45 CFR 707.10 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Auxiliary aids. 707.10 Section 707.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS ENFORCEMENT OF... § 707.10 Auxiliary aids. (a) The Agency shall furnish appropriate auxiliary aids where necessary...

  1. DAU-TEAM Auxiliaries as CPR Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeal, Donald R.; Reid, Stephen L.

    1981-01-01

    Dental auxiliaries are being used as instructors in cardiopulmonary resuscitation at the University of Kentucky College of Dentistry. Three advantages are found: improved dependability, improved perception of the auxiliaries by dental students and faculty, and improved self-esteem among auxiliaries. (MSE)

  2. 47 CFR 73.1675 - Auxiliary antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Auxiliary antennas. 73.1675 Section 73.1675... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1675 Auxiliary antennas. (a)(1) An auxiliary antenna is one that is permanently installed and available for use when the main antenna is out of service...

  3. 47 CFR 73.1675 - Auxiliary antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Auxiliary antennas. 73.1675 Section 73.1675... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1675 Auxiliary antennas. (a)(1) An auxiliary antenna is one that is permanently installed and available for use when the main antenna is out of service...

  4. 47 CFR 73.1675 - Auxiliary antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Auxiliary antennas. 73.1675 Section 73.1675... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1675 Auxiliary antennas. (a)(1) An auxiliary antenna is one that is permanently installed and available for use when the main antenna is out of service...

  5. 47 CFR 73.1675 - Auxiliary antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Auxiliary antennas. 73.1675 Section 73.1675... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1675 Auxiliary antennas. (a)(1) An auxiliary antenna is one that is permanently installed and available for use when the main antenna is out of service...

  6. 47 CFR 73.1675 - Auxiliary antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary antennas. 73.1675 Section 73.1675... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1675 Auxiliary antennas. (a)(1) An auxiliary antenna is one that is permanently installed and available for use when the main antenna is out of service...

  7. 33 CFR 5.47 - Auxiliary ensign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of any ensign, flag or pennant of the Auxiliary is set forth in § 5.67 of this part. (b) The field of the Auxiliary ensign is medium blue (Coast Guard blue) with a broad diagonal white slash upon which a matching blue Coast Guard Auxiliary emblem is centered. The white slash shall be at a 70 degree...

  8. 33 CFR 5.47 - Auxiliary ensign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of any ensign, flag or pennant of the Auxiliary is set forth in § 5.67 of this part. (b) The field of the Auxiliary ensign is medium blue (Coast Guard blue) with a broad diagonal white slash upon which a matching blue Coast Guard Auxiliary emblem is centered. The white slash shall be at a 70 degree...

  9. Dissociation and association of the embodied representation of tool-use verbs and hand verbs: An fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Shu, Hua; Bi, Yanchao; Liu, Youyi; Wang, Xiaoyi

    2011-12-01

    Embodied semantic theories suppose that representation of word meaning and actual sensory-motor processing are implemented in overlapping systems. According to this view, association and dissociation of different word meaning should correspond to dissociation and association of the described sensory-motor processing. Previous studies demonstrate that although tool-use actions and hand actions have overlapping neural substrates, tool-use actions show greater activations in frontal-parietal-temporal regions that are responsible for motor control and tool knowledge processing. In the present study, we examined the association and the dissociation of the semantic representation of tool-use verbs and hand action verbs. Chinese verbs describing tool-use or hand actions without tools were included, and a passive reading task was employed. All verb conditions showed common activations in areas of left middle frontal gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45) and left inferior parietal lobule relative to rest, and all conditions showed significant effects in premotor areas within the mask of hand motion effects. Contrasts between tool-use verbs and hand verbs demonstrated that tool verbs elicited stronger activity in left superior parietal lobule, left middle frontal gyrus and left posterior middle temporal gyrus. Additionally, psychophysiological interaction analyses demonstrated that tool verbs indicated greater connectivity among these regions. These results suggest that the brain regions involved in tool-use action processing also play more important roles in tool-use verb processing and that similar systems may be responsible for word meaning representation and actual sensory-motor processing. PMID:21741081

  10. Auxiliary resonant DC tank converter

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Fang Z.

    2000-01-01

    An auxiliary resonant dc tank (ARDCT) converter is provided for achieving soft-switching in a power converter. An ARDCT circuit is coupled directly across a dc bus to the inverter to generate a resonant dc bus voltage, including upper and lower resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, first and second dc tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and an auxiliary resonant circuit comprising a series combination of a resonant inductor and a pair of auxiliary switching devices. The ARDCT circuit further includes first clamping means for holding the resonant dc bus voltage to the dc tank voltage of the tank leg, and second clamping means for clamping the resonant dc bus voltage to zero during a resonant period. The ARDCT circuit resonantly brings the dc bus voltage to zero in order to provide a zero-voltage switching opportunity for the inverter, then quickly rebounds the dc bus voltage back to the dc tank voltage after the inverter changes state. The auxiliary switching devices are turned on and off under zero-current conditions. The ARDCT circuit only absorbs ripples of the inverter dc bus current, thus having less current stress. In addition, since the ARDCT circuit is coupled in parallel with the dc power supply and the inverter for merely assisting soft-switching of the inverter without participating in real dc power transmission and power conversion, malfunction and failure of the tank circuit will not affect the functional operation of the inverter; thus a highly reliable converter system is expected.

  11. A depictive neural model for the representation of motion verbs.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sunil; Aleksander, Igor

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, we present a depictive neural model for the representation of motion verb semantics in neural models of visual awareness. The problem of modelling motion verb representation is shown to be one of function application, mapping a set of given input variables defining the moving object and the path of motion to a defined output outcome in the motion recognition context. The particular function-applicative implementation and consequent recognition model design presented are seen as arising from a noun-adjective recognition model enabling the recognition of colour adjectives as applied to a set of shapes representing objects to be recognised. The presence of such a function application scheme and a separately implemented position identification and path labelling scheme are accordingly shown to be the primitives required to enable the design and construction of a composite depictive motion verb recognition scheme. Extensions to the presented design to enable the representation of transitive verbs are also discussed. PMID:21468746

  12. Electrical stimulation mapping of nouns and verbs in Broca's area.

    PubMed

    Havas, Viktória; Gabarrós, Andreu; Juncadella, Montserrat; Rifa-Ros, Xavi; Plans, Gerard; Acebes, Juan José; de Diego Balaguer, Ruth; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Electric stimulation mapping (ESM) is frequently used during brain surgery to localise higher cognitive functions to avoid post-chirurgical disabilities. Experiments with brain imaging techniques and neuropsychological studies showed differences in the cortical representation and processing of nouns and verbs. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether electric stimulation in specific sites in the frontal cortex disrupted noun and verb production selectively. We found that most of the stimulated areas showed disruption of both verbs and nouns at the inferior frontal gyrus. However, when selective effects were obtained, verbs were more prone to disruption than nouns with important individual differences. The overall results indicate that selective impairments can be observed at inferior and middle frontal regions and the action naming task seems to be more suitable to avoid post-chirurgical language disabilities, as it shows a greater sensitivity to disruption with ESM than the classical object naming task. PMID:25957505

  13. When Verbs Collide: Papers from the Ohio State Mini-Conference on Serial Verbs (Columbus, Ohio, May 26-27, 1990). Working Papers in Linguistics No. 39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Brian D., Ed.; Zwicky, Arnold M., Ed.

    Papers from the conference on the occurrence of verbal constituents in series in certain languages, particularly pidgins and creoles, include the following: "What Are We Talking About When We Talk About Serial Verbs?" (Arnold M. Zwicky); "Serial Verb Constructions" (Pieter Seuren); "On the Definition and Distribution of Serial Verb Constructions"…

  14. The role of semantic features in verb processing.

    PubMed

    Bonnotte, Isabelle

    2008-05-01

    The present study examined the general hypothesis that, as for nouns, stable representations of semantic knowledge relative to situations expressed by verbs are available and accessible in long term memory in normal people. Regular associations between verbs and past tenses in French adults allowed to abstract two superordinate semantic features in the representation of verb meaning: durativity and resultativity. A pilot study was designed to select appropriate items according to these features: durative, non-resultative verbs and non-durative, resultative verbs. An experimental study was then conducted to assess semantic priming in French adults with two visual semantic-decision tasks at a 200- and 100-ms SOA. In the durativity decision task, participants had to decide if the target referred to a durable or non-durable situation. In the resultativity decision task, they had to decide if it referred to a situation with a directly observable outcome or without any clear external outcome. Targets were preceded by similar, opposite, and neutral primes. Results showed that semantic priming can tap verb meaning at a 200- and 100-ms SOA, with the restriction that only the positive value of each feature benefited from priming, that is the durative and resultative values. Moreover, processing of durativity and resultativity is far from comparable since facilitation was shown on the former with similar and opposite priming, whereas it was shown on the latter only with similar priming. Overall, these findings support Le Ny's (in: Saint-Dizier, Viegas (eds) Computational lexical semantics, 1995; Cahier de Recherche Linguistique LanDisCo 12:85-100, 1998; Comment l'esprit produit du sens, 2005) general hypothesis that classificatory properties of verbs could be interpreted as semantic features and the view that semantic priming can tap verb meaning, as noun meaning. PMID:17985245

  15. Training verb argument structure production in agrammatic aphasia: Behavioral and neural recovery patterns

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Cynthia K.; Riley, Ellyn A.; den Ouden, Dirk-Bart; Meltzer-Asscher, Aya; Lukic, Sladjana

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Neuroimaging and lesion studies indicate a left hemisphere network for verb and verb argument structure processing, involving both frontal and temporoparietal brain regions. Although their verb comprehension is generally unimpaired, it is well known that individuals with agrammatic aphasia often present with verb production deficits, characterized by an argument structure complexity hierarchy, indicating faulty access to argument structure representations for production and integration into syntactic contexts. Recovery of verb processing in agrammatism, however, has received little attention and no studies have examined the neural mechanisms associated with improved verb and argument structure processing. In the present study we trained agrammatic individuals on verbs with complex argument structure in sentence contexts and examined generalization to verbs with less complex argument structure. The neural substrates of improved verb production were examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods Eight individuals with chronic agrammatic aphasia participated in the study (four experimental and four control participants). Production of three-argument verbs in active sentences was trained using a sentence generation task emphasizing the verb’s argument structure and the thematic roles of sentential noun phrases. Before and after training, production of trained and untrained verbs was tested in naming and sentence production and fMRI scans were obtained, using an action naming task. Results Significant pre- to post-training improvement in trained and untrained (one- and two-argument) verbs was found for treated, but not control, participants, with between-group differences found for verb naming, production of verbs in sentences, and production of argument structure. fMRI activation derived from post-treatment compared to pre-treatment scans revealed upregulation in cortical regions implicated for verb and argument structure processing

  16. Dentists' attitudes toward auxiliaries in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Razak, I A; Lind, O P

    1994-03-01

    A postal questionnaire survey concerning dentists' attitudes toward auxiliaries in Malaysia resulted in a 73.1 per cent response rate. The result of the study indicates that whilst the majority of the dentists agreed that dental auxiliaries usually increase productivity and permit the dentists to devote more time for more challenging tasks, a majority felt uncomfortable to be held accountable for the performance of auxiliaries. A majority of the dentists agreed that dental auxiliaries work best under direct supervision. The perceived value of the auxiliaries was more positive among public sector dentists as compared to private practitioners. Almost three-quarters of the dentists were positive towards legalising properly trained auxiliaries to work in private practice performing mainly preventive procedures. The implications of these findings relative to existing regulations, mode of practice and the future prospect in the delivery of oral health care are discussed. PMID:8193979

  17. Auxiliary reactor for a hydrocarbon reforming system

    DOEpatents

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Dorson, Matthew H.; Mitchell, William L.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Davis, Robert; Rumsey, Jennifer W.

    2006-01-17

    An auxiliary reactor for use with a reformer reactor having at least one reaction zone, and including a burner for burning fuel and creating a heated auxiliary reactor gas stream, and heat exchanger for transferring heat from auxiliary reactor gas stream and heat transfer medium, preferably two-phase water, to reformer reaction zone. Auxiliary reactor may include first cylindrical wall defining a chamber for burning fuel and creating a heated auxiliary reactor gas stream, the chamber having an inlet end, an outlet end, a second cylindrical wall surrounding first wall and a second annular chamber there between. The reactor being configured so heated auxiliary reactor gas flows out the outlet end and into and through second annular chamber and conduit which is disposed in second annular chamber, the conduit adapted to carry heat transfer medium and being connectable to reformer reaction zone for additional heat exchange.

  18. Assessment of auxiliary data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luscombe, A. P.; Wealthy, R. H.

    1981-12-01

    An orbit and attitude determination system is presented. Two auxiliary processing algorithms (Doppler tracker for estimating beam center Doppler frequency and autofocus for estimating Doppler FM rate) are described and their performances with SEASAT-1 SAR data are evaluated. Accuracy is achieved with little change to the satellite platform (apart from real time transmission of attitude measurements). The orbit determination system uses S band range and range rate measurements made at ground tracking stations, giving up to 50 m accuracy for the tracking period itself, and 500 m accuracy for 12-hr predictions. The PFM Earth reference attitude sensor data transmitted to the ground during the pass are available for fast delivery processing. Measurement accuracy is 0.05 deg about each axis. The tracking algorithm estimates are converted to absolute values, using the attitude and orbit data. The autofocus algorithm is only used if orbit data are unavailable at processing time. Real time auxiliary data used for fast delivery processing give 1 km location accuracy for ice monitoring or ship routing. Accuracy within 100 m is possible, using full attitude and orbit data.

  19. Expectation and Locality Effects in German Verb-final Structures

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Roger P.; Keller, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Probabilistic expectations and memory limitations are central factors governing the real-time comprehension of natural language, but how the two factors interact remains poorly understood. One respect in which the two factors have come into theoretical conflict is the documentation of both locality effects, in which more dependents preceding a governing verb increase processing difficulty at the verb, and anti-locality effects, in which more preceding dependents facilitate processing at the verb. However, no controlled study has previously demonstrated both locality and anti-locality effects in the same type of dependency relation within the same language. Additionally, many previous demonstrations of anti-locality effects have been potentially confounded with lexical identity, plausibility, and sentence position. Here, we provide new evidence of both locality and anti-locality effects in the same type of dependency relation in a single language—verb-final constructions in German—while controlling for lexical identity, plausibility, and sentence position. In main clauses, we find clear anti-locality effects, with the presence of a preceding dative argument facilitating processing at the final verb; in subject-extracted relative clauses with identical linear ordering of verbal dependents, we find both anti-locality and locality effects, with processing facilitated when the verb is preceded by a dative argument alone, but hindered when the verb is preceded by both the dative argument and an adjunct. These results indicate that both expectations and memory limitations need to be accounted for in any complete theory of online syntactic comprehension. PMID:24558294

  20. Verb production in agrammatic aphasia: The influence of semantic class and argument structure properties on generalisation

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Sandra L.; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Some individuals with agrammatic aphasia have difficulty producing verbs when naming and generating sentences (Miceli, Silveri, Villa, & Caramazza, 1984; Saffran, Schwartz, & Marin, 1980; Zingeser & Berndt, 1990). And when verbs are produced there is an over-reliance on verbs requiring simple argument structure arrangements (Thompson, Lange, Schneider, & Shapiro, 1997; Thompson, Shapiro, Schneider, & Tait, 1994). Verbs, as argument-taking elements, show especially complex semantic and argument structure properties. This study investigated the role these properties have on verb production in individuals with agrammatic aphasia. Aim This treatment study examined the extent to which semantic class and argument structure properties of verbs influenced the ability of seven individuals with agrammatic Broca’s aphasia to retrieve verbs and then use them in correct sentence production. Verbs from two semantic classes and two argument structure categories were trained using either a semantic or an argument structure verb retrieval treatment. Specifically, acquisition and generalisation to trained and untrained verbs within and across semantic and argument structure categories was examined. In addition, the influence of verb production on each participant’s sentence production was also examined. Methods & Procedures Utilising a single-subject crossover design in combination with a multiple baseline design across subjects and behaviours, seven individuals with agrammatic aphasia were trained to retrieve verbs with specific argument structures from two semantic classes under two treatment conditions—semantic verb retrieval treatment and verb argument structure retrieval treatment. Treatment was provided on two-place and three-place motion or change of state verbs, counterbalanced across subjects and behaviours. A total of 102 verbs, depicted in black and white drawings, were utilised in the study, divided equally into motion and change of state verbs (semantic

  1. Syntactic generalization with novel intransitive verbs.

    PubMed

    Kline, Melissa; Demuth, Katherine

    2014-05-01

    To understand how children develop adult argument structure, we must understand the nature of syntactic and semantic representations during development. The present studies compare the performance of children aged 2;6 on the two intransitive alternations in English: patient (Daddy is cooking the food/The food is cooking) and agent (Daddy is cooking). Children displayed abstract knowledge of both alternations, producing appropriate syntactic generalizations with novel verbs. These generalizations were adult-like in both flexibility and constraint. Rather than limiting their generalizations to lexicalized frames, children produced sentences with a variety of nouns and pronouns. They also avoided semantic overgeneralizations, producing intransitive sentences that respected the event restrictions and animacy cues. Some generated semantically appropriate agent intransitives when discourse pressure favored patient intransitives, indicating a stronger command of the first alternation. This was in line with frequency distributions in child-directed speech. These findings suggest that children have early access to representations that permit flexible argument structure generalization. PMID:23552211

  2. Approaches to verb subcategorization for biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Lippincott, Thomas; Rimell, Laura; Verspoor, Karin; Korhonen, Anna

    2013-04-01

    Information about verb subcategorization frames (SCFs) is important to many tasks in natural language processing (NLP) and, in turn, text mining. Biomedicine has a need for high-quality SCF lexicons to support the extraction of information from the biomedical literature, which helps biologists to take advantage of the latest biomedical knowledge despite the overwhelming growth of that literature. Unfortunately, techniques for creating such resources for biomedical text are relatively undeveloped compared to general language. This paper serves as an introduction to subcategorization and existing approaches to acquisition, and provides motivation for developing techniques that address issues particularly important to biomedical NLP. First, we give the traditional linguistic definition of subcategorization, along with several related concepts. Second, we describe approaches to learning SCF lexicons from large data sets for general and biomedical domains. Third, we consider the crucial issue of linguistic variation between biomedical fields (subdomain variation). We demonstrate significant variation among subdomains, and find the variation does not simply follow patterns of general lexical variation. Finally, we note several requirements for future research in biomedical SCF lexicon acquisition: a high-quality gold standard, investigation of different definitions of subcategorization, and minimally-supervised methods that can learn subdomain-specific lexical usage without the need for extensive manual work. PMID:23276747

  3. Sensitivity to verb bias in American sign language-English bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Anible, Benjamin; Twitchell, Paul; Waters, Gabriel S; Dussias, Paola E; Piñar, Pilar; Morford, Jill P

    2015-07-01

    Native speakers of English are sensitive to the likelihood that a verb will appear in a specific subcategorization frame, known as verb bias. Readers rely on verb bias to help them resolve temporary ambiguity in sentence comprehension. We investigate whether deaf sign-print bilinguals who have acquired English syntactic knowledge primarily through print exposure show sensitivity to English verb biases in both production and comprehension. We first elicited sentence continuations for 100 English verbs as an offline production measure of sensitivity to verb bias. We then collected eye movement records to examine whether deaf bilinguals' online parsing decisions are influenced by English verb bias. The results indicate that exposure to a second language primarily via print is sufficient to influence use of implicit frequency-based characteristics of a language in production and also to inform parsing decisions in comprehension for some, but not all, verbs. PMID:25833965

  4. Methodology of the outcome evaluation of the VERB campaign.

    PubMed

    Potter, Lance D; Judkins, David R; Piesse, Andrea; Nolin, Mary Jo; Huhman, Marian

    2008-06-01

    This article summarizes the methods used in the outcome evaluation of the VERB campaign. The outcome evaluation was designed to measure the awareness and understanding of VERB among the target audience of children aged 9-13 years (tweens) and to determine the effect of VERB awareness on psychosocial and behavioral outcomes. Cohorts of tweens and parents were interviewed annually via a telephone survey (Youth Media Campaign Longitudinal Survey). The first cohort (baseline) was surveyed in 2002 prior to VERB advertising and was repeated annually through 2006. A second cohort was surveyed in 2004-2006. A third, cross-sectional sample was surveyed in 2006. Each cohort consisted of a nationally representative sample of tweens to enable generalizability to the nation as a whole. Propensity scoring was used to control for confounding influences. The outcomes were analyzed for dose-response effects (i.e., whether higher levels of awareness led to stronger effects) and overall awareness effects (i.e., the difference between tweens unaware of VERB and all tweens in the U.S.). Secular trends in tweens' physical activity during the life of the campaign were also examined. This article also discusses weighting and imputation, alternative analyses used to assess the adequacy of the propensity methods, and the challenges involved in media campaign evaluations. PMID:18471603

  5. Objects, events and "to be" verbs in Spanish--an ERP study of the syntax-semantics interface.

    PubMed

    Leone-Fernandez, Barbara; Molinaro, Nicola; Carreiras, Manuel; Barber, Horacio A

    2012-02-01

    In Spanish, objects and events at subject position constrain the selection of different forms of the auxiliary verb "to be": locative predicates about objects require "estar en", while those relating to events require "ser en", both translatable as "to be in". Subjective ratings showed that while the "object+ser+en" is considered as incorrect, the "event+estar+en" combination is also perceived as unacceptable but to a lesser degree. In an ERP study, we evaluated the impact of a purely semantic distinction (object versus events) on the subsequent processing of these auxiliary verbs followed by locatives in Spanish. For the "ser en" predicate, the P600 component was larger when the subject was an object than when it was an event. This P600 effect is consistent with an online repair of the defining predicate when it does not fit with the adequate semantic properties of the subject. On the other hand, for the "estar en" predicate, event subjects when compared to object subjects showed more positive ongoing amplitudes between 280 and 380 ms after the presentation of the "en" preposition, followed by a longer positive wave starting around 400 ms and lasting until 700 ms after the presentation of the following determiner, with central and frontal scalp distributions respectively. Thus, the different subject-predicate combinations, depending on the semantic features of the subjects, triggered syntactic reparatory processes at a structural level. These findings are consistent with an incremental interpretation of sentence meaning based on the interaction between syntactic and semantic information. PMID:21300400

  6. NASA electrothermal auxiliary propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    Electrothermal auxiliary propulsion systems provide high performance options which can have major mission benefits. There are several electrothermal concepts which offer a range of characteristics and benefits. Resistojets are the highest thrust to power option and are currently operational at mission average values of specific impulse, I sub sp approximately 295 sec. Long life, multipropellant resistojets are being developed for the space station, and resistojet technology advancements are being pursued to improve the I sub sp by more than 20 percent for resistojets used in satellite applications. Direct current arcjets have the potential of I sub sp over 400 sec with storable propellants and should provide over 1000 sec with hydrogen. Advanced concepts are being investigated to provide high power density options and possible growth to primary propulsion applications. Broad based experimental and analytical research and technology programs of NASA are summarized and recent significant advances are reviewed.

  7. Radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Germer, John H.

    1987-01-01

    In a modular liquid-metal pool breeder reactor, a radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system is disclosed for removing the residual heat resulting from the shutdown of a reactor by a completely passive heat transfer system. A shell surrounds the reactor and containment vessel, separated from the containment vessel by an air passage. Natural circulation of air is provided by air vents at the lower and upper ends of the shell. Longitudinal, radial and inwardly extending fins extend from the shell into the air passage. The fins are heated by radiation from the containment vessel and convect the heat to the circulating air. Residual heat from the primary reactor vessel is transmitted from the reactor vessel through an inert gas plenum to a guard or containment vessel designed to contain any leaking coolant. The containment vessel is conventional and is surrounded by the shell.

  8. Herbert Easterly auxiliary truck heater

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-09

    The objective of this work was to continue the development of the Herbert Easterly heater apparatus for vehicles, such as semi-trailer tractors in order to fully establish its technical feasibility and provide the basis for its commercialization. This heater is auxiliary to the vehicle's primary heating system. With the engine off it heats both the vehicle engine to a temperature at which it starts easily and the vehicle passenger compartment. Specifically, this heater is automatically ignitable, operates directly from the vehicle diesel fuel supply and preheats the vehicle engine fuel prior to combustion. During the course of this work nine different versions of prototype heaters were designed, constructed and tested. All designs were based on the ideas and principles outlined in the Easterly patent. Each successive version incorporated design and fabrication improvements relative to the previous version. The final version, Prototype 9, utilized a multiple water jacket design to capture additional heat from the combustion gases prior to exhausting to the atmosphere. This final prototype exceeded the performance of a commercially available Webasto DBW-2010 using the same commercial burner as the one used in the Webasto unit. The time required to raise the heater fluid temperature by 120{degree}F was 23% less (20 minutes compared to 26 minutes) for Prototype 9 compared to the commercially available unit. In addition a prototype heat exchanger for preheating engine fuel was designed, fabricated and tested. It was also determined that the Prototype 9 auxiliary heater could operate at 85{degree}F for approximately 6 hours on a fully charged 12 volt marine battery rated to deliver 500 cold cranking amps.

  9. Nouns and Verbs in Australian Sign Language: An Open and Shut Case?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Trevor

    2001-01-01

    Re-examination of data on noun-verb pair comprehension and production in Australian and American Sign Language confirm the existence of formationally related noun-verb pairs in Auslan in which the verb displays a single movement and the noun displays a repeated movement. Overall, the derivational process appears closely linked to an iconic base…

  10. The Input to Verb Learning in Mandarin Chinese: A Role for Syntactic Bootstrapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joanne N.; Naigles, Letitia R.

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated the role of syntax in verb learning in Mandarin Chinese, which allows pervasive ellipsis of noun arguments. Two questions were investigated using the Beijing corpus on CHILDES: (a) Does the input to young children manifest syntactic-semantic correspondences as needed for acquiring verb meanings? (b) Are verbs presented in…

  11. Effects of Weight and Syntactic Priming on the Production of Cantonese Verb-Doubling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Elaine J.; Matthews, Stephen; Wong, Reace Wing Yan; Kwan, Stella Wing Man

    2011-01-01

    Verb-doubling, where a copy of the main verb occurs both before and after the direct object, is a structure commonly used in Chinese in sentences containing a frequency or duration phrase. In Cantonese, verb-doubling is highly optional and therefore problematic for existing syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic accounts of its distribution in…

  12. The Role of Configurational Asymmetry in the Lexical Access of Prefixed Verbs: Evidence from French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsapkini, Kyrana; Jarema, Gonia; Di Sciullo, Anna-Maria

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we investigated the effects of configurational asymmetry in prefixed verbs in French. We used a simple lexical decision paradigm to compare prefixed verbs with external and internal prefixes as specified in linguistic theory (Di Sciullo, 1997) where external prefixes do not change the aktionsart and the verb argument structure of the…

  13. Learning Verb Syntax via Listening: New Evidence from 22-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messenger, Katherine; Yuan, Sylvia; Fisher, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Children recruit verb syntax to guide verb interpretation. We asked whether 22-month-olds spontaneously encode information about a particular novel verb's syntactic properties through listening to sentences, retain this information in long-term memory over a filled delay, and retrieve it to guide interpretation upon hearing the same novel verb…

  14. The Spanish Psych Verb Construction: Beginning and Intermediate Learners' Patterns of Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gascon, Christopher D.

    1998-01-01

    The Spanish psychological verb construction seems to be especially difficult for native English-speaking learners to acquire. Since some of the most common Spanish psych verbs, such as "gustar" (to please) and "encantar" (to delight), require a grammatical structure that is different from that of the English verbs frequently taken as their…

  15. A Comparison of Two Theoretically Driven Treatments for Verb Inflection Deficits in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen

    2008-01-01

    Errors in the production of verb inflections, especially tense inflections, are pervasive in agrammatic Broca's aphasia ("*The boy eat"). The neurolinguistic underpinnings of these errors are debated. One group of theories attributes verb inflection errors to disruptions in encoding the verb's morphophonological form, resulting from either a…

  16. The Verb in Philippine English: A Preliminary Analysis of Modal Would

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bautista, Ma. Lourdes S.

    2004-01-01

    Taking its inspiration from a study conducted by Svalberg of Brunei English verb usage (1998), this paper examines the responses of a sample of 205 Filipino university freshmen to grammatically correct and incorrect verb forms in a 20-item Grammaticality Judgment Test. The test covered tense harmony, verb forms, tenses, and modals. Except in the…

  17. A Minimal Rule Approach to Teaching First-Year Russian Conjugation and Verb Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, David K.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a modification of the two-stem approach to teaching conjugation and verb stress in Russian which eliminates dictionary look-up for forms not predictable from the infinitive. Appendix A is an outline of Russian conjugation and verb stress. Appendix B is a verb list from Kostomarov's "Russkij jazyk dlja vsex." (Author/LMO)

  18. Chinese Learners' Acquisition of English Verbs: A Corpus-Driven Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Linxiao; Jo, Hie-myung

    2012-01-01

    Limited research has investigated advanced language learners' acquisition of English verbs. The current study examines and compares the acquisition pattern of English verbs among Chinese second language (L2) learners at both intermediate and advanced levels to answer the following questions: (1) Do L2 learners acquire regular verbs and irregular…

  19. On Relational Meaning: The Acquisition of Verb Meaning. Technical Report No. 78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentner, Dedre

    The acquisition of verb meaning is discussed and compared with the acquisition of simple noun meaning. Evidence presented from three experiments with children and adults indicates that (1) verbal meanings are relatively slow to be acquired; (2) the acquisition of verb meaning involves the gradual addition of semantic components; and (3) verbs are…

  20. Auditory Verb Perception Recruits Motor Systems in the Developing Brain: An fMRI Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Karin Harman; Maouene, Josita

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated neural activation patterns during verb processing in children, using fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging). Preschool children (aged 4-6) passively listened to lists of verbs and adjectives while neural activation was measured. Findings indicated that verbs were processed differently than adjectives, as the verbs…

  1. Eating Apples and Houseplants: Typicality Constraints on Thematic Roles in Early Verb Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meints, Kerstin; Plunkett, Kim; Harris, Paul L.

    2008-01-01

    Are thematic roles linked to verbs in young children as in adults or will children accept any participant in a given role with any verb? To assess early verb comprehension we used typicality ratings with adults, parental questionnaires, and Intermodal Preferential Looking with children. We predicted that children would look at named targets, would…

  2. Do Lemmas Speak German? A Verb Position Effect in German Structural Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Franklin; Baumann, Michael; Pappert, Sandra; Fitz, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Lexicalized theories of syntax often assume that verb-structure regularities are mediated by lemmas, which abstract over variation in verb tense and aspect. German syntax seems to challenge this assumption, because verb position depends on tense and aspect. To examine how German speakers link these elements, a structural priming study was…

  3. Asymmetries in the Acquisition of Subject-Verb Agreement in Dutch: Evidence from Comprehension and Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhagen, Josje; Blom, Elma

    2014-01-01

    Across languages, children do not comprehend 3SG/3PL subject-verb agreement before age five, despite early mastery in spontaneous speech. This study investigates subject-verb agreement in a language hitherto not studied in this respect, namely Dutch. The authors examine if (1) Dutch two- and three-year-olds comprehend subject-verb agreement and…

  4. Sensitivity to Verb Bias in American Sign Language-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anible, Benjamin; Twitchell, Paul; Waters, Gabriel S.; Dussias, Paola E.; Piñar, Pilar; Morford, Jill P.

    2015-01-01

    Native speakers of English are sensitive to the likelihood that a verb will appear in a specific subcategorization frame, known as "verb bias." Readers rely on verb bias to help them resolve temporary ambiguity in sentence comprehension. We investigate whether deaf sign-print bilinguals who have acquired English syntactic knowledge…

  5. Rules and Construction Effects in Learning the Argument Structure of Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demuth, Katherine; Machobane, 'Malillo; Moloi, Francina

    2003-01-01

    Theorists of language acquisition have long debated the means by which children learn the argument structure of verbs (e.g. Bowerman, 1974, 1990; Pinker, 1984, 1989; Tomasello, 1992). Central to this controversy has been the possible role of verb semantics, especially in learning which verbs undergo dative-shift alternation in languages like…

  6. Analysis of the "-sja" Passive of Russian Verbs of Governing and Wanting as a Conceptual Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Min, Junghee

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation represents a study of the formation of "-sja" passives of Russian verbs of governing and wanting. I explore five imperfective verbs of governing: "zavedovat" "manage"; "komandovat" "command"; "pravit" "govern"; "rukovdit" "direct"; and "upravljat" "manage"; as well as four imperfective verbs of wanting: "iskat" "seek"; "trebovat"…

  7. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  8. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  9. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  10. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  11. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  12. Controller Regulates Auxiliary Source for Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    Load driven by two motors continuously draws power from a varying source (solar cells) and steady auxiliary source (utility company). Power-factor controller apportions electrical load between two sources to maintain motor speed. This novel application of power-factor controller would regulate input of auxiliary energy to a solar-powered system in response to availability of Sunlight.

  13. 47 CFR 97.201 - Auxiliary station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.201 Auxiliary station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be an auxiliary station. A...

  14. 47 CFR 97.201 - Auxiliary station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.201 Auxiliary station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be an auxiliary station. A...

  15. 47 CFR 97.201 - Auxiliary station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.201 Auxiliary station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be an auxiliary station. A...

  16. 47 CFR 97.201 - Auxiliary station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.201 Auxiliary station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be an auxiliary station. A...

  17. 47 CFR 73.1670 - Auxiliary transmitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Auxiliary transmitters. 73.1670 Section 73.1670 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1670 Auxiliary transmitters. (a) A licensee of a broadcast station may, without...

  18. Do sentences with unaccusative verbs involve syntactic movement? Evidence from neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Agnew, Z.K.; van de Koot, H.; McGettigan, C.; Scott, S.K.

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the neural processing of English sentences containing unergative, unaccusative and transitive verbs. We demonstrate common responses in bilateral superior temporal gyri in response to listening to sentences containing unaccusative and transitive verbs compared to unergative verbs; we did not detect any activation that was specific to unaccusatives. Our findings indicate that the neural processing of unaccusative and transitive verbs is highly similar, and very different from the processing of unergative verbs. We discuss the consequences of these results for the linguistic analysis of movement phenomena. PMID:25210717

  19. A Common Mechanism in Verb and Noun Naming Deficits in Alzheimer’s Patients

    PubMed Central

    Almor, Amit; Aronoff, Justin M.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Gonnerman, Laura M.; Kempler, Daniel; Hintiryan, Houri; Hayes, UnJa L.; Arunachalam, Sudha; Andersen, Elaine S.

    2009-01-01

    We tested the ability of Alzheimer’s patients and elderly controls to name living and non-living nouns, and manner and instrument verbs. Patient’s error patterns and relative performance with different categories showed evidence of graceful degradation for both nouns and verbs, with particular domain specific impairments for living nouns and instrument verbs. Our results support feature-based, semantic representations for nouns and verbs and support the role of inter-correlated features in noun impairment, and the role of noun knowledge in instrument verb impairment. PMID:19699513

  20. Auxiliary propulsion system flight package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collett, C. R.

    1987-01-01

    Hughes Aircraft Company developed qualified and integrated flight, a flight test Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS), on an Air Force technology satellite. The IAPS Flight Package consists of two identical Thruster Subsystems and a Diagnostic Subsystem. Each thruster subsystem (TSS) is comprised of an 8-cm ion Thruster-Gimbal-Beam Shield Unit (TGBSU); Power Electronics Unit; Digital Controller and Interface Unit (DCIU); and Propellant Tank, Valve and Feed Unit (PTVFU) plus the requisite cables. The Diagnostic Subsystem (DSS) includes four types of sensors for measuring the effect of the ion thrusters on the spacecraft and the surrounding plasma. Flight qualifications of IAPS, prior to installation on the spacecraft, consisted of performance, vibration and thermal-vacuum testing at the unit level, and thermal-vacuum testing at the subsystem level. Mutual compatibility between IAPS and the host spacecraft was demonstrated during a series of performance and environmental tests after the IAPS Flight Package was installed on the spacecraft. After a spacecraft acoustic test, performance of the ion thrusters was reverified by removing the TGBSUs for a thorough performance test at Hughes Research Laboratories (HRL). The TGBSUs were then reinstalled on the spacecraft. The IAPS Flight Package is ready for flight testing when Shuttle flights are resumed.

  1. Spoken verb processing in Spanish: An analysis using a new online resource

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Semilla M.; Bates, Elizabeth A.; Orozco-Figueroa, Araceli; Wicha, Nicole Y. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Verbs are one of the basic building blocks of grammar, yet few studies have examined the grammatical, morphological, and phonological factors contributing to lexical access and production of Spanish verb inflection. This report describes an online data set that incorporates psycholinguistic dimensions for 50 of the most common early-acquired Spanish verbs. Using this data set, predictors of response time (RT) from stimulus onset and mean differences at offset are examined. Native Spanish speakers, randomly assigned to one of two tasks, listened to prerecorded verbs and either repeated the verb (single word shadowing) or produced its corresponding pronoun. Factors such as stimulus duration, number of syllables, syllable stress position, and specific levels of initial phoneme facilitated both shadowing of a verb and production of its pronoun. Higher frequency verbs facilitated faster verb repetition, whereas verbs with alternative pronouns increased RT to pronoun production. Mean differences at offset (stimulus duration is removed) indicated that listeners begin speaking earlier when the verb is longer and multisyllabic compared to shorter, monosyllabic words. These results highlight the association between psycholinguistic factors and RT measures of verb processing, in particular, features unique to languages like Spanish, such as alternative pronoun and tense. PMID:23002318

  2. The effect of verb semantic class and verb frequency (entrenchment) on children's and adults' graded judgements of argument-structure overgeneralization errors.

    PubMed

    Ambridge, Ben; Pine, Julian M; Rowland, Caroline F; Young, Chris R

    2008-01-01

    Participants (aged 5-6 yrs, 9-10 yrs and adults) rated (using a five-point scale) grammatical (intransitive) and overgeneralized (transitive causative)(1) uses of a high frequency, low frequency and novel intransitive verb from each of three semantic classes [Pinker, S. (1989a). Learnability and cognition: The acquisition of argument structure. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press]: "directed motion" (fall, tumble), "going out of existence" (disappear, vanish) and "semivoluntary expression of emotion" (laugh, giggle). In support of Pinker's semantic verb class hypothesis, participants' preference for grammatical over overgeneralized uses of novel (and English) verbs increased between 5-6 yrs and 9-10 yrs, and was greatest for the latter class, which is associated with the lowest degree of direct external causation (the prototypical meaning of the transitive causative construction). In support of Braine and Brooks's [Braine, M.D.S., & Brooks, P.J. (1995). Verb argument strucure and the problem of avoiding an overgeneral grammar. In M. Tomasello & W. E. Merriman (Eds.), Beyond names for things: Young children's acquisition of verbs (pp. 352-376). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum] entrenchment hypothesis, all participants showed the greatest preference for grammatical over ungrammatical uses of high frequency verbs, with this preference smaller for low frequency verbs, and smaller again for novel verbs. We conclude that both the formation of semantic verb classes and entrenchment play a role in children's retreat from argument-structure overgeneralization errors. PMID:17316595

  3. Electric auxiliary power unit for Shuttle evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Doug; Weber, Kent; Scott, Walter

    1989-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter currently uses three hydrazine fueled auxiliary power units (APUs) to provide hydraulic power for the vehicle aerodynamic surface controls, main engine thrust vector control, landing gear, steering, and brakes. Electric auxiliary power units have been proposed as possible replacements to the hydrazine auxiliary power units. Along with the potential advantages, this paper describes an Electric APU configuration and addresses the technical issues and risks associated with the subsystem components. Additionally, characteristics of an Electric APU compared to the existing APU and the direction of future study with respect to the Electric APU is suggested.

  4. H(curl) Auxiliary Mesh Preconditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Kolev, T V; Pasciak, J E; Vassilevski, P S

    2006-08-31

    This paper analyzes a two-level preconditioning scheme for H(curl) bilinear forms. The scheme utilizes an auxiliary problem on a related mesh that is more amenable for constructing optimal order multigrid methods. More specifically, we analyze the case when the auxiliary mesh only approximately covers the original domain. The latter assumption is important since it allows for easy construction of nested multilevel spaces on regular auxiliary meshes. Numerical experiments in both two and three space dimensions illustrate the optimal performance of the method.

  5. Tuneable Auxiliary Control Mechanisms For RUM Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, Michael E.; Alhorn, Dean C.

    1995-01-01

    Tuneable auxiliary control mechanisms for rotating unbalanced-mass (RUM) actuators used to maximize scan amplitudes and/or minimize power consumption during changing conditions. This type of mechanism more sophisticated version of type of mechanism described in "Auxiliary Control Mechanisms for RUM Actuators" (MFS-28817). Torsional stiffness of torsionally flexible coupling made adjustable on command. Torsionally flexible coupling in tuneable version of auxiliary control mechanism adjustable by use of stepping-motor-driven worm-gear mechanism that varies bending length of flexible blade.

  6. Developing Structural Specification: Productivity in Early Hebrew Verb Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustigman, Lyle

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates acquisition of verb inflections by four monolingual Hebrew-acquiring children from middle-class backgrounds, audio-recorded in longitudinal, weekly samples at a mean age-range of between 18 and 26 months. Productive use of inflectional morphology is shown to manifest increasing structural specification, as a function of…

  7. Verb Position and the Order of Adverbials in German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, O. C., Jr.

    Recent work in word-order typology has demonstrated that the dominant order of verbs and objects (or complements) correlates well with the general ordering tendencies of languages. The work on German reported in this paper suggests, however, that certain traits, such as the order of adverbials, are influenced not only by general ordering…

  8. Verb Semantics in a Relational Data Base System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dostert, Bozena Henisz; Thompson, Frederick B.

    Ways of making the natural language of unsophisticated computer users meaningful to the computer are discussed. The discussion is set within the context of the Rapidly Extensible Language (REL) System, a question answering system with underlying relational data bases. Major topics covered include individuals and predicates, the problem of verbs,…

  9. Verb Generation in Children and Adolescents with Acute Cerebellar Lesions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, B.; Schoch, B.; Hein-Kropp, C.; Dimitrova, A.; Hovel, M.; Ziegler, W.; Gizewski, E. R.; Timmann, D.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine verb generation in a larger group of children and adolescents with acute focal lesions of the cerebellum. Nine children and adolescents with cerebellar tumours participated. Subjects were tested a few days after tumour surgery. For comparison, a subgroup was tested also 1 or 2 days before surgery. None…

  10. Honorifics: A Sociocultural Verb Agreement Cue in Japanese Sentence Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshimura, Yuki; MacWhinney, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Case marking is the major cue to sentence interpretation in Japanese, whereas animacy and word order are much weaker. However, when subjects and their cases markers are omitted, Japanese honorific and humble verbs can provide information that compensates for the missing case role markers. This study examined the usage of honorific and humble verbs…

  11. Gauging the Effects of Exercises on Verb-Noun Collocations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boers, Frank; Demecheleer, Murielle; Coxhead, Averil; Webb, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Many contemporary textbooks for English as a foreign language (EFL) and books for vocabulary study contain exercises with a focus on collocations, with verb-noun collocations (e.g. "make a mistake") being particularly popular as targets for collocation learning. Common exercise formats used in textbooks and other pedagogic materials…

  12. Verb Nominalization and Categorization in Navajo Children's Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iris, Madelyn Anne

    Verb nominalization in Navajo is a strategy by which children create category labels when the adult lexical item is not known; it allows for the creation of uniquely descriptive category labels. This study was based on a series of interviews with Navajo children aged four-and-a-half to approximately ten years, all native speakers of Navajo with…

  13. Verb Production during Action Naming in Semantic Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meligne, D.; Fossard, M.; Belliard, S.; Moreaud, O.; Duvignau, K.; Demonet, J.-F.

    2011-01-01

    In contrast with widely documented deficits of semantic knowledge relating to object concepts and the corresponding nouns in semantic dementia (SD), little is known about action semantics and verb production in SD. The degradation of action semantic knowledge was studied in 5 patients with SD compared with 17 matched control participants in an…

  14. Processing Elided Verb Phrases with Flawed Antecedents: The Recycling Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arregui, Ana; Clifton, Charles, Jr.; Frazier, Lyn; Moulton, Keir

    2006-01-01

    Traditional syntactic accounts of verb phrase ellipsis (e.g., ''Jason laughed. Sam did [ ] too.'') categorize as ungrammatical many sentences that language users find acceptable (they ''undergenerate''); semantic accounts overgenerate. We propose that a processing theory, together with a syntactic account, does a better job of describing and…

  15. Effects of Student Monitoring of Verb Inflection in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Jeffery D.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a study of how the verb-form variables of tense, aspect, mode, person, number, and stem and suffix irregularities interact for lower-level students of Spanish to determine if performance can be improved by asking students to monitor an individual variable when many of such variables must be integrated in a particular exercise. (SED)

  16. The Derivation of Meaning in the Navajo Verb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Robert W.

    Lexical derivation in the Navajo verb system is described, with examples. Derivation involves four broad processes: (1) straightforward use of verbal roots and adverbial-derivational prefixes, with their base meanings; (2) extension of base root meaning, often by metaphor, to permit application to disparate concepts; (3) figurative use of…

  17. VERB [TM] Summer Scorecard: Increasing Tween Girls' Vigorous Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfonso, Moya L.; Thompson, Zachary; McDermott, Robert J.; Colquitt, Gavin; Jones, Jeffery A.; Bryant, Carol A.; Courtney, Anita H.; Davis, Jenna L.; Zhu, Yiliang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We assessed changes in the frequency of self-reported physical activity (PA) among tween girls exposed and not exposed to the VERB [TM] Summer Scorecard (VSS) intervention in Lexington, Kentucky, during 2004, 2006, and 2007. Methods: Girls who reported 0-1 day per week of PA were classi?ed as having "little or no" PA. Girls who reported…

  18. Two Classes of Transitive Verbs: Evidence from Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Grant Warren

    2011-01-01

    The unaccusativity hypothesis (Burzio 1986; Levin & Rappaport Hovav 1995; Perlmutter 1978) posits that intransitive verbs may be divided into two broad classes: unaccusatives, whose sole argument is an internal argument and unergatives, whose sole argument is an external argument. In this dissertation I explore the idea that there is a similar,…

  19. English-Learning Infants' Segmentation of Verbs from Fluent Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazzi, Thierry; Dilley, Laura C.; Jusczyk, Ann Marie; Shattuck-Hufnagel, Stefanie; Jusczyk, Peter W.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments sought to extend the demonstration of English-learning infants' abilities to segment nouns from fluent speech to a new lexical class: verbs. Moreover, we explored whether two factors previously shown to influence noun segmentation, stress pattern (strong-weak or weak-strong) and type of initial phoneme (consonant or vowel), also…

  20. Verbs and Noun Phrases--Two Tendencies in Philosophical Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koskela, Merja

    Noun phrases are often used in academic writing to express the abstract character of the topics discussed. Nouns, especially nominalizations, make it possible to express complicated ideas in a condensed and compact manner, whereas the corresponding verbs make texts easier to understand and more dynamic. In this paper, a case study is presented…

  1. Nouns and verbs are retrieved with differently distributed neural systems.

    PubMed Central

    Damasio, A R; Tranel, D

    1993-01-01

    In a task designed to elicit the production of verbs, the patients known as AN-1033 and Boswell consistently produced the correct target words, performing no differently from normal controls. However, in a similar task designed to elicit the production of nouns, both patients performed quite defectively, and their scores were many SDs below those of controls. Language processing was otherwise normal--i.e., there were no impairments in grammar, morphology, phonetic implementation, or prosody; reading and writing were normal. In a third patient (KJ-1360), we obtained the reverse outcome--i.e., retrieval of common and proper nouns was preserved, but verb retrieval was defective. Together, the findings in the three patients constitute a double dissociation between noun and verb retrieval. In AN-1033 and Boswell, the lesions are located outside the so-called language areas (left frontoparietal operculum, posterior temporal region, inferior parietal lobule), where damage is associated with aphasia. The region of damage shared by the two patients is in left anterior and middle temporal lobe. This sector of left hemisphere contains systems for the retrieval of nouns that denote concrete entities. We propose that those systems are not essential for the retrieval of verbs and not involved in the vocal implementation of word forms. Those systems perform a two-way lexical-mediation role for concrete nouns and promote the reconstruction of a word form after the processing of sensory-motor characteristics of the entity denoted by that word. The findings in patient KJ-1360, whose lesion is in left premotor cortex, suggest that equivalent mediation systems for verbs are located in the left frontal region. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8506341

  2. Auxiliary circuit enables automatic monitoring of EKG'S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Auxiliary circuits allow direct, automatic monitoring of electrocardiograms by digital computers. One noiseless square-wave output signal for each trigger pulse from an electrocardiogram preamplifier is produced. The circuit also permits automatic processing of cardiovascular data from analog tapes.

  3. Verb Production in Aphasia: Testing the Division of Labor between Syntax and Semantics.

    PubMed

    Thorne, Julia; Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen

    2016-02-01

    Some individuals with aphasia preferably use semantically general light verbs, whereas others prefer semantically specific heavy verbs. This study aimed to test Gordon and Dell's "division of labor" hypothesis that light versus heavy verb usage depends on syntactic and semantic processes, respectively. In a retrospective analysis of data from the AphasiaBank corpus, narrative language of neurologically healthy individuals and individuals with aphasia was analyzed for the proportion of light verbs used, and its relationship with narrative measures of syntactic and semantic sophistication and verb naming scores was examined. In individuals with aphasia, light verb usage was positively correlated with a syntactic measure (developmental sentence score) and negatively associated with two semantic measures (idea density and verb naming). For healthy individuals, the number of verbs per utterance, which is a measure of syntactic complexity, predicted light verb use. These findings suggest that light verb usage in aphasia observes an inverse relationship with syntactic and semantic abilities, supporting the division of labor hypothesis. PMID:26882362

  4. Imageability and distributional typicality measures of nouns and verbs in contemporary English.

    PubMed

    Chiarello, C; Shears, C; Lund, K

    1999-11-01

    Dissociations between noun and verb processing are not uncommon after brain injury; yet, precise psycholinguistic comparisons of nouns and verbs are hampered by the underrepresentation of verbs in published semantic word norms and by the absence of contemporary estimates for part-of-speech usage. We report herein imageability ratings and rating response times (RTs) for 1,197 words previously categorized as pure nouns, pure verbs, or words of balanced noun-verb usage on the basis of the Francis and Kucera (1982) norms. Nouns and verbs differed in rated imageability, and there was a stronger correspondence between imageability rating and RT for nouns than for verbs. For all word types, the image-rating-RT function implied that subjects employed an image generation process to assign ratings. We also report a new measure of noun-verb typicality that used the Hyperspace Analog to Language (HAL; Lund & Burgess, 1996) context vectors (derived from a large sample of Usenet text) to compute the mean context distance between each word and all of the pure nouns and pure verbs. For a subset of the items, the resulting HAL noun-verb difference score was compared with part-of-speech usage in a representative sample of the Usenet corpus. It is concluded that this score can be used to estimate the extent to which a given word occurs in typical noun or verb sentence contexts in informal contemporary English discourse. The item statistics given in Appendix B will enable experimenters to select representative examples of nouns and verbs or to compare typical with atypical nouns (or verbs), while holding constant or covarying rated imageability. PMID:10633978

  5. 46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35 Section 58... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main propulsion system must be provided in duplicate unless the...

  6. 33 CFR 5.48 - Auxiliary Patrol Boat ensign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Auxiliary Patrol Boat ensign. 5.48 Section 5.48 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AUXILIARY § 5.48 Auxiliary Patrol Boat ensign. (a) The Coast Guard Auxiliary Patrol Boat ensign is authorized to be flown on all...

  7. 30 CFR 75.331 - Auxiliary fans and tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Auxiliary fans and tubing. 75.331 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.331 Auxiliary fans and tubing. (a) When auxiliary fans and tubing are used for face ventilation, each auxiliary fan shall be—...

  8. 30 CFR 75.331 - Auxiliary fans and tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fans and tubing. 75.331 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.331 Auxiliary fans and tubing. (a) When auxiliary fans and tubing are used for face ventilation, each auxiliary fan shall be—...

  9. 30 CFR 75.331 - Auxiliary fans and tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Auxiliary fans and tubing. 75.331 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.331 Auxiliary fans and tubing. (a) When auxiliary fans and tubing are used for face ventilation, each auxiliary fan shall be—...

  10. 30 CFR 75.331 - Auxiliary fans and tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Auxiliary fans and tubing. 75.331 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.331 Auxiliary fans and tubing. (a) When auxiliary fans and tubing are used for face ventilation, each auxiliary fan shall be—...

  11. 30 CFR 75.331 - Auxiliary fans and tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Auxiliary fans and tubing. 75.331 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.331 Auxiliary fans and tubing. (a) When auxiliary fans and tubing are used for face ventilation, each auxiliary fan shall be—...

  12. 46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35 Section 58... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main propulsion system must be provided in duplicate unless the...

  13. Corpus Study of Verb Patterns of Unaccusative Verbs "Appear," "Happen" and "Occur" in L2 English Written by Japanese Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owada, Kazuharu

    2013-01-01

    There have been many studies on the acquisition of English unaccusative verbs which make use of learner corpora. Most of these studies have so far concluded that even advanced learners of English ungrammatically passivize unaccusative verbs and produce sentences such as "*The accident was happened" and "*The mobile phone was…

  14. The Role of Input Frequency and Semantic Transparency in the Acquisition of Verb Meaning: Evidence from Placement Verbs in Tamil and Dutch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narasimhan, Bhuvana; Gullberg, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    We investigate how Tamil- and Dutch-speaking adults and four- to five-year-old children use caused posture verbs ("lay/stand a bottle on a table") to label placement events in which objects are oriented vertically or horizontally. Tamil caused posture verbs consist of morphemes that individually label the causal and result subevents ("nikka…

  15. Sit down and read on: working memory and long-term memory in particle-verb processing.

    PubMed

    Piai, Vitória; Meyer, Lars; Schreuder, Robert; Bastiaansen, Marcel C M

    2013-11-01

    Particle verbs (e.g., look up) are lexical items for which particle and verb share a single lexical entry. Using event-related brain potentials, we examined working memory and long-term memory involvement in particle-verb processing. Dutch participants read sentences with head verbs that allow zero, two, or more than five particles to occur downstream. Additionally, sentences were presented for which the encountered particle was semantically plausible, semantically implausible, or forming a non-existing particle verb. An anterior negativity was observed at the verbs that potentially allow for a particle downstream relative to verbs that do not, possibly indexing storage of the verb until the dependency with its particle can be closed. Moreover, a graded N400 was found at the particle (smallest amplitude for plausible particles and largest for particles forming non-existing particle verbs), suggesting that lexical access to a shared lexical entry occurred at two separate time points. PMID:24183465

  16. Neuromagnetic hand and foot motor sources recruited during action verb processing.

    PubMed

    Klepp, Anne; Weissler, Hannah; Niccolai, Valentina; Terhalle, Anselm; Geisler, Hans; Schnitzler, Alfons; Biermann-Ruben, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated sensorimotor involvement in the processing of verbs describing actions performed with the hands, feet, or no body part. Actual movements were used to identify neuromagnetic sources for hand and foot actions. These sources constrained the analysis of verb processing. While hand and foot sources picked up activation in all three verb conditions, peak amplitudes showed an interaction of source and verb condition at 200 ms after word onset, thereby reflecting effector-specificity. Specifically, hand verbs elicited significantly higher peak amplitudes than foot verbs in hand sources. Our results are in line with theories of embodied cognition that assume an involvement of sensorimotor areas in early stages of lexico-semantic processing, even for single words without a semantic or motor task. PMID:24412808

  17. Imageability and semantic association in the representation and processing of event verbs.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xu; Kang, Chunyan; Guo, Taomei

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the relative salience of imageability (the degree to which a word evokes mental imagery) versus semantic association (the density of semantic network in which a word is embedded) in the representation and processing of four types of event verbs: sensory, cognitive, speech, and motor verbs. ERP responses were recorded, while 34 university students performed on a lexical decision task. Analysis focused primarily on amplitude differences across verb conditions within the N400 time window where activities are considered representing meaning activation. Variation in N400 amplitude across four types of verbs was found significantly associated with the level of imageability, but not the level of semantic association. The findings suggest imageability as a more salient factor relative to semantic association in the processing of these verbs. The role of semantic association and the representation of speech verbs are also discussed. PMID:26747462

  18. Attention to Multiple Events Helps 2 1/2-Year-Olds Extend New Verbs

    PubMed Central

    Childers, Jane B.

    2013-01-01

    An important question in verb learning is how children extend new verbs to new situational contexts. In Study 1, 2 1/2-year-old children were shown a complex event followed by new events that preserved only the action from the initial event, only the result, or no new events. Children seeing events that preserved either the action or the result produced appropriate verb extensions at test while children without this information did not. In a follow-up study, children hearing new verbs produced more extensions than did children hearing nonlabeling speech. These studies suggest that attention to related events is helpful to young verb learners, perhaps because they structurally align these events (e.g., Gentner, 1983; 1989) during verb learning. PMID:24324284

  19. Lexical Retrieval of Nouns and Verbs in a Sentence Completion Task.

    PubMed

    Abel, Alyson D; Maguire, Mandy J; Naqvi, Fizza M; Kim, Angela Y

    2015-10-01

    This study explored noun and verb retrieval using a sentence completion task to expand upon previous findings from picture naming tasks. Participants completed sentences missing either a target noun or verb in the final position. Non-target responses were coded for substitution type, imageability and frequency. Like picture naming, nouns and verbs differed in non-target substitution type-within-category substitutions were primarily nouns and out-of-category substitutions were primarily verbs. Imageability predicted multiple substitution types for both word classes, whereas frequency predicted noun substitution types but not verbs. Findings support theories of noun and verb differences in semantic retrieval, showing the robustness of this effect across methodologies, and shed new light on the influence of imageability and frequency during semantic retrieval. PMID:24898421

  20. L2 speakers decompose morphologically complex verbs: fMRI evidence from priming of transparent derived verbs

    PubMed Central

    De Grauwe, Sophie; Lemhöfer, Kristin; Willems, Roel M.; Schriefers, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) long-lag priming study, we investigated the processing of Dutch semantically transparent, derived prefix verbs. In such words, the meaning of the word as a whole can be deduced from the meanings of its parts, e.g., wegleggen “put aside.” Many behavioral and some fMRI studies suggest that native (L1) speakers decompose transparent derived words. The brain region usually implicated in morphological decomposition is the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG). In non-native (L2) speakers, the processing of transparent derived words has hardly been investigated, especially in fMRI studies, and results are contradictory: some studies find more reliance on holistic (i.e., non-decompositional) processing by L2 speakers; some find no difference between L1 and L2 speakers. In this study, we wanted to find out whether Dutch transparent derived prefix verbs are decomposed or processed holistically by German L2 speakers of Dutch. Half of the derived verbs (e.g., omvallen “fall down”) were preceded by their stem (e.g., vallen “fall”) with a lag of 4–6 words (“primed”); the other half (e.g., inslapen “fall asleep”) were not (“unprimed”). L1 and L2 speakers of Dutch made lexical decisions on these visually presented verbs. Both region of interest analyses and whole-brain analyses showed that there was a significant repetition suppression effect for primed compared to unprimed derived verbs in the LIFG. This was true both for the analyses over L2 speakers only and for the analyses over the two language groups together. The latter did not reveal any interaction with language group (L1 vs. L2) in the LIFG. Thus, L2 speakers show a clear priming effect in the LIFG, an area that has been associated with morphological decomposition. Our findings are consistent with the idea that L2 speakers engage in decomposition of transparent derived verbs rather than processing them holistically. PMID:25346678

  1. L2 speakers decompose morphologically complex verbs: fMRI evidence from priming of transparent derived verbs.

    PubMed

    De Grauwe, Sophie; Lemhöfer, Kristin; Willems, Roel M; Schriefers, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) long-lag priming study, we investigated the processing of Dutch semantically transparent, derived prefix verbs. In such words, the meaning of the word as a whole can be deduced from the meanings of its parts, e.g., wegleggen "put aside." Many behavioral and some fMRI studies suggest that native (L1) speakers decompose transparent derived words. The brain region usually implicated in morphological decomposition is the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG). In non-native (L2) speakers, the processing of transparent derived words has hardly been investigated, especially in fMRI studies, and results are contradictory: some studies find more reliance on holistic (i.e., non-decompositional) processing by L2 speakers; some find no difference between L1 and L2 speakers. In this study, we wanted to find out whether Dutch transparent derived prefix verbs are decomposed or processed holistically by German L2 speakers of Dutch. Half of the derived verbs (e.g., omvallen "fall down") were preceded by their stem (e.g., vallen "fall") with a lag of 4-6 words ("primed"); the other half (e.g., inslapen "fall asleep") were not ("unprimed"). L1 and L2 speakers of Dutch made lexical decisions on these visually presented verbs. Both region of interest analyses and whole-brain analyses showed that there was a significant repetition suppression effect for primed compared to unprimed derived verbs in the LIFG. This was true both for the analyses over L2 speakers only and for the analyses over the two language groups together. The latter did not reveal any interaction with language group (L1 vs. L2) in the LIFG. Thus, L2 speakers show a clear priming effect in the LIFG, an area that has been associated with morphological decomposition. Our findings are consistent with the idea that L2 speakers engage in decomposition of transparent derived verbs rather than processing them holistically. PMID:25346678

  2. Acquisition of the Argument-Structure of Verbs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Mika

    The relationship between the realization of the argument-structure of a verb and its acquisition as a lexical item was investigated in a case study. The subject was a girl aged 2.3 years whose father was a native English-speaker and whose mother was a native Japanese speaker who also spoke English. The child had been born in the United States but…

  3. When we think about thinking: The acquisition of belief verbs

    PubMed Central

    Papafragou, Anna; Cassidy, Kimberly; Gleitman, Lila

    2009-01-01

    Mental-content verbs such as think, believe, imagine and hope seem to pose special problems for the young language learner. One possible explanation for these difficulties is that the concepts that these verbs express are hard to grasp and therefore their acquisition must await relevant conceptual development. According to a different, perhaps complementary, proposal, a major contributor to the difficulty of these items lies with the informational requirements for identifying them from the contexts in which they appear. The experiments reported here explore the implications of these proposals by investigating the contribution of observational and linguistic cues to the acquisition of mental predicate vocabulary. We first demonstrate that particular observed situations can be helpful in prompting reference to mental contents, specifically, contexts that include a salient and/or unusual mental state such as a false belief. We then compare the potency of such observational support to the reliability of alternate or concomitant syntactic information (e.g., sentential complementation) in tasks where both children and adults are asked to hypothesize the meaning of novel verbs. The findings support the efficacy of false belief situations for increasing the saliency of mental state descriptions, but also show that syntactic information is a more reliable indicator of mentalistic interpretations than even the most cooperative contextual cues. Moreover, when syntactic and observational information sources converge, both children and simulated adult learners are vastly more likely to build conjectures involving mental verbs. This is consistent with a multiple-cue constraint satisfaction view of vocabulary acquisition. Taken together, our findings support the position that the informational demands of mapping, rather than age-related cognitive deficiency, can bear much of the explanatory burden for the learning problems posed by abstract words. PMID:17094956

  4. Comparing different models of the development of verb inflection in early child Spanish.

    PubMed

    Aguado-Orea, Javier; Pine, Julian M

    2015-01-01

    How children acquire knowledge of verb inflection is a long-standing question in language acquisition research. In the present study, we test the predictions of some current constructivist and generativist accounts of the development of verb inflection by focusing on data from two Spanish-speaking children between the ages of 2;0 and 2;6. The constructivist claim that children's early knowledge of verb inflection is only partially productive is tested by comparing the average number of different inflections per verb in matched samples of child and adult speech. The generativist claim that children's early use of verb inflection is essentially error-free is tested by investigating the rate at which the children made subject-verb agreement errors in different parts of the present tense paradigm. Our results show: 1) that, although even adults' use of verb inflection in Spanish tends to look somewhat lexically restricted, both children's use of verb inflection was significantly less flexible than that of their caregivers, and 2) that, although the rate at which the two children produced subject-verb agreement errors in their speech was very low, this overall error rate hid a consistent pattern of error in which error rates were substantially higher in low frequency than in high frequency contexts, and substantially higher for low frequency than for high frequency verbs. These results undermine the claim that children's use of verb inflection is fully productive from the earliest observable stages, and are consistent with the constructivist claim that knowledge of verb inflection develops only gradually. PMID:25760035

  5. Novel Noun and Verb Learning in Chinese-, English-, and Japanese-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imai, Mutsumi; Li, Lianjing; Haryu, Etsuko; Okada, Hiroyuki; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Shigematsu, Jun

    2008-01-01

    When can children speaking Japanese, English, or Chinese map and extend novel nouns and verbs? Across 6 studies, 3- and 5-year-old children in all 3 languages map and extend novel nouns more readily than novel verbs. This finding prevails even in languages like Chinese and Japanese that are assumed to be verb-friendly languages (e.g., T. Tardif,…

  6. Comparing Different Models of the Development of Verb Inflection in Early Child Spanish

    PubMed Central

    Aguado-Orea, Javier; Pine, Julian M.

    2015-01-01

    How children acquire knowledge of verb inflection is a long-standing question in language acquisition research. In the present study, we test the predictions of some current constructivist and generativist accounts of the development of verb inflection by focusing on data from two Spanish-speaking children between the ages of 2;0 and 2;6. The constructivist claim that children’s early knowledge of verb inflection is only partially productive is tested by comparing the average number of different inflections per verb in matched samples of child and adult speech. The generativist claim that children’s early use of verb inflection is essentially error-free is tested by investigating the rate at which the children made subject-verb agreement errors in different parts of the present tense paradigm. Our results show: 1) that, although even adults’ use of verb inflection in Spanish tends to look somewhat lexically restricted, both children’s use of verb inflection was significantly less flexible than that of their caregivers, and 2) that, although the rate at which the two children produced subject-verb agreement errors in their speech was very low, this overall error rate hid a consistent pattern of error in which error rates were substantially higher in low frequency than in high frequency contexts, and substantially higher for low frequency than for high frequency verbs. These results undermine the claim that children’s use of verb inflection is fully productive from the earliest observable stages, and are consistent with the constructivist claim that knowledge of verb inflection develops only gradually. PMID:25760035

  7. Phonological Planning during Sentence Production: Beyond the Verb

    PubMed Central

    Schnur, Tatiana T.

    2011-01-01

    The current study addresses the extent of phonological planning during spontaneous sentence production. Previous work shows that at articulation, phonological encoding occurs for entire phrases, but encoding beyond the initial phrase may be due to the syntactic relevance of the verb in planning the utterance. I conducted three experiments to investigate whether phonological planning crosses multiple grammatical phrase boundaries (as defined by the number of lexical heads of phrase) within a single phonological phrase. Using the picture–word interference paradigm, I found in two separate experiments a significant phonological facilitation effect to both the verb and noun of sentences like “He opens the gate.” I also altered the frequency of the direct object and found longer utterance initiation times for sentences ending with a low-frequency vs. high-frequency object offering further support that the direct object was phonologically encoded at the time of utterance initiation. That phonological information for post-verbal elements was activated suggests that the grammatical importance of the verb does not restrict the extent of phonological planning. These results suggest that the phonological phrase is unit of planning, where all elements within a phonological phrase are encoded before articulation. Thus, consistent with other action sequencing behavior, there is significant phonological planning ahead in sentence production. PMID:22069396

  8. Builtin vs. auxiliary detection of extrapolation risk.

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, Miles Arthur; Kegelmeyer, W. Philip,

    2013-02-01

    A key assumption in supervised machine learning is that future data will be similar to historical data. This assumption is often false in real world applications, and as a result, prediction models often return predictions that are extrapolations. We compare four approaches to estimating extrapolation risk for machine learning predictions. Two builtin methods use information available from the classification model to decide if the model would be extrapolating for an input data point. The other two build auxiliary models to supplement the classification model and explicitly model extrapolation risk. Experiments with synthetic and real data sets show that the auxiliary models are more reliable risk detectors. To best safeguard against extrapolating predictions, however, we recommend combining builtin and auxiliary diagnostics.

  9. Beyond Picture Naming: Norms and Patient Data for a Verb Generation Task**

    PubMed Central

    Kurland, Jacquie; Reber, Alisson; Stokes, Polly

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The current study aimed to: 1) acquire a set of verb generation to picture norms; and 2) probe its utility as an outcomes measure in aphasia treatment. Method Fifty healthy volunteers participated in Phase I, the verb generation normative sample. They generated verbs for 218 pictures of common objects (ISI=5s). In Phase II, four persons with aphasia (PWA) generated verbs for 60 objects (ISI=10s). Their stimuli consisted of objects which were: 1) recently trained (for object naming; n=20); 2) untrained (a control set; n=20); or 3) from a set of pictures named correctly at baseline (n=20). Verb generation was acquired twice: two months into, and following, a six-month home practice program. Results No objects elicited perfect verb agreement in the normed sample. Stimuli with the highest percent agreement were mostly artifacts and dominant verbs primary functional associates. Although not targeted in treatment or home practice, PWA mostly improved performance in verb generation post-practice. Conclusions A set of clinically and experimentally useful verb generation norms was acquired for a subset of the Snodgrass and Vanderwart (1980) picture set. More cognitively demanding than confrontation naming, this task may help to fill the sizeable gap between object picture naming and propositional speech. PMID:24686752

  10. Object associations of early-learned light and heavy English verbs

    PubMed Central

    Maouene, Josita; Laakso, Aarre; Smith, Linda B.

    2013-01-01

    Many of the verbs that young children learn early have been characterized as ‘light.’ However, there is no agreed upon definition of ‘lightness’ and no useable metric that could be applied to a wide array of verbs. This article provides evidence for one metric by which the ‘lightness’ of early-learned verbs might be measured: the number of objects with which they are associated (in adult judgment) or co-occur (in speech to and by children). The results suggest that early-learned light verbs and heavy verbs differ in the breadth of the objects they are associated with: light verbs have weak associations with specific objects, whereas heavy verbs are strongly associated with specific objects. However, there is an indication that verbs have narrower associations to objects in speech to children. The methodological usefulness of this metric is discussed as are the implications of the patterns of distributions for children’s learning of common verbs. PMID:24363471

  11. Do lemmas speak German? A verb position effect in German structural priming.

    PubMed

    Chang, Franklin; Baumann, Michael; Pappert, Sandra; Fitz, Hartmut

    2015-07-01

    Lexicalized theories of syntax often assume that verb-structure regularities are mediated by lemmas, which abstract over variation in verb tense and aspect. German syntax seems to challenge this assumption, because verb position depends on tense and aspect. To examine how German speakers link these elements, a structural priming study was performed which varied syntactic structure, verb position (encoded by tense and aspect), and verb overlap. Abstract structural priming was found, both within and across verb position, but priming was larger when the verb position was the same between prime and target. Priming was boosted by verb overlap, but there was no interaction with verb position. The results can be explained by a lemma model where tense and aspect are linked to structural choices in German. Since the architecture of this lemma model is not consistent with results from English, a connectionist model was developed which could explain the cross-linguistic variation in the production system. Together, these findings support the view that language learning plays an important role in determining the nature of structural priming in different languages. PMID:25307166

  12. Hands typing what hands do: Action-semantic integration dynamics throughout written verb production.

    PubMed

    García, Adolfo M; Ibáñez, Agustín

    2016-04-01

    Processing action verbs, in general, and manual action verbs, in particular, involves activations in gross and hand-specific motor networks, respectively. While this is well established for receptive language processes, no study has explored action-semantic integration during written production. Moreover, little is known about how such crosstalk unfolds from motor planning to execution. Here we address both issues through our novel "action semantics in typing" paradigm, which allows to time keystroke operations during word typing. Specifically, we created a primed-verb-copying task involving manual action verbs, non-manual action verbs, and non-action verbs. Motor planning processes were indexed by first-letter lag (the lapse between target onset and first keystroke), whereas execution dynamics were assessed considering whole-word lag (the lapse between first and last keystroke). Each phase was differently delayed by action verbs. When these were processed for over one second, interference was strong and magnified by effector compatibility during programming, but weak and effector-blind during execution. Instead, when they were processed for less than 900ms, interference was reduced by effector compatibility during programming and it faded during execution. Finally, typing was facilitated by prime-target congruency, irrespective of the verbs' motor content. Thus, action-verb semantics seems to extend beyond its embodied foundations, involving conceptual dynamics not tapped by classical reaction-time measures. These findings are compatible with non-radical models of language embodiment and with predictions of event coding theory. PMID:26803393

  13. Space Shuttle Orbiter improved auxiliary power unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagemann, D. W.; Wicklund, L. L.; Loken, G. R.; Baughman, J. R.; Lance, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter Auxiliary Power Unit subsystem has operated successfully on three vehicles by meeting mission requirements and has proven the design for space operation. The current Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) operational life is limited to 12 missions and the APU turnaround between flights is longer than originally anticipated. The Improved APU objective is to increase life to 50 missions, reduce the three - APU subsystem vehicle weight by 140 lbs., and reduce turnaround time. The design changes incorporated into the Improved APU and the associated development testing are described.

  14. A developmental shift from similar to language specific strategies in verb acquisition: A comparison of English, Spanish, and Japanese

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Mandy J.; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Imai, Mutsumi; Haryu, Etsuko; Vanegas, Sandra; Okada, Hiroyuki; Pulverman, Rachel; Sanchez-Davis, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    The world’s languages draw on a common set of event components for their verb systems. Yet, these components are differentially distributed across languages. At what age do children begin to use language specific patterns to narrow possible verb meanings? English, Japanese, and Spanish-speaking adults, toddlers, and preschoolers were shown videos of an animated star performing a novel manner along a novel path paired with a language appropriate nonsense verb. They were then asked to extend that verb to either the same manner or the same path as in training. Across languages, toddlers (2- and 2 ½-year-olds) revealed a significant preference for interpreting the verb as a path verb. In preschool (3- and 5-year-olds) and adulthood, participants displayed language specific patterns of verb construal. These findings illuminate the way in which verb construal comes to reflect properties of the input language. PMID:19897183

  15. Ejector Noise Suppression with Auxiliary Jet Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, Charles H.; Andersen, Otto P., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    An experimental program to reduce aircraft jet turbulence noise investigated the interaction of small auxiliary jets with a larger main jet. Significant reductions in the far field jet noise were obtained over a range of auxiliary jet pressures and flow rates when used in conjunction with an acoustically lined ejector. While the concept is similar to that of conventional ejector suppressors that use mechanical mixing devices, the present approach should improve thrust and lead to lower weight and less complex noise suppression systems since no hardware needs to be located in the main jet flow. A variety of auxiliary jet and ejector configurations and operating conditions were studied. The best conditions tested produced peak to peak noise reductions ranging from 11 to 16 dB, depending on measurement angle, for auxiliary jet mass flows that were 6.6% of the main jet flow with ejectors that were 8 times the main jet diameter in length. Much larger reductions in noise were found at the original peak frequencies of the unsuppressed jet over a range of far field measurement angles.

  16. 47 CFR 97.201 - Auxiliary station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.201 Auxiliary station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, Technician Plus, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be an...

  17. The Changing Face of Auxiliary Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2006-01-01

    With tuition on the rise, Auxiliary Services departments at a variety of colleges and universities are proving that they can innovate and still save their parent institutions cash. Primary areas of innovation include: (1) With advancements in technology, institutions are moving campus purchasing programs into the wireless space; (2) As junk mail …

  18. Window-mounted auxiliary solar heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, K. G.; Herndon, E. P.

    1977-01-01

    System uses hot-air collectors, no thermal storage, and fan with thermostat switches. At cost of heating efficiency, unit could be manufactured and sold at price allowing immediate entry to market as auxiliary heating system. Its simplicity allows homeowner installation, and maintenance is minimal.

  19. Curricular Guidelines for Dental Auxiliary Radiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    AADS curricular guidelines suggest objectives for these areas of dental auxiliary radiology: physical principles of X-radiation in dentistry, related radiobiological concepts, principles of radiologic health, radiographic technique, x-ray films and intensifying screens, factors contributing to film quality, darkroom, and normal variations in…

  20. Auxiliary power unit for moving a vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Akasam, Sivaprasad; Johnson, Kris W.; Johnson, Matthew D.; Slone, Larry M.; Welter, James Milton

    2009-02-03

    A power system is provided having at least one traction device and a primary power source configured to power the at least one traction device. In addition, the power system includes an auxiliary power source also configured to power the at least one traction device.

  1. Approche de l'identite d'un preverbe a travers l'analyse des variations semantiques des unites preverbees (An Approach to the Identity of Verb Prefix through Analysis of Semantic Variation of the Prefixed Verb).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franckel, Jean-Jacques

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of the French verb prefix "re-" finds its occurrence characterized not, strictly speaking, by meaning but by the variety of ways in which the verb itself and its prefixed form interact. Occurrences of "re-" are classified into five categories. Verbs not compatible with the prefix and several unusual cases are also discussed. (MSE)

  2. Verb inflection in Monolingual Dutch and Sequential Bilingual Turkish-Dutch Children with and without SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Elma; De Jong, Jan; Orgassa, Antje; Baker, Anne; Weerman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Both children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children who acquire a second language (L2) make errors with verb inflection. This overlap between SLI and L2 raises the question if verb inflection can discriminate between L2 children with and without SLI. In this study we addressed this question for Dutch. The secondary goal of the study…

  3. Differential Effects of Language Attrition in the Domains of Verb Placement and Object Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the differential effects of language attrition in two diverse linguistic domains: verb placement and object expression. Linguistic phenomena at the syntax--discourse interface, such as object expression, have been shown to be more vulnerable to attrition than narrow syntax properties, such as verb placement. This study aims…

  4. Neural Correlates of Comprehension and Production of Nouns and Verbs in Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Xi; Bi, Yanchao; Han, Zaizhu; Zhu, Chaozhe; Law, Sam-Po

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a conjunction analysis between semantic relatedness judgment and semantic associate generation of Chinese nouns and verbs with concrete or abstract meanings. The results revealed a verb-specific task-independent region in LpSTG&MTG, and task-dependent activation in a left frontal region in semantic judgment and the left SMG in…

  5. Development of Lexical and Syntactic Representations: The Acquisition of Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurcanli, Ozge

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation concerns the acquisition of the interaction between lexicosemantic properties of verbs and syntax, focusing on symmetrical and asymmetrical verbs in different syntactic structures. Based on linguistic evidence, it is shown that two conceptual categories, Mutuality and Number, interact to give rise to four event-types: Single…

  6. Action and Object Processing in Aphasia: From Nouns and Verbs to the Effect of Manipulability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arevalo, A.; Perani, D.; Cappa, S. F.; Butler, A.; Bates, E.; Dronkers, N.

    2007-01-01

    The processing of words and pictures representing actions and objects was tested in 21 aphasic patients and 20 healthy controls across three word production tasks: picture-naming (PN), single word reading (WR) and word repetition (WRP). Analysis (1) targeted task and lexical category (noun-verb), revealing worse performance on PN and verb items…

  7. What Underlies the Neuropsychological Pattern of Irregular>Regular Past-Tense Verb Production?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambon Ralph, M.A.; Braber, N.; McClelland, J.L.; Patterson, K.

    2005-01-01

    The disadvantage in producing the past tense of regular relative to irregular verbs shown by some patients with non-fluent aphasia has been alternatively attributed (a) to the failure of a specific rule-based morphological mechanism, or (b) to a more generalised phonological impairment that penalises regular verbs more than irregular owing to the…

  8. Treatment of Semantic Verb Classes in Aphasia: Acquisition and Generalization Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Graham, Lauren E.

    2011-01-01

    Verb retrieval difficulties are common in aphasia; however, few successful treatments have been documented (e.g. Conroy, P., Sage, K., & Lambon Ralph, M. A. (2006). Towards theory-driven therapies for aphasic verb impairments: A review of current theory and practice. "Aphasiology", 20, 1159-1185). This study investigated the efficacy of a novel…

  9. Clinical, Imaging and Pathological Correlates of a Hereditary Deficit in Verb and Action Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bak, Thomas H.; Yancopoulou, Despina; Nestor, Peter J.; Xuereb, John H.; Spillantini, Maria G.; Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Hodges, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Selective verb and noun deficits have been observed in a number of neurological conditions and their occurrence has been interpreted as evidence for different neural networks underlying the processing of specific word categories. We describe the first case of a familial occurrence of a selective deficit of verb processing. Father (Individual I)…

  10. Slowly but Surely: Adverbs Support Verb Learning in 2-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syrett, Kristen; Arunachalam, Sudha; Waxman, Sandra R.

    2014-01-01

    To acquire the meanings of verbs, toddlers make use of the surrounding linguistic information. For example, 2-year-olds successfully acquire novel transitive verbs that appear in semantically rich frames containing content nouns ("The boy is gonna pilk a balloon"), but they have difficulty with pronominal frames ("He is gonna pilk…

  11. Auditory Word Recognition of Nouns and Verbs in Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreu, Llorenc; Sanz-Torrent, Monica; Guardia-Olmos, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Nouns are fundamentally different from verbs semantically and syntactically, since verbs can specify one, two, or three nominal arguments. In this study, 25 children with Specific Language Impairment (age 5;3-8;2 years) and 50 typically developing children (3;3-8;2 years) participated in an eye-tracking experiment of spoken language comprehension…

  12. Two-Year-Olds Use Distributional Cues to Interpret Transitivity-Alternating Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Rose M.; Fisher, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    Two-year-olds assign appropriate interpretations to verbs presented in two English transitivity alternations, the causal and unspecified-object alternations (Naigles, 1996). Here we explored how they might do so. Causal and unspecified-object verbs are syntactically similar. They can be either transitive or intransitive, but differ in the semantic…

  13. Children's Causal Attributions to States and Events Described by Different Classes of Verbs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Roberta; Stevenson, Colleen

    1994-01-01

    The causal structure of schemas for the actions and states by different classes of English verbs was examined in the elicited narratives of 19 preschool children. Results showed that verbs within a class elicited similar narratives, whereas across classes the event descriptions varied in the animacy of the event participants and the causal…

  14. Using Action Verbs as Learning Outcomes: Applying Bloom's Taxonomy in Measuring Instructional Objectives in Introductory Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevid, Jeffrey S.; McClelland, Nate

    2013-01-01

    We used a set of action verbs based on Bloom's taxonomy to assess learning outcomes in two college-level introductory psychology courses. The action verbs represented an acronym, IDEA, comprising skills relating to identifying, defining or describing, evaluating or explaining, and applying psychological knowledge. Exam performance demonstrated…

  15. Verb Selection and Past-Tense Morphology: Crystal's Criteria Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Research findings concerning verb-level influences on past-tense morphology carry implications for the careful selection of treatment targets. Using 6 of the broad criteria for "good verbs to choose" proposed by D. Crystal (1985) more than 25 years ago as a framework, this article summarizes some of the more recent research with a nod…

  16. Chinese L1 Children's English L2 Verb Morphology over Time: Individual Variation in Longterm Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradis, Joanne; Tulpar, Yasemin; Arppe, Antti

    2016-01-01

    This study examined accuracy in production and grammaticality judgements of verb morphology by eighteen Chinese-speaking children learning English as a second language (L2) followed longitudinally from four to six years of exposure to English, and who began to learn English at age 4;2. Children's growth in accuracy with verb morphology reached a…

  17. Word Category and Verb-Argument Structure Information in the Dynamics of Parsing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisch, Stefan; Hahne, Anja; Friederici, Angela D.

    2004-01-01

    One of the core issues in psycholinguistic research concerns the relationship between word category information and verb-argument structure (e.g. transitivity) information of verbs in the process of sentence parsing. In two experiments (visual versus auditory presentation) using event-related brain potentials (ERPs), we addressed this question by…

  18. Toddlers Default to Canonical Surface-to-Meaning Mapping When Learning Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dautriche, Isabelle; Cristia, Alejandrina; Brusini, Perrine; Yuan, Sylvia; Fisher, Cynthia; Christophe, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has shown that toddlers readily encode each noun in the sentence as a distinct argument of the verb. However, languages allow multiple mappings between form and meaning that do not fit this canonical format. Two experiments examined French 28-month-olds' interpretation of right-dislocated sentences ("noun"-verb,…

  19. Neural Mechanisms of Verb Argument Structure Processing in Agrammatic Aphasic and Healthy Age-Matched Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Cynthia K.; Bonakdarpour, Borna; Fix, Stephen F.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of lexical verbs involves automatic access to argument structure entries entailed within the verb's representation. Recent neuroimaging studies with young normal listeners suggest that this involves bilateral posterior peri-sylvian tissue, with graded activation in these regions on the basis of argument structure complexity. The aim of…

  20. Complement Syntax, Mental Verbs, and Theory of Mind in Children Who Are Deaf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddington, Holly B.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted in three parts. Each part analyzed theory of mind (ToM) development in children who are deaf in relation to mental verb and complement syntax understanding. In the first part, participants were given a series of tests for the purpose of correlational analysis of ToM, mental verb understanding, and memory for…

  1. Twenty Four-Month-Old Infants' Interpretations of Novel Verbs and Nouns in Dynamic Scenes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxman, Sandra R.; Lidz, Jeffrey L.; Braun, Irena E.; Lavin, Tracy

    2009-01-01

    The current experiments address several concerns, both empirical and theoretical in nature, that have surfaced within the verb learning literature. They begin to reconcile what, until now, has been a large and largely unexplained gap between infants' well-documented ability to acquire verbs in the natural course of their lives and their rather…

  2. Neuroanatomical distribution of five semantic components of verbs: evidence from fMRI.

    PubMed

    Kemmerer, David; Castillo, Javier Gonzalez; Talavage, Thomas; Patterson, Stephanie; Wiley, Cynthia

    2008-10-01

    The Simulation Framework, also known as the Embodied Cognition Framework, maintains that conceptual knowledge is grounded in sensorimotor systems. To test several predictions that this theory makes about the neural substrates of verb meanings, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to scan subjects' brains while they made semantic judgments involving five classes of verbs-specifically, Running verbs (e.g., run, jog, walk), Speaking verbs (e.g., shout, mumble, whisper), Hitting verbs (e.g., hit, poke, jab), Cutting verbs (e.g., cut, slice, hack), and Change of State verbs (e.g., shatter, smash, crack). These classes were selected because they vary with respect to the presence or absence of five distinct semantic components-specifically, ACTION, MOTION, CONTACT, CHANGE OF STATE, and TOOL USE. Based on the Simulation Framework, we hypothesized that the ACTION component depends on the primary motor and premotor cortices, that the MOTION component depends on the posterolateral temporal cortex, that the CONTACT component depends on the intraparietal sulcus and inferior parietal lobule, that the CHANGE OF STATE component depends on the ventral temporal cortex, and that the TOOL USE component depends on a distributed network of temporal, parietal, and frontal regions. Virtually all of the predictions were confirmed. Taken together, these findings support the Simulation Framework and extend our understanding of the neuroanatomical distribution of different aspects of verb meaning. PMID:17977592

  3. A Review of Verb Network Strengthening Treatment: Theory, Methods, Results, and Clinical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Lisa A.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines Verb Network Strengthening Treatment (VNeST), a relatively new treatment approach for anomia in people with aphasia. The VNeST protocol aims to promote generalization to increased lexical retrieval of untrained words across a hierarchy of linguistic tasks, including single-word naming of nouns and verbs, sentence production,…

  4. Treating Verbs in Aphasia: Exploring the Impact of Therapy at the Single Word and Sentence Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Janet; Whitworth, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Background: In recent years there has been significant interest in the differential processing of nouns and verbs in people with aphasia, but more limited consideration about whether the differences have implications for therapy. It remains unclear whether verbs can be treated in a similar way to nouns or should be treated using approaches that…

  5. Morphological processing in early bilinguals: an ERP study of regular and irregular verb processing.

    PubMed

    De Diego Balaguer, R; Sebastián-Gallés, N; Díaz, B; Rodríguez-Fornells, A

    2005-09-01

    Although the age of acquisition of a language has an effect when learning a second language, the similarity between languages may also have a crucial role. The aim of the present study is to understand the influence of this latter factor in the acquisition of morphosyntactic information. With this purpose, two groups of highly proficient early Catalan-Spanish bilinguals were presented with a repetition-priming paradigm with regular and irregular verbs of Spanish. Catalan and Spanish have a similar suffix (-o) for regular verbs and completely different alternations for irregular verbs. Two types of irregular verbs were studied (semi-regular verbs with a systematic diphthong alternation, sentir-siento, and verbs with idiosyncratic changes, venir-vengo). Regular verbs showed the same centro-parietal N400 priming effect in the second-language speakers (L2) as in primary-language (L1) speakers. However, differences between groups, in the ERP pattern and the topography of the N400 effect, were observed for irregular morphology. In L1 speakers, the N400 effect was attenuated only for semi-regular verbs. In contrast, L2 speakers showed a reduced N400 priming effect in both irregular contrasts. This pattern of results suggests that the similarity between languages may help for similar structures but may interfere for dissimilar structures, at least when the two languages have very similar morphological systems. PMID:16023332

  6. Cognate and Word Class Ambiguity Effects in Noun and Verb Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bultena, Sybrine; Dijkstra, Ton; van Hell, Janet G.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how noun and verb processing in bilingual visual word recognition are affected by within and between-language overlap. We investigated how word class ambiguous noun and verb cognates are processed by bilinguals, to see if co-activation of overlapping word forms between languages benefits from additional overlap within a…

  7. A Common Mechanism in Verb and Noun Naming Deficits in Alzheimer's Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almor, Amit; Aronoff, Justin M.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Gonnerman, Laura M.; Kempler, Daniel; Hintiryan, Houri; Hayes, UnJa L.; Arunachalam, Sudha; Andersen, Elaine S.

    2009-01-01

    We tested the ability of Alzheimer's patients and elderly controls to name living and non-living nouns, and manner and instrument verbs. Patients' error patterns and relative performance with different categories showed evidence of graceful degradation for both nouns and verbs, with particular domain-specific impairments for living nouns and…

  8. Production and Processing of Subject-Verb Agreement in Monolingual Dutch Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Elma; Vasic, Nada; de Jong, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated whether errors with subject-verb agreement in monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) are influenced by verb phonology. In addition, the productive and receptive abilities of Dutch acquiring children with SLI regarding agreement inflection were compared. Method: An SLI…

  9. Vers une approche plus rationnelle des temps verbaux (Toward a More Rational Approach to Verb Tenses).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montredon, Jacques

    1983-01-01

    Experiences in teaching French verb tenses to Japanese students are used to illustrate teaching techniques that not only help students acquire verb forms but also present them as a coherent linguistic unity tied to fundamental communicative needs. A variety of exercises are included. (MSE)

  10. The Disjunct Boundary in the Navajo and Tanaina Verb Prefix Complexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kari, James

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses Athapascan verb morphology. It is shown that a word-internal boundary before the direct object position in a verb prefix complex plays a significant role in the phonology of two geographically distant languages, Navajo and Tanaina. (CLK)

  11. Error Analysis of Support Verb Constructions in Written Spanish Learner Corpora

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salido, Marcos Garcia

    2016-01-01

    This article studies the use of support verb constructions (SVCs) in the written production of learners of Spanish. SVCs are lexical combinations whose content is similar to verbal predicates but is distributed between a verb and a noun, the noun being the carrier of the core lexical meaning of the predicate. Although there is considerable…

  12. Spoken Verb Processing in Spanish: An Analysis Using a New Online Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Semilla M.; Bates, Elizabeth A.; Orozco-Fegueroa, Araceli; Wicha, Nicole Y. Y.

    2010-01-01

    Verbs are one of the basic building blocks of grammar, yet few studies have examined the grammatical, morphological, and phonological factors contributing to lexical access and production of Spanish verb inflection. This report describes an online data set that incorporates psycholinguistic dimensions for 50 of the most common early-acquired…

  13. The Lexical Status of Basic Arabic Verb Morphemes among Dyslexic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Salim; Saliba, Fadi

    2008-01-01

    The masked priming paradigm was used to examine the role of the root and verb pattern morphemes in lexical access within the verb system of Arabic. Three groups participated in the study: grade 6 dyslexics, a reading-level-matched group and grade 6 normal readers. The first group consisted of: 28 grade 6 reading disabled (RD) students, 8 girls and…

  14. Imageability of Norwegian Nouns, Verbs and Adjectives in a Cross-Linguistic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonsen, Hanne Gram; Lind, Marianne; Hansen, Pernille; Holm, Elisabeth; Mevik, Bjorn-Helge

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present a study of imageability ratings for a set of 1599 Norwegian words (896 nouns, 483 verbs and 220 adjectives) from a web-based survey. To a large extent, the results are in accordance with previous studies of other languages: high imageability scores in general, higher imageability scores for nouns than for verbs, and an…

  15. Lexical Retrieval of Nouns and Verbs in a Sentence Completion Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Alyson D.; Maguire, Mandy J.; Naqvi, Fizza M.; Kim, Angela Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored noun and verb retrieval using a sentence completion task to expand upon previous findings from picture naming tasks. Participants completed sentences missing either a target noun or verb in the final position. Non-target responses were coded for substitution type, imageability and frequency. Like picture naming, nouns and verbs…

  16. Deaf Students' Knowledge of Subtle Lexical Properties of Transitive and Intransitive English Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berent, Gerald P.; Kelly, Ronald R.; Albertini, John A.; Toscano, Rose Marie

    2013-01-01

    Deaf Learners' Acquisition of fundamental lexical properties of high-frequency English verbs related to transitivity and intransitivity was examined, including the subtle distinction between unergative and unaccusative verbs. A 140-item sentence acceptability rating scale was used to assess this lexical knowledge in deaf college students at two…

  17. Special Report: Conflicting Data on Spanish Intransitive Verbs in Two Leading Dictionaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teschner, Richard V.; Flemming, Jennifer

    1996-01-01

    Presents a conflation of and a comparison between the 1,646 verbs the Royal Academy's "Diccionario de la lengua espanola" (Dictionary of the Spanish Language) classifies as solely or partly intransitive and the 1,382 verbs that are so classified by the "Pequeno Larousse ilustrado" (Illustrated Larousse Small Dictionary). Considerable disagreement…

  18. Early Verb Learning: How Do Children Learn How to Compare Events?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, Jane B.; Parrish, Rebecca; Olson, Christina V.; Burch, Clare; Fung, Gavin; McIntyre, Kevin P.

    2016-01-01

    An important problem verb learners must solve is how to extend verbs. Children could use cross-situational information to guide their extensions; however, comparing events is difficult. In 2 studies, researchers tested whether children benefit from initially seeing a pair of similar events ("progressive alignment") while learning new…

  19. Development of Phonological, Morphological, and Orthographic Knowledge in Young Spellers: The Case of Inflected Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Joanne; Hauerwas, Laura Boynton

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to simultaneously investigate the influence of phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness skills on the ability to spell inflected verbs in structured spelling tasks. Children in grades 1, 2, and 3 (n = 103) spelled inflected past and progressive tense verbs and completed awareness tasks. Developmental changes…

  20. Priming Nouns and Verbs: Differential Influences of Semantic and Grammatical Cues in the Two Cerebral Hemispheres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arambel, Stella R.; Chiarello, Christine

    2006-01-01

    The current experiment investigated how sentential form-class expectancies influenced lexical-semantic priming within each hemisphere. Sentences were presented that led readers to expect a noun or a verb and the sentence-final target word was presented to one visual field/hemisphere for a lexical decision response. Noun and verb targets in the…

  1. Effect of Verb Network Strengthening Treatment in Moderate-to-Severe Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Lisa A.; Babb, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This Phase II treatment study examined the effect of Verb Network Strengthening Treatment (VNeST) on individuals with moderate-to-severe aphasia. Research questions addressed (a) pre- to posttreatment changes and pretreatment to treatment phase changes on probe sentences containing trained verbs (e.g., "The carpenter is 'measuring' the…

  2. Young Children Can Extend Motion Verbs to Point-Light Displays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Chung, He Len; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Liu, Jing; Bertenthal, Bennett I.; Brand, Rebecca; Maguire, Mandy J.; Hennon, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Used point-light displays (lights corresponding to the joints of the human body) to examine 3-year-olds' understanding of verbs. Found that children could extend familiar motion verbs (walking, dancing) to videotaped point-light actions shown in an intermodal preferential looking paradigm. Children watched the action matching the requested verb…

  3. The Effect of Verb Simplification on the Reading Comprehension of Culturally Different High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emans, Robert

    The need for preparing materials which are comprehensible to disadvantaged children led to this study in which verbs were simplified in an effort to determine whether such simplification might increase the likelihood of passages being understood by disadvantaged black students. The hypothesis was based on a 1927 study which found that 18 verbs,…

  4. The Design of an Online Concordancing Program for Teaching about Reporting Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Joel

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of a web-based concordancing program using an interface design similar to the one used at the MICASE concordancing site to help students appropriately choose reporting verbs. Appropriate reporting verbs are important for asserting credible claims in academic papers. An interface was created that asked the students to…

  5. The Swedish Verb "Lata" "Let" from a Synchronic and Diachronic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawoens, Gudrun

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at highlighting the syntactic and semantic variation of the Swedish verb "lata" "let" from both a synchronic and diachronic point of view. On the basis of corpus data containing Old and Modern Swedish texts from the 13th to the 19th centuries, the syntactic and semantic development of the verb is investigated within the framework…

  6. Context effects on verb production in specific language impairment (SLI): confrontation naming versus connected speech.

    PubMed

    Kambanaros, Maria

    2014-11-01

    A handful of studies have shown that verbs are more vulnerable than nouns to retrieval deficits on picture-based naming tasks for children with specific language impairment (SLI). The aim of this study was to examine if the disproportionate verb as opposed to noun production deficit reported for naming is also found in connected speech. Sixteen children participated in the study: eight children diagnosed with SLI (mean age: 6:3 years) and eight typically language developing (TLD, mean age: 5:9 years) controls. Verb and noun production was measured in connected speech and compared to picture confrontation naming. Both groups of children showed a significant difficulty naming verbs compared to nouns. In contrast, they did not differ on the total number of both verb tokens and verb types produced in connected speech. The findings indicate that the previously reported verb retrieval difficulties in SLI are a product of the confrontation naming task demands rather than a true verb deficit. PMID:24798099

  7. 33 CFR 5.48 - Auxiliary Patrol Boat ensign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ensign is authorized to be flown on all Auxiliary Operational Facility vessels under orders. The penalty for the unauthorized flying of any ensign, flag or pennant of the Auxiliary is set forth in § 5.67...

  8. 33 CFR 5.48 - Auxiliary Patrol Boat ensign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ensign is authorized to be flown on all Auxiliary Operational Facility vessels under orders. The penalty for the unauthorized flying of any ensign, flag or pennant of the Auxiliary is set forth in § 5.67...

  9. 42. AUXILIARY CHAMBER, VIEW LOOKING EAST FROM WEST END, OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. AUXILIARY CHAMBER, VIEW LOOKING EAST FROM WEST END, OF AUXILIARY PIPING, STEAM, FEEDWATER PIPING (LOCATION BBB) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  10. An Image Is Worth a Thousand Words: Why Nouns Tend to Dominate Verbs in Early Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Colleen; Song, Lulu; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Lannon, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Nouns are generally easier to learn than verbs (e.g. Bornstein, 2005; Bornstein et al., 2004; Gentner, 1982; Maguire, Hirsh-Pasek & Golinkoff, 2006). Yet, verbs appear in children's earliest vocabularies, creating a seeming paradox. This paper examines one hypothesis about the difference between noun and verb acquisition. Perhaps the advantage…

  11. Effects of Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus on Naming and Reading Nouns and Verbs in Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silveri, Maria Caterina; Ciccarelli, Nicoletta; Baldonero, Eleonora; Piano, Carla; Zinno, Massimiliano; Soleti, Francesco; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Albanese, Alberto; Daniele, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    An impairment for verbs has been described in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), suggesting that a disruption of frontal-subcortical circuits may result in dysfunction of the neural systems involved in action-verb processing. A previous study suggested that deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) during verb generation…

  12. The PHaVE List: A Pedagogical List of Phrasal Verbs and Their Most Frequent Meaning Senses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnier, Mélodie; Schmitt, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    As researchers and practitioners are becoming more aware of the importance of multi-word items in English, there is little doubt that phrasal verbs deserve teaching attention in the classroom. However, there are thousands of phrasal verbs in English, and so the question for practitioners is which phrasal verbs to focus attention upon. Phrasal verb…

  13. Comparison of Different Test Construction Strategies in the Development of a Gender Fair Interest Inventory Using Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, Eunike; Hell, Benedikt; Passler, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Three test construction strategies are described and illustrated in the development of the Verb Interest Test (VIT), an inventory that assesses vocational interests using verbs. Verbs might be a promising alternative to the descriptions of occupational activities used in most vocational interest inventories because they are context-independent,…

  14. Electrophysiology of subject-verb agreement mediated by speakers' gender.

    PubMed

    Hanulíková, Adriana; Carreiras, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    An important property of speech is that it explicitly conveys features of a speaker's identity such as age or gender. This event-related potential (ERP) study examined the effects of social information provided by a speaker's gender, i.e., the conceptual representation of gender, on subject-verb agreement. Despite numerous studies on agreement, little is known about syntactic computations generated by speaker characteristics extracted from the acoustic signal. Slovak is well suited to investigate this issue because it is a morphologically rich language in which agreement involves features for number, case, and gender. Grammaticality of a sentence can be evaluated by checking a speaker's gender as conveyed by his/her voice. We examined how conceptual information about speaker gender, which is not syntactic but rather social and pragmatic in nature, is interpreted for the computation of agreement patterns. ERP responses to verbs disagreeing with the speaker's gender (e.g., a sentence including a masculine verbal inflection spoken by a female person 'the neighbors were upset because I (∗)stoleMASC plums') elicited a larger early posterior negativity compared to correct sentences. When the agreement was purely syntactic and did not depend on the speaker's gender, a disagreement between a formally marked subject and the verb inflection (e.g., the womanFEM (∗)stoleMASC plums) resulted in a larger P600 preceded by a larger anterior negativity compared to the control sentences. This result is in line with proposals according to which the recruitment of non-syntactic information such as the gender of the speaker results in N400-like effects, while formally marked syntactic features lead to structural integration as reflected in a LAN/P600 complex. PMID:26441771

  15. Electrophysiology of subject-verb agreement mediated by speakers’ gender

    PubMed Central

    Hanulíková, Adriana; Carreiras, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    An important property of speech is that it explicitly conveys features of a speaker’s identity such as age or gender. This event-related potential (ERP) study examined the effects of social information provided by a speaker’s gender, i.e., the conceptual representation of gender, on subject–verb agreement. Despite numerous studies on agreement, little is known about syntactic computations generated by speaker characteristics extracted from the acoustic signal. Slovak is well suited to investigate this issue because it is a morphologically rich language in which agreement involves features for number, case, and gender. Grammaticality of a sentence can be evaluated by checking a speaker’s gender as conveyed by his/her voice. We examined how conceptual information about speaker gender, which is not syntactic but rather social and pragmatic in nature, is interpreted for the computation of agreement patterns. ERP responses to verbs disagreeing with the speaker’s gender (e.g., a sentence including a masculine verbal inflection spoken by a female person ‘the neighbors were upset because I ∗stoleMASC plums’) elicited a larger early posterior negativity compared to correct sentences. When the agreement was purely syntactic and did not depend on the speaker’s gender, a disagreement between a formally marked subject and the verb inflection (e.g., the womanFEM ∗stoleMASC plums) resulted in a larger P600 preceded by a larger anterior negativity compared to the control sentences. This result is in line with proposals according to which the recruitment of non-syntactic information such as the gender of the speaker results in N400-like effects, while formally marked syntactic features lead to structural integration as reflected in a LAN/P600 complex. PMID:26441771

  16. Gavagai is as Gavagai does: learning nouns and verbs from cross-situational statistics.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, Padraic; Mattock, Karen; Davies, Robert A I; Smith, Alastair C

    2015-07-01

    Learning to map words onto their referents is difficult, because there are multiple possibilities for forming these mappings. Cross-situational learning studies have shown that word-object mappings can be learned across multiple situations, as can verbs when presented in a syntactic context. However, these previous studies have presented either nouns or verbs in ambiguous contexts and thus bypass much of the complexity of multiple grammatical categories in speech. We show that noun word learning in adults is robust when objects are moving, and that verbs can also be learned from similar scenes without additional syntactic information. Furthermore, we show that both nouns and verbs can be acquired simultaneously, thus resolving category-level as well as individual word-level ambiguity. However, nouns were learned more quickly than verbs, and we discuss this in light of previous studies investigating the noun advantage in word learning. PMID:25327892

  17. Toddlers Default to Canonical Surface-to-Meaning Mapping When Learning Verbs

    PubMed Central

    Dautriche, Isabelle; Cristia, Alejandrina; Brusini, Perrine; Yuan, Sylvia; Fisher, Cynthia; Christophe, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Previous work has shown that toddlers readily encode each noun in the sentence as a distinct argument of the verb. However, languages allow multiple mappings between form and meaning which do not fit this canonical format. Two experiments examined French 28-month-olds’ interpretation of right-dislocated sentences (nouni-verb, nouni) where the presence of clear, language-specific cues should block such a canonical mapping. Toddlers (N = 96) interpreted novel verbs embedded in these sentences as transitive, disregarding prosodic cues to dislocation (Experiment 1) but correctly interpreted right-dislocated sentences containing well-known verbs (Experiment 2). These results suggest that toddlers can integrate multiple cues in ideal conditions, but default to canonical surface-to-meaning mapping when extracting structural information about novel verbs in semantically impoverished conditions. PMID:24117408

  18. Mapping Novel Nouns and Verbs Onto Dynamic Action Events: Are Verb Meanings Easier to Learn Than Noun Meanings for Japanese Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imai, Mutsumi; Haryu, Etsuko; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2005-01-01

    The present research examined how 3- and 5-year-old Japanese children map novel nouns and verbs onto dynamic action events and generalize them to new instances. Studies 1 to 3 demonstrated that although both 3- and 5-year-olds were able to map novel nouns onto novel objects, only 5-year-olds could generalize verbs solely on the basis of the…

  19. The VERB campaign: applying a branding strategy in public health.

    PubMed

    Asbury, Lori D; Wong, Faye L; Price, Simani M; Nolin, Mary Jo

    2008-06-01

    A branding strategy was an integral component of the VERB Youth Media Campaign. Branding has a long history in commercial marketing, and recently it has also been applied to public health campaigns. This article describes the process that the CDC undertook to develop a physical activity brand that would resonate with children aged 9-13 years (tweens), to launch an unknown brand nationally, to build the brand's equity, and to protect and maintain the brand's integrity. Considerations for branding other public health campaigns are also discussed. PMID:18471598

  20. 28 CFR 36.303 - Auxiliary aids and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary aids and services. 36.303... BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.303 Auxiliary aids... differently than other individuals because of the absence of auxiliary aids and services, unless the...

  1. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.757 Hull and auxiliary float strength. The hull, and auxiliary floats if used, must withstand...

  2. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.757 Hull and auxiliary float strength. The hull, and auxiliary floats if used, must withstand...

  3. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.757 Hull and auxiliary float strength. The hull, and auxiliary floats if used, must withstand...

  4. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.757 Hull and auxiliary float strength. The hull, and auxiliary floats if used, must withstand...

  5. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.757 Hull and auxiliary float strength. The hull, and auxiliary floats if used, must withstand...

  6. 49 CFR 193.2613 - Auxiliary power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2613 Auxiliary power sources. Each auxiliary power source must... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary power sources. 193.2613 Section 193.2613... would have to be served by that power source in an emergency....

  7. 46 CFR 182.620 - Auxiliary means of steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Auxiliary means of steering. 182.620 Section 182.620... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Steering Systems § 182.620 Auxiliary means of steering. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, a vessel must be provided with an auxiliary means of...

  8. 46 CFR 182.620 - Auxiliary means of steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Auxiliary means of steering. 182.620 Section 182.620... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Steering Systems § 182.620 Auxiliary means of steering. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, a vessel must be provided with an auxiliary means of...

  9. 46 CFR 182.620 - Auxiliary means of steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary means of steering. 182.620 Section 182.620... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Steering Systems § 182.620 Auxiliary means of steering. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, a vessel must be provided with an auxiliary means of...

  10. 46 CFR 182.620 - Auxiliary means of steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Auxiliary means of steering. 182.620 Section 182.620... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Steering Systems § 182.620 Auxiliary means of steering. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, a vessel must be provided with an auxiliary means of...

  11. 46 CFR 182.620 - Auxiliary means of steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Auxiliary means of steering. 182.620 Section 182.620... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Steering Systems § 182.620 Auxiliary means of steering. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, a vessel must be provided with an auxiliary means of...

  12. 14 CFR 29.551 - Auxiliary lifting surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Auxiliary lifting surfaces. 29.551 Section 29.551 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT....551 Auxiliary lifting surfaces. Each auxiliary lifting surface must be designed to withstand— (a)...

  13. 14 CFR 29.551 - Auxiliary lifting surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary lifting surfaces. 29.551 Section 29.551 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT....551 Auxiliary lifting surfaces. Each auxiliary lifting surface must be designed to withstand— (a)...

  14. 49 CFR 193.2613 - Auxiliary power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Auxiliary power sources. 193.2613 Section 193.2613...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2613 Auxiliary power sources. Each auxiliary power source must... test must take into account the power needed to start up and simultaneously operate equipment...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1522 - Auxiliary power unit limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit limitations. 25.1522 Section 25.1522 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Operating Limitations § 25.1522 Auxiliary power unit limitations. If an auxiliary power unit is installed...

  16. 14 CFR 29.1522 - Auxiliary power unit limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit limitations. 29.1522 Section 29.1522 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Operating Limitations § 29.1522 Auxiliary power unit limitations. If an auxiliary power unit that meets...

  17. 14 CFR 25.1522 - Auxiliary power unit limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit limitations. 25.1522 Section 25.1522 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Operating Limitations § 25.1522 Auxiliary power unit limitations. If an auxiliary power unit is installed...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1522 - Auxiliary power unit limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit limitations. 23.1522 Section 23.1522 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Limitations and Information § 23.1522 Auxiliary power unit limitations. If an auxiliary power unit...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1522 - Auxiliary power unit limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit limitations. 25.1522 Section 25.1522 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Operating Limitations § 25.1522 Auxiliary power unit limitations. If an auxiliary power unit is installed...

  20. 14 CFR 29.1522 - Auxiliary power unit limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit limitations. 29.1522 Section 29.1522 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Operating Limitations § 29.1522 Auxiliary power unit limitations. If an auxiliary power unit that meets...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1522 - Auxiliary power unit limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit limitations. 23.1522 Section 23.1522 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Limitations and Information § 23.1522 Auxiliary power unit limitations. If an auxiliary power unit...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1522 - Auxiliary power unit limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit limitations. 23.1522 Section 23.1522 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Limitations and Information § 23.1522 Auxiliary power unit limitations. If an auxiliary power unit...

  3. 14 CFR 29.1522 - Auxiliary power unit limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit limitations. 29.1522 Section 29.1522 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Operating Limitations § 29.1522 Auxiliary power unit limitations. If an auxiliary power unit that meets...

  4. 14 CFR 25.1522 - Auxiliary power unit limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit limitations. 25.1522 Section 25.1522 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Operating Limitations § 25.1522 Auxiliary power unit limitations. If an auxiliary power unit is installed...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1522 - Auxiliary power unit limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit limitations. 23.1522 Section 23.1522 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Limitations and Information § 23.1522 Auxiliary power unit limitations. If an auxiliary power unit...

  6. 14 CFR 29.1522 - Auxiliary power unit limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit limitations. 29.1522 Section 29.1522 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Operating Limitations § 29.1522 Auxiliary power unit limitations. If an auxiliary power unit that meets...

  7. Aerobic biodegradation of trichloroethene without auxiliary substrates.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kathrin R; Gaza, Sarah; Voropaev, Andrey; Ertl, Siegmund; Tiehm, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    Trichloroethene (TCE) represents a priority pollutant and is among the most frequently detected contaminants in groundwater. The current bioremediation measures have certain drawbacks like e.g. the need for auxiliary substrates. Here, the aerobic biodegradation of TCE as the sole growth substrate is demonstrated. This new process of metabolic TCE degradation was first detected in groundwater samples. TCE degradation was stable in an enriched mixed bacterial culture in mineral salts medium for over five years and repeated transfers of the culture resulting in a 10(10) times dilution of the original groundwater. Aerobic TCE degradation resulted in stoichiometric chloride formation. Stable carbon isotope fractionation was observed providing a reliable analytical tool to assess this new biodegradation process at field sites. The results suggest that aerobic biodegradation of TCE without auxiliary substrate could be considered as an option for natural attenuation or engineered bioremediation of contaminated sites. PMID:24793109

  8. Brain responses to nouns, verbs and class-ambiguous words in context.

    PubMed

    Federmeier, K D; Segal, J B; Lombrozo, T; Kutas, M

    2000-12-01

    Recent neuropsychological and imaging data have implicated different brain networks in the processing of different word classes, nouns being linked primarily to posterior, visual object-processing regions and verbs to frontal, motor-processing areas. However, as most of these studies have examined words in isolation, the consequences of such anatomically based representational differences, if any, for the processing of these items in sentences remains unclear. Additionally, in some languages many words (e.g. 'drink') are class-ambiguous, i.e. they can play either role depending on context, and it is not yet known how the brain stores and uses information associated with such lexical items in context. We examined these issues by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to unambiguous nouns (e.g. 'beer'), unambiguous verbs (e. g. 'eat'), class-ambiguous words and pseudowords used as nouns or verbs within two types of minimally contrastive sentence contexts: noun-predicting (e.g. 'John wanted THE [target] but.') and verb-predicting ('John wanted TO [target] but.'). Our results indicate that the nature of neural processing for nouns and verbs is a function of both the type of stimulus and the role it is playing. Even when the context completely specifies their role, word class-ambiguous items differ from unambiguous ones over frontal regions by approximately 150 ms. Moreover, whereas pseudowords elicit larger N400s when used as verbs than when used as nouns, unambiguous nouns and ambiguous words used as nouns elicit more frontocentral negativity than unambiguous verbs and ambiguous words used as verbs, respectively. Additionally, unambiguous verbs elicit a left-lateralized, anterior positivity (approximately 200 ms) not observed for any other stimulus type, though only when these items are used appropriately as verbs (i.e. in verb-predicting contexts). In summary, the pattern of neural activity observed in response to lexical items depends on their general

  9. Verb-noun double dissociation in aphasic lexical impairments: the role of word frequency and imageability.

    PubMed

    Luzzatti, Claudio; Raggi, Rossella; Zonca, Giusy; Pistarini, Caterina; Contardi, Antonella; Pinna, Gian-Domenico

    2002-01-01

    Neurolinguistic studies have provided important evidence regarding the organization of lexical representations and the structure of underlying conceptual knowledge; in particular, it has been shown that the retrieval of verbs and nouns can be damaged selectively. Dissociated lexical damage is proof of an independent mental organization of lexical representations and/or of the underlying processes. The aim of the present study is to estimate the rate of dissociated impairments for nouns and verbs on a large sample of mild to moderate aphasic patients and to investigate the mechanisms underlying such phenomena. In addition, the authors wished to verify to what degree the impairment for nouns and verbs is related to a specific type of language disorder. A confrontation naming task for verbs and nouns was administered to 58 aphasic patients. The major lexical (word frequency and age of acquisition) and semantic variables (familiarity and imageability of the underlying concept) were considered for each noun and verb used in the task. Verbs were distinguished by major functional classes (transitive, intransitive, and ergative verbs). The data collected from this task were analyzed twice: (i) as a group study comparison of major aphasic subgroups and (ii) as a multiple single case study to evaluate the differences on the naming of verbs and nouns and the effect of the lexical semantic variables on each individual patient. The results confirm the existence of dissociated naming impairments of verbs and nouns. Selective impairment of verbs is more frequent (34%) than that of nouns (10%). In many cases, the dissociated pattern of naming impairment disappeared when the effect of the concomitant variables (word frequency and imageability) was removed, but in approximately one-fifth of the cases the noun or verb superiority was preserved. Noun superiority emerged in five of six agrammatic patients. Both the naming of verbs (n = 9) or of nouns (n = 6) could be impaired

  10. Parallelism Effects and Verb Activation: The Sustained Reactivation Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Lewis P.; Love, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the processes underlying parallelism by evaluating the activation of a parallel element (i.e., a verb) throughout and-coordinated sentences. Four points were tested: (1) approximately 1,600ms after the verb in the first conjunct (PP1), (2) immediately following the conjunction (PP2), (3) approximately 1,100ms after the conjunction (PP3), (4) at the end of the second conjunct (PP4). The results revealed no activation at PP1, suggesting activation related to the initial presentation had decayed by this point; however, activation was observed at PP2, PP3, and PP4, suggesting the conjunction elicits reactivation that is sustained throughout the second conjunct. These findings support a specific hypothesis about parallelism, the sustained reactivation hypothesis. This hypothesis claims that, in conjoined structures, a cue that is associated with parallelism elicits the reactivation of material from the first conjunct and that this activation is sustained until integration with the second conjunct can be completed. PMID:19774464

  11. Lexical distributional cues, but not situational cues, are readily used to learn abstract locative verb-structure associations.

    PubMed

    Twomey, Katherine E; Chang, Franklin; Ambridge, Ben

    2016-08-01

    Children must learn the structural biases of locative verbs in order to avoid making overgeneralisation errors (e.g., (∗)I filled water into the glass). It is thought that they use linguistic and situational information to learn verb classes that encode structural biases. In addition to situational cues, we examined whether children and adults could use the lexical distribution of nouns in the post-verbal noun phrase of transitive utterances to assign novel verbs to locative classes. In Experiment 1, children and adults used lexical distributional cues to assign verb classes, but were unable to use situational cues appropriately. In Experiment 2, adults generalised distributionally-learned classes to novel verb arguments, demonstrating that distributional information can cue abstract verb classes. Taken together, these studies show that human language learners can use a lexical distributional mechanism that is similar to that used by computational linguistic systems that use large unlabelled corpora to learn verb meaning. PMID:27183399

  12. Production of Verb Tense in Agrammatic Aphasia: A Meta-Analysis and Further Data

    PubMed Central

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Friedman, Laura

    2015-01-01

    In a majority of languages, the time of an event is expressed by marking tense on the verb. There is substantial evidence that the production of verb tense in sentences is more severely impaired than other functional categories in persons with agrammatic aphasia. The underlying source of this verb tense impairment is less clear, particularly in terms of the relative contribution of conceptual-semantic and processing demands. This study aimed to provide a more precise characterization of verb tense impairment by examining if there is dissociation within tenses (due to conceptual-semantic differences) and an effect of experimental task (mediated by processing limitations). Two sources of data were used: a meta-analysis of published research (which yielded 143 datasets) and new data from 16 persons with agrammatic aphasia. Tensed verbs were significantly more impaired than neutral (nonfinite) verbs, but there were no consistent differences between past, present, and future tenses. Overall, tense accuracy was mediated by task, such that picture description task was the most challenging, relative to sentence completion, sentence production priming, and grammaticality judgment. An interaction between task and tense revealed a past tense disadvantage for a sentence production priming task. These findings indicate that verb tense impairment is exacerbated by processing demands of the elicitation task and the conceptual-semantic differences between tenses are too subtle to show differential performance in agrammatism. PMID:26457004

  13. How handshape type can distinguish between nouns and verbs in homesign

    PubMed Central

    Hunsicker, Dea; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2014-01-01

    All established languages, spoken or signed, make a distinction between nouns and verbs. Even a young sign language emerging within a family of deaf individuals has been found to mark the noun-verb distinction, and to use handshape type to do so. Here we ask whether handshape type is used to mark the noun-verb distinction in a gesture system invented by a deaf child who does not have access to a usable model of either spoken or signed language. The child produces homesigns that have linguistic structure, but receives from his hearing parents co-speech gestures that are structured differently from his own gestures. Thus, unlike users of established and emerging languages, the homesigner is a producer of his system but does not receive it from others. Nevertheless, we found that the child used handshape type to mark the distinction between nouns and verbs at the early stages of development. The noun-verb distinction is thus so fundamental to language that it can arise in a homesign system not shared with others. We also found that the child abandoned handshape type as a device for distinguishing nouns from verbs at just the moment when he developed a combinatorial system of handshape and motion components that marked the distinction. The way the noun-verb distinction is marked thus depends on the full array of linguistic devices available within the system. PMID:25435844

  14. Maladaptive Plasticity in Aphasia: Brain Activation Maps Underlying Verb Retrieval Errors.

    PubMed

    Spielmann, Kerstin; Durand, Edith; Marcotte, Karine; Ansaldo, Ana Inés

    2016-01-01

    Anomia, or impaired word retrieval, is the most widespread symptom of aphasia, an acquired language impairment secondary to brain damage. In the last decades, functional neuroimaging techniques have enabled studying the neural basis underlying anomia and its recovery. The present study aimed to explore maladaptive plasticity in persistent verb anomia, in three male participants with chronic nonfluent aphasia. Brain activation maps associated with semantic verb paraphasia occurring within an oral picture-naming task were identified with an event-related fMRI paradigm. These maps were compared with those obtained in our previous study examining adaptive plasticity (i.e., successful verb naming) in the same participants. The results show that activation patterns related to semantic verb paraphasia and successful verb naming comprise a number of common areas, contributing to both maladaptive and adaptive neuroplasticity mechanisms. This finding suggests that the segregation of brain areas provides only a partial view of the neural basis of verb anomia and successful verb naming. Therefore, it indicates the importance of network approaches which may better capture the complexity of maladaptive and adaptive neuroplasticity mechanisms in anomia recovery. PMID:27429808

  15. First-person and third-person verbs in visual motion-perception regions.

    PubMed

    Papeo, Liuba; Lingnau, Angelika

    2015-02-01

    Verb-related activity is consistently found in the left posterior lateral cortex (PLTC), encompassing also regions that respond to visual-motion perception. Besides motion, those regions appear sensitive to distinctions among the entities beyond motion, including that between first- vs. third-person ("third-person bias"). In two experiments, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we studied whether the implied subject (first/third-person) and/or the semantic content (motor/non-motor) of verbs modulate the neural activity in the left PLTC-regions responsive during basic- and biological-motion perception. In those sites, we found higher activity for verbs than for nouns. This activity was modulated by the person (but not the semantic content) of the verbs, with stronger response to third- than first-person verbs. The third-person bias elicited by verbs supports a role of motion-processing regions in encoding information about the entity beyond (and independently from) motion, and sets in a new light the role of these regions in verb processing. PMID:25594153

  16. Maladaptive Plasticity in Aphasia: Brain Activation Maps Underlying Verb Retrieval Errors

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Edith; Marcotte, Karine; Ansaldo, Ana Inés

    2016-01-01

    Anomia, or impaired word retrieval, is the most widespread symptom of aphasia, an acquired language impairment secondary to brain damage. In the last decades, functional neuroimaging techniques have enabled studying the neural basis underlying anomia and its recovery. The present study aimed to explore maladaptive plasticity in persistent verb anomia, in three male participants with chronic nonfluent aphasia. Brain activation maps associated with semantic verb paraphasia occurring within an oral picture-naming task were identified with an event-related fMRI paradigm. These maps were compared with those obtained in our previous study examining adaptive plasticity (i.e., successful verb naming) in the same participants. The results show that activation patterns related to semantic verb paraphasia and successful verb naming comprise a number of common areas, contributing to both maladaptive and adaptive neuroplasticity mechanisms. This finding suggests that the segregation of brain areas provides only a partial view of the neural basis of verb anomia and successful verb naming. Therefore, it indicates the importance of network approaches which may better capture the complexity of maladaptive and adaptive neuroplasticity mechanisms in anomia recovery. PMID:27429808

  17. Doing More with Less: Verb Learning in Korean-Acquiring 24-Month-Olds

    PubMed Central

    Arunachalam, Sudha; Leddon, Erin M.; Song, Hyun-joo; Lee, Yoonha; Waxman, Sandra R.

    2013-01-01

    Research on early word learning reveals that verbs present a unique challenge. While English-acquiring 24-month-olds can learn novel verbs and extend them to new scenes, they perform better in rich linguistic contexts (when novel verbs appear with fully lexicalized noun phrases naming the event participants) than in sparser linguistic contexts (Arunachalam & Waxman, 2011; Waxman et al., 2009). However, in languages like Korean, where noun phrases are often omitted when their referents are highly accessible, rich linguistic contexts are less frequent. The current study investigates the influence of rich and sparse linguistic contexts in verb learning in Korean-acquiring 24-month-olds. In contrast to their English-acquiring counterparts, 24-month-olds acquiring Korean perform better when novel verbs appear in sparse linguistic contexts. These results, which provide the first experimental evidence on early verb learning in Korean, indicate that the optimal context for verb learning depends on many factors, including how event participants are typically referred to in the language being acquired. PMID:25320551

  18. Learning anchor verbs for biological interaction patterns from published text articles.

    PubMed

    Hatzivassiloglou, Vasileios; Weng, Wubin

    2002-12-01

    Much of knowledge modeling in the molecular biology domain involves interactions between proteins, genes, various forms of RNA, small molecules, etc. Interactions between these substances are typically extracted and codified manually, increasing the cost and time for modeling and substantially limiting the coverage of the resulting knowledge base. In this paper, we describe an automatic system that learns from text interaction verbs; these verbs can then form the core of automatically retrieved patterns which model classes of biological interactions. We investigate text features relating verbs with genes and proteins, and apply statistical tests and a logistic regression statistical model to determine whether a given verb belongs to the class of interaction verbs. Our system, AVAD, achieves over 87% precision and 82% recall when tested on an 11 million word corpus of journal articles. In addition, we compare the automatically obtained results with a manually constructed database of interaction verbs and show that the automatic approach can significantly enrich the manual list by detecting rarer interaction verbs that were omitted from the database. PMID:12460629

  19. Effect of action verbs on the performance of a complex movement.

    PubMed

    Rabahi, Tahar; Fargier, Patrick; Rifai Sarraj, Ahmad; Clouzeau, Cyril; Massarelli, Raphael

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between language and motor action has been approached by studying the effect of action verbs, kinaesthetic imagery and mental subtraction upon the performance of a complex movement, the squat vertical jump (SVJ). The time of flight gave the value of the height of the SVJ and was measured with an Optojump® and a Myotest® apparatuses. The results obtained by the effects of the cognitive stimuli showed a statistically significant improvement of the SVJ performance after either loudly or silently pronouncing, hearing or reading the verb saute (jump in French language). Action verbs specific for other motor actions (pince = pinch, lèche = lick) or non-specific (bouge = move) showed no or little effect. A meaningless verb for the French subjects (tiáo = jump in Chinese) showed no effect as did rêve (dream), tombe (fall) and stop. The verb gagne (win) improved significantly the SVJ height, as did its antonym perds (lose) suggesting a possible influence of affects in the subjects' performance. The effect of the specific action verb jump upon the heights of SVJ was similar to that obtained after kinaesthetic imagery and after mental subtraction of two digits numbers from three digits ones; possibly, in the latter, because of the intervention of language in calculus. It appears that the effects of the specific action verb jump did seem effective but not totally exclusive for the enhancement of the SVJ performance. The results imply an interaction among language and motor brain areas in the performance of a complex movement resulting in a clear specificity of the corresponding action verb. The effect upon performance may probably be influenced by the subjects' intention, increased attention and emotion produced by cognitive stimuli among which action verbs. PMID:23844233

  20. Effect of Action Verbs on the Performance of a Complex Movement

    PubMed Central

    Rabahi, Tahar; Fargier, Patrick; Rifai Sarraj, Ahmad; Clouzeau, Cyril; Massarelli, Raphael

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between language and motor action has been approached by studying the effect of action verbs, kinaesthetic imagery and mental subtraction upon the performance of a complex movement, the squat vertical jump (SVJ). The time of flight gave the value of the height of the SVJ and was measured with an Optojump® and a Myotest® apparatuses. The results obtained by the effects of the cognitive stimuli showed a statistically significant improvement of the SVJ performance after either loudly or silently pronouncing, hearing or reading the verb saute (jump in French language). Action verbs specific for other motor actions (pince = pinch, lèche = lick) or non-specific (bouge = move) showed no or little effect. A meaningless verb for the French subjects (tiáo = jump in Chinese) showed no effect as did rêve (dream), tombe (fall) and stop. The verb gagne (win) improved significantly the SVJ height, as did its antonym perds (lose) suggesting a possible influence of affects in the subjects’ performance. The effect of the specific action verb jump upon the heights of SVJ was similar to that obtained after kinaesthetic imagery and after mental subtraction of two digits numbers from three digits ones; possibly, in the latter, because of the intervention of language in calculus. It appears that the effects of the specific action verb jump did seem effective but not totally exclusive for the enhancement of the SVJ performance. The results imply an interaction among language and motor brain areas in the performance of a complex movement resulting in a clear specificity of the corresponding action verb. The effect upon performance may probably be influenced by the subjects’ intention, increased attention and emotion produced by cognitive stimuli among which action verbs. PMID:23844233

  1. Hydrogen/oxygen auxiliary propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Brian D.; Schneider, Steven J.

    1991-01-01

    A survey is provided of hydrogen/oxygen (H/O) auxiliary propulsion system (APS) concepts and low thrust H/O rocket technology. A review of H/O APS studies performed for the Space Shuttle, Space Tug, Space Station Freedom, and Advanced Manned Launch System programs is given. The survey also includes a review of low thrust H/O rocket technology programs, covering liquid H/O and gaseous H/O thrusters, ranging from 6600 N (1500 lbf) to 440 mN (0.1 lbf) thrust. Ignition concepts for H/O thrusters and high temperature, oxidation resistant chamber materials are also reviewed.

  2. System Study: Auxiliary Feedwater 1998-2014

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the AFW results.

  3. [Hospital auxiliary staff, between polyvalence and invisibility].

    PubMed

    Veissier, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Often underestimated, hospital auxiliary staff carry out on a daily basis a professional activity that may be difficult to define and/or recognize. What does their work consist in and what are the boundaries of the scope of their activity? Faced with a growing rate of absenteeism among these members of staff in a nursing home for elderly people attached to a hospital, an issue emerges: does the content of their professional activity have an impact on the causes and evolution of this phenomenon? PMID:26976318

  4. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit

    SciTech Connect

    J. Weber

    2001-12-12

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is an attractive, efficient, clean source of power for transportation, military, and stationary applications. Delphi has pioneered its application as an auxiliary Power Unit (APU) for transportation. Delphi is also interested in marketing this technology for stationary applications. Its key advantages are high efficiency and compatibility with gasoline, natural gas and diesel fuel. It's consistent with mechanizations that support the trend to low emissions. Delphi is committed to working with customers and partners to bring this novel technology to market.

  5. Heat exchanger with auxiliary cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, John H.

    1980-01-01

    A heat exchanger with an auxiliary cooling system capable of cooling a nuclear reactor should the normal cooling mechanism become inoperable. A cooling coil is disposed around vertical heat transfer tubes that carry secondary coolant therethrough and is located in a downward flow of primary coolant that passes in heat transfer relationship with both the cooling coil and the vertical heat transfer tubes. A third coolant is pumped through the cooling coil which absorbs heat from the primary coolant which increases the downward flow of the primary coolant thereby increasing the natural circulation of the primary coolant through the nuclear reactor.

  6. System Study: Auxiliary Feedwater 1998–2013

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2014-12-31

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the AFW results.

  7. Space Shuttle Orbiter auxiliary power unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenna, R.; Wicklund, L.; Baughman, J.; Weary, D.

    1982-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter auxiliary power units (APUs) provide hydraulic power for the Orbiter vehicle control surfaces (rudder/speed brake, body flap, and elevon actuation systems), main engine gimbaling during ascent, landing gear deployment and steering and braking during landing. Operation occurs during launch/ascent, in-space exercise, reentry/descent, and landing/rollout. Operational effectiveness of the APU is predicated on reliable, failure-free operation during each flight, mission life (reusability) and serviceability between flights (turnaround). Along with the accumulating flight data base, the status and results of efforts to achieve these long-run objectives is presented.

  8. Auxiliary engine digital interface unit (DIU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This auxiliary propulsion engine digital unit controls both the valving of the fuel and oxidizer to the engine combustion chamber and the ignition spark required for timely and efficient engine burns. In addition to this basic function, the unit is designed to manage it's own redundancy such that it is still operational after two hard circuit failures. It communicates to the data bus system several selected information points relating to the operational status of the electronics as well as the engine fuel and burning processes.

  9. Gender bias in the abstractness of verbs and adjectives.

    PubMed

    Guerin, B

    1994-08-01

    Participants of both sexes were asked to write responses to sentences about members of both sexes exhibiting socially desirable or undesirable behaviors. Using Semin and Fiedler's (1988) coding scheme, I analyzed the sentences for the abstractness of the verbs and adjectives. As predicted, when the participants wrote about socially desirable behaviors performed by someone of their own gender, they used more abstract words than when they wrote about undesirable behaviors. The opposite effect was not found when the participants wrote about the other gender; possibly there was no true out-group in this study. The bias occurred even though gender was not a salient issue at the time; therefore, a more subtle bias than has been shown previously may exist. PMID:7967548

  10. Word learning does not end at fast-mapping: evolution of verb meanings through reorganization of an entire semantic domain.

    PubMed

    Saji, Noburo; Imai, Mutsumi; Saalbach, Henrik; Zhang, Yuping; Shu, Hua; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the process through which children sort out the relations among verbs belonging to the same semantic domain. Using a set of Chinese verbs denoting a range of action events that are labeled by carrying or holding in English as a test case, we looked at how Chinese-speaking 3-, 5-, and 7-year-olds and adults apply 13 different verbs to a range of carrying/holding events. We asked how children learning Chinese originally divide and label the semantic space in this domain, how they discover the boundaries between different words, and how the meanings of verbs in the domain as a whole evolve toward the representations of adults. We also addressed the question of what factors make verb meaning acquisition easy or hard. Results showed that the pattern of children's verb use is largely different from that of adults and that it takes a long time for children to be able to use all verbs in this domain in the way adults do. We also found that children start to use broad-covering and frequent verbs the earliest, but use of these verbs tends to converge on adult use more slowly because children could not use these verbs as adults did until they had identified boundaries between these verbs and other near-synonyms with more specific meanings. This research highlights the importance of systematic investigation of words that belong to the same domain as a whole, examining how word meanings in a domain develop as parts of a connected system, instead of examining each word on its own: learning the meaning of a verb invites restructuring of the meanings of related, neighboring verbs. PMID:21074145

  11. The Jakobsonian One-Stem Analysis of the Russian Verb: Adaptations and Pedagogical Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Billie D.

    1982-01-01

    The evolution of one-stem verb theory since Roman Jakobson's 1948 study of Russian conjugation is outlined, and adaptations of his one-stem conjugation methodology for current classroom use are discussed and compared. (MSE)

  12. Nouns, verbs, objects, actions, and abstractions: Local fMRI activity indexes semantics, not lexical categories

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, Rachel L.; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    Noun/verb dissociations in the literature defy interpretation due to the confound between lexical category and semantic meaning; nouns and verbs typically describe concrete objects and actions. Abstract words, pertaining to neither, are a critical test case: dissociations along lexical-grammatical lines would support models purporting lexical category as the principle governing brain organisation, whilst semantic models predict dissociation between concrete words but not abstract items. During fMRI scanning, participants read orthogonalised word categories of nouns and verbs, with or without concrete, sensorimotor meaning. Analysis of inferior frontal/insula, precentral and central areas revealed an interaction between lexical class and semantic factors with clear category differences between concrete nouns and verbs but not abstract ones. Though the brain stores the combinatorial and lexical-grammatical properties of words, our data show that topographical differences in brain activation, especially in the motor system and inferior frontal cortex, are driven by semantics and not by lexical class. PMID:24727103

  13. Aspectual Features of the Verb and the Relative Position of the Locatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chung-yu

    1978-01-01

    Fundamental functional differences between preverbal and postverbal locatives in Mandarin Chinese are explored. The syntactic behaviors of the verbs are discussed in the context of compatibilities with locatives containing the element "zai." (Author/SW)

  14. Imageability predicts the age of acquisition of verbs in Chinese children*

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Weiyi; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; McDonough, Colleen; Tardif, Twila

    2010-01-01

    Verbs are harder to learn than nouns in English and in many other languages, but are relatively easy to learn in Chinese. This paper evaluates one potential explanation for these findings by examining the construct of imageability, or the ability of a word to produce a mental image. Chinese adults rated the imageability of Chinese words from the Chinese Communicative Development Inventory (Tardif et al., in press). Imageability ratings were a reliable predictor of age of acquisition in Chinese for both nouns and verbs. Furthermore, whereas early Chinese and English nouns do not differ in imageability, verbs receive higher imageability ratings in Chinese than in English. Compared with input frequency, imageability independently accounts for a portion of the variance in age of acquisition (AoA) of verb learning in Chinese and English. PMID:18937878

  15. VERB - a social marketing campaign to increase physical activity among youth.

    PubMed

    Wong, Faye; Huhman, Marian; Heitzler, Carrie; Asbury, Lori; Bretthauer-Mueller, Rosemary; McCarthy, Susan; Londe, Paula

    2004-07-01

    The VERB campaign is a multiethnic media campaign with a goal to increase and maintain physical activity among tweens, or children aged nine to 13 years. Parents, especially mothers aged 29 to 46, and other sources of influence on tweens (e.g., teachers, youth program leaders) are the secondary audiences of the VERB initiative. VERB applies sophisticated commercial marketing techniques to address the public health problem of sedentary lifestyles of American children, using the social marketing principles of product, price, place, and promotion. In this paper, we describe how these four principles were applied to formulate the strategies and tactics of the VERB campaign, and we provide examples of the multimedia materials (e.g., posters, print advertising, television, radio spots) that were created. PMID:15670431

  16. Auxiliary pattern for cell-based OPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahng, Andrew B.; Park, Chul-Hong

    2006-10-01

    The runtime of model-based optical proximity correction (OPC) tools has grown unacceptably with each successive technology generation, and has emerged as one of the major bottlenecks for turnaround time (TAT) of IC data preparation and manufacturing. The cell-based OPC approach improves runtime by performing OPC once per cell definition as opposed to once per cell instantiation in the layout. However, cell-based OPC does not comprehend inter-cell optical interactions that affect feature printability in a layout context. In this work, we propose auxiliary pattern-enabled cell-based OPC which can minimize the CD differences between cell-based OPC and model-based OPC. To enable effective insertion of auxiliary pattern (AP) in the design, we also propose a post-placement optimization of a standard cell block with respect to detailed placement. By dynamic programming-based placement perturbation, we achieve 100% AP applicability in designs with placement utilizations of < 70%. In an evaluation with a complete industrial flow, cell-based OPC with AP can match gate edge placement error (EPE) count of model-based OPC within 4%. This is an improvement of 90%, on average, over cell-based OPC without APs. The AP-based OPC approach can reduce OPC runtimes versus model-based OPC by up to 40X in our benchmark designs. We can also achieve reduction of GDSII file size and ORC runtimes due to hierarchy maintenance of cell-based OPC.

  17. Duality relations in the auxiliary field method

    SciTech Connect

    Silvestre-Brac, Bernard

    2011-05-15

    The eigenenergies {epsilon}{sup (N)}(m;{l_brace}n{sub i}, l{sub i{r_brace}}) of a system of N identical particles with a mass m are functions of the various radial quantum numbers n{sub i} and orbital quantum numbers l{sub i}. Approximations E{sup (N)}(m;Q) of these eigenenergies, depending on a principal quantum number Q({l_brace}n{sub i}, l{sub i{r_brace}}), can be obtained in the framework of the auxiliary field method. We demonstrate the existence of numerous exact duality relations linking quantities E{sup (N)}(m;Q) and E{sup (p)}(m';Q') for various forms of the potentials (independent of m and N) and for both nonrelativistic and semirelativistic kinematics. As the approximations computed with the auxiliary field method can be very close to the exact results, we show with several examples that these duality relations still hold, with sometimes a good accuracy, for the exact eigenenergies {epsilon}{sup (N)}(m;{l_brace}n{sub i}, l{sub i{r_brace}}).

  18. When Context Matters More than Language: Verb or Noun in French and Turkish Caregiver Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altinkamis, N. Feyza; Kern, Sophie; Sofu, Hatice

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this article is to study the respective role of language typology and context on the noun to verb asymmetry in caregiver speech. The speech of 20 French- and 20 Turkish-speaking mothers addressed to their children in two different situations (book-reading and toy-play) were analysed in terms of noun to verb ratio as well as in…

  19. Native language influence on the distributive effect in producing second language subject-verb agreement.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaoyan; Chen, Baoguo; Liang, Lijuan; Dunlap, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate the distributive effect when producing subject-verb agreement in English as a second language (L2) when the participant's first language either does or does not require subject-verb agreement. Both Chinese-English and Uygur-English bilinguals were included in Experiment 1. Chinese has no required subject-verb agreement, whereas Uygur does. Results showed that the distributive effect was observed in Uygur-English bilinguals but not in Chinese-English bilinguals, indicating that this particular first language (L1) syntactic feature is one significant factor affecting the distributive effect in the production of subject-verb agreement in L2. Experiment 2 further investigated the matter by choosing Chinese-English participants with higher L2 proficiency. Still, no distributive effect was observed, suggesting that the absence of distributive effect in Chinese-English bilinguals in Experiment 1 was not due to low proficiency in the target language. Experiment 3 changed the way the stimuli were presented, highlighting the singular or distributive nature of the subject noun phrases, and the distributive effect was observed in Chinese-English bilinguals. Altogether, the results show that the L1 syntactic feature of subject-verb agreement is one significant factor affecting the distributive effect in the production of subject-verb agreement in L2. More specifically, distributive effects rarely occur in L2 when L1 has no requirement on subject-verb agreement, whereas distributive effects are more likely to occur in L2 when the L1 also has required subject-verb agreement. PMID:25671326

  20. Neural mechanisms of verb argument structure processing in agrammatic aphasic and healthy age-matched listeners

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, C.K.; Bonakdarpour, B.; Fix, S.F.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of lexical verbs involves automatic access to argument structure entries entailed within the verb's representation. Recent neuroimaging studies with young normal listeners suggest that this involves bilateral posterior perisylvian tissue, with graded activation in these regions based on argument structure complexity. The aim of the present study was to examine the neural mechanisms of verb processing using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in older normal volunteers and patients with stroke-induced agrammatic aphasia, a syndrome in which verb, as compared to noun, production often is selectively impaired, but verb comprehension in both on-line and off-line tasks is spared. Fourteen healthy listeners and five age-matched aphasic patients performed a lexical decision task, which examined verb processing by argument structure complexity, i.e., one-argument (i.e., intransitive (v1)); two-argument (i.e., transitive (v2)), and three-argument (v3) verbs. Results for the age-matched listeners largely replicated those for younger participants studied by Thompson et al. (2007): v3-v1 comparisons showed activation of the angular gyrus in both hemispheres and this same heteromodal region was activated in the left hemisphere in the (v2+v3)-v1 contrast. Similar results were derived for the agrammatic aphasic patients, however, activation was unilateral (in the right hemisphere for 3 participants) rather than bilateral likely because these patients' lesions extended to the left temporoparietal region. All performed the task with high accuracy and, despite differences in lesion site and extent, they recruited spared tissue in the same regions as healthy normals. Consistent with psycholinguistic models of sentence processing, these findings indicate that the posterior language network is engaged for processing verb argument structure and is crucial for semantic integration of argument structure information. PMID:19702460

  1. Distinguishable neural correlates of verbs and nouns: a MEG study on homonyms.

    PubMed

    Tsigka, Styliani; Papadelis, Christos; Braun, Christoph; Miceli, Gabriele

    2014-02-01

    The dissociability of nouns and verbs and of their morphosyntactic operations has been firmly established by lesion data. However, the hypothesis that they are processed by distinct neural substrates is inconsistently supported by neuroimaging studies. We tackled this issue in a silent reading experiment during MEG. Participants silently read noun/verb homonyms in minimal syntactic context: article-noun (NPs), pronoun-verb (VPs) (e.g., il ballo/i balli, the dance/the dances; io ballo/tu balli, I dance/you dance). Homonyms allow to rule out prelexical or postlexical nuisance factors-they are orthographically and phonologically identical, but serve different grammatical functions depending on context. Under these experimental conditions, different activity to nouns and verbs can be confidently attributed to representational/processing distinctions. At the sensor level, three components of event-related magnetic fields were observed for the function word and four for the content word, but Global Field Power (GFP) analysis only showed differences between VPs and NPs at several but very short time windows. By contrast, source level analysis based on Minimum Norm Estimates (MNE) yielded significantly greater activity for VPs in left frontal areas and in a left frontoparietal network at late time windows (380-397 and 393-409 ms). These results are fully consistent with lesion data, and show that verbs and nouns are processed differently in the brain. Frontal and parietal activation to verbs might correspond to morphosyntactic processes and to working memory recruitment (or thematic role assignment), respectively. Findings are consistent with the view that nouns and verbs and their morphosyntactic operations involve at least partially distinct neural substrates. However, they do not entirely rule out that nouns and verbs are processed in a shared neural substrate, and that differences result from greater complexity of verbal morphosyntax. PMID:24389504

  2. Processing of Hand-Related Verbs Specifically Affects the Planning and Execution of Arm Reaching Movements

    PubMed Central

    Spadacenta, Silvia; Federico, Paolo; Gallese, Vittorio

    2012-01-01

    Even though a growing body of research has shown that the processing of action language affects the planning and execution of motor acts, several aspects of this interaction are still hotly debated. The directionality (i.e. does understanding action-related language induce a facilitation or an interference with the corresponding action?), the time course, and the nature of the interaction (i.e. under what conditions does the phenomenon occur?) are largely unclear. To further explore this topic we exploited a go/no-go paradigm in which healthy participants were required to perform arm reaching movements toward a target when verbs expressing either hand or foot actions were shown, and to refrain from moving when abstract verbs were presented. We found that reaction times (RT) and percentages of errors increased when the verb involved the same effector used to give the response. This interference occurred very early, when the interval between verb presentation and the delivery of the go signal was 50 ms, and could be elicited until this delay was about 600 ms. In addition, RTs were faster when subjects used the right arm than when they used the left arm, suggesting that action–verb understanding is left-lateralized. Furthermore, when the color of the printed verb and not its meaning was the cue for movement execution the differences between RTs and error percentages between verb categories disappeared, unequivocally indicating that the phenomenon occurs only when the semantic content of a verb has to be retrieved. These results are compatible with the theory of embodied language, which hypothesizes that comprehending verbal descriptions of actions relies on an internal simulation of the sensory–motor experience of the action, and provide a new and detailed view of the interplay between action language and motor acts. PMID:22536380

  3. Interior room within eastern lift span, showing auxiliary electric generator. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior room within eastern lift span, showing auxiliary electric generator. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. A Cross-Linguistic Study of Sound-Symbolism in Children’s Verb Learning

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Hanako

    2012-01-01

    A long history of research has considered the role of iconicity in language and the existence and role of non-arbitrary properties in language and the use of language. Previous studies with Japanese-speaking children whose language defines a large grammatical class of words with clear sound symbolism suggest that iconicity properties in Japanese may aid early verb learning, and a recent extended work suggest that such early sensitivity is not limited to children whose language supports such word classes. The present study further considers the use of sounds symbolic words in verb learning context by conducting systematic cross-linguistic comparisons on early exposure to and effect of sound symbolism in verb mapping. Experiment 1 is an observational study of how English- and Japanese-speaking parents talk about verbs. More conventionalized symbolic words were found in Japanese-speaking parental input and more idiosyncratic use of sound symbolism in English-speaking parental input. Despite this different exposure of iconic forms to describe actions, the artificial verb learning task in Experiment 2 revealed that children in both language groups benefit from sound-meaning correspondences for their verb learning. These results together confirm more extensive use of conventionalized sound-symbolism among Japanese-speakers, and also support a cross-linguistic consistency of the effect, which has documented in the recent work. The work also points to the potential value of understanding the contexts in which sound-meaning correspondences matter in language learning. PMID:23807870

  5. Three-Verb Clusters in Interference Frisian: A Stochastic Model over Sequential Syntactic Input.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, Eric; Versloot, Arjen

    2016-03-01

    Abstract Interference Frisian (IF) is a variety of Frisian, spoken by mostly younger speakers, which is heavily influenced by Dutch. IF exhibits all six logically possible word orders in a cluster of three verbs. This phenomenon has been researched by Koeneman and Postma (2006), who argue for a parameter theory, which leaves frequency differences between various orders unexplained. Rejecting Koeneman and Postma's parameter theory, but accepting their conclusion that Dutch (and Frisian) data are input for the grammar of IF, we will argue that the word order preferences of speakers of IF are determined by frequency and similarity. More specifically, three-verb clusters in IF are sensitive to: their linear left-to-right similarity to two-verb clusters and three-verb clusters in Frisian and in Dutch; the (estimated) frequency of two- and three-verb clusters in Frisian and Dutch. The model will be shown to work best if Dutch and Frisian, and two- and three-verb clusters, have equal impact factors. If different impact factors are taken, the model's predictions do not change substantially, testifying to its robustness. This analysis is in line with recent ideas that the sequential nature of human speech is more important to syntactic processes than commonly assumed, and that less burden need be put on the hierarchical dimension of syntactic structure. PMID:27089805

  6. The dissociability of lexical retrieval and morphosyntactic processes for nouns and verbs: A functional and anatomoclinical study.

    PubMed

    Benetello, Annalisa; Finocchiaro, Chiara; Capasso, Rita; Capitani, Erminio; Laiacona, Marcella; Magon, Stefano; Miceli, Gabriele

    2016-08-01

    Nouns and verbs can dissociate following brain damage, at both lexical retrieval and morphosyntactic processing levels. In order to document the range and the neural underpinnings of behavioral dissociations, twelve aphasics with disproportionate difficulty naming objects or actions were asked to apply phonologically identical morphosyntactic transformations to nouns and verbs. Two subjects with poor object naming and 2/10 with poor action naming made no morphosyntactic errors at all. Six of 10 subjects with poor action naming showed disproportionate or no morphosyntactic difficulties for verbs. Morphological errors on nouns and verbs correlated at the group level, but in individual cases a selective impairment of verb morphology was observed. Poor object and action naming with spared morphosyntax were associated with non-overlapping lesions (inferior occipitotemporal and fronto-temporal, respectively). Poor verb morphosyntax was observed with frontal-temporal lesions affecting white matter tracts deep to the insula, possibly disrupting the interaction of nodes in a fronto-temporal network. PMID:27259194

  7. Superactivation of AMPA receptors by auxiliary proteins

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Anna L.; Plested, Andrew J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate receptors form complexes in the brain with auxiliary proteins, which control their activity during fast synaptic transmission through a seemingly bewildering array of effects. Here we devise a way to isolate the activation of complexes using polyamines, which enables us to show that transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs) exert their effects principally on the channel opening reaction. A thermodynamic argument suggests that because TARPs promote channel opening, receptor activation promotes AMPAR-TARP complexes into a superactive state with high open probability. A simple model based on this idea predicts all known effects of TARPs on AMPA receptor function. This model also predicts unexpected phenomena including massive potentiation in the absence of desensitization and supramaximal recovery that we subsequently detected in electrophysiological recordings. This transient positive feedback mechanism has implications for information processing in the brain, because it should allow activity-dependent facilitation of excitatory synaptic transmission through a postsynaptic mechanism. PMID:26744192

  8. LOX/hydrocarbon auxiliary propulsion system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orton, G. F.; Mark, T. D.; Weber, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    Liquid oxygen (LOX)/hydrocarbon propulsion concepts for a "second generation' orbiter auxiliary propulsion system was evaluated. The most attractive fuel and system design approach identified, and the technology advancements that are needed to provide high confidence for a subsequent system development were determined. The fuel candidates were ethanol, methane, propane, and ammonia. Even though ammonia is not a hydrocarbon, it was included for evaluation because it is clean burning and has a good technology base. The major system design options were pump versus pressure feed, cryogenic versus ambient temperature RCS propellant feed, and the degree of OMS-RCS integration. Ethanol was determined to be the best fuel candidate. It is an earth-storable fuel with a vapor pressure slightly higher than monomethyl hydrazine. A pump-fed OMS was recommended because of its high specific impulse, enabling greater velocity change and greater payload capability than a pressure fed system.

  9. A Profile and Perceptions of Fraternity Little Sister Auxiliary Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Peggy S.; Saracino, Marie

    1994-01-01

    Examined fraternity little sister auxiliary group members' perceptions of fraternity-related roles/experiences, and identified personality types of women who join such groups. Subjects (n=49) completed Auxiliary Group Questionnaire and Myers-Briggs Type Inventory. Results revealed that 83% of subjects could be classified as extraverted personality…

  10. Auxiliary coil controls temperature of RF induction heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Auxiliary coil controls the temperature of an RF induction furnace that is powered by a relatively unstable RF generator. Manual or servoed adjustments of the relative position of the auxiliary coil, which is placed in close proximity to the RF coil, changes the looseness of the RF coil and hence the corresponding heating effect of its RF field.

  11. 47 CFR 80.290 - Auxiliary receiving antenna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Auxiliary receiving antenna. 80.290 Section 80... antenna. An auxiliary receiving antenna must be provided when necessary to avoid unauthorized interruption or reduced efficiency of the required watch because the normal receiving antenna is not...

  12. 47 CFR 80.290 - Auxiliary receiving antenna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Auxiliary receiving antenna. 80.290 Section 80... antenna. An auxiliary receiving antenna must be provided when necessary to avoid unauthorized interruption or reduced efficiency of the required watch because the normal receiving antenna is not...

  13. 47 CFR 80.290 - Auxiliary receiving antenna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary receiving antenna. 80.290 Section 80... antenna. An auxiliary receiving antenna must be provided when necessary to avoid unauthorized interruption or reduced efficiency of the required watch because the normal receiving antenna is not...

  14. 47 CFR 80.290 - Auxiliary receiving antenna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Auxiliary receiving antenna. 80.290 Section 80... antenna. An auxiliary receiving antenna must be provided when necessary to avoid unauthorized interruption or reduced efficiency of the required watch because the normal receiving antenna is not...

  15. 47 CFR 80.290 - Auxiliary receiving antenna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Auxiliary receiving antenna. 80.290 Section 80... antenna. An auxiliary receiving antenna must be provided when necessary to avoid unauthorized interruption or reduced efficiency of the required watch because the normal receiving antenna is not...

  16. 33 CFR 5.48 - Auxiliary Patrol Boat ensign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for the unauthorized flying of any ensign, flag or pennant of the Auxiliary is set forth in § 5.67 of this part. (b) The field of the Auxiliary Patrol Boat ensign is white. A medium blue (Coast Guard blue... hoist, by two narrow, parallel stripes, first a white stripe and then a medium blue (Coast Guard...

  17. 33 CFR 5.48 - Auxiliary Patrol Boat ensign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for the unauthorized flying of any ensign, flag or pennant of the Auxiliary is set forth in § 5.67 of this part. (b) The field of the Auxiliary Patrol Boat ensign is white. A medium blue (Coast Guard blue... hoist, by two narrow, parallel stripes, first a white stripe and then a medium blue (Coast Guard...

  18. 40 CFR 1033.510 - Auxiliary power units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Auxiliary power units. 1033.510 Section 1033.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Test Procedures § 1033.510 Auxiliary power units. If...

  19. 40 CFR 1033.510 - Auxiliary power units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Auxiliary power units. 1033.510 Section 1033.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Test Procedures § 1033.510 Auxiliary power units. If...

  20. 40 CFR 1033.510 - Auxiliary power units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Auxiliary power units. 1033.510 Section 1033.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Test Procedures § 1033.510 Auxiliary power units. If...

  1. 40 CFR 1033.510 - Auxiliary power units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Auxiliary power units. 1033.510 Section 1033.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Test Procedures § 1033.510 Auxiliary power units. If...

  2. User Evaluation of Student and Auxiliary Services, Fall 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weglarz, Shirley

    The Fall 1998 Student/Auxiliary Services User Evaluation for Johnson County Community College (JCCC) in Kansas was expanded to include information about service learning, vending services, services not included in the biennial evaluation, and answers to questions of topical interest submitted by managers of ten student/auxiliary services. A total…

  3. 14 CFR 23.535 - Auxiliary float loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary float loads. 23.535 Section 23.535 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 23.535 Auxiliary float loads. (a)...

  4. 14 CFR 25.445 - Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces. 25.445... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.445 Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces. (a) When significant, the aerodynamic influence...

  5. 14 CFR 25.445 - Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces. 25.445... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.445 Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces. (a) When significant, the aerodynamic influence...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 23.1142 Section 23.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on...

  7. 14 CFR 25.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 25.1142 Section 25.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Accessories § 25.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the flight deck for...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 25.1142 Section 25.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Accessories § 25.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the flight deck for...

  9. 14 CFR 29.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 29.1142 Section 29.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 29.1142 Auxiliary power unit...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 23.1142 Section 23.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on...

  11. 14 CFR 23.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 23.1142 Section 23.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on...

  12. 14 CFR 29.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 29.1142 Section 29.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Accessories § 29.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the flight deck for...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 23.1142 Section 23.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on...

  14. 14 CFR 29.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 29.1142 Section 29.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Accessories § 29.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the flight deck for...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 25.1142 Section 25.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 25.1142 Auxiliary power unit...

  16. 14 CFR 29.1522 - Auxiliary power unit limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit limitations. 29.1522 Section 29.1522 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Operating Limitations and Information Operating Limitations § 29.1522 Auxiliary...

  17. 14 CFR 25.1522 - Auxiliary power unit limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit limitations. 25.1522 Section 25.1522 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Operating Limitations and Information Operating Limitations § 25.1522 Auxiliary...

  18. 14 CFR 29.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 29.1142 Section 29.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Accessories § 29.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the flight deck for...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 25.1142 Section 25.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Accessories § 25.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the flight deck for...

  20. 14 CFR 29.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 29.1142 Section 29.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Accessories § 29.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the flight deck for...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 25.1142 Section 25.1142 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Accessories § 25.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the flight deck for...

  2. 49 CFR 229.125 - Headlights and auxiliary lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Headlights and auxiliary lights. 229.125 Section... Cab Equipment § 229.125 Headlights and auxiliary lights. (a) Each lead locomotive used in road service.... (c) Headlights shall be provided with a device to dim the light. (d) Effective December 31,...

  3. Some equivalences between the auxiliary field method and envelope theory

    SciTech Connect

    Buisseret, Fabien; Semay, Claude; Silvestre-Brac, Bernard

    2009-03-15

    The auxiliary field method has been recently proposed as an efficient technique to compute analytical approximate solutions of eigenequations in quantum mechanics. We show that the auxiliary field method is completely equivalent to the envelope theory, which is another well-known procedure to analytically solve eigenequations, although relying on different principles a priori. This equivalence leads to a deeper understanding of both frameworks.

  4. Latent semantics of action verbs reflect phonetic parameters of intensity and emotional content.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Michael Kai

    2015-01-01

    Conjuring up our thoughts, language reflects statistical patterns of word co-occurrences which in turn come to describe how we perceive the world. Whether counting how frequently nouns and verbs combine in Google search queries, or extracting eigenvectors from term document matrices made up of Wikipedia lines and Shakespeare plots, the resulting latent semantics capture not only the associative links which form concepts, but also spatial dimensions embedded within the surface structure of language. As both the shape and movements of objects have been found to be associated with phonetic contrasts already in toddlers, this study explores whether articulatory and acoustic parameters may likewise differentiate the latent semantics of action verbs. Selecting 3 × 20 emotion-, face-, and hand-related verbs known to activate premotor areas in the brain, their mutual cosine similarities were computed using latent semantic analysis LSA, and the resulting adjacency matrices were compared based on two different large scale text corpora: HAWIK and TASA. Applying hierarchical clustering to identify common structures across the two text corpora, the verbs largely divide into combined mouth and hand movements versus emotional expressions. Transforming the verbs into their constituent phonemes, and projecting them into an articulatory space framed by tongue height and formant frequencies, the clustered small and large size movements appear differentiated by front versus back vowels corresponding to increasing levels of arousal. Whereas the clustered emotional verbs seem characterized by sequences of close versus open jaw produced phonemes, generating up- or downwards shifts in formant frequencies that may influence their perceived valence. Suggesting, that the latent semantics of action verbs reflect parameters of intensity and emotional polarity that appear correlated with the articulatory contrasts and acoustic characteristics of phonemes. PMID:25849977

  5. Latent Semantics of Action Verbs Reflect Phonetic Parameters of Intensity and Emotional Content

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Michael Kai

    2015-01-01

    Conjuring up our thoughts, language reflects statistical patterns of word co-occurrences which in turn come to describe how we perceive the world. Whether counting how frequently nouns and verbs combine in Google search queries, or extracting eigenvectors from term document matrices made up of Wikipedia lines and Shakespeare plots, the resulting latent semantics capture not only the associative links which form concepts, but also spatial dimensions embedded within the surface structure of language. As both the shape and movements of objects have been found to be associated with phonetic contrasts already in toddlers, this study explores whether articulatory and acoustic parameters may likewise differentiate the latent semantics of action verbs. Selecting 3 × 20 emotion-, face-, and hand-related verbs known to activate premotor areas in the brain, their mutual cosine similarities were computed using latent semantic analysis LSA, and the resulting adjacency matrices were compared based on two different large scale text corpora: HAWIK and TASA. Applying hierarchical clustering to identify common structures across the two text corpora, the verbs largely divide into combined mouth and hand movements versus emotional expressions. Transforming the verbs into their constituent phonemes, and projecting them into an articulatory space framed by tongue height and formant frequencies, the clustered small and large size movements appear differentiated by front versus back vowels corresponding to increasing levels of arousal. Whereas the clustered emotional verbs seem characterized by sequences of close versus open jaw produced phonemes, generating up- or downwards shifts in formant frequencies that may influence their perceived valence. Suggesting, that the latent semantics of action verbs reflect parameters of intensity and emotional polarity that appear correlated with the articulatory contrasts and acoustic characteristics of phonemes. PMID:25849977

  6. Walking but Not Barking Improves Verb Recovery: Implications for Action Observation Treatment in Aphasia Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Marangolo, Paola; Cipollari, Susanna; Fiori, Valentina; Razzano, Carmela; Caltagirone, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that action observation treatment without concomitant verbal cue has a positive impact on the recovery of verb retrieval deficits in aphasic patients. In agreement with an embodied cognition viewpoint, a hypothesis has been advanced that gestures and language form a single communication system and words whose retrieval is facilitated by gestures are semantically represented through sensory-motor features. However, it is still an open question as to what extent this treatment approach works. Results from the recovery of motor deficits have suggested that action observation promotes motor recovery only for actions that are part of the motor repertoire of the observer. The aim of the present experiment was to further investigate the role of action observation treatment in verb recovery. In particular, we contrasted the effects induced by observing human actions (e.g. dancing, kicking, pointing, eating) versus non human actions (e.g. barking, printing). Seven chronic aphasic patients with a selective deficit in verb retrieval underwent an intensive rehabilitation training that included five daily sessions over two consecutive weeks. Each subject was asked to carefully observe 115 video-clips of actions, one at a time and, after observing them, they had to produce the corresponding verb. Two groups of actions were randomly presented: humans versus nonhuman actions. In all patients, significant improvement in verb retrieval was found only by observing video-clips of human actions. Moreover, follow-up testing revealed long-term verb recovery that was still present two months after the two treatments had ended. In support of the multimodal concept representation's proposal, we suggest that just the observation of actions pertaining to the human motor repertoire is an effective rehabilitation approach for verb recovery. PMID:22719906

  7. Take a stand on understanding: electrophysiological evidence for stem access in German complex verbs

    PubMed Central

    Smolka, Eva; Gondan, Matthias; Rösler, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The lexical representation of complex words in Indo-European languages is generally assumed to depend on semantic compositionality. This study investigated whether semantically compositional and noncompositional derivations are accessed via their constituent units or as whole words. In an overt visual priming experiment (300 ms stimulus onset asynchrony, SOA), event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded for verbs (e.g., ziehen, “pull”) that were preceded by purely semantically related verbs (e.g., zerren, “drag”), by morphologically related and semantically compositional verbs (e.g., zuziehen, “pull together”), by morphologically related and semantically noncompositional verbs (e.g., erziehen, “educate”), by orthographically similar verbs (e.g., zielen, “aim”), or by unrelated verbs (e.g., tarnen, “mask”). Compared to the unrelated condition, which evoked an N400 effect with the largest amplitude at centro-parietal recording sites, the N400 was reduced in all other conditions. The rank order of N400 amplitudes turned out as follows: morphologically related and semantically compositional ≈ morphologically related and semantically noncompositional < purely semantically related < orthographically similar < unrelated. Surprisingly, morphologically related primes produced similar N400 modulations—irrespective of their semantic compositionality. The control conditions with orthographic similarity confirmed that these morphological effects were not the result of a simple form overlap between primes and targets. Our findings suggest that the lexical representation of German complex verbs refers to their base form, regardless of meaning compositionality. Theories of the lexical representation of German words need to incorporate this aspect of language processing in German. PMID:25767442

  8. Take a stand on understanding: electrophysiological evidence for stem access in German complex verbs.

    PubMed

    Smolka, Eva; Gondan, Matthias; Rösler, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The lexical representation of complex words in Indo-European languages is generally assumed to depend on semantic compositionality. This study investigated whether semantically compositional and noncompositional derivations are accessed via their constituent units or as whole words. In an overt visual priming experiment (300 ms stimulus onset asynchrony, SOA), event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded for verbs (e.g., ziehen, "pull") that were preceded by purely semantically related verbs (e.g., zerren, "drag"), by morphologically related and semantically compositional verbs (e.g., zuziehen, "pull together"), by morphologically related and semantically noncompositional verbs (e.g., erziehen, "educate"), by orthographically similar verbs (e.g., zielen, "aim"), or by unrelated verbs (e.g., tarnen, "mask"). Compared to the unrelated condition, which evoked an N400 effect with the largest amplitude at centro-parietal recording sites, the N400 was reduced in all other conditions. The rank order of N400 amplitudes turned out as follows: morphologically related and semantically compositional ≈ morphologically related and semantically noncompositional < purely semantically related < orthographically similar < unrelated. Surprisingly, morphologically related primes produced similar N400 modulations-irrespective of their semantic compositionality. The control conditions with orthographic similarity confirmed that these morphological effects were not the result of a simple form overlap between primes and targets. Our findings suggest that the lexical representation of German complex verbs refers to their base form, regardless of meaning compositionality. Theories of the lexical representation of German words need to incorporate this aspect of language processing in German. PMID:25767442

  9. Influence of the Verb Prefix "o-/ob-" on the Distribution of Cases on the Nominal Objects: The Occurrence of Transitive Usage of Unprefixed Verbs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Launer, Michael K.

    1986-01-01

    Investigates the influence of the prefix "o-/ob-" on the choice of case for nominal objects of prefixed verbs, using a semantic field analysis. Focuses on four semantic functions: (1) objective; (2) locative; (3) factitive; and (4) comparative. The results are useful both to theoretical linguists and to teachers of Russian. (LMO)

  10. The Impact of Verb Form, Sentence Position, Home Language, and Second Language Proficiency on Subject-Verb Agreement in Child Second Language Dutch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Elma; Baayen, Harald R.

    2013-01-01

    It has been argued that children learning a second language (L2) omit agreement inflection because of communication demands. The conclusion of these studies is that L2 children know the morphological and syntactic properties of agreement inflection, but sometimes insert an inflectional default form (i.e., the bare verb) in production. The present…

  11. The Effect of Verb Semantic Class and Verb Frequency (Entrenchment) on Children's and Adults' Graded Judgements of Argument-Structure Overgeneralization Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambridge, Ben; Pine, Julian M.; Rowland, Caroline F.; Young, Chris R.

    2008-01-01

    Participants (aged 5-6 yrs, 9-10 yrs and adults) rated (using a five-point scale) grammatical (intransitive) and overgeneralized (transitive causative) uses of a high frequency, low frequency and novel intransitive verb from each of three semantic classes [Pinker, S. (1989a). "Learnability and cognition: the acquisition of argument structure."…

  12. Privatizing the English National Health Service: an irregular verb?

    PubMed

    Powell, Martin; Miller, Robin

    2013-10-01

    This article explores different stakeholder perspectives of "privatization" in the English National Health Service (NHS). Much of the academic literature makes empirical claims about privatization on the basis of absent or shaky definitions of the term, resulting in much of the debate on this issue largely being a "non-debate," where opponents talk past rather than to each other. We aim to throw light on privatization by applying the lens of the "three-dimensional" approach (ownership, finance, and regulation) of the mixed economy of welfare to the views of key voices within these debates. These stakeholder perspectives are political (parliamentary debates), public (opinion polls), clinical provider (British Medical Association and Royal College of Nursing), and campaigning groups. We argue that in terms of grammar, "privatize" seems to be an irregular verb: I want more private-sector involvement; you wish to privatize the NHS. The term privatization is multidimensional, and definitions and operationalizations of the term are often implicit, unclear, and conflicting, resulting in differing accounts of the occurrence, chronology, and degree of privatization in the NHS. Stakeholders have divergent interests, and they use "privatization" as a way to express them, resulting in a Tower of Babel. PMID:23794740

  13. Effect of verb argument structure on picture naming in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI)

    PubMed Central

    Andreu, Llorenç; Sanz-Torrent, Mònica; Legaz, Lucia Buil; MacWhinney, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background This study investigated verb argument structure effects in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Aims A picture-naming paradigm was used to compare the response times and naming accuracy for nouns and verbs with differing argument structure between Spanish-speaking children with and without language impairment. Methods & Procedures Twenty-four children with SLI (ages 5;3–8;2 [years;months]), 24 age-matched controls (ages 5;3–8;2), 24 MLU-w controls (ages 3;3–7;1 years), and 31 adults participated in a picture-naming study. Outcomes & Results The results show all groups produced more correct responses and were faster for nouns than all verbs together. As regards verb type accuracy, there were no differences between groups in naming one-argument verbs. However, for both two- and three-argument verbs, children with SLI were less accurate than adults and age-matched controls, but similar to the MLU-matched controls. For verb type latency, children with SLI were slower than both the age-matched controls and adults for one- and two-argument verbs, while no differences were found in three-argument verbs. No differences were found between children with SLI and MLU-matched controls for any verb type. Conclusions & Implications It has been shown that the naming of verbs is delayed in Spanish children with SLI. It is suggested that children with SLI may have problems encoding semantic representations. PMID:23121524

  14. Modulation of Arm Reaching Movements during Processing of Arm/Hand-Related Action Verbs with and without Emotional Connotation

    PubMed Central

    Spadacenta, Silvia; Gallese, Vittorio; Fragola, Michele; Mirabella, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The theory of embodied language states that language comprehension relies on an internal reenactment of the sensorimotor experience associated with the processed word or sentence. Most evidence in support of this hypothesis had been collected using linguistic material without any emotional connotation. For instance, it had been shown that processing of arm-related verbs, but not of those leg-related verbs, affects the planning and execution of reaching movements; however, at present it is unknown whether this effect is further modulated by verbs evoking an emotional experience. Showing such a modulation might shed light on a very debated issue, i.e. the way in which the emotional meaning of a word is processed. To this end, we assessed whether processing arm/hand-related verbs describing actions with negative connotations (e.g. to stab) affects reaching movements differently from arm/hand-related verbs describing actions with neutral connotation (e.g. to comb). We exploited a go/no-go paradigm in which healthy participants were required to perform arm-reaching movements toward a target when verbs expressing emotional hand actions, neutral hand actions or foot actions were shown, and to refrain from moving when no-effector-related verbs were presented. Reaction times and percentages of errors increased when the verb involved the same effector as used to give the response. However, we also found that the size of this interference decreased when the arm/hand-related verbs had a negative emotional connotation. Crucially, we show that such modulation only occurred when the verb semantics had to be retrieved. These results suggest that the comprehension of negatively valenced verbs might require the simultaneous reenactment of the neural circuitry associated with the processing of the emotion evoked by their meaning and of the neural circuitry associated with their motor features. PMID:25093410

  15. Indirect combustion noise of auxiliary power units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Parrish, Sarah A.; Xu, Jun; Schuster, Bill

    2013-08-01

    Recent advances in noise suppression technology have significantly reduced jet and fan noise from commercial jet engines. This leads many investigators in the aeroacoustics community to suggest that core noise could well be the next aircraft noise barrier. Core noise consists of turbine noise and combustion noise. There is direct combustion noise generated by the combustion processes, and there is indirect combustion noise generated by the passage of combustion hot spots, or entropy waves, through constrictions in an engine. The present work focuses on indirect combustion noise. Indirect combustion noise has now been found in laboratory experiments. The primary objective of this work is to investigate whether indirect combustion noise is also generated in jet and other engines. In a jet engine, there are numerous noise sources. This makes the identification of indirect combustion noise a formidable task. Here, our effort concentrates exclusively on auxiliary power units (APUs). This choice is motivated by the fact that APUs are relatively simple engines with only a few noise sources. It is, therefore, expected that the chance of success is higher. Accordingly, a theoretical model study of the generation of indirect combustion noise in an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) is carried out. The cross-sectional areas of an APU from the combustor to the turbine exit are scaled off to form an equivalent nozzle. A principal function of a turbine in an APU is to extract mechanical energy from the flow stream through the exertion of a resistive force. Therefore, the turbine is modeled by adding a negative body force to the momentum equation. This model is used to predict the ranges of frequencies over which there is a high probability for indirect combustion noise generation. Experimental spectra of internal pressure fluctuations and far-field noise of an RE220 APU are examined to identify anomalous peaks. These peaks are possible indirection combustion noise. In the case of the

  16. Infants use known verbs to learn novel nouns: evidence from 15- and 19-month-olds.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Brock; Graf, Eileen; Waxman, Sandra R

    2014-04-01

    Fluent speakers' representations of verbs include semantic knowledge about the nouns that can serve as their arguments. These "selectional restrictions" of a verb can in principle be recruited to learn the meaning of a novel noun. For example, the sentence He ate the carambola licenses the inference that carambola refers to something edible. We ask whether 15- and 19-month-old infants can recruit their nascent verb lexicon to identify the referents of novel nouns that appear as the verbs' subjects. We compared infants' interpretation of a novel noun (e.g., the dax) in two conditions: one in which dax is presented as the subject of animate-selecting construction (e.g., The dax is crying), and the other in which dax is the subject of an animacy-neutral construction (e.g., The dax is right here). Results indicate that by 19months, infants use their representations of known verbs to inform the meaning of a novel noun that appears as its argument. PMID:24463934

  17. Do iconic gestures pave the way for children’s early verbs?

    PubMed Central

    Özçalışkan, Şeyda; Gentner, Dedre; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Children produce a deictic gesture for a particular object (point at dog) approximately three months before they produce the verbal label for that object (“dog”) (Iverson & Goldin-Meadow, 2005). Gesture thus paves the way for children’s early nouns. We ask here whether the same pattern—gesture preceding and predicting speech—holds for iconic gestures—that is, do gestures that depict actions precede and predict early verbs? We observed spontaneous speech and gestures produced by 40 children (22 girls, 18 boys) from age 14 to 34 months. Children produced their first iconic gestures 6 months later than they produced their first verbs. Thus, unlike the onset of deictic gestures, the onset of iconic gestures conveying action meanings followed, rather than preceded, children’s first verbs. However, iconic gestures increased in frequency at the same time as verbs did and, at that time, began to convey meanings not yet expressed in speech. Our findings suggest that children can use gesture to expand their repertoire of action meanings, but only after they have begun to acquire the verb system underlying their language. PMID:25309008

  18. Processing of Arabic diacritical marks: phonological-syntactic disambiguation of homographic verbs and visual crowding effects.

    PubMed

    Hermena, Ehab W; Drieghe, Denis; Hellmuth, Sam; Liversedge, Simon P

    2015-04-01

    Diacritics convey vowel sounds in Arabic, allowing accurate word pronunciation. Mostly, modern Arabic is printed nondiacritized. Otherwise, diacritics appear either only on homographic words when not disambiguated by surrounding text or on all words as in religious or educational texts. In an eye-tracking experiment, we examined sentence processing in the absence of diacritics and when diacritics were presented in either modes. Heterophonic homographic target verbs that have different pronunciations in active and passive (e.g., [see text]/d(a)r(a)b(a)/, hit; [see text]/d(o)r(i)b(a)/, was hit) were embedded in temporarily ambiguous sentences in which in the absence of diacritics, readers cannot be certain whether the verb was active or passive. Passive sentences were disambiguated by an extra word (e.g., [see text]/b(i)j(a)d/, by the hand of). Our results show that readers benefitted from the disambiguating diacritics when present only on the homographic verb. When disambiguating diacritics were absent, Arabic readers followed their parsing preference for active verb analysis, and garden path effects were observed. When reading fully diacritized sentences, readers incurred only a small cost, likely due to increased visual crowding, but did not extensively process the (mostly superfluous) diacritics, thus resulting in a lack of benefit from the disambiguating diacritics on the passive verb. PMID:25706771

  19. Treatment of verb anomia in aphasia: efficacy of self-administered therapy using a smart tablet.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Monica; Routhier, Sonia; Légaré, Annie; Macoir, Joël

    2016-01-01

    Aphasia is a chronic condition that usually requires long-term rehabilitation. However, even if many effective treatments can be offered to patients and families, speech therapy services for individuals with aphasia often remain limited because of logistical and financial considerations, especially more than 6 months after stroke. Therefore, the need to develop tools to maximize rehabilitation potential is unquestionable. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a self-administered treatment delivered with a smart tablet to improve written verb naming skills in CP, a 63-year-old woman with chronic aphasia. An ABA multiple baseline design was used to compare CP's performance in verb naming on three equivalent lists of stimuli trained with a hierarchy of cues, trained with no cues, and not trained. Results suggest that graphemic cueing therapy, done four times a week for 3 weeks, led to better written verb naming compared to baseline and to the untrained list. Moreover, generalization of the effects of treatment was observed in verb production, assessed with a noun-to-verb production task. Results of this study suggest that self-administered training with a smart tablet is effective in improving naming skills in chronic aphasia. Future studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness of new technologies in self-administered treatment of acquired language deficits. PMID:26007615

  20. Rules and construction effects in learning the argument structure of verbs.

    PubMed

    Demuth, Katherine; Machobane, Malillo; Moloi, Francina

    2003-11-01

    Theorists of language acquisition have long debated the means by which children learn the argument structure of verbs (e.g. Bowerman, 1974, 1990; Pinker, 1984, 1989; Tomasello, 1992). Central to this controversy has been the possible role of verb semantics, especially in learning which verbs undergo dative-shift alternation in languages like English. The learning problem is somewhat simplified in Bantu double object constructions, where all applicative verbs show the same order of postverbal objects. However, Bantu languages differ as to what that order is, some placing the benefactive argument first, and others placing the animate argument first. Learning the language-specific word-order restrictions on Bantu double object applicative constructions is therefore more akin to setting a parameter (cf. Hyams, 1986). This study examined 100 three- to eight-year-old children's knowledge of word order restrictions in Sesotho double object applicatives. Performance on forced choice elicited production tasks found that four-year-olds showed evidence of rule learning, although eight-year-olds had not yet attained adult levels of performance. Further investigation found lexical construction effects for three-year-olds. These findings suggest that learning the argument structure of verbs, even when lexical semantics is not involved, may be more sensitive to lexical construction effects than previously thought. PMID:14686085

  1. The Retreat from Locative Overgeneralisation Errors: A Novel Verb Grammaticality Judgment Study

    PubMed Central

    Bidgood, Amy; Ambridge, Ben; Pine, Julian M.; Rowland, Caroline F.

    2014-01-01

    Whilst some locative verbs alternate between the ground- and figure-locative constructions (e.g. Lisa sprayed the flowers with water/Lisa sprayed water onto the flowers), others are restricted to one construction or the other (e.g. *Lisa filled water into the cup/*Lisa poured the cup with water). The present study investigated two proposals for how learners (aged 5–6, 9–10 and adults) acquire this restriction, using a novel-verb-learning grammaticality-judgment paradigm. In support of the semantic verb class hypothesis, participants in all age groups used the semantic properties of novel verbs to determine the locative constructions (ground/figure/both) in which they could and could not appear. In support of the frequency hypothesis, participants' tolerance of overgeneralisation errors decreased with each increasing level of verb frequency (novel/low/high). These results underline the need to develop an integrated account of the roles of semantics and frequency in the retreat from argument structure overgeneralisation. PMID:24830412

  2. Clustering based on conditional distributions in an auxiliary space.

    PubMed

    Sinkkonen, Janne; Kaski, Samuel

    2002-01-01

    We study the problem of learning groups or categories that are local in the continuous primary space but homogeneous by the distributions of an associated auxiliary random variable over a discrete auxiliary space. Assuming that variation in the auxiliary space is meaningful, categories will emphasize similarly meaningful aspects of the primary space. From a data set consisting of pairs of primary and auxiliary items, the categories are learned by minimizing a Kullback-Leibler divergence-based distortion between (implicitly estimated) distributions of the auxiliary data, conditioned on the primary data. Still, the categories are defined in terms of the primary space. An online algorithm resembling the traditional Hebb-type competitive learning is introduced for learning the categories. Minimizing the distortion criterion turns out to be equivalent to maximizing the mutual information between the categories and the auxiliary data. In addition, connections to density estimation and to the distributional clustering paradigm are outlined. The method is demonstrated by clustering yeast gene expression data from DNA chips, with biological knowledge about the functional classes of the genes as the auxiliary data. PMID:11747539

  3. Auxiliary Heating Systems for the Ignitor Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassi, M.; Mantovani, S.; Coppi, B.

    2013-10-01

    Auxiliary plasma heating systems directed at extending the range of plasma regimes that can be accessed by Ohmic heating only are important components of the Ignitor machine. In order to affect the entire plasma column an appropriate ICRH systemhas been designed and components of it have been tested. The adoption of a 280 GHz system affecting, by ECRH, the outer edge of the plasma column has been proposed in order to influence temperature and density profiles in this important region. The ICRH system will operate over the range 80-120 MHz, consistent with magnetic fields in the range 9-13 T. The maximum delivered power goes from 8 MW (at 80 MHz) to 6 MW (at 120 MHz) distributed over 4 ports. A full size prototype of the VTL between the port flange and the antenna straps, with the external support and precise guiding system has been constructed. The innovative quick latching system located at the end of the coaxial cable has been successfully tested, providing perfect interference with the spring Be-Cu electrical contacts. Vacuum levels of 10-6, compatible with the limit of material degassing, and electrical tests up to 12 kV without discharges have been obtained. Special attention was given to the finishing of the inox surfaces, and to the TIG welds. U.S. DOE sponsored.

  4. Mixed Oxide Fresh Fuel Package Auxiliary Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Yapuncich, F.; Ross, A.; Clark, R.H.; Ammerman, D.

    2008-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is overseeing the construction the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) on the Savannah River Site. The new facility, being constructed by NNSA's contractor Shaw AREVA MOX Services, will fabricate fuel assemblies utilizing surplus plutonium as feedstock. The fuel will be used in designated commercial nuclear reactors. The MOX Fresh Fuel Package (MFFP), which has recently been licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a type B package (USA/9295/B(U)F-96), will be utilized to transport the fabricated fuel assemblies from the MFFF to the nuclear reactors. It was necessary to develop auxiliary equipment that would be able to efficiently handle the high precision fuel assemblies. Also, the physical constraints of the MFFF and the nuclear power plants require that the equipment be capable of loading and unloading the fuel assemblies both vertically and horizontally. The ability to reconfigure the load/unload evolution builds in a large degree of flexibility for the MFFP for the handling of many types of both fuel and non fuel payloads. The design and analysis met various technical specifications including dynamic and static seismic criteria. The fabrication was completed by three major fabrication facilities within the United States. The testing was conducted by Sandia National Laboratories. The unique design specifications and successful testing sequences will be discussed. (authors)

  5. Stargazin is an AMPA receptor auxiliary subunit.

    PubMed

    Vandenberghe, Wim; Nicoll, Roger A; Bredt, David S

    2005-01-11

    AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptors mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission in brain and underlie aspects of synaptic plasticity. Numerous AMPA receptor-binding proteins have been implicated in AMPA receptor trafficking and anchoring. However, the relative contributions of these proteins to the composition of native AMPA receptor complexes in brain remain uncertain. Here, we use blue native gel electrophoresis to analyze the composition of native AMPA receptor complexes in cerebellar extracts. We identify two receptor populations: a functional form that contains the transmembrane AMPA receptor-regulatory protein stargazin and an apo-form that lacks stargazin. Limited proteolysis confirms assembly of stargazin with a large proportion of native AMPA receptors. In contrast, other AMPA receptor-interacting proteins, such as synapse-associated protein 97, glutamate receptor-interacting protein 1, protein kinase Calpha binding protein, N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein, AP2, and protein 4.1N, do not show significant association with AMPA receptor complexes on native gels. These data identify stargazin as an auxiliary subunit for a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. PMID:15630087

  6. Large space systems auxiliary propulsion requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloy, J. E.; Smith, W. W.

    1983-05-01

    To meet the needs of a variety of civilian and military missions objectives large space systems (LSS) will become a greater percentage of our orbiting hardware. These LSS's will be transported to low Earth orbit (LEO) by the space transportation system (STS Shuttle). Concurrently, for LSS missions to orbit higher than LEO, the predominant mission scenario is that the LSS will be deployed or assembled in LEO and then transferred to a higher orbit. In support of the LSS concepts, the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) has sponsored studies to determine LSS mission propulsion requirements. Since the fall of 1979, the Boeing Aerospace Company, under contract to NASA and Lewis Research Center, has been studying the disturbance forces and torques that will be experienced by LSS, and they have identified some of the associated auxiliary propulsion systems (APS) requirements. This presentation provides an insight into the results of some of the APS studies, focusing primarily on the APS requirements of single Shuttle launchable LSS's.

  7. Space station auxiliary thrust chamber technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senneff, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    A program to design, fabricate and test a 50 lb sub f (222 N) thruster was undertaken (Contract NAS 3-24656) to demonstrate the applicability of the reverse flow concept as an item of auxiliary propulsion for the space station. The thruster was to operate at a mixture ratio (O/F) of 4, be capable of operating for 2 million lb sub f- seconds (8.896 million N-seconds) impulse with a chamber pressure of 75 psia (52 N/square cm) and a nozzle area ratio of 40. Superimposed was also the objective of operating with a strainless steel spherical combustion chamber, which limited the wall temperature to 1700 F (1200 K), an objective specific impulse of 400 lb sub f sec/lbm (3923 N-seconds/Kg), and a demonstration of 500,000 lb sub f-seconds (2,224,000 N-seconds) of impulse. The demonstration of these objectives required a number of design iterations which eventually culminated in a very successful 1000 second demonstration, almost immediately followed by a changed program objective imposed to redesign and demonstrate at a mixture ratio (O/F) of 8. This change was made and more then 250,000 lb sub f seconds (1,112,000 N-seconds) of impulse was successfully demonstrated at a mixture ratio of 8. This document contains a description of the effort conducted during the program to design and demonstrate the thrusters involved.

  8. Orbiter Auxiliary Power Unit Flight Support Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guirl, Robert; Munroe, James; Scott, Walter

    1990-01-01

    This paper discussed the development of an integrated Orbiter Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) and Improved APU (IAPU) Flight Suuport Plan. The plan identifies hardware requirements for continued support of flight activities for the Space Shuttle Orbiter fleet. Each Orbiter vehicle has three APUs that provide power to the hydraulic system for flight control surface actuation, engine gimbaling, landing gear deployment, braking, and steering. The APUs contain hardware that has been found over the course of development and flight history to have operating time and on-vehicle exposure time limits. These APUs will be replaced by IAPUs with enhanced operating lives on a vehicle-by-vehicle basis during scheduled Orbiter modification periods. This Flight Support Plan is used by program management, engineering, logistics, contracts, and procurement groups to establish optimum use of available hardware and replacement quantities and delivery requirements for APUs until vehicle modifications and incorporation of IAPUs. Changes to the flight manifest and program delays are evaluated relative to their impact on hardware availability.

  9. Auxiliary Heating of Inertial Confinement Fusion Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norreys, Peter

    2014-10-01

    The role of collisionless ion heating arising from the propagation of petawatt-laser driven relativistic electron beams in dense plasma will be discussed. The energy cascade mechanism begins first with the rapid growth of electrostatic waves near the electron plasma frequency. These waves reach high amplitudes and break, which then results in the generation of a strongly driven turbulent Langmuir spectrum. Parametric decay of these waves, particularly via the modulational instability, then gives rise to a coupled turbulent ion acoustic spectrum. These waves, in turn, experience significant Landau damping, resulting in the rapid heating of the background ion population. In this talk, I will review the evidence for this cascade process in laboratory plasmas and describe the theoretical background that underpins this process. I will then present the most recent analytic modelling, particle-in-cell and Vlasov-Poisson simulation results of my team within Oxford Physics and the Central Laser Facility that explores the optimum parameter space for this process, focusing in particular on the requirements for auxiliary heating of the central hot spot in inertial confinement fusion target experiments now underway on the National Ignition Facility. I will also describe new methods for hole-boring through the coronal plasma surrounding the fuel using strongly relativistic laser beams that demonstrates the strong suppression of the hosing instability under these conditions.

  10. Auxiliary signal processing system for a multiparameter radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandrasekar, V.; Gray, G. R.; Caylor, I. J.

    1993-01-01

    The design of an auxiliary signal processor for a multiparameter radar is described with emphasis on low cost, quick development, and minimum disruption of radar operations. The processor is based around a low-cost digital signal processor card and personal computer controller. With the use of such a concept, an auxiliary processor was implemented for the NCAR CP-2 radar during a 1991 summer field campaign and allowed measurement of additional polarimetric parameters, namely, the differential phase and the copolar cross correlation. Sample data are presented from both the auxiliary and existing radar signal processors.

  11. Acquiring Spanish at the Interfaces: An Integrative Approach to the L2 Acquisition of Psych-Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez Soler, Inmaculada

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation provides a comprehensive analysis of the L2 acquisition of Spanish psych-verbs (e.g. "gustar" "to like") across four different proficiency levels. In particular, psych-verbs constitute a testing ground for the predictions of the Interface Hypothesis (Sorace and Filiaci, 2006; Tsimpli, Sorace, Heycok &…

  12. Monolingual and Bilingual Recognition of Regular and Irregular English Verbs: Sensitivity to Form Similarity Varies with First Language Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basnight-Brown, Dana M.; Chen, Lang; Hua, Shu; Kostic, Aleksandar; Feldman, Laurie Beth

    2007-01-01

    We used a cross-modal priming procedure to explore the processing of irregular and regular English verb forms in both monolinguals and bilinguals (Serbian-English, Chinese-English). Materials included irregular nested stem (drawn-DRAW), irregular change stem (ran-RUN), and regular past tense-present tense verb pairs that were either low…

  13. Vocabulary Learning: Sentence Contexts Linked by Events in Scenarios Facilitate Third Graders' Memory for Verb Meanings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilton, Molly Welsh; Ehri, Linnea C.

    2015-01-01

    An experiment compared the impact of more and less semantically connected sentence contexts on vocabulary learning. Third graders (N = 40) were taught the definitions and meanings of six unfamiliar verbs: "anticipate," "attain," "devise," "restrain," "wield," and "persist." The verbs were…

  14. Tracking Irregular Morphophonological Dependencies in Natural Language: Evidence from the Acquisition of Subject-Verb Agreement in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazzi, Thierry; Barriere, Isabelle; Goyet, Louise; Kresh, Sarah; Legendre, Geraldine

    2011-01-01

    This study examines French-learning infants' sensitivity to grammatical non-adjacent dependencies involving subject-verb agreement (e.g., "le/les garcons lit/lisent" "the boy(s) read(s)") where number is audible on both the determiner of the subject DP and the agreeing verb, and the dependency is spanning across two syntactic phrases. A further…

  15. On the Plasticity of Semantic Generalizations: Children and Adults Modify Their Verb Lexicalization Biases in Response to Changing Input

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafto, Carissa L.; Havasi, Catherine; Snedeker, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Languages differ in how they package the components of an event into words to form sentences. For example, while some languages typically encode the manner of motion in the verb (e.g., running), others more often use verbs that encode the path (e.g., ascending). Prior research has demonstrated that children and adults have lexicalization biases;…

  16. Word Learning Does Not End at Fast-Mapping: Evolution of Verb Meanings through Reorganization of an Entire Semantic Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saji, Noburo; Imai, Mutsumi; Saalbach, Henrik; Zhang, Yuping; Shu, Hua; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the process through which children sort out the relations among verbs belonging to the same semantic domain. Using a set of Chinese verbs denoting a range of action events that are labeled by carrying or holding in English as a test case, we looked at how Chinese-speaking 3-, 5-, and 7-year-olds and adults apply 13 different…

  17. A Developmental Shift from Similar to Language-Specific Strategies in Verb Acquisition: A Comparison of English, Spanish, and Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Mandy J.; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Imai, Mutsumi; Haryu, Etsuko; Vanegas, Sandra; Okada, Hiroyuki; Pulverman, Rachel; Sanchez-Davis, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    The world's languages draw on a common set of event components for their verb systems. Yet, these components are differentially distributed across languages. At what age do children begin to use language-specific patterns to narrow possible verb meanings? English-, Japanese-, and Spanish-speaking adults, toddlers, and preschoolers were shown…

  18. The Most Frequent Phrasal Verbs in English Language EU Documents--A Corpus-Based Analysis and Its Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trebits, Anna

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the use of phrasal verbs in English language documents of the European Union (EU) as part of a larger-scale project examining the use of English in EU texts from various aspects including lexical, lexico-grammatical and textual features. Phrasal verbs, known to represent one of the most difficult aspects of learning English,…

  19. A Generic Analysis of English Research Article Abstracts and the Use of Modal Verbs for Financial Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jie

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a generic study of schematic structures and the use of modal verbs of 50 English Research Article (RA) abstracts. With Bhatia's (1990) model as the framework, three other move patterns were obtained besides the normal move order. The density of modal verbs varies greatly from move to move with significant differences in the frequency…

  20. The Need To Draw Second Language Learners' Attention to the Semantic Boundaries of Syntactically Relevant Verb Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms-Park, Rena

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that second language learners could benefit from being made aware of the semantic components that unify verbs that display a certain syntactic behavior and the semantic components that exclude other verbs from participating in this behavior. Findings of a study in which production and judgment data on the behavior of "change of state" and…

  1. Polysemous Verbs and Modality in Native and Non-Native Argumentative Writing: A Corpus-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Danica; Verdaguer, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    The present study is a corpus-based analysis of a selection of polysemous lexical verbs used to express modality in student argumentative writing. Twenty-three lexical verbs were searched for in three 100,000-word corpora of argumentative essays written in English by American, Filipino and Spanish university students. Concordance lines were…

  2. Noun and Verb Production in Maternal and Child Language: Continuity, Stability, and Prediction across the Second Year of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longobardi, Emiddia; Spataro, Pietro; Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined continuity/discontinuity and stability/instability of noun and verb production measures in 30 child-mother dyads observed at 16 and 20 months, and predictive relations with the acquisition of nouns and verbs at 24 months. Children exhibited significant discontinuity and robust stability in the frequency of nouns and…

  3. Characteristics of "Tween" Participants and Non-Participants in the VERB[TM] Summer Scorecard Physical Activity Promotion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickelson, Jen; Alfonso, Moya L.; McDermott, Robert J.; Bumpus, Elizabeth C.; Bryant, Carol A.; Baldwin, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Creating community-based opportunities for youth to be physically active is challenging for many municipalities. A Lexington, Kentucky community coalition designed and piloted a physical activity program, "VERB[TM] summer scorecard (VSS)", leveraging the brand equity of the national VERB[TM]--It's What You Do! campaign. Key elements of VSS…

  4. Verb and Noun Word Retrieval in Bilingual Aphasia: A Case Study of Language- and Modality-Specific Levels of Breakdown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kambanaros, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the pattern of performance on spoken and written naming, spelling to dictation, and oral reading of single verbs and nouns in a bilingual speaker with aphasia in two first languages that differ in morphological complexity, orthographic transparency, and script: Greek (L1a) and English (L1b). The results reveal no verb/noun…

  5. Processing of Regular and Irregular Past-Tense Verb Forms in First and Second Language Reading Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Zeeuw, Marlies; Schreuder, Rob; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated written word identification of regular and irregular past-tense verb forms by first (L1) and second language (L2) learners of Dutch in third and sixth grade. Using a lexical decision task, we measured speed and accuracy in the identification of regular and irregular past-tense verb forms by children from Turkish-speaking homes (L2…

  6. Processing Coordinated Verb Phrases: The Relevance of Lexical-Semantic, Conceptual, and Contextual Information towards Establishing Verbal Parallelism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutunjian, Damon A.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the influence of lexical-semantic representations, conceptual similarity, and contextual fit on the processing of coordinated verb phrases. The study integrates information gleaned from current linguistic theory with current psycholinguistic approaches to examining the processing of coordinated verb phrases. It has…

  7. Influence of Verb and Noun Bases on Reading Aloud Derived Nouns: Evidence from Children with Good and Poor Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traficante, Daniela; Marelli, Marco; Luzzatti, Claudio; Burani, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Several studies on children and adults with and without linguistic impairment have reported differences between verb and noun processing. The present study assessed whether noun and verb bases affect differently children's reading of derived words. Thirty-six Italian good readers and 18 poor readers, all 4th or 5th graders, were asked to read…

  8. A Corpus-Driven Investigation of Chinese English Learners' Performance of Verb-Noun Collocation: A Case Study of "Ability"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xia, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    The paper makes a contrastive study on the performance of verb-noun collocation given by Chinese EFL learners based on the CLEC, ICLE and BNC. First, all the concordance lines with the token "ability" in the CLEC were collected and analyzed. Then, they were tagged manually in order to sort out the sentences in the verb-noun collocation…

  9. A Search for Inflectional Priming Reveals an Effect of Discourse Type on the Lexical Access of Inflected Verbs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Greg; Zawaydeh, Bushra Adnan

    A cross-modal priming experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that lexical access of verbs marked with a specific inflectional suffix would be facilitated by immediately prior exposure to semantically and contextually unrelated verbs with the same suffix. It was hypothesized that while listening to spoken "-ed" sentences, subjects would…

  10. Effects of Sampling Context on the Finite Verb Production of Children with and without Delayed Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sealey, Linda R.; Gilmore, Susan E.

    2008-01-01

    Informal language sampling is ubiquitous in the study of developing grammatical abilities in children with and without delayed language, including study of grammatical abilities in the area of finite verb production. Finite verbs are particularly important to assess as they appear to be the grammatical morphemes most vulnerable to error in the…

  11. A Critique of Mark D. Allen's "The Preservation of Verb Subcategory Knowledge in a Spoken Language Comprehension Deficit"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemmerer, David

    2008-01-01

    Allen [Allen, M. (2005). "The preservation of verb subcategory knowledge in a spoken language comprehension deficit." "Brain and Language, 95", 255-264.] reports a single patient, WBN, who, during spoken language comprehension, is still able to access some of the syntactic properties of verbs despite being unable to access some of their semantic…

  12. The difference between "giving a rose" and "giving a kiss": Sustained neural activity to the light verb construction.

    PubMed

    Wittenberg, Eva; Paczynski, Martin; Wiese, Heike; Jackendoff, Ray; Kuperberg, Gina

    2014-05-01

    We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the neurocognitive mechanisms associated with processing light verb constructions such as "give a kiss". These constructions consist of a semantically underspecified light verb ("give") and an event nominal that contributes most of the meaning and also activates an argument structure of its own ("kiss"). This creates a mismatch between the syntactic constituents and the semantic roles of a sentence. Native speakers read German verb-final sentences that contained light verb constructions (e.g., "Julius gave Anne a kiss"), non-light constructions (e.g., "Julius gave Anne a rose"), and semantically anomalous constructions (e.g., *"Julius gave Anne a conversation"). ERPs were measured at the critical verb, which appeared after all its arguments. Compared to non-light constructions, the light verb constructions evoked a widely distributed, frontally focused, sustained negative-going effect between 500 and 900 ms after verb onset. We interpret this effect as reflecting working memory costs associated with complex semantic processes that establish a shared argument structure in the light verb constructions. PMID:24910498

  13. On the plasticity of semantic generalizations: Children and adults modify their verb lexicalization biases in response to changing input

    PubMed Central

    Shafto, Carissa L.; Havasi, Catherine; Snedeker, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Languages differ in how they package the components of an event into words to form sentences. For example, while some languages typically encode the manner of motion in the verb (e.g., running), others more often use verbs that encode the path (e.g., ascending). Prior research has demonstrated that children and adults have lexicalization biases; i.e. they assume that novel motion verbs will reflect the dominant pattern of their own language. These experiments explored the plasticity of these biases. In Experiments 1 and 2 we taught English-speaking adults motion verbs, varying the proportion of manner and path verbs in the training set; their interpretation of subsequent verbs closely reflected the probabilistic variation in the input. In Experiments 3 and 4, five-year-old children also systematically shifted their lexicalization biases to reflect the verbs that they were taught. We conclude that lexicalization biases are adaptive inferences about verb meaning that are updated on the basis of experience. PMID:24001149

  14. Effect of Verb Argument Structure on Picture Naming in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreu, Llorenc; Sanz-Torrent, Monica; Legaz, Lucia Buil; MacWhinney, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study investigated verb argument structure effects in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Aims: A picture-naming paradigm was used to compare the response times and naming accuracy for nouns and verbs with differing argument structure between Spanish-speaking children with and without language impairment. Methods &…

  15. Production of Change-of-State, Change-of-Location and Alternating Verbs: A Comparison of Children with Specific Language Impairment and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbels, Susan H.; Dockrell, Julie E.; van der Lely, Heather K. J.

    2012-01-01

    Correct use of verb argument structure relies on accurate verb semantic representations whose formation depends partly on use of reverse linking. We predicted that children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI), who have difficulties with reverse linking, would have inaccurate semantic representations for verbs and hence difficulties with verb…

  16. The Two-Level Theory of Verb Meaning: An Approach to Integrating the Semantics of Action with the Mirror Neuron System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemmerer, David; Gonzalez-Castillo, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Verbs have two separate levels of meaning. One level reflects the uniqueness of every verb and is called the "root". The other level consists of a more austere representation that is shared by all the verbs in a given class and is called the "event structure template". We explore the following hypotheses about how, with specific reference to the…

  17. Simulations of the Dynamics of the Coupled Energetic and Relativistic Electrons Using VERB Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shprits, Y.; Kellerman, A. C.; Drozdov, A.

    2015-12-01

    Modeling and understanding of ring current and radiation belt coupled system has been a grand challenge since the beginning of the space age. In this study we show long term simulations with a 3D VERB code of modeling the radiation belts with boundary conditions derived from observations around geosynchronous orbit. We also present 4D VERB simulations that include convective transport, radial diffusion, pitch angle scattering and local acceleration. VERB simulations show that the lower energy inward transport is dominated by the convection and higher energy transport is dominated by the diffusive radial transport. We also show that at energies of 100s of keV a number of processes work simultaneously including convective transport, radial diffusion, local acceleration, loss to the loss cone and loss to the magnetopause. The results of the simulaiton of March 2013 storm are compared with Van Allen Probes observations.

  18. A preliminary comparison of verb tense production in Spanish speakers with expressive restrictions.

    PubMed

    Centeno, José G; Anderson, Raquel T

    2011-10-01

    Spoken verb tense use in three groups of Spanish speakers with expressive limitations, namely, children with specific language impairment, bilingual children with first language (L1) (Spanish) attrition and adults with agrammatism, was compared in order to examine the possible impact of conversational tense frequency on expressive production. Based on the notion that frequent language forms in typical discourse are preferred in contexts of expressive restrictions, we predicted that tenses with high spoken occurrence will be favoured by individuals in our expressively limited groups. The incidence of tense use by the participants was assessed in oral narratives and/or a sentence repetition task. Consistent with our prediction, the most frequent verb tenses in conversational Spanish--the present, followed by the preterite--were preferred by the participants thus supporting the proposal that a socio-cognitive factor linking discursive frequency to verb retrieval may be operating in tense preference in situations of expressive stress. PMID:21728828

  19. Overview of formative, process, and outcome evaluation methods used in the VERB campaign.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Judy M; Huhman, Marian; Heitzler, Carrie D; Potter, Lance D; Nolin, Mary Jo; Banspach, Stephen W

    2008-06-01

    Evaluation was an integral part of the VERB campaign. This paper describes the array of evaluation methods used to support the development, implementation, and assessment of campaign activities. The evaluation of VERB consisted of formative, process, and outcome evaluations and involved both qualitative and quantitative methods. Formative evaluation allowed staff to test ideas for messages and to gauge their appropriateness for the intended audiences. Process evaluation allowed staff to test and monitor the fidelity of the campaign's implementation to objectives and to make changes while the campaign was under way. Outcome evaluation allowed staff to determine the campaign's effects on the target audience. Because a comprehensive approach was used, which included formative and process evaluation, the VERB team's ability to interpret the results of the outcome evaluation was enhanced. PMID:18471602

  20. Listeners Exploit Syntactic Structure On-Line to Restrict Their Lexical Search to a Subclass of Verbs

    PubMed Central

    Brusini, Perrine; Brun, Mélanie; Brunet, Isabelle; Christophe, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Many experiments have shown that listeners actively build expectations about up-coming words, rather than simply waiting for information to accumulate. The online construction of a syntactic structure is one of the cues that listeners may use to construct strong expectations about the possible words they will be exposed to. For example, speakers of verb-final languages use pre-verbal arguments to predict on-line the kind of arguments that are likely to occur next (e.g., Kamide, 2008, for a review). Although in SVO languages information about a verb's arguments typically follows the verb, some languages use pre-verbal object pronouns, potentially allowing listeners to build on-line expectations about the nature of the upcoming verb. For instance, if a pre-verbal direct object pronoun is heard, then the following verb has to be able to enter a transitive structure, thus excluding intransitive verbs. To test this, we used French, in which object pronouns have to appear pre-verbally, to investigate whether listeners use this cue to predict the occurrence of a transitive verb. In a word detection task, we measured the number of false alarms to sentences that contained a transitive verb whose first syllable was homophonous to the target monosyllabic verb (e.g., target “dort” /dɔʁ/ to sleep and false alarm verb “dorlote” /dɔʁlɔt/ to cuddle). The crucial comparison involved two sentence types, one without a pre-verbal object clitic, for which an intransitive verb was temporarily a plausible option (e.g., “Il dorlote” / He cuddles) and the other with a pre-verbal object clitic, that made the appearance of an intransitive verb impossible (“Il le dorlote” / He cuddles it). Results showed a lower rate of false alarms for sentences with a pre-verbal object pronoun (3%) compared to locally ambiguous sentences (about 20%). Participants rapidly incorporate information about a verb's argument structure to constrain lexical access to verbs that match the

  1. Listeners Exploit Syntactic Structure On-Line to Restrict Their Lexical Search to a Subclass of Verbs.

    PubMed

    Brusini, Perrine; Brun, Mélanie; Brunet, Isabelle; Christophe, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Many experiments have shown that listeners actively build expectations about up-coming words, rather than simply waiting for information to accumulate. The online construction of a syntactic structure is one of the cues that listeners may use to construct strong expectations about the possible words they will be exposed to. For example, speakers of verb-final languages use pre-verbal arguments to predict on-line the kind of arguments that are likely to occur next (e.g., Kamide, 2008, for a review). Although in SVO languages information about a verb's arguments typically follows the verb, some languages use pre-verbal object pronouns, potentially allowing listeners to build on-line expectations about the nature of the upcoming verb. For instance, if a pre-verbal direct object pronoun is heard, then the following verb has to be able to enter a transitive structure, thus excluding intransitive verbs. To test this, we used French, in which object pronouns have to appear pre-verbally, to investigate whether listeners use this cue to predict the occurrence of a transitive verb. In a word detection task, we measured the number of false alarms to sentences that contained a transitive verb whose first syllable was homophonous to the target monosyllabic verb (e.g., target "dort" /dɔʁ/ to sleep and false alarm verb "dorlote" /dɔʁlɔt/ to cuddle). The crucial comparison involved two sentence types, one without a pre-verbal object clitic, for which an intransitive verb was temporarily a plausible option (e.g., "Il dorlote" / He cuddles) and the other with a pre-verbal object clitic, that made the appearance of an intransitive verb impossible ("Il le dorlote" / He cuddles it). Results showed a lower rate of false alarms for sentences with a pre-verbal object pronoun (3%) compared to locally ambiguous sentences (about 20%). Participants rapidly incorporate information about a verb's argument structure to constrain lexical access to verbs that match the expected

  2. Mothers' talk to children with Down Syndrome, language impairment, or typical development about familiar and unfamiliar nouns and verbs.

    PubMed

    Kay-Raining Bird, Elizabeth; Cleave, Patricia

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated how forty-six mothers modified their talk about familiar and unfamiliar nouns and verbs when interacting with their children with Down Syndrome (DS), language impairment (LI), or typical development (TD). Children (MLUs < 2·7) were group-matched on expressive vocabulary size. Mother-child dyads were recorded playing with toy animals (noun task) and action boxes (verb task). Mothers of children with DS used shorter utterances and more verb labels in salient positions than the other two groups. All mothers produced unfamiliar target nouns in short utterances, in utterance-final position, and with the referent perceptually available. Mothers also talked more about familiar nouns and verbs and labelled them more often and more consistently. These findings suggest that mothers of children in the early period of language development fine-tune their input in ways that reflect their children's vocabulary knowledge, but do so differently for nouns and verbs. PMID:26329157

  3. 3D and 4D Simulations of the Dynamics of the Radiation Belts using VERB code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shprits, Yuri; Kellerman, Adam; Drozdov, Alexander; Orlova, Ksenia

    2015-04-01

    Modeling and understanding of ring current and higher energy radiation belts has been a grand challenge since the beginning of the space age. In this study we show long term simulations with a 3D VERB code of modeling the radiation belts with boundary conditions derived from observations around geosynchronous orbit. We also present 4D VERB simulations that include convective transport, radial diffusion, pitch angle scattering and local acceleration. We show that while lower energy radial transport is dominated by the convection and higher energy transport is dominated by the diffusive radial transport. We also show there exists an intermediate range of energies for electrons for which both processes work simultaneously.

  4. 39. VIEW OF AUXILIARY LOCK MITER GATE, WITH MAIN LOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. VIEW OF AUXILIARY LOCK MITER GATE, WITH MAIN LOCK UPSTREAM MITER GATE AND UPSTREAM GUIDEWALL IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 10, Guttenberg, Clayton County, IA

  5. 33. OVERALL VIEW OF MAIN (RIGHT) AND AUXILIARY (LEFT) LOCKS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. OVERALL VIEW OF MAIN (RIGHT) AND AUXILIARY (LEFT) LOCKS, SHOWING UPSTREAM MITER GATES PARTIALLY OPENED, LOOKING SOUTH, DOWNSTREAM - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 10, Guttenberg, Clayton County, IA

  6. 32. OVERALL VIEW OF MAIN (LEFT) AND AUXILIARY (RIGHT) LOCKS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. OVERALL VIEW OF MAIN (LEFT) AND AUXILIARY (RIGHT) LOCKS, SHOWING GUIDEWALLS, DOWNSTREAM MITER GATES IN OPEN POSITION AND LOCK INTERIOR, LOOKING NORTH - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 10, Guttenberg, Clayton County, IA

  7. Auxiliary Illumination For Viewing Along A Welding Torch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Gutow, David A.

    1993-01-01

    Auxiliary optical subsystem provides additional illumination for through-torch vision system of type used in automated or semiautomated arc welding. Also useful during operation of torch to view parts in shadows cast by arc light.

  8. Bayesian auxiliary particle filters for estimating neural tuning parameters.

    PubMed

    Mountney, John; Sobel, Marc; Obeid, Iyad

    2009-01-01

    A common challenge in neural engineering is to track the dynamic parameters of neural tuning functions. This work introduces the application of Bayesian auxiliary particle filters for this purpose. Based on Monte-Carlo filtering, Bayesian auxiliary particle filters use adaptive methods to model the prior densities of the state parameters being tracked. The observations used are the neural firing times, modeled here as a Poisson process, and the biological driving signal. The Bayesian auxiliary particle filter was evaluated by simultaneously tracking the three parameters of a hippocampal place cell and compared to a stochastic state point process filter. It is shown that Bayesian auxiliary particle filters are substantially more accurate and robust than alternative methods of state parameter estimation. The effects of time-averaging on parameter estimation are also evaluated. PMID:19963911

  9. Parallel Auxiliary Space AMG Solver for $H(div)$ Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Kolev, Tzanio V.; Vassilevski, Panayot S.

    2012-12-18

    We present a family of scalable preconditioners for matrices arising in the discretization of $H(div)$ problems using the lowest order Raviart--Thomas finite elements. Our approach belongs to the class of “auxiliary space''--based methods and requires only the finite element stiffness matrix plus some minimal additional discretization information about the topology and orientation of mesh entities. Also, we provide a detailed algebraic description of the theory, parallel implementation, and different variants of this parallel auxiliary space divergence solver (ADS) and discuss its relations to the Hiptmair--Xu (HX) auxiliary space decomposition of $H(div)$ [SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 45 (2007), pp. 2483--2509] and to the auxiliary space Maxwell solver AMS [J. Comput. Math., 27 (2009), pp. 604--623]. Finally, an extensive set of numerical experiments demonstrates the robustness and scalability of our implementation on large-scale $H(div)$ problems with large jumps in the material coefficients.

  10. MAN B&W`s latest HFO marine auxiliary engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kunberger, K.

    1996-09-01

    The ability to operate marine auxiliary generator sets on heavy fuel oil (HFO) provides the advantages of using a single fuel source onboard ships for all engine power, but also requires attention directed to engine maintenance, reliability and emissions. MAN B&W Diesel in Holeby, Denmark, has a world reputation and substantial market share for HFO burning auxiliary engines above 500 kW. Offering a guaranteed 20000 operating hours before major overhaul on its HFO auxiliary gen-sets, the company has promoted the unifuel concept for ship propulsion and auxiliary power plants for many years. Based on this experience, a new generation of small HFO burning diesels has been designed. Low operating and maintenance costs, low initial cost, heavy fuel capabilities with unrestricted load profile, high reliability at long maintenance intervals and low emmisions were the main design targets. The design, specifications, and performance of these engines are discussed in this article.

  11. 15. SOUTH SIDE OF LAUNCH DECK SHOWING NEW AUXILIARY FLAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. SOUTH SIDE OF LAUNCH DECK SHOWING NEW AUXILIARY FLAME DUCTS UNDER CONSTRUCTION, UMBILICAL MAST AT RIGHT; VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28402, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  12. Interior room within eastern lift span, showing auxiliary electric and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior room within eastern lift span, showing auxiliary electric and gas generators. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. 31. DETAILED INTERIOR VIEW OF AUXILIARY LOCK, SHOWING RECESSES FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. DETAILED INTERIOR VIEW OF AUXILIARY LOCK, SHOWING RECESSES FOR MITER GATE OPERATING MACHINERY IN LEFT FOREGROUND. LOOKING NORTHEAST (UPSTREAM) - Upper Mississippi River Nine-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 25, Cap au Gris, Lincoln County, MO

  14. 39. TAINTER GATE VALVES, OPERATING MACHINERY, AND VALVE ASSEMBLED AUXILIARY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. TAINTER GATE VALVES, OPERATING MACHINERY, AND VALVE ASSEMBLED AUXILIARY LOCK. January 1932 - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 15, Upper Mississipi River (Arsenal Island), Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  15. 16. DETAIL VIEW OF AUXILIARY LOCK MITER GATE OPERATING MACHINERY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL VIEW OF AUXILIARY LOCK MITER GATE OPERATING MACHINERY LOCATED IN INTERMEDIATE WALL, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 27, Granite City, Madison County, IL

  16. 56. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). AUXILIARY LOCK AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). AUXILIARY LOCK AND REMAINDER OF DAM -- CONCRETE MONOLITH PLAN AND WALL ELEVATIONS (WITH LOCK APPURTENANCES). Drawing V-601 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  17. Experience in the repair of steam generator auxiliary feedwater nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, K.K.N.

    1996-12-01

    The auxiliary feedwater nozzle is quite often subjected to more thermal stress cycles and other loading mechanisms during their service life than the material was designed and fabricated for at the nozzle of the earlier steam generators in many nuclear plants. During plant operation, the auxiliary feedwater nozzle outlet is exposed to the hot steam from the generator side, while the auxiliary feedwater piping which contains subcooled water from the inlet often induces water hammer as a result of the steam-water mixing phenomena. The thermal cycles and the steam bubble collapse at the nozzle may cause cracking in the nozzle liner and interior surface of the nozzle, and subsequently results in structural damage to the steam generator. This presentation is intended to share the lessons learned from the evaluation of the nozzle condition and the subsequent modification and repair made to the auxiliary feedwater nozzle at the Palisades Nuclear Plant. Other nuclear plant owners may benefit from this experience.

  18. 46. AUXILIARY CHAMBER (EAST END), LOOKING NORTHWEST AT STEAM AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. AUXILIARY CHAMBER (EAST END), LOOKING NORTHWEST AT STEAM AND FEEDWATER PIPING AND PRESSURIZER AND FLASH/BLOWOFF TANK ROOMS (LOCATION EEE) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  19. The Solid Rocket Booster Auxiliary Power Unit: Meeting the Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    The thrust vector control systems of the solid rocket boosters are turbine-powered, electrically controlled hydraulic systems which function through hydraulic actuators to gimbal the nozzles of the solid rocket boosters and provide vehicle steering for the Space Shuttle. Turbine power for the thrust vector control systems is provided through hydrazine fueled auxiliary power units which drive the hydraulic pumps. The solid rocket booster auxiliary power unit resulted from trade studies which indicated significant advantages would result if an existing engine could be found to meet the program goal of 20 missions reusability and adapted to meet the seawater environments associated with ocean landings. During its maturation, the auxiliary power unit underwent many design iterations and provided its flight worthiness through full qualification programs both as a component and as part of the thrust vector control system. More significant, the auxiliary power unit has successfully completed six Shuttle missions.

  20. Space shuttle auxiliary power unit study, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binsley, R. L.; Krause, A. A.; Maddox, R. D.; Marcy, R. D.; Siegler, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    A study was performed to establish the preliminary design of the space shuttle auxiliary power unit. Details of the analysis, optimizations, and design of the components, subsystems and systems are presented.