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1

Problems involving combined loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first problem was to determine the capability of a ground support equipment (GSE) rack knee bracket for handling a spacelab rack. The geometric center of gravity was calculated for the upper and lower part of the rack and found to be in the center of gravity's allowable envelope. The second problem was to determine the exact margin of safety for an axial load and a shear load on a bolt. The equation for failure is axial load squared plus shear load cubed equal one. The third problem was to simplify an expression for stress on a generic non-symmetrical bolt configuration to a form familiar to 'bolt people'. The final problem was the structural analysis of the spacelab rack corner posts.

Miller, Lunelle

1992-12-01

2

Multiple Solutions Involving Geoboard Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrates various methods to determine the perimeter and area of triangles and polygons formed on the geoboard. Methods utilize algebraic techniques, trigonometry, geometric theorems, and analytic geometry to solve problems and connect a variety of mathematical concepts. (MDH)

Smith, Lyle R.

1993-01-01

3

Algorithms for Routing Problems Involving UAVs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Routing problems naturally arise in several civil and military applications involving Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) with\\u000a fuel and motion constraints. A typical routing problem requires a team of UAVs to visit a collection of targets with an objective\\u000a of minimizing the total distance travelled. In this chapter, we consider a class of routing problems and review the classical\\u000a results and

Sivakumar Rathinam; Raja Sengupta

2007-01-01

4

Regularization of Inverse Visual Problems Involving Discontinuities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inverse problems, such as the reconstruction problems that arise in early vision, tend to be mathematically ill-posed. Through regularization, they may be reformulated as well-posed variational principles whose solutions are computable. Standard regularization theory employs quadratic stabilizing functionals that impose global smoothness constraints on possible solutions. Discontinuities present serious difficulties to standard regularization, however, since their reconstruction requires a precise

Demetri Terzopoulos

1986-01-01

5

Sequences of Numbers Involved in Unsolved Problems  

E-print Network

Over 300 sequences and many unsolved problems and conjectures related to them are presented herein together with theorems corollaries, formulae, examples, mathematical criteria, etc. (about integer sequences, numbers, quotients, residues, exponents, sieves, pseudo-primes/squares/cubes/factorials, almost primes, mobile periodicals, functions, tables, prime/square/factorial bases, generalized factorials, generalized palindromes, etc.).

Florentin Smarandache

2006-04-03

6

On a nonlinear problem involving noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of determining the first-order probability density of a filtered version of hard-limitedRCnoise is considered. An integral equation for the density is derived by using Siegert's results on zero-crossing distributions forRCnoise. We also show how the integral equation can be obtained from a two-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation. The exact solution of the integral equation has not been found, but some

J. Mazo; R. Pawula; S. Rice

1973-01-01

7

Involvement in multiple problem behaviors of young urban adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines four areas of “problem behavior” (i.e., delinquency, high-risk sexual behavior, school failure, and substance abuse) in a sample of urban sixth and seventh grade students. We report descriptive statistics regarding rates of problem behaviors in each of the four categories and examine their interrelationships. The results suggest that the prevalence of problem behaviors in this sample is

Charles Barone; Roger P. Weissberg; Wesley J. Kasprow; Charlene K. Voyce; Michael W. Arthur; Timothy P. Shriver

1995-01-01

8

Attitudes of Involvement with Students' Problems Outside of the School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 14 teachers at a central Virginia school investigated their attitudes concerning their involvement in students' problems outside of the school. In addition, 33 fifth grade students were surveyed concerning their attitudes about teachers' involvement, and interviews were conducted with two teachers, one principal, and one counselor. The…

Kim, Sohui

9

Problem-Based Learning Laboratories Involving Chemicals From Biorenewables  

Microsoft Academic Search

At Iowa State University, we have developed a unique and valuable experience for our students by giving them an opportunity to work in multidisciplinary teams on cutting-edge problems involving biorenewables, while using novel problem-based learning approaches. The focus of four new 1-credit laboratory classes is to bring important emergent areas from the development of biorenewable sources of chemicals into new

Charles Glatz; Balaji Narasimhan; Jacqueline Shanks; Mary Huba; Kevin Saunders; Peter Reilly; Surya Mallapragada

2004-01-01

10

Parent Involvement, Emotional Support, and Behavior Problems: An Ecological Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined relations between parent involvement and kindergarten students' behavior problems in classrooms with varying levels of teacher emotional support. Multi-informant data were collected on "n" = 255 low-income Black and Hispanic students, and "n" = 60 kindergarten classrooms in the baseline year of an intervention…

McCormick, Meghan P.; Cappella, Elise; O'Connor, Erin E.; McClowry, Sandee G.

2013-01-01

11

Collaboration Networks Involving Humanitarian Organisations -Particular Problems for a Particular  

E-print Network

that are implemented in the context of humanitarian aid. As humanitarian organisation work as well between disastersCollaboration Networks Involving Humanitarian Organisations - Particular Problems for a Particular underlined as a major weakness of humanitarians. Practitioners have therefore recently focused on this issue

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

12

Breadth and depth involvement: Understanding Internet gambling involvement and its relationship to gambling problems.  

PubMed

The "involvement effect" refers to the finding that controlling for gambling involvement often reduces or eliminates frequently observed game-specific associations with problem gambling. In other words, broader patterns of gambling behavior, particularly the number of types of games played over a defined period, contribute more to problem gambling than playing specific games (e.g., lottery, casino, Internet gambling). This study extends this burgeoning area of inquiry in three primary ways. First, it tests independently and simultaneously the predictive power of two gambling patterns: breadth involvement (i.e., the number of games an individual plays) and depth involvement (i.e., the number of days an individual plays). Second, it includes the first involvement analyses of actual betting activity records that are associated with clinical screening information. Third, it evaluates and compares the linearity of breadth and depth effects. We conducted analyses of the actual gambling activity of 1,440 subscribers to the bwin.party gambling service who completed an online gambling disorder screen. In all, 11 of the 16 games we examined had a significant univariate association with a positive screen for gambling disorder. However, after controlling for breadth involvement, only Live Action Internet sports betting retained a significant relationship with potential gambling-related problems. Depth involvement, though significantly related to potential problems, did not impact game-based gambling disorder associations as much as breadth involvement. Finally, breadth effects appeared steeply linear, with a slight quadratic component manifesting beyond four games played, but depth effects appeared to have a strong linear component and a slight cubic component. PMID:23915365

LaPlante, Debi A; Nelson, Sarah E; Gray, Heather M

2014-06-01

13

Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior Problems, Peer Affiliations, and Bullying Involvement across the Transition to Middle School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Continuity and change in children's involvement in bullying was examined across the transition to middle school in relation to externalizing and internalizing behavior problems in fifth grade and peer affiliations in fifth and sixth grades. The sample consisted of 533 students (223 boys, 310 girls) with 72% European American, 25% African…

Farmer, Thomas W.; Irvin, Matthew J.; Motoca, Luci M.; Leung, Man-Chi; Hutchins, Bryan C.; Brooks, Debbie S.; Hall, Cristin M.

2015-01-01

14

Longitudinal Modeling of Adolescents' Activity Involvement, Problem Peer Associations, and Youth Smoking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Longitudinal associations among different types of organized activity involvement, problem peer associations, and cigarette smoking were examined in a sample of 1040 adolescents (mean age = 15.62 at baseline, 16.89 at 15-month assessment, 17.59 at 24 months) enriched for smoking experimentation (83% had tried smoking). A structural equation model…

Metzger, Aaron; Dawes, Nickki; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Lauren

2011-01-01

15

The french involvement in Mars sample return program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The French scientific community is involved in planetary exploration for more than thirty years, at the beginning mainly in cooperation with the former USSR (e.g. missions Phobos 1 and 2 in the 80's), then through ESA (Mars - Express). In 97, following the success of the US Pathfinder mission, NASA proposed to CNES to participate to the first Mars Sample

J. Counil; R. Bonneville; F. Rocard

2002-01-01

16

Experimental quantum annealing: case study involving the graph isomorphism problem  

E-print Network

Quantum annealing is a proposed combinatorial optimization technique meant to exploit quantum mechanical effects such as tunneling and entanglement. Real-world quantum annealing-based solvers require a combination of annealing and classical pre- and post-processing; at this early stage, little is known about how to partition and optimize the processing. This article presents an experimental case study of quantum annealing and some of the factors involved in real-world solvers, using a 504-qubit D-Wave Two machine and the graph isomorphism problem. To illustrate the role of classical pre-processing, a compact Hamiltonian is presented that enables a reduced Ising model for each problem instance. On random N-vertex graphs, the median number of variables is reduced from N^2 to fewer than N lg N and solvable graph sizes increase from N = 5 to N = 13. Additionally, a type of classical post-processing error correction is evaluated. While the solution times are not competitive with classical approaches to graph isomorphism, the enhanced solver ultimately classified correctly every problem that was mapped to the processor and demonstrated clear advantages over the baseline approach. The results shed some light on the nature of real-world quantum annealing and the associated hybrid classical-quantum solvers.

Kenneth M. Zick; Omar Shehab; Matthew French

2015-03-22

17

CAUSES OF PROBLEMS IN ANALYZING PE SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA's Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory in Las Vegas (EMSL-LV), is responsible for overseeing quality assurance of EPA's Superfund Contract Laboratory Program. n part, this oversight role involves examining QA data provided by the labs in order to investigate p...

18

Stochastic Nash Equilibrium Problems: Sample Average ...  

E-print Network

by increasing sample size, the Nash-C-stationary point converges to a weak Nash-C-stationary point of ...... set X play an important role in Theorem 4.3. ...... We carry out numerical tests on the proposed smoothing SAA scheme for solving ...... mization by the Score Function Methods, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1993.

2010-01-22

19

Regularization schemes involving self-similarity in imaging inverse problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we introduce and analyze a set of regularization expressions based on self-similarity properties of images in order to address the classical inverse problem of image denoising and the ill-posed inverse problem of single-frame image zooming. The regularization expressions introduced are constructed using either the fractal image transform or the newly developed 'Nonlocal-means (NL-means) image denoising filter' of Buades et al. (2005). We exploit these regularization terms in a global MAP-based formulation and produce analytical and computational solutions. Analytical comparisions are made with results based on classical methods (e.g., fractal-based denoising and zooming, and NL-means image denoising).

Ebrahimi, M.; Vrscay, E. R.

2008-07-01

20

Not wanting parents' involvement: Sign of autonomy or sign of problems?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated whether adolescents' desires to manage their own free time, without parents' involvement, reflected problems or healthy independence. Participants were 1057 adolescents, their parents, and teachers. Initially, wanting parental involvement was related to disclosure, parental knowledge, and positive adjustment across contexts and wanting low parental involvement was related to negative adjustment. With closer examination of adolescents, two

Kari Trost; Gretchen Biesecker; Håkan Stattin; Margaret Kerr

2007-01-01

21

MORSE Monte Carlo radiation transport code system. [Sample problems  

SciTech Connect

For a number of years the MORSE user community has requested additional help in setting up problems using various options. The sample problems distributed with MORSE did not fully demonstrate the capability of the code. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory the code originators had a complete set of sample problems, but funds for documenting and distributing them were never available. Recently the number of requests for listings of input data and results for running some particular option the user was trying to implement has increased to the point where it is not feasible to handle them on an individual basis. Consequently it was decided to package a set of sample problems which illustrates more adequately how to run MORSE. This write-up may be added to Part III of the MORSE report. These sample problems include a combined neutron-gamma case, a neutron only case, a gamma only case, an adjoint case, a fission case, a time-dependent fission case, the collision density case, an XCHEKR run and a PICTUR run.

Emmett, M.B.

1984-07-02

22

Parabolic equation solution of seismo-acoustics problems involving variations in bathymetry and sediment thickness  

E-print Network

Parabolic equation solution of seismo-acoustics problems involving variations in bathymetry to extend this approach to a larger class of seismo-acoustics problems. The variable rotated parabolic equation J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 120, 3534­3538 2006 handles a sloping fluid-solid interface at the ocean

23

A primal-dual potential reduction method for problems involving matrix inequalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a potential reduction method for convex optimization problems involving matrix inequalities. The method is based on the theory developed by Nesterov and Nemirovsky and gener- alizes Gonzaga and Todd's method for linear programming. A worst-case analysis shows that the number of iterations grows as the square root of the problem size, but in practice it appears to grow

Lieven Vandenberghe; Stephen P. Boyd

1995-01-01

24

Defining the Mars Ascent Problem for Sample Return  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lifting geology samples off of Mars is both a daunting technical problem for propulsion experts and a cultural challenge for the entire community that plans and implements planetary science missions. The vast majority of science spacecraft require propulsive maneuvers that are similar to what is done routinely with communication satellites, so most needs have been met by adapting hardware and

2008-01-01

25

Negative Peer Involvement in Multisystemic Therapy for the Treatment of Youth Problem Behavior: Exploring Outcome and Process Variables in “Real-World” Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Associating with a negative peer group is related to involvement in problem behavior, yet very little research has considered the role of negative peer group affiliations in the context of “real-world” community-based treatments for problem behavior. This study examined the effects of negative peer involvement on case closure status and treatment characteristics in a large sample (N = 1,341) of adolescents (M

Paul Boxer

2011-01-01

26

Psychosocial Correlates of Marijuana Use and Problem Drinking in a National Sample of Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Personality, environmental, and behavioral variables representing psychosocial risk factors for adolescent problem behavior were assessed in a 1974 national sample study of over 10,000 junior and senior high school students. Significant correlations were found with marijuana use, and the relationships held across differences in age, sex, and ethnic group membership. Greater involvement in marijuana use was associated with greater value on independence than on academic achievement, lower expectations for academic achievement, lesser religiosity, greater tolerance of deviance, less compatibility between friends and parents, greater influence of friends relative to parents, greater models and support for problem behavior, greater actual involvement in other problem behaviors such as drunkenness, and less involvement in conventional behavior such as attending church. Multiple regression analyses show that this pattern of psychosocial correlates accounts for over 50 per cent of the variation in marijuana use. The pattern is nearly identical to the pattern that accounts for problem drinking in these same adolescents. The similarity of the patterns of psychosocial risk, and the substantial correlations of marijuana use with problem drinking and with other problem behaviors, suggest that marijuana use is best seen as part of a syndrome of adolescent problem behavior. (Am J Public Health 70:604- 613,1980.) PMID:7377436

Jessor, Richard; Chase, James A.; Donovan, John E.

1980-01-01

27

Finite element simulations involving simultaneous multiple interface fronts in phase change problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present paper describes the simulation of phase change problems involving simultaneous multiple interface fronts employing the finite element method. Much of the past investigations employing finite elements have been restricted to primarily a single phase change situation. The existence of more than one phase, that is, the presence of multiple phase fronts poses certain challenges and further complications. However, the results provide a very interesting thermal behavior for this class of problems. In this paper, attention is focused on fixed grid methods and the trapezoidal family of one-step methods using the enthalpy formulations. Illustrative examples which handle simultaneous multiple fronts in phase change problems are presented.

Ouyang, Tianhong; Tamma, Kumar K.

1992-01-01

28

Predicting Parental Involvement in Children's Schooling within an Economically Disadvantaged African American Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Predictors of parental school involvement were examined within a sample of 159 economically disadvantaged, African American parents living in an urban setting. School involvement was defined in terms of parent activity within the school. Parent demographics, attitudes about education, and community engagement behaviors as well as parent…

Overstreet, Stacy; Devine, Joel; Bevans, Katherine; Efreom, Yael

2005-01-01

29

Risky Alcohol Use, Peer and Family Relationships and Legal Involvement in Adolescents with Antisocial Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study was to examine risk and vulnerability factors contributing to problems with alcohol use in adolescence. Data relating to seven life areas (medical status, school status, social relationships, family background and relationships, psychological functioning, legal involvement, and alcohol use) was gathered using the ADAD…

Ybrandt, Helene

2010-01-01

30

Introduction This work is concerned with the exterior structural acoustics problem involving the  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 Introduction This work is concerned with the exterior structural acoustics problem involving the interaction of vibrating structures submerged in an infinite acoustic fluid and requires solution of the coupled wave equation subject to a far­field radiation condition. The acoustic fluid

Thompson, Lonny L.

31

Moment and SDP relaxation techniques for smooth approximations of problems involving  

E-print Network

is illustrated on a variety of linear and nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODE), partial differential equations. Given a system of nonlinear differential equations, we apply a technique based on finite, nonlinear optimization, moment methods. 1 Introduction Problems involving nonlinear differential equations

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

32

Semantic Structures of One-Step Word Problems Involving Multiplication or Division.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a four-category classification of semantic structures of one-step word problems involving multiplication and division: forming the n-th multiple of measures, combinatorial multiplication, composition of operators, and multiplication by formula. This classification is compatible with semantic structures of addition and subtraction word…

Schmidt, Siegbert; Weiser, Werner

1995-01-01

33

Concurrent Mental Health and Substance Use Problems among Street-Involved Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among marginalized populations, homeless adults are known to have elevated rates of mental health and substance use problems compared to the general population, but less is known about their youthful homeless counterparts. While few studies currently exist, what research has been conducted among street-involved youth has confirmed high rates of…

Kirst, Maritt; Frederick, Tyler; Erickson, Patricia G.

2011-01-01

34

On the continuous dependence with respect to sampling of the linear quadratic regulator problem for distributed parameter system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The convergence of solutions to the discrete- or sampled-time linear quadratic regulator problem and associated Riccati equation for infinite-dimensional systems to the solutions to the corresponding continuous time problem and equation, as the length of the sampling interval (the sampling rate) tends toward zero(infinity) is established. Both the finite-and infinite-time horizon problems are studied. In the finite-time horizon case, strong continuity of the operators that define the control system and performance index, together with a stability and consistency condition on the sampling scheme are required. For the infinite-time horizon problem, in addition, the sampled systems must be stabilizable and detectable, uniformly with respect to the sampling rate. Classes of systems for which this condition can be verified are discussed. Results of numerical studies involving the control of a heat/diffusion equation, a hereditary or delay system, and a flexible beam are presented and discussed.

Rosen, I. G.; Wang, C.

1992-01-01

35

On the continuous dependence with respect to sampling of the linear quadratic regulator problem for distributed parameter systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The convergence of solutions to the discrete or sampled time linear quadratic regulator problem and associated Riccati equation for infinite dimensional systems to the solutions to the corresponding continuous time problem and equation, as the length of the sampling interval (the sampling rate) tends toward zero (infinity) is established. Both the finite and infinite time horizon problems are studied. In the finite time horizon case, strong continuity of the operators which define the control system and performance index together with a stability and consistency condition on the sampling scheme are required. For the infinite time horizon problem, in addition, the sampled systems must be stabilizable and detectable, uniformly with respect to the sampling rate. Classes of systems for which this condition can be verified are discussed. Results of numerical studies involving the control of a heat/diffusion equation, a hereditary of delay system, and a flexible beam are presented and discussed.

Rosen, I. G.; Wang, C.

1990-01-01

36

Defining the Mars Ascent Problem for Sample Return  

SciTech Connect

Lifting geology samples off of Mars is both a daunting technical problem for propulsion experts and a cultural challenge for the entire community that plans and implements planetary science missions. The vast majority of science spacecraft require propulsive maneuvers that are similar to what is done routinely with communication satellites, so most needs have been met by adapting hardware and methods from the satellite industry. While it is even possible to reach Earth from the surface of the moon using such traditional technology, ascending from the surface of Mars is beyond proven capability for either solid or liquid propellant rocket technology. Miniature rocket stages for a Mars ascent vehicle would need to be over 80 percent propellant by mass. It is argued that the planetary community faces a steep learning curve toward nontraditional propulsion expertise, in order to successfully accomplish a Mars sample return mission. A cultural shift may be needed to accommodate more technical risk acceptance during the technology development phase.

Whitehead, J

2008-07-31

37

MULTI-VALUED BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS INVOLVING LERAY-LIONS OPERATORS,... 1 RENDICONTI DEL CIRCOLO MATEMATICO DI PALERMO  

E-print Network

MULTI-VALUED BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS INVOLVING LERAY-LIONS OPERATORS,... 1 RENDICONTI DEL CIRCOLO MATEMATICO DI PALERMO Serie II, Tomo L (2001), pp. ??? MULTI-VALUED BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS INVOLVING LERAY-LIONS a Leray-Lions operator. The proof combines monotonicity methods for elliptic problems, variational

Radulescu, Vicentiu

38

A general method for the efficient selection of sampling locations for problems in environmental restoration  

SciTech Connect

Problems in environmental restoration that involve detecting or monitoring contamination or site characterization often benefit from procedures that help select sampling or drilling locations for obtaining meaningful data that support the analysis. One example of this type of procedure is a spatial sampling program that will ``automatically`` (based on the implementation of a computer algorithm) guide an iterative investigation through the process of site characterization at a minimal cost to determine appropriate remediation activities. In order to be effective, such a procedure should translate site and modeling uncertainties into terms that facilitate comparison with regulations and should also provide a methodology that will lead to an efficient sampling plan over the course of the analysis. In this paper, a general framework is given that can accomplish these objectives and can be applied to a wide range of environmental restoration applications. The methodology is illustrated using an example where soil samples support the characterization of a chemical waste landfill area.

Rutherford, B.M.

1996-03-01

39

Concurrent Mental Health and Substance Use Problems among Street-Involved Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among marginalized populations, homeless adults are known to have elevated rates of mental health and substance use problems\\u000a compared to the general population, but less is known about their youthful homeless counterparts. While few studies currently\\u000a exist, what research has been conducted among street-involved youth has confirmed high rates of comorbidity among this population.\\u000a However, few of these studies explore

Maritt Kirst; Tyler Frederick; Patricia G. Erickson

40

A primal-dual algorithm for the fermat-weber problem involving mixed gauges  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give a new algorithm for solving the Fermat-Weber location problem involving mixed gauges. This algorithm, which is derived\\u000a from the partial inverse method developed by J.E. Spingarn, simultaneously generates two sequences globally converging to\\u000a a primal and a dual solution respectively. In addition, the updating formulae are very simple; a stopping rule can be defined\\u000a though the method is

C. MICHELOTand; O. Lefebvre

1987-01-01

41

Solving inverse problems involving the Navier–Stokes equations discretized by a Lagrange–Galerkin method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we are investigating the numerical approximation of an inverse problem involving the evolution of a Newtonian viscous incompressible fluid described by the Navier–Stokes equations in 2D. This system is discretized using a low order finite element in space coupled with a Lagrange–Galerkin scheme for the nonlinear advection operator. We introduce a full discrete linearized scheme that is

Gilles Fourestey; Marwan Moubachir

2005-01-01

42

Determinants of maltreatment substantiation in a sample of infants involved with the child welfare system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children under one year of age are highly vulnerable to child maltreatment, which can lead to serious immediate and long-term physical and mental health consequences. Child welfare workers encounter unique challenges when assessing allegations of maltreatment involving infants. This study identifies correlates of maltreatment substantiation in a sample of 793 infants less than one year of age investigated by child

Gabriela Williams; Lil Tonmyr; Susan M. Jack; Barbara Fallon; Harriet L. MacMillan

2011-01-01

43

Near-optimal, asymptotic tracking in control problems involving state-variable inequality constraints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The class of all piecewise time-continuous controllers tracking a given hypersurface in the state space of a dynamical system can be split by the present transformation technique into two disjoint classes; while the first of these contains all controllers which track the hypersurface in finite time, the second contains all controllers that track the hypersurface asymptotically. On this basis, a reformulation is presented for optimal control problems involving state-variable inequality constraints. If the state constraint is regarded as 'soft', there may exist controllers which are asymptotic, two-sided, and able to yield the optimal value of the performance index.

Markopoulos, N.; Calise, A. J.

1993-01-01

44

Parental involvement: Its relation to achievement in a multiethnic sample of newly immigrated students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined how parental involvement is related to the academic adaptation and performance of a multiethnic sample of newly immigrant students from South America and the Caribbean---Argentina, Colombia, Cuba, Haiti, and English-speaking Caribbean countries. Six hundred twenty-two participants attending elementary, middle and high school in Miami-Dade and Broward Counties were interviewed during two consecutive years at their respective

Michael Voltaire

2005-01-01

45

Short-term trajectories of substance use in a sample of drug-involved probationers.  

PubMed

The current study estimates trajectories of illegal substance use in a sample of 251 drug-involved probationers to identify risk profiles that predict group membership and explores the impact of treatment participation across these trajectories. Trajectory analyses reveal five patterns of drug use during probation supervision. Age and the use of hard drugs are identified as the strongest predictors of involvement in illicit drug use while on probation. The effect of participation in substance use treatment varies across treatment settings and trajectory groups. Prior research has tended to treat drug abusers as a homogeneous population, but the current study findings suggest considerable heterogeneity amongst drug users involved in the criminal justice system. Identifying trajectories of drug use during supervision can help identify individuals who may be more likely to persist in drug use, can inform practice by identifying individuals in need of more intensive treatment services, and can assist in developing new drug treatment strategies. PMID:23953166

Caudy, Michael S; Tang, Liansheng; Wooditch, Alese; Taxman, Faye S

2014-02-01

46

Short-term Trajectories of Substance Use in a sample of Drug-involved Probationers  

PubMed Central

The current study estimates trajectories of illegal substance use in a sample of 251 drug-involved probationers to identify risk profiles that predict group membership and explores the impact of treatment participation across these trajectories. Trajectory analyses reveal five patterns of drug use during probation supervision. Age and the use of hard drugs are identified as the strongest predictors of involvement in illicit drug use while on probation. The effect of participation in substance use treatment varies across treatment settings and trajectory groups. Prior research has tended to treat drug abusers as a homogeneous population, but the current study findings suggest considerable heterogeneity amongst drug users involved in the criminal justice system. Identifying trajectories of drug use during supervision can help identify individuals who may be more likely to persist in drug use, can inform practice by identifying individuals in need of more intensive treatment services, and can assist in developing new drug treatment strategies. PMID:23953166

Caudy, Michael S.; Tang, Liansheng; Wooditch, Alese; Taxman, Faye S.

2013-01-01

47

COMPARISON OF ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES: THE PROBLEM OF SAMPLE REPRESENTATIVENESS  

EPA Science Inventory

Obtaining an adequate, representative sample of ecological communities to make taxon richness (TR) or compositional comparisons among sites is a continuing challenge. Sample representativeness literally means the similarity in species composition and relative abundance between a ...

48

COMPARISON OF BIOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES: THE PROBLEM OF SAMPLE REPRESENTATIVENESS  

EPA Science Inventory

Obtaining an adequate, representative sample of biological communities or assemblages to make richness or compositional comparisons among sites is a continuing challenge. Traditionally, sample size is based on numbers of replicates or area collected or numbers of individuals enum...

49

A hybrid computer program for rapidly solving flowing or static chemical kinetic problems involving many chemical species  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hybrid chemical kinetic computer program was assembled which provides a rapid solution to problems involving flowing or static, chemically reacting, gas mixtures. The computer program uses existing subroutines for problem setup, initialization, and preliminary calculations and incorporates a stiff ordinary differential equation solution technique. A number of check cases were recomputed with the hybrid program and the results were almost identical to those previously obtained. The computational time saving was demonstrated with a propane-oxygen-argon shock tube combustion problem involving 31 chemical species and 64 reactions. Information is presented to enable potential users to prepare an input data deck for the calculation of a problem.

Mclain, A. G.; Rao, C. S. R.

1976-01-01

50

The Maximization and Minimization of Sample Overlap Problems: A Half Century of Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the nearly half century since Keyfitz's (1951) pioneering work, research on the problem of maximizing and the related problem of minimizing overlap of sampling units has progressed in many different directions and under several different names, such as optimal integration of surveys, sample coordination, and overlapping maps. A typical application of sample overlap is as follows. Units are selected

Lawrence R. Ernst

51

Interactive decision-making for multiobjective linear fractional programming problems with block angular structure involving fuzzy numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, by considering the experts' vague or fuzzy understanding of the nature of the parameters in the problem-formulation process, multiobjective linear fractional programming problems with block angular structure involving fuzzy numbers are formulated. Through the use of the ?-level sets of fuzzy numbers, an extended Pareto optimality concept called the ?-Pareto optimality is introduced. To generate a candidate

Masatoshi Sakawa; Kosuke Kato

1998-01-01

52

NASTRAN thermal analyzer: Theory and application including a guide to modeling engineering problems, volume 2. [sample problem library guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sample problem library containing 20 problems covering most facets of Nastran Thermal Analyzer modeling is presented. Areas discussed include radiative interchange, arbitrary nonlinear loads, transient temperature and steady-state structural plots, temperature-dependent conductivities, simulated multi-layer insulation, and constraint techniques. The use of the major control options and important DMAP alters is demonstrated.

Jackson, C. E., Jr.

1977-01-01

53

Designing Bayesian networks for highly expert-involved problem diagnosis domains  

E-print Network

Systems for diagnosing problems in highly complicated problem domains have been traditionally very difficult to design. Such problem diagnosis systems have often been restricted to the use of primarily rule-based methods ...

Ramdass, Dennis L

2009-01-01

54

Using a stopping rule to determine the size of the training sample in a classification problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of determining the size of the training sample needed to achieve sufficiently small misclassification probability is considered. The appropriate sample size is approximated using a stopping rule. The proposed procedure is asymptotically optimal.

Subrata Kundu; Adam T. Martinsek

1998-01-01

55

An empirical coverage test for the g-sample problem  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A nonparametric g-sample empirical coverage test has recently been developed for univariate continuous data. It is based upon the empirical coverages which are spacings of multiple random samples. The test is capable of detecting any distributional differences which may exist among the parent populations, without additional assumptions beyond randomness and continuity. The test can be effective with the limited and/or unequal sample sizes most often encountered in geologic studies. A computer program for implementing this procedure, G-SECT 1, is available. ?? 1991 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

Orlowski, L.A.; Grundy, W.D.; Mielke, P.W., Jr.

1991-01-01

56

Cumulative Innovation, Sampling and the Hold-Up Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

With cumulative innovation and imperfect information about the value of innovations, intellectual property rights can result in hold-up and therefore it may be better not to have them. Extending the basic cumulative innovation model to include 'sampling' by second-stage firms, we find that the lower the cost of sampling, or the larger the differential between high and low value second-stage

Rufus Pollock

2006-01-01

57

Communication Problems in Turner Syndrome: A Sample Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 128 females (ages 2-58) with Turner syndrome found almost one quarter were receiving or had received treatment for stuttering, articulation problems, and/or delayed language development, with the latter two disorders being checked most frequently. Only 4 or the 68 individuals receiving growth hormone treatment reported voice changes.…

Van Borsel, John; Dhooge, Inge; Verhoye, Kristof; Derde, Kristel; Curfs, Leopold

1999-01-01

58

Word Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This FAQ about solving word problems from the Ask Dr. Math service of the Math Forum @ Drexel outlines strategies for solving word problems. The response includes general strategies that apply to problem solving, as well as a specific sample problem involving distance, rate, and time.

Math Forum, Ask Dr. Math FAQ

1996-01-01

59

Peer rejection in childhood, involvement with antisocial peers in early adolescence, and the development of externalizing behavior problems.  

PubMed

A longitudinal, prospective design was used to examine the roles of peer rejection in middle childhood and antisocial peer involvement in early adolescence in the development of adolescent externalizing behavior problems. Both early starter and late starter pathways were considered. Classroom sociometric interviews from ages 6 through 9 years, adolescent reports of peers' behavior at age 13 years, and parent, teacher, and adolescent self-reports of externalizing behavior problems from age 5 through 14 years were available for 400 adolescents. Results indicate that experiencing peer rejection in elementary school and greater involvement with antisocial peers in early adolescence are correlated but that these peer relationship experiences may represent two different pathways to adolescent externalizing behavior problems. Peer rejection experiences, but not involvement with antisocial peers. predict later externalizing behavior problems when controlling for stability in externalizing behavior. Externalizing problems were most common when rejection was experienced repeatedly. Early externalizing problems did not appear to moderate the relation between peer rejection and later problem behavior. Discussion highlights multiple pathways connecting externalizing behavior problems from early childhood through adolescence with peer relationship experiences in middle childhood and early adolescence. PMID:11393650

Laird, R D; Jordan, K Y; Dodge, K A; Pettit, G S; Bates, J E

2001-01-01

60

A new LDA-based face recognition system which can solve the small sample size problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new LDA-based face recognition system is presented in this paper. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is one of the most popular linear projection techniques for feature extraction. The major drawback of applying LDA is that it may encounter the small sample size problem. In this paper, we propose a new LDA-based technique which can solve the small sample size problem.

Li-fen Chen; Hong-yuan Mark Liao; Ming-tat Ko; Ja-chen Lin; Gwo-jong Yu

2000-01-01

61

Propionibacterium acnes populations involved in deep pathological samples and their dynamics along the cardiac surgical pathway.  

PubMed

Propionibacterium acnes belongs to the normal skin microbiota, but it is also responsible for acne vulgaris and causes serious infections such as endocarditis and surgical site infections (SSI). The P. acnes population is structured into phylogenetic groups, with phylotype I being associated with acne. Herein, we explore the link between phylotypes and clinical origins in a collection of P. acnes isolated from different body sites, involved in deep infections or healthcare-associated infections (HAI), with particular emphasis on strains from cardiac SSI. Cardiac SSI have been further studied in terms of P. acnes population dynamics during the care pathway. The recA and tly genes phylotypes were compared to hemolytic behavior, susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, and clinical origins. An original approach of recA polymerase chain reaction temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (PCR-TTGE) was developed and applied for the direct identification of P. acnes phylotypes in surgical samples, in order to assess their temporal dynamics during the surgical course. Our results underlined the preferential involvement of IA-2/IB and II phylogroups in HAI and SSI. Unlike IA and II, type IA-2/IB presented a gradual increase with the depth of sampling in the peroperative phase of cardiac surgery. Phylotypes IA and IA-2/IB were both predominant in scar tissues and on postoperative skin, suggesting a specific predisposition to recolonize skin. Particular association of the phylotype IA-2/IB with SSI and its propensity to colonize wounds in cardiac surgery was observed. We assumed that the follow-up of P. acnes phylotypes during pathological processes could give new clues for P. acnes pathogenicity. PMID:25169966

Romano-Bertrand, S; Beretta, M; Jean-Pierre, H; Frapier, J-M; Calvet, B; Parer, S; Jumas-Bilak, E

2015-02-01

62

Personal values and involvement in problem behaviors among Bahamian early adolescents: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Few studies, particularly in developing countries, have explored the relationship between adolescents and parental values with adolescent problem behaviors. The objectives of the study are to (1) describe adolescents' personal values, their problem behaviors, and the relationships thereof according to gender and (2) examine the relationship between parental values, adolescent values, and adolescents' problem behaviors among sixth-grade students and

Hongjie Liu; Shuli Yu; Lesley Cottrell; Sonja Lunn; Lynette Deveaux; Nanika V Brathwaite; Sharon Marshall; Xiaoming Li; Bonita Stanton

2007-01-01

63

Family Background, Parental Involvement, and Parent Child Interactions as Predictors of Fifth-Graders Behavior Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many studies have been conducted to address childhood behavior problems, but much remains unknown regarding the causes and factors that affect internalizing and externalizing problems in children. The purpose of the current research study was to examine the relationships between children's internalizing and externalizing behavior problems and (a)…

Brown, Tamala P.

2012-01-01

64

Seated anthropometry: the problems involved in a large scale survey of disabled and elderly people  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper draws attention to a number of problems in the collection of anthropometric data for the design of easy chairs for disabled and elderly people. The solution of these problems is important if valid and reliable data on human body sizes are to be obtained from the elderly and disabled populations. These problems include gaining access to representative subjects

1981-01-01

65

On Testing Sample Selection Bias under the Multicollinearity Problem  

E-print Network

-798. [4] Heckman, J. J. (1976). The common structure of statistical models of trun- cation, sample selection, and limited dependent variables and a simple es- timator for such models. Annals of Economic and Social Measurement. 5: 475-492. [5] Heckman, J. J... . Firstly, the LM test statistics that often took negative value in Nawata & McAleer (2001) were computed based on the ?information matrix? being estimated by the Hessian matrix. However, the past research has shown that #3;Corresponding author: Tel: +44...

Yamagata, Takashi

2006-03-14

66

Parental Choices and Ethical Dilemmas Involving Disabilities: Special Education and the Problem of Deliberately Chosen Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethical issues regarding children with disabilities have long involved their treatment after they are born. These issues remain important, but children may be deliberately created with or without characteristics that are usually thought of as disabilities. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and related technologies that involve human reproduction will become more readily available and raise new issues about the nature of

James M. Kauffman; Daniel P. Hallahan

2009-01-01

67

Early Father Involvement Moderates Biobehavioral Susceptibility to Mental Health Problems in Middle Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To study how early father involvement and children's biobehavioral sensitivity to social contexts interactively predict mental health symptoms in middle childhood. Method: Fathers' involvement in infant care and maternal symptoms of depression were prospectively ascertained in a community-based study of child health and development in…

Boyce, W. Thomas; Essex, Marilyn J.; Alkon, Abbey; Goldsmith, H. Hill; Kraemer, Helena C.; Kupfer, David J.

2006-01-01

68

“Angels in Marble”: Problems in Stimulating Community Involvement in Community Policing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1990 the Bureau of Justice Assistance awarded grants to eight urban and suburban police departments for the purpose of establishing innovative neighborhood-oriented drug demand reduction projects. The projects varied in design and implementation, but all encountered the same implementation problems. The most perplexing of these problems was the inability of the police departments to organize and maintain active community

Randolph M. Grinc

1994-01-01

69

A Problem and Its Solution Involving Maxwell's Equations and an Inhomogeneous Medium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maxwell's equation are solved for an inhomogeneous medium which has a coordinate-dependent dielectric function. The problem and its solutions are given in a format which should make it useful as an intermediate or advanced level problem in an electrodynamics course. (Author/SK)

Williamson, W., Jr.

1980-01-01

70

Prosocial Involvement and Antisocial Peer Affiliations as Predictors of Behavior Problems in Urban Adolescents: Main Effects and Moderating Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationships between prosocial involvement (PI), antisocial peer affiliations (APA), and the degree of their overlapping or independent prediction of behavior problems in urban adolescents. Two dimensions of behavior were assessed at ages 9-11 and at ages 13-15: disruptive, aggressive conduct and number of delinquent…

Kaufmann, Dagmar R.; Wyman, Peter A.; Forbes-Jones, Emma L.; Barry, Jason

2007-01-01

71

An efficient and highly accurate solver for multi-body acoustic scattering problems involving rotationally symmetric scatterers  

E-print Network

body is computed, and then GMRES, accelerated by the Fast Multipole Method, is used to handleAn efficient and highly accurate solver for multi-body acoustic scattering problems involving the equations modeling acoustic scattering is pre- sented. The method is capable of handling several dozen

Martinsson, Gunnar

72

Laboratory detective work identifies a mishandling problem in sample aliquoting.  

PubMed

Data from a recent ovarian cancer biomarker study using serum aliquots from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial Biorepository showed that CA125II concentrations in these aliquots were significantly lower than those previously measured in the same subjects from the same blood draw. We designed an experiment to investigate whether samples used in the study (reference study) were compromised during the aliquoting process. We measured CA125II in the "sister" vials created during the same aliquoting process as the reference study aliquot, and in "cousin" vials newly aliquoted from another parent vial from the same blood draw, from 15 healthy controls in the study. Because the sister vials were created in a specific order, we also assessed whether there was a CA125II concentration gradient among the sisters. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to test the statistical significance of the observed differences. Mean CA125II concentration (volume-averaged) was greater in the sisters than the cousins in all 15 subjects (p<0.001). The mean coefficient of variation was 0.25 (range: 0.12-0.43) in the sisters and 0.11 (range: 0.-1.1) in the cousins (p<0.008). The mean ratio of CA125II in the 5(th) aliquoted versus the 3(rd) aliquoted sister vial was 1.66 (1.25-2.5, p<0.001). These data suggest that the parent vials were not adequately mixed before they were aliquoted. CA125II in serum can partially precipitate to form a concentration gradient in long-term storage. Rigorous vortexing after thawing and before aliquoting is thus critical. PMID:25496156

Zhu, Claire; Pinsky, Paul; Huang, Wen-Yi; Purdue, Mark

2014-12-01

73

Bayesian approaches to bilinear inverse problems involving spatial evidence : color constancy and blind image deconvolution  

E-print Network

This thesis examines two distinct but related problems in low-level computer vision: color constancy and blind-image deconvolution. The goal of the former is to separate the effect of global illumination from other properties ...

Singh, Barun, 1982-

2006-01-01

74

Randomize-Then-Optimize: A Method for Sampling from Posterior Distributions in Nonlinear Inverse Problems  

E-print Network

High-dimensional inverse problems present a challenge for Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC)-type sampling schemes. Typically, they rely on finding an efficient proposal distribution, which can be difficult for large-scale ...

Bardsley, Johnathan M.

75

TOPAZ - the transient one-dimensional pipe flow analyzer: code validation and sample problems  

SciTech Connect

TOPAZ is a ''user friendly'' computer code for modeling the one-dimensional-transient physics of multi-species gas transfer in arbitrary arrangements of pipes, valves, vessels, and flow branches. This document presents a series of sample problems designed to aid potential users in creating TOPAZ input files. To the extent possible, sample problems were selected for which analytical solutions currently exist. TOPAZ comparisons with such solutions are intended to provide a measure of code validation.

Winters, W.S.

1985-10-01

76

The Prevalence and Incremental Validity of Identity Problem Symptoms in a High School Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the expression, prevalence, and incremental validity of identity problem symptoms in adolescence. A sample of high school students (N = 140) aged 15-18 completed measures of identity problem symptoms, identity status, and psychological symptom severity. Findings suggested that 14.3% would meet DSM IV criteria for identity…

Berman, Steven L.; Weems, Carl F.; Petkus, Veronica F.

2009-01-01

77

A Model for Predicting Behavioural Sleep Problems in a Random Sample of Australian Pre-Schoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavioural sleep problems (childhood insomnias) can cause distress for both parents and children. This paper reports a model describing predictors of high sleep problem scores in a representative population-based random sample survey of non-Aboriginal singleton children born in 1995 and 1996 (1085 girls and 1129 boys) in Western Australia.…

Hall, Wendy A.; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Silburn, Sven R.; Parsons, Deborah E.; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J.

2007-01-01

78

Hispanic adolescents with severe substance abuse problems: Parental involvement, acculturation-related factors, and attachment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between parent-related, acculturation-related, and substance use-related variables found within individual, familial\\/parental, peer and school adolescent ecological domains, in a clinical sample (i.e. adolescents who met criteria for a Diagnostic Statistical Manual-IV [DSMIV] clinical diagnosis of substance abuse\\/dependence) of Hispanic adolescents from Miami, Florida. ^ The sample for this study

Conchita Smith Lundblad

2008-01-01

79

Nematode Damage Functions: The Problems of Experimental and Sampling Error 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and use of pest damage functions involves measurement and experi- mental errors associated with cultural, environmental, and distributional factors. Damage predictions are more valuable if considered with associated probability. Collapsing population densities into a geometric series of population classes allows a pseudo-replication removal of experimental and sampling error in damage function development. Recognition of the nature of sampling

H. FERRIS

1984-01-01

80

Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving maxwell's equations in isotropic media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maxwell's equations are replaced by a set of finite difference equations. It is shown that if one chooses the field points appropriately, the set of finite difference equations is applicable for a boundary condition involving perfectly conducting surfaces. An example is given of the scattering of an electromagnetic pulse by a perfectly conducting cylinder.

KANE S. YEE

1966-01-01

81

Abstract--This paper addresses the problem of controlling wind energy conversion systems (WECS) which involve  

E-print Network

Abstract-- This paper addresses the problem of controlling wind energy conversion systems (WECS-inverter. The goal of control is to maximize wind energy extraction and this needs letting the wind turbine rotor wind energy extraction) only for one wind speed value depending on the considered value of turbine

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

82

Interval-Valued Optimization Problems Involving (?, ?)-Right Upper-Dini-Derivative Functions  

PubMed Central

We consider an interval-valued multiobjective problem. Some necessary and sufficient optimality conditions for weak efficient solutions are established under new generalized convexities with the tool-right upper-Dini-derivative, which is an extension of directional derivative. Also some duality results are proved for Wolfe and Mond-Weir duals. PMID:24982989

2014-01-01

83

The asymptotic solution of a family of boundary value problems involving exponentially small terms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the authors consider the family of boundary value problems [IMG] in the limit |{varepsilon}|[=]0, this is intimately connected with the occurrence of exponentially small terms in the asymptotic solution. When {alpha}= 0(1) these termsz are forced by the boundary layer at y = 1, and the techniques used to deal with this case are well known from

R. E. Grundy; H. R. Allen

1994-01-01

84

Hybrid nested sampling algorithm for Bayesian model selection applied to inverse subsurface flow problems  

SciTech Connect

A Hybrid Nested Sampling (HNS) algorithm is proposed for efficient Bayesian model calibration and prior model selection. The proposed algorithm combines, Nested Sampling (NS) algorithm, Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) sampling and gradient estimation using Stochastic Ensemble Method (SEM). NS is an efficient sampling algorithm that can be used for Bayesian calibration and estimating the Bayesian evidence for prior model selection. Nested sampling has the advantage of computational feasibility. Within the nested sampling algorithm, a constrained sampling step is performed. For this step, we utilize HMC to reduce the correlation between successive sampled states. HMC relies on the gradient of the logarithm of the posterior distribution, which we estimate using a stochastic ensemble method based on an ensemble of directional derivatives. SEM only requires forward model runs and the simulator is then used as a black box and no adjoint code is needed. The developed HNS algorithm is successfully applied for Bayesian calibration and prior model selection of several nonlinear subsurface flow problems.

Elsheikh, Ahmed H., E-mail: aelsheikh@ices.utexas.edu [Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences (ICES), University of Texas at Austin, TX (United States); Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Wheeler, Mary F. [Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences (ICES), University of Texas at Austin, TX (United States)] [Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences (ICES), University of Texas at Austin, TX (United States); Hoteit, Ibrahim [Department of Earth Sciences and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal (Saudi Arabia)] [Department of Earth Sciences and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal (Saudi Arabia)

2014-02-01

85

Father-involvement in a refugee sample: relations between posttraumatic stress and caregiving.  

PubMed

Despite increased attention to the role of fathers within families, there is still a dearth of studies on the impact of trauma on father-involvement. This study investigates the quantity of father-involvement and the influence of posttraumatic stress on the quality of involvement in a refugee and asylum seeker population. Eighty refugees and asylum seekers and their young children (aged 18-42 months) were recruited. Measures included assessment of parental trauma (Harvard Trauma Questionnaire), quantity and quality of involvement (quantity of caregiving and Emotional Availability Scales), and perception of the father-child relationship (interview). The results show that fathers were less involved in caregiving tasks and play activities than mothers. No parental gender differences were found on each of the Emotional Availability Scales. Traumatic stress symptoms negatively affected the perception and the actual quality of parent-child interaction (sensitivity, structuring, nonhostility). Nevertheless, almost all fathers described their relationship with their child as good and their child as very important to them. As the quality of father-involvement is of importance to the development of the child, traumatized fathers are as much in need of clinical intervention as mothers. Despite the impact of posttraumatic stress, refugee fathers clearly are involved in the lives of their children. Mechanisms such as a deliberate withdrawal when stressed and compensation might enable affected fathers to step into the interaction when needed, raise the quality of involvement with their child, and diminish the negative impact of stress resulting from trauma and migration. PMID:24329413

van Ee, Elisa; Sleijpen, Marieke; Kleber, Rolf J; Jongmans, Marian J

2013-12-01

86

Analytical solutions of some electromagnetic problems involving chiral, bi-isotropic, and uniaxial media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A survey was performed and a summary was made of the following publications: Geometrical optics in inhomogeneous chiral media with application to polarization correction of inhomogeneous microwave lens antennas; Polarization correction of Luneburg lens with chiral medium; Polarization correction of Gutman lens with chiral medium; Eigensolutions for the reflection problem of the interface of two chiral half-spaces; Generalized WKB approximation for stratified isotropic chiral media with obliquely incident plane wave; Duality transformations for general bi-isotropic (nonreciprocal chiral) media; WKB approximation for stratified bi-isotropic media; and Exact image theory for uniaxially anisotropic dielectric half-space.

Viitanen, A. J.

1991-05-01

87

A new approach to the solution of boundary value problems involving complex configurations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new approach for solving certain types of boundary value problems about complex configurations is presented. Numerical algorithms from such diverse fields as finite elements, preconditioned Krylov subspace methods, discrete Fourier analysis, and integral equations are combined to take advantage of the memory, speed and architecture of current and emerging supercomputers. Although the approach has application to many branches of computational physics, the present effort is concentrated in areas of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) such as steady nonlinear aerodynamics, time harmonic unsteady aerodynamics, and aeroacoustics. The most significant attribute of the approach is that it can handle truly arbitrary boundary geometries and eliminates the difficult task of generating surface fitted grids.

Rubbert, P. E.; Bussoletti, J. E.; Johnson, F. T.; Sidwell, K. W.; Rowe, W. S.; Samant, S. S.; Sengupta, G.; Weatherill, W. H.; Burkhart, R. H.; Woo, A. C.

1986-01-01

88

Symptoms of Major Depression in a Sample of Fathers of Infants: Sociodemographic Correlates and Links to Father Involvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Depression has been extensively studied for mothers but not for fathers. This study examines the sociodemographic correlates of symptoms of depression and how depression is associated with father involvement using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Short Form (CIDI-SF) for major depression. The study uses a sample of 2,139 resident…

Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Moore, Kristin A.; Matthews, Gregory; Carrano, Jennifer

2007-01-01

89

Problems and possible solutions involved in hard target calibration of coherent Doppler lidar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The field of radiometry is surveyed with reference to coherent light, since the surfaces to be considered here are irradiated with coherent, polarized light. Definitions of some concepts are modified. In light of these modifications calibration problems are analyzed and solutions suggested. The most important task was to develop hard targets exhibiting minimal specular reflection (mirror-like and retroreflection) and following closely a Lambertian scattering curve. Bistable reflectometer experiments and integrating sphere measurements are used to physically characterize the targets. Optical and electron microscopy are used to physically characterize the targets. Since the BRDF matrix is not measured, this capability must be developed preferably for both bistatic and monostatic reflectometer measurements. The equipment is expensive and not yet developed. Calibration can be simplified if it can be proved that the BRDF matrix is diagonal for a diffuse scatterer.

Anderson, Richard

1987-01-01

90

Multi-choice stochastic transportation problem involving general form of distributions.  

PubMed

Many authors have presented studies of multi-choice stochastic transportation problem (MCSTP) where availability and demand parameters follow a particular probability distribution (such as exponential, weibull, cauchy or extreme value). In this paper an MCSTP is considered where availability and demand parameters follow general form of distribution and a generalized equivalent deterministic model (GMCSTP) of MCSTP is obtained. It is also shown that all previous models obtained by different authors can be deduced with the help of GMCSTP. MCSTP with pareto, power function or burr-XII distributions are also considered and equivalent deterministic models are obtained. To illustrate the proposed model two numerical examples are presented and solved using LINGO 13.0 software package. PMID:25332865

Quddoos, Abdul; Ull Hasan, Md Gulzar; Khalid, Mohammad Masood

2014-01-01

91

Factorial dimensions of the Revised Behavior Problem Checklist: Replication and validation within a kindergarten sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factor structure of the Revised Behavior Problem Checklist (RBPC) was examined in a large sample of suburban kindergarten children. Teacher-rated dimensions of Conduct Disorder, Attention Problems-Immaturity, Anxiety-Withdrawal, and Psychotic Behavior were closely replicated, and a new factor labeled Unmotivated-Isolated was also revealed. These principal components were consistent across gender and across subsamples of children differing as to risk status

Stephen P. Hinshaw; Delmont C. Morrison; Estol T. Carte; Carol Cornsweet

1987-01-01

92

Drug use and drug problems among teenagers in a household sample.  

PubMed

Studies of drug use among young persons have typically employed students or special high risk groups rather than general samples. This study reports drug use among a household sample of persons aged 14 to 18. The results indicate that cannabis was the most frequently used drug. Factors associated with drug problems were: being older, living in cities, not participating in religious activities and being a worker rather than a student. Very few of those with problems had been treated or felt the need for any treatment. PMID:7353475

Smart, R G; Blair, N L

1980-03-01

93

Negative Peer Involvement in Multisystemic Therapy for the Treatment of Youth Problem Behavior: Exploring Outcome and Process Variables in "Real-World" Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Associating with a negative peer group is related to involvement in problem behavior, yet very little research has considered the role of negative peer group affiliations in the context of "real-world" community-based treatments for problem behavior. This study examined the effects of negative peer involvement on case closure status and treatment…

Boxer, Paul

2011-01-01

94

Methods for calculating the entropy and free energy and their application to problems involving protein flexibility and ligand binding  

PubMed Central

The Helmholtz free energy, F and the entropy, S are related thermodynamic quantities with a special importance in structural biology. We describe the difficulties in calculating these quantities and review recent methodological developments. Because protein flexibility is essential for function and ligand binding, we discuss the related problems involved in the definition, simulation, and free energy calculation of microstates (such as the ?-helical region of a peptide). While the review is broad, a special emphasize is given to methods for calculating the absolute F (S), where our HSMC(D) method is described in some detail. PMID:19519453

Meirovitch, Hagai; Cheluvaraja, Srinath; White, Ronald P.

2009-01-01

95

A Kernel Method for the Two-Sample-Problem Arthur Gretton  

E-print Network

A Kernel Method for the Two-Sample-Problem Arthur Gretton MPI for Biological Cybernetics T¨ubingen, Germany arthur@tuebingen.mpg.de Karsten M. Borgwardt Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Munich, Germany kb¨olkopf MPI for Biological Cybernetics T¨ubingen, Germany bs@tuebingen.mpg.de Alexander J. Smola NICTA, ANU

Borgwardt, Karsten M.

96

Caregiver Reports of Sleep Problems on a Convenience Sample of Children with Fragile X Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Caregivers reported on sleep in a convenience sample of 90 children with fragile X syndrome utilizing a standardized assessment tool, the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), and a 14-day sleep diary. CSHQ data indicated that 47% of participants had sleep problems at a level that suggested referral and further evaluation. Sleep diary data…

Kronk, Rebecca; Dahl, Ronald; Noll, Robert

2009-01-01

97

Conditional Rank Tests for the Two-Sample Problem Under Random Censorship  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the two-sample problem with randomly censored data, there exists a general asymptotic theory of rank statistics which are functionals of stochastic integrals with respect to certain empirical martingales. In the present paper a conditional counterpart of this theory is developed. The conditional martingales are versions of the original ones reduced to the unit interval having their jumps at fixed

Georg Neuhaus

1993-01-01

98

The Statistical Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA Polymorphisms: X * and the Problem of Small Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significance levels obtained from a x2 contingency test are suspect when sample sizes are small. Traditionally this has meant that data must be combined. However, such an approach may obscure heterogeneity and hence potentially reduce the power of the statistical test. In this paper, we present a Monte Carlo solution to this problem: by this method, no lumping of data

Derek A. Roff; Paul Bentzen

99

Prevalence and Correlates of Problem Gambling in a Representative Sample of Norwegian 17-Year-Olds.  

PubMed

We report data collected in a representative sample of 17-year-old Norwegians to investigate prevalence rates of non-problem, risk, and problem gambling, as measured by the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). In addition, we explored the importance of demographic, personality, motivational, social, and health variables explaining variance in adolescent gambling. Prevalence rates of risk and problem gambling were low but similar to those found in previous studies outside of Norway using the PGSI in adolescent samples. With regard to the relative importance of the various covariates, we found that motivational variables (future gambling intentions, attitudes toward gambling, and gambling-related knowledge) distinguished best between those who did not gamble, non-problem gamblers, and risk and problem gamblers. Furthermore, social variables were important covariates of adolescent gambling; significant associations were found for family and friends' approval of gambling, parental monitoring, father's level of education, and having relatives or friends with a history of a gambling disorder. We discuss possible reasons for differences between the covariates with regard to their importance for explaining adolescent gambling and address implications for future research. PMID:24619792

Hanss, Daniel; Mentzoni, Rune A; Blaszczynski, Alex; Molde, Helge; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Pallesen, Ståle

2014-03-12

100

An improved radiochemical separation of uranium and thorium in environmental samples involving peroxide fusion.  

PubMed

A radiochemical procedure for the accurate determination of uranium and thorium using peroxide fusion followed by ion exchange and extraction chromatography is described. The method of extraction of the element from solid samples is the most important factor in the investigation. It is demonstrated, by measuring a number of reference materials, that fusion with Na(2)O(2) ensures a complete destruction of the mineral lattice and greatly improves the determination of the true activity of actinides. PMID:16831555

Galindo, C; Mougin, L; Nourreddine, A

2007-01-01

101

The role of grandparents in preventing aggressive and other externalizing behavior problems in children from rural, methamphetamine-involved families  

PubMed Central

Preventive interventions are urgently needed for children from rural, methamphetamine-involved families, who are at risk for the development of aggressive and other externalizing behavioral problems. This mixed method study explored naturally occurring sources of protection and considers the implications for targeted interventions. Participants were 41 children aged six to 14 years from rural families involved with methamphetamine and the public child welfare system, their primary caregivers, and 19 parents recovering from methamphetamine addiction. When invited during semi-structured interviews to talk about their families, 48% of children spontaneously described socially and emotionally supportive relationships with healthy grandparents. Children’s reports of support from grandparents were associated with lower scores on CBCL Social Problems, [t(37)= 2.23, p<.05 ]; externalizing behaviors, [t(37)= 2.07, p<.05]; and aggressive behaviors, [t(37)= 2.75, p<.01]. When asked to talk about their families, 58% of parents spontaneously described the support their children received from grandparents, and 26% also described the support that they had received from their own grandparents. Children’s and parents’ descriptions of grandparent support suggest how grandparents may protect children from the development of aggressive and other externalizing behavior problems. First, grandparents may prevent obstacles to healthy development by providing their grandchildren with safe shelter and basic child care when parents are incapacitated from substance misuse. Second, they may promote their grandchildren’s positive social-emotional development through supportive relationships. Third, they may promote social competence through enjoyable leisure activities with healthy adults and non-delinquent peers. Understanding naturally occurring sources of protection for children can inform the development of interventions by identifying strengths on which to build, and suggesting culturally sensitive approaches when children are struggling. PMID:21804680

Sheridan, Kathryn; Haight, Wendy L.; Cleeland, Leah

2011-01-01

102

Identifying indicators of harmful and problem gambling in a Canadian sample through receiver operating characteristic analysis.  

PubMed

Many gamblers would prefer to reduce gambling on their own rather than to adopt an abstinence approach within the context of a gambling treatment program. Yet responsible gambling guidelines lack quantifiable markers to guide gamblers in wagering safely. To address these issues, the current investigation implemented receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to identify behavioral indicators of harmful and problem gambling. Gambling involvement was assessed in 503 participants (275 psychiatric outpatients and 228 community gamblers) with the Canadian Problem Gambling Index. Overall gambling frequency, duration, and expenditure were able to distinguish harmful and problematic gambling at a moderate level. Indicators of harmful gambling were generated for engagement in specific gambling activities: frequency of tickets and casino; duration of bingo, casino, and investments; and expenditures on bingo, casino, sports betting, games of skill, and investments. Indicators of problem gambling were similarly produced for frequency of tickets and casino, and expenditures on bingo, casino, games of skill, and investments. Logistic regression analyses revealed that overall gambling frequency uniquely predicted the presence of harmful and problem gambling. Furthermore, frequency indicators for tickets and casino uniquely predicted the presence of both harmful and problem gambling. Together, these findings contribute to the development of an empirically based method enabling the minimization of harmful or problem gambling through self-control rather than abstinence. PMID:23647158

Quilty, Lena C; Avila Murati, Daniela; Bagby, R Michael

2014-03-01

103

Finite-element/progressive-lattice-sampling response surface methodology and application to benchmark probability quantification problems  

SciTech Connect

Optimal response surface construction is being investigated as part of Sandia discretionary (LDRD) research into Analytic Nondeterministic Methods. The goal is to achieve an adequate representation of system behavior over the relevant parameter space of a problem with a minimum of computational and user effort. This is important in global optimization and in estimation of system probabilistic response, which are both made more viable by replacing large complex computer models with fast-running accurate and noiseless approximations. A Finite Element/Lattice Sampling (FE/LS) methodology for constructing progressively refined finite element response surfaces that reuse previous generations of samples is described here. Similar finite element implementations can be extended to N-dimensional problems and/or random fields and applied to other types of structured sampling paradigms, such as classical experimental design and Gauss, Lobatto, and Patterson sampling. Here the FE/LS model is applied in a ``decoupled`` Monte Carlo analysis of two sets of probability quantification test problems. The analytic test problems, spanning a large range of probabilities and very demanding failure region geometries, constitute a good testbed for comparing the performance of various nondeterministic analysis methods. In results here, FE/LS decoupled Monte Carlo analysis required orders of magnitude less computer time than direct Monte Carlo analysis, with no appreciable loss of accuracy. Thus, when arriving at probabilities or distributions by Monte Carlo, it appears to be more efficient to expend computer-model function evaluations on building a FE/LS response surface than to expend them in direct Monte Carlo sampling.

Romero, V.J.; Bankston, S.D.

1998-03-01

104

Profiles of Systems Involvement in a Sample of High-Risk Urban Adolescents with Unmet Treatment Needs  

PubMed Central

This study examined profiles of involvement in four systems (education, child welfare, legal, and treatment) in a sample of 253 high-risk urban adolescents with unmet behavioral health needs. Self-report data were collected on multiple dimensions of involvement within each system, demographics, and DSM-IV diagnoses. Latent class analysis revealed four profiles: Education System: Academic and Disciplinary, Education System: Academic Only, Legal/Juvenile Justice Involved, and Multiple Systems/Child Welfare. Profiles differed based on gender and psychiatric diagnoses. Boys were overrepresented in Education System: Academic and Disciplinary and Legal/Juvenile Justice Involved, and girls were overrepresented in Multiple Systems/Child Welfare. The two education system focused classes were characterized by depressive disorders and ADHD. Youth in Legal/Juvenile Justice Involved and Multiple Systems/Child Welfare were characterized by conduct disorder and substance abuse. Implications for assessment and treatment planning for high-risk youth and for the organization of community-based behavioral health services are discussed. PMID:21927525

Dauber, Sarah; Hogue, Aaron

2011-01-01

105

An experience sampling study of PTSD and alcohol-related problems.  

PubMed

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) represents a debilitating psychiatric condition that is affecting the lives of many returning veterans. PTSD and alcohol use and dependence are highly comorbid. The purpose of this study was to understand the functional mechanisms between PTSD and alcohol use and problems. Specifically, the role of negative urgency and emotional intelligence were investigated as vulnerability and resiliency factors, respectively. This study utilized experience sampling to test associations between PTSD symptoms and alcohol use and related problems in a sample of 90 OIF/OEF veterans. Participants completed 8 brief questionnaires daily for 2 weeks on palmtop computers. Elevations in PTSD symptoms during the day were associated with subsequent increases in alcohol use and associated problems that night. PTSD symptoms were associated with greater problems above and beyond the effect of drinking level at both the within- and between- person level. Emotional intelligence was associated with lower negative urgency, fewer PTSD symptoms, and less alcohol use and associated problems. The effects of emotional intelligence were primarily indirect via negative urgency and the effects of negative urgency on alcohol use and problems were indirect via its positive association with PTSD symptoms. Hypothesized cross-level effects of emotional intelligence and negative urgency were not supported. The findings suggest a functional association between PTSD symptoms and alcohol consumption. The association between PTSD symptoms and alcohol consumption is consistent with a self-medication model. However, the significant associations between PTSD symptoms and alcohol problems, after controlling for use level, suggest a broader role of dysregulation. PMID:25134021

Gaher, Raluca M; Simons, Jeffrey S; Hahn, Austin M; Hofman, Nicole L; Hansen, Jamie; Buchkoski, Jerome

2014-12-01

106

Network variability across human tissue samples in vitro: the problem and a solution.  

PubMed

Slices prepared from cortical tissue that is surgically removed from patients to treat their epilepsy provide an opportunity to directly study the mechanisms underlying ictal activity. However, human in vitro studies have several limitations. One problem that may severely compromise investigations of network properties in these slices relates to how difficult it is to cut the tissue at angles that optimally preserve columnar connectivity. To address this problem, the authors investigated the degree of network variability in human tissue across samples and, within a single tissue sample, across slices cut at different angles using a novel form of optical imaging based on flavoprotein autofluorescence. The authors found a high degree of variability in the spatial extent, degree, and patterning of activation in slices from different samples. They also found variability across the slices cut from a single tissue sample at different angles. Indeed, these results suggest that human tissue samples have disparate degrees of network activity and that abnormal tissue may be confined to clusters of synchronously oscillating domains. Assessing circuit connectivity in a slice a priori will allow investigators to control for the overall degree of slice connectivity and selectively target active (or inactive) areas, making for better-informed comparisons of data. PMID:21076332

Theyel, Brian B; Kohrman, Michael H; Frim, David M; van Drongelen, Wim

2010-12-01

107

Adolescent criminal justice involvement and adulthood sexually transmitted infection in a nationally representative US sample.  

PubMed

Criminal justice involvement (CJI) disrupts social and sexual networks, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) thrive on network disruption. Adolescent CJI may be a particularly important determinant of STI because experiences during adolescence influence risk trajectories into adulthood. We used Wave III (2001-2002: young adulthood) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N?=?14,322) to estimate associations between history of adolescent (younger than 18 years) CJI and adult STI risk. Respondents who reported a history of repeat arrest in adolescence, adolescent conviction, and arrest both as an adolescent and an adult (persistent arrest) had between two to seven times the odds of STI (biologically confirmed infection with chlamydia, gonorrhea, or trichomoniasis) in adulthood and between two to three times the odds of multiple partnerships and inconsistent condom use in the past year in adulthood. In analyses adjusting for sociodemographic and behavioral factors, history of having six or more adolescent arrests was associated with more than five times the odds of STI (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 5.44, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.74-17.1). Both adolescent conviction and persistent CJI appeared to remain independent correlates of STI (conviction: AOR 1.90, 95 % CI 1.02-3.55; persistent CJI: AOR 1.60, 95 % CI 0.99-2.57). Adolescents who have repeat arrests, juvenile convictions, and persist as offenders into adulthood constitute priority populations for STI treatment and prevention. The disruptive effect of adolescent CJI may contribute to a trajectory associated with STI in adulthood. PMID:22815054

Khan, Maria R; Rosen, David L; Epperson, Matthew W; Goldweber, Asha; Hemberg, Jordana L; Richardson, Joseph; Dyer, Typhanye Penniman

2013-08-01

108

The role of parenting in the prediction of criminal involvement: Findings from a nationally representative sample of youth and a sample of adopted youth.  

PubMed

The role of parenting in the development of criminal behavior has been the source of a vast amount of research, with the majority of studies detecting statistically significant associations between dimensions of parenting and measures of criminal involvement. An emerging group of scholars, however, has drawn attention to the methodological limitations-mainly genetic confounding-of the parental socialization literature. The current study addressed this limitation by analyzing a sample of adoptees to assess the association between 8 parenting measures and 4 criminal justice outcome measures. The results revealed very little evidence of parental socialization effects on criminal behavior before controlling for genetic confounding and no evidence of parental socialization effects on criminal involvement after controlling for genetic confounding. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25602937

Beaver, Kevin M; Schwartz, Joseph A; Connolly, Eric J; Al-Ghamdi, Mohammed Said; Kobeisy, Ahmed Nezar

2015-03-01

109

Exploring the Connection Between Sampling Problems in Bayesian Inference and Statistical Mechanics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Bayesian and statistical mechanical communities often share the same objective in their work - estimating and integrating probability distribution functions (pdfs) describing stochastic systems, models or processes. Frequently, these pdfs are complex functions of random variables exhibiting multiple, well separated local minima. Conventional strategies for sampling such pdfs are inefficient, sometimes leading to an apparent non-ergodic behavior. Several recently developed techniques for handling this problem have been successfully applied in statistical mechanics. In the multicanonical and Wang-Landau Monte Carlo (MC) methods, the correct pdfs are recovered from uniform sampling of the parameter space by iteratively establishing proper weighting factors connecting these distributions. Trivial generalizations allow for sampling from any chosen pdf. The closely related transition matrix method relies on estimating transition probabilities between different states. All these methods proved to generate estimates of pdfs with high statistical accuracy. In another MC technique, parallel tempering, several random walks, each corresponding to a different value of a parameter (e.g. "temperature"), are generated and occasionally exchanged using the Metropolis criterion. This method can be considered as a statistically correct version of simulated annealing. An alternative approach is to represent the set of independent variables as a Hamiltonian system. Considerab!e progress has been made in understanding how to ensure that the system obeys the equipartition theorem or, equivalently, that coupling between the variables is correctly described. Then a host of techniques developed for dynamical systems can be used. Among them, probably the most powerful is the Adaptive Biasing Force method, in which thermodynamic integration and biased sampling are combined to yield very efficient estimates of pdfs. The third class of methods deals with transitions between states described by rate constants. These problems are isomorphic with chemical kinetics problems. Recently, several efficient techniques for this purpose have been developed based on the approach originally proposed by Gillespie. Although the utility of the techniques mentioned above for Bayesian problems has not been determined, further research along these lines is warranted

Pohorille, Andrew

2006-01-01

110

A Sequential Approximation Bound for Some Sample-Dependent Convex Optimization Problems with Applications in Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study a class of sample dependent convex optimization problems, and derive a general sequential approximation\\u000a bound for their solutions. This analysis is closely related to the regret bound framework in online learning. However we apply\\u000a it to batch learning algorithms instead of online stochastic gradient decent methods. Applications of this analysis in some\\u000a classification and regression

Tong Zhang

2001-01-01

111

Health problems of women employed in jobs involving psychological and ergonomic stressors: the case of garment workers in Québec.  

PubMed

Health problems of women whose jobs involved intense time pressure were evaluated in a study of 800 sewing-machine operators employed in Québec between 1976 and 1985. Information on workers' occupational characteristics were obtained from public records. Symptoms of anxiety and depression, use of medication and disability status were determined by interview. Garment workers had an increased prevalence of slight, moderate and severe disability and higher levels of symptoms of anxiety and depression when compared to workers in other occupations. Garment workers paid piecework rates took medication for stomach problems in greater proportion than workers paid an hourly wage. Furthermore, workers who spend 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and 20 or more years in piecework had an increased prevalence of severe disability compared to the baseline category 0-4 years, with adjusted risk ratios of 2.2 (95% CI = 1.14-4.6), 3.3 (95% CI = 1.5-6.9), 3.6 (95% CI = 1.5-8.4 and 2.3 (95% CI = 0.8-6.6) respectively, independent of age, smoking habits, education, type of task and total length of employment. These findings suggest that short-term, non-disabling conditions associated with time pressure by previous authors may have more important long-term sequelae then had been previously documented. PMID:1615690

Brisson, C; Vézina, M; Vinet, A

1992-01-01

112

Psychiatric symptoms and substance use disorders in a nationally representative sample of American adolescents involved with foster care  

PubMed Central

Objective To ascertain the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms and substance use disorders among adolescents with a lifetime history of foster care placement, using data from a nationally representative sample of US adolescents. Methods We studied adolescents aged 12–17 in the public use file of the 2000 National Household on Drug Abuse (N = 19,430, including 464 adolescents with history of foster care placement). Psychiatric symptoms and substance use disorders were ascertained through direct interviewing of adolescents. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the odds of past-year psychiatric symptoms and substance use disorders among adolescents involved with foster care, as compared to those without a lifetime history of foster care placement (comparison group) Results Adolescents involved with foster care had more past-year psychiatric symptoms, and especially more conduct symptoms, and past-year substance use disorders than those never placed in foster care. Adolescents involved with foster care were about four times more likely to have attempted suicide in the preceding 12 months (AOR, 3.95; 95% CI 2.78, 5.61), and about five times more likely to receive a drug dependence diagnosis in the same period (AOR, 4.81; 95% CI, 3.22, 7.18). Conclusions Adolescents involved with foster care have a higher prevalence of psychiatric symptoms and drug use disorders than those never placed in foster care. Additionally, the results of this study suggest that they may be at elevated risk for suicide attempts PMID:16549295

Pilowsky, Daniel J; Wu, Li-Tzy

2006-01-01

113

Prevalence of skin problems and leg ulceration in a sample of young injecting drug users  

PubMed Central

Background Drug users suffer harm from the injecting process, and clinical services are reporting increasing numbers presenting with skin-related problems such as abscesses and leg ulcers. Skin breakdown can lead to long-term health problems and increased service costs and is often the first indication of serious systemic ill health. The extent of skin problems in injecting drug users has not previously been quantified empirically, and there is a dearth of robust topical literature. Where skin problems have been reported, this is often without clear definition and generic terms such as ‘soft tissue infection’ are used which lack specificity. The aim of this study was to identify the range and extent of skin problems including leg ulceration in a sample of injecting drug users. Definitions of skin problems were developed and applied to descriptions from drug users to improve rigour. Methods Data were collected in needle exchanges and methadone clinics across Glasgow, Scotland, from both current and former drug injectors using face-to-face interviews. Results Two hundred participants were recruited, of which 74% (n?=?148) were males and 26% (n?=?52) were females. The age range was 21–44 years (mean 35 years). Just under two thirds (64%, n?=?127) were currently injecting or had injected within the last 6 months, and 36% (n?=?73) had previously injected and had not injected for more than 6 months. Sixty per cent (n?=?120) of the sample had experienced a skin problem, and the majority reported more than one problem. Most common were abscesses, lumps, track marks and leg ulcers. Fifteen per cent (n?=?30) of all participants reported having had a leg ulcer. Conclusions This is an original empirical study which demonstrated unique findings of a high prevalence of skin disease (60%) and surprisingly high rates of leg ulceration (15%). Skin disease in injecting drug users is clearly widespread. Leg ulceration in particular is a chronic recurring condition that is costly to treat and has long-term implications for drug users and services caring for current or former injectors long after illicit drug use has ceased. PMID:25119472

2014-01-01

114

Positive self-perceptions as a mediator of religious involvement and health behaviors in a national sample of African Americans  

PubMed Central

Self-esteem and self-efficacy are theorized to serve as mediators of the relationship between religious involvement and health outcomes. Studies confirming these relationships have produced mixed evidence. This study examined whether self-esteem and self-efficacy mediate the relationship between religious involvement (beliefs, behaviors) and a set of modifiable health behaviors in a national probability sample of African Americans. African Americans, in general, are relatively high in religious involvement and have higher than average rates of chronic disease. Participants were interviewed by telephone, and a Religion-Health Mediational Model was tested using structural equation modeling. Results suggest that self-esteem and self-efficacy at least in part mediate the relationship between religious beliefs (e.g., relationship with God) and greater fruit and vegetable consumption, and lower alcohol consumption. Religious behaviors (e.g., service attendance) were found to have direct, unmediated effects on health behaviors. Findings have implications for church-based health promotion in African American communities such as education or support groups. PMID:23143382

Holt, Cheryl L.; Roth, David L.; Clark, Eddie M.; Debnam, Katrina

2012-01-01

115

A sampling approach to estimate the log determinant used in spatial likelihood problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Likelihood-based methods for modeling multivariate Gaussian spatial data have desirable statistical characteristics, but the practicality of these methods for massive georeferenced data sets is often questioned. A sampling algorithm is proposed that exploits a relationship involving log-pivots arising from matrix decompositions used to compute the log determinant term that appears in the model likelihood. We demonstrate that the method can be used to successfully estimate log-determinants for large numbers of observations. Specifically, we produce an log-determinant estimate for a 3,954,400 by 3,954,400 matrix in less than two minutes on a desktop computer. The proposed method involves computations that are independent, making it amenable to out-of-core computation as well as to coarse-grained parallel or distributed processing. The proposed technique yields an estimated log-determinant and associated confidence interval.

Pace, R. Kelley; Lesage, James P.

2009-09-01

116

The duration of acute health problems in people involved with the cleanup operation of the Hebei Spirit oil spill.  

PubMed

The authors investigated the duration of health problems of people involved with cleanup efforts for the Hebei Spirit oil spill, which occurred in December 2007 in Taean County, South Korea. The study identified risk factors correlated with the continuation of symptoms. Approximately one year after the accident, 442 people who had participated in the cleanup operation were examined. Data regarding demographic information, risk factors, and the continuation and duration of any symptoms were obtained. Eye symptoms (9.7 months), headaches (8.4 months), skin symptoms (8.3 months), and neurovestibular symptoms (6.9 months) had a relatively longer duration than did back pain (1.8 months) or respiratory symptoms (2.1 months). In particular, the remission of headaches had a negative correlation with female gender (HR 0.57, 0.34-0.95, 95% CI), and remission of eye symptoms had a negative correlation with the total hours of daily participation in the cleanup operation (HR 0.24, 0.06-0.95, 95% CI). PMID:22491025

Na, Ji Ung; Sim, Min Seob; Jo, Ik Joon; Song, Hyoung Gon

2012-06-01

117

Examining the Criterion Validity of CBCL and TRF Problem Scales and Items in a Large Singapore Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the criterion validity of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Teacher's Report Form (TRF) problem scales and items in demographically-matched Singapore samples of referred and non-referred children (840 in each sample for the CBCL and 447 in each sample for the TRF). Internal consistency estimates for both the CBCL and TRF…

Ang, Rebecca P.; Rescorla, Leslie A.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Woo, Bernardine

2012-01-01

118

Acute health problems among subjects involved in the cleanup operation following the Prestige oil spill in Asturias and Cantabria (Spain).  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate exposure conditions and acute health effects in subjects participating in the Prestige oil spill cleanup activities and the association between these and the nature of the work and use of protection devices in the regions of Asturias and Cantabria (Spain). The sample comprised 400 subjects in each region, selected from a random sampling of all persons involved in cleanup activities, stratified by type of worker and number of working days. Data were obtained via a structured questionnaire and included information on specific tasks, number of working days, use of protective materials, and acute health effects. These effects were classified into two broad groups: injuries and toxic effects. Data analysis was performed using complex survey methods. Significant differences between groups were evaluated using Pearson's chi(2) test. Unconditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Bird cleaners accounted for the highest prevalence of injuries (19% presented with lesions). Working more than 20 days in highly polluted areas was associated with increased risk of injury in all workers. Occurrence of toxic effects was higher among seamen, possibly due to higher exposure to fuel oil and its components. Toxic effects were more frequent among those working longer than 20 days in highly polluted areas, performing three or more different cleaning activities, having skin contact with fuel oil on head/neck or upper limbs, and eating while in contact with fuel or perceiving disturbing odors. No severe disorders were identified among individuals who performed these tasks. However, potential health impact should be considered when organizing cleanup activities in similar environmental disasters. PMID:16307984

Suárez, B; Lope, V; Pérez-Gómez, B; Aragonés, N; Rodríguez-Artalejo, F; Marqués, F; Guzmán, A; Viloria, L J; Carrasco, J M; Martín-Moreno, J M; López-Abente, G; Pollán, M

2005-11-01

119

Multiparticle correlations in complex scattering and the mesoscopic Boson Sampling problem  

E-print Network

We consider the many-body scattering of non-interacting identical particles in mesoscopic chaotic cavities. A complete enumeration of all interfering paths allows us to discriminate single-particle effects from many-body interference due to quantum indistinguishability. In the thermodynamic limit of large particle number massive quantum interference results in a macroscopic, coherent manifestation of many-body correlations. We also incorporate mesoscopic dephasing, present even when the particles scatter simultaneously. Under further simplifications characteristic for optical scenarios, our methods can be used to address open issues related to the Boson Sampling problem.

Juan-Diego Urbina; Jack Kuipers; Quirin Hummel; Klaus Richter

2014-09-04

120

A HUPO test sample study reveals common problems in mass spectrometry-based proteomics  

PubMed Central

We carried out a test sample study to try to identify errors leading to irreproducibility, including incompleteness of peptide sampling, in LC-MS-based proteomics. We distributed a test sample consisting of an equimolar mix of 20 highly purified recombinant human proteins, to 27 laboratories for identification. Each protein contained one or more unique tryptic peptides of 1250 Da to also test for ion selection and sampling in the mass spectrometer. Of the 27 labs, initially only 7 labs reported all 20 proteins correctly, and only 1 lab reported all the tryptic peptides of 1250 Da. Nevertheless, a subsequent centralized analysis of the raw data revealed that all 20 proteins and most of the 1250 Da peptides had in fact been detected by all 27 labs. The centralized analysis allowed us to determine sources of problems encountered in the study, which include missed identifications (false negatives), environmental contamination, database matching, and curation of protein identifications. Improved search engines and databases are likely to increase the fidelity of mass spectrometry-based proteomics. PMID:19448641

Bell, Alexander W.; Deutsch, Eric W.; Au, Catherine E.; Kearney, Robert E.; Beavis, Ron; Sechi, Salvatore; Nilsson, Tommy; Bergeron, John J.M.

2009-01-01

121

Medical Problems in a Sample of Children with Intellectual Impairments in Jordan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Medical problems of 262 children attending special schools for persons having intellectual impairments in Jordan were examined. The most common problems were neurological problems (affecting 38.55%), followed by dental disease, orthopedic problems, vision and eye problems, hearing/ear problems, urinary diseases, and heart problems. (JDD)

Yousef, Jamal M. S.

1993-01-01

122

Psychopathological status, behavior problems, and family adjustment of Kuwaiti children whose fathers were involved in the first gulf war  

PubMed Central

Objectives Following the end of the Gulf War that resulted in the liberation of Kuwait, there are no reports on the impact of veterans' traumatic exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on their children. We compared the severity of anxiety, depression, deviant behavior and poor family adjustment among the children of a stratified random sample of four groups of Kuwaiti military men, viz: the retired; an active -in-the-army group (AIA) (involved in duties at the rear); an in-battle group (IB) (involved in combat); and a prisoners -of- war (POWs) group. Also, we assessed the association of father's PTSD/combat status and mother's characteristics with child psychosocial outcomes. Method Subjects were interviewed at home, 6 years after the war, using: the Child Behavior Index to assess anxiety, depression, and adaptive behavior; Rutter Scale A2 for deviant behavior; and Family Adjustment Device for adjustment at home. Both parents were assessed for PTSD. Results The 489 offspring (250 m, 239 f; mean age 13.8 yrs) belonged to 166 father-mother pairs. Children of POWs tended to have higher anxiety, depression, and abnormal behavior scores. Those whose fathers had PTSD had significantly higher depression scores. However, children of fathers with both PTSD and POW status (N = 43) did not have significantly different outcome scores than the other father PTSD/combat status groups. Mother's PTSD, anxiety, depression and social status were significantly associated with all the child outcome variables. Parental age, child's age and child's level of education were significant covariates. Although children with both parents having PTSD had significantly higher anxiety/depression scores, the mother's anxiety was the most frequent and important predictor of child outcome variables. The frequency of abnormal test scores was: 14% for anxiety/depression, and 17% for deviant behavior. Conclusion Our findings support the impression that child emotional experiences in vulnerable family situations transcend culture and are associated with the particular behavior of significant adults in the child's life. The primacy of the mother's influence has implications for interventions to improve the psychological functioning of children in such families. Mental health education for these families has the potential to help those in difficulty. PMID:18510770

Al-Turkait, Fawziyah A; Ohaeri, Jude U

2008-01-01

123

Analysing Cognitive or Non-Cognitive Factors Involved in the Process of Physics Problem-Solving in an Everyday Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, the importance of an everyday context in physics learning, teaching, and problem-solving has been emphasized. However, do students or physics educators really want to learn or teach physics problem-solving in an everyday context? Are there not any obstructive factors to be considered in solving the everyday context physics problems? To…

Park, Jongwon; Lee, Limook

2004-01-01

124

Trans-dimensional Monte Carlo sampling applied to the magnetotelluric inverse problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The data required to build geological models of the subsurface are often unavailable from direct measurements or well logs. In order to image the subsurface geological structures several geophysical methods have been developed. The magnetotelluric (MT) method uses natural, time-varying electromagnetic (EM) fields as its source to measure the EM impedance of the subsurface. The interpretation of these data is routinely undertaken by solving inverse problems to produce 1D, 2D or 3D electrical conductivity models of the subsurface. In classical MT inverse problems the investigated models are parametrized using a fixed number of unknowns (i.e. fixed number of layers in a 1D model, or a fixed number of cells in a 2D model), and the non-uniqueness of the solution is handled by a regularization term added to the objective function. This study presents a different approach to the 1D MT inverse problem, by using a trans-dimensional Monte Carlo sampling algorithm, where trans-dimensionality implies that the number of unknown parameters is a parameter itself. This construction has been shown to have a built-in Occam razor, so that the regularization term is not required to produce a simple model. The influences of subjective choices in the interpretation process can therefore be sensibly reduced. The inverse problem is solved within a Bayesian framework, where posterior probability distribution of the investigated parameters are sought, rather than a single best-fit model, and uncertainties on the model parameters, and their correlation, can be easily measured.

Mandolesi, Eric; Piana Agostinetti, Nicola

2015-01-01

125

The Comparative Impacts of Risk and Protective Factors on Alcohol-Related Problems in a Sample of University Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the comparative influences of various protective and risk factors on the alcohol-related problems of a sample of university students. The conceptualization of these protective and risk factors in the current undertaking was informed by problem behavior theory, and draws heavily on two sociological theories of deviant behavior (social learning theory and social

Keith F. Durkin; Amber Blackston; Sabrina Dowd; Shalleigh Franz; Trevor Eagle

2009-01-01

126

Information Processing Profiles of Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior Problems: Evidence from a Population-Based Sample of Preadolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The present study explores the relationships between several information processing capacities and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in a general population sample of 10- to 12-year olds (N = 2,037 51% girls). Methods: Parent-reported behavior problems as assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist were used to form four…

Brunnekreef, J. Agnes; De Sonneville, Leo M. J.; Althaus, Monika; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

2007-01-01

127

Eating Problems and Their Risk Factors: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study of a Population Sample of Norwegian Adolescent Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The longitudinal stability of eating problems and their relationships to risk factors were investigated in a representative population sample of 623 Norwegian girls aged 13-14 followed over 7 years (3 time points). Three eating problem symptoms were measured: Restriction, Bulimia-food preoccupation, and Diet, all taken from the 12-item Eating…

Kansi, Juliska; Wichstrom, Lars; Bergman, Lars R.

2005-01-01

128

Substance use behaviors, mental health problems, and use of mental health services in a probability sample of college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined 1) the prevalence of substance use behaviors in college students, 2) gender and academic level as moderators of the associations between mental health problems and substance use, and 3) mental health service use among those with co-occurring frequent binge drinking and mental health problems. As part of the Healthy Minds Study, a probability sample of 2843 college

James A. Cranford; Daniel Eisenberg; Alisha M. Serras

2009-01-01

129

Examining the symptom-level specificity of negative problem orientation in a clinical sample.  

PubMed

Given the equivocal state of the literature as to the symptom-level specificity of the cognitive variable labeled negative problem orientation (NPO), we targeted NPO-symptom relations. A clinical sample (N = 132) of adults diagnosed with an anxiety disorder, mood disorder, or obsessive-compulsive disorder completed self-reports of NPO and symptom types (worry, depression, obsessive-compulsive, panic, and social anxiety). Symptom-level specificity was examined using a combination of zero-order and regression analyses that controlled for the other assessed symptoms. Results were that NPO shared small to moderate correlations with the symptoms. Regression results indicated that NPO only shared unique associations with worry, depression, and social anxiety. In the analyses, NPO clustered particularly strongly with worry. The present results provide support for conceptualizing NPO as a cognitive variable common to emotional disorders, but not as related equivalently to all disorders within this category. PMID:25491568

Fergus, Thomas A; Valentiner, David P; Wu, Kevin D; McGrath, Patrick B

2015-03-01

130

Sampling riverine sediments impacted by acid mine drainage: problems and solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sampling acid mine drainage (AMD) or natural acid rock drainage (ARD)-impacted sediments is complex, requiring appropriate\\u000a field sampling techniques to ensure representative samples that are both repeatable and reproducible. The important factors\\u000a affecting sampling of riverine sediments are examined. These include sample site location, field observations, representative\\u000a sampling, sample collection techniques, and sample preservation. A recommended sampling and processing protocol

C. Herr; N. F. Gray

1997-01-01

131

The Effects of the Family-Involved SDLMI on Academic Engagement and Goal Attainment of Middle School Students with Disabilities Who Exhibit Problem Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the Family-Involved Self-Determination Learning Model of Instruction (SDLMI) on academic engagement and goal attainment of middle school students with disabilities who exhibit problem behavior. Intervention was provided to the experimental group (12 students with their families and special…

Kim, Nam Hee; Park, Jiyeon

2012-01-01

132

Levels and types of alcohol biomarkers in DUI and clinic samples for estimating workplace alcohol problems.  

PubMed

Widespread concern about illicit drugs as an aspect of workplace performance potentially diminishes attention on employee alcohol use. Alcohol is the dominant drug contributing to poor job performance; it also accounts for a third of the worldwide public health burden. Evidence from public roadways--a workplace for many--provides an example of work-related risk exposure and performance lapses. In most developed countries, alcohol is involved in 20-35% of fatal crashes; drugs other than alcohol are less prominently involved in fatalities. Alcohol biomarkers can improve detection by extending the timeframe for estimating problematic exposure levels and thereby provide better information for managers. But what levels and which markers are right for the workplace? In this paper, an established high-sensitivity proxy for alcohol-driving risk proclivity is used: an average eight months of failed blood alcohol concentration (BAC) breath tests from alcohol ignition interlock devices. Higher BAC test fail rates are known to presage higher rates of future impaired-driving convictions (driving under the influence; DUI). Drivers in alcohol interlock programmes log 5-7 daily BAC tests; in 12 months, this yields thousands of samples. Also, higher programme entry levels of alcohol biomarkers predict a higher likelihood of failed interlock BAC tests during subsequent months. This paper summarizes the potential of selected biomarkers for workplace screening. Markers include phosphatidylethanol (PEth), percent carbohydrate deficient transferrin (%CDT), gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT), gamma %CDT (?%CDT), and ethylglucuronide (EtG) in hair. Clinical cut-off levels and median/mean levels of these markers in abstinent people, the general population, DUI drivers, and rehabilitation clinics are summarized for context. PMID:22311827

Marques, Paul R

2012-02-01

133

Looking back into one magazine's online presence raises questions about the problems involved with creating web archives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Survey Finds That Libraries Are Interested in Collaborating on Online Projects, but Don't Do It Yethttp://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2012/07/survey-finds-that-libraries-are-interested-in-collaborating-on-online-projects-but-dont-do-it-yet/259486/Neatline helps Map New World of Digital Humanities Scholarshiphttp://www.virginia.edu/uvatoday/newsRelease.php?id=19012Neatlinehttp://neatline.org/Internet Archivehttp://archive.org/index.phpInternet Memory Foundationhttp://internetmemory.org/en/Many people might wonder: "Who is keeping track of old webpages?" It is a question that fascinates many information science specialists, policy types, and those with a penchant for the history of technology. Recently the "Babbage" column in The Economist took a look around to explore the history of that august publication's own webpages. As it turns out, their first website went live in early 1994, and it cost a mere $120. The piece goes on to note that no screen shots actually exist of the world's first web page, which went online on August 6, 1991. Of course, there are many worthy projects that serve to document the early days of the Internet, such as the well-known and rather fun Wayback Machine. It was founded by Brewster Kahle, and it allows users to view the library's archived webpages as they appeared when first published online. On a related note, a recent post on The Atlantic's homepage remarked that while 96% of all libraries surveyed by the Library of Congress wanted to be involved in various web archiving projects, only 23% were actually doing it. Many organizations have some type of archiving project for formal documents, but they lag behind when it comes to archiving social media activities, such as Twitter or Facebook posts. The first link will take visitors to the very fine piece from The Economist which peers into that magazine's early online presence. The second link leads to the aforementioned piece by Robinson Meyer from The Atlantic which reports on collaborations between libraries. Moving on, the third link leads to a story from the University of Virginia about the new Neatline project, which allows interested parties to "merge maps, timelines, archives, and artifacts to create online narratives" for free. The fourth link will take users to the homepage of Neatline. Here they can view sample projects and download the software for their own use. The fifth link will whisk visitors to the homepage of the most remarkable Internet Archive, which contains digitized medieval manuscripts, Grateful Dead shows, and curious industrial films. The final link leads to the homepage of the Internet Memory Foundation, which "actively supports the preservation of the Internet as a new media for heritage and cultural purpose."

Grinnell, Max

2012-07-13

134

SIPPI: A Matlab toolbox for sampling the solution to inverse problems with complex prior information. Part 1—Methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From a probabilistic point-of-view, the solution to an inverse problem can be seen as a combination of independent states of information quantified by probability density functions. Typically, these states of information are provided by a set of observed data and some a priori information on the solution. The combined states of information (i.e. the solution to the inverse problem) is a probability density function typically referred to as the a posteriori probability density function. We present a generic toolbox for Matlab and Gnu Octave called SIPPI that implements a number of methods for solving such probabilistically formulated inverse problems by sampling the a posteriori probability density function. In order to describe the a priori probability density function, we consider both simple Gaussian models and more complex (and realistic) a priori models based on higher order statistics. These a priori models can be used with both linear and non-linear inverse problems. For linear inverse Gaussian problems we make use of least-squares and kriging-based methods to describe the a posteriori probability density function directly. For general non-linear (i.e. non-Gaussian) inverse problems, we make use of the extended Metropolis algorithm to sample the a posteriori probability density function. Together with the extended Metropolis algorithm, we use sequential Gibbs sampling that allow computationally efficient sampling of complex a priori models. The toolbox can be applied to any inverse problem as long as a way of solving the forward problem is provided. Here we demonstrate the methods and algorithms available in SIPPI. An application of SIPPI, to a tomographic cross borehole inverse problems, is presented in a second part of this paper.

Mejer Hansen, Thomas; Skou Cordua, Knud; Caroline Looms, Majken; Mosegaard, Klaus

2013-03-01

135

Risk factors for mental health problems in school-age children from a community sample.  

PubMed

The epidemiological dimension of mental health problems in childhood and its impact warrant new studies. Knowledge about the predictors of mental health in children is scant in developing countries. The present study estimated the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Brazilian school-age children based on a community sample from primary health care services, with the aim of verifying the predictive value of biological, social, and familial risk factors in children's mental health. The study was performed with 120 children of both genders identified through their mothers. The children's mental health was evaluated by sociodemographic factors and a diagnostic interview conducted with parents. Biological, social, and familial risk factors were evaluated by the Supplemental Questionnaire and Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition. Of the 120 children, 45.8 % were diagnosed with at least one mental health disorder. Children with diagnoses of depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder presented evidence of greater exposure to risk factors compared with children without these psychiatric diagnoses. Children with more risk factors throughout their lifetime had greater comorbidities compared with children with a lower number of risk factors. The identification of groups exposed to interconnected risk factors represents a priority when planning mental health practices. The strong role of chronic familial risk factors needs to be emphasized because they are a possible target for the prevention of depressive and anxiety disorders. PMID:23212399

Mendes, Ana Vilela; Souza Crippa, José Alexandre de; Souza, Roberto Molina; Loureiro, Sonia Regina

2013-12-01

136

Longitudinal Associations of Alcohol Involvement with Subjective Well-Being in Adolescence and Prediction to Alcohol Problems in Early Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescent alcohol involvement is associated with numerous negative outcomes, but also appears to have positive correlates, including subjective well-being. Additional research is needed to understand these paradoxical findings. The current study examines alcohol use, adverse alcohol-related (and other substance-related) consequences, and…

Mason, W. Alex; Spoth, Richard L.

2011-01-01

137

Agreement between parents and teachers on preschool children's behavior in a clinical sample with externalizing behavioral problems.  

PubMed

An accurate interpretation of information obtained from multiple assessors is indispensible when complex diagnoses of behavioral problems in children need to be confirmed. The present study examined the similarity of parents and kindergarten teachers ratings on children's behavior in a sample of 160 preschool children (a clinical group including 80 children with externalizing behavioral problems and a matched control group including 80 children). Behavioral problems were assessed using the SDQ, and the DISYPS-II questionnaires for ADHD and conduct disorders. The results revealed low levels of parent-teacher agreement for their ratings on the children's behavior in both groups with the highest correlations in the non-clinical sample. Parent-teacher agreement did not differ significantly across the samples. Parent and teacher ratings correlated with the prevalence of externalizing disorders and were found to be almost independent of each other. The results highlight the importance of multiple informants and their independent influence within the diagnostic process. PMID:24363143

Korsch, Franziska; Petermann, Franz

2014-10-01

138

Development of a branch and price approach involving vertex cloning to solve the maximum weighted independent set problem  

E-print Network

We propose a novel branch-and-price (B&P) approach to solve the maximum weighted independent set problem (MWISP). Our approach uses clones of vertices to create edge-disjoint partitions from vertex-disjoint partitions. We solve the MWISP on sub...

Sachdeva, Sandeep

2006-04-12

139

Eating Problems and Their Risk Factors: A 7Year Longitudinal Study of a Population Sample of Norwegian Adolescent Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The longitudinal stability of eating problems and their relationships to risk factors were investigated in a representative\\u000a population sample of 623 Norwegian girls aged 13–14 followed over 7 years (3 time points). Three eating problem symptoms were\\u000a measured: Restriction, Bulimia-food preoccupation, and Diet, all taken from the12-item Eating Attitudes Test. The aim of the\\u000a study was to investigate the stability

Juliska Kansi; Lars Wichstrøm; Lars R. Bergman

2005-01-01

140

Eating Problems and the Self-Concept: Results Based on a Representative Sample of Norwegian Adolescent Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The joint role of self-esteem and unstable self-perceptions for eating problems was investigated in a representative Norwegian population sample of girls in 3 age groups (N = 5287; aged 12–19 years). Three scales from the 12-item Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-12) measured eating problems: Restriction, Bulimia-food preoccupation, and Diet. Girls low on all EAT scales were most often characterized by high

Juliska Kansi; Lars Wichstrøm; Lars R. Bergman

2003-01-01

141

Self-report measures of child and adolescent psychopathy as predictors of offending in four samples of justice-involved youth.  

PubMed

The authors examined the relation between self-report psychopathy measures and official records of offending in four samples of justice-involved youth (total N = 447). Psychopathy measures included the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) and a modified version of the Childhood Psychopathy Scale (mCPS). Measures of offending included the total number of preadmission arrest charges for three samples (n = 392) and the total number of offenses in the year following release for two samples (n = 138). Neither measure was a strong correlate of preadmission offenses. Although mCPS scores were associated with postrelease offending in one sample, effects for the APSD were observed only when reoffending was conceptualized as a dichotomous variable, indicating a lack of robustness in this association. The findings suggest caution in the use of self-report measures of psychopathic features for decision making with respect to issues of delinquency risk among justice-involved youth. PMID:17986654

Boccaccini, Marcus T; Epstein, Monica; Poythress, Norman; Douglas, Kevin S; Campbell, Justin; Gardner, Gail; Falkenbach, Diana

2007-12-01

142

A separation theorem for the stochastic sampled-data LQG problem. [control of continuous linear plant disturbed by white noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper considers the control of a continuous linear plant disturbed by white plant noise when the control is constrained to be a piecewise constant function of time; i.e. a stochastic sampled-data system. The cost function is the integral of quadratic error terms in the state and control, thus penalizing errors at every instant of time while the plant noise disturbs the system continuously. The problem is solved by reducing the constrained continuous problem to an unconstrained discrete one. It is shown that the separation principle for estimation and control still holds for this problem when the plant disturbance and measurement noise are Gaussian.

Halyo, N.; Caglayan, A. K.

1976-01-01

143

Self-Report Measures of Child and Adolescent Psychopathy as Predictors of Offending in Four Samples of Justice-Involved Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined the relation between self-report psychopathy measures and o ficial records of o fending in four samples of justice-involved youth (total N = 447). Psychopathy measures included the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) and a modified version of the Childhood Psychopathy Scale (mCPS). Measures of o fending included the total number of preadmission arrest charges for three samples

Marcus T. Boccaccini; Monica Epstein; Norman Poythress; Kevin S. Douglas; Justin Campbell; Gail Gardner; Diana Falkenbach

2007-01-01

144

Sampling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial covers some of the key terms in sampling like "population" and "sampling frame," some of the statistical terms used in sampling, and the major distinction between probability and Nonprobability sampling methods.

William Trochim (Cornell University)

2006-10-20

145

A HUPO test sample study reveals common problems in mass spectrometry–based proteomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed a test sample study to try to identify errors leading to irreproducibility, including incompleteness of peptide sampling, in liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry–based proteomics. We distributed an equimolar test sample, comprising 20 highly purified recombinant human proteins, to 27 laboratories. Each protein contained one or more unique tryptic peptides of 1,250 Da to test for ion selection and sampling in

Alexander W Bell; Eric W Deutsch; Catherine E Au; Robert E Kearney; Ron Beavis; Salvatore Sechi; Tommy Nilsson; Thomas A Beardslee; Thomas Chappell; Gavin Meredith; Peter Sheffield; Phillip Gray; Mahbod Hajivandi; Marshall Pope; Paul Predki; Majlinda Kullolli; Marina Hincapie; William S Hancock; Wei Jia; Lina Song; Lei Li; Junying Wei; Bing Yang; Jinglan Wang; Wantao Ying; Yangjun Zhang; Yun Cai; Xiaohong Qian; Fuchu He; Helmut E Meyer; Christian Stephan; Martin Eisenacher; Katrin Marcus; Elmar Langenfeld; Caroline May; Steven A Carr; Rushdy Ahmad; Wenhong Zhu; Jeffrey W Smith; Samir M Hanash; Jason J Struthers; Hong Wang; Qing Zhang; Yanming An; Radoslav Goldman; Elisabet Carlsohn; Sjoerd van der Post; Kenneth E Hung; David A Sarracino; Kenneth Parker; Bryan Krastins; Raju Kucherlapati; Sylvie Bourassa; Guy G Poirier; Eugene Kapp; Heather Patsiouras; Robert Moritz; Richard Simpson; Benoit Houle; Sylvie LaBoissiere; Pavel Metalnikov; Vivian Nguyen; Tony Pawson; Catherine C L Wong; Daniel Cociorva; John R Yates III; Michael J Ellison; Ana Lopez-Campistrous; Paul Semchuk; Yueju Wang; Peipei Ping; Giuliano Elia; Michael J Dunn; Kieran Wynne; Angela K Walker; John R Strahler; Philip C Andrews; Brian L Hood; William L Bigbee; Thomas P Conrads; Derek Smith; Christoph H Borchers; Gilles A Lajoie; Sean C Bendall; Kaye D Speicher; David W Speicher; Masanori Fujimoto; Kazuyuki Nakamura; Young-Ki Paik; Sang Yun Cho; Min-Seok Kwon; Hyoung-Joo Lee; Seul-Ki Jeong; An Sung Chung; Christine A Miller; Rudolf Grimm; Katy Williams; Craig Dorschel; Jayson A Falkner; Lennart Martens; Juan Antonio Vizcaíno; John J M Bergeron

2009-01-01

146

The Relation Between Childhood Adverse Experiences and Disability Due to Mental Health Problems in a Community Sample of Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the association between selected childhood adverse experiences and disability due to mental health problems in a community sample of women. Variables of interest included childhood physical and sexual abuse, parental psychiatric and substance abuse history, and sociodemographic factors. Method: Girls and women (aged 15 to 64 years) from a province-wide community

Lil Tonmyr; Ellen Jamieson; Leslie S Mery; Harriet L MacMillan

2005-01-01

147

Adolescent Psychological Health Problems and Delinquency among Volatile Substance Users in a School Sample in South London  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study assessed prevalence of volatile substance abuse (VSA), and its link to other forms of psychoactive substance use and to other problem behaviours among 14-15 year olds recruited from sixteen secondary schools in south-west London. Lifetime use of volatile substances was reported by 126 young people (6% of the sample) whose mean age of…

Best, David; Manning, Victoria; Gossop, Michael; Witton, John; Floyd, Karen; Rawaf, Salman; Strang, John

2004-01-01

148

Self-Report Measures of Child and Adolescent Psychopathy as Predictors of Offending in Four Samples of Justice-Involved Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the relation between self-report psychopathy measures and official records of offending in four samples of justice-involved youth (total N = 447). Psychopathy measures included the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) and a modified version of the Childhood Psychopathy Scale (mCPS). Measures of offending included the…

Boccaccini, Marcus T.; Epstein, Monica; Poythress, Norman; Douglas, Kevin S.; Campbell, Justin; Gardner, Gail; Falkenbach, Diana

2007-01-01

149

Infinitely many solutions for a differential inclusion problem in {{R}^N} involving p( x)-Laplacian and oscillatory terms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we consider the differential inclusion in {{R}^N} involving the p( x)-Laplacian of the type {begin{array}{lll}-triangle_{p(x)} u+V(x)|u|^{p(x)-2}uin partial F(x,u(x)),in{R}^N,quadquadquadquadquadquad (P)} where {p: {R}^N to {{R}}} is Lipschitz continuous function satisfying some given assumptions. The approach used in this paper is the variational method for locally Lipschitz functions. Under suitable oscillatory assumptions on the potential F at zero or at infinity, we show the existence of infinitely many solutions of (P). We also establish a Bartsch-Wang type compact embedding theorem for variable exponent spaces.

Ge, Bin; Zhou, Qing-Mei; Xue, Xiao-Ping

2012-08-01

150

Etiologies of Associations between Childhood Sleep and Behavioral Problems in a Large Twin Sample.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the etiologies of covariation of childhood sleep problems and other behavioral/emotional problems in young children. Method: The parents of more than 6,000 twin pairs provided information on their twins' anxiety, conduct, and hyperactivity at ages 3, 4, and 7 by completing the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire.…

Gregory, Alice M.; Eley, Thalia C.; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Plomin, Robert

2004-01-01

151

An Investigation of Eighth Grade Students' Problem Posing Skills (Turkey Sample)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To pose a problem refers to the creative activity for mathematics education. The purpose of the study was to explore the eighth grade students' problem posing ability. Three learning domains such as requiring four operations, fractions and geometry were chosen for this reason. There were two classes which were coded as class A and class B.…

Arikan, Elif Esra; Ünal, Hasan

2015-01-01

152

Development of a polydimethylsiloxane-thymol/nitroprusside composite based sensor involving thymol derivatization for ammonium monitoring in water samples.  

PubMed

This report describes a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-thymol/nitroprusside delivery composite sensor for direct monitoring of ammonium in environmental water samples. The sensor is based on a PDMS support that contains the Berthelot's reaction reagents. To prepare the PDMS-thymol/nitroprusside composite discs, thymol and nitroprusside have been encapsulated in the PDMS matrix, forming a reagent release support which significantly simplifies the analytical measurements, since it avoids the need to prepare derivatizing reagents and sample handling is reduced to the sampling step. When, the PDMS-thymol/nitroprusside composite was introduced in water samples spontaneous release of the chromophore and catalyst was produced, and the derivatization reaction took place to form the indothymol blue. Thus, qualitative analysis of NH4(+) could be carried out by visual inspection, but also, it can be quantified by measuring the absorbance at 690 nm. These portable devices provided good sensitivity (LOD<0.4 mg L(-1)) and reproducibility (RSD <10%) for the rapid detection of ammonium. The PDMS-NH4(+) sensor has been successfully applied to determine ammonium in water samples and in the aqueous extracts of particulate matter PM10 samples. Moreover, the reliability of the method for qualitative analysis has been demonstrated. Finally, the advantages of the PDMS-NH4(+) sensor have been examined by comparing some analytical and complementary characteristics with the properties of well-established ammonium determination methods. PMID:25113949

Prieto-Blanco, M C; Jornet-Martínez, N; Moliner-Martínez, Y; Molins-Legua, C; Herráez-Hernández, R; Verdú Andrés, J; Campins-Falcó, P

2015-01-15

153

Target problem (mis) matching: Predictors and consequences of parent-youth agreement in a sample of anxious youth.  

PubMed

Parents and youth often report discrepant target problems upon seeking treatment for youth psychopathology, which can have important impact on therapy processes (e.g., dropout) and treatment outcomes, as entry-level attitudes have been found to be influential in ultimate use and benefit of treatment. The current study examined parent-youth agreement within an anxiety disordered sample by assessing demographic and diagnostic factors that may predict matching, as well as the impact of matching on attrition, treatment outcome, and parental satisfaction. Ninety-five youth with principal anxiety disorders received cognitive-behavioral treatment for anxiety at a university outpatient clinic. Youth and parents independently identified target problems during the pretreatment assessment. Target problems were coded into 25 qualitative categories representing diagnostic, symptom, and functional impairment domains, including diffuse anxiety, social anxiety, academic achievement, oppositional/behavior problems, sleep problems, suicidal ideation, and family functioning. The majority of parent-youth dyads (67.4%) agreed on at least one target problem. Although problems related to diffuse anxiety and social anxiety were reported most frequently, relatively low rates of agreement were found in these domains. Kappa values demonstrated higher levels of agreement for problems with specific fears, school attendance, and panic and lower levels of agreement for difficulties with worry, shame, and self-esteem. Further, youth diagnosed with comorbid externalizing disorders were less likely to agree with their parents on at least one target problem. No effects were found for gender, age, or number of diagnoses in predicting agreement. Target problem agreement did not significantly impact rates of attrition or diagnostic remission, but did predict some measures of parental satisfaction. Results suggest that disagreement on treatment goals exists even within a narrow treatment population and may predict important consumer variables such as satisfaction. Findings emphasize that initial goals disagreement warrants careful assessment and monitoring. PMID:25638516

Hoffman, Lauren J; Chu, Brian C

2015-04-01

154

Application of the Tripartite Model to a Complicated Sample of Residential Youth with Externalizing Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The tripartite model of anxiety and depression has received strong support among child and adolescent populations. Clinical samples of children and adolescents in these studies, however, have usually been referred for treatment of anxiety and depression. This study investigated the fit of the tripartite model with a complicated sample of…

Chin, Eu Gene; Ebesutani, Chad; Young, John

2013-01-01

155

SEQUENTIAL ESTIMATION OF THE RATIO OF SCALE PARAMETERS IN THE EXPONENTIAL TWO-SAMPLE PROBLEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a sequential point estimation of the ratio of two exponential scale parameters. For a fully sequential sampling scheme, second order approximations are obtained to the expected sample size and the risk of the sequential procedure. We also propose a bias-corrected procedure to reduce the risk.

Chikara Uno

2003-01-01

156

On solving the face recognition problem with one training sample per subject  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lack of adequate training samples and the considerable variations observed in the available image collections due to aging, illumination and pose variations are the two key technical barriers that appearance-based face recognition solutions have to overcome. It is a well- documented fact that their performance deteriorates rapidly when the number of training samples is smaller than the dimensionality of

Jie Wang; Kostas N. Plataniotis; Juwei Lu; Anastasios N. Venetsanopoulos

2006-01-01

157

A sample path approach for solving the ground-holding policy problem in air traffic control  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the ground-holding problem in air traffic control and propose two techniques that can be used to dynamically solve this problem. The first is motivated by the kanban control policy extensively used in manufacturing systems to reduce the work-in-process inventory, while the second one uses finite perturbation analysis (FPA) for discrete-event systems. We show that the latter leads to

Christos G. Panayiotou; Christos G. Cassandras

1999-01-01

158

PeptideManager: a peptide selection tool for targeted proteomic studies involving mixed samples from different species  

PubMed Central

The search for clinically useful protein biomarkers using advanced mass spectrometry approaches represents a major focus in cancer research. However, the direct analysis of human samples may be challenging due to limited availability, the absence of appropriate control samples, or the large background variability observed in patient material. As an alternative approach, human tumors orthotopically implanted into a different species (xenografts) are clinically relevant models that have proven their utility in pre-clinical research. Patient derived xenografts for glioblastoma have been extensively characterized in our laboratory and have been shown to retain the characteristics of the parental tumor at the phenotypic and genetic level. Such models were also found to adequately mimic the behavior and treatment response of human tumors. The reproducibility of such xenograft models, the possibility to identify their host background and perform tumor-host interaction studies, are major advantages over the direct analysis of human samples. At the proteome level, the analysis of xenograft samples is challenged by the presence of proteins from two different species which, depending on tumor size, type or location, often appear at variable ratios. Any proteomics approach aimed at quantifying proteins within such samples must consider the identification of species specific peptides in order to avoid biases introduced by the host proteome. Here, we present an in-house methodology and tool developed to select peptides used as surrogates for protein candidates from a defined proteome (e.g., human) in a host proteome background (e.g., mouse, rat) suited for a mass spectrometry analysis. The tools presented here are applicable to any species specific proteome, provided a protein database is available. By linking the information from both proteomes, PeptideManager significantly facilitates and expedites the selection of peptides used as surrogates to analyze proteins of interest. PMID:25228907

Demeure, Kevin; Duriez, Elodie; Domon, Bruno; Niclou, Simone P.

2014-01-01

159

Aggressive Behavior Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Prevalence and Correlates in a Large Clinical Sample.  

PubMed

Aggressive behavior problems (ABP) are frequent yet poorly understood in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and are likely to co-vary significantly with comorbid problems. We examined the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of ABP in a clinical sample of children with ASD (N = 400; 2-16.9 years). We also investigated whether children with ABP experience more intensive medical interventions, greater impairments in behavioral functioning, and more severe comorbid problems than children with ASD who do not have ABP. One in four children with ASD had Child Behavior Checklist scores on the Aggressive Behavior scale in the clinical range (T-scores ? 70). Sociodemographic factors (age, gender, parent education, race, ethnicity) were unrelated to ABP status. The presence of ABP was significantly associated with increased use of psychotropic drugs and melatonin, lower cognitive functioning, lower ASD severity, and greater comorbid sleep, internalizing, and attention problems. In multivariate models, sleep, internalizing, and attention problems were most strongly associated with ABP. These comorbid problems may hold promise as targets for treatment to decrease aggressive behavior and proactively identify high-risk profiles for prevention. PMID:25221619

Hill, Alison Presmanes; Zuckerman, Katharine E; Hagen, Arlene D; Kriz, Daniel J; Duvall, Susanne W; van Santen, Jan; Nigg, Joel; Fair, Damien; Fombonne, Eric

2014-09-01

160

Interrelationships between LGBT-based victimization, suicide, and substance use problems in a diverse sample of sexual and gender minorities.  

PubMed

Research has documented significant relationships between sexual and gender minority stress and higher rates of suicidality (i.e. suicidal ideation and attempts) and substance use problems. We examined the potential mediating role of substance use problems on the relationship between sexual and gender minority stress (i.e. victimization based on lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender identity [LGBT]) and suicidality. A nonprobability sample of LGBT patients from a community health center (N = 1457) ranged in age from 19-70 years. Participants reported history of lifetime suicidal ideation and attempts, substance use problems, as well as experiences of LGBT-based verbal and physical attacks. Substance use problems were a significant partial mediator between LGBT-based victimization and suicidal ideation and between LGBT-based victimization and suicide attempts for sexual and gender minorities. Nuanced gender differences revealed that substance use problems did not significantly mediate the relationship between victimization and suicide attempts for sexual minority men. Substance use problems may be one insidious pathway that partially mediates the risk effects of sexual and gender minority stress on suicidality. Substances might be a temporary and deleterious coping resource in response to LGBT-based victimization, which have serious effects on suicidal ideation and behaviors. PMID:23535038

Mereish, Ethan H; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Bradford, Judith B

2014-01-01

161

Periodically nonuniform bandpass sampling as a tapped-delay-line filtering problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider systems for demodulation\\/modulation which use periodically nonuniform sampling (of arbitrary order) of the bandpass signal to circumvent the carrier-frequency restrictions of uniform sampling. The design of a particular tapped-delay-line (demodulation) or piecewise-constant-impulse-response (modulation) equivalent filter determines both the actual implementation filters and system performance. The tap spacing of the former and the transition times of the latter are

Dan Scholnik; J. O. Coleman

1999-01-01

162

Teacher and parent perceptions of behavior problems among a sample of African American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white studients  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiracial\\/multiethnic sample of middle school adolescents and their teachers was used to assess whether teacher ratings\\u000a of student behavior problems varied according to teacher-student racial\\/ethnic differences and students' perception of teachers'\\u000a attitudes toward them. No significant mean score differences were found for Hispanic or non-Hispanic white students according\\u000a to the race\\/ethnicity of the teachers doing the ratings. However, African

Rick S. Zimmerman; Elizabeth L. Khoury; William A. Vega; Andres G. Gil; George J. Warheit

1995-01-01

163

Parenting correlates of child behavior problems in a multiethnic community sample of preschool children in northern Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiethnic community sample of 191 families with four-year-old children in northern Norway was used to explore whether parenting factors were associated with child behavior problems, and whether these associations differed for boys and girls or for the two main ethnic groups in this region: the indigenous Sami and the majority Norwegians. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and a semi-structured

Cecilie Javo; John A. Rønning; Sonja Heyerdahl; FloydWebster Rudmin

2004-01-01

164

Examining the criterion validity of CBCL and TRF problem scales and items in a large Singapore sample.  

PubMed

This study examined the criterion validity of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Teacher's Report Form (TRF) problem scales and items in demographically-matched Singapore samples of referred and non-referred children (840 in each sample for the CBCL and 447 in each sample for the TRF). Internal consistency estimates for both the CBCL and TRF scales were good. Almost all CBCL and TRF problem scales and items significantly discriminated between referred and non-referred children, with referred children scoring higher, as expected. The largest referral status effects were on attention problems scales and their associated items, with the TRF having larger effects than the CBCL. Effect sizes for demographic variables such as age, gender, ethnicity and SES were much smaller than effect sizes for referral status, across both the CBCL and TRF forms and at both the scale and item levels. These findings suggest that teachers can be effective partners in identifying children who need mental health services and those who do not. PMID:21901541

Ang, Rebecca P; Rescorla, Leslie A; Achenbach, Thomas M; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Fung, Daniel S S; Woo, Bernardine

2012-02-01

165

Interpersonal problems across restrictive and binge-purge samples: data from a community-based eating disorders clinic.  

PubMed

Contemporary models of eating disorders suggest that interpersonal problems contribute to the maintenance of eating disorders. This study examined whether baseline interpersonal problems differed across eating disorder diagnoses and across eating disorder subtypes ("restrictors" vs. "binge-purge" patients) in a large clinical sample. Patients with a primary eating disorder diagnosis (N=406) completed measures of interpersonal problems, eating disorder symptoms, and mood prior to treatment at a specialist eating disorder clinic. Across the sample, more severe eating disorder psychopathology was associated with significantly greater difficulty socializing. Anorexia Nervosa (AN)/restrictor patients reported significantly greater difficulty socializing than Bulimia Nervosa (BN)/binge-purge patients. AN patients reported significantly greater difficulty on a measure of competitiveness/assertiveness compared to BN and Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified patients. All findings were significant after controlling for comorbid depression and anxiety symptoms. Interpersonal problems appear to be unique risk factors for eating disorders. Specific interpersonal mechanisms include difficulties socializing and being assertive, which were most pronounced in AN patients. These findings provide potential avenues for enhancing interventions, such as adjunctive assertiveness training for AN. PMID:25064298

Raykos, Bronwyn C; McEvoy, Peter M; Carter, Olivia; Fursland, Anthea; Nathan, Paula

2014-08-01

166

Disentangling Adolescent Substance Use and Problem Use within a Clinical Sample.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested whether psychosocial variables showed direct relations to substance use, and direct, indirect, and interactive relations to use-related negative consequences in adolescents. Found psychosocial variables relate to problem use beyond the simple indirect effect from consumption level. (Author/DLH)

Stice, Eric; Kirz, Josh; Borbely, Christina

2002-01-01

167

EVOLUTIONARY MONTE CARLO: APPLICATIONS TO Cp MODEL SAMPLING AND CHANGE POINT PROBLEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by the success of genetic algorithms and simulated annealing in hard optimization problems, the authors propose a new Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm called an evolutionary Monte Carlo algorithm. This algorithm has incorporated several attractive features of genetic algorithms and simulated annealing into the framework of MCMC. It works by simulating a pop- ulation of Markov chains in

Faming Liang; Wing Hung Wong

2000-01-01

168

Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…

Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

2010-01-01

169

FAST: a roc-based feature selection metric for small samples and imbalanced data classification problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The class imbalance problem is encountered in a large number of practical applications of machine learning and data mining, for example, information retrieval and filtering, and the detection of credit card fraud. It has been widely realized that this imbalance raises issues that are either nonexistent or less severe compared to balanced class cases and often results in a classifier's

Xue-wen Chen; Michael Wasikowski

2008-01-01

170

Variants of Callous-Unemotional Conduct Problems in a Community Sample of Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Callous-unemotional traits are believed to be a childhood precursor to psychopathy, and among youth with conduct problems they designate those showing a particularly severe, stable, and aggressive pattern of antisocial behavior. Youth with callous-unemotional traits are a heterogeneous population and, analogous to adults with psychopathy, research…

Fanti, Kostas A.; Demetriou, Chara A.; Kimonis, Eva R.

2013-01-01

171

Gas generation and migration studies involving recently generated /sup 238/Pu-contaminated waste for the TRU Waste Sampling Program  

SciTech Connect

This study is part of the multicontractor TRU Waste Sampling Program. Radiolytically generated gases were vented through a filtering device to determine its effectiveness in maintaining hydrogen concentrations within acceptably safe levels. In the second part of the study measurements were made to determine the ability of these gases, particularly hydrogen, to migrate through a sealed rigid polyethylene drum liner. Void volumes in these drums were found to be generally in excess of 90%. The carbon composite filter was found to satisfactorily vent hydrogen up to moderately high levels of alpha activity in the waste substrate. The sealed 90-mil liner was found to inhibit, but not prevent, the migration of hydrogen and other radiolytically generated gases.

Zerwekh, A.; Warren, J.L.

1986-07-01

172

A Population of Langerin-Positive Dendritic Cells in Murine Peyer's Patches Involved in Sampling ?-Glucan Microparticles  

PubMed Central

Glucan particles (GPs) are 2–4 ?m hollow, porous shells composed of 1,3-?-D-glucan that have been effectively used for oral targeted–delivery of a wide range of payloads, including small molecules, siRNA, DNA, and protein antigens. While it has been demonstrated that the transepithelial transport of GPs is mediated by Peyer's patch M cells, the fate of the GPs once within gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is not known. Here we report that fluorescently labeled GPs administered to mice by gavage accumulate in CD11c+ DCs situated in Peyer's patch sub-epithelial dome (SED) regions. GPs appeared in DCs within minutes after gavage and remained within the SED for days afterwards. The co-administration or sequential administration of GPs with differentially labeled GPs or poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles demonstrated that the SED DC subpopulation in question was capable of internalizing particles of different sizes and material compositions. Phenotypic analysis identified the GP-containing DCs as being CD8?- and CD11blo/-, suggesting they are the so-called myeloid and/or double negative (DN) subset(s) of PP DCs. A survey of C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) known to be expressed by leukocytes within the intestinal mucosa revealed that GP-containing SED DCs were positive for Langerin (CD207), a CLR with specificity for ?-D-glucan and that has been shown to mediate the internalization of a wide range of microbial pathogens, including bacteria, viruses and fungi. The presence of Langerin+ DCs in the SED as determined by immunofluorescence was confirmed using Langerin E-GFP transgenic mice. In summary, our results demonstrate that following M cell-mediated transepithelial transport, GPs (and other micro/nanoparticles) are sampled by a population of SED DCs distinguished from other Peyer's patch DC subsets by their expression of Langerin. Future studies will be aimed at defining the role of Langerin in antigen sampling and antigen presentation within the context of the GALT. PMID:24632738

De Jesus, Magdia; Ostroff, Gary R.; Levitz, Stuart M.; Bartling, Toni R.; Mantis, Nicholas J.

2014-01-01

173

Sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion  It is hoped that the foregoing general remarks on sampling procedures will point up the necessity for more care in this very\\u000a important operation. In too many instances sampling has been delegated to persons not too well aware of the purpose and importance\\u000a of the samples which they are taking, and possibly not too well qualified to handle the job.

L. R. Brown; JOHN T. SCANLAN; WALDO C. AULT

1955-01-01

174

Frontal-parietal and limbic-striatal activity underlies information sampling in the best choice problem.  

PubMed

Best choice problems have a long mathematical history, but their neural underpinnings remain unknown. Best choice tasks are optimal stopping problem that require subjects to view a list of options one at a time and decide whether to take or decline each option. The goal is to find a high ranking option in the list, under the restriction that declined options cannot be chosen in the future. Conceptually, the decision to take or decline an option is related to threshold crossing in drift diffusion models, when this process is thought of as a value comparison. We studied this task in healthy volunteers using fMRI, and used a Markov decision process to quantify the value of continuing to search versus committing to the current option. Decisions to take versus decline an option engaged parietal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, as well ventral striatum, anterior insula, and anterior cingulate. Therefore, brain regions previously implicated in evidence integration and reward representation encode threshold crossings that trigger decisions to commit to a choice. PMID:24142842

Costa, Vincent D; Averbeck, Bruno B

2015-04-01

175

A minimum distance estimation approach to the two-sample location-scale problem.  

PubMed

As reported by Kalbfleisch and Prentice (1980), the generalized Wilcoxon test fails to detect a difference between the lifetime distributions of the male and female mice died from Thymic Leukemia. This failure is a result of the test's inability to detect a distributional difference when a location shift and a scale change exist simultaneously. In this article, we propose an estimator based on the minimization of an average distance between two independent quantile processes under a location-scale model. Large sample inference on the proposed estimator, with possible right-censorship, is discussed. The mouse leukemia data are used as an example for illustration purpose. PMID:12182124

Zhang, Zhiyi; Yu, Qiqing

2002-09-01

176

Attention Problems Mediate the Association between Severity of Physical Abuse and Aggressive Behavior in a Sample of Maltreated Early Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Empirical evidence has accumulated documenting an association between childhood physical abuse and aggressive behavior. Relatively fewer studies have explored possible mediating mechanisms that may explain this association. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether caregiver- and youth-reported attention problems mediate the association between physical abuse severity and aggressive behavior. A sample of 240 maltreated early adolescents (ages 9–11) and their caregivers were interviewed within 14 months of being removed from the home. Results from multiple regression analyses indicated that caregiver- and youth-reported attention problems were partial mediators of the association between physical abuse severity and aggressive behavior. These associations were significant even after controlling for children's intellectual functioning, sex, age, and severity of other maltreatment types. Possible explanations for the detrimental impact of physical abuse on behavior are discussed, along with the implications of the current study's results for interventions aimed at reducing early adolescent aggressive behavior. PMID:21966081

Garrido, Edward F.; Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.; Raviv, Tali

2010-01-01

177

The k-sample problem in a multi-state model and testing transition probability matrices.  

PubMed

The choice of multi-state models is natural in analysis of survival data, e.g., when the subjects in a study pass through different states like 'healthy', 'in a state of remission', 'relapse' or 'dead' in a health related quality of life study. Competing risks is another common instance of the use of multi-state models. Statistical inference for such event history data can be carried out by assuming a stochastic process model. Under such a setting, comparison of the event history data generated by two different treatments calls for testing equality of the corresponding transition probability matrices. The present paper proposes solution to this class of problems by assuming a non-homogeneous Markov process to describe the transitions among the health states. A class of test statistics are derived for comparison of [Formula: see text] treatments by using a 'weight process'. This class, in particular, yields generalisations of the log-rank, Gehan, Peto-Peto and Harrington-Fleming tests. For an intrinsic comparison of the treatments, the 'leave-one-out' jackknife method is employed for identifying influential observations. The proposed methods are then used to develop the Kolmogorov-Smirnov type supremum tests corresponding to the various extended tests. To demonstrate the usefulness of the test procedures developed, a simulation study was carried out and an application to the Trial V data provided by International Breast Cancer Study Group is discussed. PMID:23722306

Tattar, Prabhanjan N; Vaman, H J

2014-07-01

178

Importance Sampling Implemented in the Code PRIZMA for Deep Penetration and Detection Problems in Reactor Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At RFNC-VNIITF a code PRIZMA which has been developed for more than 30 years is used to model radiation transport by the Monte Carlo method. The code implements individual and coupled tracking of neutrons, photons, electrons, positrons and ions in 1D, 2D or 3D geometry. Attendance estimators are used for tallying, i.e., the estimators whose scores are only nonzero from particles which cross a region or surface of interest. Importance sampling is used to make deep penetration and detection calculations more effective. However, its application to reactor analysis appeared peculiar and required further development. The paper reviews methods used for deep penetration and detection calculations by PRIZMA. It describes in what these calculations differ when applied to reactor analysis and how we compute approximated importance functions and parameters for biased distributions. Methods to control the statistical weight of particles are also discussed. A number of test and applied calculations which were done for the purpose of verification are provided. They are shown to agree either with asymptotic solutions if exist, or with results of analog calculations or predictions by other codes. The applied calculations include the estimation of ex-core detector response from neutron sources arranged in the core, and the estimation of in-core detector response.

Kandiev, Y. Z.; Zatsepin, O. V.

2014-06-01

179

Associations between work family conflict, emotional exhaustion, musculoskeletal pain, and gastrointestinal problems in a sample of business travelers.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to examine the associations among work-family conflict (WFC), emotional exhaustion, musculoskeletal (MS) pain, and gastrointestinal problems on a sample of business travelers (n = 2,093). An additional aim was to examine differences in the mentioned relationships among three traveler groups: commuters, national travelers, and international travelers. The study was conducted in a large Norwegian oil and gas company, and the company's business travel database was utilized to examine business travel. Structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed significant relations between WFC and emotional exhaustion and between emotional exhaustion and health problems. Contrary to the expectations, no direct association was found between WFC and health problems. However, we found that emotional exhaustion mediated the relation between WFC and health outcomes. The results from multi-group analysis revealed that associations among WFC, emotional exhaustion, and health-outcomes showed a similar pattern for commuters, national travelers, and international travelers. However, the association between emotional exhaustion and MS pain proved to be significantly stronger for the commuter group compared to the national and international travel groups. Practical implications and the consequences of these findings for future research are discussed. PMID:25363417

Jensen, Maria Therese; Rundmo, Torbjørn

2015-02-01

180

The Trajectories of Child's Internalizing and Externalizing Problems, Social Competence and Adolescent Self-Reported Problems in a Finnish Normal Population Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Group-based modeling techniques are increasingly used in developmental studies to explore the patterns and co-occurrence of internalizing and externalizing problems. Social competence has been found to reciprocally influence internalizing and externalizing problems, but studies on its associations with different patterns of these problems are…

Korhonen, Marie; Luoma, Ilona; Salmelin, Raili K.; Helminen, Mika; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Tamminen, Tuula

2014-01-01

181

Psychological and health problems in a geographically proximate population time-sampled continuously for three months after the September 11th, 2001 terrorist incidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the mental and physical health status and psychological problems related to the September 11th terrorist incidents among a representative sample of adults living near New York City, using continuously time-sampled data collected throughout 2001. Prevalence estimates for poor mental or physical health after September 11th (October through December) were comparable to those for the entire year of

Julian D. Ford; Mary L. Adams; Wayne F. Dailey

2007-01-01

182

Developing Cognitive Strategies through Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A program designed to teach cognitive strategies through logical problem-solving and developed for elementary learning disabled students is presented. For each problem set, the instructional procedure involves a discovery activity, discussion, conclusion, follow-up activities, and integration. Five samples of the program's problem sets (e.g.,…

Buser, Karen P.; Reimer, Dauri

1988-01-01

183

Negative affect mediates the relationship between interpersonal problems and binge-eating disorder symptoms and psychopathology in a clinical sample: a test of the interpersonal model.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the validity of the interpersonal model of binge-eating disorder (BED) psychopathology in a clinical sample of women with BED. Data from a cross-sectional sample of 255 women with BED were examined for the direct effects of interpersonal problems on BED symptoms and psychopathology, and indirect effects mediated by negative affect. Structural equation modelling analyses demonstrated that higher levels of interpersonal problems were associated with greater negative affect, and greater negative affect was associated with higher frequency of BED symptoms and psychopathology. There was a significant indirect effect of interpersonal problems on BED symptoms and psychopathology mediated through negative affect. Interpersonal problems may lead to greater BED symptoms and psychopathology, and this relationship may be partially explained by elevated negative affect. The results of the study are the first to provide support for the interpersonal model of BED symptoms and psychopathology in a clinical sample of women. PMID:25582510

Ivanova, Iryna V; Tasca, Giorgio A; Hammond, Nicole; Balfour, Louise; Ritchie, Kerri; Koszycki, Diana; Bissada, Hany

2015-03-01

184

From plans to actions in patient and public involvement: qualitative study of documented plans and the accounts of researchers and patients sampled from a cohort of clinical trials  

PubMed Central

Patient and public involvement (PPI) in research is increasingly required, although evidence to inform its implementation is limited. Objective Inform the evidence base by describing how plans for PPI were implemented within clinical trials and identifying the challenges and lessons learnt by research teams. Methods We compared PPI plans extracted from clinical trial grant applications (funded by the National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment Programme between 2006 and 2010) with researchers’ and PPI contributors’ interview accounts of PPI implementation. Analysis of PPI plans and transcribed qualitative interviews drew on the Framework technique. Results Of 28 trials, 25 documented plans for PPI in funding applications and half described implementing PPI before applying for funding. Plans varied from minimal to extensive, although almost all anticipated multiple modes of PPI. Interview accounts indicated that PPI plans had been fully implemented in 20/25 trials and even expanded in some. Nevertheless, some researchers described PPI within their trials as tokenistic. Researchers and contributors noted that late or minimal PPI engagement diminished its value. Both groups perceived uncertainty about roles in relation to PPI, and noted contributors’ lack of confidence and difficulties attending meetings. PPI contributors experienced problems in interacting with researchers and understanding technical language. Researchers reported difficulties finding ‘the right’ PPI contributors, and advised caution when involving investigators’ current patients. Conclusions Engaging PPI contributors early and ensuring ongoing clarity about their activities, roles and goals, is crucial to PPI's success. Funders, reviewers and regulators should recognise the value of preapplication PPI and allocate further resources to it. They should also consider whether PPI plans in grant applications match a trial's distinct needs. Monitoring and reporting PPI before, during and after trials will help the research community to optimise PPI, although the need for ongoing flexibility in implementing PPI should also be recognised. PMID:25475243

Buck, Deborah; Gamble, Carrol; Dudley, Louise; Preston, Jennifer; Hanley, Bec; Williamson, Paula R; Young, Bridget

2014-01-01

185

Caretaker mental health and family environment factors are associated with adolescent psychiatric problems in a Vietnamese sample.  

PubMed

Little is known about risk factors for adolescent mental health in Vietnam. The present study investigated the relationship between caretaker mental health and adolescent mental health in a cross-sectional Vietnamese sample. Primary caretakers completed measures of their own mental distress and general health status using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) as well as reports of adolescent mental health using the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Multivariate regression models were used to examine the relationships between the caretaker and adolescent health variables. The demographic factors of age, sex, ethnicity, religious affiliation, and household wealth status demonstrated significant relationships with SDQ subscale scores. Caretaker mental health was positively associated with adolescent mental health, and this association remained significant even after accounting for other relevant demographic variables and caretaker general health status. Understanding correlates of adolescent mental health difficulties may help identify youth and families at risk for developing psychiatric problems and inform mental health interventions in Vietnam. PMID:25204862

Stratton, Kelcey Jane; Edwards, Alexis Christine; Overstreet, Cassie; Richardson, Lisa; Tran, Trinh Luong; Trung, Lam Tu; Tam, Nguyen Thanh; Tuan, Tran; Buoi, La Thi; Ha, Tran Thu; Thach, Tran Duc; Amstadter, Ananda Beth

2014-12-15

186

The AICD interacting protein DAB1 is up-regulated in Alzheimer frontal cortex brain samples and causes deregulation of proteins involved in gene expression changes.  

PubMed

AICD is the intracellular subdomain of the amyloid precursor protein thought to play a pivotal role as a potential transcription factor that might be of relevance for the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. For its signal transduction potential AICD requires interacting proteins like FE65 and TIP60. However, many other proteins were described being able to bind to AICD. Here, we studied mRNA levels of AICD interacting proteins and found one of them (DAB1) strongly up-regulated in human post-mortem frontal cortex brain samples of AD patients. Subsequent cell culture experiments revealed that elevated DAB1 level results in the deregulation of the cellular proteome. We found the proliferation associated protein 2G4 as well as the guanine monophosphate synthetase (GMPS) significantly up-regulated in DAB1 over-expressing cells. Both proteins can be involved in cellular transcription processes supporting the hypothesis that DAB1 acts via modification of the AICD-dependent transcriptionally active complex. Of note, expression of the three components of the putative transcription complex (AICD, FE65, and TIP60 (AFT)) also revealed deregulation of the GMPS protein in an opposite fashion. Our results point to a putative relevance of AICD-dependent mechanisms in AD, caused by protein abundance changes of AICD interacting proteins, as shown for DAB1 in this work. PMID:21453247

Müller, T; Loosse, C; Schrötter, A; Schnabel, A; Helling, S; Egensperger, R; Marcus, K

2011-08-01

187

The Effect of Teacher's Invitations to Parental Involvement on Children's Externalizing Problem Behaviors: An Examination of a CBC Intervention. CYFS Working Paper No. 2012-3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavioral problems in childhood are associated with academic difficulties including in-school suspensions, high school dropout, and low academic grades and achievement scores. Students with disruptive behavior problems demonstrate higher rates of social risk factors than their nondisruptive peers, including school maladjustment, antisocial…

Coutts, Michael J.; Sheridan, Susan M.; Kwon, Kyongboon; Semke, Carrie A.

2012-01-01

188

Exploring the Association between Anxiety and Conduct Problems in a Large Sample of Twins Aged 2-4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anxiety and conduct problems covary, yet studies have not explored the genetic and environmental origins of this association. We analyzed parent-reported anxiety and conduct problems in 6,783 pairs of twins at 2-, 3-, and 4-years of age. As anxiety and conduct problems were fairly stable across the three ages (average 1-year correlation was .53),…

Gregory, Alice M.; Eley, Thalia C.; Plomin, Robert

2004-01-01

189

Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Problem solving is the thought processes involved in solving a problem. It is both a means of developing students' knowledge of mathematics and a critical outcome of a good mathematics education. A mathematical problem, as distinct from an exercise, requires the solver to search for a method for solving the problem rather than following a set procedure. Mathematical problem solving, therefore, requires an understanding of relevant concepts, procedures, and strategies. To become good problem solvers, students need many opportunities to formulate questions, model problem situations in a variety of ways, generalize mathematical relationships, and solve problems in both mathematical and everyday contexts.

K-12 Outreach,

190

Delinquency and Substance Use among Gang-Involved Youth: The Moderating Role of Parenting Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses longitudinal data from an ethnically diverse sample of 300 ninth grade students to examine the moderating effect of parenting practices upon the relationship between gang involvement and adolescent problem behavior. Results of hierarchical linear modeling indicate that gang involvement is a highly significant positive predictor of each of three categories of problem behavior (minor delinquency, major delinquency,

Chanequa J. Walker-Barnes; Craig A. Mason

2004-01-01

191

What are some of the cognitive, psychological, and social factors that facilitate or hinder licensed vocational nursing students' acquisition of problem-solving skills involved with medication-dosage calculations?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to examine the cognitive and psychological factors that either enhanced or inhibited Licensed Vocational Nurse (LVN) students' abilities to solve medication-dosage calculation problems. A causal-comparative approach was adopted for use in this study which encompassed aspects of both qualitative and quantitative data collection. A purposive, maximum-variation sample of 20 LVN students was chosen from among a self-selected population of junior college LVN students. The participants' views and feelings concerning their training and clinical experiences in medication administration was explored using a semi-structured interview. In addition, data revealing the students' actual competence at solving sample medication-dosage calculation problems was gathered using a talk-aloud protocol. Results indicated that few participants anticipated difficulty with medication-dosage calculations, yet many participants reported being lost during much of the medication-dosage problem solving instruction in class. While many participants (65%) were able to solve the medication-dosage problems, some (35%) of the participants were unable to correctly solve the problems. Successful students usually spent time analyzing the problem and planning a solution path, and they tended to solve the problem faster than did unsuccessful participants. Successful participants relied on a formula or a proportional statement to solve the problem. They recognized conversion problems as a two-step process and solved the problems in that fashion. Unsuccessful participants often went directly from reading the problem statement to attempts at implementing vague plans. Some unsuccessful participants finished quickly because they just gave up. Others spent considerable time backtracking by rereading the problem and participating in aimless exploration of the problem space. When unsuccessful participants tried to use a formula or a proportion, they were unsure of the formula's or the proportion's format. A few unsuccessful participants lacked an understanding of basic algebraic procedures and of metric measurements. Even participants who had great difficulty solving medication-dosage calculation problems could expeditiously solve more complex problems if the medication used in the problem was well known to them.

Allen, Arthur William

192

Effectiveness of Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS) for Borderline Personality Problems in a ‘Real-World’ Sample: Moderation by Diagnosis or Severity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS) is a group treatment for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Two prior randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown the efficacy of this training. In both RCTs, patients with borderline features who did not meet the DSM-IV criteria for BPD were excluded, which were many. We investigated the effectiveness of STEPPS in

Elisabeth H. Bos; E. Bas van Wel; Martin T. Appelo; Marc J. P. M. Verbraak

2011-01-01

193

Pervasive and Non-Pervasive Conduct Problems in a Clinic Sample Aged 4-8 Years: Child, Family and Day-Care/School Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differences between pervasive (home and day-care/school) versus non-pervasive (home only) conduct problems were examined in regard to various child, parent/family, and day-care/school characteristics in an outpatient clinic sample of 120 children aged 4-8 years. All children scored above the 90th percentile on the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory…

Drugli, May Britt; Larsson, Bo; Clifford, Graham; Fossum, Sturla

2007-01-01

194

The Problems with Access to Compulsory Education in China and the Effects of the Policy of Direct Subsidies to Students: An Empirical Study Based on a Small Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After a brief review of the achievements and the problems in compulsory education enrollment in the thirty years since the reform and opening up, this study analyzes the current compulsory education enrollment and dropout rates in China's least-developed regions and the factors affecting school enrollment based on survey data from a small sample…

Yanqing, Ding

2012-01-01

195

Diagnostic Performance of the CBCL-Attention Problem Scale as a Screening Measure in a Sample of Brazilian Children with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the Attention Problem Scale of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL-APS) for the screening of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in a sample of Brazilian children and adolescents. Methods: The CBCL-APS was given to 763 children and adolescents. Child psychiatrists using DSM-IV…

Lampert, T. L.; Polanczyk, G.; Tramontina, S.; Mardini, V.; Rohde, L. A.

2004-01-01

196

Stress, Mental Health, and Substance Abuse Problems in a Sample of Diversion Program Youths: An Exploratory Latent Class Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reflective of interest in mental health and substance abuse issues among youths involved with the justice system, we performed a latent class analysis on baseline information collected on 100 youths involved in two diversion programs. Results identified two groups of youths: Group 1: a majority of the youths, who had high levels of delinquency,…

Dembo, Richard; Briones, Rhissa; Gulledge, Laura; Karas, Lora; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Greenbaum, Paul E.

2012-01-01

197

Stress, Mental Health, and Substance Abuse Problems in a Sample of Diversion Program Youths: An Exploratory Latent Class Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reflective of interest in mental health and substance abuse issues among youths involved with the justice system, we performed a latent class analysis on baseline information collected on 100 youths involved in two diversion programs. Results identified two groups of youths: Group 1: a majority of the youths, who had high levels of delinquency, mental health, and substance abuse issues;

Richard Dembo; Rhissa Briones; Laura Gulledge; Lora Karas; Ken C. Winters; Steven Belenko; Paul E. Greenbaum

2012-01-01

198

The link between ethnicity, social disadvantage and mental health problems in a school-based multiethnic sample of children in The Netherlands.  

PubMed

To investigate to what extent differences in prevalence and types of mental health problems between ethnic minority and majority youth can be explained by social disadvantage. Mental health problems were assessed in a sample of 1,278 schoolchildren (55% Dutch, 32% Moroccan and 13% Turkish; mean age: 12.9 ± 1.8) using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire self-report and teacher report. Measures of family socioeconomic status, neighbourhood deprivation, perceived discrimination, family structure, repeating a school year, housing stability and neighbourhood urbanization were used as indicators of social disadvantage, based on which a cumulative index was created. Ethnic minority youth had more externalizing and fewer internalizing problems than majority youth. Perceived discrimination and living in an unstable social environment were associated with mental health problems, independent of ethnicity. A dose-response relationship was found between social disadvantage and mental health problems. The adjusted odds ratio for mental health problems was 4.16 (95% CI 2.49-6.94) for more than four compared with zero indicators of social disadvantage. Social disadvantage was more common in ethnic minority than in majority youth, explaining part of the differences in prevalence of mental health problems. Ethnic minority youth in the Netherlands have a different profile of mental health problems than majority youth. In all ethnic groups, the risk of mental health problems increases with the degree of social disadvantage. The higher prevalence of externalizing problems among ethnic minority youth is explained partly by their disadvantaged social position. The findings suggest that social factors associated with ethnicity are likely to explain mental health problems in ethnic groups. PMID:24927803

Adriaanse, Marcia; Veling, Wim; Doreleijers, Theo; van Domburgh, Lieke

2014-11-01

199

Parent-Reported Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptomatology and Sleep Problems in a Preschool-Age Pediatric Clinic Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigates the relation between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptomatology and parent-reported sleep problems among preschoolers aged 2 to 5 years. Results indicate that neither condition was uniquely related to parent-reported sleep problems, but inattentive symptomatology was uniquely associated with daytime sleepiness.

Willoughby, Michael T.; Angold, Adrian; Egger, Helen L.

2008-01-01

200

Predictors of Parent Stress in a Sample of Children with ASD: Pain, Problem Behavior, and Parental Coping  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies have shown that children with ASD have increased severity and incidence of pain symptoms compared to typically developing children and children with other disorders. Pain has also been shown to act as a setting event for problem behavior. Further, problem behavior is one of the biggest impediments to quality of life for families and highly…

Walsh, Caitlin E.; Mulder, Emile; Tudor, Megan E.

2013-01-01

201

APPLICATION OF A HYBRID PROCEDURE INVOLVING THE PRIMAL-DUAL INTERIOR POINT METHOD AND THE BRANCH AND BOUND METHOD IN THE SUGARCANE TRASH UTILIZATION PROBLEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project aims to realize the Primal-Dual Interior Point method and the Branch and Bound method implementation and the application on sugarcane trash utilization problems. The objective is to use the cited methods to determine the choice of cane varieties that provides the least possible amount of waste or generate the maximum amount of produced energy through residual biomass, subjected

Thiago Pedro Donadon Homem; Antonio Roberto Balbo; Florentino Silva; Andréa Carla; Gonçalves Vianna

202

What is identity theft? Identity theft is a serious problem affecting millions of people each year. It involves acquiring key pieces of someone's  

E-print Network

What is identity theft? Identity theft is a serious problem affecting millions of people each year defrauded exceeds $200.00. Most identity crimes will be multi-jurisdictional in nature. Frequently, you will not even realize that your identity was compromised until you receive a bill, statement, or some other

Rusu, Adrian

203

A Gene X Environment Interaction Between DRD2 and Religiosity in the Prediction of Adolescent Delinquent Involvement in a Sample of Males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human behavioral phenotypes are the result of complex interactions between genotype and the environment. Still, much remains unknown about the gene X environmental basis to adolescent delinquent involvement. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examine whether a polymorphism in the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene interacts with religiosity to predict variation in adolescent delinquent involvement.

Kevin M. Beaver; Chris L. Gibson; Wesley G. Jennings; Jeffrey T. Ward

2009-01-01

204

Using the shooting method to solve boundary-value problems involving nonlinear coupled-wave equations. I - Degenerate two-wave mixing. II - Degenerate four-wave mixing  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is noted that numerical solutions of the nonlinear coupled-wave equations in degenerate two-wave and four-wave mixing can be obtained by means of the shooting method, one of the numerical methods for solving two-point boundary-value problems. A description is given of the general shooting method, which is then applied to two-wave mixing in a reflection geometry. Graphs are included showing

Y. H. Ja

1983-01-01

205

Parallel mediation effects by sleep on the parental warmth-problem behavior links: evidence from national probability samples of Georgian and Swiss adolescents.  

PubMed

Previous research has documented the importance of parenting on adolescent health and well-being; however, some of the underlying mechanisms that link the quality of parent-child relationship to health, adjustment, and well-being are not clearly understood. The current study seeks to address this gap by examining the extent to which sleep functioning mediates the effects by parental warmth on different measures of adolescent problem behaviors. Specifically, we test whether sleep functioning, operationalized by sleep quality and sleep quantity, mediates the relationship between the parental warmth and three measures of problem behaviors, namely alcohol use, illegal drug use, and deviance, in two nationally representative samples of Georgian (N = 6,992; M = 15.83, 60% females, and Swiss (N = 5,575; M = 17.17, 50% females) adolescents. Based on tests for parallel mediating effects by sleep functioning of parental warmth on problem behaviors in the MEDIATE macro in SPSS, the findings provided evidence that both sleep quality and sleep quantity independently and cumulatively mediated the effects of parental warmth on each of the three problem behaviors in both samples, with one exception. These results highlight the salience of positive parenting on sleep functioning among teens in two different cultural contexts, and, in turn, on measures of problem behaviors. PMID:25148792

Vazsonyi, Alexander T; Harris, Charlene; Terveer, Agnes M; Pagava, Karaman; Phagava, Helen; Michaud, Pierre-Andre

2015-02-01

206

DSM-based problem gambling: increasing the odds of heavy drinking in a national sample of U.S. college athletes?  

PubMed

Despite previously found co-occurrence of youth gambling and alcohol use, their relationship has not been systematically explored in a national sample using DSM-based gambling measures and multivariate modeling, adjusted for potential confounders. This study aimed to empirically examine the prevalence patterns and odds of at-least-weekly alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking (HED) in relation to various levels of gambling severity in college athletes. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed on data from a national sample of 20,739 U.S. college athletes from the first National Collegiate Athletic Association national survey of gambling and health-risk behaviors. Prevalence of at-least-weekly alcohol use significantly increased as DSM-IV-based gambling severity increased, from non-gambling (24.5%) to non-problem gambling (43.7%) to sub-clinical gambling (58.5%) to problem gambling (67.6%). Multivariate results indicated that all levels of gambling were associated with significantly elevated risk of at-least-weekly HED, from non-problem (OR = 1.25) to sub-clinical (OR = 1.75) to problem gambling (OR = 3.22); the steep increase in the relative risk also suggested a possible quadratic relationship between gambling level and HED risk. Notably, adjusted odds ratios showed problem gambling had the strongest association with at-least-weekly HED, followed by marijuana (OR = 3.08) and cigarette use (OR = 2.64). Gender interactions and differences were also identified and assessed. In conclusion, attention should be paid to college athletes exhibiting gambling problems, especially considering their empirical multivariate associations with high-risk drinking; accordingly, screening for problem gambling is recommended. More research is warranted to elucidate the etiologic mechanisms of these associations. PMID:20638078

Huang, Jiun-Hau; Jacobs, Durand F; Derevensky, Jeffrey L

2011-03-01

207

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 105, NO. E9, PAGES 22,48722,506, SEPTEMBER 25TH Issues involved in a Martian sample return: Integrity  

E-print Network

, sample return missions to Mars will greatly enhance our knowledge of the red planet to a degree from Mars is the next logical step as part of an integrated exploration program and is the critical subsequent stage in the search for evidence of life on the red planet. Analysis of such samples on Earth

208

A literature review of medical side effects from radio-frequency energy in the human environment: involving cancer, tumors, and problems of the central nervous system.  

PubMed

Occupational or residential exposures to radiofrequency energy (RFE), including microwaves, have been alleged to result in health problems. This paper is a review of the recent medical and scientific literature (from mid-1998 through 2002) dealing with possible effects of RFE on brain tumors and malignancies, leukemia, other cancers, and the central nervous system. A large number of studies were related to exposures from cellular telephones. On the basis of previous reviews of older literature and the current review of recent literature, one can conclude that the evidence for any proven health effects (related to the topics above) of low-level RFE exposure is minimal. PMID:15007865

Jauchem, James R

2003-01-01

209

Forcible, drug-facilitated, and incapacitated rape in relation to substance use problems: Results from a national sample of college women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first study to examine the relation between rape and substance use problems in college women as a function of three legally recognized forms of rape: forcible, incapacitated, and substance-facilitated rape. Data were collected via structured telephone interview with a large national sample of college women aged 18–34 years (n=1980). Lifetime prevalence of any type of rape was 11.3%

Jenna McCauley; Kenneth J. Ruggiero; Heidi S. Resnick; Lauren M. Conoscenti; Dean G. Kilpatrick

2009-01-01

210

Development, Problem Behavior, and Quality of Life in a Population Based Sample of Eight-Year-Old Children with Down Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveChildren with Down syndrome (DS) have delayed psychomotor development. We investigated levels of development, problem behavior, and Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in a population sample of Dutch eight-year-old children with DS. Developmental outcomes were compared with normative data of eight-year-old children from the general population.MethodOver a three-year-period all parents with an eight-year-old child with DS were approached by the

Helma B. M. van Gameren-Oosterom; Minne Fekkes; Simone E. Buitendijk; Ashna D. Mohangoo; Jeanet Bruil; Jacobus P. Van Wouwe

2011-01-01

211

Diagnosis and Management of an Isolated Pediatric Plexiform Neurofibroma Involving the Hepatic and Celiac Plexus Using Multimodality Approach: Problem Solving with Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

PubMed Central

Plexiform neurofibroma with involvement of the gastrointestinal tract is a very rare entity in children. Here, we present a rather unique case of a 9-year-old boy with no clinical signs or features of neurofibromatosis type 1. A periportal mass lesion was incidentally found after performing an ultrasound in this previously healthy child. Computed tomographic scan was subsequently performed which showed a low-density mass in a periportal distribution with extension along the celiac axis. Because the findings were nonspecific, a pre- and postcontrast magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen was performed which included diffusion-weighted imaging. The lesion was then confirmed to be a plexiform neurofibroma with open biopsy. Management of plexiform neurofibromas varies widely. Given the extensive nature of the lesion, managing the patient with follow-up rather than surgical excision was favored.

Scheurkogel, Merel M.; Koshy, June; Cohen, Kenneth J.; Huisman, Thierry A. G. M.; Bosemani, Thangamadhan

2013-01-01

212

A gene X environment interaction between DRD2 and religiosity in the prediction of adolescent delinquent involvement in a sample of males.  

PubMed

Human behavioral phenotypes are the result of complex interactions between genotype and the environment. Still, much remains unknown about the gene X environmental basis to adolescent delinquent involvement. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examine whether a polymorphism in the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene interacts with religiosity to predict variation in adolescent delinquent involvement. The results of the analyses revealed a gene X environment interaction between the A-1 allele of DRD2 and religiosity in the prediction of adolescent delinquency. Limitations are noted, and the implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:19835101

Beaver, Kevin M; Gibson, Chris L; Jennings, Wesley G; Ward, Jeffrey T

2009-01-01

213

Anabolic-androgenic steroid use and involvement in violent behavior in a nationally representative sample of young adult males in the United States.  

PubMed

We examined the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroid use on serious violent behavior. Multivariate models based on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 6823) were used to examine the association between lifetime and past-year self-reported anabolic-androgenic steroid use and involvement in violent acts. Compared with individuals who did not use steroids, young adult males who used anabolic-androgenic steroids reported greater involvement in violent behaviors after we controlled for the effects of key demographic variables, previous violent behavior, and polydrug use. PMID:18923108

Beaver, Kevin M; Vaughn, Michael G; Delisi, Matt; Wright, John Paul

2008-12-01

214

Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use and Involvement in Violent Behavior in a Nationally Representative Sample of Young Adult Males in the United States  

PubMed Central

We examined the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroid use on serious violent behavior. Multivariate models based on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 6823) were used to examine the association between lifetime and past-year self-reported anabolic-androgenic steroid use and involvement in violent acts. Compared with individuals who did not use steroids, young adult males who used anabolic-androgenic steroids reported greater involvement in violent behaviors after we controlled for the effects of key demographic variables, previous violent behavior, and polydrug use. PMID:18923108

Vaughn, Michael G.; DeLisi, Matt; Wright, John Paul

2008-01-01

215

Predictors and Moderators of Parent Training Efficacy in a Sample of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Serious Behavioral Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology-Autism Network reported additional benefit when adding parent training (PT) to antipsychotic medication in children with autism spectrum disorders and serious behavior problems. The intent-to-treat analyses were rerun with putative predictors and moderators. The "Home Situations Questionnaire"…

Farmer, Cristan; Lecavalier, Luc; Yu, Sunkyung; Arnold, L. Eugene; McDougle, Christopher J.; Scahill, Lawrence; Handen, Benjamin; Johnson, Cynthia R.; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Bearss, Karen; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Aman, Michael G.

2012-01-01

216

Gender-Related Quality of Parent-Child Interactions and Early Adolescent Problem Behaviors: Exploratory Study with Midwestern Samples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports two exploratory studies testing a model guided by a social interactional perspective, positing an inverse relation between the quality of parent-child interactions and adolescent problem behaviors. It addresses mixed findings in the literature related to gender differences. Study 1 uses cross-sectional survey data from…

Spoth, Richard; Neppl, Tricia; Goldberg-Lillehoj, Catherine; Jung, Tony; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini

2006-01-01

217

Attention Problems Mediate the Association between Severity of Physical Abuse and Aggressive Behavior in a Sample of Maltreated Early Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empirical evidence has accumulated documenting an association between childhood physical abuse and aggressive behavior. Relatively fewer studies have explored possible mediating mechanisms that may explain this association. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether caregiver- and youth-reported attention problems mediate the…

Garrido, Edward F.; Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.; Raviv, Tali

2011-01-01

218

The concerned significant others of people with gambling problems in a national representative sample in Sweden – a 1 year follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Background Research into the impact of problem gambling on close social networks is scarce with the majority of studies only including help-seeking populations. To date only one study has examined concerned significant others (CSOs) from an epidemiological perspective and it did not consider gender. The aim of this study is to examine the health, social support, and financial situations of CSOs in a Swedish representative sample and to examine gender differences. Methods A population study was conducted in Sweden in 2008/09 (n?=?15,000, response rate 63%). Respondents were defined as CSOs if they reported that someone close to them currently or previously had problems with gambling. The group of CSOs was further examined in a 1-year follow up (weighted response rate 74% from the 8,165 respondents in the original sample). Comparisons were also made between those defined as CSOs only at baseline (47.7%, n?=?554) and those defined as CSOs at both time points. Results In total, 18.2% of the population were considered CSOs, with no difference between women and men. Male and female CSOs experienced, to a large extent, similar problems including poor mental health, risky alcohol consumption, economic hardship, and arguments with those closest to them. Female CSOs reported less social support than other women and male CSOs had more legal problems and were more afraid of losing their jobs than other men. One year on, several problems remained even if some improvements were found. Both male and female CSOs reported more negative life events in the 1 year follow-up. Conclusions Although some relationships are unknown, including between the CSOs and the individuals with gambling problems and the causal relationships between being a CSO and the range of associated problems, the results of this study indicate that gambling problems not only affect the gambling individual and their immediate close family but also the wider social network. A large proportion of the population can be defined as a CSO, half of whom are men. While male and female CSOs share many common problems, there are gender differences which need to be considered in prevention and treatment. PMID:24261955

2013-01-01

219

Empirical-likelihood-based semiparametric inference for the treatment effect in the two-sample problem with censoring  

PubMed Central

Summary To compare two samples of censored data, we propose a unified semiparametric inference for the parameter of interest when the model for one sample is parametric and that for the other is nonparametric. The parameter of interest may represent, for example, a comparison of means, or survival probabilities. The confidence interval derived from the semiparametric inference, which is based on the empirical likelihood principle, improves its counterpart constructed from the common estimating equation. The empirical likelihood ratio is shown to be asymptotically chi-squared. Simulation experiments illustrate that the method based on the empirical likelihood substantially outperforms the method based on the estimating equation. A real dataset is analysed. PMID:20179776

ZHOU, YONG; LIANG, HUA

2010-01-01

220

Sex Differences in Childhood Sexual Abuse Characteristics and Victims' Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Findings from a National Sample of Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The first objective of this study was to test for sex differences in four childhood sexual abuse characteristics--penetration, substantiation, perpetrator familial status, and multi-maltreatment--in a national sample of youth. The second objective was to test for sex differences in how these abuse characteristics were associated with…

Maikovich-Fong, Andrea Kohn; Jaffee, Sara R.

2010-01-01

221

Mental Disorders and Problem Behavior in a Community Sample of Adults with Intellectual Disability: Three-Month Prevalence and Comorbidity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of mental disorders in a Norwegian sample of adults with intellectual disability (ID) using the "Psychopathology Checklists for Adults With Intellectual Disability" (P-AID; Hove & Havik, 2008), a screening instrument adopting diagnostic criteria from the "Diagnostic Criteria for Psychiatric…

Hove, Oddbjorn; Havik, Odd E.

2008-01-01

222

Assessing Social Competence and Behavior Problems in a Sample of Italian Preschoolers Using the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: The main goals of this study were to examine the factor validity of the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation (SCBE-30) scale using exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis and to test factor invariance across gender in a sample of Italian preschool-age children (241 boys, 252 girls). The concurrent…

Sette, Stefania; Baumgartner, Emma; MacKinnon, David P.

2015-01-01

223

Parent Involvement  

E-print Network

To be successful, a 4-H program must have parent involvement. Although 4-H leaders and Extension agents may interest young people in becoming members, they need the parents' goodwill and support to keep them interested, enthusiastic and active. Here...

Howard, Jeff W.

2005-05-10

224

A simple method for overcoming some problems when observing thick reflective biological samples with a confocal scanning laser microscope.  

PubMed

A simple device is described, which allows the range of depth of scanning to be reduced when observing thick reflecting biological samples with a confocal scanning laser microscope (CSLM). Thick histological sections of human skin and rat brain stem were mounted between two coverslips ('sandwich' style) and the optical tomography was performed from both sides by turning the 'sandwich' upside-down. The samples were impregnated using standard Golgi-Cox, 'rapid Golgi' or other silver methods. The ability to turn the 'sandwich' upside-down is particularly useful when the reflective structure inspected is deep inside the section, i.e., near the lower surface of the specimen, or when it is opaque to the laser beam or excessively reflective. PMID:7897649

Rumio, C; Morini, M; Miani, A; Barajon, I; Castano, P

1995-01-01

225

Mental Disorders and Problem Behavior in a Community Sample of Adults with Intellectual Disability: Three-Month Prevalence and Comorbidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of mental disorders in a Norwegian sample of adults with intellectual disability (ID) using the Psychopathology Checklists for Adults With Intellectual Disability (P-AID; Hove & Havik, 2008), a screening instrument adopting diagnostic criteria from the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychiatric Disorders for Use with Adults with Intellectual Disability\\/Mental Retardation (DC-LD; Royal

Oddbjørn Hove; Odd E. Havik

2008-01-01

226

Sampling errors create bias in Markov models for community dynamics: the problem and a method for its solution.  

PubMed

Repeated, spatially explicit sampling is widely used to characterize the dynamics of sessile communities in both terrestrial and aquatic systems, yet our understanding of the consequences of errors made in such sampling is limited. In particular, when Markov transition probabilities are calculated by tracking individual points over time, misidentification of the same spatial locations will result in biased estimates of transition probabilities, successional rates, and community trajectories. Nonetheless, to date, all published studies that use such data have implicitly assumed that resampling occurs without error when making estimates of transition rates. Here, we develop and test a straightforward maximum likelihood approach, based on simple field estimates of resampling errors, to arrive at corrected estimates of transition rates between species in a rocky intertidal community. We compare community Markov models based on raw and corrected transition estimates using data from Endocladia muricata-dominated plots in a California intertidal assemblage, finding that uncorrected predictions of succession consistently overestimate recovery time. We tested the precision and accuracy of the approach using simulated datasets and found good performance of our estimation method over a range of realistic sample sizes and error rates. PMID:21479593

Conway-Cranos, Letitia L; Doak, Daniel F

2011-09-01

227

Health and Social Problems Associated with Prescription Opioid Misuse Among a Diverse Sample of High Risk Substance-Using MSM  

PubMed Central

This study examines associations between prescription opioid misuse and demographics, substance use, sexual behavior, and related health and social problems. Baseline data were collected between 2008 and 2010 from 515 high risk men who have sex with men (MSM), ages 18–55, in the Miami-Ft. Lauderdale metropolitan area who reported heavy substance use and HIV risk in the past 90 days. Prescription opioid misuse was associated with other substance use, drug injection, substance dependence, and history of arrest. Implications, limitations, and directions for future study are discussed. PMID:23971894

Buttram, Mance E.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Surratt, Hilary L.; Levi-Minzi, Maria A.

2013-01-01

228

SIPPI: A Matlab toolbox for sampling the solution to inverse problems with complex prior information. Part 2—Application to crosshole GPR tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an application of the SIPPI Matlab toolbox, to obtain a sample from the a posteriori probability density function for the classical tomographic inversion problem. We consider a number of different forward models, linear and non-linear, such as ray based forward models that rely on the high frequency approximation of the wave-equation and 'fat' ray based forward models relying on finite frequency theory. In order to sample the a posteriori probability density function we make use of both least squares based inversion, for linear Gaussian inverse problems, and the extended Metropolis sampler, for non-linear non-Gaussian inverse problems. To illustrate the applicability of the SIPPI toolbox to a tomographic field data set we use a cross-borehole traveltime data set from Arrenæs, Denmark. Both the computer code and the data are released in the public domain using open source and open data licenses. The code has been developed to facilitate inversion of 2D and 3D travel time tomographic data using a wide range of possible a priori models and choices of forward models.

Hansen, Thomas Mejer; Cordua, Knud Skou; Looms, Majken Caroline; Mosegaard, Klaus

2013-03-01

229

Posterior Sampling of Scientific Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Scienti?c image processing involves a variety of problems in-cluding image modelling, reconstruction, and synthesis. We are collabo-rating on an imaging problem in porous media, studied in-situ in an imag-ing MRI in which it is imperative to infer aspects of the porous sample at scales unresolved by the MRI. In this paper we develop an MCMC ap-proach to resolution enhancement,

Azadeh Mohebi; Paul W. Fieguth

2006-01-01

230

Histories of Childhood Victimization and Subsequent Mental Health Problems, Substance Use, and Sexual Victimization for a Sample of Incarcerated Women in the US  

PubMed Central

Women are entering US prisons at nearly double the rate of men and are the fastest growing prison population. Current extant literature focuses on the prevalence of the incarceration of women, but few studies exist that emphasize the different trajectories to prison. For example, women prisoners have greater experiences of prior victimization, more reports of mental illness, and higher rates of illicit substance use. The purpose of this study was to understand the prevalence of childhood victimization and its association with adult mental health problems, substance abuse disorders, and further sexual victimization. The research team interviewed a random sample of 125 women prisoners soon to release from prison to gather information on their childhood physical and sexual victimization, mental health and substance abuse problems as an adult, and sexual victimization in the year preceding incarceration. Results indicate that women prisoners in this sample who were both physically and sexually victimized as a child were more likely to be hospitalized as an adult for a psychological or emotional problem. Women who were sexually victimized or both physically and sexually victimized were more likely to attempt suicide. Women who experienced physical victimization as children and women who were both physically and sexually victimized were more likely to have a substance use disorder and women who were sexually abused as children or both physically and sexually victimized were more likely to be sexually abused in the year preceding prison. This article ends with a discussion about prisons’ role in providing treatment for women prisoners and basing this treatment on women’s trajectories to prison, which disproportionately includes childhood victimization and subsequent mental health and substance use problems. PMID:23196054

Tripodi, Stephen J.; Pettus-Davis, Carrie

2012-01-01

231

Some Insights into Analytical Bias Involved in the Application of Grab Sampling for Volatile Organic Compounds: A Case Study against Used Tedlar Bags  

PubMed Central

In this study, we have examined the patterns of VOCs released from used Tedlar bags that were once used for the collection under strong source activities. In this way, we attempted to account for the possible bias associated with the repetitive use of Tedlar bags. To this end, we selected the bags that were never heated. All of these target bags were used in ambient temperature (typically at or below 30°C). These bags were also dealt carefully to avoid any mechanical abrasion. This study will provide the essential information regarding the interaction between VOCs and Tedlar bag materials as a potential source of bias in bag sampling approaches. PMID:22235175

Ghosh, Samik; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Sohn, Jong Ryeul

2011-01-01

232

The Clark Phase-able Sample Size Problem: Long-Range Phasing and Loss of Heterozygosity in GWAS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A phase transition is taking place today. The amount of data generated by genome resequencing technologies is so large that in some cases it is now less expensive to repeat the experiment than to store the information generated by the experiment. In the next few years it is quite possible that millions of Americans will have been genotyped. The question then arises of how to make the best use of this information and jointly estimate the haplotypes of all these individuals. The premise of the paper is that long shared genomic regions (or tracts) are unlikely unless the haplotypes are identical by descent (IBD), in contrast to short shared tracts which may be identical by state (IBS). Here we estimate for populations, using the US as a model, what sample size of genotyped individuals would be necessary to have sufficiently long shared haplotype regions (tracts) that are identical by descent (IBD), at a statistically significant level. These tracts can then be used as input for a Clark-like phasing method to obtain a complete phasing solution of the sample. We estimate in this paper that for a population like the US and about 1% of the people genotyped (approximately 2 million), tracts of about 200 SNPs long are shared between pairs of individuals IBD with high probability which assures the Clark method phasing success. We show on simulated data that the algorithm will get an almost perfect solution if the number of individuals being SNP arrayed is large enough and the correctness of the algorithm grows with the number of individuals being genotyped.

Halldórsson, Bjarni V.; Aguiar, Derek; Tarpine, Ryan; Istrail, Sorin

233

Problems in Determination of Skeletal Lead Burden in Archaeological Samples: An Example From the First African Baptist Church Population  

SciTech Connect

ABSTRACT Human bone lead content has been demonstrated to be related to socioeconomic status, occupation and other social and environmental correlates. Skeletal tissue samples from 135 individuals from an early nineteenth century Philadelphia cemetery (First African Baptist Church) were studied by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and x-ray fluorescence for lead content. High bone lead levels led to investigation of possible diagenetic effects. These were investigated by several different approaches including distribution of lead within bone by x-ray fluorescence, histological preservation, soil lead concentration and acidity as well as location and depth of burial. Bone lead levels were very high in children, exceeding those of the adult population that were buried in the cemetery, and also those of present day adults. The antemortem age-related increase in bone lead, reported in other studies, was not evidenced in this population. Lead was even deposited in areas of taphonomic bone destruction. Synchrotron x-ray fluorescence studies revealed no consistent pattern of lead microdistribution within the bone. Our conclusions are that postmortem diagenesis of lead ion has penetrated these archaeological bones to a degree that makes their original bone lead content irretrievable by any known method. Increased bone porosity is most likely responsible for the very high levels of lead found in bones of newborns and children.

Whittmers Jr., L. E.; Aufderheide, A. C.; Pounds, Joel G.; JONES, Keith; Angel, J. L.

2008-08-01

234

Readiness to change in a clinical sample of problem drinkers: relation to alcohol use, self-efficacy, and treatment outcome.  

PubMed

According to the transtheoretical model of behaviour change, individuals addicted to psychotropic drugs typically cycle through a sequence of five discrete stages (precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance) before achieving sustained long-term abstinence and moderation, respectively. A number of English-language questionnaires have been developed to assess client motivation in accordance with the stages of change approach. The present study aimed to expand the research on the transtheoretical model by establishing the factor structure of a German-language version of the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES) in a large sample of alcohol-dependent inpatients (n = 350). Furthermore, the relation of client motivation to alcohol use, self-efficacy and treatment outcome at 3-month follow-up was examined. Exploratory factor analysis revealed three separate dimensions of readiness to change (Taking Steps, Recognition, and Ambivalence). The factorial structure of the German-language SOCRATES corresponded almost exactly to that of the original version. Readiness to change accounted for 9.4% of the variance in treatment outcome. Moreover, readiness to change was positively related to pretreatment self-efficacy. PMID:15258444

Demmel, Ralf; Beck, Beate; Richter, Dirk; Reker, Thomas

2004-01-01

235

Problems in determination of skeletal lead burden in archaeological samples: An example from the First African Baptist Church population  

SciTech Connect

Human bone lead content has been demonstrated to be related to socioeconomic status, occupation and other social and environmental correlates. Skeletal tissue samples from 135 individuals from an early nineteenth century Philadelphia cemetery (First African Baptist Church) were studied by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and x-ray fluorescence for lead content. High bone lead levels led to investigation of possible diagenetic effects. These were investigated by several different approaches including distribution of lead within bone by x-ray fluorescence, histological preservation, soil lead concentration and acidity as well as location and depth of burial. Bone lead levels were very high in the children, exceeding those of the adult population that were buried in the cemetery, and also those of present day adults. The antemortem age-related increase in bone lead, reported in other studies, was not evidenced in this population. Lead was even deposited in areas of taphonomic bone destruction. Synchrotron x-ray fluorescence studies revealed no consistent pattern of lead microdistribution within the bone. Our conclusions are that postmortem diagenesis of lead ion has penetrated these archaeological bones to a degree that makes their original bone lead content irretrievable by any known method. Increased bone porosity is most likely responsible for the very high levels of lead found in bones of newborns and children.

Whittmers Jr., L. E.; Aufderheide, A. C.; Pounds, Joel G.; Jones, Keith W.; Angel, J. L.

2008-08-01

236

Use of risk assessment instruments to predict violence and antisocial behaviour in 73 samples involving 24?827 people: systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the predictive validity of tools commonly used to assess the risk of violence, sexual, and criminal behaviour. Design Systematic review and tabular meta-analysis of replication studies following PRISMA guidelines. Data sources PsycINFO, Embase, Medline, and United States Criminal Justice Reference Service Abstracts. Review methods We included replication studies from 1 January 1995 to 1 January 2011 if they provided contingency data for the offending outcome that the tools were designed to predict. We calculated the diagnostic odds ratio, sensitivity, specificity, area under the curve, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, the number needed to detain to prevent one offence, as well as a novel performance indicator—the number safely discharged. We investigated potential sources of heterogeneity using metaregression and subgroup analyses. Results Risk assessments were conducted on 73 samples comprising 24?847 participants from 13 countries, of whom 5879 (23.7%) offended over an average of 49.6 months. When used to predict violent offending, risk assessment tools produced low to moderate positive predictive values (median 41%, interquartile range 27-60%) and higher negative predictive values (91%, 81-95%), and a corresponding median number needed to detain of 2 (2-4) and number safely discharged of 10 (4-18). Instruments designed to predict violent offending performed better than those aimed at predicting sexual or general crime. Conclusions Although risk assessment tools are widely used in clinical and criminal justice settings, their predictive accuracy varies depending on how they are used. They seem to identify low risk individuals with high levels of accuracy, but their use as sole determinants of detention, sentencing, and release is not supported by the current evidence. Further research is needed to examine their contribution to treatment and management. PMID:22833604

2012-01-01

237

Adaptive Peer Sampling with Newscast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The peer sampling service is a middleware service that provides random samples from a large decentralized network to support gossip-based applications such as multicast, data aggregation and overlay topology management. Lightweight gossip-based implementations of the peer sampling service have been shown to provide good quality random sampling while also being extremely robust to many failure scenarios, including node churn and catastrophic failure. We identify two problems with these approaches. The first problem is related to message drop failures: if a node experiences a higher-than-average message drop rate then the probability of sampling this node in the network will decrease. The second problem is that the application layer at different nodes might request random samples at very different rates which can result in very poor random sampling especially at nodes with high request rates. We propose solutions for both problems. We focus on Newscast, a robust implementation of the peer sampling service. Our solution is based on simple extensions of the protocol and an adaptive self-control mechanism for its parameters, namely—without involving failure detectors—nodes passively monitor local protocol events using them as feedback for a local control loop for self-tuning the protocol parameters. The proposed solution is evaluated by simulation experiments.

Tölgyesi, Norbert; Jelasity, Márk

238

["Counting" experiments with ravens using "matching-from-sample" methods. A contribution on problem-solving behavior in higher aniMALS].  

PubMed

The research goal is divided into two parts: 1. Detailed analysis of behavior in selection in a 6-choice matching-from-sample task. 2. Discussion of all observed preferences on the basis of the models of Sutherland and Mackintosh and of Miller, Galanter and Pribram. The experiments were run with 4 one-year-old ravens (Corvus corax); two of them were probably 2 males. The design is similar to Koehler's. In the task the correct responses were equally distributed between all stimuli and positions (random system). Although the task ("counting") was learned, a lot of relevant preferences for stimuli, positions, patterns etc. show that problem-solving in higher animals can be very complex. It could be shown that only a detailed analysis may clarify animal learning processes. PMID:961120

Simons, D

1976-05-01

239

Sample taking problems in measuring actual histamine levels of human gastroduodenal mucosa: specific and general relevance in clinical trials on peptic ulcer pathogenesis and selective proximal vagotomy.  

PubMed Central

Changes in histamine storage in the oxyntic mucosa of duodenal ulcer patients and their reversal by vagotomy and the histamine H2-antagonist cimetidine supported the hypothesis that histamine could be a causal factor in peptic ulcer pathogenesis. The specificity of these findings was impaired by problems in biopsy taking, however, and in the preparative steps before measuring the actual histamine contents in all parts of the gastric mucosa and in the duodenum. A prospective trial was carried out in 190 patients to identify these sources of bias and to overcome them by appropriate study designs. Usually a direct correlation was found between weight of biopsy and mucosal histamine content. This problem was solved by selecting a biopsy forceps producing smaller variations in sample size, by limiting the time of cold ischaemia to four to five minutes only and by taking three biopsy specimens for each single histamine value. The actual histamine content of mucosal biopsies remained constant for about four to five minutes only. The 'disappearance' rate was faster in control subjects than in duodenal ulcer patients. Hence by variation of the cold ischaemia time any artefacts of differences between mucosal histamine levels in controls and duodenal ulcer patients could be produced. Using the optimised sample taking procedure mucosal histamine contents of several gastric regions and the duodenal bulb were measured in 24 patients with duodenal ulcer, after selective proximal vagotomy without drainage and in control subjects without any stomach disease (randomised controlled trial). The histamine content was lower in all parts of the upper gastrointestinal tract in duodenal ulcer patients than in controls and was raised again in all regions after selective proximal vagotomy. As the most likely hypothesis it is suggested that vagal reflexes with afferent fibres coming from the oxyntic mucosa stimulate histamine release in duodenal ulcer patients by efferent peptidergic neurones to all parts of the stomach and the duodenum where the ulcer lesion is situated. PMID:3905529

Thon, K P; Lorenz, W; Ohmann, C; Weber, D; Rohde, H; Röher, H D

1985-01-01

240

The Relations among Cumulative Risk, Parenting, and Behavior Problems during Early Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study examined relations among cumulative risk, nurturant and involved parenting, and behavior problems across early childhood. Methods: Cumulative risk, parenting, and behavior problems were measured in a sample of low-income toddlers participating in a family-centered program to prevent conduct problems. Results: Path analysis…

Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Hyde, Luke W.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin

2008-01-01

241

Does the Association with Psychosomatic Health Problems Differ between Cyberbullying and Traditional Bullying?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The association between mental health problems and traditional bullying is well known, whereas the strength of the association in cyberbullying is less known. This study aimed to compare the association between mutually exclusive groups of bullying involvement and psychosomatic problems as measured by the PsychoSomatic Problems scale. The sample…

Beckman, Linda; Hagquist, Curt; Hellstrom, Lisa

2012-01-01

242

Measuring Family Problem Solving: The Family Problem Solving Diary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development and use of the family problem-solving diary are described. The diary is one of several indicators and measures of family problem-solving behavior. It provides a record of each person's perception of day-to-day family problems (what the problem concerns, what happened, who got involved, what those involved did, how the problem…

Kieren, Dianne K.

243

Civic Involvement Survey, 1997  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In March 2001, the American Religion Data Archive posted data "on the level and types of civic involvement of a nationally representative sample of American adults. Extensive questions about respondents' religious activities and beliefs are also included in the survey." In addition to the data's description, users can view the codebook, download the data, and search or analyze the data. Download options include ExplorIt Software, MicroCase 4.0, SPSS portable file, and ASCII.

2001-01-01

244

Filter Paper for Preservation, Storage, and Distribution of Insect and Pathogen DNA Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proper DNA storage is critical for studies involving genetic analysis of insects and for molecular diagnostics of pathogens carried by them. Molecular surveillance of pathogens carried by insects can involve screening of thousands of insect DNA samples. Problems with storage and degradation of these samples can arise. In this study, a simple Þlter paper-based method for storage and preservation of

Carrie B. Owens; Allen L. Szalanski

2005-01-01

245

Problems with "n"th-Term Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An nth-term problem involves a sequence. Students must determine which expression will allow them to calculate the nth position of the sequence. To solve such problems, students are to find "a rule that determines the number of elements in a step from the step number." These types of problems help students develop concepts of functions, variables,…

Matteson, Shirley M.

2010-01-01

246

Musculoskeletal involvement in sarcoidosis*, **  

PubMed Central

Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disorder of unknown cause. It most commonly affects the pulmonary system but can also affect the musculoskeletal system, albeit less frequently. In patients with sarcoidosis, rheumatic involvement is polymorphic. It can be the presenting symptom of the disease or can appear during its progression. Articular involvement is dominated by nonspecific arthralgia, polyarthritis, and Löfgren's syndrome, which is defined as the presence of lung adenopathy, arthralgia (or arthritis), and erythema nodosum. Skeletal manifestations, especially dactylitis, appear mainly as complications of chronic, multiorgan sarcoidosis. Muscle involvement in sarcoidosis is rare and usually asymptomatic. The diagnosis of rheumatic sarcoidosis is based on X-ray findings and magnetic resonance imaging findings, although the definitive diagnosis is made by anatomopathological study of biopsy samples. Musculoskeletal involvement in sarcoidosis is generally relieved with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or corticosteroids. In corticosteroid-resistant or -dependent forms of the disease, immunosuppressive therapy, such as treatment with methotrexate or anti-TNF-?, is employed. The aim of this review was to present an overview of the various types of osteoarticular and muscle involvement in sarcoidosis, focusing on their diagnosis and management. PMID:24831403

Nessrine, Akasbi; Zahra, Abourazzak Fatima; Taoufik, Harzy

2014-01-01

247

HIV Problem Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem space enables investigators to explore data from a published study by Markham et al on HIV evolution within individual patients. The study involved 15 injection drug users in Baltimore, Maryland (USA) who became infected with HIV between 1989 and 1992. Patients came in at approximately six-month intervals ("visits") to have blood samples taken. From these samples, the researchers extracted and sequenced multiple copies of proviral DNA. Patients' CD4 counts were also measured at each visit to assess their level of immune function. In this problem space, you will have access to the following materials: * background information on HIV/AIDS, * the original Markham et al. reference and other primary literature, * viral sequences from each visit of each patient, * patients' CD4 counts at each visit, * phylogenetic trees of the virus sequences from each patient, * a phylogenetic tree of each patient's starting consensus viral sequence, * a published activity using this data from the book Microbes Count!, * and additional materials prepared by other users of the problem space. You can use this data to explore a number of different questions. Here are a few general questions to get you started: * Does the virus evolve the same way in different patients? * Are there any specific mutations that cause rapid immune decline? * What types of natural selection might be influencing HIV evolution? * Is HIV being transmitted between patients after initial infection?

Anton Weisstein (Truman State University; Biology)

2005-12-16

248

Sport involvement, sport violence and health behaviours of Greek adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Within the context of problem-behaviour theory, this study investigated the intra-relationship between attitudes and behaviours towards exercise, sport involvement, violence in sport-related events, eating fruits, smoking and hashish or ecstasy use in a sample of Greek adolescents. Age and gender patterns are considered. Methods: Participants were 5991 Greek school pupils who responded to questionnaires assessing behaviour and attitudes towards

ATHANASIOS PAPAIOANNOU; CALLIOPE KARASTOGIANNIDOU; YANNIS THEODORAKIS

2004-01-01

249

Heart Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this section we will review the major heart problems that you may encounter. Objectives -Understand the possible complications related to your heart -Identify resources that are available for Cardiology Cardiac Compromise 1. Chest pain results from ischemia 2. Ischemic heart disease involves decreased blood flow to the heart. 3. If blood flow is not restored, the tissue dies. Heart pumping with electrical activity Atherosclerosis 1. Materials build up inside blood vessels. 2. ...

Joey

2008-10-15

250

Organized Activity Involvement among Rural Youth: Gender Differences in Associations between Activity Type and Developmental Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined associations between organized activity involvement, academic achievement, and problem behavior in a sample of youth from a non-agricultural based rural community (M[subscript age] = 15.26, Age range = 11-19 years, N = 456). Analyses examined whether associations varied as a function of adolescent gender and age.…

Ferris, Kaitlyn A.; Oosterhoff, Benjamin; Metzger, Aaron

2013-01-01

251

Sex Differences in the Reciprocal Relationships between Mild and Severe Corporal Punishment and Children's Internalizing Problem Behavior in a Chinese Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study aimed to investigate the sex differences in the reciprocal relations between parental corporal punishment and child internalizing problem behavior in China. Four hundred fifty-four Chinese elementary school-age children completed measures of their parental corporal punishment toward them and their own internalizing problem behavior at…

Xing, Xiaopei; Wang, Meifang

2013-01-01

252

Toddler behavioral problems and parent-child interaction in an inner-city early intervention sample: Implications for assessment and intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavior problems among very young children referred for early intervention services are a common concern. Given that serious problems tend to persist over time, placing children at risk for later personal and social maladjustment, it is important to identify early maladaptive patterns and intervene effectively. Several evolving contemporary developmental formulations that draw on empirical findings converge on the importance of

Jessica Linnell Hopkins

2001-01-01

253

Personality, Perceived Luck and Gambling Attitudes as Predictors of Gambling Involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative observational study was undertaken to examine the relationship between individual factors and level of gambling\\u000a involvement, in particular problem gambling (PG). The specific factors under study were personality, perceived luck, and attitudes\\u000a towards gambling. A sample of university students (N = 185) completed a battery of questionnaires, consisting of the 16PF, Canadian Problem Gambling Index, Belief in Good Luck\\u000a Scale

Jamie Chiu; Lance Storm

2010-01-01

254

Today's Traveling Salesman Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterogeneous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are being developed for several civil and military applications. These vehicles can differ either in their motion constraints or sensing\\/attack capabilities. This article uses methods from operations research to address a fundamental routing problem involving heterogeneous UAVs. The approach is to transform the routing problem into a relatively better understood single, asymmetric, traveling salesman problem

PAUL OBERLIN; SIVAKUMAR RATHINAM; SWAROOP DARBHA

2010-01-01

255

Problems in modern cosmology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two problems in modern cosmology were studied. The first problem involved the study of a spherically symmetric universe, while the second considered the calculation of the annihilation cross section for two photino annihilation into two photons. The spherically symmetric universe problem studied the question of whether the metric for the model could be determined by considering the relationship between perfect

Daniel Jeffrey Suson

1988-01-01

256

Influence of early regulatory problems in infants on their development at 12 months: a longitudinal study in a high-risk sample  

PubMed Central

Background This study examined the extent to which regulatory problems in infants at 4 and 6 months influence childhood development at 12 months. The second aim of the study was to examine the influence maternal distress has on 4-month-old children’s subsequent development as well as gender differences with regard to regulatory problems and development. Methods 153 mother-child dyads enrolled in the family support research project “Nobody slips through the net” constituted the comparison group. These families faced psychosocial risks (e.g. poverty, excessive demands on the mother, and mental health disorders of the mother, measured with the risk screening instrument Heidelberger Belastungsskala - HBS) and maternal stress, determined with the Parental Stress Index (PSI-SF). The children’s developmental levels and possible early regulatory problems were evaluated by means of the Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) and a German questionnaire assessing problems of excessive crying along with sleeping and feeding difficulties (SFS). Results A statistically significant but only low, inverse association between excessive crying, whining and sleep problems at 4 and 6 months and the social development of one-year-olds (accounting for 5% and 8% of the variance respectively) was found. Feeding problems had no effect on development. Although regulatory problems in infants were accompanied by increased maternal stress level, these did not serve as a predictor of the child’s social development at 12 months. One-year-old girls reached a higher level of development in social and fine motor skills. No gender differences were found with regard to regulatory problems, nor any moderating effect of gender on the relation between regulatory problems and level of development. Conclusions Our results reinforce existing knowledge pertaining to the transactional association between regulatory problems in infants, maternal distress and dysfunctionality of mother-child interactions. They also provide evidence of a slight but distinct negative influence of crying and sleeping problems on children’s subsequent social development. Easily accessible support services provided by family health visitors (particularly to the so-called “at-risk families”) are strongly recommended to help prevent the broadening of children’s early regulatory problems into other areas of behavior. PMID:24119426

2013-01-01

257

Young children's analogical problem solving: gaining insights from video displays.  

PubMed

This study examined how toddlers gain insights from source video displays and use the insights to solve analogous problems. The sample of 2- and 2.5-year-olds viewed a source video illustrating a problem-solving strategy and then attempted to solve analogous problems. Older, but not younger, toddlers extracted the problem-solving strategy depicted in the video and spontaneously transferred the strategy to solve isomorphic problems. Transfer by analogy from the video was evident only when the video illustrated the complete problem goal structure, including the character's intention and the action needed to achieve a goal. The same action isolated from the problem-solving context did not serve as an effective source analogue. These results illuminate the development of early representation and processes involved in analogical problem solving. Theoretical and educational implications are discussed. PMID:24077465

Chen, Zhe; Siegler, Robert S

2013-12-01

258

Verifying Hybrid Systems Involving Transcendental Functions  

E-print Network

Verifying Hybrid Systems Involving Transcendental Functions Paul Jackson1 , Andrew Sogokon1 , JamesTarski proof en- gine for problems involving special functions such as sin, cos, exp, etc. Transcendental between KeYmaera and external tools have involved polynomi- als over the reals, but not transcendental

Jackson, Paul

259

A Linear Sampling Method for Near-Field Inverse Problems in Elastodynamics Bojan Guzina, Sylvain Nintcheu Fata, and Andrew Madyarov | Civil Engineering, University of Minnesota  

E-print Network

(Hadamard, 1923) Existence. S is onto Uniqueness. S is one-to-one Stability. S-1 is continuous X Y f NOT onto V f X Y NOT one-to-one y x1 2x @ Ill-posed problem ­ otherwise S : L2(S1) L2(S2) S onto: S{L2(SS(), - @ Forward problem Navier equation LuS() + 2uS() = 0, -; L · C : Neumann boundary conditions tS(; n

Guzina, Bojan

260

The impact of having a loved one with alcohol consumption-related problems on subjective health status and health-risk behaviors in a general hospital sample.  

PubMed

Consecutively admitted inpatients of a general hospital in Northern Germany (N = 2903) completed a standardized screening questionnaire in 2005-2006 containing questions about alcohol consumption-related problems in loved ones, their own alcohol consumption, and other health-related aspects. Almost 26.2% reported having a loved one with alcohol consumption-related problems. The proportions of smokers and those who screened positively for at-risk consumption or alcohol abuse were significantly higher in those patients; they were significantly younger and reported worse overall states of health and emotional health. Since those patients showed a high risk of numerous health problems, psychological interventions were implemented. The study's limitation noted. PMID:20536354

Iwen, Julia; Bischof, Gallus; Reinhardt, Susa; Grothues, Janina; Hapke, Ulfert; John, Ulrich; Freyer-Adam, Jennis; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen

2010-12-01

261

Sampling Development  

PubMed Central

Research in developmental psychology requires sampling at different time points. Accurate depictions of developmental change provide a foundation for further empirical studies and theories about developmental mechanisms. However, overreliance on widely spaced sampling intervals in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs threatens the validity of the enterprise. This article discusses how to sample development in order to accurately discern the shape of developmental change. The ideal solution is daunting: to summarize behavior over 24-hour intervals and collect daily samples over the critical periods of change. We discuss the magnitude of errors due to undersampling, and the risks associated with oversampling. When daily sampling is not feasible, we offer suggestions for sampling methods that can provide preliminary reference points and provisional sketches of the general shape of a developmental trajectory. Denser sampling then can be applied strategically during periods of enhanced variability, inflections in the rate of developmental change, or in relation to key events or processes that may affect the course of change. Despite the challenges of dense repeated sampling, researchers must take seriously the problem of sampling on a developmental time scale if we are to know the true shape of developmental change. PMID:22140355

Adolph, Karen E.; Robinson, Scott R.

2011-01-01

262

Nadaraya-Watson estimator for sensor fusion problems  

SciTech Connect

The classical Nadaraya-Watson estimator is shown to solve a generic sensor fusion problem where the underlying sensor error densities are not known but a sample is available. By employing Haar kernels this estimator is shown to yield finite sample guarantees and also to be efficiently computable. Two simulation examples, and a robotics example involving the detection of a door using arrays of ultrasonic and infrared sensors, are presented to illustrate the performance.

Rao, N.S.V.

1996-10-01

263

ADHD and Other Associated Developmental Problems in Children with Mild Mental Retardation. The Use of the "Five-To-Fifteen" Questionnaire in a Population-Based Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim was to examine the rates and types of parent reported neuropsychiatric problems in children and adolescents with mild mental retardation (MMR) (mild intellectual disability/UK) using the Five-To-Fifteen questionnaire (FTF). The target group comprised all pupils with clinically diagnosed MMR, aged between 7 and 15 years, attending the…

Lindblad, Ida; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

2011-01-01

264

Kindergarten Practice Problems: Algebra  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains eleven problems involving algebraic thinking from the Port Angeles School District in Washington state. Links to state GLEs and revised standards are provided. Topics covered include patterns, and concepts of equality and inequality.

2011-01-01

265

Fibonacci's Triangle: A Vehicle for Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A method for solving certain types of problems is illustrated by problems related to Fibonacci's triangle. The method involves pattern recognition, generalizing, algebraic manipulation, and mathematical induction. (MP)

Ouellette, Hugh

1979-01-01

266

Teacher Report of Children's Problem Behavior on The Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory-Revised (SESBI-R) in a Norwegian Sample of Preschool and School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, the applicability of The Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory-Revised (SESBI-R) was explored within a Norwegian sample of 983 children aged 3-8 years. By using an exploratory factor analysis the same 2-factor solution as the original SESBI-R was supported by Principal Component Analysis. Good internal consistency (alpha…

Kirkhaug, Bente; Drugli, May Britt; Morch, Willy-Tore; Handegard, Bjorn Helge

2012-01-01

267

Statistical distribution sampling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Determining the distribution of statistics by sampling was investigated. Characteristic functions, the quadratic regression problem, and the differential equations for the characteristic functions are analyzed.

Johnson, E. S.

1975-01-01

268

Screening for intellectual disability in persons with a substance abuse problem: Exploring the validity of the Hayes Ability Screening Index in a Dutch-speaking sample.  

PubMed

There is an increasing interest in screening instruments to detect intellectual disability (ID) in a quick and accurate way in mental health services as well as in the criminal justice system in order to provide appropriate support for people with undetected needs caused by ID. An instrument that has been proven to be useful in both settings is the Hayes Ability Screening Index (HASI). This study assessed the validity of the Dutch version of the HASI in persons with a substance abuse problem residing in mental health services, whether or not mandated to treatment by court order. The HASI was conducted along with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III as the criterion for validity to 90 participants. Additionally, the influence of psychiatric disorder and medication use on the HASI result was examined. A significant positive relationship was found between the two instruments, demonstrating convergent validity. Using a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the discriminative ability of the HASI with a cut-off score of 85 was found to be adequate, yielding in a good balance between sensitivity and specificity. The HASI was not distorted by the presence of the substance abuse problem or other psychiatric illnesses and medication did not influence the HASI scores in this study. These findings indicate that the HASI provides a time-efficient and resource-conscious way to detect ID in persons with a substance problem, thus addressing a critical need in mental health settings. PMID:25462510

To, Wing Ting; Vanheule, Stijn; Vanderplasschen, Wouter; Audenaert, Kurt; Vandevelde, Stijn

2014-11-12

269

Superposition Enhanced Nested Sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theoretical analysis of many problems in physics, astronomy, and applied mathematics requires an efficient numerical exploration of multimodal parameter spaces that exhibit broken ergodicity. Monte Carlo methods are widely used to deal with these classes of problems, but such simulations suffer from a ubiquitous sampling problem: The probability of sampling a particular state is proportional to its entropic weight. Devising an algorithm capable of sampling efficiently the full phase space is a long-standing problem. Here, we report a new hybrid method for the exploration of multimodal parameter spaces exhibiting broken ergodicity. Superposition enhanced nested sampling combines the strengths of global optimization with the unbiased or athermal sampling of nested sampling, greatly enhancing its efficiency with no additional parameters. We report extensive tests of this new approach for atomic clusters that are known to have energy landscapes for which conventional sampling schemes suffer from broken ergodicity. We also introduce a novel parallelization algorithm for nested sampling.

Martiniani, Stefano; Stevenson, Jacob D.; Wales, David J.; Frenkel, Daan

2014-07-01

270

School Parent Involvement Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This school parent involvement policy is divided into three sections: (1) Development and Adoption of the Parent Involvement Policy; (2) Contents of the Parent Involvement Policy; and (3) Distributing and Revising the School's Parent Involvement Policy. This paper presents the provision of the Section 1118 of Title I of the No Child Left Behind…

Center for Law and Education (NJ3), 2005

2005-01-01

271

32 CFR 651.36 - Public involvement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of other agencies, organizations, and individuals in the development of EAs and EISs enhances collaborative issue identification and problem solving. Such involvement demonstrates that the Army is committed to open decision-making and...

2010-07-01

272

DSM-based problem gambling: Increasing the odds of heavy drinking in a national sample of U.S. college athletes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite previously found co-occurrence of youth gambling and alcohol use, their relationship has not been systematically explored in a national sample using DSM-based gambling measures and multivariate modeling, adjusted for potential confounders. This study aimed to empirically examine the prevalence patterns and odds of at-least-weekly alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking (HED) in relation to various levels of gambling severity

Jiun-Hau Huang; Durand F. Jacobs; Jeffrey L. Derevensky

2011-01-01

273

California's Water Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet of instructional materials is designed to give social science students in grades 6-9 a first-hand experience in working out solutions to real-life problems involving the management of California's water. Students work in groups on one of three problems presented in the packet: (1) the management of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta that…

Wheatley, Judy; Sudman, Rita Schmidt, Ed.

274

Balance Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady or as if ... related injuries, such as hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ear. ...

275

Functional Assessment of Problem Behavior in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Summary of 32 Outpatient Cases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine archival data from an outpatient clinic serving children with autism spectrum disorders to investigate the occurrence of problem behavior functions in this sample. Results indicated that social reinforcement (e.g., attention from others) was involved in maintaining problem behavior for the majority of…

Love, Jessa R.; Carr, James E.; LeBlanc, Linda A.

2009-01-01

276

Early onset and recent drug use among children of parents with alcohol problems: data from a national epidemiologic survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is good evidence that children of parents with alcohol problems have more drug involvement, plus related mental health and behavioral problems. In this study, we sought to estimate the degree to which these children might be more likely to initiate drug use precociously. A sample of 2888 parent–child pairs was identified within public data files of the National Household

Isidore S Obot; F. A Wagner; James C Anthony

2001-01-01

277

Identifying the Need for Family Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter addresses the issue of when counselors should suggest to their clients that their family members should become involved in the counseling process. Family systems theory and its application are reviewed, with a special focus on issues involving communication, problem solving, family roles, and boundaries. Family systems theory is a…

Kaplan, David M.

278

Parent Predictors of Changes in Child Behavior Problems  

PubMed Central

The present study examined whether ineffective discipline, single parent status, social support, parent involvement, and parent depression predicted changes in preschoolers’ (N = 129) behavior problems. This study also evaluated whether child sex and ethnicity moderated the relationships between these variables and changes in problem behavior. Parents completed questionnaires at the beginning of the study, and parent, teacher, and observational ratings of children’s behavior problems were collected twice during the school year. Parents’ own social support predicted improvement for boys and parent depression was associated with worsening symptoms for girls. Single parenthood and parent involvement predicted changes in behavior problems for the sample as a whole. Several significant ethnic differences emerged, highlighting the importance of considering cultural context in studies of parenting and child externalizing behavior. PMID:24347757

Tichovolsky, Marianne H.; Arnold, David H.; Baker, Courtney N.

2013-01-01

279

Involving Latino Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes barriers to Latino parent involvement in educational activities, factors to consider when involving Latino parents, and two examples of Latino involvement programs in California: Family Literacy Workshop at James Monroe Elementary School, Madera Unified School District, and Parents Take P.A.R.T. (Parent Assisted Reading Training) at…

Quezada, Reyes L.; Diaz, Delia M.; Sanchez, Maria

2003-01-01

280

African American fathers and incarceration: paternal involvement and child outcomes.  

PubMed

Despite only accounting for 6% of the general population, African American males represent nearly 50% of the prison population. To investigate the impact of mass incarceration on African American families, data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being study were analyzed. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of previous incarceration on African American fathers' instrumental and affective involvement with their children, and the extent to which their previous incarceration influences their children's behavior. Results revealed that 51% of the fathers in the sample had been incarcerated by their child's fifth birthday. The results also revealed that these fathers fared worse economically and were less involved with their children. Moreover, the children of previously incarcerated fathers had significantly worse behavioral problems than the children of fathers who had never been incarcerated. PMID:22239385

Perry, Armon R; Bright, Mikia

2012-01-01

281

An Optimization-Based Sampling Scheme for Phylogenetic Trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much modern work in phylogenetics depends on statistical sampling approaches to phylogeny construction to estimate probability distributions of possible trees for any given input data set. Our theoretical understanding of sampling approaches to phylogenetics remains far less developed than that for optimization approaches, however, particularly with regard to the number of sampling steps needed to produce accurate samples of tree partition functions. Despite the many advantages in principle of being able to sample trees from sophisticated probabilistic models, we have little theoretical basis for concluding that the prevailing sampling approaches do in fact yield accurate samples from those models within realistic numbers of steps. We propose a novel approach to phylogenetic sampling intended to be both efficient in practice and more amenable to theoretical analysis than the prevailing methods. The method depends on replacing the standard tree rearrangement moves with an alternative Markov model in which one solves a theoretically hard but practically tractable optimization problem on each step of sampling. The resulting method can be applied to a broad range of standard probability models, yielding practical algorithms for efficient sampling and rigorous proofs of accurate sampling for some important special cases. We demonstrate the efficiency and versatility of the method in an analysis of uncertainty in tree inference over varying input sizes. In addition to providing a new practical method for phylogenetic sampling, the technique is likely to prove applicable to many similar problems involving sampling over combinatorial objects weighted by a likelihood model.

Misra, Navodit; Blelloch, Guy; Ravi, R.; Schwartz, Russell

282

Macrodystrophia lipomatosa of foot involving great toe.  

PubMed

Macrodystrophia lipomatosa is a rare form of congenital disorder in which there is localized gigantism characterized by progressive overgrowth of all mesenchymal elements with a disproportionate increase in the fibroadipose tissues. The adipose tissue infiltration involves subcutaneous tissue, periosteum, nerves and bone marrow. Most of the cases reported have hand or foot involvement. Patient seeks medical help for improving cosmesis or to get the size of the involved part reduced in order to reduce mechanical problems. We report a case of macrodystrophia lipomatosa involving medial side of foot with significant enlargement of great toe causing concern for cosmesis and inconvenience due to mechanical problems. The X-rays showed increased soft tissue with more of adipose tissue and increased size of involved digits with widening of ends. Since the patient's mother did not want any surgical intervention he was educated about foot care and proper footwear design was suggested. PMID:24703060

Gaur, A K; Mhambre, A S; Popalwar, H; Sharma, R

2014-06-01

283

An analysis of factors contributing to train-involved crashes  

E-print Network

. Crashes involving trains and vehicles are a significant safety problem in Texas each year. This research attempts to identify and analyze contributing factors to train-involved accidents in Texas. Three years of accident data (1328 total accidents) were...

Cooner, Scott Allen

1995-01-01

284

Tongue problems  

MedlinePLUS

... which allow you to taste. The tongue moves food to help you chew and swallow. The tongue ... result in: Breastfeeding problems in newborns Difficulty moving food during chewing and swallowing Speech problems Taste Problems ...

285

Childbirth Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... labor starts before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy Problems with the umbilical cord Problems with the position of the baby, such as ... feet first Birth injuries For some of these problems, the baby may need to be delivered surgically ...

286

Inverting a Triangular Array: Involving Students in Mathematical Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fostering students' mathematical thinking requires regularly presenting them with challenging problems and involving them in the processes of mathematical inquiry (e.g., representing and solving problems; making, testing, and justifying conjectures). The Inverting a 36 Penny Triangular Array problem (called the Inverting problem, for short) is a…

Baroody, Arthur J.; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

2004-01-01

287

Problem-solving strategies for teaching mathematics to deaf students.  

PubMed

Three teaching and learning strategies for problem solving were implemented with first- and second-year deaf college students enrolled in mathematics courses at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID), Rochester Institute of Technology. These strategies involved the students in (a) giving an explanation to a peer observer in sign language, after which they would put their understanding of a problem and its solution in writing; (b) visualizing the problem-solving process prior to starting to solve a problem; and (c) observing their teacher modeling the analytical process step by step for a sample problem prior to solving math word problems. The students were asked to solve two types of problems: typical word problems, and a visual/manipulative puzzle that would provide a problem-solving experience that would contrast with the experience of solving a problem presented in text format. The results showed that these kinds of instructional strategies can enhance the problem-solving performance of deaf and hard of hearing college students. PMID:9842060

Mousley, K; Kelly, R R

1998-10-01

288

[Families Involved in Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Community Update" focuses on families involved in learning. The first article briefly discusses the "Ready to Read, Ready to Learn" White House summit that highlighted new research on early childhood learning. The center spread of this issue offers "Priming the Primary Educator: A Look at L. A. County's Parent Involvement Programs"…

Ashby, Nicole, Ed.

2001-01-01

289

Categories of Parent Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The growing interest in effective parent involvement has produced several ways to classify or describe ways parents are or should be involved. This article reviews and evaluates Ira Gordon's systems approach, the California-based System Development Corporation's categories, Eugenia H. Berger's parental role categories, Chavkin and Williams' parent…

Bauch, Jerold P.

1994-01-01

290

Two Scales, Hybrid Model for Soils, Involving Artificial Neural Network and Finite Element Procedure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hybrid ANN-FE solution is presented as a result of two level analysis of soils: a level of a laboratory sample and a level of engineering geotechnical problem. Engineering properties of soils (sands) are represented directly in the form of ANN (this is in contrast with our former paper where ANN approximated constitutive relationships). Initially the ANN is trained with Duncan formula (Duncan and Chang [2]), then it is re-trained (calibrated) with some available experimental data, specific for the soil considered. The obtained approximation of the constitutive parameters is used directly in finite element method at the level of a single element at the scale of the laboratory sample to check the correct representation of the laboratory test. Then, the finite element that was successfully tested at the level of laboratory sample is used at the macro level to solve engineering problems involving the soil for which it was calibrated.

Krasi?ski, Marcin; Lefik, Marek

2015-02-01

291

A Structural Model of the Influence of Family Problems and Child Abuse Factors on Serious Delinquency Among Youths Processed at a Juvenile Assessment Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors tested a model of the influence of arrested youths' family problem factors, including their sexual victimization and physical abuse experiences, on their drug use and frequency of involvement in index offenses. The sample involved 277 youths processed at the Hillsborough County Juvenile Assessment Center, in Tampa, Florida, who entered a NIDA funded service delivery project, called the Youth

Richard Dembo; Werner Wothke; Marina Shemwell; Kimberly Pacheco; William Seeberger; Matthew Rollie; James Schmeidler; Stephen Livingston

2000-01-01

292

Pragmatic soil survey design using flexible Latin hypercube sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review and give a practical example of Latin hypercube sampling in soil science using an approach we call flexible Latin hypercube sampling. Recent studies of soil properties in large and remote regions have highlighted problems with the conventional Latin hypercube sampling approach. It is often impractical to travel far from tracks and roads to collect samples, and survey planning should recognise this fact. Another problem is how to handle target sites that, for whatever reason, are impractical to sample - should one just move on to the next target or choose something in the locality that is accessible? Working within a Latin hypercube that spans the covariate space, selecting an alternative site is hard to do optimally. We propose flexible Latin hypercube sampling as a means of avoiding these problems. Flexible Latin hypercube sampling involves simulated annealing for optimally selecting accessible sites from a region. The sampling protocol also produces an ordered list of alternative sites close to the primary target site, should the primary target site prove inaccessible. We highlight the use of this design through a broad-scale sampling exercise in the Burdekin catchment of north Queensland, Australia. We highlight the robustness of our design through a simulation study where up to 50% of target sites may be inaccessible.

Clifford, David; Payne, James E.; Pringle, M. J.; Searle, Ross; Butler, Nathan

2014-06-01

293

A dynamic programming approach to sequencing problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores a dynamic programming approach to the solution of three sequencing problems: a scheduling problem involving arbitrary cost functions, the traveling-salesman problem, and an assembly line balancing problem. Each of the problems is shown to admit of numerical solution through the use of a simple recursion scheme; these recursion schemes also exhibit similarities and contrasts in the structures

Michael Held; Richard M. Karp

1961-01-01

294

Problems on Divisibility of Binomial Coefficients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve unusual problems involving divisibility of the binomial coefficients are represented in this article. The problems are listed in "The Problems" section. All twelve problems have short solutions which are listed in "The Solutions" section. These problems could be assigned to students in any course in which the binomial theorem and Pascal's…

Osler, Thomas J.; Smoak, James

2004-01-01

295

Astronauts' menu problem.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Consideration of the problems involved in choosing appropriate menus for astronauts carrying out SKYLAB missions lasting up to eight weeks. The problem of planning balanced menus on the basis of prepackaged food items within limitations on the intake of calories, protein, and certain elements is noted, as well as a number of other restrictions of both physical and arbitrary nature. The tailoring of a set of menus for each astronaut on the basis of subjective rankings of each food by the astronaut in terms of a 'measure of pleasure' is described, and a computer solution to this problem by means of a mixed integer programming code is presented.

Lesso, W. G.; Kenyon, E.

1972-01-01

296

Dimensions of Early Childhood Behavior Problems: Stability and Predictors of Change from 18 to 30 Months  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence, structure, stability, and predictors of change in early behavior problems were examined in a population-based sample of Norwegian children at 18 and 30 months of age (N = 750). A clear factor structure involving four dimensions emerged at both assessment times: Two factors were characterized by externalizing behaviors and were labeled Social Adjustment and Overactive-Inattentive; one factor tapped

Kristin S. Mathiesen; Ann Sanson

2000-01-01

297

Premature Adolescent Autonomy: Parent Disengagement and Deviant Peer Process in the Amplification of Problem Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Premature autonomy describes a developmental dynamic where parents of high-risk adolescents reduce their involvement and guidance when confronted with challenges of problem behaviour and the influence of deviant friendships. This dynamic was tested on the sample of Oregon Youth Study boys (N=206), whose family management practices and friendships…

Dishion, Thomas J.; Nelson, Sarah E.; Bullock, Bernadette Marie

2004-01-01

298

The Association between Parental Personality Patterns and Internalising and Externalising Behaviour Problems in Children and Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study investigated the relationship between parental personality patterns and internalising and externalising behaviour problems in a clinically referred sample of children (aged 4-8) and adolescents (aged 12-18). Methods: Data from families involved in two clinical trials in Victoria, Australia were analysed (n = 59). Families…

Bertino, Melanie D.; Connell, Gabrielle; Lewis, Andrew J.

2012-01-01

299

Gene-by-Preschool Interaction on the Development of Early Externalizing Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Preschool involves an array of new social experiences that may impact the development of early externalizing behavior problems over the transition to grade school. Methods: Using longitudinal data from a nationally representative sample of over 600 pairs of US twins, we tested whether the genetic and environmental influences on…

Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

2013-01-01

300

Rigorous Solutions of Scattering Problems Involving Red Blood Cells  

E-print Network

be found in the literature [1]­[9]. On the other hand, previous studies mostly focused on the simulation present a comparative study of scattering from healthy RBCs and deformed RBCs, particularly spherocytes, microcytes, macrocytes, and sickle cells. Using a robust simulation envi- ronment based on the electric

Gürel, Levent

301

Nonlinear problems in flight dynamics involving aerodynamic bifurcations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerodynamic bifurcation is defined as the replacement of an unstable equilibrium flow by a new stable equilibrium flow at a critical value of a parameter. A mathematical model of the aerodynamic contribution to the aircraft's equations of motion is amended to accommodate aerodynamic bifurcations. Important bifurcations such as, the onset of large-scale vortex shedding are defined. The amended mathematical model is capable of incorporating various forms of aerodynamic responses, including those associated with dynamic stall of airfoils.

Tobak, M.; Chapman, G. T.

1985-01-01

302

Multiscale treatment of mechanical contact problems involving thin polymeric layers  

E-print Network

to overcome friction, even without considering braking friction [2]. There are in fact #12;abundant examples disks. Estimates suggest that as much as 4 per cent of the United States' gross national product

303

Nonlinear problems in flight dynamics involving aerodynamic bifurcations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerodynamic bifurcation is defined as the replacement of an unstable equilibrium flow by a new stable equilibrium flow at a critical value of a parameter. A mathematical model of the aerodynamic contribution to the aircraft's equations of motion is amended to accommodate aerodynamic bifurcations. Important bifurcations such as, the onset of large-scale vortex-shedding are defined. The amended mathematical model is capable of incorporating various forms of aerodynamic responses, including those associated with dynamic stall of airfoils.

Tobak, M.; Chapman, G. T.

1985-01-01

304

Rigorous Solutions of Electromagnetic Problems Involving Hundreds of Millions  

E-print Network

through frequency-selec tive metamaterials,photonic crystals,and optical imaging systems, to name a few and radar-eluding stealth airborne targets,radiation from antennas and electronic devices,and transmission

Gürel, Levent

305

On the solution of problems involving impact type loading  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The response of beam and plate members to pulse and impact loading is investigated, and numerical methods are analyzed and compared. The equations of motion, the finite difference and finite element methods, the time integration/Runge-Kutta techniques, and material modeling are discussed in detail. It is found that both the finite difference and the finite element methods could be accurately employed to discretize the spatial variation in the displacements. Central differences or a fourth order Runge-Kutta algorithm could be used for the time integration. The total energy of the system would give the stability and accuracy of the solution. Results showed that the finite element method provided better efficiency in obtaining accurate solution than the finite difference method when a scalar processor is used. However, the finite difference method was more efficient on the vector processor. Therefore, the most efficient method of solution depends on the type of computer present for the analysis.

Moyer, E. T., Jr.; Ghashghai-Abdi, E.

1984-01-01

306

Electromagnetic Inverse Problems Involving Distributions of Dielectric Mechanisms and Parameters  

E-print Network

as our dispersive mechanism in our formulation (adopting Ohm's law for conductivity and considering non current Jc to the electric and magnetic fields. We have (i) D = 0E + PTI, (ii) B = µ0H, (iii) Jc = EI govern the electric field E and the magnetic field H in a domain D = 0 with charge density

307

Young children's ability to solve spatial problems involving a choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

When do young children become able to make an adequate choice between two alternatives based on spatial information? Children of 20, 30, and 40 months of age were either presented with two objects with different cross-sections and one aperture, or one object and two different apertures. In each trial there was one object – aperture match and the task was to find

Helena Örnkloo; Claes von Hofsten

2009-01-01

308

PROBLEMS INVOLVED IN COOPERATION BETWEEN UNIVERSITIES AND GOVERNMENT AGENCIES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE UNRESOLVED PURPOSE OF EDUCATION IN A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY--WHETHER ACADEMIC OR PRAGMATIC GOALS SHOULD PREVAIL--IS IDENTIFIED AS THE BASIC CAUSE OF THE CONFLICT BETWEEN THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT AND INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION. SINCE WORLD WAR II, FEDERAL SUPPORT HAS BEEN INCREASINGLY DIRECTED TOWARD ACTION PROGRAMS, INCLUDING SPECIAL…

SHIRLEY, JOHN W.

309

Space modification: an alternative approach to chemistry problems involving geometry  

SciTech Connect

The sequential simplex optimization algorithm has been translated into non-Euclidean space. A study of the algorithm in this space suggests that the path of convergence of the simplex depends on the properties of the space so that different convergence paths can be obtained even with the same starting points. The path of convergence approaches the path observed in Euclidean space as the metric constant of the hyperbolic space increases.

Silver, G.L.

1981-01-01

310

Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services to Parents of Children Involved with Child Welfare: A Study of Racial and Ethnic Differences for American Indian Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

American Indian (AI) parents of children involved with child welfare were compared to White, Black and Hispanic parents on\\u000a mental health and substance abuse problems and access to treatment. Data came from the National Study of Child and Adolescent\\u000a Well-Being, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of children aged 0–14 years involved with child welfare.\\u000a Weighted statistics provided population

Anne M. Libby; Heather D. Orton; Richard P. Barth; Mary Bruce Webb; Barbara J. Burns; Patricia A. Wood; Paul Spicer

2007-01-01

311

Breathing Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... you're not getting enough air. Sometimes mild breathing problems are from a stuffy nose or hard ... conditions such as asthma, emphysema or pneumonia cause breathing difficulties. So can problems with your trachea or ...

312

Walking Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... daily activities, get around, and exercise. Having a problem with walking can make daily life more difficult. ... walk is called your gait. A variety of problems can cause an abnormal gait and lead to ...

313

Research Problems in Clinical Diagnosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed problems and deficiencies in past research on clinical diagnosis, pertaining to sampling problems with regard to clinical subjects studied, adequacy of control groups, base rates, clinical versus statistical significance, lack of cross-validation, and problems due to reliance on inadequate schemes of classification. Future research is…

Garfield, Sol L.

1978-01-01

314

Emerging drug problems in Asia  

PubMed Central

This session, “Emerging Drug Problems in Asia,” focused on emerging drug problems in Asia. Dr. Juana Tomás-Rosselló discussed “East and Southeast Asia: Emerging Drug Problems and Response” and Dr. Wei J. Chen discussed “Ketamine Use among Regular Tobacco and Alcohol Users as Revealed by Respondent Driven Sampling in Taipei: Prevalence, Expectancy, and Users' Risky Decision Making.” PMID:25267884

Bart, Gavin

2014-01-01

315

Problem Based Learning Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, The Problem Based Learning Initiative (PBLI), provides education, consultation and support to teachers and organizations in any discipline, profession, training program or educational level (kindergarten through infinity) either involved in PBL or interested in adopting PBL into their teaching or training programs. The site features links to resources and workshops as well as links to many other PBL sites.

Southern Illinois University

316

Word Problems: Simple Interest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site explains to students the concept of simple interest, the four variables involved, and the formula for calculating simple interest. There is an example problem and two practice questions with hints and two more for students to take on individually. Students may check their answers when they are finished.

2010-08-06

317

Relationships with Adults as Predictors of Substance Use, Gang Involvement, and Threats to Safety among Disadvantaged Urban High-School Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a resilience framework, the authors examined the protective effects of parental support, self-disclosure to parents, parent-initiated monitoring of adolescent behavior, and relationships with school personnel on three critical problems of adolescents: substance use, gang involvement, and perceived threats to safety at school. The sample…

Ryan, Linda G.; Miller-Loessi, Karen; Nieri, Tanya

2007-01-01

318

Sampling and Sample Preparation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quality attributes in food products, raw materials, or ingredients are measurable characteristics that need monitoring to ensure that specifications are met. Some quality attributes can be measured online by using specially designed sensors and results obtained in real time (e.g., color of vegetable oil in an oil extraction plant). However, in most cases quality attributes are measured on small portions of material that are taken periodically from continuous processes or on a certain number of small portions taken from a lot. The small portions taken for analysis are referred to as samples, and the entire lot or the entire production for a certain period of time, in the case of continuous processes, is called a population. The process of taking samples from a population is called sampling. If the procedure is done correctly, the measurable characteristics obtained for the samples become a very accurate estimation of the population.

Morawicki, Rubén O.

319

Continued detention involvement and adolescent marijuana use trajectories.  

PubMed

Justice-involved youth have high rates of marijuana use. Less is known about what may drive these rates, particularly when justice-involved youth return to the community. One factor that has been implicated is continued detention involvement. Yet, it is unknown how this factor may influence marijuana use trajectories. Using longitudinal growth curve modeling, the researchers evaluated the association between continued detention involvement and marijuana use trajectories in two large, ethnically diverse samples of community-based, justice-involved youth. Across both samples, marijuana use decreased over time for youth with continued detention involvement but did not change for youth without continued detention involvement. These findings underscore the importance of attending to the influence of detention involvement in community-based, justice-involved adolescents' marijuana use trajectories. This study also highlights the importance of coordinating prevention/intervention programming for justice-involved youth once they are in the community. PMID:24272742

Ewing, Sarah W Feldstein; Schmiege, Sarah J; Bryan, Angela D

2014-01-01

320

National Sample Assessment Protocols  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These protocols represent a working guide for planning and implementing national sample assessments in connection with the national Key Performance Measures (KPMs). The protocols are intended for agencies involved in planning or conducting national sample assessments and personnel responsible for administering associated tenders or contracts,…

Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2012

2012-01-01

321

Finite Sampling Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Kyle Siegrist of the University of Alabama-Huntsville, this is an online, interactive lesson on finite sampling models. The lesson provides examples, exercises, and applets that include hypergeometric distribution, multivariate hypergeometric distribution, order statistics, the matching problem, the birthday problem, and the coupon collector problem. This is the twelfth of seventeen different lessons created by Siegrist. This site is structured much like an online textbook.

Siegrist, Kyle

322

The Relationship Between Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms and Substance Use Among Adolescents Involved with Child Welfare: Implications for Emerging Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in predicting substance use\\u000a and substance-related problems in a sample of older youth and emerging adults involved with child welfare. The sample was\\u000a drawn from the Maltreatment and Adolescent Pathways (MAP) longitudinal study (Wekerle et al. 2009). Participants were 253 youth and emerging adults

Abby L. Goldstein; Christine Wekerle; Lil Tonmyr; Tiffany Thornton; Randall Waechter; Jessica Pereira; Ronald Chung

323

Treat Medication Samples with Respect  

MedlinePLUS

... a voucher program for medication samples. Problems with medication samples begin when they are dispensed from the office without clear instructions for use. Errors of all types have occurred when patients are ...

324

Gang Involvement and Membership among Homeless and Runaway Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed the extent of gang involvement among homeless and runaway youth, comparing gang members, gang-involved youth (not members), and non-gang youth on several dimensions. Interview data indicated that 15.4 percent of the youth were gang members and 32.2 percent were involved in gangs. These youth reported more family problems and school…

Yoder, Kevin A.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.

2003-01-01

325

Improving Reading Skills through Parental Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a project for increasing parental involvement through the existing reading program. The targeted first and second grade students lived in growing rural, Midwestern, low to middle class communities located in north central Illinois. The problem was noted in literature by researchers who found that parents had a very limited…

Clark, Kathryn; Pillion, Jennifer

326

Parent Involvement. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What are some ways in which to get parents meaningfully involved in their child's high school? According to the research, the most successful programs are those that provide a variety of ways in which parents can be actively engaged in their child's academic life. Joyce Epstein, Director of the National Network of Partnership Schools, out of Johns…

Walker, Karen

2007-01-01

327

Getting Parents Involved.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a parental involvement program in reading, writing, and human education. The project consists of caring for Clifford, a stuffed toy dog, on a rotated basis by first grade students. Books and pet care items accompany Clifford and provide an opportunity for parent and child to work together. (ML)

Butts, Vickie; Finch, Patty A.

1985-01-01

328

Strengthening Parent Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent studies have verified Secretary of Education William Bennett's observation on the importance of home and family life. The most successful students are those whose parents become actively engaged in the educational process at home and at school. To capitalize on potential parent involvement, principals need to understand the kinds of…

Williams, David L., Jr.; Chavkin, Nancy Feyl

1986-01-01

329

Orbit/deorbit analysis for the Mars rover sample return mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four astrodynamic problems involved in a combined Mars rover and surface sample return mission projected for the early 1990s are explored. Two of the problems are associated with the satisfaction of the specific mission requirements at Mars, calling for the initial orbit entered into at Mars to be highly eccentric and to have a very low periapsis altitude (about 250 km). The problem of placing an areosynchronous communications satellite in orbit around Mars is then discussed. Finally, the problem of deorbiting to a specified landing site from a highly eccentric orbit is considered.

Penzo, Paul A.

1988-01-01

330

Parent Involvement. Beginnings Workshop.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six articles discuss the relationship between parents and teachers: (1) "Creating Partnership with Families: Problem-Solving Through Communication" (Keyser); (2) "Changing Our Attitudes and Actions in Working With Families" (Hilliard and Pelo); (3) "Including Parents in the Process of Documentation" (Hall, Oleson, and Gambetti); (4) "Empowering…

Keyser, Janis; Carter, Margie; Hall, Ellen; Oleson, Vicki; Gambetti, Amelia

2001-01-01

331

An automated blood sampler for simultaneous sampling of systemic blood and brain microdialysates for drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: A major problem in preclinical drug development where blood sampling from small animals is a routine practice is the time and labor involved in the serial sampling of small blood volumes from small animals such as rats for the duration of pharmacokinetic\\/pharmacodynamic (PK\\/PD) studies. The traditional method of manually drawing blood from the animal requires the animal to be

P. Chandrani Gunaratna; Peter T. Kissinger; Candice B. Kissinger; James F. Gitzen

2004-01-01

332

Sampling the Ocean Floor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students take samples from an unseen model of the ocean floor and try to accurately describe its composition. It will introduce the students to the limitations of sampling and the problem of obtaining representative samples of sea floor sediments. The lesson can also be an introduction to a study of geological oceanography or local geology. Younger children can use symbols or icons to keep track of the different sediment types as they sample, and make graphs of the total numbers of each type of sediment. Older students can compute percentages and compare the accuracy of each sample group to the actual composition of the ocean floor.

333

Individualized Math Problems in Fractions. Oregon Vo-Tech Mathematics Problem Sets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of eighteen sets of individualized mathematics problems developed by the Oregon Vo-Tech Math Project. Each of these problem packages is organized around a mathematical topic and contains problems related to diverse vocations. Solutions are provided for all problems. This package contains problems involving computation with common…

Cosler, Norma, Ed.

334

Individualized Math Problems in Measurement and Conversion. Oregon Vo-Tech Mathematics Problem Sets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of eighteen sets of individualized mathematics problems developed by the Oregon Vo-Tech Math Project. Each of these problem packages is organized around a mathematical topic and contains problems related to diverse vocations. Solutions are provided for all problems. This volume includes problems involving measurement, computation of…

Cosler, Norma, Ed.

335

Equivalent differentiable optimization problems and descent methods for asymmetric variational inequality problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether or not the general asymmetric variational inequality problem can be formulated as a differentiable optimization problem has been an open question. This paper gives an affirmative answer to this question. We provide a new optimization problem formulation of the variational inequality problem, and show that its objective function is continuously differentiable whenever the mapping involved in the latter problem

Masao Fukushima

1992-01-01

336

Individualized Math Problems in Graphs and Tables. Oregon Vo-Tech Mathematics Problem Sets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of eighteen sets of individualized mathematics problems developed by the Oregon Vo-Tech Math Project. Each of these problem packages is organized around a mathematical topic and contains problems related to diverse vocations. Solutions are provided for all problems. Problems involving the construction and interpretation of graphs and…

Cosler, Norma, Ed.

337

Individualized Math Problems in Whole Numbers. Oregon Vo-Tech Mathematics Problem Sets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of eighteen sets of individualized mathematics problems developed by the Oregon Vo-Tech Math Project. Each of these problem packages is organized around a mathematical topic and contains problems related to diverse vocations. Solutions are provided for all problems. Problems in this set require computations involving whole numbers.…

Cosler, Norma, Ed.

338

Individualized Math Problems in Ratio and Proportion. Oregon Vo-Tech Mathematics Problem Sets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of eighteen sets of individualized mathematics problems developed by the Oregon Vo-Tech Math Project. Each of these problem packages is organized around a mathematical topic and contains problems related to diverse vocations. Solutions are provided for all problems. This volume contains problems involving ratio and proportion. Some…

Cosler, Norma, Ed.

339

Weekly Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an archive of previous problems from "Math by the Month", a regular department of Teaching Children Mathematics Journal from NCTM for K-5 teachers that features activities organized by grades K-2 and grades 3-5 and usually based on a theme associated with the particular month. Activities and problems posed are classroom-tested with an inquiry or problem-solving orientation.

2011-01-01

340

A Single-Sample Multiple Decision Procedure for Ranking Means of Normal Populations with known Variances  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with a single-sample multiple decision procedure for ranking means of normal populations with known variances. Problems which conventionally are handled by the analysis of variance (Model I) which tests the hypothesis that $k$ means are equal are reformulated as multiple decision procedures involving rankings. It is shown how to design experiments so that useful statements can

Robert E. Bechhofer

1954-01-01

341

Instructional Effects on Performance in a Matching-to-Sample Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conducting studies using an undergraduate participant pool is fraught with difficulties. Among them are problems with adequately motivating subjects both to come to the study, and once there, to actively engage the experimental task. Thirty-one college students participated in a matching-to-sample (MTS) study involving substantial training,…

Drake, Chad E.; Wilson, Kelly G.

2008-01-01

342

The Problem of Managing a Strategic Reserve.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem of managing the reserve of cobalt is presented, followed by a method for bringing the stockpiled amount from any level to a desired goal. Solving a stochastic programming problem is involved. The procedure is discussed in detail. (MNS)

Cole, David; And Others

1986-01-01

343

A Parallel Tempering algorithm for probabilistic sampling and multimodal optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-linear inverse problems in the geosciences often involve probabilistic sampling of multimodal density functions or global optimization and sometimes both. Efficient algorithmic tools for carrying out sampling or optimization in challenging cases are of major interest. Here results are presented of some numerical experiments with a technique, known as Parallel Tempering, which originated in the field of computational statistics but is finding increasing numbers of applications in fields ranging from Chemical Physics to Astronomy. To date, experience in use of Parallel Tempering within earth sciences problems is very limited. In this paper, we describe Parallel Tempering and compare it to related methods of Simulated Annealing and Simulated Tempering for optimization and sampling, respectively. A key feature of Parallel Tempering is that it satisfies the detailed balance condition required for convergence of Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC) algorithms while improving the efficiency of probabilistic sampling. Numerical results are presented on use of Parallel Tempering for trans-dimensional inversion of synthetic seismic receiver functions and also the simultaneous fitting of multiple receiver functions using global optimization. These suggest that its use can significantly accelerate sampling algorithms and improve exploration of parameter space in optimization. Parallel Tempering is a meta-algorithm which may be used together with many existing McMC sampling and direct search optimization techniques. It's generality and demonstrated performance suggests that there is significant potential for applications to both sampling and optimization problems in the geosciences.

Sambridge, Malcolm

2014-01-01

344

The Contribution of Game Genre and other Use Patterns to Problem Video Game Play among Adult Video Gamers  

PubMed Central

Aims To assess the contribution of patterns of video game play, including game genre, involvement, and time spent gaming, to problem use symptomatology. Design Nationally representative survey. Setting Online. Participants Large sample (n=3,380) of adult video gamers in the US. Measurements Problem video game play (PVGP) scale, video game genre typology, use patterns (gaming days in the past month and hours on days used), enjoyment, consumer involvement, and background variables. Findings Study confirms game genre's contribution to problem use as well as demographic variation in play patterns that underlie problem video game play vulnerability. Conclusions Identification of a small group of game types positively correlated with problem use suggests new directions for research into the specific design elements and reward mechanics of “addictive” video games. Unique vulnerabilities to problem use among certain groups demonstrate the need for ongoing investigation of health disparities related to contextual dimensions of video game play. PMID:23284310

Ream, Geoffrey; McGinsky, Elizabeth; Dunlap, Eloise

2012-01-01

345

Getting involved in research.  

PubMed

The need for quality nursing research to promote evidence-based practice and optimize patient care is well recognized. This is particularly pertinent in cardiovascular nursing, where cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide (World Health Organization, 2007). Across the spectrum of academic, clinical, and health care administration nursing roles, research remains fundamental to bridging theory, practice, and education (LoBiondo-Wood, Haber, Cameron, & Singh, 2009). Despite recognition of the importance of nursing research, the gap between research and practice continues to be an ongoing issue (Funk, Tornquist, & Champagne, 1995; Pettengill, Gillies, & Clark, 1994; Rizzuto, Bostrom, Suterm, & Chenitz, 1994; Rolfe, 1998). Nurses are appropriately situated to contribute to research that improves clinical outcomes and health service delivery. However, the majority of nurses in clinical practice do not have a significant research component structured into their nursing role. In this research column, the authors outline the importance of nurses being engaged in research and present some different levels of involvement that nurses may assume. A continuum of nursing research involvement includes asking researchable questions, being a savvy consumer of research evidence, finding your own level of research involvement, and aspiring to lead. PMID:21361237

Banner, Davina; Grant, Lyle G

2011-01-01

346

Contextual Problem Solving Model Origination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem solving has become a central focus of instructional activity in technology education classrooms at all levels (Boser, 1993). Impact assessment considerations incorporating society, culture, and economics are factors that require high-level deliberation involving critical thinking and the implementation of problem solving strategy. The…

Ernst, Jeremy V.

2009-01-01

347

Respiratory problems in advanced cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Respiratory problems are an important issue in the palliative care setting, not only from a diagnostic and therapeutic point of view but also from emotion-related aspects involving both the patients and their families and also caregivers. In this paper we consider some of the most common respiratory problems, such as dyspnea, infections, hemoptysis, hiccup. A review of the literature was

Carla Ripamonti; Flavio Fusco

2002-01-01

348

COMPLEMENTARITY PROBLEMS IN ENGINEERING MECHANICS  

E-print Network

COMPLEMENTARITY PROBLEMS IN ENGINEERING MECHANICS: MODELS AND SOLUTION F. Tin­Loi 1 and M. C. Ferris 2 1 School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 A large class of problems in engineering mechanics involves a so­called ``complementarity'' relationship

Ferris, Michael C.

349

Problem Solving, Scaffolding and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Helping students to construct robust understanding of physics concepts and develop good solving skills is a central goal in many physics classrooms. This thesis examine students' problem solving abilities from different perspectives and explores strategies to scaffold students' learning. In studies involving analogical problem solving…

Lin, Shih-Yin

2012-01-01

350

Cluster Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 4-minute video, educators can watch a teacher deliver a fourth grade lesson on using number sense, arrays, and simpler calculations to solve a more complex problem, called a cluster problem. Watch this teacher check for understanding of multiplicative distribution and the use of arrays.

TeacherLine

2012-01-01

351

Parking Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the story of a real problem, not a problem that is contrived, or invented for the convenience of the appropriate planning tool. This activity by a group of students, defined simply as "8FN", might be likened to an "end of term concert". If you just happened to be a delegate at the ATM Conference 2003 you might remember the analogy. Social…

Foster, Colin

2012-01-01

352

How does motivational interviewing work? Therapist interpersonal skill predicts client involvement within motivational interviewing sessions.  

PubMed

Although many studies have shown that motivational interviewing (MI) is effective in reducing problem behaviors, few have investigated purported causal mechanisms. Therapist interpersonal skills have been proposed as an influence on client involvement during MI sessions and as a necessary precursor to client commitment language. Using the Motivational Interviewing Skills Code (MISC; Version 1.0) rating system, the authors investigated 103 unique MI sessions for substance abuse and found that therapist interpersonal skills were positively associated with client involvement as defined by cooperation, disclosure and expression of affect. An unexpected finding indicated that behaviors inconsistent with MI enhanced the impact of therapist interpersonal skills upon client involvement. Drawbacks to the study include a potential sampling bias and uneven reliability of the variables measured. PMID:16173846

Moyers, Theresa B; Miller, William R; Hendrickson, Stacey M L

2005-08-01

353

ASI Student Involvement Outcomes ASI Student Involvement Outcomes  

E-print Network

ASI Student Involvement Outcomes ASI Student Involvement Outcomes A student involved in the activities, programs, and services of the Associated Students, CSUF, Inc. develops and demonstrates achievement in the following (adopted from the University of Minnesota Student Success Outcomes

de Lijser, Peter

354

Examining Understandings of Parent Involvement in Early Childhood Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of parent involvement in children's development and learning is increasingly recognized in the research literature and in federal and state policies; however, no unified definition of parent involvement exists. This study examined different understandings and definitions of parent involvement in a sample of administrators of…

Hilado, Aimee V.; Kallemeyn, Leanne; Phillips, Lauren

2013-01-01

355

Using product, brand and purchasing involvement for retail segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer involvement with a particular product category has yielded rich results for retail marketing strategy. This research extends the concept by adding brand decision involvement and purchasing involvement as well to derive retail customer segments. An intercept sample of 368 shoppers in four different types of wine shops is used to derive five clusters of shoppers. The typology is validated

Gerrard Macintosh

1997-01-01

356

Stages in Adolescent Involvement in Drug Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two longitudinal surveys based on random samples of high school students in New York State indicate four stages in the sequence of involvement with drugs: beer or wine, or both; cigarettes or hard liquor; marihuana; and other illicit drugs. The legal drugs are necessary intermediates between nonuse and marihuana. Whereas 27 percent of high school students who smoke and drink

Denise Kandel

1975-01-01

357

Employer Involvement in Georgia Youth Apprenticeship Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to provide insight into employer participation in Georgia youth apprenticeship programs that offer work experience and learning at the work site. Data were gathered through a survey sent to a random sample of 206 employers, of the 450 employers involved in youth apprenticeship programs in the state. Analysis of the 121…

Smith, Clifton

1996-01-01

358

Difference Problems and Differential Problems  

E-print Network

We state some elementary problems concerning the relation between difference calculus and differential calculus, and we try to convince the reader that, in spite of the simplicity of the statements, a solution of these problems would be a significant contribution to the understanding of the foundations of differential and integral calculus.

Wolfgang Bertram

2007-12-03

359

Sampling diffusive transition paths  

SciTech Connect

We address the problem of sampling double-ended diffusive paths. The ensemble of paths is expressed using a symmetric version of the Onsager-Machlup formula, which only requires evaluation of the force field and which, upon direct time discretization, gives rise to a symmetric integrator that is accurate to second order. Efficiently sampling this ensemble requires avoiding the well-known stiffness problem associated with sampling infinitesimal Brownian increments of the path, as well as a different type of stiffness associated with sampling the coarse features of long paths. The fine-features sampling stiffness is eliminated with the use of the fast sampling algorithm (FSA), and the coarse-feature sampling stiffness is avoided by introducing the sliding and sampling (S&S) algorithm. A key feature of the S&S algorithm is that it enables massively parallel computers to sample diffusive trajectories that are long in time. We use the algorithm to sample the transition path ensemble for the structural interconversion of the 38-atom Lennard-Jones cluster at low temperature.

F. Miller III, Thomas; Predescu, Cristian

2006-10-12

360

Covariance Matrix Estimation for the Cryo-EM Heterogeneity Problem*  

PubMed Central

In cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), a microscope generates a top view of a sample of randomly oriented copies of a molecule. The problem of single particle reconstruction (SPR) from cryo-EM is to use the resulting set of noisy two-dimensional projection images taken at unknown directions to reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the molecule. In some situations, the molecule under examination exhibits structural variability, which poses a fundamental challenge in SPR. The heterogeneity problem is the task of mapping the space of conformational states of a molecule. It has been previously suggested that the leading eigenvectors of the covariance matrix of the 3D molecules can be used to solve the heterogeneity problem. Estimating the covariance matrix is challenging, since only projections of the molecules are observed, but not the molecules themselves. In this paper, we formulate a general problem of covariance estimation from noisy projections of samples. This problem has intimate connections with matrix completion problems and high-dimensional principal component analysis. We propose an estimator and prove its consistency. When there are finitely many heterogeneity classes, the spectrum of the estimated covariance matrix reveals the number of classes. The estimator can be found as the solution to a certain linear system. In the cryo-EM case, the linear operator to be inverted, which we term the projection covariance transform, is an important object in covariance estimation for tomographic problems involving structural variation. Inverting it involves applying a filter akin to the ramp filter in tomography. We design a basis in which this linear operator is sparse and thus can be tractably inverted despite its large size. We demonstrate via numerical experiments on synthetic datasets the robustness of our algorithm to high levels of noise. PMID:25699132

Katsevich, E.; Katsevich, A.; Singer, A.

2015-01-01

361

Sports Participation and Problem Alcohol Use  

PubMed Central

Background Sports participation, though offering numerous developmental benefits for youths, has been associated with adolescent alcohol use. Differences also exist between men/boys and women/girls in both sports participation and patterns of alcohol-related behaviors, but there are few longitudinal investigations of this relationship. Purpose This study investigated the relationship between school-based sports participation and alcohol-related behaviors using data from a multiwave national study of adolescent men/boys and women/girls. Methods Nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, collected between 1994 and 2001, were analyzed in 2009 (n = 8271). Latent growth modeling, accommodating the complex sampling design, was applied to examine whether participation in school-based sports was associated with initial levels and change in problem alcohol use over three waves of data collection. Results After taking into account time-invariant covariates including demographics and other predictors of alcohol use, greater involvement in sports during adolescence was associated with faster average acceleration in problem alcohol use over time among youths who took part in only sports. The findings suggest, however, that the relationship between sports participation and problem alcohol use depends on participation in sports in combination with other activities, but it does not differ between men/boys and women/girls. Conclusions Sports may represent an important and efficient context for selective interventions to prevent problem alcohol use and negative consequences of alcohol use among adolescents. PMID:20409498

Mays, Darren; DePadilla, Lara; Thompson, Nancy J.; Kushner, Howard I.; Windle, Michael

2014-01-01

362

Feeding problems in cystinosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Nephropathic cystinosis, a rare autosomal recessive storage disease characterized by intracellular storage of free cystine\\u000a due to a defect in lysosomal cystine transport, is the most common cause of Fanconi syndrome in childhood. Although manifestations\\u000a of extrarenal organ involvement during the course of the disease are diverse, the spectrum of gastrointestinal (GI) problems\\u000a has not yet been examined. In

Ewa Elenberg; Laura L. Norling; Ronald E. Kleinman; Julie R. Ingelfinger

1998-01-01

363

Urination Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... back or groin? Yes You may have a KIDNEY STONE or another serious problem. EMERGENCY See your doctor ... the bladder, called INTERSTITIAL CYSTITIS, or from a KIDNEY STONE stuck in the bladder, or a chemical in ...

364

Balance Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... symptoms that doctors hear from older patients are: Vertigo. A sensation that everything around you is spinning ... inner ear problems (the most common source of vertigo) headache (including migraines) anxiety or panic ringing in ...

365

Phylogenetics problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students receive information about cladistics and apply this phylogenetic approach to two problems, collecting data, determining whether traits are ancestral or derived, and using this information to select the most parsimonious tree.

Sarah Deel

366

Thyroid Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... treated differently. Common thyroid disorders and problems include: Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism is a disorder in which your thyroid doesn’ ... normal after you get better. If you have hypothyroidism, however, the levels of T4 in your blood ...

367

Functional Assessment of Problem Behavior in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Summary of 32 Outpatient Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine archival data from an outpatient clinic serving children with autism spectrum disorders\\u000a to investigate the occurrence of problem behavior functions in this sample. Results indicated that social reinforcement (e.g.,\\u000a attention from others) was involved in maintaining problem behavior for the majority of cases, suggesting that these children\\u000a lacked socially appropriate responses to

Jessa R. Love; James E. Carr; Linda A. LeBlanc

2009-01-01

368

Perfect Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unsolved problems on perfect graphs, a collection for people with at least a basic knowledge of the subject. Contents include: Perfection of special classes of Berge graphs; Recognition of special classes of Berge graphs; Decompositions of perfect graphs; Minimal imperfect graphs, partitionable graphs, and monsters; Parity problems; The P4-structure; Quantitative variations on the Strong Perfect Graph Conjecture; Intersection graphs; The Markosyan manoeuvre; Appendix: Odds and ends. With a bibliography, and home pages of people interested in perfect graphs.

Chvátal, VasÌ?ek, 1946-

369

Aluminium Involvement in Neurotoxicity  

PubMed Central

The aetiology of neurodegenerative diseases (ND) seems to involve susceptibility genes and environmental factors. Toxic metals are considered major environmental pollutants. Following our study of a case of multiple sclerosis (MS) improvement due to removal of aluminium (Al) and other toxic metals, we have examined the possible relationship between Al intoxication and ND. We used the slow intravenous treatment with the chelating agent EDTA (calcium disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid) (chelation test) to remove Al and detected it in the urine collected from the patients for 12 hours. Patients affected by MS represented 85.6% of total ND. Al was present in 44.8% of cases comprehensive of ND and healthy patients. Al levels were significantly higher in ND patients than in healthy subjects. We here show that treatment of patients affected by Al burden with ten EDTA chelation therapies (EDTA intravenous administration once a week) was able to significantly reduce Al intoxication. PMID:25243176

Fulgenzi, Alessandro; Vietti, Daniele; Ferrero, Maria Elena

2014-01-01

370

Binge Drinking, Tobacco, and Illicit Drug Use and Involvement in College Athletics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Binge drinking (heavy, episodic alcohol consumption), tobacco, and illicit drug use among a random sample of college students at a nationally representative sample of 140 American colleges were examined by means of a mail survey. Students were divided into three groups on the basis of their involvement in athletics: whether they were involved, partly involved, or not involved. In addition,

Henry Wechsler; Andrea E. Davenport; George W. Dowdall; Susan J. Grossman; Sophia I. Zanakos

1997-01-01

371

Problems without Numbers--At First  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three sample physics problems are presented in this article. The solutions to the three problems addresses a major student difficulty in problem solving--knowing where to begin. The first suggested step is to begin by stating what is asked for. Step 2 is identifying the fundamental physics that underlies the problem situation. Step 3 is isolating…

Hewitt, Paul G.

2006-01-01

372

Persistence in Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 5-minute video third grade teacher Jean Saul demonstrates how she uses problem solving tasks to create a classroom climate that fosters persistence, independence, responsibility, and risk-taking. Students are asked to find three different methods for solving each problem and to record them on a Choose Three Ways graphic organizer. Through collaboration and presentation of their work to peers, students develop math language and discourse skills. A side bar provides reflection questions. Supporting materials include a transcript of the video (doc), the graphic organizer (doc), and two samples of student work (pdf).

2012-01-01

373

A Personal Problem Solving Inventory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few studies have explicitly attended to the personal problem-solving process within the counseling literature, perhaps due in part to the dearth of relevant assessment instruments. To examine the dimensions underlying the applied problem-solving process, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted using data collected from four samples of college…

Heppner, P. Paul; Petersen, Chris H.

374

Using Microcomputers to Solve Probability Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Use of the computer to simulate or imitate probability problems that are difficult to analyze in any other way is discussed. How the Monte Carlo method works is clarified, with sample problems and programs. (MNS)

Haigh, William E.

1985-01-01

375

Applying Employee Involvement in Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The applicability of employee-involvement approaches to the management of schools is explored, describing three approaches (parallel-suggestion involvement, job involvement, and high involvement). Design issues (technology; organizational structure; leadership; organizational boundaries, customer definition, and relation to stakeholder; measures;…

Mohrman, Susan Albers; And Others

1992-01-01

376

Connectedness Problem Solving and Negotiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Difficult polarizing problems\\/conflicts are pervasive in the United States and the world. Welcome to spiritual rationality\\/connectedness\\u000a problem solving and negotiation involving spirituality and rationality, and emphasizing connectedness in problem solving.\\u000a In particular, we develop CPSN-ESD—Connectedness Problem Solving and Negotiation (CPSN) through Evolutionary Systems Design\\u000a (ESD)—discussing spiritual rationality\\/connectedness and highlighting connectedness with One and with each other as values,\\u000a among others,

Melvin F. Shakun

2009-01-01

377

Choice, involvement and illusory control 1 Running head: CHOICE, INVOLVEMENT AND ILLUSORY CONTROL  

E-print Network

. These results are discussed in relation to problem gambling, beliefs in the deployability of personal luck, and arousal approaches to risk taking. halshs-00518985,version1-17Sep2010 #12;Choice, involvement and illusory to choose a gamble or another, rather than leaving that decision to another person (e.g., the dealer

Boyer, Edmond

378

[Nail involvement in leprosy].  

PubMed

Leprosy, a disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, primarily affects the skin and nerves, but the nails are also involved in as many as 3 out of 4 patients .The factors that trigger nail changes in leprosy are numerous and include repeated trauma, neuropathy, vascular impairment, infections, lepra reactions, and the drugs used to manage the disease. The changes most often reported include subungual hematomas, onycholysis, onychauxis, onychogryphosis, pterygium unguis, and onychoheterotopia, most of which can be attributed to nerve damage and trauma. Furthermore, the acro-osteolysis that occurs in the advanced stages of the disease may present with brachyonychia, racquet nails, or even anonychia. Infections of the nail bed leading to paronychia and onychomycosis should also be taken into account in leprosy. Other typical changes include longitudinal striae, pitting, macrolunula, Terry nails, leukonychia, hapalonychia, and Beau lines. In this review, we describe the principal nail changes associated with leprosy. These changes, which are highly varied and diverse in origin, are in fact a reflection of the significant morbidity caused by M. leprae infection. PMID:22056258

Belinchón Romero, I; Ramos Rincón, J M; Reyes Rabell, F

2012-05-01

379

Remote gas sampling with a swirl air stream.  

PubMed

One of the promising techniques of remote gas sampling from the surface or from the inside of an object involves the use of a swirl air stream. The case in which a swirl sampling stream produces a vortex core of a composite swirl is of most interest. But a practical implementation of a vortex sampling faces major problems due to the fact that the majority of the available gas analyzers feature a low analytical flow. This offers limitations on sampling distance and reduced pressure created at the object surface. This paper deals with the problem of adjusting vortex and sampling flows for a mass-spectrometer with atmospheric pressure ionization used for remote sampling of diethylanyline vapors. It is shown experimentally that additional sampling flow (Q(add)) that coaxially envelops an analytical channel allows one to achieve conditions required for the formation of a vortex core, which is characterized by an increased tangential component of the flow velocity at its boundary and abnormally low pressure on the core axis. A satisfactory agreement between the calculations by the composite vortex model and the experiment is obtained. The studies performed have shown that the optimal relationship between vortex (Q(vortex)) and additional flows is Q(vortex)/Q(add)=1.3 and is symbate in terms of both gas dynamic parameters (minimal diameter of a backflow core) and sampling efficiency. It is shown that both the sampling distance and sampling area depend mainly on geometric sampler parameters. The experiments performed have revealed the unique ability of a vortex sampling flow in the form of a composite vortex to focus the sample inside the vortex core, thus preventing its dilution over the backflow. PMID:20188922

Kolomiets, Yuri N; Pervukhin, Viktor V

2010-04-15

380

Quantum rejection sampling  

E-print Network

Rejection sampling is a well-known method to sample from a target distribution, given the ability to sample from a given distribution. The method has been first formalized by von Neumann (1951) and has many applications in classical computing. We define a quantum analogue of rejection sampling: given a black box producing a coherent superposition of (possibly unknown) quantum states with some amplitudes, the problem is to prepare a coherent superposition of the same states, albeit with different target amplitudes. The main result of this paper is a tight characterization of the query complexity of this quantum state generation problem. We exhibit an algorithm, which we call quantum rejection sampling, and analyze its cost using semidefinite programming. Our proof of a matching lower bound is based on the automorphism principle which allows to symmetrize any algorithm over the automorphism group of the problem. Our main technical innovation is an extension of the automorphism principle to continuous groups that arise for quantum state generation problems where the oracle encodes unknown quantum states, instead of just classical data. Furthermore, we illustrate how quantum rejection sampling may be used as a primitive in designing quantum algorithms, by providing three different applications. We first show that it was implicitly used in the quantum algorithm for linear systems of equations by Harrow, Hassidim and Lloyd. Secondly, we show that it can be used to speed up the main step in the quantum Metropolis sampling algorithm by Temme et al.. Finally, we derive a new quantum algorithm for the hidden shift problem of an arbitrary Boolean function and relate its query complexity to "water-filling" of the Fourier spectrum.

Maris Ozols; Martin Roetteler; Jérémie Roland

2011-12-13

381

An Emerging Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined correlates of methamphetamine (MA) and marijuana (MJ) use and treatment response among treatment-involved youth (N = 4,430) in Los Angeles County, California treated between 2000 and 2005. Of the sample, 912 (21%) were primary MA and 3,518 (79%) were primary MJ users. Correlates of increased MA use included being female, White, Asian or Latino, older age, previous

Rachel Gonzales; Alfonso Ang; Michael J. McCann; Richard A. Rawson

2008-01-01

382

Ways of coping and involvement in prison violence.  

PubMed

Prison violence generates serious problems in prisons across the United States. This study examined whether prisoners' ways of coping affected their involvement in violence. The study also examined traditional personal predictors of violence. The research used a mixed methods approach and included self-report surveys administered to a stratified random sample of 312 prisoners in medium and maximum security facilities, data from the prison system's database, and in-depth interviews conducted with 51 staff members and prisoners. In the full model with the control variables, three of the eight ways of coping studied were directly related to violence. Prisoners who elicited both emotional and instrumental support from loved ones, fellow prisoners, and staff were less likely to be violent. Those who coped through joking and bravado, and who took direct action in response to stressors were more likely to be involved in violence. The qualitative data uncovered evidence of prisoners' campaign for respect and impression management that could be used by prison administrators to help create initiatives and a prison environment that might result in less violence. PMID:24265308

Rocheleau, Ann Marie

2015-04-01

383

Efficiency Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multibase arithmetic blocks are used to investigate the minimum number of blocks of each size to make a square of a given size in a given base. Generalizations are made to any size and any base through pattern recognition. The problem is extended to rectangles, cubes, and rectangular solids. (LS)

Willcutt, Bob

1974-01-01

384

Heat Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Heat problems and heat cramps related to jogging can be caused by fluid imbalances, medications, dietary insufficiency, vomiting or diarrhea, among other factors. If the condition keeps reoccurring, the advice of a physician should be sought. Some preventive measures that can be taken include: (1) running during the cooler hours of the day; (2)…

Connors, G. Patrick

385

Sexual Problems  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... subjective and takes into account the person’s age, physical health, and personal life circumstances. In combined arousal disorder, ... may be a physician, psychologist, social worker, or physical therapist. You ... problem. Education is important in understanding the anatomy and physiology ...

386

Nonprobability Sampling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, created by author William M.K. Trochim, describes numerous methods of nonprobability sampling, including accidental, haphazard or convenience sampling and many other types of purposive methods. Some of these purposive methods he describes are: modal instance, expert, quota, heterogeneity, and snowball sampling. Overall, this is a good, albeit brief, overview of the subject of nonprobability sampling.

Trochim, William M.K.

387

Sampling for area estimation: A comparison of full-frame sampling with the sample segment approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Full-frame classifications of wheat and non-wheat for eighty counties in Kansas were repetitively sampled to simulate alternative sampling plans. Evaluation of four sampling schemes involving different numbers of samples and different size sampling units shows that the precision of the wheat estimates increased as the segment size decreased and the number of segments was increased. Although the average bias associated with the various sampling schemes was not significantly different, the maximum absolute bias was directly related to sampling size unit.

Hixson, M.; Bauer, M. E.; Davis, B. J. (principal investigators)

1979-01-01

388

A Meta-Analysis of Parental Involvement and Gifted Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how parental involvement is considered a remedy for many educational problems by educators. Conducts meta-analysis to synthesize the quantitative literature on the relationship between parental involvement and gifted development. Concludes that internal effects for gifted development have a stronger relationship than parents'…

Kim, Sung-Won; Choi, Sung Youn

2002-01-01

389

Attributes Heeded When Representing an Osmosis Problem.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eighteen high school science students were involved in a study to determine what attributes in the problem statement they need when representing a typical osmosis problem. In order to realize this goal students were asked to solve problems aloud and to explain their answers. Included as a part of the results are the attributes that the students…

Zuckerman, June Trop

390

Time Estimation Deficits in Developmental Dyslexia: Evidence of Cerebellar Involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to their language-related difficulties, dyslexic children suffer problems in motor skill, balance, automatization and speeded performance. Given the recent evidence for cerebellar involvement in the acquisition of language fluency, these problems suggest cerebellar deficit. To test the hypothesis of cerebellar dysfunction in dyslexia, a time estimation task considered to be a sensitive index of cerebellar function was administered

Roderick I. Nicolson; Angela J. Fawcett; Paul Dean

1995-01-01

391

Parents’ At-Home and At-School Academic Involvement with Young Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process-person-context model was used to investigate parental academic involvement with a nationally representative sample of young adolescents. Fathers of young adolescents were less involved at school than were mothers but similarly involved academically at home. Parents of struggling students were involved more in homework assistance and parents of successful students were involved more at school than were other parents.

Lee Shumow; Jon D. Miller

2001-01-01

392

Zoster sine herpete with bilateral ocular involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To report a case of zoster sine herpete with bilateral ocular involvement.METHOD: Case report.RESULTS: A 65-year-old man showed bilateral iridocyclitis with sectoral iris atrophy and elevated intraocular pressure unresponsive to steroid treatment. No cutaneous eruption was manifest on the forehead. A target region of varicella-zoster virus DNA sequence was amplified from the aqueous sample from the left eye by

Makoto Nakamura; Masumi Tanabe; Yuko Yamada; Atsushi Azumi

2000-01-01

393

Model problem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our purpose in examining this test problem is to measure directly the effect of mesh refinement and the resulting mesh interfaces on a known wave that is sensitive to phase errors, while concurrently being able to visually display a meaningful picture of the effects of the refinement induced error on the solution. The refined mesh must be able to adequately capture the diffraction behavior, so that the plane wave front bends as it passes through the slit. Given that the coarse and refined meshes are sufficiently accurate, the phase errors introduced during the problem solution will be a function of th sound speed on the two grids plus the coarse/refined grid interaction errors.

Perkins, A. Louise

1991-01-01

394

Annealed Importance Sampling Reversible Jump MCMC algorithms  

SciTech Connect

It will soon be 20 years since reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (RJ-MCMC) algorithms have been proposed. They have significantly extended the scope of Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation methods, offering the promise to be able to routinely tackle transdimensional sampling problems, as encountered in Bayesian model selection problems for example, in a principled and flexible fashion. Their practical efficient implementation, however, still remains a challenge. A particular difficulty encountered in practice is in the choice of the dimension matching variables (both their nature and their distribution) and the reversible transformations which allow one to define the one-to-one mappings underpinning the design of these algorithms. Indeed, even seemingly sensible choices can lead to algorithms with very poor performance. The focus of this paper is the development and performance evaluation of a method, annealed importance sampling RJ-MCMC (aisRJ), which addresses this problem by mitigating the sensitivity of RJ-MCMC algorithms to the aforementioned poor design. As we shall see the algorithm can be understood as being an “exact approximation” of an idealized MCMC algorithm that would sample from the model probabilities directly in a model selection set-up. Such an idealized algorithm may have good theoretical convergence properties, but typically cannot be implemented, and our algorithms can approximate the performance of such idealized algorithms to an arbitrary degree while not introducing any bias for any degree of approximation. Our approach combines the dimension matching ideas of RJ-MCMC with annealed importance sampling and its Markov chain Monte Carlo implementation. We illustrate the performance of the algorithm with numerical simulations which indicate that, although the approach may at first appear computationally involved, it is in fact competitive.

Karagiannis, Georgios; Andrieu, Christophe

2013-03-20

395

Problem Behaviors among Israeli Undergraduate Students: Applying Jessor’s Problem Behavior Theory among Young Adult Students  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The current study tested the applicability of Jessor’s problem behavior theory (PBT) in Ariel University. Methods: A structured, self-reported, anonymous questionnaire was administered to undergraduate students. The final study sample included 1,360 participants (882 females and 478 males, mean age 25, SD?=?2.9, range?=?17). Results: Findings indicated that the PBT was replicated in this sample. As shown from the hierarchal linear regression model, religiosity and high-academic achievements were found to be strong and significant protective factors that reduce risk behaviors. Among young and religious students, the personal vulnerability has almost no impact on involvement in risk behaviors. Conclusion: The PBT finds empirical support in this young adult undergraduate Israeli sample. PMID:25566519

Korn, Liat; Shaked, Yael; Fogel-Grinvald, Haya

2014-01-01

396

1. Introduction Obtaining valid reservoir fluid samples is  

E-print Network

sampling (BHS) techniques; development work in- volving improved sampling methodology; on-site sampling to formation test samples. 3. Research studies on BHS techniques State-of-the-art BHS technology now involves

Williams, John M.

397

RESEARCH OR TEACHING INVOLVING ANIMALS  

E-print Network

Page 1 RESEARCH OR TEACHING INVOLVING ANIMALS University Policy No: RH8110 Classification: Research for Conducting Research or Teaching Involving Animals Animal Care Committee Terms of Reference PURPOSE 1.00 The purpose of this policy is to set out provisions to ensure that all research or teaching involving animals

Victoria, University of

398

Measuring Involvement with Social Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study applied research concepts from consumer product involvement to test a model for research on involvement with social issues. Issue involvement was defined as the state or level of perceived importance and/or interest evoked by a stimulus (issue) within a specific situation. Attitudes on four social issues--abortion, pornography, the…

Nowak, Glen J.; Salmon, Charles T.

399

Best Ways to Involve Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is no secret that strong parental involvement is essential for school success. Yet, it is still a challenge to get parents more involved in their children's education. According to the most recent MetLife Survey of the American Teacher, teachers and principals agree on the importance of parental involvement--71% of principals and 59% of…

Padgett, Raven

2006-01-01

400

Parent Involvement in elementary education  

Microsoft Academic Search

While parent involvement is beneficial to elementary students' learning performance and the internet change the learning environment, there are few researches discussing about how parents involve in virtual world. We implement a two-year project about parent involvement behavior at home, school and internet. In the first stage of our research, we proposed an E-Homebook system which provided a communication interface

Hsi-mei Chen; Cheng-sian Chang

401

Paternal involvement among unwed fathers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paternal involvement among unwed fathers is examined during pregnancy and at birth. The effects of relationship status, race and ethnicity, age, education, income, family structure and father values on father involvement are also examined. The findings suggest that overall there is a high degree of involvement among all the fathers examined. Relationship status is statistically significant and most predictive in

Waldo E. Johnson

2001-01-01

402

The Yo-Yo Problem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners explore linear patterns, write a pattern in symbolic form, and solve linear equations using algebra tiles, symbolic manipulation, and a graphing calculator. The lesson begins with the presentation of the yo-yo problem. Then learners complete a hands-on activity involving a design created with pennies. Algebra tiles are introduced next as learners practice solving linear equations. Finally, learners return to solving the yo-yo problem.

PBS

2012-01-01

403

Ethical issues involving the internet  

SciTech Connect

During the 90`s, the {open_quotes}Information Superhighway{close_quotes} has received widespread publicity. Many campuses have participated in this drive to an information based society by becoming participating nodes on the Internet. As an information provider, the Internet has the potential to change the college experience in many ways, both good and bad. It also poses a number of problems for college students in areas such as privacy, access, and honesty. It provides professors with a dynamic information storage and retrieval tool that offers the opportunity to modernize both curriculum experiences and pedagogical approaches. On some campuses, Internet access and capability has become so important that course modules and whole courses are being built. The panelists will each discuss a different issue involved with making the Internet more integral to the collegiate environment. The first panelist will consider risks and threats that an institution of higher learning must consider as it approaches Internet use will be presented. The steps an institution took to build policies and deal with {open_quotes}inevitable incidents{close_quotes} that will occur as the Internet is opened to full use by both students and faculty. The second panelist will present four computer ethics Each module uses the abundance and dynamism of Internet information to provide challenging {open_quotes}Ethics in the Computer Workplace{close_quotes} experiences that could not easily be done by traditional means. The third panelist will discuss a course module that explores both the positive and negative potential of the Internet. The costs and ease of Internet access, as well as normally available Internet tools, are also presented. This module has been used in a course called {open_quotes}Ethical and Social Issues in Computer Science{close_quotes} and will be used in a general-education course to be offered beginning in 1994-95.

Scott, T.J. [Western Illinois Univ., Macomb, IL (United States); Kallman, E.A. [Bentley College, Waltham, MA (United States); Lelewer, D. [California State Univ., Pomona, CA (United States)

1994-12-31

404

Sampling Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Accurate analytical data for pharmaceutical dosage forms are dependent on adequate sample preparation and appropriate sample\\u000a analysis methods. In addition, in order for the results to truly reflect the quality of the overall batch, the sample tested\\u000a must be representative of the batch. Sampling is the first step and a critical aspect of the overall analysis process. Many\\u000a analysts, however,

Dawen Kou; Hua Ma; Edmund J. Bishop; Shangdong Zhan; Hitesh P. Chokshi

405

Collecting Samples  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Collecting Samples at Embden 3. Embden 3 is a 60-degree V trapezoidal flume in a bured concreate culvert located on the other side of the north-south road east of the large data shelter. The flow is measured and sampled from the V flume underground and periodic QW grab samples are taken form the blu...

406

Probability Sampling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, created by author William M.K. Trochim, describes in detail five different types of random sampling. Some of these types include: simple random, stratified random, systematic random, cluster random, multi-stage sampling. The author provides examples, definitions, and the procedures behind the methods. Overall, this site provides a nice overview of probability sampling.

Trochim, William M.K.

407

Underlying Dimensions of Apparel Involvement in Consumers' Purchase Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this study were (a) to determine if apparel involvement is composed of more than one dimension and, if composed of more than one dimension, (b) to determine if variation in apparel involvement dimensions is explained by fiber information sources and demographics. The sample chosen for this study was female apparel consumers (n = 540) from three Southern

Jane Boyd Thomas; Nancy L. Cassill; Sandra M. Forsythe

1991-01-01

408

Ethnicity and Language Contributions to Dimensions of Parent Involvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined ethnic and language group differences on dimensions of parent-rated and teacher-rated parent involvement after adjusting for the influence of family socioeconomic factors. A total of 179 teachers and 481 parents provided information on parent school involvement for a sample of ethnically and linguistically diverse first-grade…

Wong, Shuk Wa; Hughes, Jan N.

2006-01-01

409

Parental involvement in schools: The perspectives of Cypriot principals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the findings of a survey study conducted in Cyprus primary state schools, which aimed at outlining principals' perspectives concerning parental involvement in school life. The research involved a representative sample of principals of the schools concerned. The analysis and interpretation of the data indicated that current home-school links are extremely limited. It was also found that even

Loizos Symeou

2009-01-01

410

THE PREVALENCE OF CANNABIS-INVOLVED DRIVING IN CALIFORNIA  

PubMed Central

Background Various national surveys suggest that cannabis use is rising nationally, and many States have passed legislation that has potential to increase usage even further. This presents a problem for public roadways, as research suggests that cannabis impairs driving ability. Methods Anonymous oral fluid samples and breath tests were obtained from more than 900 weekend nighttime drivers randomly sampled from six jurisdictions in California. Oral fluid samples were assayed for the presence of Schedule I drugs. Drivers also completed information on self-reported drug use and possession of a medical cannabis permit. Data from the 2007 National Roadside Survey (collected using comparable methods) were used as a comparison. Results Using the 2010 data, a total of 14.4% of weekend nighttime drivers tested positive for illegal drugs, with 8.5% testing positive for delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). THC-positive rates varied considerably among jurisdictions, from a low of 4.3% in Fresno to a high of 18.3% in Eureka. A comparison with the 2007 NRS data found an increase in THC-positive drivers in 2010, but no increase in illegal drugs other than cannabis. Drivers who reported having a medical cannabis permit were significantly more likely to test positive for THC. Conclusions Cannabis-involved driving has increased in California since 2007. Nearly 1-in-10 weekend, nighttime drivers tested positive for THC, and in some jurisdictions, the rate was nearly 1-in-5. The possible contribution of cannabis legislation, such as decriminalization and medical cannabis usage, is discussed. PMID:22101027

Johnson, Mark B.; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Voas, Robert B.; Lacey, John H.

2013-01-01

411

SOIL AND SEDIMENT SAMPLING METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response's (OSWER) Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI) needs innovative methods and techniques to solve new and difficult sampling and analytical problems found at the numerous Superfund sites throughout th...

412

Psychological Problems, Protective Factors and Health-Related Quality of Life in Youth Affected by Violence: The Burden of the Multiply Victimised  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates self-rated mental health in terms of psychological problems, protective factors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n = 6813) aged 11-17 involved in violence with varying frequency. Using MANCOVA and ANCOVA, youth with single and multiple histories of violent…

Schlack, Robert; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Petermann, Franz

2013-01-01

413

Approximation Algorithms and Heuristics for a 2-depot, Heterogeneous Hamiltonian Path Problem  

E-print Network

heterogeneous vehicles. As the addressed routing problem is NP-Hard, we develop an approximation algorithm and heuristics to solve the problem. Our approach involves dividing the routing problem into two sub-problems: Partitioning and Sequencing. Partitioning...

Doshi, Riddhi Rajeev

2011-10-21

414

Monoarticular Hip Involvement in Pseudogout  

PubMed Central

Pseudogout is the acutest form of arthritis in the elderly. Although clinical manifestations vary widely, polyarticular involvement is typical mimicking osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. Monoarticular involvement is relatively rare and is generally provoked by another medical condition. There are reported cases of hip involvement by pseudogout in monoarticular form. However, all of the cases were presented as septic arthritis. In this report, we present a case of monoarticular hip involvement mimicking soft tissue abscess. We confirmed the pseudogout diagnosis after ultrasonographic evaluation of the involved hip joint and pathological and biochemical analysis of synovial fluid analysis. Diagnosis is important to avoid unnecessary medical and surgical treatment in cases of the bizarre involvement of hip in pseudogout.

Kocyigit, Figen; Kuyucu, Ersin; Kocyigit, Ali

2015-01-01

415

Principles for Sampling Airborne Radioactivity from Stacks  

SciTech Connect

This book chapter describes the special processes involved in sampling the airborne effluents from nuclear faciities. The title of the book is Radioactive Air Sampling Methods. The abstract for this chapter was cleared as PNNL-SA-45941.

Glissmeyer, John A.

2010-10-18

416

Word Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the last topic in the series of lessons on math provided by DeafTEC. Gary Blatto-Vallee, a math and science instructor at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf, guides viewers through a variety of mathematical exercises in this DeafTEC video series. All lessons are fully captioned, signed in ASL, and voiced. In this section, three videos are included that show students how to solve word problems of systems of two equations. This section builds on everything students have learned in the previous videos about working with polynomials and exponents as well as methods for solving systems of two equations. See the main Math Video Resources page for an introduction to this video series.

Blatto-Vallee, Gary

417

Finite element procedure for heat conduction problems with internal heating  

SciTech Connect

Heat transfer problems involving temperature-dependent heat generation are formally equivalent to those involving variable specific heat such as occur in phase change situations. The use of distributed and lumped capacitance finite element methods for solving these problems is investigated. The technique is successfully applied to very severe internal heating problems such as the self-ignition of biological materials.

Pham, Q.T. [Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia). School of Chemical Engineering and Industrial Chemistry

1995-05-01

418

Parental attributions and parental involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the existing relation between parental attributions of their child’s achievement, their belief in getting\\u000a involved in the child’s educational process and their actual behavior regarding this involvement. The participating parents\\u000a (N = 313) were asked to complete the Parental Attributions Scale and the Parental Involvement Scale. They were also asked to\\u000a state to what degree they believed that parents

Stelios N. Georgiou; Anna Tourva

2007-01-01

419

Breast involvement in visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Visceral leishmaniasis usually involves the bone marrow, lymph nodes, liver and spleen. Involvement of the eye or respiratory or gastrointestinal systems is very rare and usually occurs in immunodepressed patients. Only one case of breast involvement by protozoa has been reported in the literature. We report a case of a visceral leishmaniasis with a solid breast mass caused by leishmania and diagnosed by sonography-guided core biopsy. PMID:19705438

Alimoglu, Emel; Ceken, Kagan; Cassano, Enrico; Durum, Yasemin; Pestereli, Elif

2009-01-01

420

Social Problems of the Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

By making better predictions, we can prepare better for the future. We cannot even hope to prepare per- fectly, no matter how good our predictions may be. However, where social organization is concerned, prepar- ing is always better than being taken by surprise. Like much else in the past hundred years, the problems of the future will probably involve science

Lorne Tepperman; James Curtis

2003-01-01

421

Breathing Problems: An Individualized Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As one of the components of the Project ACTIVE (All Children Totally Involved Exercising) Teacher Training Model Kit, the manual is designed to enable the educator to organize, conduct, and evaluate individualized-personalized physical education programs for children (prekindergarten through high school) with breathing problems. An introductory…

Vodola, Thomas M.

422

Grasers: proposals, problems, and prospects  

SciTech Connect

The possibility and potentiality of amplification of recoilless radiation emitted by nuclear isomers has long been recognized; nevertheless, development of gamma-ray lasers continues to await resolution of the pumping vs. linebreadth dilemma. Problems that accompany proposals for reducing the excitation requirements and suggest areas of investigation that may contribute to resolving the dilemma are identified; several involve use of optical lasers.

Baldwin, G.C.

1982-01-01

423

Grade 1 Practice Problems: Algebra  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains thirty-three problems involving algebraic thinking from the Port Angeles School District in Washington state. Links to state GLEs and revised standards are provided. Topics covered include patterns, and concepts of equality and inequality and applications of arithmetic.

2011-01-01

424

Ethical Issues in Clinical Trials Involving Nanomedicine  

PubMed Central

Nanomedicine shows tremendous promise for improving medical diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, but it also raises a variety of ethical concerns. Because of the paucity of data on the physicochemical properties of nanoscale materials in biological systems, clinical trials of nanomedicine products present some unique challenges related to risk minimization, management and communication involving human subjects. Although these clinical trials do not raise any truly novel ethical issues, the rapid development of nanotechnology and its potentially profound social and environmental impacts, add a sense of urgency to the problems that arise. PMID:17166777

Resnik, David B.; Tinkle, Sally S.

2009-01-01

425

Metacognitions in problem gambling.  

PubMed

Problem gambling is heterogeneous in nature, ranging in severity from occasional but problematic gambling episodes, to extreme, impulsive and pervasive gambling behaviour. Problem gambling may be accompanied by a sense of impaired control and can give rise to financial, interpersonal, legal and vocational costs for the sufferer, their families and society. This study investigated the relationship among metacognitions, anxiety, depression and gambling in a sample of problem gamblers. A total of 91 individuals attending gambling treatment services completed a battery of self-report instruments that consisted of the Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 (MCQ-30), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the South Oaks Gambling Scale (SOGS). Correlation analyses showed that anxiety, depression and metacognitions were positively and significantly correlated with both gambling consequences and behaviour. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that two metacognitive constructs (negative beliefs about thoughts concerning uncontrollability and danger and beliefs about the need to control thoughts) predicted gambling behaviour independently of anxiety and depression. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that metacognitions play a role in problem gambling. PMID:20429027

Lindberg, Annika; Fernie, Bruce A; Spada, Marcantonio M

2011-03-01

426

What Can We See behind Sampling Theorems?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper shows that there is a fruitful world behind sampling theorems. For this purpose, the sampling problem is reformulated from a functional analytic standpoint, and is consequently revealed that the sampling problem is a kind of inverse problem. The sampling problem covers, for example, signal and image restoration including super resolution, image reconstruction from projections such as CT scanners in hospitals, and supervised learning such as learning in artificial neural networks. An optimal reconstruction operator is also given, providing the best approximation to an individual original signal without our knowing the original signal.

Ogawa, Hidemitsu

427

Categorical 12-step involvement and continuous abstinence at 2 years.  

PubMed

A longitudinal analysis of 12-step involvement was conducted among a U.S. sample of patients exiting treatment for substance dependence. Categorical involvement in a set of 12-step activities and summary scores of involvement from the Alcoholics Anonymous Affiliation Scale were examined in relation to continuous abstinence and aftercare (Oxford House or usual care) condition. Participants who were categorically involved in 12-step activities were significantly more likely to maintain continuous abstinence at 2 years compared with those who were less involved, predicting a greater likelihood of complete abstinence than summary scores of involvement. In addition, participants in the Oxford House condition were significantly more likely to remain continuously abstinent throughout the course of this randomized clinical trial. Findings suggest that categorical involvement in a set of 12-step activities and communal-living settings such as Oxford Houses are independent factors associated with continuous abstinence from both alcohol and illicit drugs among substance dependent persons. PMID:22498012

Majer, John M; Jason, Leonard A; Aase, Darrin M; Droege, Jocelyn R; Ferrari, Joseph R

2013-01-01

428

Problem-Based Learning: Using Ill-Structured Problems in Biology Project Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study involved year 9 students carrying out project work in biology via problem-based learning. The purpose of the study was to (a) find out how students approach and work through ill-structured problems, (b) identify some issues and challenges related to the use of such problems, and (c) offer some practical suggestions on the…

Chin, Christine; Chia, Li-Gek

2006-01-01

429

Intravenous leiomyomatosis with intracardiac involvement.  

PubMed

Intravenous leiomyomatosis with intracardiac involvement is rare. This is a case report of a 52-year-old female with intravenous leiomyomatosis with intracardiac involvement. She was successfully treated with myomatectomy (left renal vein and inferior vena cava), hysterectomy, and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy under the cardiopulmonary bypass. PMID:24838291

Xia, Meng; Liu, Junxiu; Xiang, Xianhong; Xu, Ming; He, Mian

2014-09-01

430

The worldwide "wildfire" problem.  

PubMed

The worldwide "wildfire" problem is headlined by the loss of human lives and homes, but it applies generally to any adverse effects of unplanned fires, as events or regimes, on a wide range of environmental, social, and economic assets. The problem is complex and contingent, requiring continual attention to the changing circumstances of stakeholders, landscapes, and ecosystems; it occurs at a variety of temporal and spatial scales. Minimizing adverse outcomes involves controlling fires and fire regimes, increasing the resistance of assets to fires, locating or relocating assets away from the path of fires, and, as a probability of adverse impacts often remains, assisting recovery in the short-term while promoting the adaptation of societies in the long-term. There are short- and long-term aspects to each aspect of minimization. Controlling fires and fire regimes may involve fire suppression and fuel treatments such as prescribed burning or non-fire treatments but also addresses issues associated with unwanted fire starts like arson. Increasing the resistance of assets can mean addressing the design and construction materials of a house or the use of personal protective equipment. Locating or relocating assets can mean leaving an area about to be impacted by fire or choosing a suitable place to live; it can also mean the planning of land use. Assisting recovery and promoting adaptation can involve insuring assets and sharing responsibility for preparedness for an event. There is no single, simple, solution. Perverse outcomes can occur. The number of minimizing techniques used, and the breadth and depth of their application, depends on the geographic mix of asset types. Premises for policy consideration are presented. PMID:23634593

Gill, A Malcolm; Stephens, Scott L; Cary, Geoffrey J

2013-03-01

431

Problem Set 1 GFD1 Winter 2011 P. Rhines, A.Gray out: Friday 7 Jan 2011 back: Friday 14 Jan 1. Suppose we heat a small sample of dry air confined in a cylinder.  

E-print Network

. Suppose we heat a small sample of dry air confined in a cylinder. o Calculate the change in thermal energy for a temperature rise T if the volume is held constant. Now, suppose the lid of the cylinder is free to rise the same volume as the rigid cylinder. Calculate the change in thermal energy E if the heat addition

432

Sampling search-engine results  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of efficiently sampling Web search engine query results. In turn, using a small random sample instead of the full set of results leads to efficient approximate algorithms for several applications, such as: Determining the set of categories in a given taxonomy spanned by the search results;Finding the range of metadata values associated to the result set

Aris Anagnostopoulos; Andrei Z. Broder; David Carmel

2005-01-01

433

Sexual Problems in Men  

MedlinePLUS

Many men have sexual problems. They become more common as men age. Problems can include Erectile dysfunction Reduced or lost interest in sex ... problems may also be factors. Occasional problems with sexual function are common. If problems last more than ...

434

Online decision problems with large strategy sets  

E-print Network

In an online decision problem, an algorithm performs a sequence of trials, each of which involves selecting one element from a fixed set of alternatives (the "strategy set") whose costs vary over time. After T trials, the ...

Kleinberg, Robert David

2005-01-01

435

Lava Sampling  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

An HVO geologist takes a sample of active lava within a lava tube. The fluid lava sticks to the heavy hammer head at the end of the cable when it is lowered into the swiftly moving lava stream. These samples are analyzed routinely to track changes in lava chemistry. ...

436

Sampling Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research in developmental psychology requires sampling at different time points. Accurate depictions of developmental change provide a foundation for further empirical studies and theories about developmental mechanisms. However, overreliance on widely spaced sampling intervals in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs threatens the validity of…

Adolph, Karen E.; Robinson, Scott R.

2011-01-01

437

Generating antialiased images at low sampling densities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ray tracing produces point samples of an image from a 3-D model. Constructing an antialiased digital picture from point samples is difficult without resorting to extremely high sampling densities. This paper describes a program that focuses on that problem. While it is impossible to eliminate aliasing totally, it has been shown that nonuniform sampling yields aliasing that is less conspicuous

Don P. Mitchell

1987-01-01

438

Mars sample return: mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are four fundamental mission options available for the accomplishment of Mars sample return missions: (1) direct entry, direct return; (2) direct entry, Mars orbit rendezvous; (3) out-of-orbit entry, direct return; and (4) out-of-orbit entry, Mars orbit rendezvous. Numerous variations of these options are dictated by the nature of the mission, the types of mission vehicles involved, and launch mass

J. R. French Jr.

1988-01-01

439

Problem solving What is problem solving?  

E-print Network

solving. There are problems all around us. · Much of our life is spent solving problems. Getting-defined problems. ­ Chess: After a few moves, there are too many possible moves and counter moves to consider all

Pillow, Jonathan

440

Image correlation and sampling study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of analytical approaches for solving image correlation and image sampling of multispectral data is discussed. Relevant multispectral image statistics which are applicable to image correlation and sampling are identified. The general image statistics include intensity mean, variance, amplitude histogram, power spectral density function, and autocorrelation function. The translation problem associated with digital image registration and the analytical means for comparing commonly used correlation techniques are considered. General expressions for determining the reconstruction error for specific image sampling strategies are developed.

Popp, D. J.; Mccormack, D. S.; Sedwick, J. L.

1972-01-01

441

Prolactinoma in some Ménière's patients--is stress involved?  

PubMed

Dizziness is a common complaint in primary care clinics and can enter the diagnostic profile of different pathologies spanning from psychiatric problems to vestibular dysfunction. Episodes of vertigo in Ménière's patients are often reported to be triggered by stress but no physiological data are available to account for the subjective link. The study involved 42 Ménière's patients hospitalized for neurectomy of the vestibular nerve for relief of incapacitating vertigo. In addition 18 patients with neurinoma of the vestibular nerve and 12 patients with facial spasm, who underwent surgery, served as controls. A blood sample was taken on the day of surgery in order to determine the level of battery of different stress hormones. The most striking observation was the presence of hyperprolactinemia (above 20 microg/l) in 14 Ménière's patients. The presence of prolactinoma was confirmed by MRI in six cases out of six investigated and the others have not yet been followed up in this retrospective study. These observations are clearly indicative for systematic determination of prolactin levels before opting for surgery in Ménière's patients. PMID:11751041

Horner, Kathleen C; Guieu, Régis; Magnan, Jacques; Chays, André; Cazals, Yves

2002-01-01

442

University of Delaware: Problem-Based Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at the University of Delaware, this set of peer-tested and vetted educational resources asks the important question: "How can I get my students to think?" Their educational philosophy places a premium on problem-based learning (PBL), which is an instructional method that asks students to work cooperatively in groups in order to seek solutions to real world problems. First-time visitors can take a look at some sample PBL problems. These sample problems include several group exercises that deal with everything from household wiring to a case study problem in molecular evolution. College instructors will want to definitely visit the "PBL Courses and Syllabi" area, where they can take a look at sample syllabi that draw inspiration from the problem-based learning perspective. Finally, visitors can also browse through the PBL Clearinghouse and look over a list of related educational sites.

443

Digit Delight: Problem-solving Activities Using 0 through 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several problem-solving activities involving only 0-9 to be used with sets of ceramic tiles are presented. Finding specified sums, differences, or products is the object of most of the problems. (MNS)

Balka, Don S.

1988-01-01

444

Involving students in peer review  

E-print Network

Involving students in peer review Case studies and practical strategies for university teaching Jon......................................................................................................................................................2 1. WHAT IS STUDENT PEER REVIEW? A CONCISE REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE....................3 BENEFITS OF PEER REVIEW

Pearce, Jon

445

Transportation Accidents Involving Radioactive Materials  

MedlinePLUS

... withstand damage. What are the main dangers of transportation accidents involving radiation? The main dangers of transportation ... the transport container. http://emergency.cdc.gov/radiation TRANSPORTATION ACCIDENTS If you believe you have been exposed, ...

446

[Pulmonary involvement in tuberous sclerosis].  

PubMed

The authors present a case of tuberous sclerosis with marked pulmonary involvement, confirmed by both radiological and pathological studies. The radiological manifestations and basic pathology of this rare condition are reviewed with emphasis on differential diagnosis. PMID:3045877

Kullnig, P; Flückiger, F; Kopp, W; Popper, H

1988-07-01

447

STUDENT EMPLOYMENT Student Involvement Outcomes  

E-print Network

STUDENT EMPLOYMENT Student Involvement Outcomes reflective assessment High impact practices. Employment Structure ASI employs approximately 645 staff, interns, and volunteers on average during the fall and spring semesters. In spring 2013, ASI employed: · 42 Interns · 59 Professional Staff Members · 162

de Lijser, Peter

448

Gambling and Problem Gambling Across the Lifespan  

PubMed Central

Two national U.S. telephone surveys of gambling were conducted, an adult survey (age 18 and over, N = 2,631) in 1999–2000 and a youth (age 14–21, N = 2,274) survey in 2005–2007. The data from these surveys were combined to examine the prevalence of any gambling, frequent gambling and problem gambling across the lifespan. These types of gambling involvement increased in frequency during the teens, reached a high level in the respondents’ 20s and 30s, and then fell off in as the respondents aged. The notion that gambling involvement generally, and especially problem gambling, is most prevalent during the teens was not supported. A comparison of the age patterns of gambling involvement and alcohol involvement showed that alcohol involvement peaks at a younger age than gambling involvement; and thus, the theory that deviant behaviors peak at an early age applies more to alcohol than to gambling. PMID:20499144

Barnes, Grace M.; Tidwell, Marie-Cecile O.; Hoffman, Joseph H.

2015-01-01

449

Coal Sampling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This USGS publication explains the use of fluxes for preparation of coal for elemental analysis. The material would be useful to supplement textbooks concerning sample preparation and may be helpful in designing an XRF laboratory experiment.

Golightly, D. W.

450

Sandy Samples  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this collecting/comparing activity, learners work with samples of sand from different places like a lakefront, river, or ocean beach. Learners note similarities and differences among sand samples—looking at them with just their own eyes, drawing them, describing them, rubbing them in their hands, looking at them through a magnifying glass to see different grain sizes, and examining other things in the sand such as tiny pieces of wood, plastic, or shells.

Lawrence Hall of Science

2007-01-01

451

Earthquake prediction as a decision-making problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review we consider an interdisciplinary problem of earthquake prediction involving economics. This joint research aids in understanding the prediction problem as a whole and reveals additional requirements for seismostatistics. We formulate the problem as an optimal control problem: Prossessing the possibility to declare several types of alerts, it is necessary to find an optimal changing alert types; each

G. M. Molchan

1997-01-01

452

Problem Solved: How To Coach Cognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When faced with real-world problems, students devise accurate, logical, and creative solutions using skills connecting to different subject areas. Students are intrigued by assignments involving preservation of species and design of environmentally friendly products and transit systems. Problem-based learning depends on coaching, modeling, and…

Krynock, Karoline; Robb, Louise

1999-01-01

453

How to Generate Good Profit Maximization Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author considers the merits of two classes of profit maximization problems: those involving perfectly competitive firms with quadratic and cubic cost functions. While relatively easy to develop and solve, problems based on quadratic cost functions are too simple to address a number of important issues, such as the use of…

Davis, Lewis

2014-01-01

454

Extracting macroscopic stochastic dynamics: Model problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work is to shed light on an algorithm designed to extract effective macroscopic models from detailed microscopic simulations. The par- ticular algorithm we study is a recently developed transfer operator approach due to Schtte et al. (20). The investigations involve the formulation, and subsequent numerical study, of a class of model problems. The model problems are

Wilhelm Huisinga; Andrew M. Stuart

2003-01-01

455

Spatial Visualization in Physics Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies were conducted to examine the relation of spatial visualization to solving kinematics problems that involved either predicting the two-dimensional motion of an object, translating from one frame of reference to another, or interpreting kinematics graphs. In Study 1, 60 physics-naive students were administered kinematics problems and…

Kozhevnikov, Maria; Motes, Michael A.; Hegarty, Mary

2007-01-01

456

Taking "From Scratch" out of Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Solving problems and creating processes and procedures from the ground up has long been part of the IT department's way of operating. IT staffs will continue to encounter new problems to solve and new technologies to be implemented. They also must involve their constituents in the creation of solutions. Nonetheless, for many issues they no longer…

Brown, Wayne

2007-01-01

457

Supporting user hypotheses in problem diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

People are performing increasingly complicated actions on the web, such as automated purchases involving multiple sites. Things often go wrong, however, and it can be difficult to diagnose a problem in a complex process. Information must be integrated from multiple sites before relations among processes and data can be visualized and understood. Once the source of a problem has been

Earl J. Wagner; Henry Lieberman

2004-01-01

458

A Boundary Value Problem for Introductory Physics?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Laplace equation has applications in several fields of physics, and problems involving this equation serve as paradigms for boundary value problems. In the case of the Laplace equation in a disc there is a well-known explicit formula for the solution: Poisson's integral. We show how one can derive this formula, and in addition two equivalent…

Grundberg, Johan

2008-01-01

459

Airborne atmospheric sampling system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The atmospheric sampling system developed for use on board commercial airliners as part of the Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is described. The automated air-constituent measuring system is installed in a Boeing 747 airliner below the passenger cabin floor near the nose wheel well. It consists of an air sample flow system, composed of air inlet and pressurization systems, computerized data acquisition and system control units which direct system operation in 15 modes, and commercial instruments significantly modified to measure low levels of atmospheric constituents (ozone, water vapor, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, chlorofluoromethanes, particulates, condensation nuclei, sulfates and nitrates). Flight and meteorological data, including air temperature and altitude, are also recorded. The system is designed for servicing at 14-day intervals, and to require a minimum of aircrew involvement.

Gustafsson, U. R. C.; Perkins, P. J.; Nyland, T. W.; Tiefermann, M. W.; Dudzinski, T. J.

1979-01-01

460

Precise Speed Tracking Control of Ultrasonic Motors via Sampled-Data H? Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we consider a synthesis problem of digital controllers for speed tracking control systems of ultrasonic motors. In previous works, a continuous-time H? control based synthesis involving the Tustin transformation has been utilized to solve the problem, where it has been empirically known that an over-estimation of a modeling error is needed to avoid speed fluctuations in a high frequency range. In this paper, it is shown that a desirable performance can be obtained by the sampled-data H? control synthesis without such conservativeness in the modeling.

Vongsaroj, Tharathip; Kobayashi, Yasuhide; Fujioka, Hisaya; Yanabe, Shigeo

461

Approximate resolution of hard numbering problems  

SciTech Connect

We present a new method for estimating the number of solutions of constraint satisfaction problems. We use a stochastic forward checking algorithm for drawing a sample of paths from a search tree. With this sample, we compute two values related to the number of solutions of a CSP instance. First, an unbiased estimate, second, a lower bound with an arbitrary low error probability. We will describe applications to the Boolean Satisfiability problem and the Queens problem. We shall give some experimental results for these problems.

Bailleux, O.; Chabrier, J.J. [CRID Universite de Bourgogne, Dijon (France)

1996-12-31

462

Using Centrality of Concept Maps as a Measure of Problem Space States in Computer-Supported Collaborative Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem solving likely involves at least two broad stages, problem space representation and then problem solution (Newell and Simon, Human problem solving, 1972). The metric centrality that Freeman ("Social Networks" 1:215-239, 1978) implemented in social network analysis is offered here as a potential measure of both. This development research…

Clariana, Roy B.; Engelmann, Tanja; Yu, Wu

2013-01-01

463

SST Sample Characterization Analysis of Archive Samples 102-C, 105-C, and 106-C  

SciTech Connect

A substantial effort is planned to be initiated at the Hanford Site regarding the characterization of 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) containing the byproducts of reprocessing during the 1950s and 1960s. Sampling and analysis, in distinct phases, are planned to involve laboratory investigations to determine both chemical and radionuclide inventories, so that waste disposal decisions can be developed. During 1989, trial analyses were performed on four archived samples from SSTs at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory using established U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) protocols and radiochemical procedures. The analysis of the archived SST waste material provides three important types of data for use in planning Phase I-A and Phase 1-B sample analysis. The types of data served as input to I) fi na 1 i zing the waste samp 1 e analysis procedures and methods and identify where procedure developmen~ may be needed, 2) evaluating the impact of normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) lubricant {used in field sampling) on extracting inorganics or radionuclides from the SST sample, and 3) identifying trends in amounts of occupational radiation exposure expected from performing the various analysis procedures. Overall, the results are qualitative in nature, and the conclusions given are to be used with appropriate respect for the limitations of small amounts of data from four samples used in development processes. The results of the Phase I-A and I-B sample analysis will provide essential data for method performance for use in finalizing Phase I-C planning and methods development scope. Section 2.0, Inorganic Analysis, encompasses sample preparation, sample analysis, identification of methods performance limitations, and possible alternatives. Performance of the inorganic analytical methods was evaluated and changes were made to some of the procedures. In some cases, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (referred to in this report as ICP) did not provide the levels of accuracy and precision usually required for EPA work due to interference by other elements. In these cases, other methods are suggested as appropriate for trial as alternatives. In all cases, duplicates, spikes, and blanks were used to establish performance of the methods for the specific waste matrix. Results focused on problems in using the methods tested on the samples, the suitability of the ICP method of determining EP Toxicity metal ions and 22 EPA pollutant metal ions, and the suitability of cold vapor atomic absorption (CVAA) for mercury determinations. Problems areas identified are ICP spectral corrections, poor reproducibility from water leach and EP Toxicity methods, and adjustments needed for mercury analysis by CVAA. Section 3.0, Organics Analysis, details two screening procedures [total organic carbon (TOC) and gas chromatography (GC)], extraction procedures and related problems, surrogate spiking to test extraction efficiencies and matrix effects, and semivolatile organics via GC/mass spectroscopy (MS). The results show that the GC/MS is vulnerable to fouling and overload and that a combination of dilution and perhaps acidification are required to provide acceptable results. NPH and silicone-based lubricants from the sampling process impact the semivolatile analysis; however, with some modification the semivolatile method based on EPA SOW 288 can be used. Section 4.0, Radionuclide Analysis, evaluates procedures used to measure the radionuclides that might be found in the SST tank waste samples and establishes the level of accuracy and precision that can be expected. These data reveal that additional procedure development is needed in order to measure all of the radionuclides listed in Table 4-14 of the Waste Characterization Plan. In addition, the archive samples analyzed may not be representative of the tank population and considerable adaptation of the radiochemical procedures may be necessary to perform the desired measurements. NPH tests were conducted to determine whether the NPH from the field sampling process extracted significan

Hara, F. T.; Kaye, J. H.; Steele, R. T.; Stromatt, R. W.; Thomas, D. L.; Urie, M. W.

1990-04-01

464

Core sample extractor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of retrieving and storing core samples from a hole drilled on the lunar surface is addressed. The total depth of the hole in question is 50 meters with a maximum diameter of 100 millimeters. The core sample itself has a diameter of 60 millimeters and will be two meters in length. It is therefore necessary to retrieve and store 25 core samples per hole. The design utilizes a control system that will stop the mechanism at a certain depth, a cam-linkage system that will fracture the core, and a storage system that will save and catalogue the cores to be extracted. The Rod Changer and Storage Design Group will provide the necessary tooling to get into the hole as well as to the core. The mechanical design for the cam-linkage system as well as the conceptual design of the storage device are described.

Akins, James; Cobb, Billy; Hart, Steve; Leaptrotte, Jeff; Milhollin, James; Pernik, Mark

1989-01-01

465

Sensitivity Analysis for Activation Problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study has been made as to how to develop further the techniques for sensitivity analysis used by Fispact-II. Fispact-II is a software suite for the analysis of nuclear activation and transmutation problems, developed for all nuclear applications. The software already permits sensitivity analysis to be performed by Monte Carlo sampling, and a faster uncertainty analysis is made possible by a powerful graph-based approach which generates a reduced set of nuclides on pathways leading to significant contributions to radiological quantities. The peculiar aspects of the sensitivity analysis problem for activation are the large number, typically thousands, of rate equation parameters(decay rates and reaction cross-sections) which all have some degree of associated error, and the fact that activity as a function of time varies as a sum of exponentials, so appears discontinuous as rate parameters are varied unless the sampling frequency is impractically fast. Nevertheless, Monte Carlo sampling is a generic approach and it is therefore conceivable that techniques more targeted to the activation problem might be beneficial. Moreover, recent theoretical developments have highlighted the importance of a two-stage approach to mathematically similar problems, where in the first stage, information is collected about the global behaviour of the problem, such as the identification of the rate parameters which cause the greatest variation in dose or nuclear activity, before a second stage examines a problem with its scope restricted by the information from the first. In the second stage, for example, Quasi-Monte Carlo sampling may be used in a restricted parameter space. The current work concentrates on the first stage and consists of a review of possible techniques with a detailed examination of the most promising pathways reduction approach, examined directly using Fispact-II. All the evidence obtained demonstrates the strong potential of this approach.

Arter, Wayne; Morgan, Guy

2014-06-01

466

Doing Right: Connectedness Problem Solving and Negotiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We discuss individual and multiagent (group) problem solving and negotiation. We consider connectedness, a dynamic subjective\\u000a relation experience of consciousness involving awareness\\/qualia experience – as cognition, emotion, social, conation, holistic,\\u000a etc. We develop Connectedness Problem Solving and Negotiation (CPSN) for doing right meaning defining\\/solving a validated\\u000a “right” problem\\/solution, as discussed in the chapter. The validated solution constitutes right action. CPSN

Melvin F. Shakun

467

Constructing a Coherent Problem Model to Facilitate Algebra Problem Solving in a Chemistry Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment using a sample of 11th graders compared text editing and worked examples approaches in learning to solve dilution and molarity algebra word problems in a chemistry context. Text editing requires students to assess the structure of a word problem by specifying whether the problem text contains sufficient, missing, or irrelevant…

Ngu, Bing Hiong; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Phan, Huy P.

2015-01-01

468

Parental Problem Drinking and Adolescent Psychological Problems: The Moderating Effect of Adolescent-Parent Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary aim of this study was to examine whether adolescent-parent communication moderates the relationship between parental problem drinking and adolescent psychological problems. Surveys were administered to a community sample of 1,001 adolescents in the spring of 2007. Results indicate that paternal problem drinking was associated with…

Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

2013-01-01

469

Problem Solving: Bubble Gum Contest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This professional development video clip presents students engaged in The Common Core Practice Standard #1—Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. The learners gather data for a bubble gum contest, as part of a larger activity involving recording data and writing up results. Students understand the problem and persevere with the task as they independently go to other classrooms to conduct their survey. Additional resources include a video transcript, teaching tips, and a link to a professional development reflection activity based upon the video.

WGHB Boston

2013-01-01

470

Calculator solves pipe flow problems  

SciTech Connect

For facilitating pipe-flow calculations that involve the horizontal flow of constant-density fluids, a simple program tailored to the TI-59 hand-held calculator uses the Darcy pressure-drop formula (modified for expressing the friction factor) to compute the unknown parameter needed to solve the fluid problem. Instead of several friction-factor equations applicable only in the individual flow regimes, the program uses a single, full-range friction-factor equation with three sets of coefficients to suit the conditions of the problem.

Verma, C.P.

1980-07-28

471

PLANT PROBLEM CLINIC & NEMATODE ASSAY LAB SUPPLIES ORDER FORM  

E-print Network

PLANT PROBLEM CLINIC & NEMATODE ASSAY LAB SUPPLIES ORDER FORM Type the name of your County@clemson.edu or sprsn@clemson.edu REQUESTING OFFICE/COUNTY County Name: PLANT PROBLEM CLINIC SUPPLIES ITEM No. Requested Plant Problem Clinic Sampling Guidelines Plastic Sample Bags: (10 per Bundle) Small Large Order

Duchowski, Andrew T.

472

Chemical Detection Techniques for Diagnosing Dairy Herd Health Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collections and handling of samples for chemical analyses present many problems. There are at least four factors which contribute to analytical errors: sampling variation, sub- sampling variation, analytical errors, and stor- age of specimens. Field sampling methods probably cause the greatest variations and chances for error, espe- cially for feedstuffs (4). For instance, corn grain sampled from one portion of

W. Eugene Lloyd

1978-01-01

473

Sampling apparatus  

DOEpatents

A sampling apparatus is provided for sampling substances from solid surfaces. The apparatus includes first and second elongated tubular bodies which telescopically and sealingly join relative to one another. An absorbent pad is mounted to the end of a rod which is slidably received through a passageway in the end of one of the joined bodies. The rod is preferably slidably and rotatably received through the passageway, yet provides a selective fluid tight seal relative thereto. A recess is formed in the rod. When the recess and passageway are positioned to be coincident, fluid is permitted to flow through the passageway and around the rod. The pad is preferably laterally orientable relative to the rod and foldably retractable to within one of the bodies. A solvent is provided for wetting of the pad and solubilizing or suspending the material being sampled from a particular surface.

Gordon, Norman R. (Kennewick, WA); King, Lloyd L. (Benton, WA); Jackson, Peter O. (Richland, WA); Zulich, Alan W. (Bel Air, MD)

1989-01-01

474

Sampling apparatus  

DOEpatents

A sampling apparatus is provided for sampling substances from solid surfaces. The apparatus includes first and second elongated tubular bodies which telescopically and sealingly join relative to one another. An absorbent pad is mounted to the end of a rod which is slidably received through a passageway in the end of one of the joined bodies. The rod is preferably slidably and rotatably received through the passageway, yet provides a selective fluid tight seal relative thereto. A recess is formed in the rod. When the recess and passageway are positioned to be coincident, fluid is permitted to flow through the passageway and around the rod. The pad is preferably laterally orientable relative to the rod and foldably retractable to within one of the bodies. A solvent is provided for wetting of the pad and solubilizing or suspending the material being sampled from a particular surface. 15 figs.

Gordon, N.R.; King, L.L.; Jackson, P.O.; Zulich, A.W.

1989-07-18

475

User interface and patient involvement.  

PubMed

Increased patient involvement is a goal in contemporary health care, and of importance to the development of patient oriented ICT. In this paper we discuss how the design of patient-user interfaces can affect patient involvement. Our discussion is based on 12 semi-structured interviews with patient users of a web-based solution for patient--doctor communication piloted in Norway. We argue ICT solutions offering a choice of user interfaces on the patient side are preferable to ensure individual accommodation and a high degree of patient involvement. When introducing web-based tools for patient--health professional communication a free-text option should be provided to the patient users. PMID:23823362

Andreassen, Hege Kristin; Lundvoll Nilsen, Line

2013-01-01

476

[Heart involvement in Friedreich's ataxia].  

PubMed

Friedreich's ataxia is a rare hereditary disease and although the gene defect has already been identified as a deficiency of the mitochondrial protein frataxin, the pathophysiology is still unknown. Although a multisystem disorder organ involvement is predominantly neurological. Besides the characteristic features of spinocerebellar ataxia the heart is frequently also affected. Cardiac involvement typically manifests as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, which can progress to heart failure and death. So far most research has focused on the neurological aspects and cardiac involvement in Friedreich's ataxia has not been systematically investigated. Thus, a better understanding of the progression of the cardiomyopathy, cardiac complications and long-term cardiac outcome is warranted. Although no specific treatment is available general cardiac therapeutic options for cardiomyopathy should be considered. The current review focuses on clinical and diagnostic features of cardiomyopathy and discusses potential therapeutic developments for Friedreich's ataxia. PMID:24848865

Weidemann, F; Scholz, F; Florescu, C; Liu, D; Hu, K; Herrmann, S; Ertl, G; Störk, S

2015-03-01

477

Sampling devices.  

PubMed

A number of commonly used samplers are presented in this article. Many samplers have not been discussed because they are used for specific purposes or are considered research tools. Air sampling for microbes may seem like a simple proposal, yet to develop and implement a well-thought out plan that answers questions or hypotheses with a high level of reliability is often a difficult and expensive undertaking. Sampler selection is only one step in this process. The information given in this article, along with the other resources listed, should aid in setting up a useful bioaerosol sampling plan. PMID:14524379

Muilenberg, Michael L

2003-08-01

478

Optical detection system for probing cantilever deflections parallel to a sample surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To date, commercial atomic force microscopes have been optimized for measurements of forces perpendicular to the sample surface. In many applications, sensitive parallel force measurements are desirable. These can be obtained by positioning the cantilever with its long axis perpendicular to the sample: the so-called pendulum geometry. We present a compact optical beam deflection system which solves the geometrical constraint problems involved in focusing a light beam onto a cantilever in the pendulum geometry. We demonstrate the performance of the system on measurements of forces imparted by a muscle myofibril, which is in-plane to a high-magnification objective of an optical microscope.

Labuda, A.; Brastaviceanu, T.; Pavlov, I.; Paul, W.; Rassier, D. E.

2011-01-01

479

Patient preference for involvement, experienced involvement, decisional conflict, and satisfaction with physician: a structural equation model test  

PubMed Central

Background A comprehensive model of the relationships among different shared decision-making related constructs and their effects on patient-relevant outcomes is largely missing. Objective of our study was the development of a model linking decision-making in medical encounters to an intermediate and a long-term endpoint. The following hypotheses were tested: physicians are more likely to involve patients who have a preference for participation and are willing to take responsibility in the medical decision-making process, increased patient involvement decreases decisional conflict, and lower decisional conflict favourably influences patient satisfaction with the physician. Methods This model was tested in a German primary care sample (N?=?1,913). Psychometrically tested instruments were administered to assess the following: patients’ preference for being involved in medical decision-making, patients’ experienced involvement in medical decision-making, decisional conflict, and satisfaction with the primary care provider. Structural equation modelling was used to explore multiple associations. The model was tested and adjusted in a development sub-sample and cross-validated in a confirmatory sample. Demographic and clinical characteristics were accounted for as possible confounders. Results Local and global indexes suggested an acceptable fit between the theoretical model and the data. Increased patient involvement was strongly associated with decreased decisional conflict (standardised regression coefficient ??=??.73). Both high experienced involvement (??=?.34) and low decisional conflict (B?=?-.28) predicted higher satisfaction with the physician. Patients’ preference for involvement was negatively associated with the experienced involvement (B?=??.24). Conclusion Altogether, our model could be largely corroborated by the collected empirical data except the unexpected negative association between preference for involvement and experienced involvement. Future research on the associations among different SDM-related constructs should incorporate longitudinal studies in order to strengthen the hypothesis of causal associations. PMID:23800366

2013-01-01

480

A statistical mechanical problem?  

PubMed Central

The problem of deriving the processes of perception and cognition or the modes of behavior from states of the brain appears to be unsolvable in view of the huge numbers of elements involved. However, neural activities are not random, nor independent, but constrained to form spatio-temporal patterns, and thanks to these restrictions, which in turn are due to connections among neurons, the problem can at least be approached. The situation is similar to what happens in large physical ensembles, where global behaviors are derived by microscopic properties. Despite the obvious differences between neural and physical systems a statistical mechanics approach is almost inescapable, since dynamics of the brain as a whole are clearly determined by the outputs of single neurons. In this paper it will be shown how, starting from very simple systems, connectivity engenders levels of increasing complexity in the functions of the brain depending on specific constraints. Correspondingly levels of explanations must take into account the fundamental role of constraints and assign at each level proper model structures and variables, that, on one hand, emerge from outputs of the lower levels, and yet are specific, in that they ignore irrelevant details. PMID:25228891

Costa, Tommaso; Ferraro, Mario

2014-01-01

481

Liver involvement in systemic infection  

PubMed Central

The liver is often involved in systemic infections, resulting in various types of abnormal liver function test results. In particular, hyperbilirubinemia in the range of 2-10 mg/dL is often seen in patients with sepsis, and several mechanisms for this phenomenon have been proposed. In this review, we summarize how the liver is involved in various systemic infections that are not considered to be primarily hepatotropic. In most patients with systemic infections, treatment for the invading microbes is enough to normalize the liver function tests. However, some patients may show severe liver injury or fulminant hepatic failure, requiring intensive treatment of the liver. PMID:25276279

Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

2014-01-01

482

Problem Solving Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides a summary of five topics on problems solving: What is a Problem?, What is Problem Solving?, Problem Solving Strategies, Why Teach Problem Solving?, Organizing the Teaching of Problem Solving and a reference section. Users can read more detailed information by accessing the 'More Information' link under each heading.

2014-01-01

483

Sampling design for classifying contaminant level using annealing search algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A stochastic method for sampling spatially distributed contaminant level is presented. The purpose of sampling is to partition the contaminated region into zones of high and low pollutant concentration levels. In particular, given an initial set of observations of a contaminant within a site, it is desired to find a set of additional sampling locations in a way that takes into consideration the spatial variability characteristics of the site and optimizes certain objective functions emerging from the physical, regulatory and monetary considerations of the specific site cleanup process. Since the interest is in classifying the domain into zones above and below a pollutant threshold level, a natural criterion is the cost of misclassification. The resulting objective function is the expected value of a spatial loss function associated with sampling. Stochastic expectation involves the joint probability distribution of the pollutant level and its estimate, where the latter is calculated by means of spatial estimation techniques. Actual computation requires the discretization of the contaminated domain. As a consequence, any reasonably sized problem results in combinatorics precluding an exhaustive search. The use of an annealing algorithm, although suboptimal, can find a good set of future sampling locations quickly and efficiently. In order to obtain insight about the parameters and the computational requirements of the method, an example is discussed in detail. The implementation of spatial sampling design in practice will provide the model inputs necessary for waste site remediation, groundwater management, and environmental decision making.

Christakos, George; Killam, Bart R.

1993-12-01

484

Predictors of Parent Involvement in Children’s Schooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors combined a multilevel model of parental context with a multidimensional conceptualization of parent involvement to examine the factors influencing parents’ involvement in their children’s schooling. Three sets of factors were identified: parent and child characteristics, family context, and teacher behavior and attitudes. A diverse sample of 209 mothers, their 3rd–5th grade children, and 28 teachers participated. Parents, teachers,

Wendy S. Grolnick; Corina Benjet; Carolyn O. Kurowski; Nicholas H. Apostoleris

1997-01-01

485

Optimization and geophysical inverse problems  

SciTech Connect

A fundamental part of geophysics is to make inferences about the interior of the earth on the basis of data collected at or near the surface of the earth. In almost all cases these measured data are only indirectly related to the properties of the earth that are of interest, so an inverse problem must be solved in order to obtain estimates of the physical properties within the earth. In February of 1999 the U.S. Department of Energy sponsored a workshop that was intended to examine the methods currently being used to solve geophysical inverse problems and to consider what new approaches should be explored in the future. The interdisciplinary area between inverse problems in geophysics and optimization methods in mathematics was specifically targeted as one where an interchange of ideas was likely to be fruitful. Thus about half of the participants were actively involved in solving geophysical inverse problems and about half were actively involved in research on general optimization methods. This report presents some of the topics that were explored at the workshop and the conclusions that were reached. In general, the objective of a geophysical inverse problem is to find an earth model, described by a set of physical parameters, that is consistent with the observational data. It is usually assumed that the forward problem, that of calculating simulated data for an earth model, is well enough understood so that reasonably accurate synthetic data can be generated for an arbitrary model. The inverse problem is then posed as an optimization problem, where the function to be optimized is variously called the objective function, misfit function, or fitness function. The objective function is typically some measure of the difference between observational data and synthetic data calculated for a trial model. However, because of incomplete and inaccurate data, the objective function often incorporates some additional form of regularization, such as a measure of smoothness or distance from a prior model. Various other constraints may also be imposed upon the process. Inverse problems are not restricted to geophysics, but can be found in a wide variety of disciplines where inferences must be made on the basis of indirect measurements. For instance, most imaging problems, whether in the field of medicine or non-destructive evaluation, require the solution of an inverse problem. In this report, however, the examples used for illustration are taken exclusively from the field of geophysics. The generalization of these examples to other disciplines should be straightforward, as all are based on standard second-order partial differential equations of physics. In fact, sometimes the non-geophysical inverse problems are significantly easier to treat (as in medical imaging) because the limitations on data collection, and in particular on multiple views, are not so severe as they generally are in geophysics. This report begins with an introduction to geophysical inverse problems by briefly describing four canonical problems that are typical of those commonly encountered in geophysics. Next the connection with optimization methods is made by presenting a general formulation of geophysical inverse problems. This leads into the main subject of this report, a discussion of methods for solving such problems with an emphasis upon newer approaches that have not yet become prominent in geophysics. A separate section is devoted to a subject that is not encountered in all optimization problems but is particularly important in geophysics, the need for a careful appraisal of the results in terms of their resolution and uncertainty. The impact on geophysical inverse problems of continuously improving computational resources is then discussed. The main results are then brought together in a final summary and conclusions section.

Barhen, J.; Berryman, J.G.; Borcea, L.; Dennis, J.; de Groot-Hedlin, C.; Gilbert, F.; Gill, P.; Heinkenschloss, M.; Johnson, L.; McEvilly, T.; More, J.; Newman, G.; Oldenburg, D.; Parker, P.; Porto, B.; Sen, M.; Torczon, V.; Vasco, D.; Woodward, N.B.

2000-10-01

486

Water Sampling  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon Drilling Platform exploded and sank, causing an enormous oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. U.S. Geological Survey field offices responded immediately by organizing teams to take pre-spill sediment and water samples in order to establish a baseline survey. This...

487

Sand Sampling  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon Drilling Platform exploded and sank, causing an enormous oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. U.S. Geological Survey field offices responded immediately by organizing teams to take pre-spill sediment and water samples in order to establish a baseline survey. This...

488

Sample Containers  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon Drilling Platform exploded and sank, causing an enormous oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. U.S. Geological Survey field offices responded immediately by organizing teams to take pre-spill sediment and water samples in order to establish a baseline survey. This...

489

When Problem Size Matters: Differential Effects of Brain Stimulation on Arithmetic Problem Solving and Neural Oscillations  

PubMed Central

The problem size effect is a well-established finding in arithmetic problem solving and is characterized by worse performance in problems with larger compared to smaller operand size. Solving small and large arithmetic problems has also been shown to involve different cognitive processes and distinct electroencephalography (EEG) oscillations over the left posterior parietal cortex (LPPC). In this study, we aimed to provide further evidence for these dissociations by using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Participants underwent anodal (30min, 1.5 mA, LPPC) and sham tDCS. After the stimulation, we recorded their neural activity using EEG while the participants solved small and large arithmetic problems. We found that the tDCS effects on performance and oscillatory activity critically depended on the problem size. While anodal tDCS improved response latencies in large arithmetic problems, it decreased solution rates in small arithmetic problems. Likewise, the lower-alpha desynchronization in large problems increased, whereas the theta synchronization in small problems decreased. These findings reveal that the LPPC is differentially involved in solving small and large arithmetic problems and demonstrate that the effects of brain stimulation strikingly differ depending on the involved neuro-cognitive processes. PMID:25789486

Rütsche, Bruno; Hauser, Tobias U.; Jäncke, Lutz; Grabner, Roland H.

2015-01-01

490

Therapist Focus on Parent Involvement in Community-Based Youth Psychotherapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parent involvement in the treatment of childhood disruptive behavior problems is a critical component of effective care. Yet little is known about the amount of time therapists are involving parents in treatment and factors that predict therapists' efforts to involve parents in routine care. The purpose of this study is to examine therapists'…

Haine-Schlagel, Rachel; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Fettes, Danielle L.; Baker-Ericzen, Mary; Garland, Ann F.

2012-01-01

491

Inner-City African American Parental Involvement in Elementary Schools: Getting Beyond Urban Legends of Apathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parental involvement in schools is a national priority for both educators and researchers to promote the successful schooling of contemporary youth. Contemporary parental involvement research has produced some promising findings, but parental involvement efforts with inner-city African Americans are currently limited by problems of research methodology and program foci. Certain research studies do, however, demonstrate that inner-city African American parents

Jaleel K. Abdul-Adil; Alvin David Farmer

2006-01-01

492

The Relationship between Attitude towards Conflict & Drug Involvement Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the success of many drug and alcohol prevention programs, drug and alcohol use by adolescents continues to be a problem. One important factor in preventing drug and alcohol use may be determining, in a non-intrusive manner, which students are most at risk for drug involvement. In the present study, the predictive relationship between…

Lohmeier, Jill H.; Schmitt, Vicki L.; Frey, Bruce B.

2008-01-01

493

Empirical Evidence or Intuition? An Activity Involving the Scientific Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students need to have basic understanding of scientific method during their introductory science classes and for this purpose an activity was devised which involved a game based on famous Monty Hall game problem. This particular activity allowed students to banish or confirm their intuition based on empirical evidence.

Overway, Ken

2007-01-01

494

Some integrals involving a class of filtering functions yyy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss some properties of the function sin…x=…x which is (sometimes) indicated by the symbol sinc x. This function is associated with problems involving filtering or interpolating functions. Several integrals are presented and a general rule is discussed.

E. Capelas de Oliveira

495

Prolactinoma in Some Ménière's Patients — Is Stress Involved?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dizziness is a common complaint in primary care clinics and can enter the diagnostic profile of different pathologies spanning from psychiatric problems to vestibular dysfunction. Episodes of vertigo in Ménière's patients are often reported to be triggered by stress but no physiological data are available to account for the subjective link. The study involved 42 Ménière's patients hospitalized for neurectomy

Kathleen C Horner; Regis Guieu; Jacques Magnan; Andre Chays; Yves Cazals

2002-01-01

496

A successful effort to involve stakeholders in a facility siting decision using LIPS with stakeholder involvement  

SciTech Connect

Local public opposition to federal bureaucratic decisions has resulted in public agencies rethinking the role of stakeholders in decision making. Efforts to include stakeholders directly in the decision-making process are on the increase. Unfortunately, many attempts to involve members of the public in decisions involving complex technical issues have failed. A key problem has been defining a meaningful role for the public in the process of arriving at a technical decision. This paper describes a successful effort by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in New Mexico to involve stakeholders in an important technical decision associated with its Environmental Restoration (ER) Project. The decision was where to locate a Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU), a facility intended to consolidate and store wastes generated from the cleanup of hazardous waste sites. A formal priority setting process known as the Laboratory Integration Prioritization System (LIPS) was adapted to provide an approach for involving the public. Although rarely applied to stakeholder participation, the LIPS process proved surprisingly effective. It produced a consensus over a selected site and enhanced public trust and understanding of Project activities.

Merkhofer, L. [Applied Decision Analysis, Inc., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Conway, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Anderson, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1995-12-31

497

Meningeal involvement in multiple myeloma  

PubMed Central

Key Clinical Message A patient with multiple myeloma with a mass in the nasopharyngeal was diagnosed. He received melphalan autograft and radiotherapy, and obtained complete remission. He relapsed 3 months later, with meningeal involvement and without systemic relapse. He received intrathecal and systemic chemotherapy, without neurological improvement and died 4 weeks after relapse.

Laribi, Kamel; Mellerio, Charles; Baugier, Alix; Ghnaya, Habib; Denizon, Nathalie; Besançon, Anne; Laly, Margot; Jadeau, Christelle

2015-01-01

498

Parental Involvement in Norwegian Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines findings on key challenges of school-parent relations in Norway. The review is based on recent large-scale studies on several issues, including formalized school-parent cooperation, parental involvement in the pedagogical discourse, and teacher perspectives on the parents' role in the school community. Findings suggest a…

Paulsen, Jan Merok

2012-01-01

499

Promoting Active Involvement in Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a rationale for using active involvement techniques, describes large- and small-group methods based on their documented effectiveness and applicability to K-12 classrooms, and illustrates their use. These approaches include ways of engaging students in large groups (e.g., unison responses, response cards, dry-erase boards,…

Conderman, Greg; Bresnahan, Val; Hedin, Laura

2012-01-01

500

Original Contribution Involvement of Na+  

E-print Network

Original Contribution Involvement of Na+ /K+ -ATPase in hydrogen peroxide-induced hypertrophy production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was required for ouabain-induced hypertrophy in cultured cardiac alone is sufficient to induce hypertrophy. A moderate amount of H2O2 was continuously generated

Brand, Paul H.