Sample records for sample problems involving

  1. Multiple Solutions Involving Geoboard Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Lyle R.

    1993-01-01

    Illustrates various methods to determine the perimeter and area of triangles and polygons formed on the geoboard. Methods utilize algebraic techniques, trigonometry, geometric theorems, and analytic geometry to solve problems and connect a variety of mathematical concepts. (MDH)

  2. 42 CFR 405.1064 - ALJ decisions involving statistical samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ALJ decisions involving statistical samples. 405.1064 Section 405... ALJ decisions involving statistical samples. When an appeal from the...overpayment issue and the QIC used a statistical sample in reaching its...

  3. 42 CFR 405.1064 - ALJ decisions involving statistical samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ALJ decisions involving statistical samples. 405.1064 Section 405... ALJ decisions involving statistical samples. When an appeal from the...overpayment issue and the QIC used a statistical sample in reaching its...

  4. 3.OA Analyzing Word Problems Involving Multiplication

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-05-01

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Many problems can be solved in different ways. Decide if the following word problems can be solved using multiplication. Explain your thinking. Then so...

  5. Contact problems involving a cooled punch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Barber

    1978-01-01

    Certain problems in which a cooled rigid punch indents an elastic half-space have no steady state solution. A simple model is described in which it is shown that this paradox is avoided by the assumption of a thermal resistance varying inversely with contact pressure. A limiting case of this system retains linearity and introduces a state of “imperfect” contact in

  6. Optimization problems involving collections of dependent objects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Roberts; Charles L. Isbell Jr; Michael L. Littman

    2008-01-01

    We describe a class of problems motivated by numerous real-world applications where there is a collection of objects that have both a cost and a value, but where some of those objects depend upon other objects to obtain their full value. Applications include nding an optimal order for transferring les under threat of system failure, ordering sequences of actions by

  7. Power and Sample Size Calculations for Studies Involving Linear Regression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William D. Dupont; Walton D. Plummer

    1998-01-01

    This article presents methods for sample size and power calculations for studies involving linear regression. These approaches are applicable to clinical trials designed to detect a regression slope of a given magnitude or to studies that test whether the slopes or intercepts of two independent regression lines differ by a given amount. The investigator may either specify the values of

  8. Paleoclimate Sampling as a Sensor Placement Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comboul, M.; Emile-Geay, J.; Hakim, G. J.; Evans, M. N.

    2014-12-01

    We treat paleoclimatic sampling as a sensor placement problem, attempting to find the locations where observations would optimally characterize the variability of climate fields of interest. Starting from a set of realistically-constrained, predefined potential sampling locations and observational uncertainties, we formulate optimized observing networks as the solution to a data-assimilation problem: given a stochastic representation of the Gaussian-distributed climate states of interest, which are linked to direct climate observations via a proxy system model, we may update the distribution and quantify the information gain from each possible sensor network. Furthermore, using submodular cost functions considerably reduces the size of the numerical optimization problem, as it enables iterative addition of sensors to the network. We illustrate this process with the design of an optimal network of coral ?18O used to jointly infer sea surface temperature and sea surface salinity fields. For example, given the current coral network, we show that an additional 25 to 75 observations would greatly improve the SST field reconstruction with the resampling rate being the highest in the central Pacific region. We analyze the impact of various design choices on the resulting optimal sensor network, such as the cost function formulation, the quantification of uncertainty within the proxy system model and the targeted fields. We conclude with a discussion of applications to other proxy classes.

  9. Breadth and depth involvement: Understanding Internet gambling involvement and its relationship to gambling problems.

    PubMed

    LaPlante, Debi A; Nelson, Sarah E; Gray, Heather M

    2014-06-01

    The "involvement effect" refers to the finding that controlling for gambling involvement often reduces or eliminates frequently observed game-specific associations with problem gambling. In other words, broader patterns of gambling behavior, particularly the number of types of games played over a defined period, contribute more to problem gambling than playing specific games (e.g., lottery, casino, Internet gambling). This study extends this burgeoning area of inquiry in three primary ways. First, it tests independently and simultaneously the predictive power of two gambling patterns: breadth involvement (i.e., the number of games an individual plays) and depth involvement (i.e., the number of days an individual plays). Second, it includes the first involvement analyses of actual betting activity records that are associated with clinical screening information. Third, it evaluates and compares the linearity of breadth and depth effects. We conducted analyses of the actual gambling activity of 1,440 subscribers to the bwin.party gambling service who completed an online gambling disorder screen. In all, 11 of the 16 games we examined had a significant univariate association with a positive screen for gambling disorder. However, after controlling for breadth involvement, only Live Action Internet sports betting retained a significant relationship with potential gambling-related problems. Depth involvement, though significantly related to potential problems, did not impact game-based gambling disorder associations as much as breadth involvement. Finally, breadth effects appeared steeply linear, with a slight quadratic component manifesting beyond four games played, but depth effects appeared to have a strong linear component and a slight cubic component. PMID:23915365

  10. Parent Involvement, Emotional Support, and Behavior Problems: An Ecological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Meghan P.; Cappella, Elise; O'Connor, Erin E.; McClowry, Sandee G.

    2013-01-01

    We examined relations between parent involvement and kindergarten students' behavior problems in classrooms with varying levels of teacher emotional support. Multi-informant data were collected on "n" = 255 low-income Black and Hispanic students, and "n" = 60 kindergarten classrooms in the baseline year of an intervention…

  11. Longitudinal Modeling of Adolescents' Activity Involvement, Problem Peer Associations, and Youth Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Aaron; Dawes, Nickki; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    Longitudinal associations among different types of organized activity involvement, problem peer associations, and cigarette smoking were examined in a sample of 1,040 adolescents (mean age = 15.62 at baseline, 16.89 at 15-month assessment, 17.59 at 24 months) enriched for smoking experimentation (83% had tried smoking). A structural equation model tested longitudinal paths between three categories of involvement (team sports, school clubs and activities, and religious activities, measured at baseline and 15 months), problem peer associations (baseline and 15 months), and cigarette smoking behavior (baseline and 24 months). Multi-group analyses indicated pathways differed by type of activity and adolescent gender. Boys’ baseline team sports and religious involvement predicted lower levels of smoking at 24 months via continued activity involvement at 15 months. Girls’ involvement in school clubs and activities and religious activities indirectly predicted lower levels of smoking at 24 months via reduced exposure to problem peers at 15 months. PMID:21603061

  12. Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior Problems, Peer Affiliations, and Bullying Involvement across the Transition to Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Irvin, Matthew J.; Motoca, Luci M.; Leung, Man-Chi; Hutchins, Bryan C.; Brooks, Debbie S.; Hall, Cristin M.

    2015-01-01

    Continuity and change in children's involvement in bullying was examined across the transition to middle school in relation to externalizing and internalizing behavior problems in fifth grade and peer affiliations in fifth and sixth grades. The sample consisted of 533 students (223 boys, 310 girls) with 72% European American, 25% African…

  13. Sample problem for variance reduction in MCNP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Booth

    1985-01-01

    The Los Alamos computer code Monte Carlo Neutron Photon (MCNP) has many useful variance reduction techniques to aid the Monte Carlo user. This report applies many of these techniques to a conceptually simple but computationally demanding neutron transport problem.

  14. CAUSES OF PROBLEMS IN ANALYZING PE SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory in Las Vegas (EMSL-LV), is responsible for overseeing quality assurance of EPA's Superfund Contract Laboratory Program. n part, this oversight role involves examining QA data provided by the labs in order to investigate p...

  15. Experimental quantum annealing: case study involving the graph isomorphism problem.

    PubMed

    Zick, Kenneth M; Shehab, Omar; French, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Quantum annealing is a proposed combinatorial optimization technique meant to exploit quantum mechanical effects such as tunneling and entanglement. Real-world quantum annealing-based solvers require a combination of annealing and classical pre- and post-processing; at this early stage, little is known about how to partition and optimize the processing. This article presents an experimental case study of quantum annealing and some of the factors involved in real-world solvers, using a 504-qubit D-Wave Two machine and the graph isomorphism problem. To illustrate the role of classical pre-processing, a compact Hamiltonian is presented that enables a reduced Ising model for each problem instance. On random N-vertex graphs, the median number of variables is reduced from N(2) to fewer than N log2 N and solvable graph sizes increase from N?=?5 to N?=?13. Additionally, error correction via classical post-processing majority voting is evaluated. While the solution times are not competitive with classical approaches to graph isomorphism, the enhanced solver ultimately classified correctly every problem that was mapped to the processor and demonstrated clear advantages over the baseline approach. The results shed some light on the nature of real-world quantum annealing and the associated hybrid classical-quantum solvers. PMID:26053973

  16. Experimental quantum annealing: case study involving the graph isomorphism problem

    PubMed Central

    Zick, Kenneth M.; Shehab, Omar; French, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Quantum annealing is a proposed combinatorial optimization technique meant to exploit quantum mechanical effects such as tunneling and entanglement. Real-world quantum annealing-based solvers require a combination of annealing and classical pre- and post-processing; at this early stage, little is known about how to partition and optimize the processing. This article presents an experimental case study of quantum annealing and some of the factors involved in real-world solvers, using a 504-qubit D-Wave Two machine and the graph isomorphism problem. To illustrate the role of classical pre-processing, a compact Hamiltonian is presented that enables a reduced Ising model for each problem instance. On random N-vertex graphs, the median number of variables is reduced from N2 to fewer than N log2 N and solvable graph sizes increase from N?=?5 to N?=?13. Additionally, error correction via classical post-processing majority voting is evaluated. While the solution times are not competitive with classical approaches to graph isomorphism, the enhanced solver ultimately classified correctly every problem that was mapped to the processor and demonstrated clear advantages over the baseline approach. The results shed some light on the nature of real-world quantum annealing and the associated hybrid classical-quantum solvers. PMID:26053973

  17. An Optimum Solution to the $k$Sample Slippage Problem for the Normal Distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Paulson

    1952-01-01

    A slippage problem for normal distributions is formulated as a multiple decision problem, and a solution is obtained which has certain optimum properties. The discussion is confined to the fixed sample case with the same number of observations from each distribution, and the normal distributions involved are assumed to have a common but unknown variance.

  18. Solving the Small Sample Size Problem of LDA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui Huang; Qingshan Liu; Hanqing Lu; Songde Ma

    2002-01-01

    The small sample size problem is often encountered in pattern recognition. It results in the singularity of the within-class scatter matrix Sw in Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). Different methods have been proposed to solve this problem in face recognition literature. Some methods reduce the dimension of the original sample space and hence unavoidably remove the null space of Sw, which

  19. Random Sampling in Cut, Flow, and Network Design Problems

    E-print Network

    Random Sampling in Cut, Flow, and Network Design Problems David R. Karger \\Lambda October 19, 2000 and in analyzing the data. We apply the concept of a representative sample to combinatorial optimization problems for approximating and exactly finding minimum cuts and maximum flows in un­ weighted, undirected graphs. Our cut

  20. Reformulation and sampling to solve a stochastic network interdiction problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Udom Janjarassuk; Jeff Linderoth

    2008-01-01

    The Network Interdiction Problem involves interrupting an adversary's ability to maximize flow through a capacitated network by destroying portions of the network. A budget constraint limits the amount of the network that can be destroyed. In this paper, we study a stochastic version of the net- work interdiction problem in which the successful destruction of an arc of the network

  1. Comorbid Problem Gambling and Major Depression in a Community Sample.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Leanne; Yakovenko, Igor; Hodgins, David C; Dobson, Keith S; El-Guebaly, Nady; Casey, David M; Currie, Shawn R; Smith, Garry J; Williams, Robert J; Schopflocher, Don P

    2014-08-12

    Major depression is among the most common comorbid conditions in problem gambling. However, little is known about the effects of comorbid depression on problem gambling. The present study examined the prevalence of current major depression among problem gamblers (N = 105) identified from a community sample of men and women in Alberta, and examined group differences in gambling severity, escape motivation for gambling, family functioning, childhood trauma, and personality traits across problem gamblers with and without comorbid depression. The prevalence of major depression among the sample of problem gamblers was 32.4 %. Compared to problem gamblers without depression (n = 71), problem gamblers with comorbid depression (n = 34) reported more severe gambling problems, greater history of childhood abuse and neglect, poorer family functioning, higher levels of neuroticism, and lower levels of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Furthermore, the problem gamblers with comorbid depression had greater levels of childhood abuse and neglect, worse family functioning, higher neuroticism, and lower agreeableness and conscientiousness than a comparison sample of recreational gamblers with depression (n = 160). These findings underscore the need to address comorbid depression in assessment and treatment of problem gambling and for continued research on how problem gambling is related to frequently co-occurring disorders such as depression. PMID:25112217

  2. Random Sampling and Greedy Sparsification for Matroid Optimization Problems.

    E-print Network

    Random Sampling and Greedy Sparsification for Matroid Optimization Problems. David R. Karger the effectiveness of these paradigms for two optimization problems on matroids: finding an optimum matroid basis and packing disjoint matroid bases. Applications of these ideas to the graphic matroid led to fast algorithms

  3. The Effect of Teacher's Invitations to Parental Involvement on Children's Externalizing Problem Behaviors: An

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    1 The Effect of Teacher's Invitations to Parental Involvement on Children's Externalizing Problem for Parental Involvement Parental involvement in children's education is associated with a variety of positive to parental involvement on children's externalizing problem behaviors: An examination of a CBC intervention

  4. A Bicentennial City Involvement in Surveying an Ecological Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finley, Albert C.

    1975-01-01

    Briefly relates activities undertaken by secondary school students in the Spokane, Washington, area relative to ecological activities which were surveyed via an interdisciplinary approach involving English, art, science, mathematics, history, and social studies classes. (PB)

  5. Julia Robinson Mathematics Festival Toothpick Problems This set of problems involves the arrangement and rearrangement of toothpicks.

    E-print Network

    Reiter, Harold

    Julia Robinson Mathematics Festival Toothpick Problems This set of problems involves Robinson Mathematics Festival Toothpick Problems 4. Next consider the 3Ã?3 grid shown below. (a) Can you #12;Julia Robinson Mathematics Festival Toothpick Problems 5. Again consider the 3Ã?3 grid shown. How

  6. Simulating quantum correlations as a distributed sampling problem

    SciTech Connect

    Degorre, Julien [Laboratoire de Recherche en Informatique, UMR 8263, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Laboratoire d'Informatique Theorique et Quantique, Departement d'Informatique et de Recherche Operationnelle, Universite de Montreal (Canada); Laplante, Sophie; Roland, Jeremie [Laboratoire de Recherche en Informatique, UMR 8263, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2005-12-15

    It is known that quantum correlations exhibited by a maximally entangled qubit pair can be simulated with the help of shared randomness, supplemented with additional resources, such as communication, postselection or nonlocal boxes. For instance, in the case of projective measurements, it is possible to solve this problem with protocols using one bit of communication or making one use of a nonlocal box. We show that this problem reduces to a distributed sampling problem. We give a new method to obtain samples from a biased distribution, starting with shared random variables following a uniform distribution, and use it to build distributed sampling protocols. This approach allows us to derive, in a simpler and unified way, many existing protocols for projective measurements, and extend them to positive operator value measurements. Moreover, this approach naturally leads to a local hidden variable model for Werner states.

  7. Electromagnetic Inverse Problems Involving Distributions of Dielectric Mechanisms and Parameters

    E-print Network

    with pulsed antenna source microwaves and inverse problems, complex dielectric materials, distributions dielectrics), magnetization (in magnetic materials) and conductivity. We focus here on modeling polarization in dielectric materials for which we develop a new modeling framework. Even though we treat only polarization

  8. Algebra and Representation Sample Exam Problems Magic Squares

    E-print Network

    White, Donald L.

    1 Algebra and Representation ­ Sample Exam Problems Magic Squares 1. Determine whether each of the following is a magic square. If so, give the magic number. If not, explain why not. 9 4 5 16 2 12 1.5 4 0.5 2 6 10 5 10 15 1 2 3 7 8 3 9 18 3 3.5 0 2.5 2. Suppose you are given a 3 by 3 magic square M

  9. Regularized discriminant analysis for the small sample size problem in face recognition

    E-print Network

    Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.

    Regularized discriminant analysis for the small sample size problem in face recognition Juwei Lu sample size'' (SSS) problem arising from the small number of available training samples compared. Keywords: Linear discriminant analysis; Quadratic discriminant analysis; Small sample size; Regularization

  10. Psychosocial correlates of marijuana use and problem drinking in a national sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jessor, R; Chase, J A; Donovan, J E

    1980-06-01

    Personality, environmental, and behavioral variables representing psychosocial risk factors for adolescent problem behavior were assessed in a 1974 national sample study of over 10,000 junior and senior high school students. Significant correlations were found with marijuana use, and the relationships held across differences in age, sex, and ethnic group membership. Greater involvement in marijuana use was associated with greater value on independence than on academic achievement, lower expectations for academic achievement, lesser religiosity, greater tolerance of deviance, less compatibility between friends and parents, greater influence of friends relative to parents, greater models and support for problem behavior, greater actual involvement in other problem behaviors such as drunkenness, and less involvement in conventional behavior such as attending church. Multiple regression analyses show that this pattern of psychosocial correlates accounts for over 50 per cent of the variation in marijuana use. The pattern is nearly identical to the pattern that accounts for problem drinking in these same adolescents. The similarity of the patterns of psychosocial risk, and the substantial correlations of marijuana use with problem drinking and with other problem behaviors, suggest that marijuana use is best seen as part of a syndrome of adolescent problem behavior. (Am J Public Health 70:604- 613,1980.) PMID:7377436

  11. On a shock problem involving a nonlinear viscoelastic bar Nguyen Thanh Long1

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 On a shock problem involving a nonlinear viscoelastic bar Nguyen Thanh Long1 , Alain Pham Ngoc. Problem (1.1)-(1.2) describes the shock between a solid body and a nonlinear viscoelastic bar resting Cedex 2, France. E-mail: alpham@worldonline.fr Abstract. We treat an initial boundary value problem

  12. Advanced Curation: Solving Current and Future Sample Return Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fries, M.; Calaway, M.; Evans, C.; McCubbin, F.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Curation is a wide-ranging and comprehensive research and development effort at NASA Johnson Space Center that identifies and remediates sample related issues. For current collections, Advanced Curation investigates new cleaning, verification, and analytical techniques to assess their suitability for improving curation processes. Specific needs are also assessed for future sample return missions. For each need, a written plan is drawn up to achieve the requirement. The plan draws while upon current Curation practices, input from Curators, the analytical expertise of the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) team, and suitable standards maintained by ISO, IEST, NIST and other institutions. Additionally, new technologies are adopted on the bases of need and availability. Implementation plans are tested using customized trial programs with statistically robust courses of measurement, and are iterated if necessary until an implementable protocol is established. Upcoming and potential NASA missions such as OSIRIS-REx, the Asteroid Retrieval Mission (ARM), sample return missions in the New Frontiers program, and Mars sample return (MSR) all feature new difficulties and specialized sample handling requirements. The Mars 2020 mission in particular poses a suite of challenges since the mission will cache martian samples for possible return to Earth. In anticipation of future MSR, the following problems are among those under investigation: What is the most efficient means to achieve the less than 1.0 ng/sq cm total organic carbon (TOC) cleanliness required for all sample handling hardware? How do we maintain and verify cleanliness at this level? The Mars 2020 Organic Contamination Panel (OCP) predicts that organic carbon, if present, will be present at the "one to tens" of ppb level in martian near-surface samples. The same samples will likely contain wt% perchlorate salts, or approximately 1,000,000x as much perchlorate oxidizer as organic carbon. The chemical kinetics of this reaction are poorly understood at present under the conditions of cached or curated martian samples. Among other parameters, what is the maximum temperature allowed during storage in order to preserve native martian organic compounds for analysis? What is the best means to collect headspace gases from cached martian (and other) samples? This gas will contain not only martian atmosphere but also off-gassed volatiles from the cached solids.

  13. On the continuous dependence with respect to sampling of the linear quadratic regulator problem for distributed parameter systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, I. G.; Wang, C.

    1990-01-01

    The convergence of solutions to the discrete or sampled time linear quadratic regulator problem and associated Riccati equation for infinite dimensional systems to the solutions to the corresponding continuous time problem and equation, as the length of the sampling interval (the sampling rate) tends toward zero (infinity) is established. Both the finite and infinite time horizon problems are studied. In the finite time horizon case, strong continuity of the operators which define the control system and performance index together with a stability and consistency condition on the sampling scheme are required. For the infinite time horizon problem, in addition, the sampled systems must be stabilizable and detectable, uniformly with respect to the sampling rate. Classes of systems for which this condition can be verified are discussed. Results of numerical studies involving the control of a heat/diffusion equation, a hereditary of delay system, and a flexible beam are presented and discussed.

  14. On the continuous dependence with respect to sampling of the linear quadratic regulator problem for distributed parameter system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, I. G.; Wang, C.

    1992-01-01

    The convergence of solutions to the discrete- or sampled-time linear quadratic regulator problem and associated Riccati equation for infinite-dimensional systems to the solutions to the corresponding continuous time problem and equation, as the length of the sampling interval (the sampling rate) tends toward zero(infinity) is established. Both the finite-and infinite-time horizon problems are studied. In the finite-time horizon case, strong continuity of the operators that define the control system and performance index, together with a stability and consistency condition on the sampling scheme are required. For the infinite-time horizon problem, in addition, the sampled systems must be stabilizable and detectable, uniformly with respect to the sampling rate. Classes of systems for which this condition can be verified are discussed. Results of numerical studies involving the control of a heat/diffusion equation, a hereditary or delay system, and a flexible beam are presented and discussed.

  15. Existence and multiplicity of solutions for a Neumann problem involving variable exponent growth

    E-print Network

    of Craiova, 200585 Craiova, Romania b Department of Mathematics, Central European University, 1051 Budapest of Craiova, 200585 Craiova, Romania. E-mail: mmihailes@yahoo.com 1 #12;The study of problems involving

  16. Parabolic equation solution of seismo-acoustics problems involving variations in bathymetry and sediment thickness

    E-print Network

    Parabolic equation solution of seismo-acoustics problems involving variations in bathymetry to extend this approach to a larger class of seismo-acoustics problems. The variable rotated parabolic equation J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 120, 3534­3538 2006 handles a sloping fluid-solid interface at the ocean

  17. Examining Masculinity Norms, Problem Drinking, and Athletic Involvement as Predictors of Sexual Aggression in College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Benjamin D.; Mahalik, James R.

    2005-01-01

    Male sexual aggression toward women is a serious social problem, particularly on college campuses. In this study, college men's sexually aggressive behavior and rape myth acceptance were examined using conformity to 11 masculine norms and 2 variables previously linked to sexual aggression: problem drinking and athletic involvement. Results…

  18. Nodal solutions of boundary value problems with boundary conditions involving Riemann–Stieltjes integrals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy Chamberlain; Lingju Kong; Qingkai Kong

    2011-01-01

    We study the nonlinear boundary value problem consisting of the equation ?y?=?i=1mwi(t)fi(y) and a boundary condition involving a Riemann–Stieltjes integral. By relating it to the eigenvalues of the corresponding linear Sturm–Liouville problem with a two-point separated boundary condition, we obtain results on the existence and nonexistence of nodal solutions of this problem. The shooting method and an energy function are

  19. Problem Solving Process Research of Everyone Involved in Innovation Based on CAI Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tao; Shao, Yunfei; Tang, Xiaowo

    It is very important that non-technical department personnel especially bottom line employee serve as innovators under the requirements of everyone involved in innovation. According the view of this paper, it is feasible and necessary to build everyone involved in innovation problem solving process under Total Innovation Management (TIM) based on the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ). The tools under the CAI technology: How TO mode and science effects database could be very useful for all employee especially non-technical department and bottom line for innovation. The problem solving process put forward in the paper focus on non-technical department personnel especially bottom line employee for innovation.

  20. Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Behavior Problems among Latina Adolescent Mothers: The Buffering Effect of Mother-Reported Partner Child Care Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Erin N.; Grau, Josefina M.; Duran, Petra A.; Castellanos, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relations between maternal depressive symptoms and child internalizing and externalizing problems in a sample of 125 adolescent Latina mothers (primarily Puerto Rican) and their toddlers. We also tested the influence of mother-reported partner child care involvement on child behavior problems and explored mother-reported partner…

  1. Combating the Small Sample Class Imbalance Problem Using Feature Selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Wasikowski; Xue-wen Chen

    2010-01-01

    The class imbalance problem is encountered in real-world applications of machine learning and results in a classifier's suboptimal performance. Researchers have rigorously studied the resampling, algorithms, and feature selection approaches to this problem. No systematic studies have been conducted to understand how well these methods combat the class imbalance problem and which of these methods best manage the different challenges

  2. The effect of unlabeled samples in reducing the small sample size problem and mitigating the Hughes phenomenon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Behzad M. Shahshahani; David A. Landgrebe

    1994-01-01

    The authors study the use of unlabeled samples in reducing the problem of small training sample size that can severely affect the recognition rate of classifiers when the dimensionality of the multispectral data is high. The authors show that by using additional unlabeled samples that are available at no extra cost, the performance may be improved, and therefore the Hughes

  3. COMPARISON OF BIOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES: THE PROBLEM OF SAMPLE REPRESENTATIVENESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining an adequate, representative sample of biological communities or assemblages to make richness or compositional comparisons among sites is a continuing challenge. Traditionally, sample size is based on numbers of replicates or area collected or numbers of individuals enum...

  4. COMPARISON OF ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES: THE PROBLEM OF SAMPLE REPRESENTATIVENESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining an adequate, representative sample of ecological communities to make taxon richness (TR) or compositional comparisons among sites is a continuing challenge. Sample representativeness literally means the similarity in species composition and relative abundance between a ...

  5. Introduction This work is concerned with the exterior structural acoustics problem involving the

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Lonny L.

    Chapter 1 Introduction This work is concerned with the exterior structural acoustics problem involving the interaction of vibrating structures submerged in an infinite acoustic fluid and requires solution of the coupled wave equation subject to a far­field radiation condition. The acoustic fluid

  6. Critical Points for Least-Squares Problems Involving Certain Analytic Functions, with Applications to Sigmoidal Nets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo D. Sontag

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with nonlinear least-squares problems involving the tting to data of parameterized analytic functions. For generic regression data, a general result establishes the countability, and under stronger assumptions niteness, of the set of functions giving rise to critical points of the quadratic loss function. In the special case of what are usually called \\\\single-hidden layer neural networks,\\

  7. Introducing EMR Children to Arithmetical Operations: A Program Involving Pictorial Problems and Distinctive-Feature Prompts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The study assessed a program involving distinctive-feature prompts for teaching four educable mentally retarded children (ages 7-9) to use appropriate arithmetical operations with multicomponent pictorial problems. Results indicated the program was effective with all subjects. (Author/DB)

  8. Risky Alcohol Use, Peer and Family Relationships and Legal Involvement in Adolescents with Antisocial Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ybrandt, Helene

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine risk and vulnerability factors contributing to problems with alcohol use in adolescence. Data relating to seven life areas (medical status, school status, social relationships, family background and relationships, psychological functioning, legal involvement, and alcohol use) was gathered using the ADAD…

  9. The impact of gambling advertising: Problem gamblers report stronger impacts on involvement, knowledge, and awareness than recreational gamblers.

    PubMed

    Hanss, Daniel; Mentzoni, Rune A; Griffiths, Mark D; Pallesen, Ståle

    2015-06-01

    Although there is a general lack of empirical evidence that advertising influences gambling participation, the regulation of gambling advertising is hotly debated among academic researchers, treatment specialists, lobby groups, regulators, and policymakers. This study contributes to the ongoing debate by investigating perceived impacts of gambling advertising in a sample of gamblers drawn from the general population in Norway (n = 6,034). Three dimensions of advertising impacts were identified, representing perceived impacts on (a) gambling-related attitudes, interest, and behavior ("involvement"); (b) knowledge about gambling options and providers ("knowledge"); and (c) the degree to which people are aware of gambling advertising ("awareness"). Overall, impacts were strongest for the knowledge dimension, and, for all 3 dimensions, the impact increased with level of advertising exposure. Those identified as problem gamblers in the sample (n = 57) reported advertising impacts concerning involvement more than recreational gamblers, and this finding was not attributable to differences in advertising exposure. Additionally, younger gamblers reported stronger impacts on involvement and knowledge but were less likely to agree that they were aware of gambling advertising than older gamblers. Male gamblers were more likely than female gamblers to report stronger impacts on both involvement and knowledge. These findings are discussed with regard to existing research on gambling advertising as well as their implications for future research and policy-making. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25730628

  10. Relational Discriminant Analysis and Its Large Sample Size Problem Robert P.W. Duin

    E-print Network

    Duin, Robert P.W.

    Relational Discriminant Analysis and Its Large Sample Size Problem Robert P.W. Duin Pattern. This technique has a large sample size problem as the size of the similarity matrix equals the square suffers from a feature size - sample size dilemma. Better, more complete object representations, yield

  11. SAMPLE SIZE PROBLEMS IN ANOVA: BAYESIAN POINT OF Anirban DasGupta

    E-print Network

    West, Mike

    SAMPLE SIZE PROBLEMS IN ANOVA: BAYESIAN POINT OF VIEW1 By Anirban DasGupta Purdue University and Brani Vidakovic Duke University In this paper we discuss the sample size problem for balanced one way of appropriate quadratic forms we derive explicit sample sizes for prespeci ed posterior precisions. Comparisons

  12. SAMPLE SIZE PROBLEMS IN ANOVA: BAYESIAN POINT OF Anirban DasGupta

    E-print Network

    West, Mike

    SAMPLE SIZE PROBLEMS IN ANOVA: BAYESIAN POINT OF VIEW 1 By Anirban DasGupta Purdue University and Brani Vidakovic Duke University In this paper we discuss the sample size problem for balanced one way of appropriate quadratic forms we derive explicit sample sizes for prespecified posterior precisions. Comparisons

  13. An empirical coverage test for the g-sample problem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orlowski, L.A.; Grundy, W.D.; Mielke, P.W., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A nonparametric g-sample empirical coverage test has recently been developed for univariate continuous data. It is based upon the empirical coverages which are spacings of multiple random samples. The test is capable of detecting any distributional differences which may exist among the parent populations, without additional assumptions beyond randomness and continuity. The test can be effective with the limited and/or unequal sample sizes most often encountered in geologic studies. A computer program for implementing this procedure, G-SECT 1, is available. ?? 1991 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  14. Sampling-based algorithms for optimal path planning problems

    E-print Network

    Karaman, Sertac

    2012-01-01

    Sampling-based motion planning received increasing attention during the last decade. In particular, some of the leading paradigms, such the Probabilistic RoadMap (PRM) and the Rapidly-exploring Random Tree (RRT) algorithms, ...

  15. Combating the Class Imbalance Problem in Small Sample Data Sets

    E-print Network

    Wasikowski, Michael

    2009-07-07

    to handle small sample imbalanced data sets. FAST is based on the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC) generated by moving the decision boundary of a single feature classifier with thresholds placed using an even-bin distribution...

  16. Father involvement moderates the effect of maternal depression during a child's infancy on child behavior problems in kindergarten.

    PubMed

    Mezulis, Amy H; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Clark, Roseanne

    2004-12-01

    This research investigated whether father involvement in infancy may reduce or exacerbate the well-established adverse effect of maternal depression during a child's infancy on behavior problems in childhood. In a community sample (N = 350), the authors found that fathers' self-reported parenting styles interacted with the amount of time fathers spent caring for their infants to moderate the longitudinal effect of maternal depression during the child's infancy on children's internalizing, but not externalizing, behaviors. Low to medium amounts of high-warmth father involvement and high amounts of medium- or high-control father involvement at this time were associated with lower child internalizing behaviors. Paternal depression during a child's infancy exacerbated the effect of maternal depression, but this moderating effect was limited to depressed fathers spending medium to high amounts of time caring for their infants. Results emphasize the moderating role fathers may play in reducing or exacerbating the adverse long-term effects of maternal depression during a child's infancy on later child behavior problems. PMID:15598163

  17. Monte Carlo sampling of solutions to inverse problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus Mosegaard; Albert Tarantola

    1995-01-01

    Probabilistic formulation of inverse problems leads to the definition of a probability distribution in the model space. This probability distribution combines a priori information with new information obtained by measuring some observable parameters (data). As, in the general case, the theory linking data with model parameters is nonlinear, the a posteriori probability in the model space may not be east

  18. A Sample Time Optimization Problem in a Digital Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitkowski, Wojciech; Oprz?dkiewicz, Krzysztof

    In the paper a phenomenon of the existence of a sample time minimizing the settling time in a digital control system is described. As a control plant an experimental heat object was used. The control system was built with the use of a soft PLC system SIEMENS SIMATIC. As the control algorithm a finite dimensional dynamic compensator was applied. During tests of the control system it was observed that there exists a value of the sample time which minimizes the settling time in the system. This phenomenon is tried to explain.

  19. Biased Sampling and PCK: The Case of the Marijuana Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane M.; Nathan, Erica L.

    2010-01-01

    As part of an interview protocol investigating teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in statistics, 40 teachers were presented with a newspaper article reporting a phone-in survey about the legalisation of marijuana. The article and a question about the reliability of the sample had earlier been used in student surveys, and three student…

  20. Problems in sampling the Native American and Alaska Native populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EUGENE P. ERICKSEN

    1997-01-01

    Selecting a scientific national sample of Native Americans and Alaska Natives is difficult for at least four reasons: (1) they are a small proportion of the total population, (2) they are not so segregated that geographic oversampling can reach most of the population, (3) criteria for deciding who is a member of the Native American and Alaska Native population are

  1. Outcome of treatment for alcohol abuse and involvement in alcoholics anonymous among previously untreated problem drinkers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Timko; Rudolf H. Moos; John W. Finney; Bernice S. Moos

    1994-01-01

    A sample of 515 initially untreated problem drinkers was followed for one year after contacting alcohol information and referral\\u000a or detoxification services. At a one-year follow-up, participants had self-selected into one of four groups: no treatment\\u000a (24%), Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) only (18%), outpatient treatment (25%), and residential or inpatient treatment (32%); some\\u000a outpatients also attended AA, and some inpatients also

  2. NASTRAN thermal analyzer: Theory and application including a guide to modeling engineering problems, volume 2. [sample problem library guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, C. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A sample problem library containing 20 problems covering most facets of Nastran Thermal Analyzer modeling is presented. Areas discussed include radiative interchange, arbitrary nonlinear loads, transient temperature and steady-state structural plots, temperature-dependent conductivities, simulated multi-layer insulation, and constraint techniques. The use of the major control options and important DMAP alters is demonstrated.

  3. A new LDA-based face recognition system which can solve the small sample size problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-fen Chen; Hong-yuan Mark Liao; Ming-tat Ko; Ja-chen Lin; Gwo-jong Yu

    2000-01-01

    A new LDA-based face recognition system is presented in this paper. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is one of the most popular linear projection techniques for feature extraction. The major drawback of applying LDA is that it may encounter the small sample size problem. In this paper, we propose a new LDA-based technique which can solve the small sample size problem.

  4. A Kernel Method for the Two-Sample-Problem Arthur Gretton

    E-print Network

    Borgwardt, Karsten M.

    samples are from different dis- tributions. Our test statistic is in both cases the distance between of problems, including attribute matching for databases using the Hungarian marriage method, where our test that these distributions are different (this is called the two-sample or homogeneity problem). This test has application

  5. Quality Control and Flux Sampling Problems for Tower and Aircraft Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dean Vickers; L. Mahrt

    1997-01-01

    A series of automated tests is developed for tower and aircraft time series to identify instrumentation problems, flux sampling problems, and physically plausible but unusual situations. The automated procedures serve as a safety net for quality controlling data. A number of special flags are developed representing a variety of potential problems such as inconsistencies between different tower levels and the

  6. Does psychological strengths and subjective well-being predicting parental involvement and problem solving among Malaysian and Indian students?

    PubMed

    Khan, Aqeel; Ahmad, Roslee; Hamdan, Abdul Rahim; Mustaffa, Mohamed Sharif; Tahir, Lokman Mohd

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the predictors of psychological strengths and subjective well-being for dealing with academic stress perceived by university engineering students. Sample of 400 Malaysian (N?=?180 boys and N?=?220 girls) age varies 18 to 25 years and 400 Indian students (N?=?240 boys and N?=?160 girls) age varies 18 to 25 years from public universities were participated. Quantitative method was used for data analysis. Findings shows that gender, religiosity and socioeconomic status are significantly influencing psychological strengths and subjective well-being of both Indian and Malaysian students. Findings also revealed that parental involvement and problem solving coping styles were significantly predicting psychological strengths and subjective well-being among both countries participants. Findings of the current study provide the insight for the educators, and parents dealing with adolescents. PMID:25674482

  7. A numerical treatment of geodynamic viscous flow problems involving the advection of material interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenardic, A.; Kaula, W. M.

    1993-01-01

    Effective numerical treatment of multicomponent viscous flow problems involving the advection of sharp interfaces between materials of differing physical properties requires correction techniques to prevent spurious diffusion and dispersion. We develop a particular algorithm, based on modern shock-capture techniques, employing a two-step nonlinear method. The first step involves the global application of a high-order upwind scheme to a hyperbolic advection equation used to model the distribution of distinct material components in a flow field. The second step is corrective and involves the application of a global filter designed to remove dispersion errors that result from the advection of discontinuities (e.g., material interfaces) by high-order, minimally dissipative schemes. The filter introduces no additional diffusion error. Nonuniform viscosity across a material interface is allowed for by the implementation of a compositionally weighted-inverse interface viscosity scheme. The combined method approaches the optimal accuracy of modern shock-capture techniques with a minimal increase in computational time and memory. A key advantage of this method is its simplicity to incorporate into preexisting codes be they finite difference, element, or volume of two or three dimensions.

  8. Father-involvement in a refugee sample: relations between posttraumatic stress and caregiving.

    PubMed

    van Ee, Elisa; Sleijpen, Marieke; Kleber, Rolf J; Jongmans, Marian J

    2013-12-01

    Despite increased attention to the role of fathers within families, there is still a dearth of studies on the impact of trauma on father-involvement. This study investigates the quantity of father-involvement and the influence of posttraumatic stress on the quality of involvement in a refugee and asylum seeker population. Eighty refugees and asylum seekers and their young children (aged 18-42 months) were recruited. Measures included assessment of parental trauma (Harvard Trauma Questionnaire), quantity and quality of involvement (quantity of caregiving and Emotional Availability Scales), and perception of the father-child relationship (interview). The results show that fathers were less involved in caregiving tasks and play activities than mothers. No parental gender differences were found on each of the Emotional Availability Scales. Traumatic stress symptoms negatively affected the perception and the actual quality of parent-child interaction (sensitivity, structuring, nonhostility). Nevertheless, almost all fathers described their relationship with their child as good and their child as very important to them. As the quality of father-involvement is of importance to the development of the child, traumatized fathers are as much in need of clinical intervention as mothers. Despite the impact of posttraumatic stress, refugee fathers clearly are involved in the lives of their children. Mechanisms such as a deliberate withdrawal when stressed and compensation might enable affected fathers to step into the interaction when needed, raise the quality of involvement with their child, and diminish the negative impact of stress resulting from trauma and migration. PMID:24329413

  9. Bootstrapping in a high dimensional but very low sample size problem 

    E-print Network

    Song, Juhee

    2006-08-16

    High Dimension, Low Sample Size (HDLSS) problems have received much attention recently in many areas of science. Analysis of microarray experiments is one such area. Numerous studies are on-going to investigate the behavior ...

  10. Bootstrapping in a high dimensional but very low sample size problem

    E-print Network

    Song, Juhee

    2006-08-16

    High Dimension, Low Sample Size (HDLSS) problems have received much attention recently in many areas of science. Analysis of microarray experiments is one such area. Numerous studies are on-going to investigate the behavior of genes by measuring...

  11. Tackling an Inverse Problem from the Petroleum Industry with a Genetic Algorithm for Sampling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro J. Ballester; Jonathan N. Carter

    2004-01-01

    \\u000a When direct measurement of model parameters is not possible, these need to be inferred indirectly from calibration data. To\\u000a solve this inverse problem, an algorithm that preferentially samples all regions of the parameter space that fit data well\\u000a is needed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a In this paper, we apply a real-parameter Genetic Algorithm (GA) to sample the parameter space for the inverse problem of

  12. The Prevalence and Incremental Validity of Identity Problem Symptoms in a High School Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Steven L.; Weems, Carl F.; Petkus, Veronica F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the expression, prevalence, and incremental validity of identity problem symptoms in adolescence. A sample of high school students (N = 140) aged 15-18 completed measures of identity problem symptoms, identity status, and psychological symptom severity. Findings suggested that 14.3% would meet DSM IV criteria for identity…

  13. Methods for Determining Pesticides and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Food Samples—Problems and Challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angelika Beyer; Marek Biziuk

    2008-01-01

    Determination of residual amounts of pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in food samples requires the use of specific techniques regarding sample preparation as well as instrumental analysis which should be characterized by a very low detection limit. A problem associated with the use of pesticides and PCBs is the need for controlling their residues in the environment, particularly in food,

  14. Symptoms of Major Depression in a Sample of Fathers of Infants: Sociodemographic Correlates and Links to Father Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Moore, Kristin A.; Matthews, Gregory; Carrano, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Depression has been extensively studied for mothers but not for fathers. This study examines the sociodemographic correlates of symptoms of depression and how depression is associated with father involvement using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Short Form (CIDI-SF) for major depression. The study uses a sample of 2,139 resident…

  15. Adolescent Predictors of Young Adult and Adult Alcohol Involvement and Dysphoria in a Prospective Community Sample of Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas F. Locke; Michael D. Newcomb

    2004-01-01

    The adolescent predictors of later alcohol involvement (AI), dysphoria (D), and their shared association (AD) among women have not been adequately established. Three waves of data from an ethnically diverse community sample of women, assessed over 16 years are used to study how various psychosocial factors in adolescence influenced later drinking, depression, and their shared association. Structural equation models revealed

  16. Interactive decision-making for multiobjective linear fractional programming problems with block angular structure involving fuzzy numbers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masatoshi Sakawa; Kosuke Kato

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, by considering the experts' vague or fuzzy understanding of the nature of the parameters in the problem-formulation process, multiobjective linear fractional programming problems with block angular structure involving fuzzy numbers are formulated. Through the use of the ?-level sets of fuzzy numbers, an extended Pareto optimality concept called the ?-Pareto optimality is introduced. To generate a candidate

  17. Designing Bayesian networks for highly expert-involved problem diagnosis domains

    E-print Network

    Ramdass, Dennis L

    2009-01-01

    Systems for diagnosing problems in highly complicated problem domains have been traditionally very difficult to design. Such problem diagnosis systems have often been restricted to the use of primarily rule-based methods ...

  18. Problem Gambling and the Youth-to-Adulthood Transition: Assessing Problem Gambling Severity Trajectories in a Sample of Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Edgerton, Jason D; Melnyk, Timothy S; Roberts, Lance W

    2014-09-27

    In this study, using four wave longitudinal data, we examined problem gambling severity trajectories in a sample of young adults. Using latent growth curve modeling, we examined how initial level of problem gambling severity and the rate of change were affected by 11 time-invariant predictors: gender, age of onset of gambling, experiencing a big win early in gambling career, experiencing a big loss early in gambling career, alcohol dependence, drug dependence, anxiety, depression, perceived social support, illusion of control, and impulsiveness. Five of the eleven predictors affected initial levels of problem gambling severity; however only impulsiveness affected the rate of change across time. The mean trajectory was negative (lessening of problem gambling risk severity across time), but there was significant inter-individual variation in trajectories and initial levels of problem gambling severity. The main finding of problem gambling risk diminishing over time challenges the conventional picture of problem gambling as an inevitable "downward spiral," at least among young adults, and suggests that targeted prevention campaigns may be a cost-effective alternative for reaching treatment resistant youth. PMID:25260900

  19. Sample Size\\/Power Calculations for Population Pharmacodynamic Experiments Involving Repeated-Count Measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kayode Ogungbenro; Leon Aarons

    2010-01-01

    Repeated discrete outcome variables such as count measurements often arise in pharmacodynamic experiments. Count measurements can only take nonnegative integer values; this and correlation between repeated measurements from an individual make the design and analysis of repeated-count data special. Sample size\\/power calculation is an important part of clinical trial design to ensure adequate power for detecting significant effect, and it

  20. Problem behavior in a community sample of 14- and 19-month-old children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne-Claire E. Beernink; Sophie H. N. Swinkels; Jan K. Buitelaar

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have examined the presence, structure, and stability of behavior problems in a community sample of 14- and 19-month-old\\u000a infants. A questionnaire with items on emotional, attentional, and impulsive behavior and social communication was completed\\u000a by the parents of 6,491 infants aged 14 months and 1,803 infants aged 19 months. Particularly externalizing behavior problems\\u000a were reported to present sometimes or often

  1. Family Background, Parental Involvement, and Parent Child Interactions as Predictors of Fifth-Graders Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tamala P.

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted to address childhood behavior problems, but much remains unknown regarding the causes and factors that affect internalizing and externalizing problems in children. The purpose of the current research study was to examine the relationships between children's internalizing and externalizing behavior problems and (a)…

  2. The role of parenting in the prediction of criminal involvement: findings from a nationally representative sample of youth and a sample of adopted youth.

    PubMed

    Beaver, Kevin M; Schwartz, Joseph A; Connolly, Eric J; Al-Ghamdi, Mohammed Said; Kobeisy, Ahmed Nezar

    2015-03-01

    The role of parenting in the development of criminal behavior has been the source of a vast amount of research, with the majority of studies detecting statistically significant associations between dimensions of parenting and measures of criminal involvement. An emerging group of scholars, however, has drawn attention to the methodological limitations-mainly genetic confounding-of the parental socialization literature. The current study addressed this limitation by analyzing a sample of adoptees to assess the association between 8 parenting measures and 4 criminal justice outcome measures. The results revealed very little evidence of parental socialization effects on criminal behavior before controlling for genetic confounding and no evidence of parental socialization effects on criminal involvement after controlling for genetic confounding. PMID:25602937

  3. A Study on Three Linear Discriminant Analysis Based Methods in Small Sample Size Problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Liu; Songcan Chen; Xiaoyang Tan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we make a study on three linear discriminant analysis (LDA) based methods: regularized discriminant analysis (RDA), discriminant common vectors (DCV) and maximal margin criterion (MMC) in the small sample size (SSS) problem. Our contributions are that: (1) we reveal that DCV obtains the same projection subspace as both RDA and wMMC (weighted MMC, a general form of

  4. Validity of the control question polygraph test: The problem of sampling bias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher J. Patrick; William G. Iacono

    1991-01-01

    Sampling bias is a potential problem in polygraph validity studies in which posttest confessions are used to establish ground truth because this criterion is not independent of the polygraph test. In the present study, criterion evidence was sought from polygraph office records and from independent police files for all 402 control question tests (CQTs) conducted during a 5-year period by

  5. USER-FRIENDLY IBM PC (PERSONAL COMPUTER) COMPUTER PROGRAMS FOR SOLVING SAMPLING AND STATISTICAL PROBLEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    User friendly IBM personal computer programs for solving sampling and related statistical problems have been prepared. The programs are designed so that persons without an in-depth understanding of statistics can easily use them. Specific, detailed, written instructions for appli...

  6. Caregiver Reports of Sleep Problems on a Convenience Sample of Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronk, Rebecca; Dahl, Ronald; Noll, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Caregivers reported on sleep in a convenience sample of 90 children with fragile X syndrome utilizing a standardized assessment tool, the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), and a 14-day sleep diary. CSHQ data indicated that 47% of participants had sleep problems at a level that suggested referral and further evaluation. Sleep diary data…

  7. Early Father Involvement Moderates Biobehavioral Susceptibility to Mental Health Problems in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, W. Thomas; Essex, Marilyn J.; Alkon, Abbey; Goldsmith, H. Hill; Kraemer, Helena C.; Kupfer, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study how early father involvement and children's biobehavioral sensitivity to social contexts interactively predict mental health symptoms in middle childhood. Method: Fathers' involvement in infant care and maternal symptoms of depression were prospectively ascertained in a community-based study of child health and development in…

  8. Parental Choices and Ethical Dilemmas Involving Disabilities: Special Education and the Problem of Deliberately Chosen Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, James M.; Hallahan, Daniel P.

    2009-01-01

    Ethical issues regarding children with disabilities have long involved their treatment after they are born. These issues remain important, but children may be deliberately created with or without characteristics that are usually thought of as disabilities. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and related technologies that involve human…

  9. Level Set Methods for Optimization Problems Involving Geometry and Constraints I. Frequencies of a Two-Density Inhomogeneous Drum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanley Osher; Fadil Santosa

    2001-01-01

    Many problems in engineering design involve optimizing the geometryto maximize a certain design objective. Geometrical constraints are oftenimposed. In this paper, we use the level set method devised in [11], thevariational level set calculus presented in [20], and the projected gradientmethod, as in [15], to construct a simple numerical approach for problemsof this type. We apply this technique to a

  10. Social Competency Training Goes to School: Pupil Involvement in the Classroom through Problem-Solving with People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallarman, Prudence R.; And Others

    The need for a "systems" approach to school-based social competency training has been highlighted by a national commission and the U.S. Department of Education. The Pupil Involvement/Problem-Solving with People (PI/PSP) curriculum has adapted numerous, well-researched social compentency training models targeted for elementary classroom use.…

  11. Prevalence and Correlates of Problem Gambling in a Representative Sample of Norwegian 17-Year-Olds.

    PubMed

    Hanss, Daniel; Mentzoni, Rune A; Blaszczynski, Alex; Molde, Helge; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Pallesen, Ståle

    2014-03-12

    We report data collected in a representative sample of 17-year-old Norwegians to investigate prevalence rates of non-problem, risk, and problem gambling, as measured by the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). In addition, we explored the importance of demographic, personality, motivational, social, and health variables explaining variance in adolescent gambling. Prevalence rates of risk and problem gambling were low but similar to those found in previous studies outside of Norway using the PGSI in adolescent samples. With regard to the relative importance of the various covariates, we found that motivational variables (future gambling intentions, attitudes toward gambling, and gambling-related knowledge) distinguished best between those who did not gamble, non-problem gamblers, and risk and problem gamblers. Furthermore, social variables were important covariates of adolescent gambling; significant associations were found for family and friends' approval of gambling, parental monitoring, father's level of education, and having relatives or friends with a history of a gambling disorder. We discuss possible reasons for differences between the covariates with regard to their importance for explaining adolescent gambling and address implications for future research. PMID:24619792

  12. “Angels in Marble”: Problems in Stimulating Community Involvement in Community Policing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randolph M. Grinc

    1994-01-01

    In 1990 the Bureau of Justice Assistance awarded grants to eight urban and suburban police departments for the purpose of establishing innovative neighborhood-oriented drug demand reduction projects. The projects varied in design and implementation, but all encountered the same implementation problems. The most perplexing of these problems was the inability of the police departments to organize and maintain active community

  13. Water-art problems at Sanssouci—Euler’s involvement in practical hydrodynamics on the eve of ideal flow theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, M.

    2008-08-01

    Frederick the Great blamed Euler for the failure of fountains at his summer palace Sanssouci. However, what is regarded as an example for the proverbial gap between theory and practice, is based on dubious evidence. In this paper I review Euler’s involvement with pipeflow problems for the Sanssouci water-art project. Contrary to the widespread slander, Euler’s ability to cope with practical challenges was remarkable. The Sanssouci fountains did not fail because Euler was unable to apply hydrodynamical theory to practice, but because the King ignored his advice and employed incompetent practitioners. The hydrodynamics of the Sanssouci problem also deserves some interest because it happened on the eve of the formulation of the general equations of motion for ideal fluids. Although it seems paradoxical, the birth of ideal flow theory was deeply rooted in Euler’s involvement with real flow problems.

  14. Combining a Probabilistic Sampling Technique and Simple Heuristics to solve the Dynamic Path Planning Problem

    E-print Network

    Barriga, Nicolas A; Solar, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    Probabilistic sampling methods have become very popular to solve single-shot path planning problems. Rapidly-exploring Random Trees (RRTs) in particular have been shown to be very efficient in solving high dimensional problems. Even though several RRT variants have been proposed to tackle the dynamic replanning problem, these methods only perform well in environments with infrequent changes. This paper addresses the dynamic path planning problem by combining simple techniques in a multi-stage probabilistic algorithm. This algorithm uses RRTs as an initial solution, informed local search to fix unfeasible paths and a simple greedy optimizer. The algorithm is capable of recognizing when the local search is stuck, and subsequently restart the RRT. We show that this combination of simple techniques provides better responses to a highly dynamic environment than the dynamic RRT variants.

  15. TOPICAL REVIEW: A survey on sampling and probe methods for inverse problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potthast, Roland

    2006-04-01

    The goal of the review is to provide a state-of-the-art survey on sampling and probe methods for the solution of inverse problems. Further, a configuration approach to some of the problems will be presented. We study the concepts and analytical results for several recent sampling and probe methods. We will give an introduction to the basic idea behind each method using a simple model problem and then provide some general formulation in terms of particular configurations to study the range of the arguments which are used to set up the method. This provides a novel way to present the algorithms and the analytic arguments for their investigation in a variety of different settings. In detail we investigate the probe method (Ikehata), linear sampling method (Colton-Kirsch) and the factorization method (Kirsch), singular sources method (Potthast), no response test (Luke-Potthast), range test (Kusiak, Potthast and Sylvester) and the enclosure method (Ikehata) for the solution of inverse acoustic and electromagnetic scattering problems. The main ideas, approaches and convergence results of the methods are presented. For each method, we provide a historical survey about applications to different situations.

  16. Finite-element/progressive-lattice-sampling response surface methodology and application to benchmark probability quantification problems

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, V.J.; Bankston, S.D.

    1998-03-01

    Optimal response surface construction is being investigated as part of Sandia discretionary (LDRD) research into Analytic Nondeterministic Methods. The goal is to achieve an adequate representation of system behavior over the relevant parameter space of a problem with a minimum of computational and user effort. This is important in global optimization and in estimation of system probabilistic response, which are both made more viable by replacing large complex computer models with fast-running accurate and noiseless approximations. A Finite Element/Lattice Sampling (FE/LS) methodology for constructing progressively refined finite element response surfaces that reuse previous generations of samples is described here. Similar finite element implementations can be extended to N-dimensional problems and/or random fields and applied to other types of structured sampling paradigms, such as classical experimental design and Gauss, Lobatto, and Patterson sampling. Here the FE/LS model is applied in a ``decoupled`` Monte Carlo analysis of two sets of probability quantification test problems. The analytic test problems, spanning a large range of probabilities and very demanding failure region geometries, constitute a good testbed for comparing the performance of various nondeterministic analysis methods. In results here, FE/LS decoupled Monte Carlo analysis required orders of magnitude less computer time than direct Monte Carlo analysis, with no appreciable loss of accuracy. Thus, when arriving at probabilities or distributions by Monte Carlo, it appears to be more efficient to expend computer-model function evaluations on building a FE/LS response surface than to expend them in direct Monte Carlo sampling.

  17. Bayesian approaches to bilinear inverse problems involving spatial evidence : color constancy and blind image deconvolution

    E-print Network

    Singh, Barun, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    This thesis examines two distinct but related problems in low-level computer vision: color constancy and blind-image deconvolution. The goal of the former is to separate the effect of global illumination from other properties ...

  18. Alcohol and Drug Problems in Ontario Physicians: Characteristics of the Physician Sample

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Frederick B.; Brewster, Joan M.; Sisson, Barry V.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-six Ontario physicians who entered a treatment process for alcohol and drug problems were systematically assessed prior to treatment. The demographic and medical practice characteristics of this sample are delineated and, where possible, are compared to those of all Ontario physicians. Physicians with alcohol and drug problems were both similar to and different from all Ontario physicians. Further study is needed to explore the similarities and differences between the two groups, with a view to improving treatment, prevention and professional goverance. PMID:21267194

  19. Some thoughts on problems associated with various sampling media used for environmental monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, A.J.

    1997-01-01

    Modern analytical instrumentation is capable of measuring a variety of trace elements at concentrations down into the single or double digit parts-per-trillion (ng l-1) range. This holds for the three most common sample media currently used in environmental monitoring programs: filtered water, whole-water and separated suspended sediment. Unfortunately, current analytical capabilities have exceeded the current capacity to collect both uncontaminated and representative environmental samples. The success of any trace element monitoring program requires that this issue be both understood and addressed. The environmental monitoring of trace elements requires the collection of calendar- and event-based dissolved and suspended sediment samples. There are unique problems associated with the collection and chemical analyses of both types of sample media. Over the past 10 years, reported ambient dissolved trace element concentrations have declined. Generally, these decreases do not reflect better water quality, but rather improvements in the procedures used to collect, process, preserve and analyze these samples without contaminating them during these steps. Further, recent studies have shown that the currently accepted operational definition of dissolved constituents (material passing a 0.45 ??m membrane filter) is inadequat owing to sampling and processing artifacts. The existence of these artifacts raises questions about the generation of accurate, precise and comparable 'dissolved' trace element data. Suspended sediment and associated trace elements can display marked short- and long-term spatial and temporal variability. This implies that spatially representative samples only can be obtained by generating composites using depth- and width-integrated sampling techniques. Additionally, temporal variations have led to the view that the determination of annual trace element fluxes may require nearly constant (e.g., high-frequency) sampling and subsequent chemical analyses. Ultimately, sampling frequency for flux estimates becomes dependent on the time period of concern (daily, weekly, monthly, yearly) and the amount of acceptable error associated with these estimates.

  20. Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving maxwell's equations in isotropic media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KANE S. YEE

    1966-01-01

    Maxwell's equations are replaced by a set of finite difference equations. It is shown that if one chooses the field points appropriately, the set of finite difference equations is applicable for a boundary condition involving perfectly conducting surfaces. An example is given of the scattering of an electromagnetic pulse by a perfectly conducting cylinder.

  1. Exploring the Connection Between Sampling Problems in Bayesian Inference and Statistical Mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The Bayesian and statistical mechanical communities often share the same objective in their work - estimating and integrating probability distribution functions (pdfs) describing stochastic systems, models or processes. Frequently, these pdfs are complex functions of random variables exhibiting multiple, well separated local minima. Conventional strategies for sampling such pdfs are inefficient, sometimes leading to an apparent non-ergodic behavior. Several recently developed techniques for handling this problem have been successfully applied in statistical mechanics. In the multicanonical and Wang-Landau Monte Carlo (MC) methods, the correct pdfs are recovered from uniform sampling of the parameter space by iteratively establishing proper weighting factors connecting these distributions. Trivial generalizations allow for sampling from any chosen pdf. The closely related transition matrix method relies on estimating transition probabilities between different states. All these methods proved to generate estimates of pdfs with high statistical accuracy. In another MC technique, parallel tempering, several random walks, each corresponding to a different value of a parameter (e.g. "temperature"), are generated and occasionally exchanged using the Metropolis criterion. This method can be considered as a statistically correct version of simulated annealing. An alternative approach is to represent the set of independent variables as a Hamiltonian system. Considerab!e progress has been made in understanding how to ensure that the system obeys the equipartition theorem or, equivalently, that coupling between the variables is correctly described. Then a host of techniques developed for dynamical systems can be used. Among them, probably the most powerful is the Adaptive Biasing Force method, in which thermodynamic integration and biased sampling are combined to yield very efficient estimates of pdfs. The third class of methods deals with transitions between states described by rate constants. These problems are isomorphic with chemical kinetics problems. Recently, several efficient techniques for this purpose have been developed based on the approach originally proposed by Gillespie. Although the utility of the techniques mentioned above for Bayesian problems has not been determined, further research along these lines is warranted

  2. Problems and methods involved in relating land use to ground-water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Barringer, T.; Dunn, D.; Battaglin, W.; Vowinkel, E. (Geological Survey, West Trenton, NJ (USA))

    1990-02-01

    Efforts to relate shallow ground-water quality to the land use near a well lead to several statistical difficulties. These include potential uncertainty in land-use categorical data due to misclassification, data closure, distributional skewing, and spatial autocorrelation. Methods of addressing these problems are, respectively, the establishment of limits on minimum buffer radius, the estimation of contrasts, rank-based tests of association, and subsampling to prevent buffer overlap. Relations between the presence of purgeable organic compounds in ground water and land use are used to illustrate these problems and methods.

  3. A simple powerful bivariate test for two sample location problems in experimental and observational studies

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In many areas of medical research, a bivariate analysis is desirable because it simultaneously tests two response variables that are of equal interest and importance in two populations. Several parametric and nonparametric bivariate procedures are available for the location problem but each of them requires a series of stringent assumptions such as specific distribution, affine-invariance or elliptical symmetry. The aim of this study is to propose a powerful test statistic that requires none of the aforementioned assumptions. We have reduced the bivariate problem to the univariate problem of sum or subtraction of measurements. A simple bivariate test for the difference in location between two populations is proposed. Method In this study the proposed test is compared with Hotelling's T2 test, two sample Rank test, Cramer test for multivariate two sample problem and Mathur's test using Monte Carlo simulation techniques. The power study shows that the proposed test performs better than any of its competitors for most of the populations considered and is equivalent to the Rank test in specific distributions. Conclusions Using simulation studies, we show that the proposed test will perform much better under different conditions of underlying population distribution such as normality or non-normality, skewed or symmetric, medium tailed or heavy tailed. The test is therefore recommended for practical applications because it is more powerful than any of the alternatives compared in this paper for almost all the shifts in location and in any direction. PMID:20459659

  4. An asymptotic solution to a problem involving two simultaneous small divisors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Lewin; J. Vagners

    1976-01-01

    This paper concerns a model problem illustrating the techniques needed to analyze weakly nonlinear oscillator systems wherein two small divisors (resonances) may occur separately or simultaneously. The method of multiple scales in combination with singular perturbation methods is used to construct a uniformly valid asymptotic solution to the proposed model equation. It is shown that matching is necessary in order

  5. Geostatistical Sampling Methods for E fficient Uncertainty Analysis in Flow and Transport Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liodakis, Stylianos; Kyriakidis, Phaedon; Gaganis, Petros

    2015-04-01

    In hydrogeological applications involving flow and transport of in heterogeneous porous media the spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity is often parameterized in terms of a lognormal random field based on a histogram and variogram model inferred from data and/or synthesized from relevant knowledge. Realizations of simulated conductivity fields are then generated using geostatistical simulation involving simple random (SR) sampling and are subsequently used as inputs to physically-based simulators of flow and transport in a Monte Carlo framework for evaluating the uncertainty in the spatial distribution of solute concentration due to the uncertainty in the spatial distribution of hydraulic con- ductivity [1]. Realistic uncertainty analysis, however, calls for a large number of simulated concentration fields; hence, can become expensive in terms of both time and computer re- sources. A more efficient alternative to SR sampling is Latin hypercube (LH) sampling, a special case of stratified random sampling, which yields a more representative distribution of simulated attribute values with fewer realizations [2]. Here, term representative implies realizations spanning efficiently the range of possible conductivity values corresponding to the lognormal random field. In this work we investigate the efficiency of alternative methods to classical LH sampling within the context of simulation of flow and transport in a heterogeneous porous medium. More precisely, we consider the stratified likelihood (SL) sampling method of [3], in which attribute realizations are generated using the polar simulation method by exploring the geometrical properties of the multivariate Gaussian distribution function. In addition, we propose a more efficient version of the above method, here termed minimum energy (ME) sampling, whereby a set of N representative conductivity realizations at M locations is constructed by: (i) generating a representative set of N points distributed on the surface of a M-dimensional, unit radius hyper-sphere, (ii) relocating the N points on a representative set of N hyper-spheres of different radii, and (iii) transforming the coordinates of those points to lie on N different hyper-ellipsoids spanning the multivariate Gaussian distribution. The above method is applied in a dimensionality reduction context by defining flow-controlling points over which representative sampling of hydraulic conductivity is performed, thus also accounting for the sensitivity of the flow and transport model to the input hydraulic conductivity field. The performance of the various stratified sampling methods, LH, SL, and ME, is compared to that of SR sampling in terms of reproduction of ensemble statistics of hydraulic conductivity and solute concentration for different sample sizes N (numbers of realizations). The results indicate that ME sampling constitutes an equally if not more efficient simulation method than LH and SL sampling, as it can reproduce to a similar extent statistics of the conductivity and concentration fields, yet with smaller sampling variability than SR sampling. References [1] Gutjahr A.L. and Bras R.L. Spatial variability in subsurface flow and transport: A review. Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 42, 293-316, (1993). [2] Helton J.C. and Davis F.J. Latin hypercube sampling and the propagation of uncertainty in analyses of complex systems. Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 81, 23-69, (2003). [3] Switzer P. Multiple simulation of spatial fields. In: Heuvelink G, Lemmens M (eds) Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Spatial Accuracy Assessment in Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, Coronet Books Inc., pp 629?635 (2000).

  6. Polygenic Scores Predict Alcohol Problems in an Independent Sample and Show Moderation by the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Salvatore, Jessica E.; Aliev, Fazil; Edwards, Alexis C.; Evans, David M.; Macleod, John; Hickman, Matthew; Lewis, Glyn; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Loukola, Anu; Korhonen, Tellervo; Latvala, Antti; Rose, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Dick, Danielle M.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol problems represent a classic example of a complex behavioral outcome that is likely influenced by many genes of small effect. A polygenic approach, which examines aggregate measured genetic effects, can have predictive power in cases where individual genes or genetic variants do not. In the current study, we first tested whether polygenic risk for alcohol problems—derived from genome-wide association estimates of an alcohol problems factor score from the age 18 assessment of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; n = 4304 individuals of European descent; 57% female)—predicted alcohol problems earlier in development (age 14) in an independent sample (FinnTwin12; n = 1162; 53% female). We then tested whether environmental factors (parental knowledge and peer deviance) moderated polygenic risk to predict alcohol problems in the FinnTwin12 sample. We found evidence for both polygenic association and for additive polygene-environment interaction. Higher polygenic scores predicted a greater number of alcohol problems (range of Pearson partial correlations 0.07–0.08, all p-values ? 0.01). Moreover, genetic influences were significantly more pronounced under conditions of low parental knowledge or high peer deviance (unstandardized regression coefficients (b), p-values (p), and percent of variance (R2) accounted for by interaction terms: b = 1.54, p = 0.02, R2 = 0.33%; b = 0.94, p = 0.04, R2 = 0.30%, respectively). Supplementary set-based analyses indicated that the individual top single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) contributing to the polygenic scores were not individually enriched for gene-environment interaction. Although the magnitude of the observed effects are small, this study illustrates the usefulness of polygenic approaches for understanding the pathways by which measured genetic predispositions come together with environmental factors to predict complex behavioral outcomes. PMID:24727307

  7. Metastatic Kaposi's Sarcoma with Perirectal Involvement Diagnosed with Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided EchoBrush Cytology Sampling.

    PubMed

    Cornett, Daniel; Benson, Mark; Attia, Steven; Weiss, Jennifer; Gopal, Deepak

    2011-05-01

    AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a low-grade vascular tumor that occurs in association with human herpesvirus 8 infection. Here we report the case of a 21-year-old male with recently diagnosed cutaneous KS who presented with rectal bleeding and anal pruritus. Initial endoscopic evaluation was nondiagnostic. CT imaging showed diffuse lymphadenopathy including perirectal involvement which was suspicious for metastatic KS. Echoendoscopy with needle biopsies and EchoBrush sampling of the lymph nodes revealed spindle cells confirming metastatic KS. Treatment was initiated with liposomal doxorubicin resulting in rapid improvement of the skin lesions. After treatment completion, repeat CT imaging showed improved lymphadenopathy. No further rectal bleeding or perianal pruritus was reported. Although the EchoBrush has previously been used to aid in the diagnosis of pancreatic lesions, this report describes a novel use of EchoBrush to diagnose KS from perirectal lymph nodes. PMID:21829398

  8. Prevalence of skin problems and leg ulceration in a sample of young injecting drug users

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Drug users suffer harm from the injecting process, and clinical services are reporting increasing numbers presenting with skin-related problems such as abscesses and leg ulcers. Skin breakdown can lead to long-term health problems and increased service costs and is often the first indication of serious systemic ill health. The extent of skin problems in injecting drug users has not previously been quantified empirically, and there is a dearth of robust topical literature. Where skin problems have been reported, this is often without clear definition and generic terms such as ‘soft tissue infection’ are used which lack specificity. The aim of this study was to identify the range and extent of skin problems including leg ulceration in a sample of injecting drug users. Definitions of skin problems were developed and applied to descriptions from drug users to improve rigour. Methods Data were collected in needle exchanges and methadone clinics across Glasgow, Scotland, from both current and former drug injectors using face-to-face interviews. Results Two hundred participants were recruited, of which 74% (n?=?148) were males and 26% (n?=?52) were females. The age range was 21–44 years (mean 35 years). Just under two thirds (64%, n?=?127) were currently injecting or had injected within the last 6 months, and 36% (n?=?73) had previously injected and had not injected for more than 6 months. Sixty per cent (n?=?120) of the sample had experienced a skin problem, and the majority reported more than one problem. Most common were abscesses, lumps, track marks and leg ulcers. Fifteen per cent (n?=?30) of all participants reported having had a leg ulcer. Conclusions This is an original empirical study which demonstrated unique findings of a high prevalence of skin disease (60%) and surprisingly high rates of leg ulceration (15%). Skin disease in injecting drug users is clearly widespread. Leg ulceration in particular is a chronic recurring condition that is costly to treat and has long-term implications for drug users and services caring for current or former injectors long after illicit drug use has ceased. PMID:25119472

  9. A new approach to the solution of boundary value problems involving complex configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubbert, P. E.; Bussoletti, J. E.; Johnson, F. T.; Sidwell, K. W.; Rowe, W. S.; Samant, S. S.; Sengupta, G.; Weatherill, W. H.; Burkhart, R. H.; Woo, A. C.

    1986-01-01

    A new approach for solving certain types of boundary value problems about complex configurations is presented. Numerical algorithms from such diverse fields as finite elements, preconditioned Krylov subspace methods, discrete Fourier analysis, and integral equations are combined to take advantage of the memory, speed and architecture of current and emerging supercomputers. Although the approach has application to many branches of computational physics, the present effort is concentrated in areas of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) such as steady nonlinear aerodynamics, time harmonic unsteady aerodynamics, and aeroacoustics. The most significant attribute of the approach is that it can handle truly arbitrary boundary geometries and eliminates the difficult task of generating surface fitted grids.

  10. A taxometric analysis of problem gambling data from a South African national urban sample.

    PubMed

    Kincaid, Harold; Daniels, Reza; Dellis, Andrew; Hofmeyr, Andre; Rousseau, Jacques; Sharp, Carla; Ross, Don

    2013-09-01

    We investigate the question whether problem gambling (PG) in a recent South African sample, as measured by the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI), is dimensional or categorical. We use two taxometric procedures, Mean Above Minus Below A Cut (MAMBAC) and Maxim Covariance (MAXCOV), to investigate the taxonic structure of PG as constructed by the PGSI. Data are from the 2010 South African National Urban Prevalence Study of Gambling Behavior. A representative sample of the urban adult population in South Africa (N = 3,000). Responses are to the 9 item PGSI. MAMBAC provided positive but modest evidence that PG as measured by the PGSI was taxonic. MAXCOV pointed more strongly to the same conclusion. These analyses also provide evidence that a PGSI cutoff score of 10 rather than the standard 8 may be called for. PG as constructed by the PGSI may best be thought of as categorical, but further studies with more theory based measurements are needed to determine whether this holds in a wider range of samples and for other screens. A higher cutoff score may be called for on the PGSI when it is used for research purposes to avoid false positives. PMID:22711182

  11. Psychometric Analyses of the Problem-Focused Style of Coping (PF-SOC) Scale with Taiwanese Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yuhsuan; Lan, Yu-Ling; Lin, Hung-Yu; Heppner, Puncky Paul

    2012-01-01

    The current research comprises two samples that investigated the psychometric properties of the Problem-Focused Style of Coping (PF-SOC; Heppner, Cook, Wright, & Johnson) scale using two Taiwanese samples. In Sample 1 (N = 809), we investigated the structural dimensions of the PF-SOC using a principal component analysis (PCA) and confirmed three…

  12. Accuracy Study of the Space-Time CE/SE Method for Computational Aeroacoustics Problems Involving Shock Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiao Yen; Chang, Sin-Chung; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.

    1999-01-01

    The space-time conservation element and solution element(CE/SE) method is used to study the sound-shock interaction problem. The order of accuracy of numerical schemes is investigated. The linear model problem.govemed by the 1-D scalar convection equation, sound-shock interaction problem governed by the 1-D Euler equations, and the 1-D shock-tube problem which involves moving shock waves and contact surfaces are solved to investigate the order of accuracy of numerical schemes. It is concluded that the accuracy of the CE/SE numerical scheme with designed 2nd-order accuracy becomes 1st order when a moving shock wave exists. However, the absolute error in the CE/SE solution downstream of the shock wave is on the same order as that obtained using a fourth-order accurate essentially nonoscillatory (ENO) scheme. No special techniques are used for either high-frequency low-amplitude waves or shock waves.

  13. Movie Exposure to Alcohol Cues and Adolescent Alcohol Problems: A Longitudinal Analysis in a National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Thomas A.; Sargent, James D.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The authors tested a theoretical model of how exposure to alcohol cues in movies predicts level of alcohol use (ever use plus ever and recent binge drinking) and alcohol-related problems. A national sample of younger adolescents was interviewed by telephone with 4 repeated assessments spaced at 8-month intervals. A structural equation modeling analysis performed for ever-drinkers at Time 3 (N = 961) indicated that, controlling for a number of covariates, movie alcohol exposure at Time 1 was related to increases in peer alcohol use and adolescent alcohol use at Time 2. Movie exposure had indirect effects to alcohol use and problems at Times 3 and 4 through these pathways, with direct effects to problems from Time 1 rebelliousness and Time 2 movie exposure also found. Prospective risk-promoting effects were also found for alcohol expectancies, peer alcohol use, and availability of alcohol in the home; protective effects were found for mother’s responsiveness and for adolescent’s school performance and self-control. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:19290687

  14. Movie exposure to alcohol cues and adolescent alcohol problems: a longitudinal analysis in a national sample.

    PubMed

    Wills, Thomas A; Sargent, James D; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2009-03-01

    The authors tested a theoretical model of how exposure to alcohol cues in movies predicts level of alcohol use (ever use plus ever and recent binge drinking) and alcohol-related problems. A national sample of younger adolescents was interviewed by telephone with 4 repeated assessments spaced at 8-month intervals. A structural equation modeling analysis performed for ever-drinkers at Time 3 (N = 961) indicated that, controlling for a number of covariates, movie alcohol exposure at Time 1 was related to increases in peer alcohol use and adolescent alcohol use at Time 2. Movie exposure had indirect effects to alcohol use and problems at Times 3 and 4 through these pathways, with direct effects to problems from Time 1 rebelliousness and Time 2 movie exposure also found. Prospective risk-promoting effects were also found for alcohol expectancies, peer alcohol use, and availability of alcohol in the home; protective effects were found for mother's responsiveness and for adolescent's school performance and self-control. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:19290687

  15. Adolescent predictors of young adult and adult alcohol involvement and dysphoria in a prospective community sample of women.

    PubMed

    Locke, Thomas F; Newcomb, Michael D

    2004-09-01

    The adolescent predictors of later alcohol involvement (AI), dysphoria (D), and their shared association (AD) among women have not been adequately established. Three waves of data from an ethnically diverse community sample of women, assessed over 16 years are used to study how various psychosocial factors in adolescence influenced later drinking, depression, and their shared association. Structural equation models revealed that several adolescent ecodevelopmental and social development model variables influenced their later outcome in young adulthood and adulthood. The strongest relation was between adolescent Social Conformity and adult AD (beta = -.46) over a 16-year period, emphasizing the impact of this construct. Numerous other relations were revealed. For instance, less satisfaction with school during adolescence predicted adult AI. Having a good bond to the family in adolescence predicted a lower quantity of alcohol consumed during adulthood. Lower satisfaction with "what you want to be" during adolescence predicted young adult D. Higher levels of adolescent relationship satisfaction and school satisfaction predicted less suicidal ideation as an adult. Prevention interventions focusing on increasing socially conforming attitudes and on strengthening relationships both in and out of the home during adolescence are likely to be effective in reducing aspects of AI, D, and AD for women in the general community. PMID:15470936

  16. Physics 228 Lecture 18 Appendix B 1 Winter 2009 Lecture 18 Appendix B: Some sample problems from Boas

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Steve

    Boas Here are some solutions to the sample problems using Laplace transforms (Chapter 8). §8.9: 12 conditions (here I will consistently use dots to signify time derivatives, unlike Boas) 2 , 0 1, 0 2.t t y

  17. Information Processing Profiles of Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior Problems: Evidence from a Population-Based Sample of Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunnekreef, J. Agnes; De Sonneville, Leo M. J.; Althaus, Monika; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Background: The present study explores the relationships between several information processing capacities and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in a general population sample of 10- to 12-year olds (N = 2,037 51% girls). Methods: Parent-reported behavior problems as assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist were used to form four…

  18. Sustained impact of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity on peer problems: mediating roles of prosocial skills and conduct problems in a community sample of children.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Brendan F; Tannock, Rosemary

    2014-06-01

    This prospective 2-year longitudinal study tested whether inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptom dimensions predicted future peer problems, when accounting for concurrent conduct problems and prosocial skills. A community sample of 492 children (49 % female) who ranged in age from 6 to 10 years (M = 8.6, SD = .93) was recruited. Teacher reports of children's inattention, and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms, conduct problems, prosocial skills and peer problems were collected in two consecutive school years. Elevated inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity in Year-1 predicted greater peer problems in Year-2. Conduct problems in the first and second years of the study were associated with more peer problems, and explained a portion of the relationship between inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity with peer problems. However, prosocial skills were associated with fewer peer problems in children with elevated inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity have negative effects on children's peer functioning after 1-year, but concurrent conduct problems and prosocial skills have important and opposing impacts on these associations. PMID:24013840

  19. Self-report measures of child and adolescent psychopathy as predictors of offending in four samples of justice-involved youth.

    PubMed

    Boccaccini, Marcus T; Epstein, Monica; Poythress, Norman; Douglas, Kevin S; Campbell, Justin; Gardner, Gail; Falkenbach, Diana

    2007-12-01

    The authors examined the relation between self-report psychopathy measures and official records of offending in four samples of justice-involved youth (total N = 447). Psychopathy measures included the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) and a modified version of the Childhood Psychopathy Scale (mCPS). Measures of offending included the total number of preadmission arrest charges for three samples (n = 392) and the total number of offenses in the year following release for two samples (n = 138). Neither measure was a strong correlate of preadmission offenses. Although mCPS scores were associated with postrelease offending in one sample, effects for the APSD were observed only when reoffending was conceptualized as a dichotomous variable, indicating a lack of robustness in this association. The findings suggest caution in the use of self-report measures of psychopathic features for decision making with respect to issues of delinquency risk among justice-involved youth. PMID:17986654

  20. Fast sample preparation involving MASE and coupled column normal phase liquid chromatography for the rapid trace analysis of dioxins in air-dust samples from fire catastrophe emissions.

    PubMed

    van Beuzekom, A C; Hijman, W C; Berkhoff, C J; Stoffelsen, B H G; den Boer, A C; Groenemeijer, G S; Mooibroek, D; Hoogerbrugge, R; Broekman, M H; Baumann, R A; Hogendoorn, E A

    2004-08-01

    A new approach has been developed and tested for the urgent analysis of dioxins in samples of air-dust filters originating from catastrophe emissions. The procedure consists of a fast extraction of the sample with microwave solvent extraction (MASE) and acetone as solvent followed by a fast cleanup of the extract with normal phase coupled column liquid chromatography (LC/LC). The multi-dimensional LC/LC system employs a 50 mm x4.6 mm i.d. column packed with 3mum silica and a 150 mm x4.6 mm i.d. column packed with 5mum PYE as the first and second analytical column, respectively. Iso-hexane is used on both columns to perform cleanup and dichloromethane to perform efficient back-flush elution of the compounds from the second column. The obtained polarity-based separation in the first dimension and molecular-structure based separation in the second dimension provides a fast and powerful cleanup. Validation was done by analysing samples of homemade RIVM air-dust with aged residues (n=8, spiking level about 15pgmg(-1) per compound) of dioxins/furans and samples of reference Urban Dust SRM 1649a (n=4) with both the new approach and the existing conventional procedure and were instrumentally analyzed with capillary gas chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometric detection (GC/HRMS). In comparison to the existing conventional procedure, the new approach reduces sample processing from several days to several hours per sample. As regards the aged-residue air-dust samples, the new method shows a good accuracy, precision and high selectivity providing a performance in good agreement with the existing procedure. In SRM air-dust, the concentration of a few compounds obtained by the new method was below (10-50%) the certified value. PMID:18969547

  1. Studies of human and veterinary drugs' fate in environmental solid samples--analytical problems.

    PubMed

    Wilga, Joanna; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Namie?nik, Jacek

    2008-08-01

    The improvement of medical care worldwide is one of the reasons for the increasing production of pharmaceutical products. Human medicines are affordable to a greater proportion of the world's population. But a significant amount of used pharmaceuticals can create problems--accessibility to high volume production pharmaceuticals contributes to an increased contamination in the environment and the possibility of adverse effects on humans and animals. Many of these substances and their metabolites end up in the soil, sediments, and sludge. Knowledge regarding the environmental occurrence of pharmaceutical products is increasing, but information in the peer-reviewed literature regarding the fate and effects of most pharmaceuticals is limited. One of the reasons for this lack of data is that, until now, there have been few analytical methods capable of detecting these compounds at the low levels, which might be expected in the environment. This review article covers recent developments in the analysis of pharmaceuticals in environmental solid matrices (including soil, sediments, and sludge). We will report applications of different solid sample extraction methods, and current advances in liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for detection and identification of selected drugs in sludge, soils, manure, and sediments. PMID:18718135

  2. Does burnout among doctors affect their involvement in patients' mental health problems? A study of videotaped consultations

    PubMed Central

    Zantinge, Else M; Verhaak, Peter FM; de Bakker, Dinny H; van der Meer, Klaas; Bensing, Jozien M

    2009-01-01

    Background General practitioners' (GPs') feelings of burnout or dissatisfaction may affect their patient care negatively, but it is unknown if these negative feelings also affect their mental health care. GPs' available time, together with specific communication tools, are important conditions for providing mental health care. We investigated if GPs who feel burnt out or dissatisfied with the time available for their patients, are less inclined to encourage their patients to disclose their distress, and have shorter consultations, in order to gain time and energy. This may result in less psychological evaluations of patients' complaints. Methods We used 1890 videotaped consultations from a nationally representative sample of 126 Dutch GPs to analyse GPs' communication and the duration of their consultations. Burnout was subdivided into emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and reduced accomplishment. Multilevel regression analyses were used to investigate which subgroups of GPs differed significantly. Results GPs with feelings of exhaustion or dissatisfaction with the available time have longer consultations compared to GPs without these feelings. Exhausted GPs, and GPs with feelings of depersonalisation, talk more about psychological or social topics in their consultations. GPs with feelings of reduced accomplishment are an exception: they communicate less affectively, are less patient-centred and have less eye contact with their patients compared to GPs without reduced accomplishment. We found no relationship between GPs' feelings of burnout or dissatisfaction with the available time and their psychological evaluations of patients' problems. Conclusion GPs' feelings of burnout or dissatisfaction with the time available for their patients do not obstruct their diagnosis and awareness of patients' psychological problems. On the contrary, GPs with high levels of exhaustion or depersonalisation, and GPs who are dissatisfied with the available time, sometimes provide more opportunities to discuss mental health problems. This increases the chance that appropriate care will be found for patients with mental health problems. On the other hand, these GPs are themselves more likely to retire, or risk burnout, because of their dissatisfaction. Therefore these GPs may benefit from training or personal coaching to decrease the chance that the process of burnout will get out of hand. PMID:19706200

  3. Self-Report Measures of Child and Adolescent Psychopathy as Predictors of Offending in Four Samples of Justice-Involved Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boccaccini, Marcus T.; Epstein, Monica; Poythress, Norman; Douglas, Kevin S.; Campbell, Justin; Gardner, Gail; Falkenbach, Diana

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the relation between self-report psychopathy measures and official records of offending in four samples of justice-involved youth (total N = 447). Psychopathy measures included the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) and a modified version of the Childhood Psychopathy Scale (mCPS). Measures of offending included the…

  4. The Relationship Between Reported Health and Involvement in Bully/ Victim Problems among Male and Female Secondary Schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Rigby, K

    1998-10-01

    The relationship between involvement in bully/victim problems at school and the reported health of adolescents was investigated using questionnaires completed anonymously by 819 Australian schoolchildren attending coeducational high school. From self-reports of their relations with peers at school, respondents were categorized as victims, bullies, bully-victims and 'others'. The students also completed a measure of mental health, the General Health Questionnaire, and answered questions to assess their frequency of physical complaints and perceived consequences of adverse treatment by peers at school. In general, peer- victimized girls reported a higher incidence of emotional distress and more perceived adverse health effects. Compared with 'others' , victims of both sexes indicated significantly worse mental and physical health. Among boys only, bullies consistently reported poorer health. Explanations for health effects and reported gender differences are discussed in relation to the consequences of stress engendered by peer victimization at school as well as suggested differences in the nature and implications of bullying behaviours employed by boys and girls. PMID:22021407

  5. Stress, Mental Health and Substance Abuse Problems In a Sample of Diversion Program Youth: An Exploratory Latent Class Analysis*

    PubMed Central

    Dembo, Richard; Briones, Rhissa; Gulledge, Laura; Karas, Lora; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Greenbaum, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    Reflective of interest in mental health and substance abuse issues among youths involved with the justice system, we performed a latent class analysis on baseline information collected on 100 youths involved in two diversion programs. Results identified two groups of youths: Group 1: a majority of the youths, who had high levels of delinquency, mental health and substance abuse issues, Group 2: youths with low levels of these problems. Comparison of these two groups on a variety of psychosocial measures and parent/guardian reports found differences between them that were consistent with their problem group classification. Follow-up analysis confirmed problem behavior that was consistent with the youths’ latent class placement. Implications of the findings for research and practice will be presented. PMID:22685378

  6. Problem Drinking, Unemployment, and Intimate Partner Violence among a Sample of Construction Industry Workers and their Partners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol B. Cunradi; Michael Todd; Michael Duke; Genevieve Ames

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the contribution of male unemployment and each partner’s problem drinking to risk\\u000a for male-to-female partner violence (MFPV) and female-to-male partner violence (FMPV) among a sample of construction industry\\u000a workers and their spouses\\/partners. Participants in the sample (n = 848 couples) completed cross-sectional health behavior surveys. Multivariate logistic regression models of MFPV and

  7. Fast and Flexible Geometric Method For Enhancing MC Sampling of Compact Configurations For Protein Docking Problem

    E-print Network

    Ozkan, Aysegul; Sitharam, Meera; Kurnikova, Maria

    2014-01-01

    EASAL (efficient atlasing and sampling of assembly landscapes) is a recently reported geometric method for representing, visualizing, sampling and computing integrals over the potential energy landscape tailored for small molecular assemblies. EASAL's efficiency arises from the fact that small assembly landscapes permit the use of so-called Cayley parameters (inter-atomic distances) for geometric representation and sampling of the assembly configuration space regions; this results in their isolation, convexification, customized sampling and systematic traversal using a comprehensive topological roadmap. By sampling the assembly landscape of 2 TransMembrane Helices, with short-range pair-potentials, this paper demonstrates that EASAL provides reasonable coverage of crucial but narrow regions of low effective dimension with much fewer samples and computational resources than traditional MonteCarlo or Molecular Dynamics based sampling. Promising avenues are discussed, for combining the complementary advantages o...

  8. Caregiver Unresolved Loss and Abuse and Child Behavior Problems: Intergenerational Effects in a High-Risk Sample

    PubMed Central

    Zajac, Kristyn; Kobak, Roger

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the intergenerational effects of caregivers’ Unresolved loss and abuse on children’s behavior problems from middle childhood to early adolescence in an economically disadvantaged sample. One hundred twenty four caregivers completed the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and a lifetime trauma interview during the age 13 wave of the study. Child behavior problems were assessed at four time points (ages 6, 8, 10, and 13) with teacher-reported CBCL total problem scales. The children of insecure caregivers with Unresolved loss showed a consistent pattern of increased behavior problems from middle childhood to early adolescence. Caregivers’ AAI status accounted for more variance in child behavior problems than did an alternative model of caregiver psychopathology (depression and dissociation). The results extend the literature on the effects of caregiver Unresolved states of mind beyond infancy to older children and adolescents. PMID:19144229

  9. UPDATED USER-FRIENDLY COMPUTER PROGRAMS FOR SOLVING SAMPLING AND STATISTICAL PROBLEMS (FOR MICROCOMPUTERS) (DATE OF COVERAGE: 1993). - SOFTWARE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The product contains user-friendly computer programs for solving sampling and related statistical problems. All have been updated as well and more programs have been added. Specific, detailed written instructions and examples built into the programs are provided so that the user ...

  10. Physics 227 Lecture 9 Appendix B 1 Autumn 2008 Lecture 9 Appendix B: Some sample problems from Boas

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Steve

    Boas Here are some solutions to the sample problems assigned for Chapter 3.12. §3.12: 15 Consider the equations of motion for the system (see the examples in Boas, Section 3.12). These equations can be obtained

  11. Physics 228 Lecture 20 Appendix B 1 Winter 2009 Lecture 20 Appendix B: Some sample problems from Boas

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Steve

    Boas Here are some solutions to the sample problems assigned for Chapter 9. §9.3: 6 Solution the independent variable as described in Boas or use the result of Eq. (20.13) in Lecture 20. Here we use explicit x dependence. Hence we can switch to y being the independent variable as described in Boas (as

  12. Physics 228 Lecture 19 Appendix B 1 Winter 2009 Lecture 19 Appendix B: Some sample problems from Boas

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Steve

    Boas Here are some solutions to the sample problems using delta functions and Green functions (Chapter (see L28 on page 470 in Boas) 0 0 0 0 : . 0: t t t t e t t y t t t §8.11: 13 Solution: Now.11.19 in Boas. We have #12;Physics 228 Lecture 19 Appendix B 3 Winter 2009

  13. Physics 227 Lecture 12 Appendix B 1 Autumn 2008 Lecture 12 Appendix B: Some sample problems from Boas

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Steve

    Boas Here are some solutions to the sample problems assigned for Chapter 6, sections 3 to 7. §6.3: 7.13 in Boas. We find 2 2 ^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ ^2 2 ^ ^^ ^2 ^^ 2 . r t r t r t r rr rr rr r r rr rr rr

  14. Physics 227 Lecture 10 Appendix B 1 Autumn 2008 Lecture 10 Appendix B: Some sample problems from Boas

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Steve

    Boas Here are some solutions to the sample problems assigned for Chapter 3.13. §3.13: 6 We consider) and essentially the same as (isomorphic to) the tables in Eqs. 13.1 and 13.2 in Boas. Thus this group

  15. Parent Drug-Use Problems and Adult Intimate Relations: Associations among Community Samples of Young Adult Women and Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcomb, Michael D.; Rickards, Shannae

    1995-01-01

    Used community samples to determine the effects of childhood family support or dysfunction and the extent of parent drug-use problems on adult intimacy issues, such as sexual satisfaction. Results showed that parent drug-use predicted poor family support; family support correlated strongly with good adult intimate relations. (RJM)

  16. ADHD Symptoms and Peer Relations of Children in a Community Sample: Examining Associated Problems, Self-Perceptions, and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamantopoulou, Sofia; Henricsson, Lisbeth; Rydell, Ann-Margret

    2005-01-01

    This study examined children's peer relations in relation to gender, symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), associated behaviour problems, prosociality, and self-perceptions, in a community sample. Six hundred and thirty-five 12-year-old children (314 girls) provided peer nominations and rated feelings of loneliness and…

  17. Problems Involved in an Emergency Method of Guiding a Gliding Vehicle from High Altitudes to a High Key Position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewel, Joseph W., Jr.; Whitten, James B.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted to determine the problems involved in an emergency method of guiding a gliding vehicle from high altitudes to a high key position (initial position) above a landing field. A jet airplane in a simulated flameout condition, conventional ground-tracking radar, and a scaled wire for guidance programming on the radar plotting board were used in the tests. Starting test altitudes varied from 30,000 feet to 46,500 feet, and starting positions ranged 8.4 to 67 nautical miles from the high key. Specified altitudes of the high key were 12,000, 10,000 or 4,000 feet. Lift-drag ratios of the aircraft of either 17, 16, or 6 were held constant during any given flight; however, for a few flights the lift-drag ratio was varied from 11 to 6. Indicated airspeeds were held constant at either 160 or 250 knots. Results from these tests indicate that a gliding vehicle having a lift-drag ratio of 16 and an indicated approach speed of 160 knots can be guided to within 800 feet vertically and 2,400 feet laterally of a high key position. When the lift-drag ratio of the vehicle is reduced to 6 and the indicated approach speed is raised to 250 knots, the radar controller was able to guide the vehicle to within 2,400 feet vertically and au feet laterally of the high key. It was also found that radar stations which give only azimuth-distance information could control the glide path of a gliding vehicle as well as stations that receive azimuth-distance-altitude information, provided that altitude information is supplied by the pilot.

  18. Sample preparation for aflatoxin assay: The nature of the problem and approaches to a solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Stoloff; A. D. Campbell; A. C. Beckwith; S. Nesheim; J. S. Winbush; O. M. Fordham

    1969-01-01

    Cases have been reported of individual peanuts, cottonseeds or Brazil nuts so highly contaminated with aflatoxin that, for\\u000a a 50 g portion to be representative of the whole, the sample preparation procedures should grind each unit to a large number\\u000a of particles and distribute them uniformly throughout the sample. Assuming uniform contamination of the individual kernel,\\u000a each 50 g sample

  19. MINIMAX INVARIANT REGRET SOLUTION TO THE N-SAMPLE SLIPPAGE PROBLEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Tartakovsky

    1997-01-01

    A minimax regret test is proposed for deciding whether one of N populations has slipped to the right of the rest, under the null hypothesis that all populations are iden- tical. The problem is formulated as a multiple decision problem under uncertainty relative to a priori distribution of hypotheses and incomplete knowledge of probability distribu- tions of observations. For the

  20. Initial Impact of the Fast Track Prevention Trial for Conduct Problems: I. The High-Risk Sample

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Fast Track is a multisite, multicomponent preventive intervention for young children at high risk for long-term antisocial behavior. Based on a comprehensive developmental model intervention included a universal-level classroom program plus social skills training, academic tutoring, parent training, and home visiting to improve competencies and reduce problems in a high-risk group of children selected in kindergarten. At the end of Grade 1, there were moderate positive effects on children's social, emotional, and academic skills; peer interactions and social status; and conduct problems and special-education use. Parents reported less-physical discipline and greater parenting satisfaction/ease of parenting and engaged in more appropriate/consistent discipline, warmth/positive involvement, and involvement with the school. Evidence of differential intervention effects across child gender, race, site, and cohort was minimal. PMID:10535230

  1. A sample path approach for solving the ground-holding policy problem in air traffic control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christos G. Panayiotou; Christos G. Cassandras

    1999-01-01

    We address the ground-holding problem in air traffic control and propose two techniques that can be used to dynamically solve this problem. The first is motivated by the kanban control policy extensively used in manufacturing systems to reduce the work-in-process inventory, while the second one uses finite perturbation analysis (FPA) for discrete-event systems. We show that the latter leads to

  2. Problem Drinking, Unemployment, and Intimate Partner Violence among a Sample of Construction Industry Workers and their Partners

    PubMed Central

    Cunradi, Carol B.; Todd, Michael; Duke, Michael; Ames, Genevieve

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the contribution of male unemployment and each partner’s problem drinking to risk for male-to-female partner violence (MFPV) and female-to-male partner violence (FMPV) among a sample of construction industry workers and their spouses/partners. Participants in the sample (n=848 couples) completed cross-sectional health behavior surveys. Multivariate logistic regression models of MFPV and FMPV, with adjustment for demographic and psychosocial variables, were developed. Approximately 20% of couples reported MFPV, and 24% reported FMPV. Results indicated that couples in which the male was a problem drinker, and in which the male worker reported being currently unemployed, were at risk for MFPV. Number of months unemployed by the male worker was significantly associated with FMPV, but problem drinking was not associated with this outcome. Male and female impulsivity were significantly associated with risk for MFPV and FMPV, and the male’s report of adverse childhood events was associated with increased likelihood of MFPV. There was no evidence for the effects of unemployment being moderated (exacerbated) by problem drinking. Workplace-based prevention efforts may be a feasible and important strategy to reduce problem drinking and partner violence among high-risk occupational groups. PMID:22096270

  3. A Population of Langerin-Positive Dendritic Cells in Murine Peyer's Patches Involved in Sampling ?-Glucan Microparticles

    PubMed Central

    De Jesus, Magdia; Ostroff, Gary R.; Levitz, Stuart M.; Bartling, Toni R.; Mantis, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    Glucan particles (GPs) are 2–4 ?m hollow, porous shells composed of 1,3-?-D-glucan that have been effectively used for oral targeted–delivery of a wide range of payloads, including small molecules, siRNA, DNA, and protein antigens. While it has been demonstrated that the transepithelial transport of GPs is mediated by Peyer's patch M cells, the fate of the GPs once within gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is not known. Here we report that fluorescently labeled GPs administered to mice by gavage accumulate in CD11c+ DCs situated in Peyer's patch sub-epithelial dome (SED) regions. GPs appeared in DCs within minutes after gavage and remained within the SED for days afterwards. The co-administration or sequential administration of GPs with differentially labeled GPs or poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles demonstrated that the SED DC subpopulation in question was capable of internalizing particles of different sizes and material compositions. Phenotypic analysis identified the GP-containing DCs as being CD8?- and CD11blo/-, suggesting they are the so-called myeloid and/or double negative (DN) subset(s) of PP DCs. A survey of C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) known to be expressed by leukocytes within the intestinal mucosa revealed that GP-containing SED DCs were positive for Langerin (CD207), a CLR with specificity for ?-D-glucan and that has been shown to mediate the internalization of a wide range of microbial pathogens, including bacteria, viruses and fungi. The presence of Langerin+ DCs in the SED as determined by immunofluorescence was confirmed using Langerin E-GFP transgenic mice. In summary, our results demonstrate that following M cell-mediated transepithelial transport, GPs (and other micro/nanoparticles) are sampled by a population of SED DCs distinguished from other Peyer's patch DC subsets by their expression of Langerin. Future studies will be aimed at defining the role of Langerin in antigen sampling and antigen presentation within the context of the GALT. PMID:24632738

  4. The Effects of the Family-Involved SDLMI on Academic Engagement and Goal Attainment of Middle School Students with Disabilities Who Exhibit Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Nam Hee; Park, Jiyeon

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the Family-Involved Self-Determination Learning Model of Instruction (SDLMI) on academic engagement and goal attainment of middle school students with disabilities who exhibit problem behavior. Intervention was provided to the experimental group (12 students with their families and special…

  5. Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…

  6. EVOLUTIONARY MONTE CARLO: APPLICATIONS TO Cp MODEL SAMPLING AND CHANGE POINT PROBLEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Faming Liang; Wing Hung Wong

    2000-01-01

    Motivated by the success of genetic algorithms and simulated annealing in hard optimization problems, the authors propose a new Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm called an evolutionary Monte Carlo algorithm. This algorithm has incorporated several attractive features of genetic algorithms and simulated annealing into the framework of MCMC. It works by simulating a pop- ulation of Markov chains in

  7. Problems of Definition in Sampling Special Populations: The Case of Homeless Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Timothy P.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Problems of definition in estimation in evaluation research were studied through a survey of homeless persons in Cook County (Illinois) based on 481 interviews. Differences arising from the following four population definitions are presented: (1) traditional homeless; (2) marginally housed; (3) social isolates; and (4) total of these categories.…

  8. Counting without sampling: new algorithms for enumeration problems using statistical physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antar Bandyopadhyay; David Gamarnik

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new type of approximate counting algorithms for the problems of enumerating the number of independent sets and proper colorings in low degree graphs with large girth. Our algorithms are not based on a commonly used Markov chain technique, but rather are inspired by developments in statistical physics in connection with correlation decay properties of Gibbs measures and

  9. Variants of Callous-Unemotional Conduct Problems in a Community Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanti, Kostas A.; Demetriou, Chara A.; Kimonis, Eva R.

    2013-01-01

    Callous-unemotional traits are believed to be a childhood precursor to psychopathy, and among youth with conduct problems they designate those showing a particularly severe, stable, and aggressive pattern of antisocial behavior. Youth with callous-unemotional traits are a heterogeneous population and, analogous to adults with psychopathy, research…

  10. Parenting correlates of child behavior problems in a multiethnic community sample of preschool children in northern Norway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cecilie Javo; John A. Rønning; Sonja Heyerdahl; FloydWebster Rudmin

    2004-01-01

    A multiethnic community sample of 191 families with four-year-old children in northern Norway was used to explore whether parenting factors were associated with child behavior problems, and whether these associations differed for boys and girls or for the two main ethnic groups in this region: the indigenous Sami and the majority Norwegians. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and a semi-structured

  11. PISA 2000: Sample Weight Problems in Austria. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuwirth, Erich

    2006-01-01

    As noted in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD's) "PISA 2000 Technical Report" (OECD, 2002), the Austrian sample for the PISA 2000 assessment did not adequately cover students enrolled in combined school and work-based vocational programmes as required by the OECD's technical standards for PISA. The purpose of this…

  12. A separation theorem for the stochastic sampled-data LQG problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NESIM HALYO; ALPER K. CAGLAYAN

    1976-01-01

    This paper considers the control of a continuous linear plant disturbed by white plant noise when the control is constrained to be a piecewise constant function of time: i.e. a stochastic sampled-data system. The cost function is the integral of quadratic error terms in the state and control, thus penalizing errors at every instant of time while the plant noise

  13. The Interaction of Conduct Problems and Depressed Mood in Relation to Adolescent Substance Involvement and Peer Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Hitchings, Julia E.; Spoth, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Conduct problems are strong positive predictors of substance use and problem substance use among teens, whereas predictive associations of depressed mood with these outcomes are mixed. Conduct problems and depressed mood often co-occur, and such co-occurrence may heighten risk for negative outcomes. Thus, this study examined the interaction of conduct problems and depressed mood at age 11 in relation to substance use and problem use at age 18, and possible mediation through peer substance use at age 16. Analyses of multirater longitudinal data collected from 429 rural youths (222 girls) and their families were conducted using a methodology for testing latent variable interactions. The link between the conduct problems X depressed mood interaction and adolescent substance use was negative and statistically significant. Unexpectedly, positive associations of conduct problems with substance use were stronger at lower levels of depressed mood. A significant negative interaction in relation to peer substance use also was observed, and the estimated indirect effect of the interaction on adolescent use through peer use as a mediator was statistically significant. Findings illustrate the complexity of multiproblem youth. PMID:18455886

  14. Alcoholics anonymous affiliation and treatment outcome among a clinical sample of problem drinkers.

    PubMed

    McLatchie, B H; Lomp, K G

    1988-01-01

    Pretreatment and posttreatment Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) affiliation was investigated in respect to treatment outcome, demographic variables, and psychometric variables for 173 consecutive admissions to a residential behaviorally oriented, multimodal treatment program. Few variables were found to distinguish clients who chose to affiliate with AA following treatment from those who did not. However, AA attenders tended to report a higher incidence of and more severe alcohol-related problems prior to treatment. Pretreatment AA affiliation was not found to influence prognosis significantly. However, an infrequent or irregular pattern of posttreatment AA attendance was associated with a much poorer prognosis than either regular attendance or nonattendance. Success:failure ratios were statistically equivalent for the latter two groups. It is suggested that the poor outcome evident among the infrequent attenders may be the result of "misaffiliation" or incomplete affiliation with the fellowship and/or the presence of a problem which supersedes the alcohol abuse. PMID:3189254

  15. Problems associated with using filtration to define dissolved trace element concentrations in natural water samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, A.J.; Lum, K.R.; Garbarino, J.R.; Hall, G.E.M.; Lemieux, C.; Demas, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    Field and laboratory experiments indicate that a number of factors associated with filtration other than just pore size (e.g., diameter, manufacturer, volume of sample processed, amount of suspended sediment in the sample) can produce significant variations in the 'dissolved' concentrations of such elements as Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, Pb, Co, and Ni. The bulk of these variations result from the inclusion/exclusion of colloidally associated trace elements in the filtrate, although dilution and sorption/desorption from filters also may be factors. Thus, dissolved trace element concentrations quantitated by analyzing filtrates generated by processing whole water through similar pore-sized filters may not be equal or comparable. As such, simple filtration of unspecified volumes of natural water through unspecified 0.45-??m membrane filters may no longer represent an acceptable operational definition for a number of dissolved chemical constituents.

  16. Improving Children's Creative Problem Solving Ability: Effects of Distribution of Training, Teacher Involvement, and Teacher's Divergent Thinking Ability on Instruction. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treffinger, Donald J.

    This report investigates improvement of pupils' creative thinking and problem-solving abilities through direct educational efforts. The sample consisted of 739 pupils and their teachers from 36 fifth grade classes in two Indiana public school systems. Five sub-tests from the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking were administered to all teachers to…

  17. The k-Sample Problem When k is Large and n Small 

    E-print Network

    Zhan, Dongling

    2012-07-16

    for those who are not familiar with the subject. Let X1, . . . , Xn be a random sample from a density f . The kernel density estimate of f at the point x is given by ?fh(x) = 1 nh n? i=1 K ( x ? Xi h ) , where h is known as the bandwidth, and K... smooth curves. We use the same principle to propose a test statistic Tp by using kernel density estimation. The test statistic has the following form: Tp = n p p? i=1 ? ? ?? ( ?fh(x|i) ? ?f (i)h (x) )2 dx, (2.1) where ?fh(?|i) is a kernel...

  18. Negative-energy states in the Dirac-Hartree-Fock problem - The effect of omission of two-electron integrals involving the small component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyall, Kenneth G.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of omission of two-electron integrals involving basis functions for the small component of the wavefunction on the eigenvalue spectrum in the Dirac-Hartree-Fock problem is studied. From an analysis of the Fock matrix it is shown that omission of these integrals moves the negative-energy states down, not up. Their complete omission does not give rise to intruder states. The appearance of intruder states occurs when only some of the core integrals are omitted, due to the nature of particular contraction schemes used for the core basis functions. Use of radially localized functions rather than atomic functions alleviates the intruder state problem.

  19. Development of a branch and price approach involving vertex cloning to solve the maximum weighted independent set problem 

    E-print Network

    Sachdeva, Sandeep

    2006-04-12

    We propose a novel branch-and-price (B&P) approach to solve the maximum weighted independent set problem (MWISP). Our approach uses clones of vertices to create edge-disjoint partitions from vertex-disjoint partitions. We solve the MWISP on sub...

  20. Infinitely many solutions for a differential inclusion problem in {{R}^N} involving p( x)-Laplacian and oscillatory terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Bin; Zhou, Qing-Mei; Xue, Xiao-Ping

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, we consider the differential inclusion in {{R}^N} involving the p( x)-Laplacian of the type {begin{array}{lll}-triangle_{p(x)} u+V(x)|u|^{p(x)-2}uin partial F(x,u(x)),in{R}^N,quadquadquadquadquadquad (P)} where {p: {R}^N to {{R}}} is Lipschitz continuous function satisfying some given assumptions. The approach used in this paper is the variational method for locally Lipschitz functions. Under suitable oscillatory assumptions on the potential F at zero or at infinity, we show the existence of infinitely many solutions of (P). We also establish a Bartsch-Wang type compact embedding theorem for variable exponent spaces.

  1. Associations between work family conflict, emotional exhaustion, musculoskeletal pain, and gastrointestinal problems in a sample of business travelers.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Maria Therese; Rundmo, Torbjørn

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the associations among work-family conflict (WFC), emotional exhaustion, musculoskeletal (MS) pain, and gastrointestinal problems on a sample of business travelers (n = 2,093). An additional aim was to examine differences in the mentioned relationships among three traveler groups: commuters, national travelers, and international travelers. The study was conducted in a large Norwegian oil and gas company, and the company's business travel database was utilized to examine business travel. Structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed significant relations between WFC and emotional exhaustion and between emotional exhaustion and health problems. Contrary to the expectations, no direct association was found between WFC and health problems. However, we found that emotional exhaustion mediated the relation between WFC and health outcomes. The results from multi-group analysis revealed that associations among WFC, emotional exhaustion, and health-outcomes showed a similar pattern for commuters, national travelers, and international travelers. However, the association between emotional exhaustion and MS pain proved to be significantly stronger for the commuter group compared to the national and international travel groups. Practical implications and the consequences of these findings for future research are discussed. PMID:25363417

  2. Computationally efficient parabolic equation solutions to seismo-acoustic problems involving thin or low-shear elastic layers.

    PubMed

    Metzler, Adam M; Collis, Jon M

    2013-04-01

    Shallow-water environments typically include sediments containing thin or low-shear layers. Numerical treatments of these types of layers require finer depth grid spacing than is needed elsewhere in the domain. Thin layers require finer grids to fully sample effects due to elasticity within the layer. As shear wave speeds approach zero, the governing system becomes singular and fine-grid spacing becomes necessary to obtain converged solutions. In this paper, a seismo-acoustic parabolic equation solution is derived utilizing modified difference formulas using Galerkin's method to allow for variable-grid spacing in depth. Propagation results are shown for environments containing thin layers and low-shear layers. PMID:23556690

  3. Mycotoxin Cocktail in the Samples of Oilseed Cake from Early Maturing Cotton Varieties Associated with Cattle Feeding Problems

    PubMed Central

    Yunus, Agha W.; Sulyok, Michael; Böhm, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Cottonseed cake in South East Asia has been associated with health issues in ruminants in the recent years. The present study was carried out to investigate the health issues associated with cottonseed cake feeding in dairy animals in Pakistan. All the cake samples were confirmed to be from early maturing cotton varieties (maturing prior to or during Monsoon). A survey of the resource persons indicated that the feeding problems with cottonseed cake appeared after 4–5 months of post-production storage. All the cake samples had heavy bacterial counts, and contaminated with over a dozen different fungal genera. Screening for toxins revealed co-contamination with toxic levels of nearly a dozen mycotoxins including aflatoxin B1 + B2 (556 to 5574 ppb), ochratoxin A + B (47 to 2335 ppb), cyclopiazonic acid (1090 to 6706 ppb), equisetin (2226 to 12672 ppb), rubrofusarin (81 to 1125), tenuazonic acid (549 to 9882 ppb), 3-nitropropionic acid (111 to 1032 ppb), and citrinin (29 to 359 ppb). Two buffalo calves in a diagnostic feed trial also showed signs of complex toxicity. These results indicate that inappropriate processing and storage of the cake, in the typical conditions of the subcontinent, could be the main contributory factors regarding the low quality of cottonseed cake. PMID:26075378

  4. Mycotoxin Cocktail in the Samples of Oilseed Cake from Early Maturing Cotton Varieties Associated with Cattle Feeding Problems.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Agha W; Sulyok, Michael; Böhm, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Cottonseed cake in South East Asia has been associated with health issues in ruminants in the recent years. The present study was carried out to investigate the health issues associated with cottonseed cake feeding in dairy animals in Pakistan. All the cake samples were confirmed to be from early maturing cotton varieties (maturing prior to or during Monsoon). A survey of the resource persons indicated that the feeding problems with cottonseed cake appeared after 4-5 months of post-production storage. All the cake samples had heavy bacterial counts, and contaminated with over a dozen different fungal genera. Screening for toxins revealed co-contamination with toxic levels of nearly a dozen mycotoxins including aflatoxin B1 + B2 (556 to 5574 ppb), ochratoxin A + B (47 to 2335 ppb), cyclopiazonic acid (1090 to 6706 ppb), equisetin (2226 to 12672 ppb), rubrofusarin (81 to 1125), tenuazonic acid (549 to 9882 ppb), 3-nitropropionic acid (111 to 1032 ppb), and citrinin (29 to 359 ppb). Two buffalo calves in a diagnostic feed trial also showed signs of complex toxicity. These results indicate that inappropriate processing and storage of the cake, in the typical conditions of the subcontinent, could be the main contributory factors regarding the low quality of cottonseed cake. PMID:26075378

  5. PROBLEMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Geuzaine; Kristoer van der Zee; Charbel Farhat

    A methodology for designing formally second-order time-accurate and yet loosely coupled partitioned procedures for the solution of nonlinear fluid-structure interac- tion (FSI) problems is presented. Its key components are a fluid time-integrator that is provably second-order time-accurate on moving grids, the midpoint rule for advancing in time the solution of the structural dynamics equations of motion, a second-order structure predictor

  6. Competitiveness facets and sensation seeking as predictors of problem gambling among a sample of university student gamblers.

    PubMed

    Harris, Nicholas; Newby, Jennifer; Klein, Rupert G

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the factors that contribute to problem gambling (PG) is imperative. Individual differences in sensation seeking (SS), as measured by the Sensation Seeking Scale Form (SSS-V), have been found to be predictive of PG among university student samples. However, what is less clear, is if the four SSS-V subscales capture unique facets of SS that are particularly predictive of PG. Much less studied than SS, competitiveness has also been found to be predictive of PG. The Competitiveness Orientation Measure (COM) is a newly developed measure of competitiveness, comprising of four facets. The main purpose of the current study was to examine if these four facets of competitiveness predicted variance in PG over and above the variance predicted by the four SSS-V subscales. Participants included 158 university student gamblers. Sequential regression analysis showed that after accounting for gender, age, and the four SSS-V subscales the only facet of the COM found to be a significant predictor of PG severity was Dominant Competitiveness. Dominant Competitiveness predicted an additional 11 % of PG severity. These results provide support for the Dominant Competitiveness subscale of the COM as having utility in predicting PG over and above the predictive utility of the SSS-V subscales. Practical implications for the current findings are discussed. PMID:24337941

  7. Stress, Mental Health, and Substance Abuse Problems in a Sample of Diversion Program Youths: An Exploratory Latent Class Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Briones, Rhissa; Gulledge, Laura; Karas, Lora; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Greenbaum, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    Reflective of interest in mental health and substance abuse issues among youths involved with the justice system, we performed a latent class analysis on baseline information collected on 100 youths involved in two diversion programs. Results identified two groups of youths: Group 1: a majority of the youths, who had high levels of delinquency,…

  8. Interaction matters: quantifying conduct problem × depressive symptoms interaction and its association with adolescent alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in a national sample.

    PubMed

    Maslowsky, Julie; Schulenberg, John E

    2013-11-01

    Substance use is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among American adolescents. Conduct problems and depressive symptoms have each been found to be associated with adolescent substance use. Although they are highly comorbid, the role of the interaction of conduct problems and depressive symptoms in substance use is not clear. In national samples of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students from the Monitoring the Future study, latent moderated structural equation modeling was used to estimate the association of conduct problems, depressive symptoms, and their interaction to the use of alcohol (including binge drinking), cigarettes, and marijuana. Moderation by age and sex was tested. The interaction of conduct problems with depressive symptoms was a strong predictor of substance use, particularly among younger adolescents. With few exceptions, adolescents with high levels of both conduct problems and depressive symptoms used substances most frequently. Conduct problems were a strong positive predictor of substance use, and depressive symptoms were a weak positive predictor. Whereas conduct problems are often thought to be a primary predictor of substance use, this study revealed that depressive symptoms potentiate the relation of conduct problems to substance use. Therefore, substance use prevention efforts should target both depressive symptoms and conduct problems. PMID:24229547

  9. Pervasive and Non-Pervasive Conduct Problems in a Clinic Sample Aged 4-8 Years: Child, Family and Day-Care/School Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drugli, May Britt; Larsson, Bo; Clifford, Graham; Fossum, Sturla

    2007-01-01

    Differences between pervasive (home and day-care/school) versus non-pervasive (home only) conduct problems were examined in regard to various child, parent/family, and day-care/school characteristics in an outpatient clinic sample of 120 children aged 4-8 years. All children scored above the 90th percentile on the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory…

  10. Sample problems for the novice user of the AMPX-II system. [For generating coupled multigroup neutron--gamma libraries, in FORTRAN IV for IBM 360\\/91

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. Ford; R. W. Roussin; L. M. Petrie; B. R. Diggs; H. E. Comolander

    1979-01-01

    Contents of the IBM version of the APMX system distributed by the Radiation Shielding Information Center (APMX-II) are described. Sample problems which demonstrate the procedure for implementing AMPX-II modules to generate point cross sections; generate multigroup neutron, photon production, and photon interaction cross sections for various transport codes; collapse multigroup cross sections; check, edit, and punch multigroup cross sections; and

  11. The Problems with Access to Compulsory Education in China and the Effects of the Policy of Direct Subsidies to Students: An Empirical Study Based on a Small Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanqing, Ding

    2012-01-01

    After a brief review of the achievements and the problems in compulsory education enrollment in the thirty years since the reform and opening up, this study analyzes the current compulsory education enrollment and dropout rates in China's least-developed regions and the factors affecting school enrollment based on survey data from a small sample

  12. Issues involved in a Martian sample return: Integrity preservation and the Curation and Analysis Planning Team for Extraterrestrial Materials (CAPTEM) position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, Clive R.

    2000-09-01

    Returning geological samples from Mars is the next logical step as part of an integrated exploration program and is the critical subsequent stage in the search for evidence of life on the red planet. Analysis of such samples on Earth will generally produce data of superior accuracy and precision than can be accomplished in situ on the Martian surface, and such data will be invaluable in providing ground truth for remotely sensed observations. However, obtaining meaningful data requires that the samples returned to Earth suffer little (or preferably no) compositional or morphological changes during collection on Mars, transit to Earth, entry into Earth's atmosphere, impact on the surface, and long-term curation. This paper presents recommendations from NASA's committee for Curation and Analysis Planning Team for Extraterrestrial Materials (CAPTEM) for preserving the integrity of Martian samples during a return mission. Potential contaminants include dead bacteria on the outbound spacecraft and materials that come into contact with the samples during collection and storage. Therefore it is recommended that the spacecraft be sterilized and cleaned at least to Pathfinder standards, with the components that interact with the samples having a higher degree of cleanliness. Furthermore, it is recommended that only pure, homogeneous materials should be used for components that come into contact with the samples. The adverse effects of temperature on the samples are explored, and it is demonstrated that heat sterilization or undue temperature increases in transit or reentry have the potential to destroy important mineralogical and geochemical information. Concomitant with this will be degassing of the samples and stable isotopic fractionation. Therefore it is recommended that samples be kept at 240 K or below during transit, reentry, and curation. It is further recommended that heat sterilization not be used, except in extreme circumstances, and other sterilization techniques, such as radiation, be explored. While the purpose of this paper is not to design a sample return mission, the recommendations presented here are intended to act as guidelines for returning Martian samples in their pristine state. In essence, any procedure or piece of equipment that has the potential to compromise the pristinity of Martian samples during the collection, transportation, or curation needs to be fully evaluated by a scientific committee with the requisite expertise prior to implementation. CAPTEM is willing to serve in such a capacity if requested by NASA.

  13. Differences in Parent and Teacher Ratings of Preschool Problem Behavior in a National Sample: The Significance of Gender and SES

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Scott L., Jr.; Blake, Jamilia; Kim, Eun Sook

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that informant disagreement is common with the use of rating scales to assess problem behavior in school-age populations. However, much less is known about this phenomenon in preschool populations. This is important because the accurate assessment of problem behavior in preschool is complex due to the rapid…

  14. Math 103L: Exercise on Linear Equations (Section 1.1) These problems are a sample of the kinds of problems that may appear on the

    E-print Network

    Shapiro, Bruce E.

    mentioned in the summary. 1. RoBoCo Costume Inc. plans to launch a major campaign to sell Robby the Robot a new car for a total of $28,400. What is the purchase price of the car? 3. (Matched problem 9 Section1

  15. The link between ethnicity, social disadvantage and mental health problems in a school-based multiethnic sample of children in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Adriaanse, Marcia; Veling, Wim; Doreleijers, Theo; van Domburgh, Lieke

    2014-11-01

    To investigate to what extent differences in prevalence and types of mental health problems between ethnic minority and majority youth can be explained by social disadvantage. Mental health problems were assessed in a sample of 1,278 schoolchildren (55% Dutch, 32% Moroccan and 13% Turkish; mean age: 12.9 ± 1.8) using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire self-report and teacher report. Measures of family socioeconomic status, neighbourhood deprivation, perceived discrimination, family structure, repeating a school year, housing stability and neighbourhood urbanization were used as indicators of social disadvantage, based on which a cumulative index was created. Ethnic minority youth had more externalizing and fewer internalizing problems than majority youth. Perceived discrimination and living in an unstable social environment were associated with mental health problems, independent of ethnicity. A dose-response relationship was found between social disadvantage and mental health problems. The adjusted odds ratio for mental health problems was 4.16 (95% CI 2.49-6.94) for more than four compared with zero indicators of social disadvantage. Social disadvantage was more common in ethnic minority than in majority youth, explaining part of the differences in prevalence of mental health problems. Ethnic minority youth in the Netherlands have a different profile of mental health problems than majority youth. In all ethnic groups, the risk of mental health problems increases with the degree of social disadvantage. The higher prevalence of externalizing problems among ethnic minority youth is explained partly by their disadvantaged social position. The findings suggest that social factors associated with ethnicity are likely to explain mental health problems in ethnic groups. PMID:24927803

  16. Risk and Protective Factors Among African American Adolescent Males That Predict Adult Involvement in the Criminal Justice System: Evidence From a National Sample

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danelle Stevens-Watkins; Scott L. Graves

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined risk and protective factors in adolescence that predicted involvement in the criminal justice system among young adult African American men. Participants (n = 2,274) drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were adolescents (11–19 years, M = 15) at Wave 1 and young adults (18–27, M = 22) at Wave 3. We examined how racial

  17. An application of the refined born approximation to the solution of coupled equations involved in electron-ion and electron-atom scattering problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staszewska, G.

    1981-06-01

    A new approach to the solution of coupled equations involved in electron-ion and electron-atom scattering problems is proposed. This method is a combination of iteration and variation procedures. The main advantage of this method is that exchange terms can be calculated in a direct and straightforward manner. The method is based on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation and does not require trial functions satisfying appropriate boundary conditions. Using the Volterra formulation one can find the solution on an interval determined by the range of the exchange potential and the long-range potential terms can be taken into account by a projection procedure giving the asymptotic value of the reactance matrix. The method is tested on the case of electron-hydrogen atom scattering in the 1s-2s and 1s-2s-2p approximation. We have adapted the method proposed originally by Rayski to obtain solutions of coupled equations involved in electron-ion and electron-atom scattering. As mentioned in section 1 the construction of the method secures an automatic fulfilment of the boundary conditions. It allows an easy calculation of the exchange potential as well as an estimation of the introduced approximation. It gives also a possibility of detecting any spurious convergence. Moreover, it is important that this formalism can be applied in the case of normalized as well as unnormalized initial integral equations. This fact is of special importance in the case of long-range interactions. When the method is used for unnormalized (Volterra) equations it allows application of a very convenient projection procedure for treating the long-range terms in the direct potential. Electron-hydrogen atom collisions are investigated as a numerical illustration of the method. In the 1s-2s approximation the normalized equations were solved, while in the 1s-2s-2p approximation the solution was obtained with the help of Volterra equations and the long-range terms of the direct potential were taken into account by the projection procedure. In both cases the calculations were performed in the first iteration step and the obtained solutions agree fairly well with the results obtained by a numerical integration. It is not clear which set of results is more accurate. The numbers of parameters needed to obtain these results was not too large (not more than twenty in each channel) and decreased with the increase of the values of angular momentum and energy. The calculations were performed without weight functions, although the use of an appropriate weight function can improve the effectiveness of the method. This effectiveness could also be improved through a more lucky choice of trial functions.

  18. New morbidity-problems and peer relations in a sample of Swedish primary school children: a follow-up from the first to the third grade.

    PubMed

    Rydell, A M

    1993-09-01

    The stability in the new morbidity-problem domains motor skills, reading/writing ability, behavioral-psychological-social function and concentration ability in school, and the stability of peer status and peer preferences as well as relationships between peer status and problems among boys and girls was studied in a sample of 81 Swedish primary school children. The children were rated by teachers and made peer nominations six months after school start, and in the third grade. There was considerable stability in problems, while the stability in peer status was modest. There were marked gender differences. Boys in contrast to girls improved in motor skills from the first to the third grade, and boys had more concentration problems and multiple problems than girls in both grades 1 and 3. In the first grade low peer acceptance in boys was accompanied by low motor skills. In the third grade, low peer acceptance in boys was accompanied by deficient concentration ability and externalizing problems. For girls, few relationships between low peer acceptance and problems emerged Various explanations for these findings are discussed. PMID:8378752

  19. The incremental utility of callous-unemotional traits and conduct problems in predicting aggression and bullying in a community sample of boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Laura C; Frick, Paul J; Crapanzano, Ann Marie; Terranova, Andrew M

    2013-06-01

    The current study tested whether callous-unemotional (CU) traits explained unique variance in measures of aggression and bullying, and in measures assessing cognitive and affective correlates to aggression, when controlling for conduct problem severity. In a sample of 284 ethnically diverse students (ages 9 to 14 years), a self-report measure of CU traits did not explain unique variance in self-report measures of reactive aggression but did interact with conduct problems in predicting proactive aggression, with conduct problems being more strongly related to proactive aggression in students high on CU traits. Conduct problems were also more strongly related to peer-reports of bullying in girls high on CU traits. Further, CU traits were negatively related to behaviors that defend victims of bullying, independent of conduct problem severity. Finally, conduct problems were more strongly related to anger dysregulation in students low on CU traits, and conduct problems were more strongly related to positive expectations for aggressive behavior in girls high on CU traits. These findings provide support for the proposal to include CU traits as a specifier for the diagnosis of conduct disorder. PMID:23244642

  20. A group-based approach to examining the association among risky sexual behavior, drug use, and criminal involvement in a sample of newly arrested juvenile offenders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristina K Childs

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on the interrelationships between risky sexual practices, substance use, and arrest history. The sample consists of 948 newly arrested juvenile offenders processed at a centralized intake facility in 2006. A series of confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling techniques are used to 1) determine if risky sexual behavior, marijuana and cocaine use, and arrest history form

  1. Attention Problems Mediate the Association between Severity of Physical Abuse and Aggressive Behavior in a Sample of Maltreated Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Edward F.; Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.; Raviv, Tali

    2011-01-01

    Empirical evidence has accumulated documenting an association between childhood physical abuse and aggressive behavior. Relatively fewer studies have explored possible mediating mechanisms that may explain this association. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether caregiver- and youth-reported attention problems mediate the…

  2. Virtual Laboratories > 12. Finite Sampling Models > 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 9. The Secretary Problem

    E-print Network

    Demeio, Lucio

    , the problem serves as a nice introduction to the general area of statistical decision making. Statement for the secretary interpretation than for the marriage interpretation. What is an optimal strategy? What is the probability of success with this strategy? What happens to the strategy and the probability of success as n

  3. Prevalence of aggression and fear-related behavioral problems in a sample of Argentine Dogos in Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvana Diverio; Gabriella Tami; Antonino Barone

    2008-01-01

    The Argentine Dogo breed is identified frequently as potentially dangerous in worldwide legislation. To investigate the prevalence of problem behaviors in this breed, 94 Argentine Dogo owners provided information on aggressive and fearful behaviors shown by their dogs (83 males, 98 females) in a questionnaire. The results were consistent with the origin of the Argentine Dogo (i.e., descending from fighting

  4. Gender-Related Quality of Parent-Child Interactions and Early Adolescent Problem Behaviors: Exploratory Study with Midwestern Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spoth, Richard; Neppl, Tricia; Goldberg-Lillehoj, Catherine; Jung, Tony; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini

    2006-01-01

    This article reports two exploratory studies testing a model guided by a social interactional perspective, positing an inverse relation between the quality of parent-child interactions and adolescent problem behaviors. It addresses mixed findings in the literature related to gender differences. Study 1 uses cross-sectional survey data from…

  5. STEALTH: a Lagrange explicit finite difference code for solids, structural, and thermohydraulic analysis. Volume 2: sample and verification problems. Computer code manual. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, R.

    1982-08-01

    STEALTH sample and verification problems are presented to help users become familiar with STEALTH capabilities, input, and output. Problems are grouped into articles which are completely self-contained. The pagination in each article is A.n, where A is a unique alphabetic-character article identifier and n is a sequential page number which starts from 1 on the first page of text for each article. Articles concerning new capabilities will be added as they become available. STEALTH sample and verification calculations are divided into the following general categories: transient mechanical calculations dealing with solids; transient mechanical calculations dealing with fluids; transient thermal calculations dealing with solids; transient thermal calculations dealing with fluids; static and quasi-static calculations; and complex boundary interaction calculations.

  6. Applying Social Cognition To Address Measurement Problems in Research: An Attempt To Address Reliability Issues with Small Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Mary M.; Brown, Scott W.

    An issue facing researchers who study very select populations is how to obtain reliability estimates on instruments. When the populations and resulting samples are very small and select, the ability to obtain reliability estimates becomes very difficult. As a result, many researchers ignore reliability concerns and forge ahead with data…

  7. Sex Differences in Childhood Sexual Abuse Characteristics and Victims' Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Findings from a National Sample of Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maikovich-Fong, Andrea Kohn; Jaffee, Sara R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The first objective of this study was to test for sex differences in four childhood sexual abuse characteristics--penetration, substantiation, perpetrator familial status, and multi-maltreatment--in a national sample of youth. The second objective was to test for sex differences in how these abuse characteristics were associated with…

  8. Some Insights into Analytical Bias Involved in the Application of Grab Sampling for Volatile Organic Compounds: A Case Study against Used Tedlar Bags

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Samik; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Sohn, Jong Ryeul

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we have examined the patterns of VOCs released from used Tedlar bags that were once used for the collection under strong source activities. In this way, we attempted to account for the possible bias associated with the repetitive use of Tedlar bags. To this end, we selected the bags that were never heated. All of these target bags were used in ambient temperature (typically at or below 30°C). These bags were also dealt carefully to avoid any mechanical abrasion. This study will provide the essential information regarding the interaction between VOCs and Tedlar bag materials as a potential source of bias in bag sampling approaches. PMID:22235175

  9. Multivariate Analysis, Retrieval, and Storage System (MARS). Volume 6: MARS System - A Sample Problem (Gross Weight of Subsonic Transports)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hague, D. S.; Woodbury, N. W.

    1975-01-01

    The Mars system is a tool for rapid prediction of aircraft or engine characteristics based on correlation-regression analysis of past designs stored in the data bases. An example of output obtained from the MARS system, which involves derivation of an expression for gross weight of subsonic transport aircraft in terms of nine independent variables is given. The need is illustrated for careful selection of correlation variables and for continual review of the resulting estimation equations. For Vol. 1, see N76-10089.

  10. The concerned significant others of people with gambling problems in a national representative sample in Sweden – a 1 year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research into the impact of problem gambling on close social networks is scarce with the majority of studies only including help-seeking populations. To date only one study has examined concerned significant others (CSOs) from an epidemiological perspective and it did not consider gender. The aim of this study is to examine the health, social support, and financial situations of CSOs in a Swedish representative sample and to examine gender differences. Methods A population study was conducted in Sweden in 2008/09 (n?=?15,000, response rate 63%). Respondents were defined as CSOs if they reported that someone close to them currently or previously had problems with gambling. The group of CSOs was further examined in a 1-year follow up (weighted response rate 74% from the 8,165 respondents in the original sample). Comparisons were also made between those defined as CSOs only at baseline (47.7%, n?=?554) and those defined as CSOs at both time points. Results In total, 18.2% of the population were considered CSOs, with no difference between women and men. Male and female CSOs experienced, to a large extent, similar problems including poor mental health, risky alcohol consumption, economic hardship, and arguments with those closest to them. Female CSOs reported less social support than other women and male CSOs had more legal problems and were more afraid of losing their jobs than other men. One year on, several problems remained even if some improvements were found. Both male and female CSOs reported more negative life events in the 1 year follow-up. Conclusions Although some relationships are unknown, including between the CSOs and the individuals with gambling problems and the causal relationships between being a CSO and the range of associated problems, the results of this study indicate that gambling problems not only affect the gambling individual and their immediate close family but also the wider social network. A large proportion of the population can be defined as a CSO, half of whom are men. While male and female CSOs share many common problems, there are gender differences which need to be considered in prevention and treatment. PMID:24261955

  11. Participation in Research Involving Novel Sampling and Study Designs to Identify Acute HIV-1 Infection among Minority Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Kristina; Castor, Delivette; Mah, Timothy; Cook, Stephanie; Auguiste, Lex M.; Halkitis, Perry N.; Markowitz, Marty

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 infection disproportionally affects African American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) and their inclusion in biomedical and behavioral research is critical to understanding and addressing HIV vulnerability. Using focus groups, we sought to understand the perceptions related to participating in biomedical research of acute/recent HIV-1 infection (AHI) using complex sampling and data collection methods to reach this hidden group at highest risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV. Given the potential impact of AHI on transmission in MSM, it is important to understand this intersection for HIV prevention, care and treatment purposes. The aim of this study was to understand how recruitment and data collection methods affect AHI research participation willingness particularly among MSM of color. Findings suggest that major barriers to research participation with complex sampling to identify AHI and intensive risk behavior collection such as diary methods are lack of anonymity, partner disclosure, and study fatigue. The authors explore implications for future study designs and development based on these findings. PMID:23305688

  12. The Effect of Teacher's Invitations to Parental Involvement on Children's Externalizing Problem Behaviors: An Examination of a CBC Intervention. CYFS Working Paper No. 2012-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coutts, Michael J.; Sheridan, Susan M.; Kwon, Kyongboon; Semke, Carrie A.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral problems in childhood are associated with academic difficulties including in-school suspensions, high school dropout, and low academic grades and achievement scores. Students with disruptive behavior problems demonstrate higher rates of social risk factors than their nondisruptive peers, including school maladjustment, antisocial…

  13. Adaptive Peer Sampling with Newscast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tölgyesi, Norbert; Jelasity, Márk

    The peer sampling service is a middleware service that provides random samples from a large decentralized network to support gossip-based applications such as multicast, data aggregation and overlay topology management. Lightweight gossip-based implementations of the peer sampling service have been shown to provide good quality random sampling while also being extremely robust to many failure scenarios, including node churn and catastrophic failure. We identify two problems with these approaches. The first problem is related to message drop failures: if a node experiences a higher-than-average message drop rate then the probability of sampling this node in the network will decrease. The second problem is that the application layer at different nodes might request random samples at very different rates which can result in very poor random sampling especially at nodes with high request rates. We propose solutions for both problems. We focus on Newscast, a robust implementation of the peer sampling service. Our solution is based on simple extensions of the protocol and an adaptive self-control mechanism for its parameters, namely—without involving failure detectors—nodes passively monitor local protocol events using them as feedback for a local control loop for self-tuning the protocol parameters. The proposed solution is evaluated by simulation experiments.

  14. What are some of the cognitive, psychological, and social factors that facilitate or hinder licensed vocational nursing students' acquisition of problem-solving skills involved with medication-dosage calculations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Arthur William

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cognitive and psychological factors that either enhanced or inhibited Licensed Vocational Nurse (LVN) students' abilities to solve medication-dosage calculation problems. A causal-comparative approach was adopted for use in this study which encompassed aspects of both qualitative and quantitative data collection. A purposive, maximum-variation sample of 20 LVN students was chosen from among a self-selected population of junior college LVN students. The participants' views and feelings concerning their training and clinical experiences in medication administration was explored using a semi-structured interview. In addition, data revealing the students' actual competence at solving sample medication-dosage calculation problems was gathered using a talk-aloud protocol. Results indicated that few participants anticipated difficulty with medication-dosage calculations, yet many participants reported being lost during much of the medication-dosage problem solving instruction in class. While many participants (65%) were able to solve the medication-dosage problems, some (35%) of the participants were unable to correctly solve the problems. Successful students usually spent time analyzing the problem and planning a solution path, and they tended to solve the problem faster than did unsuccessful participants. Successful participants relied on a formula or a proportional statement to solve the problem. They recognized conversion problems as a two-step process and solved the problems in that fashion. Unsuccessful participants often went directly from reading the problem statement to attempts at implementing vague plans. Some unsuccessful participants finished quickly because they just gave up. Others spent considerable time backtracking by rereading the problem and participating in aimless exploration of the problem space. When unsuccessful participants tried to use a formula or a proportion, they were unsure of the formula's or the proportion's format. A few unsuccessful participants lacked an understanding of basic algebraic procedures and of metric measurements. Even participants who had great difficulty solving medication-dosage calculation problems could expeditiously solve more complex problems if the medication used in the problem was well known to them.

  15. Histories of Childhood Victimization and Subsequent Mental Health Problems, Substance Use, and Sexual Victimization for a Sample of Incarcerated Women in the US

    PubMed Central

    Tripodi, Stephen J.; Pettus-Davis, Carrie

    2012-01-01

    Women are entering US prisons at nearly double the rate of men and are the fastest growing prison population. Current extant literature focuses on the prevalence of the incarceration of women, but few studies exist that emphasize the different trajectories to prison. For example, women prisoners have greater experiences of prior victimization, more reports of mental illness, and higher rates of illicit substance use. The purpose of this study was to understand the prevalence of childhood victimization and its association with adult mental health problems, substance abuse disorders, and further sexual victimization. The research team interviewed a random sample of 125 women prisoners soon to release from prison to gather information on their childhood physical and sexual victimization, mental health and substance abuse problems as an adult, and sexual victimization in the year preceding incarceration. Results indicate that women prisoners in this sample who were both physically and sexually victimized as a child were more likely to be hospitalized as an adult for a psychological or emotional problem. Women who were sexually victimized or both physically and sexually victimized were more likely to attempt suicide. Women who experienced physical victimization as children and women who were both physically and sexually victimized were more likely to have a substance use disorder and women who were sexually abused as children or both physically and sexually victimized were more likely to be sexually abused in the year preceding prison. This article ends with a discussion about prisons’ role in providing treatment for women prisoners and basing this treatment on women’s trajectories to prison, which disproportionately includes childhood victimization and subsequent mental health and substance use problems. PMID:23196054

  16. A shrouded probe aerosol sampling cyclone 

    E-print Network

    Little, Stewart Craig

    1992-01-01

    and sizes, ambient aerosol sampling at high wind speeds can 7 be a difficult problem . Typically, attempts to obtain a representative sample involve placing the probe inlet area normal to the direction of the air flow and adjusting the sampler flow rate... the air stream. In the present design, three concentric shrouds and a probe will be attached to the entrance of the cyclone. The shroud concept was first used in an aircraft-horne sampling device for collecting tropospheric aerosol particles...

  17. [Outlook and problems of microbiological sampling in public catering establishments in light of the new European regulations].

    PubMed

    Amadei, Paolo; Biondi, Augusto; Tarsitani, Gianfranco; Antonini, Alessandra

    2008-01-01

    Modern society is structured in such a way that more food is eaten outside the home and therefore the hygienic standards of food production and organoleptic characteristics of foods provided by catering establishments is of increasing importance. In order to obtain a complete view of the hygienic standards of the food production cycle, however, it is not sufficient to show that pathogenic microroganisms are absent, but it is also useful to measure the number of microroganisms which do not constitute a hazard to health but whose presence may alter the quality of food products or be an index of inadequate hygienic practices. Microbiological testing plays a fundamental role in the evaluation of the quality of a food product and according to the Codex Alimentarius, limits should be set based on absolute criteria, according to legislation requirements or on relative criteria based on contamination trends over time within the production process The new European food hygiene regulations CE 852/04 e 2073/05 promote a more advanced and correct view of microbiological controls, with respect to pre-existing national legislation, placing emphasis also on the production process of foodstuffs and not only on the final product. In addition, controls are explicitly considered as a tool to verify that food business operators comply with hygiene requirements. The aim of evaluating microbiological data should be to assess trends in the various analytical parameters and search for possible contamination indicators, in order to perform a thorough analysis based on inspections that evaluate the efficacy of food safety procedures put in place by food business operators, with sampling aimed at verifying quick simple and low cost index parameters Regarding the interpretation of collected data it should be underscored that the presence of a large variability points to presence of inadequate hygiene procedures, considering that the main obligation of each food business operator is to put in place, implement and maintain procedures based on the HACCP principles. PMID:18936800

  18. [Outlook and problems of microbiological sampling in public catering establishments in light of the new European regulations.].

    PubMed

    Amadei, Paolo; Biondi, Augusto; Tarsitani, Gianfranco; Antonini, Alessandra

    2007-01-01

    Modern society is structured in such a way that more food is eaten outside the home and therefore the hygienic standards of food production and organoleptic characteristics of foods provided by catering establishments is of increasing importance. In order to obtain a complete view of the hygienic standards of the food production cycle, however, it is not sufficient to show that pathogenic microroganisms are absent, but it is also useful to measure the number of microroganisms which do not constitute a hazard to health but whose presence may alter the quality of food products or be an index of inadequate hygienic practices. Microbiological testing plays a fundamental role in the evaluation of the quality of a food product and according to the Codex Alimentarius, limits should be set based on absolute criteria, according to legislation requirements or on relative criteria based on contamination trends over time within the production process The new European food hygiene regulations CE 852/04 e 2073/05 promote a more advanced and correct view of microbiological controls, with respect to pre-existing national legislation, placing emphasis also on the production process of foodstuffs and not only on the final product. In addition, controls are explicitly considered as a tool to verify that food business operators comply with hygiene requirements. The aim of evaluating microbiological data should be to assess trends in the various analytical parameters and search for possible contamination indicators, in order to perform a thorough analysis based on inspections that evaluate the efficacy of food safety procedures put in place by food business operators, with sampling aimed at verifying quick simple and low cost index parameters Regarding the interpretation of collected data it should be underscored that the presence of a large variability points to presence of inadequate hygiene procedures, considering that the main obligation of each food business operator is to put in place, implement and maintain procedures based on the HACCP principles. PMID:18617967

  19. Sarcoidosis with bone involvement mimicking metastatic disease at 18F-FDG PET/CT: problem solving by diffusion whole-body MRI

    PubMed Central

    Conte, Giorgio; Zugni, Fabio; Colleoni, Marco; Renne, Giuseppe; Bellomi, Massimo; Petralia, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Bone involvement has been reported in 1–13% of patients with sarcoidosis. Both 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) and conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are sensitive in detecting sarcoidosis bone lesions, but are not always reliable in differentiating sarcoidosis bone lesions from metastatic disease, thus often requiring bone biopsy. We describe the use of diffusion whole-body MRI for bone assessment in a patient with breast cancer and sarcoidosis, presenting with bone marrow lesions mimicking metastatic disease at 18F-FDG PET/CT. In our case, diffusion whole-body MRI represented a useful tool for bone assessment and overcame the limitation of 18F-FDG PET/CT in discriminating inflammatory bone marrow involvement from metastatic disease. PMID:26015806

  20. Sarcoidosis with bone involvement mimicking metastatic disease at (18)F-FDG PET/CT: problem solving by diffusion whole-body MRI.

    PubMed

    Conte, Giorgio; Zugni, Fabio; Colleoni, Marco; Renne, Giuseppe; Bellomi, Massimo; Petralia, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Bone involvement has been reported in 1-13% of patients with sarcoidosis. Both 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) and conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are sensitive in detecting sarcoidosis bone lesions, but are not always reliable in differentiating sarcoidosis bone lesions from metastatic disease, thus often requiring bone biopsy. We describe the use of diffusion whole-body MRI for bone assessment in a patient with breast cancer and sarcoidosis, presenting with bone marrow lesions mimicking metastatic disease at (18)F-FDG PET/CT. In our case, diffusion whole-body MRI represented a useful tool for bone assessment and overcame the limitation of (18)F-FDG PET/CT in discriminating inflammatory bone marrow involvement from metastatic disease. PMID:26015806

  1. Do adolescent drug use consequences predict externalizing and internalizing problems in emerging adulthood as well as traditional drug use measures in a Hispanic sample?

    PubMed Central

    Grigsby, Timothy J.; Forster, Myriam; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel W.; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2014-01-01

    The present study compares statistical models for three conceptualizations of drug use in 11th grade (past 30 day ever/never use, past 30 day frequency of drug use and past 30 day drug use consequences) with externalizing and internalizing problems in emerging adulthood when controlling for age, academic achievement and socioeconomic status in a Hispanic sample. Multivariate logistic regression models for the different drug use variables were compared when modeling weapon carrying, arrest, multiple lifetime sex partners, drug/alcohol use before sex and condom use in emerging adulthood. A multivariate linear regression model was used to model depression in emerging adulthood as a function of drug use measurement controlling for other covariates and depression in adolescence. Our findings suggest that any conceptualization of drug use will produce equitable results and model fit statistics when examining externalizing problems. However, when investigating internalizing problems, such as depression, lower frequency drug use—and not high frequency—was more strongly associated with depression whereas experiencing high levels of drug use consequences—and not low levels of consequences—was associated with depression in emerging adulthood despite similar model fit values. Variation between drug use and the experience of drug use consequences may lead to misspecification of “at-risk” subgroups of drug users. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:24345310

  2. Do adolescent drug use consequences predict externalizing and internalizing problems in emerging adulthood as well as traditional drug use measures in a Hispanic sample?

    PubMed

    Grigsby, Timothy J; Forster, Myriam; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel W; Unger, Jennifer B

    2014-03-01

    The present study compares statistical models for three conceptualizations of drug use in 11th grade (past 30 day ever/never use, past 30 day frequency of drug use and past 30 day drug use consequences) with externalizing and internalizing problems in emerging adulthood when controlling for age, academic achievement and socioeconomic status in a Hispanic sample. Multivariate logistic regression models for the different drug use variables were compared when modeling weapon carrying, arrest, multiple lifetime sex partners, drug/alcohol use before sex and condom use in emerging adulthood. A multivariate linear regression model was used to model depression in emerging adulthood as a function of drug use measurement controlling for other covariates and depression in adolescence. Our findings suggest that any conceptualization of drug use will produce equitable results and model fit statistics when examining externalizing problems. However, when investigating internalizing problems, such as depression, lower frequency drug use-and not high frequency-was more strongly associated with depression whereas experiencing high levels of drug use consequences-and not low levels of consequences-was associated with depression in emerging adulthood despite similar model fit values. Variation between drug use and the experience of drug use consequences may lead to misspecification of "at-risk" subgroups of drug users. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:24345310

  3. Two-stage sampling in surveys to substantiate freedom from disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angus R. Cameron; F. Chris Baldock

    1998-01-01

    Disease in livestock populations tends to cluster at the herd level. In order to account for this—and to overcome the problems of simple random sampling from a very large population—large-scale livestock surveys usually involve two-stage sampling. However, the use of two-stage sampling presents particular problems for sample-size calculation and analysis. We developed a probability formula for two-stage sampling, initially based

  4. Parent Involvement 

    E-print Network

    Howard, Jeff W.

    2005-05-10

    To be successful, a 4-H program must have parent involvement. Although 4-H leaders and Extension agents may interest young people in becoming members, they need the parents' goodwill and support to keep them interested, enthusiastic and active. Here...

  5. Grievance Procedure Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Gary J.

    This paper presents two actual problems involving grievance procedures. Both problems involve pending litigation and one of them involves pending arbitration. The first problem occurred in a wealthy Minnesota school district and involved a seniority list. Because of changes in the financial basis for supporting public schools, it became necessary…

  6. ["Counting" experiments with ravens using "matching-from-sample" methods. A contribution on problem-solving behavior in higher aniMALS].

    PubMed

    Simons, D

    1976-05-01

    The research goal is divided into two parts: 1. Detailed analysis of behavior in selection in a 6-choice matching-from-sample task. 2. Discussion of all observed preferences on the basis of the models of Sutherland and Mackintosh and of Miller, Galanter and Pribram. The experiments were run with 4 one-year-old ravens (Corvus corax); two of them were probably 2 males. The design is similar to Koehler's. In the task the correct responses were equally distributed between all stimuli and positions (random system). Although the task ("counting") was learned, a lot of relevant preferences for stimuli, positions, patterns etc. show that problem-solving in higher animals can be very complex. It could be shown that only a detailed analysis may clarify animal learning processes. PMID:961120

  7. Diagnosis and Management of an Isolated Pediatric Plexiform Neurofibroma Involving the Hepatic and Celiac Plexus Using Multimodality Approach: Problem Solving with Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Scheurkogel, Merel M.; Koshy, June; Cohen, Kenneth J.; Huisman, Thierry A. G. M.; Bosemani, Thangamadhan

    2013-01-01

    Plexiform neurofibroma with involvement of the gastrointestinal tract is a very rare entity in children. Here, we present a rather unique case of a 9-year-old boy with no clinical signs or features of neurofibromatosis type 1. A periportal mass lesion was incidentally found after performing an ultrasound in this previously healthy child. Computed tomographic scan was subsequently performed which showed a low-density mass in a periportal distribution with extension along the celiac axis. Because the findings were nonspecific, a pre- and postcontrast magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen was performed which included diffusion-weighted imaging. The lesion was then confirmed to be a plexiform neurofibroma with open biopsy. Management of plexiform neurofibromas varies widely. Given the extensive nature of the lesion, managing the patient with follow-up rather than surgical excision was favored. PMID:25755938

  8. Sampling Development

    PubMed Central

    Adolph, Karen E.; Robinson, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Research in developmental psychology requires sampling at different time points. Accurate depictions of developmental change provide a foundation for further empirical studies and theories about developmental mechanisms. However, overreliance on widely spaced sampling intervals in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs threatens the validity of the enterprise. This article discusses how to sample development in order to accurately discern the shape of developmental change. The ideal solution is daunting: to summarize behavior over 24-hour intervals and collect daily samples over the critical periods of change. We discuss the magnitude of errors due to undersampling, and the risks associated with oversampling. When daily sampling is not feasible, we offer suggestions for sampling methods that can provide preliminary reference points and provisional sketches of the general shape of a developmental trajectory. Denser sampling then can be applied strategically during periods of enhanced variability, inflections in the rate of developmental change, or in relation to key events or processes that may affect the course of change. Despite the challenges of dense repeated sampling, researchers must take seriously the problem of sampling on a developmental time scale if we are to know the true shape of developmental change. PMID:22140355

  9. Short Communication Effects of Pesticide Application on the Health of Rural Women Involved in Cotton Picking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RUMA YOUSAF; MUHAMMAD ASGHAR CHEEMA; SUMAIRA ANWAR

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of pesticides application to cotton on the health of rural women involved in cotton picking. The data were collected from a sample of 150 female cotton pickers by using a well-prepared interviewing schedule. Majority of the purposively selected respondents were always facing the problems of stomach disease, breathing problem, diarrhea and feel swelling\\/inflammation on the

  10. Parental involvement with their working teens.

    PubMed

    Runyan, Carol W; Vladutiu, Catherine J; Schulman, Michael D; Rauscher, Kimberly J

    2011-07-01

    Adolescents work in varied environments and are exposed to hazards. Parents of these working adolescents have an opportunity to help them select jobs and address worker safety issues with employers. The present study conducted telephonic interviews among a national sample of 922 working adolescents along with one parent of each to examine the involvement of parents in their children's employment and safety issues. Over 70% of parents were found who helped their children identify job opportunities, consider questions about work hours or tasks, fill out job applications, prepare for interviews, or handle difficult safety issues. Parents suggested stronger actions in response to hypothetical situations than when confronted with real problems. Mean level of parental involvement did not vary by the number of hazards reported by teen workers. Parents were involved in helping their teens with work. Further research should explore how to enhance parental effectiveness by making work safe for teens. PMID:21700162

  11. Psychopathic Traits and Conduct Problems in Community and Clinic-Referred Samples of Children: Further Development of the Psychopathy Screening Device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J. Frick; S. Doug Bodin; Christopher T. Barry

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the structure of psychopathic traits in 2 samples of children. The nonreferred community sample included 1,136 children recruited from elementary schools in 2 school districts in the southeastern United States. The clinic sample included 160 children referred to an outpatient mental health clinic serving the same geographic region. In both samples, parent and teacher ratings of psychopathic

  12. Youth: Criminal Involvement and Problems of Resocialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lelekov, V. A.; Prokhorov, Iu. N.

    1995-01-01

    Reports on a survey of youth crime, youthful criminals, and efforts at resocialization in contemporary Russia. Asserts that political and social change have resulted in social stratification and criminal behavior. Maintains that the high level of recidivism is caused by a lack of coordinated efforts by public institutions. (CFR)

  13. Different stability of social-communication problems and negative demanding behaviour from infancy to toddlerhood in a large Dutch population sample

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the stability of behavioural and developmental problems as children develop from infants to toddlers in the general population. Therefore, we investigated behavioural profiles at two time points and determined whether behaviours are stable during early development. Methods Parents of 4,237 children completed questionnaires with 62 items about externalizing, internalizing, and social-communicative behaviour when the children were 14–15 and 36–37 months old. Factor mixture modelling identified five homogeneous profiles at both time points: three with relatively normal behaviour or with mild/moderate problems, one with clear communication and interaction problems, and another with pronounced negative and demanding behaviour. Results More than 85% of infants with normal behaviour or mild problems at 14–15 months were reported to behave relatively typically as toddlers at 36–37 months. A similar percentage of infants with moderate communication problems outgrew their problems by the time they were toddlers. However, infants with severe problems had mild to severe problems as toddlers, and did not show completely normal behaviour. Improvement over time occurred more often in children with negative and demanding behaviour than in children with communication and interaction problems. The former showed less homotypic continuity than the latter. Conclusions Negative and demanding behaviour is more often transient and a less specific predictor of problems in toddlerhood than communication and interaction problems. PMID:25061477

  14. Fundamental problems in color vision. I. The principle governing changes in hue, saturation, and lightness of non-selective samples in chromatic illumination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Helson

    1938-01-01

    Non-selective samples in chromatic illumination have been shown to exhibit the color of the illuminant, the color of the after-image complementary to the illuminant, or achromaticity, depending upon the relation of the reflectance of the sample to the adaptation reflectance. Change of background has been found sufficient to shift the color of a sample from the illuminant color to achromaticity

  15. Sampling and sampled-data models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graham C. Goodwin; Juan I. Yuz; J. C. Agu?ero; Mauricio Cea

    2010-01-01

    Physical systems typically evolve continuously whereas modern controllers and signal processing devices invariably operate in discrete time. Hence sampling arises as a cornerstone problem in essentially all aspects of modern systems science. This paper reviews various aspects of sampling of signals and systems. We argue that careful consideration must be given to sampling to obtain meaningful results when interconnecting a

  16. Statistical distribution sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, E. S.

    1975-01-01

    Determining the distribution of statistics by sampling was investigated. Characteristic functions, the quadratic regression problem, and the differential equations for the characteristic functions are analyzed.

  17. The Role of Marital Discord and Parenting in Relations between Parental Problem Drinking and Child Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Peggy S.; Cummings, E. Mark; Davies, Patrick T.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Research suggests that children exposed to parental drinking problems are at risk for maladjustment. However, the potential impact of drinking problems in a community sample and the processes involved in the relationship between parental drinking and child outcomes have rarely been examined. Method: A community sample of 235 mothers…

  18. Sex Differences in the Reciprocal Relationships between Mild and Severe Corporal Punishment and Children's Internalizing Problem Behavior in a Chinese Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xing, Xiaopei; Wang, Meifang

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the sex differences in the reciprocal relations between parental corporal punishment and child internalizing problem behavior in China. Four hundred fifty-four Chinese elementary school-age children completed measures of their parental corporal punishment toward them and their own internalizing problem behavior at…

  19. An Efficient Graph Cut Algorithm for Computer Vision Problems

    E-print Network

    Banerjee, Subhashis

    the structural properties inherent in image based grid graphs but also combines the basic paradigms of max samples from Middlebury [2] and UWO [3] database. It runs faster on all 2D samples and is at least two], multi-view reconstruction [7] have been modelled as label assignment problems involving energy

  20. Sampling SIM: Sampling Distributions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chance, Beth

    Created by authors Beth Chance, Bob delMas and Joan Garfield, this webpage provides instructions for teaching sampling distributions using Sampling SIM software. It includes information regarding prerequisite knowledge, common misconceptions, and objectives, as well as links to an activity and a pre/post-test. This is a fairly comprehensive overview of the tools need for sampling distributions. The eight part structure employed by the authors is quite useful in assessing students knowledge gained through this activity.

  1. Use of a Dry-Plasma Collection Device to Overcome Problems with Storage and Transportation of Blood Samples for Epidemiology Studies in Developing Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ZHANNAT Z. NURGALIEVA; R. Almuchambetova; A. Machmudova; D. Kapsultanova; MICHAEL S. OSATO; JEFFREY PEACOCK; RICHARD P. ZOLTEK; PATRICE A. MARCHILDON; DAVID Y. GRAHAM; ABAI ZHANGABYLOV

    2000-01-01

    Studies are difficult in areas lacking modern facilities due to the inability to reliably collect, store, and ship samples. Thus, we sought to evaluate the use of a dry plasma collection device for seroepidemiology studies. Plasma was obtained by fingerstick using a commercial dry plasma collection device (Chemcard Plasma Collection Device) and serum (venipuncture) from individuals in Kazakhstan. Plasma samples

  2. Does the Association with Psychosomatic Health Problems Differ between Cyberbullying and Traditional Bullying?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckman, Linda; Hagquist, Curt; Hellstrom, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    The association between mental health problems and traditional bullying is well known, whereas the strength of the association in cyberbullying is less known. This study aimed to compare the association between mutually exclusive groups of bullying involvement and psychosomatic problems as measured by the PsychoSomatic Problems scale. The sample

  3. Comparison of derivative-free optimization methods for groundwater supply and hydraulic capture community problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. R. Fowler; J. P. Reese; C. E. Kees; J. E. Dennis; C. T. Kelley; C. T. Miller; C. Audet; A. J. Booker; G. Couture; R. W. Darwin; M. W. Farthing; D. E. Finkel; J. M. Gablonsky; G. Gray; T. G. Kolda

    2008-01-01

    Management decisions involving groundwater supply and remediation often rely on optimization techniques to determine an effective strategy. We introduce several derivative-free sampling methods for solving constrained optimization problems that have not yet been considered in this field, and we include a genetic algorithm for completeness. Two well-documented community problems are used for illustration purposes: a groundwater supply problem and a

  4. The Importance of Reference Gene Analysis of Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Samples from Sarcoma Patients — An Often Underestimated Problem12

    PubMed Central

    Aggerholm-Pedersen, Ninna; Safwat, Akmal; Bærentzen, Steen; Nordsmark, Marianne; Nielsen, Ole Steen; Alsner, Jan; Sørensen, Brita S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction is efficient for quantification of gene expression, but the choice of reference genes is of paramount importance as it is essential for correct interpretation of data. This is complicated by the fact that the materials often available are routinely collected formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples in which the mRNA is known to be highly degraded. The purpose of this study was to investigate 22 potential reference genes in sarcoma FFPE samples and to study the variation in expression level within different samples taken from the same tumor and between different histologic types. Methods: Twenty-nine patients treated for sarcoma were enrolled. The samples encompassed 82 (FFPE) specimens. Extraction of total RNA from 7-?m FFPE sections was performed using a fully automated, bead-base RNA isolation procedure, and 22 potential reference genes were analyzed by reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The stability of the genes was analyzed by RealTime Statminer. The intrasamples variation and the interclass correlation coefficients were calculated. The linear regression model was used to calculate the degradation of the mRNA over time. Results: The quality of RNA was sufficient for analysis in 84% of the samples. Recommended reference genes differed with histologic types. However, PPIA, SF3A1, and MRPL19 were stably expressed regardless of the histologic type included. The variation in ?Cq value for samples from the same patients was similar to the variation between patients. It was possible to compensate for the time-dependent degradation of the mRNA when normalization was made using the selected reference genes. Conclusion: PPIA, SF3A1, and MRPL19 are suitable reference genes for normalization in gene expression studies of FFPE samples from sarcoma regardless of the histology. PMID:25500077

  5. ADHD and other associated developmental problems in children with mild mental retardation. The use of the "Five-To-Fifteen" questionnaire in a population-based sample.

    PubMed

    Lindblad, Ida; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to examine the rates and types of parent reported neuropsychiatric problems in children and adolescents with mild mental retardation (MMR) (mild intellectual disability/UK) using the Five-To-Fifteen questionnaire (FTF). The target group comprised all pupils with clinically diagnosed MMR, aged between 7 and 15 years, attending the special schools for children with MMR in two municipalities in a region in the South-West of Sweden. The FTF is a 181-item parent questionnaire with age and gender specific Swedish norms covering eight domains, including the phenomenology of early symptomatic syndromes eliciting neurodevelopmental examinations (ESSENCE), including ADHD, autism, tic syndromes, and various kinds of language, memory, and learning problems. Parents of 63% (39/62) of the eligible target group completed the FTF. After scrutiny of the medical records, 6 of the 39 children were found not to meet criteria for MR. Scores exceeding the 90th centile of the norm group were considered indicative of neuropsychiatric problems. Such high scores are strongly associated with clinically valid ESSENCE/neuropsychiatric disorders. All the examined children with validated MR were reported by their parents to have learning problems. There were very high rates of problems reported in all the other seven FTF domains: perception (88%), language (79%), social skills/autism (76%), memory (67%), emotional problems (58%), motor skills (55%) and executive functions/ADHD (55%). School age children with MMR are all in need of a comprehensive work-up covering not only general cognitive abilities, but also many other areas, including motor skills, executive function/attention, social and emotional/behavioural symptoms/functioning. Such broad assessment (including child screening by parent report with the FTF) will enable a better basis for understanding their special needs of support through life. PMID:21703820

  6. ADHD and Other Associated Developmental Problems in Children with Mild Mental Retardation. The Use of the "Five-To-Fifteen" Questionnaire in a Population-Based Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindblad, Ida; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to examine the rates and types of parent reported neuropsychiatric problems in children and adolescents with mild mental retardation (MMR) (mild intellectual disability/UK) using the Five-To-Fifteen questionnaire (FTF). The target group comprised all pupils with clinically diagnosed MMR, aged between 7 and 15 years, attending the…

  7. Physics 229 Lecture 1 Appendix B 1 Spring 2008 Lecture 1 Appendix B: Some sample problems related to Chapter 1 in K & B

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Steve

    's consider motion and revisit that old favorite the inclined plane problem. A mass sits on a plane inclined perpendicular ( x ) to the inclined plane (we are still trying to be smart and lazy!). Since the mass is not accelerating in a direction perpendicular to the inclined plane, we have 0 cos cos .mx N mg N mg From

  8. A Quantitative Genetic Analysis of the Associations among Language Skills, Peer Interactions, and Behavioral Problems in Childhood: Results from a Sample of Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Boutwell, Brian B.; Barnes, J. C.; Schwartz, Joseph A.; Connolly, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    A body of empirical research has revealed that there are associations among language skills, peer interactions, and behavioral problems in childhood. At the same time, however, there has been comparatively less research devoted to exploring the mutual unfolding of these factors over the first few years of life. The current study is designed to…

  9. Progressive Rademacher Sampling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tapio Elomaa; Matti Kääriäinen

    2002-01-01

    Sampling can enhance processing of large training example databases, but without knowing all of the data, or the exam- ple producing process, it is impossible to know in advance what size of a sample to choose in order to guarantee good performance. Progressive sampling has been suggested to cir- cumvent this problem. The idea in it is to increase the

  10. Abstract -A self-cancellation scheme is proposed to cope with the sample frequency offset (SFO) problem in OFDM systems in

    E-print Network

    Ingram, Mary Ann

    compensation. Our scheme may be helpful for the synchronization of multiple SFOs in the cooperative by sampling frequency offset (SFO) in the orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) system. The self is not preferable for low-cost analog front-ends. The second method is interpolation/decimation [9], [11], [15

  11. Screening for intellectual disability in persons with a substance abuse problem: Exploring the validity of the Hayes Ability Screening Index in a Dutch-speaking sample.

    PubMed

    To, Wing Ting; Vanheule, Stijn; Vanderplasschen, Wouter; Audenaert, Kurt; Vandevelde, Stijn

    2014-11-12

    There is an increasing interest in screening instruments to detect intellectual disability (ID) in a quick and accurate way in mental health services as well as in the criminal justice system in order to provide appropriate support for people with undetected needs caused by ID. An instrument that has been proven to be useful in both settings is the Hayes Ability Screening Index (HASI). This study assessed the validity of the Dutch version of the HASI in persons with a substance abuse problem residing in mental health services, whether or not mandated to treatment by court order. The HASI was conducted along with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III as the criterion for validity to 90 participants. Additionally, the influence of psychiatric disorder and medication use on the HASI result was examined. A significant positive relationship was found between the two instruments, demonstrating convergent validity. Using a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the discriminative ability of the HASI with a cut-off score of 85 was found to be adequate, yielding in a good balance between sensitivity and specificity. The HASI was not distorted by the presence of the substance abuse problem or other psychiatric illnesses and medication did not influence the HASI scores in this study. These findings indicate that the HASI provides a time-efficient and resource-conscious way to detect ID in persons with a substance problem, thus addressing a critical need in mental health settings. PMID:25462510

  12. Maintaining the Dialogue: Joint Involvement in a Stand-Alone CD-Rom Chinese Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orton, Jane

    2003-01-01

    Presents a stand-alone CD-Rom version of a Web-based course in Modern Standard Chinese and addresses the problem of losing opportunities for negotiation in joint involvement episodes with teachers and peers in the CD-ROM course. Demonstrates trials of a mode of self-assessment in tasks using annotated sample texts generated by other students. (VWL)

  13. Organized Activity Involvement among Rural Youth: Gender Differences in Associations between Activity Type and Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Kaitlyn A.; Oosterhoff, Benjamin; Metzger, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined associations between organized activity involvement, academic achievement, and problem behavior in a sample of youth from a non-agricultural based rural community (M[subscript age] = 15.26, Age range = 11-19 years, N = 456). Analyses examined whether associations varied as a function of adolescent gender and age.…

  14. Problems & Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Lists selected resources that help think about problems and issues and how they affect society in the areas of human health, social issues, and environmental issues. Includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, magazines, and professional resources, with age levels and appropriate disciplines usually indicated. Suggests sample class…

  15. Genetic and environmental etiology of the relationship between childhood hyperactivity/inattention and conduct problems in a South korean twin sample.

    PubMed

    Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2015-06-01

    Recently, there has been increased research into the etiology of the comorbidity between hyperactivity/inattention problems (HIP) and conduct problems (CP). However, the nature of the etiology of the comorbidity has remained unclear. Mothers of 507 pairs of twins, comprised of 221 monozygotic (MZ) and 286 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs aged from 6 to 13 years (mean = 9.6 years; SD = 2.0 years), completed the HIP and the CP scale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) via a telephone interview. The phenotypic correlation between HIP and CP was 0.43 (p < .01). MZ and DZ twin correlations were, respectively, 0.48 (95%CI: 0.37-0.58) and 0.06 (95%CI: -0.06-0.19) for HIP and 0.38 (95%CI: 0.26-0.49) and 0.35 (95%CI: 0.25-0.45) for CP. The bivariate model-fitting results revealed additive genetic correlation of 1.0 (95% CI: 0.72-1.00), a complete overlap of additive genetic variance component between HIP and CP, supporting the importance of correlated additive genetic risk factors for the comorbid condition of HIP and CP. HIP was additionally influenced by non-additive genetic factors that did not contribute to the relationship between HIP and CP. There was a significant but moderate child-specific environmental correlation (r e = 0.37) between HIP and CP. CP was additionally influenced by shared family environmental influences. While the results of the present study are generally consistent with the findings from Western twin studies of the relationship between HIP and CP, they add a new finding to the extant literature by showing that it is additive rather than non-additive genetic factors that are responsible for the co-occurrence of HIP and CP. PMID:25926162

  16. PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO ORAL ENGLISH FLUENCY AMONG TWO-PARENT MEXICAN AMERICANS WITH CHILDREN ENROLLED IN SELECTED BILINGUAL PROGRAMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOSE LUIS VALDERAS

    1985-01-01

    The problem under investigation in this study was to determine whether there was a relationship between parental involvement and oral English fluency of two-parent Mexican Americans whose children were enrolled in selected bilingual education programs. This research was needed in order to identify the reasons or underlying causes for the lack of Mexican American parental involvement.^ The sample for this

  17. Sampling of bosonic qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamma, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The boson sampling problem has brought a lot of attention in the quantum information field because it is not efficiently solvable with a classical computer; nonetheless it can be implementable with linear optical interferometers with single-boson sources. Recently, we introduced a more general problem, the multi-boson correlation sampling problem, which allows to take advantage of the muti-mode spectral distribution of the bosonic sources together with time-correlated measurements in order to achieve a sampling not only over the output channels of the interferometer but also over the joint detection times. This problem was analyzed for both single-photon sources and thermal sources. In this work, we demonstrate that it is possible to use single qubit bosonic sources in order to sample not only in the described "space-time" degree of freedom but also over all the possible exponential number of multi-qubit output states.

  18. Heart Problems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Joey

    2008-10-15

    In this section we will review the major heart problems that you may encounter. Objectives -Understand the possible complications related to your heart -Identify resources that are available for Cardiology Cardiac Compromise 1. Chest pain results from ischemia 2. Ischemic heart disease involves decreased blood flow to the heart. 3. If blood flow is not restored, the tissue dies. Heart pumping with electrical activity Atherosclerosis 1. Materials build up inside blood vessels. 2. ...

  19. Finite Sampling Models

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Siegrist, Kyle

    Created by Kyle Siegrist of the University of Alabama-Huntsville, this is an online, interactive lesson on finite sampling models. The lesson provides examples, exercises, and applets that include hypergeometric distribution, multivariate hypergeometric distribution, order statistics, the matching problem, the birthday problem, and the coupon collector problem. This is the twelfth of seventeen different lessons created by Siegrist. This site is structured much like an online textbook.

  20. Predictive properties of the A-TAC inventory when screening for childhood-onset neurodevelopmental problems in a population-based sample

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Identifying children with childhood-onset neurodevelopmental problems (NDPs, defined here as autism spectrum disorders [ASDs], attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [AD/HD], tic disorders [TDs], learning disorders [LDs] and development coordination disorder), using easily administered screening instruments, is a prerequisite for epidemiological research. Such instruments are also clinically useful to prioritize children for comprehensive assessments, to screen risk groups, and to follow controls. Autism–Tics, ADHD, and other Co-morbidities inventory (A-TAC) was developed to meet these requirements; here the A-TAC’s prospective and psychometric properties are examined, when used in a population-based, epidemiological setting. Methods Since 2004, parents of all Swedish twins have been asked to take part in an ongoing, nation-wide twin study (The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden). The study includes the A-TAC, carried out as a telephone interview with parents of twins aged 9 or 12. In the present study, screen-positive twins from three birth year cohorts (1993–1995) were invited to a comprehensive clinical follow-up (blinded for previous screening results) together with their co-twins and randomly selected, healthy controls at age 15 (Total N?=?452). Results Sensitivity and specificity of A-TAC scores for predicting later clinical diagnoses were good to excellent overall, with values of the area under the receiver operating characteristics curves ranging from 0.77 (AD/HD) to 0.91 (ASDs). Among children who were screen-positive for an ASD, 48% received a clinical diagnosis of ASDs. For AD/HD, the corresponding figure was also 48%, for LDs 16%, and for TDs 60%. Between 4% and 35% of screen-positive children did not receive any diagnosis at the clinical follow-up three years later. Among screen-negative controls, prevalence of ASDs, AD/HD, LDs, and TDs was 0%, 7%, 4%, and 2%, respectively. Conclusions The A–TAC appeared to be a valid instrument to assess NDPs in this population-based, longitudinal study. It has good-to-excellent psychometric properties, with an excellent ability to distinguish NDPs (mainly ASDs) from non-NDPs at least three years after the screening evaluations, although specific diagnoses did not correspond closely to actual clinical diagnoses. PMID:24066834

  1. Sampling Error

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This one page article, created by Statistics Canada, describes the meaning behind random sampling error. It points our the relationship of the random sampling error with the sample size, population size, variability of the characteristic, sampling plan, and measuring sampling error. While brief, this provides valuable information and also links users to additional resources concerning statistics.

  2. Protective Factors Associated with Fewer Multiple Problem Behaviors among Homeless/Runaway Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightfoot, Marguerita; Stein, Judith A.; Tevendale, Heather; Preston, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    Although homeless youth exhibit numerous problem behaviors, protective factors that can be targeted and modified by prevention programs to decrease the likelihood of involvement in risky behaviors are less apparent. The current study tested a model of protective factors for multiple problem behavior in a sample of 474 homeless youth (42% girls;…

  3. Our involvement only Your involvement with us

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    Our involvement only Your involvement with us Search Process & Timeline Pre-Search Analysis Search expectations and candidate criteria · Develop Search Strategy · Confirm compensation package, benefits, etc Manage- ment Selection and Hiring Final Interviews Approval Reference Checks Job Offer and Negotiation

  4. Pragmatic soil survey design using flexible Latin hypercube sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, David; Payne, James E.; Pringle, M. J.; Searle, Ross; Butler, Nathan

    2014-06-01

    We review and give a practical example of Latin hypercube sampling in soil science using an approach we call flexible Latin hypercube sampling. Recent studies of soil properties in large and remote regions have highlighted problems with the conventional Latin hypercube sampling approach. It is often impractical to travel far from tracks and roads to collect samples, and survey planning should recognise this fact. Another problem is how to handle target sites that, for whatever reason, are impractical to sample - should one just move on to the next target or choose something in the locality that is accessible? Working within a Latin hypercube that spans the covariate space, selecting an alternative site is hard to do optimally. We propose flexible Latin hypercube sampling as a means of avoiding these problems. Flexible Latin hypercube sampling involves simulated annealing for optimally selecting accessible sites from a region. The sampling protocol also produces an ordered list of alternative sites close to the primary target site, should the primary target site prove inaccessible. We highlight the use of this design through a broad-scale sampling exercise in the Burdekin catchment of north Queensland, Australia. We highlight the robustness of our design through a simulation study where up to 50% of target sites may be inaccessible.

  5. Explicit Finite Difference Solution of Heat Transfer Problems of Fish Packages in Precooling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Mokhtar; K. A. Abbas; Megat Ahmad; S. M. Sapuan; A. O. Ashraf; M. A. Wan; B. Jamilah

    2004-01-01

    The present work aims at finding an optimized explicit finite difference scheme for the solution of problems involving pure heat transfer from surfaces of Pangasius Sutchi fish samples suddenly exposed to a cooling environment. Regular shaped packages in the form of infinite slab were considered and a generalized mathematical model was written in dimensionless form. An accurate sample of data

  6. Young children's analogical problem solving: gaining insights from video displays.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Siegler, Robert S

    2013-12-01

    This study examined how toddlers gain insights from source video displays and use the insights to solve analogous problems. The sample of 2- and 2.5-year-olds viewed a source video illustrating a problem-solving strategy and then attempted to solve analogous problems. Older, but not younger, toddlers extracted the problem-solving strategy depicted in the video and spontaneously transferred the strategy to solve isomorphic problems. Transfer by analogy from the video was evident only when the video illustrated the complete problem goal structure, including the character's intention and the action needed to achieve a goal. The same action isolated from the problem-solving context did not serve as an effective source analogue. These results illuminate the development of early representation and processes involved in analogical problem solving. Theoretical and educational implications are discussed. PMID:24077465

  7. Constructing Cooperative Logic Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munakata, Mika

    2005-01-01

    The complexities involved in writing mathematics problems and a cooperative learning activity that gives students the challenge of writing mathematical logic problems for their peers is discussed. Making students construct mathematics problems taps into several important skills in mathematics and students are asked to consider what it means to…

  8. Experimental Boson Sampling

    E-print Network

    Spring, Justin B; Humphreys, Peter C; Kolthammer, W Steven; Jin, Xian-Min; Barbieri, Marco; Datta, Animesh; Thomas-Peter, Nicholas; Langford, Nathan K; Kundys, Dmytro; Gates, James C; Smith, Brian J; Smith, Peter G R; Walmsley, Ian A

    2013-01-01

    While universal quantum computers ideally solve problems such as factoring integers exponentially more efficiently than classical machines, the formidable challenges in building such devices motivate the demonstration of simpler, problem-specific algorithms that still promise a quantum speedup. We construct a quantum boson sampling machine (QBSM) to sample the output distribution resulting from the nonclassical interference of photons in an integrated photonic circuit, a problem thought to be exponentially hard to solve classically. Unlike universal quantum computation, boson sampling merely requires indistinguishable photons, linear state evolution, and detectors. We benchmark our QBSM with three and four photons and analyze sources of sampling inaccuracy. Our studies pave the way to larger devices that could offer the first definitive quantum-enhanced computation.

  9. Parent Involvement: Some Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde Park - Kenwood Community Conference, Chicago, IL. Child Care Task Force.

    The focus of this paper is on the immediate and long-range advantages of parent involvement, the definitions and implications of varying levels of parent involvement in child care center operations, and the general means by which a chosen level of involvement might be achieved. The advantages of parent involvement are discussed briefly in terms of…

  10. The nature versus nurture problem. I. Definition of the problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. K. Shuttleworth

    1935-01-01

    This paper presents a definition of the nature versus nurture problem which emphasizes throughout practical problems of social control, together with a criticism of attempts to solve the problem with experiments on sub-human species, and a catalogue of the necessary conditions, limitations, and implications involved in the formulation and solution of the problem. The immediate problem is \\

  11. Snowball Sampling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leo A. Goodman

    1961-01-01

    An $s$ stage $k$ name snowball sampling procedure is defined as follows: A random sample of individuals is drawn from a given finite population. (The kind of random sample will be discussed later in this section.) Each individual in the sample is asked to name $k$ different individuals in the population, where $k$ is a specified integer; for example, each

  12. Nadaraya-Watson estimator for sensor fusion problems

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, N.S.V.

    1996-10-01

    The classical Nadaraya-Watson estimator is shown to solve a generic sensor fusion problem where the underlying sensor error densities are not known but a sample is available. By employing Haar kernels this estimator is shown to yield finite sample guarantees and also to be efficiently computable. Two simulation examples, and a robotics example involving the detection of a door using arrays of ultrasonic and infrared sensors, are presented to illustrate the performance.

  13. Financial Stress, Social Support, and Alcohol Involvement: A Longitudinal Test of the Buffering Hypothesis in a General Population Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert S. Peirce; Michael R. Frone; Marcia Russell; M. Lynne Cooper

    1996-01-01

    This study examined whether specific facets of social support (tangible assistance, appraisal, and belonging) moderate the relationship between a specific type of stress (financial stress) and alcohol involvement (drinking to cope, heavy drinking, and alcohol problems). Data were derived from a community sample stratified by education and race. Respondents (N = 1, 040) were interviewed in 1986 and 1989 and

  14. Sampling Distribution of Sample Means

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lowry, Richard

    This applet generates a graph of the sampling distribution of sample means and displays the probabilities associated with that distribution. Users enter the mean and standard deviation of the source population and the size of the samples. The applet also calculates the standard error of the sample means.

  15. Sample Handling in Extreme Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avellar, Louisa; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2013-01-01

    Harsh environments, such as that on Venus, preclude the use of existing equipment for functions that involve interaction with the environment. The operating limitations of current high temperature electronics are well below the actual temperature and pressure found on Venus (460 deg C and 92 atm), so proposed lander configurations typically include a pressure vessel where the science instruments are kept at Earth-like temperature and pressure (25 deg C and 1 atm). The purpose of this project was to develop and demonstrate a method for sample transfer from an external drill to internal science instruments for a lander on Venus. The initial concepts were string and pneumatically driven systems; and the latter system was selected for its ability to deliver samples at very high speed. The pneumatic system was conceived to be driven by the pressure difference between the Venusian atmosphere and the inside of the lander. The pneumatic transfer of a small capsule was demonstrated, and velocity data was collected from the lab experiment. The sample transfer system was modeled using CAD software and prototyped using 3D printing. General structural and thermal analyses were performed to approximate the proposed system's mass and effects on the temperature and pressure inside of the lander. Additionally, a sampler breadboard for use on Titan was tested and functionality problems were resolved.

  16. Stochastic Nash Equilibrium Problems: Sample Average ...

    E-print Network

    2010-01-22

    then D := maxx?D x. d(x, D) := infx'?D x ? x denotes the distance from point x to set ...... Lemma 4.1 (i) that there exists a ? > 0 such that d(xN ,X?) ? ? so long as ...... reception wireless networks, IEEE Transaction on Signal Processing, Vol.

  17. Sampling Distributions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lane, David M.

    This applet simulates and plots the sampling distribution of various statistics (i.e. mean, standard deviation, variance). The applet allows the user to specify the population distribution, sample size, and statistic. An animated sample from the population is shown and the statistic is plotted. This can be repeated to produce the sampling distribution of the statistic. After the sampling distribution is plotted it can be compared to a normal distribution by overlaying a normal curve. These features make it useful for introducing students in a first course to the idea of a sampling distribution. The site also includes instructions and exercises.

  18. Identifying the Need for Family Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, David M.

    This chapter addresses the issue of when counselors should suggest to their clients that their family members should become involved in the counseling process. Family systems theory and its application are reviewed, with a special focus on issues involving communication, problem solving, family roles, and boundaries. Family systems theory is a…

  19. Involving Latino Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quezada, Reyes L.; Diaz, Delia M.; Sanchez, Maria

    2003-01-01

    Describes barriers to Latino parent involvement in educational activities, factors to consider when involving Latino parents, and two examples of Latino involvement programs in California: Family Literacy Workshop at James Monroe Elementary School, Madera Unified School District, and Parents Take P.A.R.T. (Parent Assisted Reading Training) at…

  20. Collecting Samples

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Collecting Samples at Embden 3. Embden 3 is a 60-degree V trapezoidal flume in a bured concreate culvert located on the other side of the north-south road east of the large data shelter. The flow is measured and sampled from the V flume underground and periodic QW grab samples are taken form the blu...

  1. Execution of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Approaches on Common Test Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balling, R. J.; Wilkinson, C. A.

    1997-01-01

    A class of synthetic problems for testing multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) approaches is presented. These test problems are easy to reproduce because all functions are given as closed-form mathematical expressions. They are constructed in such a way that the optimal value of all variables and the objective is unity. The test problems involve three disciplines and allow the user to specify the number of design variables, state variables, coupling functions, design constraints, controlling design constraints, and the strength of coupling. Several MDO approaches were executed on two sample synthetic test problems. These approaches included single-level optimization approaches, collaborative optimization approaches, and concurrent subspace optimization approaches. Execution results are presented, and the robustness and efficiency of these approaches an evaluated for these sample problems.

  2. Random Samples

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Siegrist, Kyle

    Created by Kyle Siegrist of the University of Alabama-Huntsville, this is an online, interactive lesson on random samples. The author provides examples, exercises, and applets concerning many different topics. Some of these include: sample mean, law of large numbers, sample variance, partial sums, central limit theorem, special properties of normal samples, order statistics, and sample covariance and correlation. Additionally, the author provides links to external resources for students wanting to engage further with the topic. This is simply one of seventeen lessons. They are all easily accessible as the author has formatted his site much like an online textbook.

  3. African American fathers and incarceration: paternal involvement and child outcomes.

    PubMed

    Perry, Armon R; Bright, Mikia

    2012-01-01

    Despite only accounting for 6% of the general population, African American males represent nearly 50% of the prison population. To investigate the impact of mass incarceration on African American families, data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being study were analyzed. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of previous incarceration on African American fathers' instrumental and affective involvement with their children, and the extent to which their previous incarceration influences their children's behavior. Results revealed that 51% of the fathers in the sample had been incarcerated by their child's fifth birthday. The results also revealed that these fathers fared worse economically and were less involved with their children. Moreover, the children of previously incarcerated fathers had significantly worse behavioral problems than the children of fathers who had never been incarcerated. PMID:22239385

  4. Quantum rejection sampling

    E-print Network

    Maris Ozols; Martin Roetteler; Jérémie Roland

    2011-12-13

    Rejection sampling is a well-known method to sample from a target distribution, given the ability to sample from a given distribution. The method has been first formalized by von Neumann (1951) and has many applications in classical computing. We define a quantum analogue of rejection sampling: given a black box producing a coherent superposition of (possibly unknown) quantum states with some amplitudes, the problem is to prepare a coherent superposition of the same states, albeit with different target amplitudes. The main result of this paper is a tight characterization of the query complexity of this quantum state generation problem. We exhibit an algorithm, which we call quantum rejection sampling, and analyze its cost using semidefinite programming. Our proof of a matching lower bound is based on the automorphism principle which allows to symmetrize any algorithm over the automorphism group of the problem. Our main technical innovation is an extension of the automorphism principle to continuous groups that arise for quantum state generation problems where the oracle encodes unknown quantum states, instead of just classical data. Furthermore, we illustrate how quantum rejection sampling may be used as a primitive in designing quantum algorithms, by providing three different applications. We first show that it was implicitly used in the quantum algorithm for linear systems of equations by Harrow, Hassidim and Lloyd. Secondly, we show that it can be used to speed up the main step in the quantum Metropolis sampling algorithm by Temme et al.. Finally, we derive a new quantum algorithm for the hidden shift problem of an arbitrary Boolean function and relate its query complexity to "water-filling" of the Fourier spectrum.

  5. Fibonacci's Triangle: A Vehicle for Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette, Hugh

    1979-01-01

    A method for solving certain types of problems is illustrated by problems related to Fibonacci's triangle. The method involves pattern recognition, generalizing, algebraic manipulation, and mathematical induction. (MP)

  6. Sample Occupations Sample Work Settings

    E-print Network

    Ronquist, Fredrik

    Therapist Assistant Optometric Assistant Physical Therapist Asst Physician Assistant NURSES Dental NurseHealth Sample Occupations Sample Work Settings Ambulance Service Assisted Living Facilities Blood Opportunities in Occupational Therapy Careers........... IIB 29­1122 A2 PHYSICIANS Acupuncturist Allergist

  7. Stratified sampling using double samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karlheinz Fleischer

    1990-01-01

    Usual stratified sampling design assume that one is able to draw units directly from given strata. If this is not possible,\\u000a one can use the following double sampling procedure: First take a large simple random sample out of the whole population and\\u000a find out, to which stratum each sample unit belongs. Out of these chosen units take a second stratified

  8. An analysis of factors contributing to train-involved crashes

    E-print Network

    Cooner, Scott Allen

    1995-01-01

    . Crashes involving trains and vehicles are a significant safety problem in Texas each year. This research attempts to identify and analyze contributing factors to train-involved accidents in Texas. Three years of accident data (1328 total accidents) were...

  9. Sampling Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adolph, Karen E.; Robinson, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Research in developmental psychology requires sampling at different time points. Accurate depictions of developmental change provide a foundation for further empirical studies and theories about developmental mechanisms. However, overreliance on widely spaced sampling intervals in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs threatens the validity of…

  10. Sampling Bias

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Longo, L.

    Students will complete this activity in conjunction with an introductory statistics lesson about the importance of samples. Students will use the Oregon Reference Map and use the data to find basic statistics about samples with the help of spreadsheet software. This resource includes both a teaching guide and student lesson.

  11. Stoke's Law Problem Set

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rachel Headley

    This is a problem set that involves the calculation of velocities from a Reynolds number, determination of Stoke's Law applicability, and calculation of settling velocities for a variety of grain sizes and materials. This can be used in conjunction with a lab but is itself just a problem set.

  12. California's Water Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheatley, Judy; Sudman, Rita Schmidt, Ed.

    This packet of instructional materials is designed to give social science students in grades 6-9 a first-hand experience in working out solutions to real-life problems involving the management of California's water. Students work in groups on one of three problems presented in the packet: (1) the management of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta that…

  13. Muscle transfers involving the shoulder.

    PubMed

    Guettler, Joseph H; Basamania, Carl J

    2006-01-01

    Muscle transfer provides a viable treatment option for several difficult problems involving the shoulder. Muscle transfer is often the only alternative to a salvage procedure such as shoulder fusion, and whereas salvage procedures provide pain relief at the cost of function, muscle transfer can provide pain relief while retaining acceptable function. The five most commonly encountered shoulder problems for which muscle transfer can be utilized are subscapularis rupture, irreparable rotator cuff tear, deltoid injury and dysfunction, trapezial paralysis, and serratus anterior scapular winging. Although numerous muscle transfer procedures have been described, the following procedures have proven the most reliable and are the focus of this article: 1) transfer of the pectoralis major for subscapularis rupture, 2) transfer of the latissimus dorsi for irreparable rotator cuff tears, 3) latissimus dorsi transfer for deltoid injury or dysfunction, 4) modified Eden-Lange procedure for trapezial paralysis, and 5) modified Marmor-Bechtol pectoralis major transfer for serratus anterior scapular winging. PMID:16603110

  14. [Isolated myeloid sarcoma involving the mediastinum].

    PubMed

    Jeli?-Puskari?, Biljana; Kardum-Skelin, Ika; Susterci?, Dunja; Pazur, Marina; Vrhovac, Radovan; Radi?-Kristo, Delfa; Gredelj-Simec, Njetocka; Kovacevi?, Dragica Obad; Plas?ak, Jasmina; Gasparov, Slavko; Jaksi?, Branimir

    2011-09-01

    Myeloid sarcoma is a rare extramedullary solid tumor consisting of immature myeloid cells and most commonly involving the bone, skin, lymph nodes, soft tissue, gastrointestinal tract and testis. Mediastinal myeloid sarcoma is very rare. There are two major types of myeloid sarcoma: granulocytic sarcoma and monoblastic sarcoma, according to immature cell type. Myeloid sarcoma is found in 2%-8% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Myeloid sarcoma may develop before or concurrently with AML, or may be the initial manifestation of AML relapse in previously treated patients. Blast transformation of some form of myeloproliferative neoplasm or myelodysplastic syndrome may also manifest as myeloid sarcoma. A major differential diagnostic problem is isolated primary myeloid sarcoma without bone marrow and peripheral blood involvement, which may precede leukemic stage for months or years, and which is frequently misdiagnosed, mostly as malignant lymphoma. A case is presented of a 56-year-old female patient complaining of weakness, vertigo, dry cough and breathing difficulties. Clinical examination revealed enhanced vascular pattern on the right chest and right arm edema. Computed tomography (CT) of the thorax showed an expansive growth measuring 11 cm craniocaudally in the anterior mediastinum. Fine needle aspiration cytology of tumor mass yielded a scarcely cellular sample with individual atypical immature cells, fine chromatin structure and scarce cytoplasm with occasional granules and Auer rods. Considering the morphological, cytochemical and immunocytochemical characteristics of immature cells, the diagnosis of myeloid sarcoma was made and verified by histopathology of tumor biopsy sample. Immature cells were not found by analysis of bone marrow puncture sample, immunophenotyping of bone marrow cells and bone biopsy analysis. As immature cell proliferation was not detected in bone marrow and peripheral blood, while spread of the disease beyond the mediastinum was ruled out by imaging methods (CT, ultrasonography), it was decided to be a primary non-leukemic form of mediastinal myeloid sarcoma. Myeloid sarcoma should be taken in consideration on differential diagnosis of solid tumors because making an accurate diagnosis is necessary for timely initiation of appropriate therapy. Weakly expressed or lacking clear signs of myeloid differentiation may hamper morphological diagnosis. As isolated myeloid sarcoma is a very rare entity frequently resembling lymphoma in clinical presentation, it poses a major diagnostic challenge for both morphologists and clinicians. PMID:23126041

  15. Parent Predictors of Changes in Child Behavior Problems

    PubMed Central

    Tichovolsky, Marianne H.; Arnold, David H.; Baker, Courtney N.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether ineffective discipline, single parent status, social support, parent involvement, and parent depression predicted changes in preschoolers’ (N = 129) behavior problems. This study also evaluated whether child sex and ethnicity moderated the relationships between these variables and changes in problem behavior. Parents completed questionnaires at the beginning of the study, and parent, teacher, and observational ratings of children’s behavior problems were collected twice during the school year. Parents’ own social support predicted improvement for boys and parent depression was associated with worsening symptoms for girls. Single parenthood and parent involvement predicted changes in behavior problems for the sample as a whole. Several significant ethnic differences emerged, highlighting the importance of considering cultural context in studies of parenting and child externalizing behavior. PMID:24347757

  16. Using the bootstrap in a multivariadte data problem: An example

    SciTech Connect

    Glosup, J.G.; Axelrod, M.C.

    1995-08-01

    The use of the bootstrap in the multivariate version of the paired t-test is considered and demonstrated through an example. The problem of interest involves comparing two different techniques for measuring the chemical constituents of an sample item. The bootstrap is used to form an empirical significance level for Hotelling`s one-sample T-squared statistic. The bootstrap was selected to determine empirical significance levels because the implicit assumption of multivariate normality in the classic Hotelling`s one-sample test night not hold. The results of both the classic and bootstrap test are presented and contrasted.

  17. Nonparametric prediction in species sampling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Chao; Tsung-Jen Shen

    2004-01-01

    Consider a continuous-time stochastic model in which species arrive in the sample according to independent Poisson processes\\u000a and where the species discovery rates are heterogeneous. Based on an initial survey, we are concerned with the problem of\\u000a predicting the number of new species that would be discovered by additional sampling. When the sampling time or sample size\\u000a of the additional

  18. A model for routing problem in quay management problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirour, Mourad; Oughalime, Ahmed; Liong, Choong-Yeun; Ismail, Wan Rosmanira; Omar, Khairuddin

    2014-06-01

    Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP), like Vehicle Routing Problem, is one of those optimization problems that interests many researchers in the last decades. The Quay Management Problem is a specific problem which could be presented as a QAP which involves a double assignment of customers and products toward loading positions using lifting trucks. This study focuses on the routing problem while delivering the customers' demands. In this problem, lifting trucks will route around the storage sections to collect the products then deliver to the customers who are assigned to specific loading positions. The objective of minimizing the residence time for each customer is sought. This paper presents the problem and the proposed model.

  19. Who's Committed? Who's Involved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kipps, Carol

    1970-01-01

    Describes a teaching strategy which aims at success by using peer groups and questions designed to enable students to think independently. Results of using this method indicate more student involvement and commitment. (FL)

  20. Balance Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady or as ... fall-related injuries, such as hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  1. Ear Recognition from One Sample Per Person

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Long; Mu, Zhichun; Zhang, Baoqing; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Biometrics has the advantages of efficiency and convenience in identity authentication. As one of the most promising biometric-based methods, ear recognition has received broad attention and research. Previous studies have achieved remarkable performance with multiple samples per person (MSPP) in the gallery. However, most conventional methods are insufficient when there is only one sample per person (OSPP) available in the gallery. To solve the OSPP problem by maximizing the use of a single sample, this paper proposes a hybrid multi-keypoint descriptor sparse representation-based classification (MKD-SRC) ear recognition approach based on 2D and 3D information. Because most 3D sensors capture 3D data accessorizing the corresponding 2D data, it is sensible to use both types of information. First, the ear region is extracted from the profile. Second, keypoints are detected and described for both the 2D texture image and 3D range image. Then, the hybrid MKD-SRC algorithm is used to complete the recognition with only OSPP in the gallery. Experimental results on a benchmark dataset have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method in resolving the OSPP problem. A Rank-one recognition rate of 96.4% is achieved for a gallery of 415 subjects, and the time involved in the computation is satisfactory compared to conventional methods. PMID:26024226

  2. Inverse Problems in Wave Scattering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Hanke-Bourgeois; Andreas Kirsch; William Rundell

    2007-01-01

    The workshop treated inverse problems for partial differential equations, especially inverse scattering problems, and their applications in technology. While special attention was paid to sampling methods, decom- position methods, Newton methods and questions of unique determination were also investigated.

  3. Annealed Importance Sampling Reversible Jump MCMC algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Karagiannis, Georgios; Andrieu, Christophe

    2013-03-20

    It will soon be 20 years since reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (RJ-MCMC) algorithms have been proposed. They have significantly extended the scope of Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation methods, offering the promise to be able to routinely tackle transdimensional sampling problems, as encountered in Bayesian model selection problems for example, in a principled and flexible fashion. Their practical efficient implementation, however, still remains a challenge. A particular difficulty encountered in practice is in the choice of the dimension matching variables (both their nature and their distribution) and the reversible transformations which allow one to define the one-to-one mappings underpinning the design of these algorithms. Indeed, even seemingly sensible choices can lead to algorithms with very poor performance. The focus of this paper is the development and performance evaluation of a method, annealed importance sampling RJ-MCMC (aisRJ), which addresses this problem by mitigating the sensitivity of RJ-MCMC algorithms to the aforementioned poor design. As we shall see the algorithm can be understood as being an “exact approximation” of an idealized MCMC algorithm that would sample from the model probabilities directly in a model selection set-up. Such an idealized algorithm may have good theoretical convergence properties, but typically cannot be implemented, and our algorithms can approximate the performance of such idealized algorithms to an arbitrary degree while not introducing any bias for any degree of approximation. Our approach combines the dimension matching ideas of RJ-MCMC with annealed importance sampling and its Markov chain Monte Carlo implementation. We illustrate the performance of the algorithm with numerical simulations which indicate that, although the approach may at first appear computationally involved, it is in fact competitive.

  4. Community Involvement Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Wilson

    John Wilson, Lafayette College Summary This project is designed to give students the opportunity to create a GIS project to apply skills they acquired throughout the semester to solve a real world problem. Each ...

  5. SOIL AND SEDIMENT SAMPLING METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response's (OSWER) Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI) needs innovative methods and techniques to solve new and difficult sampling and analytical problems found at the numerous Superfund sites throughout th...

  6. Relationships with Adults as Predictors of Substance Use, Gang Involvement, and Threats to Safety among Disadvantaged Urban High-School Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Linda G.; Miller-Loessi, Karen; Nieri, Tanya

    2007-01-01

    Using a resilience framework, the authors examined the protective effects of parental support, self-disclosure to parents, parent-initiated monitoring of adolescent behavior, and relationships with school personnel on three critical problems of adolescents: substance use, gang involvement, and perceived threats to safety at school. The sample

  7. Calculation of complex equilibria involving vaporization into vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paule, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    A simplified, direct approach is presented to the description of complex equilibria involving vaporization into vacuum. Emphasis is on the basic problem-solving process and on modification of existing techniques. Sequential solutions are presented to problems involving purification of a melt by vaporization into vacuum. The effects of concentration of melt and oxygen partial pressures on vaporization rates are demonstrated.

  8. IMAGE: Weekly Problem Archive

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sten Odenwald

    This is the Image for Magnetopause-to-Auroral Global Exploration (IMAGE) archive of weekly math, science, reading and art problems. New problems involving near-Earth space technology are emailed to participating teachers each week on Tuesday. The problems can be used in related lessons or as extra credit assignments. This web page is part of the outreach program of the IMAGE Satellite team to give teachers and students the latest information about aurora and the study of Earth's magnetic field, along with many programs that IMAGE has developed or participated in with NASA. A pdf document of extra credit problems is also available at this site.

  9. Sample Means

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lacey, Michelle

    This site, presented by the Department of Statistics at Yale University, gives an explanation of, a definition for and an example of sample means. Topics include mean, variance, distribution, and the central limit theorem. Overall, this is a great resource for any mathematics classroom studying statistics.

  10. Importance sampling : promises and limitations.

    SciTech Connect

    West, Nicholas J. (Stanford University, Stanford, CA); Swiler, Laura Painton

    2010-04-01

    Importance sampling is an unbiased sampling method used to sample random variables from different densities than originally defined. These importance sampling densities are constructed to pick 'important' values of input random variables to improve the estimation of a statistical response of interest, such as a mean or probability of failure. Conceptually, importance sampling is very attractive: for example one wants to generate more samples in a failure region when estimating failure probabilities. In practice, however, importance sampling can be challenging to implement efficiently, especially in a general framework that will allow solutions for many classes of problems. We are interested in the promises and limitations of importance sampling as applied to computationally expensive finite element simulations which are treated as 'black-box' codes. In this paper, we present a customized importance sampler that is meant to be used after an initial set of Latin Hypercube samples has been taken, to help refine a failure probability estimate. The importance sampling densities are constructed based on kernel density estimators. We examine importance sampling with respect to two main questions: is importance sampling efficient and accurate for situations where we can only afford small numbers of samples? And does importance sampling require the use of surrogate methods to generate a sufficient number of samples so that the importance sampling process does increase the accuracy of the failure probability estimate? We present various case studies to address these questions.

  11. Comparison of sample preparation methods based on proteolytic enzymatic processes for Se-speciation of edible mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) samples.

    PubMed

    Stefánka, Z; Ipolyi, I; Dernovics, M; Fodor, P

    2001-09-13

    A sequential sample preparation process was developed for the speciation analysis for Se-enriched edible mushroom, Agaricus bisporus containing 110.2 mug of total Se/g sample. Five different sample extraction methods were compared and the most efficient method (a three-step process involving the use of water extraction and two proteolytic enzymes - pepsin and trypsin) proved to be the most suitable for extracting selenium, with an extraction efficiency of 75%. As the analogues of these enzymes play an important role in human digestion the bioavailability of the selenium present in the sample was estimated. Selenocystine (SeCys(2)) and Se(IV) were detected in considerable amounts (27.7 mug Se/g sample and 46.4 mug Se/g sample, respectively). For the quality control of peak identification a spiking procedure was developed, using a low selenium mushroom containing 4.3 mug of total Se/g sample. During the analysis with HPLC-HHPN (Hydraulic High Pressure Nebuliser)-AFS complicated background effects and matrix problems were observed: stable and reproducible signals generated by the low selenium mushroom and the compounds used in sample preparation were detected. The three-step sample preparation method connected with the HPLC-HHPN-AFS system proved to be applicable for the speciation analysis of the Se-enriched Agaricus bisporus. PMID:18968388

  12. Parent Involvement. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2007-01-01

    What are some ways in which to get parents meaningfully involved in their child's high school? According to the research, the most successful programs are those that provide a variety of ways in which parents can be actively engaged in their child's academic life. Joyce Epstein, Director of the National Network of Partnership Schools, out of Johns…

  13. Getting Parents Involved.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, Vickie; Finch, Patty A.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a parental involvement program in reading, writing, and human education. The project consists of caring for Clifford, a stuffed toy dog, on a rotated basis by first grade students. Books and pet care items accompany Clifford and provide an opportunity for parent and child to work together. (ML)

  14. Involvement or Engagement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferlazzo, Larry

    2011-01-01

    To create the kinds of school-family partnerships that raise student achievement, improve local communities, and increase public support, schools need to understand the difference between family involvement and family engagement. Schools that emphasize the latter tend toward doing with families, rather than doing to families. These schools do more…

  15. Special Problems in the Assessment of Children's Needs in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Richard A.; And Others

    The needs assessment literature has not systematically addressed the special problems involved in evaluating the mental health needs of children. In an attempt to provide a low-cost, comprehensive approach to assessing these needs, a multi-modal design, which sampled the impressions of parents and key informants, along with agency and government…

  16. The Association between Parental Personality Patterns and Internalising and Externalising Behaviour Problems in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertino, Melanie D.; Connell, Gabrielle; Lewis, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relationship between parental personality patterns and internalising and externalising behaviour problems in a clinically referred sample of children (aged 4-8) and adolescents (aged 12-18). Methods: Data from families involved in two clinical trials in Victoria, Australia were analysed (n = 59). Families…

  17. Sampling Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Three locations to the right of the test dig area are identified for the first samples to be delivered to the Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA), the Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL), and the Optical Microscope (OM) on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. These sampling areas are informally labeled 'Baby Bear', 'Mama Bear', and 'Papa Bear' respectively. This image was taken on the seventh day of the Mars mission, or Sol 7 (June 1, 2008) by the Surface Stereo Imager aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Gang Involvement and Membership among Homeless and Runaway Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Kevin A.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.

    2003-01-01

    Assessed the extent of gang involvement among homeless and runaway youth, comparing gang members, gang-involved youth (not members), and non-gang youth on several dimensions. Interview data indicated that 15.4 percent of the youth were gang members and 32.2 percent were involved in gangs. These youth reported more family problems and school…

  19. Bias Sampling

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-01

    In this statistics lesson on bias sampling students conduct a poll of specific populations within their school to determine recommendations for homework policies. Each of three groups is assigned a population to survey and then reports their conclusions to the class. Students will then determine how to improve their survey in order to get unbiased results. A student worksheet for questions and a student template for a letter to the principal are included.

  20. On Large-Scale Sample Surveys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. Mahalanobis

    1944-01-01

    In sample surveys the final estimate is prepared from information collected for sample units of definite size (area) located at random. Large-scale work involves journeys from one sample unit to another so that both cost and precision of the result depend on size (area) as well as the number (density per sq. mile) of sample units. The object of planning

  1. Age Trends in the Association between Parenting Practices and Conduct Problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J. Frick; Rachel E. Christian; Jane M. Wootton

    1999-01-01

    The authors studied the association between parenting practices and conduct problem behavior in a sample of 179 clinic-referred children and adolescents. Parenting practices were assessed using a multi-informant and multimethod assessment system. Conduct problems were the DSMIII-R criteria for oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder assessed by a structured psychiatric interview with multiple informants. Results indicated that parents” involvement in

  2. Balance Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Z > Balance Problems: About Balance Problems In This Topic About Balance Problems Causes and Prevention Symptoms and ... for More Information National Institute on Aging Related Topics Falls and Older Adults The information in this ...

  3. Sampling-Based Planning and Control Michael S. Branicky, Michael M. Curtiss, Joshua Levine, and Stuart Morgan

    E-print Network

    Branicky, Michael S.

    -force exploration of the state space. This method can solve challenging problems that involve state spaces of up,mmc18,jal31,sbm5}po.cwru.edu Abstract In this paper, we describe a planning and con- trol approach in terms of sampling using Rapidly- exploring Random Trees (RRTs), which were in- troduced in [7, 9]. We

  4. Multiscale treatment of mechanical contact problems involving thin polymeric layers

    E-print Network

    of phenomena like friction, wear and lubrication that occur on surfaces at length scales where individual of energy wasted because of friction, which occurs in particular between mechanical components such as gears

  5. The Evaluation of Programs Involving TMR Children: Methodological Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Barbara M.

    1983-01-01

    No significant differences in language skills, social maturity, or self-concept were found for 36 trainable mentally retarded (TMR) elementary students placed in a semi-integrated school environment and 36 TMR Ss in a nonintegrated setting. Concerns regarding assessment of TMR children were noted. (CL)

  6. Rigorous Solutions of Electromagnetic Problems Involving Hundreds of Millions

    E-print Network

    Gürel, Levent

    through frequency-selec tive metamaterials,photonic crystals,and optical imaging systems, to name a few and radar-eluding stealth airborne targets,radiation from antennas and electronic devices,and transmission

  7. "Our interests are in complex decision problems that involve humans,

    E-print Network

    Acton, Scott

    settings, consumer credit lending decisions, and decision methodologies to support the design of cyber security solutions. Cyber-Physical Decision Systems in Manufacturing This research centers on the use falls into the broad framework of Bayesian statistical inference. We develop theory and algorithms

  8. Space modification: an alternative approach to chemistry problems involving geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    The sequential simplex optimization algorithm has been translated into non-Euclidean space. A study of the algorithm in this space suggests that the path of convergence of the simplex depends on the properties of the space so that different convergence paths can be obtained even with the same starting points. The path of convergence approaches the path observed in Euclidean space as the metric constant of the hyperbolic space increases.

  9. Image correlation and sampling study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popp, D. J.; Mccormack, D. S.; Sedwick, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    The development of analytical approaches for solving image correlation and image sampling of multispectral data is discussed. Relevant multispectral image statistics which are applicable to image correlation and sampling are identified. The general image statistics include intensity mean, variance, amplitude histogram, power spectral density function, and autocorrelation function. The translation problem associated with digital image registration and the analytical means for comparing commonly used correlation techniques are considered. General expressions for determining the reconstruction error for specific image sampling strategies are developed.

  10. Core sample extractor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akins, James; Cobb, Billy; Hart, Steve; Leaptrotte, Jeff; Milhollin, James; Pernik, Mark

    1989-01-01

    The problem of retrieving and storing core samples from a hole drilled on the lunar surface is addressed. The total depth of the hole in question is 50 meters with a maximum diameter of 100 millimeters. The core sample itself has a diameter of 60 millimeters and will be two meters in length. It is therefore necessary to retrieve and store 25 core samples per hole. The design utilizes a control system that will stop the mechanism at a certain depth, a cam-linkage system that will fracture the core, and a storage system that will save and catalogue the cores to be extracted. The Rod Changer and Storage Design Group will provide the necessary tooling to get into the hole as well as to the core. The mechanical design for the cam-linkage system as well as the conceptual design of the storage device are described.

  11. Involving the community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Wells; Alan T. White

    \\u000a There has been increasing interest in recent years in community-based management of natural resources or, where the government\\u000a is responsible for management, in public participation. Community involvement can range from autonomous management by the\\u000a community to some form of shared responsibility with state agencies. This trend was in part stimulated by the World Conservation\\u000a Strategy (UNEP\\/IUCN\\/WWF, 1980) which, in promoting

  12. Sample support in a single fracture: Considering the definition and control of the support of a water sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silliman, Stephen E.

    Defining and controlling the support of a field measurement (the volume or area over which the measurement is averaged) are critical components of statistical and/or geostatistical analysis of a data base. For the present study, the seemingly simple task of collecting a water sample from a single fracture is used to illustrate potential difficulties in defining and controlling the support of that sample. Two definitions of sample support are considered for this problem. First, one could argue that the support is equal to the volume of water collected. Second, one could argue for a support defined in terms of the area of the fracture surface contacted by the water collected. Collection of water samples with constant volume is relatively straight forward in a field situation. Collection of a water sample which involves contact with a specified area of the fracture, however, is not as straight forward. In the case of negligible regional flow, a constant sample area can be approximated by requiring that the sample volume collected be linearly proportional to the locally averaged aperture (thus requiring an independent measure of the local aperture). In the case of regional flow with continuous sampling, a constant area within each sample can be approximated by matching the up gradient width of the capture zone of the sampler (thus requiring knowledge of the local aperture and hydraulic gradient). These examples illustrate how difficult it may be to define and control the support for even these simple measurements. Further, they illustrate that the choice of support may be closely related to the purpose for which the measurement is collected. Additional attention to the problem of defining / controlling sample supports has the potential to pay substantial dividends in the areas of scaling and field design / analysis.

  13. Effects of Parental Involvement on Eighth-Grade Achievement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esther Ho Sui-Chu

    The indicators of parental involvement in children's education vary considerably across studies, most of which treat parental involvement as a unidimensional construct. This study identified four dimensions of parental involvement and assessed the relationship of each dimension with parental background and academic achievement for a large representative sample of U.S. middle school students. The findings provide little support for the

  14. Predicting the Problem Behavior in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaman, Neslihan G.

    2013-01-01

    Problem statement: Problem behavior theory describes both protective factors and risk factors to explain adolescent problem behaviors, such as delinquency, alcohol use, and reckless driving. The theory holds that problem behaviors involving risky behavior are used by adolescents as a means to gain peer acceptance and respect. Problem behaviors…

  15. Teaching Problem Solving to College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malouff, John M.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes steps of teaching problem solving to college students and provides examples in the context of a university course. The steps involve (1) identifying the types of problems and types of problem solving methods to be covered, (2) instructing the students in problem-recognition and problem solving methods, along with ways of…

  16. Stages in Adolescent Involvement in Drug Use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denise Kandel

    1975-01-01

    Two longitudinal surveys based on random samples of high school students in New York State indicate four stages in the sequence of involvement with drugs: beer or wine, or both; cigarettes or hard liquor; marihuana; and other illicit drugs. The legal drugs are necessary intermediates between nonuse and marihuana. Whereas 27 percent of high school students who smoke and drink

  17. Direct qPCR quantification of unprocessed forensic casework samples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jason Yingjie

    2014-07-01

    The current short tandem repeat (STR) typing workflow for forensic casework samples involves sample collection, sample screening, DNA extraction, DNA qPCR quantification and STR amplification. Although very effective and powerful, this workflow still has room for improvements. For example, the screening assays in practice do not provide DNA related information and also do not work with touch DNA samples, which make up of the majority of the property crime samples. It is known that not all DNA samples have equal probative values. Considering the DNA backlog situation crime laboratories face today, an effective screening tool would be highly desirable. It would allow forensic scientists to prioritize the DNA samples so that the limited resources would be first spent on samples that would have better chances of producing informative STR profiles. qPCR assay does provide DNA quantity and gender information and would be an ideal screening tool. However, prior to quantification, sample extraction and purification are required. By the time a DNA sample is ready for qPCR quantification, time and resources have already been spent on samples that should have been given low priority or excluded from further processing if DNA quantity and gender information were known. To overcome this problem, a direct quantification technology is developed to allow qPCR quantification of casework samples without the need for DNA extraction and purification. The key to a direct qPCR assay is the PE-Swab, a novel sample collection device. A small sample punch can be generated from a PE-Swab and placed in a qPCR reaction for quantification. After optimizing the punch size and the quantification software baseline setting, accurate DNA quantification can be obtained from a sample without the need to carry out DNA extraction and purification. Proof of concept studies were done with low lever touch samples as well as blood samples. The PE-Swab also allows direct STR amplification of casework samples without the need for DNA extraction. Besides its potential as a screening tool, the direct qPCR assay can also be used to normalize the DNA input for a direct STR amplification reaction. The feasibility of the direct qPCR/direct STR amplification workflow was demonstrated with touch DNA samples and blood stain samples. PMID:24705062

  18. Computable Fourier Conditions for Alias-Free Sampling and Critical Sampling

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Computable Fourier Conditions for Alias-Free Sampling and Critical Sampling Yue M. Lu (1)(2) , Minh to the problems of alias-free sampling and critical sampling. Central to this approach are two Fourier conditions filter bank, except for the 2-D case. 1 Introduction The search for alias-free sampling lattices

  19. Are accidents scheduled. [safety management problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, C.

    1976-01-01

    Two major sets of safety problems associated with project scheduling are examined. The first set involves problems resulting from the improper scheduling of the safety tasks. The second involves problems which result from inadequate attention to scheduling of those project tasks which lead to tests and operations and includes condensed schedules, modified schedules, schedule workarounds, eliminated portions of the schedules and strung out schedules.

  20. Emerging drug problems in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Bart, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    This session, “Emerging Drug Problems in Asia,” focused on emerging drug problems in Asia. Dr. Juana Tomás-Rosselló discussed “East and Southeast Asia: Emerging Drug Problems and Response” and Dr. Wei J. Chen discussed “Ketamine Use among Regular Tobacco and Alcohol Users as Revealed by Respondent Driven Sampling in Taipei: Prevalence, Expectancy, and Users' Risky Decision Making.” PMID:25267884

  1. Word Problems: Simple Interest

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-08-06

    This site explains to students the concept of simple interest, the four variables involved, and the formula for calculating simple interest. There is an example problem and two practice questions with hints and two more for students to take on individually. Students may check their answers when they are finished.

  2. PROBLEM SOLVING FOR ENGINEERING

    E-print Network

    ? Self ­ Assessment Exercise: Each of the nine items presents two opposing statements: - If you feel of formulas involve learning how to apply basic concepts and principles. 2. When I am learning a new concept in When I am learning a new concept, a problem solving course, I do not I focus on learning

  3. Problem Based Learning Initiative

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Southern Illinois University

    This site, The Problem Based Learning Initiative (PBLI), provides education, consultation and support to teachers and organizations in any discipline, profession, training program or educational level (kindergarten through infinity) either involved in PBL or interested in adopting PBL into their teaching or training programs. The site features links to resources and workshops as well as links to many other PBL sites.

  4. Sampling versus Blocking

    E-print Network

    Yannick Meurice; Yuzhi Liu; Judah Unmuth-Yockey; Li-Ping Yang; Haiyuan Zou

    2014-11-12

    The idea of blocking in configuration space has played an important role in the development of the RG ideas. However, despite being half a century old and having had a huge intellectual impact, generic numerical methods to perform blocking for lattice models have progressed more slowly than sampling methods. Blocking may be essential to deal with near conformal situations. Typically, blocking methods have smaller statistical errors but larger systematic errors than sampling methods. This situation is evolving with recent developments based on the Tensor RG (TRG) method. We report recent results for spin and gauge lattice models obtained with this new method regarding searches for fixed points, calculations of critical exponents and resolutions of sign problems. An interesting model for comparison is the 2-dimensional O(2) model with a chemical potential which has a sign problem with conventional Monte Carlo but allows sampling with the worm algorithm and blocking with various TRG formulations. We compare the efficiency and accuracy of these two methods.

  5. Aluminium Involvement in Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Fulgenzi, Alessandro; Vietti, Daniele; Ferrero, Maria Elena

    2014-01-01

    The aetiology of neurodegenerative diseases (ND) seems to involve susceptibility genes and environmental factors. Toxic metals are considered major environmental pollutants. Following our study of a case of multiple sclerosis (MS) improvement due to removal of aluminium (Al) and other toxic metals, we have examined the possible relationship between Al intoxication and ND. We used the slow intravenous treatment with the chelating agent EDTA (calcium disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid) (chelation test) to remove Al and detected it in the urine collected from the patients for 12 hours. Patients affected by MS represented 85.6% of total ND. Al was present in 44.8% of cases comprehensive of ND and healthy patients. Al levels were significantly higher in ND patients than in healthy subjects. We here show that treatment of patients affected by Al burden with ten EDTA chelation therapies (EDTA intravenous administration once a week) was able to significantly reduce Al intoxication. PMID:25243176

  6. The Contribution of Game Genre and other Use Patterns to Problem Video Game Play among Adult Video Gamers

    PubMed Central

    Ream, Geoffrey; McGinsky, Elizabeth; Dunlap, Eloise

    2012-01-01

    Aims To assess the contribution of patterns of video game play, including game genre, involvement, and time spent gaming, to problem use symptomatology. Design Nationally representative survey. Setting Online. Participants Large sample (n=3,380) of adult video gamers in the US. Measurements Problem video game play (PVGP) scale, video game genre typology, use patterns (gaming days in the past month and hours on days used), enjoyment, consumer involvement, and background variables. Findings Study confirms game genre's contribution to problem use as well as demographic variation in play patterns that underlie problem video game play vulnerability. Conclusions Identification of a small group of game types positively correlated with problem use suggests new directions for research into the specific design elements and reward mechanics of “addictive” video games. Unique vulnerabilities to problem use among certain groups demonstrate the need for ongoing investigation of health disparities related to contextual dimensions of video game play. PMID:23284310

  7. DNA sampling and informed consent.

    PubMed Central

    Knoppers, B M; Laberge, C

    1989-01-01

    Standard consent forms for blood and tissue sampling are inadequate for DNA sampling. However, creating new and separate forms for each type of activity associated with DNA analysis (banking, linkage analysis and genetic diagnosis) tends to dissociate the participant from what is essentially a medical continuum. Furthermore, DNA sampling involves the sharing of samples and data among centres. To ensure patient control throughout this multifaceted process, we have developed an integrated approach to obtaining consent for DNA sampling at each level of participation. Movement from one level to another is reflected in the choices offered to participants. This inclusive approach is based on the underlying principle of informed consent, namely the respect for individuality, confidentiality and freedom of choice. This approach should help practitioners of medical genetics recognize the medical context of DNA sampling. PMID:2565159

  8. Applying Employee Involvement in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohrman, Susan Albers; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The applicability of employee-involvement approaches to the management of schools is explored, describing three approaches (parallel-suggestion involvement, job involvement, and high involvement). Design issues (technology; organizational structure; leadership; organizational boundaries, customer definition, and relation to stakeholder; measures;…

  9. SST Sample Characterization Analysis of Archive Samples 102-C, 105-C, and 106-C

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, F. T.; Kaye, J. H.; Steele, R. T.; Stromatt, R. W.; Thomas, D. L.; Urie, M. W.

    1990-04-01

    A substantial effort is planned to be initiated at the Hanford Site regarding the characterization of 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) containing the byproducts of reprocessing during the 1950s and 1960s. Sampling and analysis, in distinct phases, are planned to involve laboratory investigations to determine both chemical and radionuclide inventories, so that waste disposal decisions can be developed. During 1989, trial analyses were performed on four archived samples from SSTs at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory using established U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) protocols and radiochemical procedures. The analysis of the archived SST waste material provides three important types of data for use in planning Phase I-A and Phase 1-B sample analysis. The types of data served as input to I) fi na 1 i zing the waste samp 1 e analysis procedures and methods and identify where procedure developmen~ may be needed, 2) evaluating the impact of normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) lubricant {used in field sampling) on extracting inorganics or radionuclides from the SST sample, and 3) identifying trends in amounts of occupational radiation exposure expected from performing the various analysis procedures. Overall, the results are qualitative in nature, and the conclusions given are to be used with appropriate respect for the limitations of small amounts of data from four samples used in development processes. The results of the Phase I-A and I-B sample analysis will provide essential data for method performance for use in finalizing Phase I-C planning and methods development scope. Section 2.0, Inorganic Analysis, encompasses sample preparation, sample analysis, identification of methods performance limitations, and possible alternatives. Performance of the inorganic analytical methods was evaluated and changes were made to some of the procedures. In some cases, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (referred to in this report as ICP) did not provide the levels of accuracy and precision usually required for EPA work due to interference by other elements. In these cases, other methods are suggested as appropriate for trial as alternatives. In all cases, duplicates, spikes, and blanks were used to establish performance of the methods for the specific waste matrix. Results focused on problems in using the methods tested on the samples, the suitability of the ICP method of determining EP Toxicity metal ions and 22 EPA pollutant metal ions, and the suitability of cold vapor atomic absorption (CVAA) for mercury determinations. Problems areas identified are ICP spectral corrections, poor reproducibility from water leach and EP Toxicity methods, and adjustments needed for mercury analysis by CVAA. Section 3.0, Organics Analysis, details two screening procedures [total organic carbon (TOC) and gas chromatography (GC)], extraction procedures and related problems, surrogate spiking to test extraction efficiencies and matrix effects, and semivolatile organics via GC/mass spectroscopy (MS). The results show that the GC/MS is vulnerable to fouling and overload and that a combination of dilution and perhaps acidification are required to provide acceptable results. NPH and silicone-based lubricants from the sampling process impact the semivolatile analysis; however, with some modification the semivolatile method based on EPA SOW 288 can be used. Section 4.0, Radionuclide Analysis, evaluates procedures used to measure the radionuclides that might be found in the SST tank waste samples and establishes the level of accuracy and precision that can be expected. These data reveal that additional procedure development is needed in order to measure all of the radionuclides listed in Table 4-14 of the Waste Characterization Plan. In addition, the archive samples analyzed may not be representative of the tank population and considerable adaptation of the radiochemical procedures may be necessary to perform the desired measurements. NPH tests were conducted to determine whether the NPH from the field sampling process extracted significan

  10. Speech Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a person's ability to speak clearly. Some Common Speech Disorders Stuttering is a problem that interferes with ... form speech sounds into words. Continue What Causes Speech Problems? Normal speech might seem effortless, but it's ...

  11. Money Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the ability to handle money matters. Signs of Money Problems Look for signs of money problems such as trouble counting change, paying for ... or worried when he or she talks about money. You may also find: • Unpaid and unopened bills • ...

  12. Classic Problems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Math Forum

    2002-01-01

    Classic problems from the Ask Dr. Math FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) files, including: age word problems, birthday probability, boy or girl?, camel and bananas, coin problems, doubling pennies, grazing animals, liars and truthtellers, the missing dollar, Monty Hall (three doors), three houses three utilities, the Tower of Hanoi, two trains, two trains and a fly, and working together.

  13. Acceptance sampling using judgmental and randomly selected samples

    SciTech Connect

    Sego, Landon H.; Shulman, Stanley A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Wilson, John E.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Sieber, W. Karl

    2010-09-01

    We present a Bayesian model for acceptance sampling where the population consists of two groups, each with different levels of risk of containing unacceptable items. Expert opinion, or judgment, may be required to distinguish between the high and low-risk groups. Hence, high-risk items are likely to be identifed (and sampled) using expert judgment, while the remaining low-risk items are sampled randomly. We focus on the situation where all observed samples must be acceptable. Consequently, the objective of the statistical inference is to quantify the probability that a large percentage of the unsampled items in the population are also acceptable. We demonstrate that traditional (frequentist) acceptance sampling and simpler Bayesian formulations of the problem are essentially special cases of the proposed model. We explore the properties of the model in detail, and discuss the conditions necessary to ensure that required samples sizes are non-decreasing function of the population size. The method is applicable to a variety of acceptance sampling problems, and, in particular, to environmental sampling where the objective is to demonstrate the safety of reoccupying a remediated facility that has been contaminated with a lethal agent.

  14. Mixed Methods Sampling: A Typology with Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teddlie, Charles; Yu, Fen

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of mixed methods (MM) sampling techniques. MM sampling involves combining well-established qualitative and quantitative techniques in creative ways to answer research questions posed by MM research designs. Several issues germane to MM sampling are presented including the differences between probability and…

  15. Demosaicing: Image Reconstruction from Color CCD Samples

    E-print Network

    Salvaggio, Carl

    Demosaicing: Image Reconstruction from Color CCD Samples Ron Kimmel1 Computer Science Department an algorithm for image reconstruction from CCD sensors samples. The proposed method involves two successive-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998 #12;Demosaicing: Image Reconstruction from Color CCD Samples 611 G G GG G G GG R R

  16. [Nail involvement in leprosy].

    PubMed

    Belinchón Romero, I; Ramos Rincón, J M; Reyes Rabell, F

    2012-05-01

    Leprosy, a disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, primarily affects the skin and nerves, but the nails are also involved in as many as 3 out of 4 patients .The factors that trigger nail changes in leprosy are numerous and include repeated trauma, neuropathy, vascular impairment, infections, lepra reactions, and the drugs used to manage the disease. The changes most often reported include subungual hematomas, onycholysis, onychauxis, onychogryphosis, pterygium unguis, and onychoheterotopia, most of which can be attributed to nerve damage and trauma. Furthermore, the acro-osteolysis that occurs in the advanced stages of the disease may present with brachyonychia, racquet nails, or even anonychia. Infections of the nail bed leading to paronychia and onychomycosis should also be taken into account in leprosy. Other typical changes include longitudinal striae, pitting, macrolunula, Terry nails, leukonychia, hapalonychia, and Beau lines. In this review, we describe the principal nail changes associated with leprosy. These changes, which are highly varied and diverse in origin, are in fact a reflection of the significant morbidity caused by M. leprae infection. PMID:22056258

  17. The Problem of Managing a Strategic Reserve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, David; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The problem of managing the reserve of cobalt is presented, followed by a method for bringing the stockpiled amount from any level to a desired goal. Solving a stochastic programming problem is involved. The procedure is discussed in detail. (MNS)

  18. Word Problems: A "Meme" for Our Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leamnson, Robert N.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses a novel approach to word problems that involves linear relationships between variables. Argues that working stepwise through intermediates is the way our minds actually work and therefore this should be used in solving word problems. (JRH)

  19. Equivalent differentiable optimization problems and descent methods for asymmetric variational inequality problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masao Fukushima

    1992-01-01

    Whether or not the general asymmetric variational inequality problem can be formulated as a differentiable optimization problem has been an open question. This paper gives an affirmative answer to this question. We provide a new optimization problem formulation of the variational inequality problem, and show that its objective function is continuously differentiable whenever the mapping involved in the latter problem

  20. Individualized Math Problems in Measurement and Conversion. Oregon Vo-Tech Mathematics Problem Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosler, Norma, Ed.

    This is one of eighteen sets of individualized mathematics problems developed by the Oregon Vo-Tech Math Project. Each of these problem packages is organized around a mathematical topic and contains problems related to diverse vocations. Solutions are provided for all problems. This volume includes problems involving measurement, computation of…

  1. Individualized Math Problems in Fractions. Oregon Vo-Tech Mathematics Problem Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosler, Norma, Ed.

    This is one of eighteen sets of individualized mathematics problems developed by the Oregon Vo-Tech Math Project. Each of these problem packages is organized around a mathematical topic and contains problems related to diverse vocations. Solutions are provided for all problems. This package contains problems involving computation with common…

  2. Individualized Math Problems in Ratio and Proportion. Oregon Vo-Tech Mathematics Problem Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosler, Norma, Ed.

    This is one of eighteen sets of individualized mathematics problems developed by the Oregon Vo-Tech Math Project. Each of these problem packages is organized around a mathematical topic and contains problems related to diverse vocations. Solutions are provided for all problems. This volume contains problems involving ratio and proportion. Some…

  3. Individualized Math Problems in Whole Numbers. Oregon Vo-Tech Mathematics Problem Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosler, Norma, Ed.

    This is one of eighteen sets of individualized mathematics problems developed by the Oregon Vo-Tech Math Project. Each of these problem packages is organized around a mathematical topic and contains problems related to diverse vocations. Solutions are provided for all problems. Problems in this set require computations involving whole numbers.…

  4. Sampling, Resampling and Colour Constancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Forsyth

    1999-01-01

    We formulate colour constancy as a problem ofBayesian inference, where one is trying to representthe posterior on possible interpretations given imagedata. We represent the posterior as a set of samples,drawn from that distribution using a Markov chainMonte Carlo method. We show how to build an efficientsampler.This approach has the advantage that it unifies theconstraints on the problem, and represents possibleambiguities.

  5. Sampling hard to reach populations.

    PubMed

    Faugier, J; Sargeant, M

    1997-10-01

    Studies on 'hidden populations', such as homeless people, prostitutes and drug addicts, raise a number of specific methodological questions usually absent from research involving known populations and less sensitive subjects. This paper examines the advantages and limitations of nonrandom methods of data collection such as snowball sampling. It reviews the currently available literature on sampling hard to reach populations and highlights the dearth of material currently available on this subject. The paper also assesses the potential for using these methods in nursing research. The sampling methodology used by Faugier (1996) in her study of prostitutes, HIV and drugs is used as a current example within this context. PMID:9354993

  6. Sampling design for spatially distributed hydrogeologic and environmental processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christakos, G.; Olea, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    A methodology for the design of sampling networks over space is proposed. The methodology is based on spatial random field representations of nonhomogeneous natural processes, and on optimal spatial estimation techniques. One of the most important results of random field theory for physical sciences is its rationalization of correlations in spatial variability of natural processes. This correlation is extremely important both for interpreting spatially distributed observations and for predictive performance. The extent of site sampling and the types of data to be collected will depend on the relationship of subsurface variability to predictive uncertainty. While hypothesis formulation and initial identification of spatial variability characteristics are based on scientific understanding (such as knowledge of the physics of the underlying phenomena, geological interpretations, intuition and experience), the support offered by field data is statistically modelled. This model is not limited by the geometric nature of sampling and covers a wide range in subsurface uncertainties. A factorization scheme of the sampling error variance is derived, which possesses certain atttactive properties allowing significant savings in computations. By means of this scheme, a practical sampling design procedure providing suitable indices of the sampling error variance is established. These indices can be used by way of multiobjective decision criteria to obtain the best sampling strategy. Neither the actual implementation of the in-situ sampling nor the solution of the large spatial estimation systems of equations are necessary. The required values of the accuracy parameters involved in the network design are derived using reference charts (readily available for various combinations of data configurations and spatial variability parameters) and certain simple yet accurate analytical formulas. Insight is gained by applying the proposed sampling procedure to realistic examples related to sampling problems in two dimensions. ?? 1992.

  7. Functional Assessment of Problem Behavior in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Summary of 32 Outpatient Cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessa R. Love; James E. Carr; Linda A. LeBlanc

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine archival data from an outpatient clinic serving children with autism spectrum disorders\\u000a to investigate the occurrence of problem behavior functions in this sample. Results indicated that social reinforcement (e.g.,\\u000a attention from others) was involved in maintaining problem behavior for the majority of cases, suggesting that these children\\u000a lacked socially appropriate responses to

  8. Sample Sizes for Usability Studies: Additional Considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James R. Lewis

    ABSTRACT Recently, Virzi (1992) presented data that support three claims regarding sample sizes for usability studies. The claims were (1) observing four or five participants will allow a usability practitioner to discover 80% of a product's usability problems, (2) observing additional participants will reveal fewer and fewer new usability problems, and (3) more severe usability problems are easier to detect

  9. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of a dry containment test problem for the MAEROS aerosol model

    SciTech Connect

    Helton, J.C.; Iman, R.L.; Johnson, J.D.; Leigh, C.D. (Sandia National Labs., Safety and Reliability Analysis Studies Div., Albuquerque, NM (US))

    1989-05-01

    A computational test problem for the MAEROS aerosol model is used to illustrate the application of uncertainty/sensitivity analysis techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling and regression analysis to aggregation problems. The test problem involves a five-component aerosol in the containment of a pressurized water reactor. The following topics are investigated: Cray 1-S CPU time requirements to implement and solve the system of differential equations on which MAEROS is based; effects on computational time and representational accuracy due to the use of different overall section boundaries and numbers of sections and components; and behavior of the aerosol and the variables that influence this behavior.

  10. Father Involvement 1 Running head: PATTERNS OF FATHER INVOLVEMENT

    E-print Network

    Shyy, Wei

    in Teenage-Mother Families: Predictors and Links to Mothers' Psychological Adjustment Ariel Kalil, Family Relations #12;Father Involvement 2 Patterns of Father Involvement in Teenage-Mother Families of involvement of young, unmarried biological fathers (n = 77) in teenage-mother families using cluster analytic

  11. Respiratory problems in advanced cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carla Ripamonti; Flavio Fusco

    2002-01-01

    Respiratory problems are an important issue in the palliative care setting, not only from a diagnostic and therapeutic point of view but also from emotion-related aspects involving both the patients and their families and also caregivers. In this paper we consider some of the most common respiratory problems, such as dyspnea, infections, hemoptysis, hiccup. A review of the literature was

  12. Problem Solving, Scaffolding and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shih-Yin

    2012-01-01

    Helping students to construct robust understanding of physics concepts and develop good solving skills is a central goal in many physics classrooms. This thesis examine students' problem solving abilities from different perspectives and explores strategies to scaffold students' learning. In studies involving analogical problem solving…

  13. E#ciently Determine the Starting Sample Size for Progressive Sampling

    E-print Network

    Liu, Bing

    E#ciently Determine the Starting Sample Size for Progressive Sampling Baohua Gu # Bing Liu, how to set the starting sample size for PS is still an open problem. We show that an improper starting sample size can still make PS expensive in computation due to running the learning algorithm on a large

  14. Seal Sample Fixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Edwin; Hadaway, James B.

    1997-01-01

    The development of the International Space Station is critically dependent upon development and testing of materials that will require exposure to the space environment. The seals between the modules are one of the more important examples. The choice of seals depends upon the seal materials' susceptibility to atomic oxygen, UV radiation, and the combined external space environment. Also, the choice of thermal control materials depends on their susceptibility to the space environment. The Space Environmental Branch at MSFC developed a flight experiment to provide information on the effects of the space environment on seal and thermal control materials. The experiment, called the Passive Optical Sample Array (POSA), involved exposing several different material samples to the atomic oxygen, UV radiation, and combined effects of the space environment. The POSA experiment is currently flying on the Russian Mir space station. It was necessary during the assembly of POSA to develop an understanding of available fabrication and metrology techniques in order to develop several monitoring systems for the experiment. The report briefly describes the tasks and the work performed in preparing the samples for the POSA experiment.

  15. Parental Involvement and Students' Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xitao Fan; Michael Chen

    2001-01-01

    The idea that parental involvement has positive influence on students' academic achievement is so intuitively appealing that society in general, and educators in particular, have considered parental involvement an important ingredient for the remedy for many problems in education. The vast proportion of the literature in this area, however, is qualitative and nonempirical. Among the empirical studies that have investigated

  16. Covariance Matrix Estimation for the Cryo-EM Heterogeneity Problem*

    PubMed Central

    Katsevich, E.; Katsevich, A.; Singer, A.

    2015-01-01

    In cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), a microscope generates a top view of a sample of randomly oriented copies of a molecule. The problem of single particle reconstruction (SPR) from cryo-EM is to use the resulting set of noisy two-dimensional projection images taken at unknown directions to reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the molecule. In some situations, the molecule under examination exhibits structural variability, which poses a fundamental challenge in SPR. The heterogeneity problem is the task of mapping the space of conformational states of a molecule. It has been previously suggested that the leading eigenvectors of the covariance matrix of the 3D molecules can be used to solve the heterogeneity problem. Estimating the covariance matrix is challenging, since only projections of the molecules are observed, but not the molecules themselves. In this paper, we formulate a general problem of covariance estimation from noisy projections of samples. This problem has intimate connections with matrix completion problems and high-dimensional principal component analysis. We propose an estimator and prove its consistency. When there are finitely many heterogeneity classes, the spectrum of the estimated covariance matrix reveals the number of classes. The estimator can be found as the solution to a certain linear system. In the cryo-EM case, the linear operator to be inverted, which we term the projection covariance transform, is an important object in covariance estimation for tomographic problems involving structural variation. Inverting it involves applying a filter akin to the ramp filter in tomography. We design a basis in which this linear operator is sparse and thus can be tractably inverted despite its large size. We demonstrate via numerical experiments on synthetic datasets the robustness of our algorithm to high levels of noise. PMID:25699132

  17. Ground Water Sampling at ISCO Sites - Residual Oxidant Impact on Sample Quality and Sample Preservation Guideline

    EPA Science Inventory

    In-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) involves the delivery of a chemical oxidant into the subsurface where oxidative reactions transform ground water contaminants into less toxic or harmless byproducts. Due to oxidant persistence, ground water samples collected at hazardous waste si...

  18. Uniform sample generation in semialgebraic sets

    E-print Network

    Henrion, Didier

    /rejection based sample generation algorithms with guaranteed performance in terms of rejection rate (the number of the polynomial approximation of the indicator function increases. The problem of random sample generation has techniques for generating random samples inside the Schur stability region are discussed, while [?] presents

  19. Testing for Upper Outliers in Gamma Sample

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nirpeksh Kumar; S. Lalitha

    2012-01-01

    The problem of multiple upper outlier detection in gamma sample is considered. Balasooriya and Gadag (1994) proposed a location and scale invariant test based on the test statistic Zk for testing the k upper outliers in two-parameter exponential sample. In this article, the test statistic is extended for gamma sample and the null distribution of the statistic is obtained. A

  20. STUDENT INVOLVEMENT DEPARTMENTAL REVIEW RECOMMENDATIONS

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    #1a. Strategic Plan: Develop 5 year strategic plan for Student Involvement Director of Student Involvement May-12 #1b. Strategic Plan: Develop 5 year strategic plan for Nebraska Unions Director of Nebraska Unions May-12 #2 Master Plan

  1. Getting Schools Involved with Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroth, Roger L.; Scholl, Geraldine T.

    To provide practical assistance in involving parents of exceptional students in their child's education, examples of successful school programs of parental involvement are presented, along with vignettes illustrating various aspects of parental involvement. In the section on the merits of parent participation are discussed political activities,…

  2. Equal and Inclusive User Involvement

    E-print Network

    Equal and Inclusive User Involvement in the Mental Health Services in Ireland: Results from............................................................................................................... 59 #12;Equal and Inclusive User Involvement in the Mental Health Services in Ireland Page 62 Executive Summary User involvement is not always a means of empowerment. It is also a process which can

  3. Cardiovascular involvement in relapsing polychondritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Attilio Del Rosso; Nunzia Rosa Petix; Mauro Pratesi; Alessandro Bini

    1997-01-01

    Relapsing polychondritis is an inflammatory disease that characteristically involves cartilagenous tissues. Cardiovascular involvement is a fairly common complication and the second most frequent cause of mortality in this disease. The case of a man with a progressive cardiac involvement, aortic incompetence, mitral regurgitation, and finally complete atrioventricular block offered the opportunity of reviewing the cardiovascular complications in relapsing polychondritis. The

  4. Parent Involvement in Transition Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNair, Jeff; Rusch, Frank R.

    This survey of 85 parents of children with handicaps (ages 14-25) assesses the involvement of parents in the transition process of the young person from home to work or independent living, the kind of involvement they desire, and responsibilities they would be willing to assume in order to be involved. Findings show that although more than…

  5. Gift and sacrifice: parental involvement in Latino adolescents' education.

    PubMed

    Ceballo, Rosario; Maurizi, Laura K; Suarez, Gloria A; Aretakis, Maria T

    2014-01-01

    Although myriad studies document the benefits of parental involvement in education on various indicators of children's academic performance, less research examines parental involvement among adolescents in low-income Latino families. Incorporating a multidimensional conceptualization of parental involvement, this study examined the relation between parental involvement and academic outcomes in a sample of 223 low-income, Latino adolescents. Results indicated that three types of parental involvement (gift/sacrifice, future discussions/academic socialization, and school involvement) had significant, positive associations with academic outcomes. Moreover, our results suggest that parents' stories about struggles with poverty and immigration are an important component of parental involvement, contributing to adolescents' desire to succeed academically and "give back" to parents. Additionally, our findings indicated that the positive relations between parental involvement and academic outcomes were stronger for immigrant youth and for those with higher endorsements of the Latino cultural value of respeto (respect). PMID:23834259

  6. An inexact labeling problem

    E-print Network

    Murray, Margaret Shuey

    1984-01-01

    with a relaxation oper'ator for use in this problem. In particular, the problem involves the recognition of an image as a certain class of tank. Range and doppler images, with and without noise, are generated. The images are median filtered... of predetermined probabilities 12. Error regions 13 . Range image where tank is rotated 20 about the z 45 46 axis and -10'about the x axis. 14. Doppler image where tank is rotated 20'about the z axis and -10'about the x axis 49 15. Range image with noise 50...

  7. Adjustment, Performance, and Involvement of College Students with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroeger, Sue; Scalia, Vincent

    1988-01-01

    Examined group of disabled college students (N=50) to determine whether psychosocial problems exist with these students and, if so, whether these problems can predict academic performance/involvement. Results indicated subjects were less disturbed than normative group, did not differ in body attitudes, and were more distorted on beliefs leading to…

  8. Improved sample size determination for attributes and variables sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Stirpe, D.; Picard, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    Earlier INMM papers have addressed the attributes/variables problem and, under conservative/limiting approximations, have reported analytical solutions for the attributes and variables sample sizes. Through computer simulation of this problem, we have calculated attributes and variables sample sizes as a function of falsification, measurement uncertainties, and required detection probability without using approximations. Using realistic assumptions for uncertainty parameters of measurement, the simulation results support the conclusions: (1) previously used conservative approximations can be expensive because they lead to larger sample sizes than needed; and (2) the optimal verification strategy, as well as the falsification strategy, are highly dependent on the underlying uncertainty parameters of the measurement instruments. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  9. SAMPLE INTERVIEW QUESTIONS General Questions

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    SAMPLE INTERVIEW QUESTIONS General Questions Tell me a little about yourself / describe yourself to Binghamton? Behavioral Questions Do you anticipate problems or do you react to them? How do you go about? What are some important values that you live by? Creative Questions What does success mean to you

  10. Analytical Approaches for Sampling and Sample Preparation for Heavy Metals Analysis in Biological Materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabeta Chirila; Camelia Draghici

    \\u000a Heavy metals concentrations in biological materials are necessary to be known when investigations in environmental or health\\u000a risk assessment are done. The paper aims to review the modern aspects of the first step of the analytical process, sampling\\u000a and sample preparation which involve some of the following operations: sample collection (sampling), washing, storage, preservation,\\u000a followed by sample transformation to the

  11. Kidney Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... working well, you may eventually develop problems requiring medical attention. These problems from kidney disease may include: Fluid and electrolyte imbalance – e.g., too much or too little sodium, potassium, or water in your body Build up of waste products in your body Loss of protein through ...

  12. Cluster Problems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    TeacherLine

    2012-01-01

    In this 4-minute video, educators can watch a teacher deliver a fourth grade lesson on using number sense, arrays, and simpler calculations to solve a more complex problem, called a cluster problem. Watch this teacher check for understanding of multiplicative distribution and the use of arrays.

  13. Word Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetrow, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on how to help students translate word problems so that they understand how to solve them, and so they are successful with word problems. I have created three research questions to focus on during this research project. First, how will direct instruction of word meaning help clarify the operation needed, affect the achievement…

  14. Sexual Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... at times, which is normal in long-term relationships. Reduced interest in sex can have a number of causes, including: A health problem Certain medications Reduced levels of male hormones Emotional or relationship problems As men age, it is natural to ...

  15. Parking Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Colin

    2012-01-01

    This is the story of a real problem, not a problem that is contrived, or invented for the convenience of the appropriate planning tool. This activity by a group of students, defined simply as "8FN", might be likened to an "end of term concert". If you just happened to be a delegate at the ATM Conference 2003 you might remember the analogy. Social…

  16. Community Providers’ Views of Alcohol Problems and Drug Problems

    PubMed Central

    Gassman, Ruth A.; Weisner, Constance

    2013-01-01

    This study contrasts community health and social service providers’ views on alcohol vs. other drug abuse. A probability sample of 457 social work and other providers from a county’s public and private medical and mental health clinics, welfare and criminal justice systems, and substance abuse programs, as well as clergy, private therapists, and physicians were interviewed. For both alcohol and drug problems, providers thought only of severe dysfunctions, which suggest that less severe forms of these problems may evade detection. In addition, drug problems were viewed as more harmful than alcohol problems, which may result in providers minimizing alcohol problems. PMID:23565054

  17. Adolescent Fathers' Parenting Stress, Social Support, and Involvement with Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jay; Bernd, Elisa; Whiteman, Valerie

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between concurrent measures of adolescent fathers' parenting stress, social support, and fathers' care-giving involvement with the 3-month-old infant, controlling for fathers' prenatal involvement. The study sample consisted of 50 teenage father-mother dyads. Findings from multivariate regression…

  18. Solutions to Math 141 Sample Final Exam Problems The final exam will cover Chapters 2, 3, 4, and 5, except sections 2.4, 4.6, and 4.8. This collection of

    E-print Network

    Choboter, Paul

    , except sections 2.4, 4.6, and 4.8. This collection of sample questions is longer than the final, which. Therefore V = 15h2 . Taking d/dt of V equation gives dV/dt = 30h·dh/dt. With dV/dt = 12 and h = 02/4, and A = 4 9 - 9x2/4 + 4x · (1/2)(9 - 9x2 /4)-1/2 · (-9x/2) = 4(9 - 9x2 /4) - 9x2 9 - 9x2/4 = 18

  19. Optical detection system for probing cantilever deflections parallel to a sample surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labuda, A.; Brastaviceanu, T.; Pavlov, I.; Paul, W.; Rassier, D. E.

    2011-01-01

    To date, commercial atomic force microscopes have been optimized for measurements of forces perpendicular to the sample surface. In many applications, sensitive parallel force measurements are desirable. These can be obtained by positioning the cantilever with its long axis perpendicular to the sample: the so-called pendulum geometry. We present a compact optical beam deflection system which solves the geometrical constraint problems involved in focusing a light beam onto a cantilever in the pendulum geometry. We demonstrate the performance of the system on measurements of forces imparted by a muscle myofibril, which is in-plane to a high-magnification objective of an optical microscope.

  20. A Test of Biosocial Models of Adolescent Cigarette and Alcohol Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.; Bauman, Karl E.; Granger, Douglas A.; Benefield, Thad; Suchindran, Chirayath; Hussong, Andrea M.; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; DuRant, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    We tested biosocial models that posit interactions between biological variables (testosterone, estradiol, pubertal status, and pubertal timing) and social context variables (family, peer, school, and neighborhood) in predicting adolescent involvement with cigarettes and alcohol in a sample of 409 adolescents in grades 6 and 8. Models including the biological and contextual variables and their interactions explained significantly more variance in adolescent cigarette and alcohol involvement than did models including only the main effects of the biological and contextual variables. Post-hoc analyses of significant interactions suggested that, in most case, moderation occurred in the hypothesized direction. Consistent with dual hazards models of adolescent antisocial behaviors, the relationships between the biological and substance use variables became positive and stronger as the context became more harmful. Considerations of adolescent substance use, and perhaps other problem behaviors, should recognize the possible role of biological variables and how their influence may vary by social context. PMID:24415825

  1. Developments in Sampling and Analysis Instrumentation for Stationary Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nader, John S.

    1973-01-01

    Instrumentation for the measurement of pollutant emissions is considered including sample-site selection, sample transport, sample treatment, sample analysis, and data reduction, display, and interpretation. Measurement approaches discussed involve sample extraction from within the stack and electro-optical methods. (BL)

  2. A Signal Processing View on Packet Sampling and Anomaly Detection

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    of packet sampling, before using sampled data for networking applications. The effect of sampling that are involved in data preprocessing and anomaly detection. As mentioned before, packet sampling is applied1 A Signal Processing View on Packet Sampling and Anomaly Detection Daniela Brauckhoff, Kave

  3. Sampling design for face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yanjun; Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2006-04-01

    A face recognition system consists of two integrated parts: One is the face recognition algorithm, the other is the selected classifier and derived features by the algorithm from a data set. The face recognition algorithm definitely plays a central role, but this paper does not aim at evaluating the algorithm, but deriving the best features for this algorithm from a specific database through sampling design of the training set, which directs how the sample should be collected and dictates the sample space. Sampling design can help exert the full potential of the face recognition algorithm without overhaul. Conventional statistical analysis usually assume some distribution to draw the inference, but the design-based inference does not assume any distribution of the data and it does not assume the independency between the sample observations. The simulations illustrates that the systematic sampling scheme performs better than the simple random sampling scheme, and the systematic sampling is comparable to using all available training images in recognition performance. Meanwhile the sampling schemes can save the system resources and alleviate the overfitting problem. However, the post stratification by sex is not shown to be significant in improving the recognition performance.

  4. Eyelid Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... wine stain, because of its resemblance to a dark red wine. If this birthmark involves the eye, ... examined by an ophthalmologist shortly after birth. Small dark moles, called nevi, on the eyelids or on ...

  5. Neuropsychology and cluster analysis: Potentials and problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robin Morris; Roger Blashfield; Paul Satz

    1981-01-01

    This report presents a selective overview of the cluster analysis literature and its potential uses in neuropsychology. In addition, an actual problem involving data from the Florida Longitudinal Project is presented to provide a practical example of many of the processes and problems involved in cluster analytic techniques. It is hoped that the reader will gain a theoretical and practical

  6. Efficient Sampling Startup for Sampled Processor Simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Van Biesbrouck; Lieven Eeckhout; Brad Calder

    2005-01-01

    Modern architecture research relies heavily on detailed pipeline simulation. Simulating the full execution of an industry standard benchmark can take weeks to months. Statistical sampling and sample techniques like SimPoint that pick small sets of execution samples have been shown to provide accurate results while significantly reducing simulation time. The inefficiencies in sampling are (a) needing the correct memory image

  7. Problem Solving in the General Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troutman, Andria Price; Lichtenberg, Betty Plunkett

    1974-01-01

    Five steps common to different problem solving models are listed. Next, seven specific abilities related to solving problems are discussed and examples given. Sample activities, appropriate to help in developing these specific abilities, are suggested. (LS)

  8. Man and His Technology: Problems and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piel, E. J.; Truxal, John G.

    This book looks at a sampling of notable socio-technical problems within a rational context. It seeks to determine if problems exist with recent decisions in the application of technology; how threatening any problems may be; the source of problems; and examines alternatives available to the nation. The broad goal of this rational consideration is…

  9. A Personal Problem Solving Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heppner, P. Paul; Petersen, Chris H.

    Few studies have explicitly attended to the personal problem-solving process within the counseling literature, perhaps due in part to the dearth of relevant assessment instruments. To examine the dimensions underlying the applied problem-solving process, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted using data collected from four samples of college…

  10. Environmental Sampling Technician Training Program

    SciTech Connect

    Moreland, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is currently involved in extensive environmental monitoring activities to characterize various active/inactive waste sites that exist at the facility. There are also considerable reporting requirements that ORNL must meet on a continuing basis in order to remain in compliance with existing permit requirements under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Clean Air Act (CAA), and the Clean Water Act (CWA). Much of the environmental monitoring data that is used to characterize waste sites or is required in reports is obtained by environmental sampling technicians who must take samples at various locations throughout ORNL as well as other DOE installations. Because of the quality control and assurance measures included under NQA-1, ORNL has developed an Environmental Sampling Technician Training Program. This presentation will describe how the Environmental Sampling Technician Training Program was developed and will review the specific materials used in conducting the training. 8 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. Parental involvement and African American and European American adolescents' academic, behavioral, and emotional development in secondary school.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Te; Hill, Nancy E; Hofkens, Tara

    2014-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal trajectories of parental involvement across middle and high school, and how these trajectories related to adolescents' academic, behavioral, and emotional adjustment. In addition, ethnic and socioeconomic status differences in longitudinal associations and the potential moderating role of parental warmth were assessed. Longitudinal growth modeling technique was used to describe trajectories of different types of parental involvement and adolescent outcomes over 7th, 9th, and 11th grades (mean ages = 12.9, 14.3, and 17.2 years, respectively) on an ethnically and economically diverse sample of 1,400 adolescents (51% female, 56% African American, 39% European American, 5% others). Each aspect of parental involvement contributed differentially but significantly to adolescent outcomes. Finally, parental warmth moderated the associations between providing structure at home and adolescent grade point average and problem behavior. PMID:25156187

  12. Monoarticular hip involvement in pseudogout.

    PubMed

    Kocyigit, Figen; Kuyucu, Ersin; Kocyigit, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Pseudogout is the acutest form of arthritis in the elderly. Although clinical manifestations vary widely, polyarticular involvement is typical mimicking osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. Monoarticular involvement is relatively rare and is generally provoked by another medical condition. There are reported cases of hip involvement by pseudogout in monoarticular form. However, all of the cases were presented as septic arthritis. In this report, we present a case of monoarticular hip involvement mimicking soft tissue abscess. We confirmed the pseudogout diagnosis after ultrasonographic evaluation of the involved hip joint and pathological and biochemical analysis of synovial fluid analysis. Diagnosis is important to avoid unnecessary medical and surgical treatment in cases of the bizarre involvement of hip in pseudogout. PMID:25838961

  13. Thyroid Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... treated differently. Common thyroid disorders and problems include: Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism is a disorder in which your thyroid doesn’ ... normal after you get better. If you have hypothyroidism, however, the levels of T4 in your blood ...

  14. Parental involvement: Definition and outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stelios N. Georgiou

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to seek a definition of the concept of parental involvement and to examine the relationship\\u000a that may exist between school achievement and specific parental involvement activities. Data were collected from 852 parents\\u000a of sixth-grade students of both genders. It was found that the involvement of parents in their children's educational process\\u000a is a complex

  15. Problem Behaviors among Israeli Undergraduate Students: Applying Jessor’s Problem Behavior Theory among Young Adult Students

    PubMed Central

    Korn, Liat; Shaked, Yael; Fogel-Grinvald, Haya

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The current study tested the applicability of Jessor’s problem behavior theory (PBT) in Ariel University. Methods: A structured, self-reported, anonymous questionnaire was administered to undergraduate students. The final study sample included 1,360 participants (882 females and 478 males, mean age 25, SD?=?2.9, range?=?17). Results: Findings indicated that the PBT was replicated in this sample. As shown from the hierarchal linear regression model, religiosity and high-academic achievements were found to be strong and significant protective factors that reduce risk behaviors. Among young and religious students, the personal vulnerability has almost no impact on involvement in risk behaviors. Conclusion: The PBT finds empirical support in this young adult undergraduate Israeli sample. PMID:25566519

  16. US Cultural Involvement and Its Association With Suicidal Behavior Among Youths in the Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Zayas, Luis H.; Cabrera-Nguyen, Peter; Vega, William A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined how US cultural involvement related to suicide attempts among youths in the Dominican Republic. Methods. We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of youths attending high school in the Dominican Republic (n?=?8446). The outcome of interest was a suicide attempt during the past year. The US cultural involvement indicators included time spent living in the United States, number of friends who had lived in the United States, English proficiency, and use of US electronic media and language. Results. Time lived in the United States, US electronic media and language, and number of friends who had lived in the United States had robust positive relationships with suicide attempts among youths residing in the Dominican Republic. Conclusions. Our results are consistent with previous research that found increased risk for suicide or suicide attempts among Latino youths with greater US cultural involvement. Our study adds to this research by finding similar results in a nonimmigrant Latin American sample. Our results also indicate that suicide attempts are a major public health problem among youths in the Dominican Republic. PMID:22397348

  17. Entanglement sampling and applications

    E-print Network

    Frédéric Dupuis; Omar Fawzi; Stephanie Wehner

    2015-06-15

    A natural measure for the amount of quantum information that a physical system E holds about another system A = A_1,...,A_n is given by the min-entropy Hmin(A|E). Specifically, the min-entropy measures the amount of entanglement between E and A, and is the relevant measure when analyzing a wide variety of problems ranging from randomness extraction in quantum cryptography, decoupling used in channel coding, to physical processes such as thermalization or the thermodynamic work cost (or gain) of erasing a quantum system. As such, it is a central question to determine the behaviour of the min-entropy after some process M is applied to the system A. Here we introduce a new generic tool relating the resulting min-entropy to the original one, and apply it to several settings of interest, including sampling of subsystems and measuring in a randomly chosen basis. The sampling results lead to new upper bounds on quantum random access codes, and imply the existence of "local decouplers". The results on random measurements yield new high-order entropic uncertainty relations with which we prove the optimality of cryptographic schemes in the bounded quantum storage model.

  18. Reduction of severe behavior problems in the community using a multicomponent treatment approach.

    PubMed Central

    Carr, E G; Carlson, J I

    1993-01-01

    Problem behavior often prevents community integration of people with developmental disabilities. Therefore, we evaluated a multicomponent approach for remediating problem behavior in public community settings (specifically, supermarkets). We selected treatments based on hypotheses about the variables controlling the problem behavior (hypothesis-driven model). The multicomponent intervention included choice making, embedding, functional communication training, building tolerance for delay of reinforcement, and presenting discriminative stimuli for nonproblem behavior. Treatment progress was monitored using measures of latency and task completion rather than traditional measures of frequency and time sampling. Results showed substantial increases in task completion and duration of time spent in supermarkets without problem behavior. Outcomes were socially validated by group-home staff and cashiers. We discuss how the intervention approach taken can resolve some of the issues involved in assessing, measuring, and treating problem behavior in the community. PMID:8331013

  19. Involving Families in School Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrera, John M.; Warner, Laverne

    2006-01-01

    The relationship of schools to diverse communities demands attention by administrators, teachers, staff members, and volunteers. How well the three constructs mesh depends on the abilities and sensitivities of all constituencies involved. Three components are essential to successful programs that involve families in an educational setting:…

  20. Citizen Involvement in Public Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenner, Lawrence A.

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the amount and quality of citizen involvement in public television. From the perspective of the "average citizen," the concept of involvement is considered with regard to the Carnegie Commission, the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) borad of directors, the National Citizens Committee for Public…

  1. Parent involvement: Barriers and opportunities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Golam Mannan; Jacqueline Blackwell

    1992-01-01

    This article explores the issues of parental involvement in the context of current movements to reform education. It asserts that parent involvement as a voluntary effort may not be effective. It further asserts that in their efforts to reform education businesses and industries are focusing too much attention on school related variables and insufficient importance on work-related variables that might

  2. Principal leadership of parent involvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Griffith

    2001-01-01

    Strategies to increase parent involvement and its beneficial effects, in particular, among parents whose children traditionally have low academic achievement, abound in the educational literature. Yet, conspicuously absent is an empirical examination of the relation of principal behaviors on parent involvement. The present study analyzed survey data from principals regarding their behaviors and the relation of their behavior to survey

  3. Parental Involvement and Educational Achievement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geert Driessen; Frederik Smit; Peter Sleegers

    2005-01-01

    Parental involvement is seen as an important strategy for the advancement of the quality of education. The ultimate objective of this is to expand the social and cognitive capacities of pupils. In addition, special attention is paid to the children of low?educated and ethnic minority parents. Various forms of both parental and school?initiated involvement are examined. On the one hand,

  4. Involving Parents in Head Start.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leik, Robert K.; Chalkley, Mary Anne

    1989-01-01

    The Head Start Family Impact Project involved a one-year study of 81 single mothers and their children from the Hennepin County Head Start Program. This program was planned to test the notion that parent-child interaction in the context of Head Start would be the most beneficial form of parental involvement. An assessment session, which measured…

  5. Conformal mappings involving curvilinear quadrangles

    E-print Network

    Craster, Richard

    1 Conformal mappings involving curvilinear quadrangles By R.V. Craster Department of Theoretical Mechanics, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, U.K. Conformally mapping a curvilinear quadrangle and there are usually no obvious solutions. In this paper conformal mappings involving a special class of curvilinear

  6. THE VALUE OF VOLUNTEER INVOLVEMENT

    E-print Network

    Abolmaesumi, Purang

    of engagement · It creates opportunities for non-profit organizations to accomplish their goals by engaging community GUIdING PRINcIPLEs FOR VOLUNTEER INVOLVEMENT Volunteers have rights. Non-profit organizations, communities, organizations, and individuals. Volunteer involvement is fundamental to a healthy and democratic

  7. Parental Involvement: Who Wants It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crozier, Gill

    1999-01-01

    Considers who wants parental involvement in schools by exploring the viewpoints of teachers, parents, and students within the secondary school context. Discusses English and Welsh policy on Home-School Agreements. Demonstrates that parental involvement is complex and diverse, but the Home-School Agreement policy is based on a narrow concept of…

  8. Metrics for sampling-based motion planning 

    E-print Network

    Morales Aguirre, Marco Antonio

    2009-05-15

    A motion planner finds a sequence of potential motions for a robot to transit from an initial to a goal state. To deal with the intractability of this problem, a class of methods known as sampling-based planners build ...

  9. AO13 Aerosol sampling April 29, 2008

    E-print Network

    Oxford, University of

    direct sampling of aerosol particles at altitude, and published studies have involved aircraft mounted concentrations to be inferred. 1 Introduction Aerosol research is a very active field, with particular bearing], and Pusechel at al [3], employed NASA ER-2 and DC-8 research aircraft mounted sampling devices. These aircraft

  10. Decisions from Experience: Why Small Samples?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertwig, Ralph; Pleskac, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    In many decisions we cannot consult explicit statistics telling us about the risks involved in our actions. In lieu of such data, we can arrive at an understanding of our dicey options by sampling from them. The size of the samples that we take determines, ceteris paribus, how good our choices will be. Studies of decisions from experience have…

  11. Lattice point sets for deterministic learning and approximate optimization problems.

    PubMed

    Cervellera, Cristiano

    2010-04-01

    In this brief, the use of lattice point sets (LPSs) is investigated in the context of general learning problems (including function estimation and dynamic optimization), in the case where the classic empirical risk minimization (ERM) principle is considered and there is freedom to choose the sampling points of the input space. Here it is proved that convergence of the ERM principle is guaranteed when LPSs are employed as training sets for the learning procedure, yielding up to a superlinear convergence rate under some regularity hypotheses on the involved functions. Preliminary simulation results are also provided. PMID:20172819

  12. The Birthday Problem

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson, created by faculty members at the University of Virginia, is based on Lawrence Lesser's article that describes the set-up of the spreadsheet simulation and Cindia Stewart's lesson that seeks to answer the Birthday Problem using three different methods. Probability topics include: sample size, Law of Large Numbers, complementary probabilities, and independence of events. The authors include external reference for those looking for more resources on this subject.

  13. Relations Between Secondary Pupils’ Conceptions About Functions and Problem Solving in Different Representations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iliada Elia; Areti Panaoura; Anastasia Eracleous; Athanasios Gagatsis

    2007-01-01

    The present study explores pupils’ constructed definitions of the concept of function in relation to their abilities in dealing\\u000a with tasks of functions involving different forms of representations and problem solving tasks. A major concern is also to\\u000a examine the interrelations between these three ways of thinking about or dealing with the concept of function. The sample\\u000a of the study

  14. Psychological Problems, Protective Factors and Health-Related Quality of Life in Youth Affected by Violence: The Burden of the Multiply Victimised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlack, Robert; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Petermann, Franz

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates self-rated mental health in terms of psychological problems, protective factors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n = 6813) aged 11-17 involved in violence with varying frequency. Using MANCOVA and ANCOVA, youth with single and multiple histories of violent…

  15. Sampling Distribution of Sample Mean Differences

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lowry, Richard

    This page generates a graph of the sampling distribution of the difference between two means and displays the probabilities associated with that distribution. Users enter the population standard deviation and the sample sizes, Na and Nb. The applet also calculates the standard error of the sample mean difference.

  16. Microfabricated Devices for Sample Extraction, Concentrations, and Related Sample Processing Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe

    2006-12-01

    This is an invited book chapter. As with other analytical techniques, sample pretreatments, sample extraction, sample introduction, and related techniques are of extreme importance for micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). Bio-MEMS devices and systems start with a sampling step. The biological sample then usually undergoes some kinds of sample preparation steps before the actual analysis. These steps may involve extracting the target sample from its matrix, removing interferences from the sample, derivatizing the sample to detectable species, or performing a sample preconcentration step. The integration of the components for sample pretreatment into microfluidic devices represents one of the remaining the bottle-neck towards achieving true miniaturized total analysis systems (?TAS). This chapter provides a thorough state-of-art of the developments in this field to date.

  17. Level-crossing problems for random processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    IAN F. BLAKE; WILLIAM C. LINDSEY

    1973-01-01

    In a variety of practical problems involving random processes, it is necessary to have statistical information on their level-crossing properties. This paper presents a survey of known results on certain aspects of this problem and provides a basis for further study in the area. The goal has been to give a broad view of the problems considered in the literature

  18. Metric Nearness: Problem Formulation and Algorithms

    E-print Network

    Tropp, Joel

    algorithms that compute globally optimal solutions by exploiting the deep structure of the problem. EmMetric Nearness: Problem Formulation and Algorithms Inderjit S. Dhillon Suvrit Sra Dept Many problems in machine learning, data mining, databases and statis- tics involve the pairwise

  19. Attributes Heeded When Representing an Osmosis Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuckerman, June Trop

    Eighteen high school science students were involved in a study to determine what attributes in the problem statement they need when representing a typical osmosis problem. In order to realize this goal students were asked to solve problems aloud and to explain their answers. Included as a part of the results are the attributes that the students…

  20. Heat Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Heat problems and heat cramps related to jogging can be caused by fluid imbalances, medications, dietary insufficiency, vomiting or diarrhea, among other factors. If the condition keeps reoccurring, the advice of a physician should be sought. Some preventive measures that can be taken include: (1) running during the cooler hours of the day; (2)…

  1. Leg Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Leg Problems See complete list of charts. Follow this chart for more information about pain and swelling in ... warmth in your calf? Yes You may have DEEP VENOUS THROMBOSIS, a clot in ... 7. Do you have twisted dark blue or purple veins near the surface of ...

  2. Puzzles & Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Pat, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    "Exploring" is a magazine of science, art, and human perception, produced by Exploratorium in collaboration with other participating museums. This issue focuses on puzzles and problem solving. Brain teasers, puzzles, and the strategies for solving them are included. Features include: (1) "Homework Assignment #3" (Paul Doherty); (2) "The Case of…

  3. A Mars Sample Return Sample Handling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, David; Stroker, Carol

    2013-01-01

    We present a sample handling system, a subsystem of the proposed Dragon landed Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission [1], that can return to Earth orbit a significant mass of frozen Mars samples potentially consisting of: rock cores, subsurface drilled rock and ice cuttings, pebble sized rocks, and soil scoops. The sample collection, storage, retrieval and packaging assumptions and concepts in this study are applicable for the NASA's MPPG MSR mission architecture options [2]. Our study assumes a predecessor rover mission collects samples for return to Earth to address questions on: past life, climate change, water history, age dating, understanding Mars interior evolution [3], and, human safety and in-situ resource utilization. Hence the rover will have "integrated priorities for rock sampling" [3] that cover collection of subaqueous or hydrothermal sediments, low-temperature fluidaltered rocks, unaltered igneous rocks, regolith and atmosphere samples. Samples could include: drilled rock cores, alluvial and fluvial deposits, subsurface ice and soils, clays, sulfates, salts including perchlorates, aeolian deposits, and concretions. Thus samples will have a broad range of bulk densities, and require for Earth based analysis where practical: in-situ characterization, management of degradation such as perchlorate deliquescence and volatile release, and contamination management. We propose to adopt a sample container with a set of cups each with a sample from a specific location. We considered two sample cups sizes: (1) a small cup sized for samples matching those submitted to in-situ characterization instruments, and, (2) a larger cup for 100 mm rock cores [4] and pebble sized rocks, thus providing diverse samples and optimizing the MSR sample mass payload fraction for a given payload volume. We minimize sample degradation by keeping them frozen in the MSR payload sample canister using Peltier chip cooling. The cups are sealed by interference fitted heat activated memory alloy caps [5] if the heating does not affect the sample, or by crimping caps similar to bottle capping. We prefer cap sealing surfaces be external to the cup rim to prevent sample dust inside the cups interfering with sealing, or, contamination of the sample by Teflon seal elements (if adopted). Finally the sample collection rover, or a Fetch rover, selects cups with best choice samples and loads them into a sample tray, before delivering it to the Earth Return Vehicle (ERV) in the MSR Dragon capsule as described in [1] (Fig 1). This ensures best use of the MSR payload mass allowance. A 3 meter long jointed robot arm is extended from the Dragon capsule's crew hatch, retrieves the sample tray and inserts it into the sample canister payload located on the ERV stage. The robot arm has capacity to obtain grab samples in the event of a rover failure. The sample canister has a robot arm capture casting to enable capture by crewed or robot spacecraft when it returns to Earth orbit

  4. LOGISTICS OF ECOLOGICAL SAMPLING ON LARGE RIVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this document are to provide an overview of the logistical problems associated with the ecological sampling of boatable rivers and to suggest solutions to those problems. It is intended to be used as a resource for individuals preparing to collect biological dat...

  5. The Yo-Yo Problem

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PBS

    2012-01-01

    In this math lesson, learners explore linear patterns, write a pattern in symbolic form, and solve linear equations using algebra tiles, symbolic manipulation, and a graphing calculator. The lesson begins with the presentation of the yo-yo problem. Then learners complete a hands-on activity involving a design created with pennies. Algebra tiles are introduced next as learners practice solving linear equations. Finally, learners return to solving the yo-yo problem.

  6. Complex Problem Solving: Identity Matching Based on Social Contextual Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Jie Xu; G. Alan Wang; Jiexun Li; Michael Chau

    2007-01-01

    Complex problems like drug crimes often involve a large number of variables interacting with each other. A complex problem may be solved by breaking it into parts (i.e., sub-problems), which can be tackled more easily. The identity matching problem, for example, is a part of the problem of drug and other types of crimes. It is often encountered during crime

  7. Complex Problem Solving: Identity Matching Based on Social

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Xu; Jiexun Li; Michael Chau

    Complex problems like drug crimes often involve a large number of variables interacting with each other. A complex problem may be solved by breaking it into parts (i.e., sub-problems), which can be tackled more easily. The identity matching problem, for example, is a part of the problem of drug and other types of crimes. It is often encountered during crime

  8. Renal involvement in mitochondrial cytopathies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Emma; Enrico Bertini; Leonardo Salviati; Giovanni Montini

    Mitochondrial cytopathies constitute a group of rare diseases that are characterized by their frequent multisystemic involvement,\\u000a extreme variability of phenotype and complex genetics. In children, renal involvement is frequent and probably underestimated.\\u000a The most frequent renal symptom is a tubular defect that, in most severe forms, corresponds to a complete De Toni-Debré-Fanconi\\u000a syndrome. Incomplete proximal tubular defects and other tubular

  9. Rectal Involvement in Neutropenic Enterocolitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuchita Gupta; Seema Kapoor; R. N. Mandal Ravi; Anjali Prakash; Satish K. Aggarwal

    Neutropenic enterocolitis is a common gastrointestinal complication in children undergoing chemotherapy for a variety of malignancies.\\u000a It usually involves ileum and caecum, and involvement of rectum has rarely been reported. The authors report neutropenic enterocolitis\\u000a in a child undergoing chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic lymphoma which presented with ileus along with a mass like lesion\\u000a in the rectum.

  10. Model-free sampling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Beer

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a novel technique for random vector sampling starting from rare data are presented. This model-free sampling technique is developed to operate without a probabilistic model. Instead of estimating a distribution function, the information contained in a given small sample is extracted directly to produce the sampling result as a second sample of considerably larger size that completely

  11. The alteration of icy samples during sample acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mungas, G.; Bearman, G.; Beegle, L. W.; Hecht, M.; Peters, G. H.; Glucoft, J.; Strothers, K.

    2006-12-01

    Valid in situ scientific studies require both that samples be analyzed in as pristine condition as possible and that any modification from the pristine to the sampled state be well understood. While samples with low to high ice concentration are critical for the study of astrobiology and geology, they pose problems with respect to the sample acquisition, preparation and distribution systems (SPAD) upon which the analytical instruments depend. Most significant of the processes that occur during SPAD is sublimation or melting caused by thermal loading from drilling, coring, etc. as well as exposure to a dry low pressure ambient environment. These processes can alter the sample, as well as generating, meta-stable liquid water that can refreeze in the sample transfer mechanisms, interfering with proper operation and creating cross-contamination. We have investigated and quantified loss of volatiles such as H2O, CO, CO2, and organics contained within icy and powdered samples when acquired, processed and transferred. During development of the MSL rock crusher, for example, ice was observed to pressure-fuse and stick to the side even at -70C. We have investigated sublimation from sample acquisition at Martian temperature and pressure for a samples ranging from 10 to 100 water/dirt ratios. Using the RASP that will be on Phoenix, we have measured sublimation of ice during excavation at Martian pressure and find that the sublimation losses can range from 10 to 50 percent water. It is the thermal conductivity of the soil that determines local heat transport, and how much of the sample acquisition energy is wicked away into the soil and how much goes into the sample. Modeling of sample acquisition methods requires measurement of these parameters. There is a two phase model for thermal conductivity as a function of dirt/ice ratio but it needed to be validated. We used an ASTM method for measuring thermal conductivity and implemented it in the laboratory. The major conclusion is that for icy dirt samples that are appreciably hard, the thermal conductivity is basically that of pure ice. While the dry soil has a lower thermal conductivity due to fragmented thermal conduction paths, there are sufficient water ice paths for thermal transport that it does not affect thermal conductivity. Acknowledgement: This research was carried out at the California Institute of Technology and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  12. Water quality monitoring—Some practical sampling frequency considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jim C. Loftis; Robert C. Ward

    1980-01-01

    Water quality monitoring involves sampling a “population,” water quality, that is changing over time. Sample statistics (e.g., sample mean) computed from data collected by a monitoring network can be affected by three general factors: (1) random changes due to storms, rainfall, etc.; (2) seasonal changes in temperature, rainfall, etc.; and (3) serial correlation or duplication in information from sample to

  13. Weighted Sampling for Large-Scale Boosting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zdenek Kalal; Jiri Matas; Krystian Mikolajczyk

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of learning from very large databases where batch learning is impractical or even infeasible. Bootstrap is a popular tech- nique applicable in such situations. We show that sampling strategy used for bootstrapping has a significant impact on the resulting classifier perfor- mance. We design a new general sampling strategy \\

  14. Increased Taxon Sampling Greatly Reduces Phylogenetic Error

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derrick J. Zwickl; David M. Hillis

    2002-01-01

    Several authors have argued recently that extensive taxon sampling has a positive and important effect on the accuracy of phylogenetic estimates. However, other authors have argued that there is little beneét of extensive taxon sampling, and so phylogenetic problems can or should be reduced to a few exemplar taxa as a means of reducing the computational complexity of the phylogenetic

  15. Sampling for Contaminants in Ecological Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberhardt, L. Lee; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This paper is concerned with problems in assessing the behavior of trace substances introduced into natural systems, sampling models of five classes that might be used in the study of contaminants are reviewed. Adaptation of an industrial experimentation method and techniques used in economic geology to ecological sampling is recommended.…

  16. Forward flux sampling for rare event simulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rare events are ubiquitous in many different fields, yet they are notoriously difficult to simulate because few, if any, events are observed in a conventional simulation run. Over the past several decades, specialized simulation methods have been developed to overcome this problem. We review one recently developed class of such methods, known as forward flux sampling. Forward flux sampling uses

  17. Bilevel problems over polyhedra with extreme point optimal solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herminia I. Calvete; Carmen Galé; Stephan Dempe; Sebastian Lohse

    2012-01-01

    Bilevel programming involves two optimization problems where the constraint region of the upper level problem is implicitly\\u000a determined by another optimization problem. In this paper we focus on bilevel problems over polyhedra with upper level constraints\\u000a involving lower level variables. On the one hand, under the uniqueness of the optimal solution of the lower level problem,\\u000a we prove that the

  18. Sampling plans for site characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, K.

    1990-01-01

    The problem of characterizing a subsurface site, whether it be a candidate for mineral extraction, a potential waste repository or a site designated for cleanup, is in mathematical terms seriously undetermined. That is, the number of observations that can be made prior to major decisions about the site's future is a very small fraction of what would be needed to determine the complete spatial distribution of such distributed properties as mineral or contaminant concentrations, transmissivity, or density. The geostatistical procedures that have been developed to handle these problems are methods of regularization which identify a unique solution by including additional information, such as an estimated spatial covariance model. Kriging, in particular, is best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) within a superpopulation model for the spatial distribution. Explicit recognition of the inverse structure of the problem and the associated BLUP formulations are particularly useful in developing and presenting field sampling plans based both on prior information and on the proposed use of resulting information. This framework also facilitates consideration of model-robustness of the optimality of proposed sampling plans, which is important in the context of site characterization problems where poorly determined priors are a prominent feature. 10 refs.

  19. Alcohol Problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C. Hodgins; Katherine Diskin; Jonathan N. Stea

    \\u000a Alcohol problems can be broadly defined as negative consequences that people experience as a result of their use of alcohol.\\u000a People may drink alcohol for a number of reasons: to promote feelings of relaxation, to increase feelings of sociability,\\u000a to elevate mood, to conform to social expectations, or to reduce feelings of stress (Anonymous, 2000). Information from the\\u000a US National

  20. Comet Surface Sampling Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacny, K.; Chu, P.; Paulsen, G.; Indyk, S.

    2014-06-01

    The goal of the Comet Surface Sample Return (CSSR) is to acquire and return to Earth a ?500 cc) sample. Honeybee developed several sampling technologies including a standalone CSSR Probe (CSSRP) and Pyramid Comet Sampler (PyCoS).

  1. Effect of sample disturbance in opalinus clay shales

    E-print Network

    Pei, Jianyong, 1975-

    2004-01-01

    The sample disturbance problem for different geomaterials is reviewed in this thesis. A general discussion on the disturbance sources and complexities of the disturbance problem is followed by detailed reviews on disturbance ...

  2. Technology for return of planetary samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Technological requirements of a planetary return sample mission were studied. The state-of-the-art for problems unique to this class of missions was assessed and technological gaps were identified. The problem areas where significant advancement of the state-of-the-art is required are: life support for the exobiota during the return trip and within the Planetary Receiving Laboratory (PRL); biohazard assessment and control technology; and quarantine qualified handling and experimentation methods and equipment for studying the returned sample in the PRL. Concepts for solving these problems are discussed.

  3. Elaborating transition interface sampling methods

    SciTech Connect

    Erp, Titus S. van [Laboratoire de Physique/Centre Europeen de Calcul Atomique et Moleculaire, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, 46 allee d'Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)]. E-mail: tsvanerp@cecam.fr; Bolhuis, Peter G. [Van't Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018 WV Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: bolhuis@science.uva.nl

    2005-05-01

    We review two recently developed efficient methods for calculating rate constants of processes dominated by rare events in high-dimensional complex systems. The first is transition interface sampling (TIS), based on the measurement of effective fluxes through hypersurfaces in phase space. TIS improves efficiency with respect to standard transition path sampling (TPS) rate constant techniques, because it allows a variable path length and is less sensitive to recrossings. The second method is the partial path version of TIS. Developed for diffusive processes, it exploits the loss of long time correlation. We discuss the relation between the new techniques and the standard reactive flux methods in detail. Path sampling algorithms can suffer from ergodicity problems, and we introduce several new techniques to alleviate these problems, notably path swapping, stochastic configurational bias Monte Carlo shooting moves and order-parameter free path sampling. In addition, we give algorithms to calculate other interesting properties from path ensembles besides rate constants, such as activation energies and reaction mechanisms.

  4. Analog Processor To Solve Optimization Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A.; Eberhardt, Silvio P.; Thakoor, Anil P.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed analog processor solves "traveling-salesman" problem, considered paradigm of global-optimization problems involving routing or allocation of resources. Includes electronic neural network and auxiliary circuitry based partly on concepts described in "Neural-Network Processor Would Allocate Resources" (NPO-17781) and "Neural Network Solves 'Traveling-Salesman' Problem" (NPO-17807). Processor based on highly parallel computing solves problem in significantly less time.

  5. Parental Alcohol Involvement and Adolescent Alcohol Expectancies Predict Alcohol Involvement in Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Cranford, James A.; Zucker, Robert A.; Jester, Jennifer M.; Puttler, Leon I.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.

    2010-01-01

    Current models of adolescent drinking behavior hypothesize that alcohol expectancies mediate the effects of other proximal and distal risk factors. This longitudinal study tested the hypothesis that the effects of parental alcohol involvement on their children’s drinking behavior in mid-adolescence are mediated by the children’s alcohol expectancies in early adolescence. A sample of 148 initially 9–11 year old boys and their parents from a high-risk population and a contrast group of community families completed measures of drinking behavior and alcohol expectancies over a 6-year interval. We analyzed data from middle childhood (M age = 10.4 years), early adolescence (M age = 13.5 years), and mid-adolescence (M age = 16.5 years). The sample was restricted only to adolescents who had begun to drink by mid-adolescence. Results from zero-inflated Poisson regression analyses showed that 1) maternal drinking during their children’s middle childhood predicted number of drinking days in middle adolescence; 2) negative and positive alcohol expectancies in early adolescence predicted odds of any intoxication in middle adolescence; and 3) paternal alcoholism during their children’s middle childhood and adolescents’ alcohol expectancies in early adolescence predicted frequency of intoxication in middle adolescence. Contrary to predictions, child alcohol expectancies did not mediate the effects of parental alcohol involvement in this high-risk sample. Different aspects of parental alcohol involvement, along with early adolescent alcohol expectancies, independently predicted adolescent drinking behavior in middle adolescence. Alternative pathways for the influence of maternal and paternal alcohol involvement and implications for expectancy models of adolescent drinking behavior were discussed. PMID:20853923

  6. SAMPLING AND SAMPLE PREPARATION OF PISTACHIOS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The statistics of pre-sampling in pistachios has been studied theoretically and experimentally. Dry grinding and wet slurrying were both addressed. Wet slurrying resulted in an aflatoxin mean measure 30% higher than that obtained from dry grinding. Theory predicts no pre-sampling variance for wet ...

  7. Parent Academic Involvement as Related to School Behavior, Achievement, and Aspirations: Demographic Variations Across Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Nancy E.; Castellino, Domini R.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Nowlin, Patrick; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.

    2004-01-01

    A longitudinal model of parent academic involvement, behavioral problems, achievement, and aspirations was examined for 463 adolescents, followed from 7th (approximately 12 years old) through 11th (approximately 16 years old) grades. Parent academic involvement in 7th grade was negatively related to 8th-grade behavioral problems and positively…

  8. Predictors of Parent Involvement in Children’s Schooling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wendy S. Grolnick; Corina Benjet; Carolyn O. Kurowski; Nicholas H. Apostoleris

    1997-01-01

    The authors combined a multilevel model of parental context with a multidimensional conceptualization of parent involvement to examine the factors influencing parents’ involvement in their children’s schooling. Three sets of factors were identified: parent and child characteristics, family context, and teacher behavior and attitudes. A diverse sample of 209 mothers, their 3rd–5th grade children, and 28 teachers participated. Parents, teachers,

  9. Boson Sampling on a Photonic Chip

    E-print Network

    Justin B. Spring; Benjamin J. Metcalf; Peter C. Humphreys; W. Steven Kolthammer; Xian-Min Jin; Marco Barbieri; Animesh Datta; Nicholas Thomas-Peter; Nathan K. Langford; Dmytro Kundys; James C. Gates; Brian J. Smith; Peter G. R. Smith; Ian A. Walmsley

    2013-05-27

    While universal quantum computers ideally solve problems such as factoring integers exponentially more efficiently than classical machines, the formidable challenges in building such devices motivate the demonstration of simpler, problem-specific algorithms that still promise a quantum speedup. We construct a quantum boson sampling machine (QBSM) to sample the output distribution resulting from the nonclassical interference of photons in an integrated photonic circuit, a problem thought to be exponentially hard to solve classically. Unlike universal quantum computation, boson sampling merely requires indistinguishable photons, linear state evolution, and detectors. We benchmark our QBSM with three and four photons and analyze sources of sampling inaccuracy. Our studies pave the way to larger devices that could offer the first definitive quantum-enhanced computation.

  10. Boson sampling on a photonic chip.

    PubMed

    Spring, Justin B; Metcalf, Benjamin J; Humphreys, Peter C; Kolthammer, W Steven; Jin, Xian-Min; Barbieri, Marco; Datta, Animesh; Thomas-Peter, Nicholas; Langford, Nathan K; Kundys, Dmytro; Gates, James C; Smith, Brian J; Smith, Peter G R; Walmsley, Ian A

    2013-02-15

    Although universal quantum computers ideally solve problems such as factoring integers exponentially more efficiently than classical machines, the formidable challenges in building such devices motivate the demonstration of simpler, problem-specific algorithms that still promise a quantum speedup. We constructed a quantum boson-sampling machine (QBSM) to sample the output distribution resulting from the nonclassical interference of photons in an integrated photonic circuit, a problem thought to be exponentially hard to solve classically. Unlike universal quantum computation, boson sampling merely requires indistinguishable photons, linear state evolution, and detectors. We benchmarked our QBSM with three and four photons and analyzed sources of sampling inaccuracy. Scaling up to larger devices could offer the first definitive quantum-enhanced computation. PMID:23258407

  11. [Heart involvement in Friedreich's ataxia].

    PubMed

    Weidemann, F; Scholz, F; Florescu, C; Liu, D; Hu, K; Herrmann, S; Ertl, G; Störk, S

    2015-03-01

    Friedreich's ataxia is a rare hereditary disease and although the gene defect has already been identified as a deficiency of the mitochondrial protein frataxin, the pathophysiology is still unknown. Although a multisystem disorder organ involvement is predominantly neurological. Besides the characteristic features of spinocerebellar ataxia the heart is frequently also affected. Cardiac involvement typically manifests as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, which can progress to heart failure and death. So far most research has focused on the neurological aspects and cardiac involvement in Friedreich's ataxia has not been systematically investigated. Thus, a better understanding of the progression of the cardiomyopathy, cardiac complications and long-term cardiac outcome is warranted. Although no specific treatment is available general cardiac therapeutic options for cardiomyopathy should be considered. The current review focuses on clinical and diagnostic features of cardiomyopathy and discusses potential therapeutic developments for Friedreich's ataxia. PMID:24848865

  12. Family Problems and Youth Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Goede, Martijn; Spruijt, Ed; Maas, Cora; Duindam, Vincent

    2000-01-01

    Examines how family and personal characteristics relate to the employment situation of adolescents (N=995) in Denmark. Results show that parental divorce, parental unemployment (only for males), low parental affective involvement, and adolescent relationship problems were related to youth unemployment, but educational career and work commitment…

  13. Grasers: proposals, problems, and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, G.C.

    1982-01-01

    The possibility and potentiality of amplification of recoilless radiation emitted by nuclear isomers has long been recognized; nevertheless, development of gamma-ray lasers continues to await resolution of the pumping vs. linebreadth dilemma. Problems that accompany proposals for reducing the excitation requirements and suggest areas of investigation that may contribute to resolving the dilemma are identified; several involve use of optical lasers.

  14. Radioecological problems of nuclear power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Aleksakhin; I. I. Kryshev; S. V. Fesenko; N. I. Sanzharova

    1990-01-01

    The central problem which will determine the developmental prospects for nuclear power is the study of the effects of radiation on the environment and on public health. The other main criteria involved in making an integral estimate of the prospects for various forms of power production (the reserves of fuel and of various material resources to ensure the steady functioning

  15. A Nonuniform Low Sampling Rate Receiver in UWB Communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xing-Peng Mao; Ke Xu; Bin Cao; Qin-Yu Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Very high analog-to-digital (A\\/D) sampling rate is a key problem to be solved in a ultra-wideband (UWB) communication system. To reduce the A\\/D sampling rate, a novel low sampling rate receiver based on nonuniform sampling in the frequency domain is proposed. The incoming signal is divided into several subchannels, and signals at some subchannels are sampled at nonuniform sampling rates

  16. Small Sample Whole-Genome Amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, C A; Nguyen, C P; Wheeler, E K; Sorensen, K J; Arroyo, E S; Vrankovich, G P; Christian, A T

    2005-09-20

    Many challenges arise when trying to amplify and analyze human samples collected in the field due to limitations in sample quantity, and contamination of the starting material. Tests such as DNA fingerprinting and mitochondrial typing require a certain sample size and are carried out in large volume reactions; in cases where insufficient sample is present whole genome amplification (WGA) can be used. WGA allows very small quantities of DNA to be amplified in a way that enables subsequent DNA-based tests to be performed. A limiting step to WGA is sample preparation. To minimize the necessary sample size, we have developed two modifications of WGA: the first allows for an increase in amplified product from small, nanoscale, purified samples with the use of carrier DNA while the second is a single-step method for cleaning and amplifying samples all in one column. Conventional DNA cleanup involves binding the DNA to silica, washing away impurities, and then releasing the DNA for subsequent testing. We have eliminated losses associated with incomplete sample release, thereby decreasing the required amount of starting template for DNA testing. Both techniques address the limitations of sample size by providing ample copies of genomic samples. Carrier DNA, included in our WGA reactions, can be used when amplifying samples with the standard purification method, or can be used in conjunction with our single-step DNA purification technique to potentially further decrease the amount of starting sample necessary for future forensic DNA-based assays.

  17. Precision Power Method for Selecting Regression Sample Sizes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Gordon P.; Barcikowski, Robert S.

    When multiple regression is used to develop a prediction model, sample size must be large enough to ensure stable coefficients. If sample size is inadequate, the model may not predict well in future samples. Unfortunately, there are problems and contradictions among the various sample size methods in regression. For example, how does one reconcile…

  18. The Augmented Lagrange Multipliers Method for Matrix Completion from Corrupted Samplings with Application to Mixed Gaussian-Impulse Noise Removal

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fan; Yang, Xiaomei; Zhou, Chenghu

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of the restoration of images corrupted by mixed Gaussian-impulse noise. In recent years, low-rank matrix reconstruction has become a research hotspot in many scientific and engineering domains such as machine learning, image processing, computer vision and bioinformatics, which mainly involves the problem of matrix completion and robust principal component analysis, namely recovering a low-rank matrix from an incomplete but accurate sampling subset of its entries and from an observed data matrix with an unknown fraction of its entries being arbitrarily corrupted, respectively. Inspired by these ideas, we consider the problem of recovering a low-rank matrix from an incomplete sampling subset of its entries with an unknown fraction of the samplings contaminated by arbitrary errors, which is defined as the problem of matrix completion from corrupted samplings and modeled as a convex optimization problem that minimizes a combination of the nuclear norm and the -norm in this paper. Meanwhile, we put forward a novel and effective algorithm called augmented Lagrange multipliers to exactly solve the problem. For mixed Gaussian-impulse noise removal, we regard it as the problem of matrix completion from corrupted samplings, and restore the noisy image following an impulse-detecting procedure. Compared with some existing methods for mixed noise removal, the recovery quality performance of our method is dominant if images possess low-rank features such as geometrically regular textures and similar structured contents; especially when the density of impulse noise is relatively high and the variance of Gaussian noise is small, our method can outperform the traditional methods significantly not only in the simultaneous removal of Gaussian noise and impulse noise, and the restoration ability for a low-rank image matrix, but also in the preservation of textures and details in the image. PMID:25248103

  19. Distribution of the Sample Sum, Sample Mean, Sample Variance, and Sample Chi-Squared

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stark, Philip B.

    This applet, created by Philip B. Stark of the University of California, Berkeley, illustrates this concept of the sampling distribution of a statistic by simulating the sampling distribution of the sample sum, mean, variance, and chi-square. Users can choose from a normal or uniform population or can supply their own data. Relevant statistics from each sample are calculated.

  20. Sample Mean Experiment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kyle Siegrist

    The resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet illustrates the distribution of the sample mean of a random sample from a given distribution. The sample size and the sampling distribution can be specified. The applet illustrates the central limit theorem.

  1. Efficient progressive sampling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Foster J. Provost; David Jensen; Tim Oates

    1999-01-01

    Having access to massive amounts of data does not necessarily imply that inductionalgorithms must use them all. Samples often provide the same accuracy with far lesscomputational cost. However, the correct sample size is rarely obvious. We analyzemethods for progressive sampling---starting with small samples and progressively increasingthem as long as model accuracy improves. We show that a simple, geometricsampling schedule is

  2. The CUNY Assessment Test in Mathematics Sample Problems*

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Weigang

    of the first two sections of the test: numerical skills/pre-algebra and algebra. Students must achieve scaled is an untimed, multiple-choice, computer-based test composed of four sections: numerical skills/pre-algebra, algebra, college algebra, and trigonometry. Students' need for mathematics remediation is based on results

  3. The CUNY Assessment Test in Mathematics Sample Problems*

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Jay

    in the algebra section; students who do not achieve the algebra passing score will be automatically administered the pre-algebra section. Students who do achieve the algebra passing score will automatically progress is an untimed, multiple-choice, computer-based test. The test is composed of four sections: pre-algebra, algebra

  4. Sample Problems for First Midterm for Math 0230 October, 2011

    E-print Network

    Jiang, Huiqiang

    in pumping the water out of a the top of spherical tank of radius 3m that is full of water. 1 #12;6. Find the hydrostatic force on a flat triangle plate with sides 3m, 4m and 5m which is submerged in 10m of water. Here

  5. Sample Problems for Exam 2 Precalculus, Mth 130, Spring 2014

    E-print Network

    Champanerkar, Abhijit

    . An automobile wheel has a diameter of 14 inches. If the car travels at the speed of 55 mph, what is the angular and linear speed of a point on the equator in rad/hr and mi/hr respectively. (b) The wheels of a car have radius 11 inches and are rotating at 600 rpm. Find the (linear) speed of the car in mi/hr. (1 mile

  6. Adaptive sampling for geometric problems over data streams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Hershberger; Subhash Suri

    2004-01-01

    Geometric coordinates are an integral part of many data streams. Examples include sensor locations in environmental monitoring, vehicle locations in traffic monitoring or battlefield simulations, scientific measurements of earth or atmospheric phenomena, etc. How can one summarize such data streams using limited storage so that many natural geometric queries can be answered faithfully? Some examples of such queries are: report

  7. Convergence of Sequential Sampling Policies for Bayesian Information Collection Problems

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    ;Application: Radiation Detection Following the release of radioactive material in a major city, we would need(,i) is the human and economic cost of the resulting action. 5 / 20 #12;Sequential Bayesian Information Collection that performs well in some numerical experiments, we would like to know that it is also asymptotically optimal

  8. Problem Solving Styles Among Children Working in Small Groups on Mathematical Word Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Kathleen; Leitz, Steven

    This document focuses on four children in a small group, solving word problems aloud. Different aspects of how children in small groups approach problems were revealed; certain characteristics of their attempts to solve problems suggest a variety of questions for further research. These pupils were part of a project that involved six groups of…

  9. Problem-Based Learning: Using Ill-Structured Problems in Biology Project Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Christine; Chia, Li-Gek

    2006-01-01

    This case study involved year 9 students carrying out project work in biology via problem-based learning. The purpose of the study was to (a) find out how students approach and work through ill-structured problems, (b) identify some issues and challenges related to the use of such problems, and (c) offer some practical suggestions on the…

  10. Community Involvement in Private Woodlands

    E-print Network

    and objectives, and a wide spectrum in the level of community involvement. We visited each project Woodlands | 3 Foreword 4 Authors' Note 5 Case Studies Hill of Edderton Community Project 6 North Applecross Woodlands Project 11 Killiechonate Woodlands 16 East Renfrewshire Community Woodland 20 Drummuir Community

  11. Tips for Getting Girls Involved.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettenheim, Susan Geller; Furger, Roberta; Siegman, Lisa; McLester, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Offers suggestions to keep girls interested and involved in digital technology. Highlights include role models; encouraging math and science courses; a computer club for girls; integrating computer activities into the curriculum; Web-based lessons; mentoring; appropriate software; designing with computer graphics; collaborative groups; and…

  12. Promoting Active Involvement in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conderman, Greg; Bresnahan, Val; Hedin, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a rationale for using active involvement techniques, describes large- and small-group methods based on their documented effectiveness and applicability to K-12 classrooms, and illustrates their use. These approaches include ways of engaging students in large groups (e.g., unison responses, response cards, dry-erase boards,…

  13. Drug Involvement and Academic Striving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Malcolm; Holroyd, Kenneth

    This study attempted to clarify the relationship between drug involvement and academic accomplishments. Unlike other studies, it was controlled for aptitude and sex. In a structured interview, the College Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ) was administered to 77 male and 67 female student subjects. Based on the CBQ results three groups were identified:…

  14. Involving students in peer review

    E-print Network

    Pearce, Jon

    Involving students in peer review Case studies and practical strategies for university teaching Jon, distribution and use by other institutions, with appropriate acknowledgement. Available in electronic form from......................................................................................................................................................2 1. WHAT IS STUDENT PEER REVIEW? A CONCISE REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE....................3 BENEFITS

  15. Parental Involvement and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driessen, Geert; Smit, Frederik; Sleegers, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Parental involvement is seen as an important strategy for the advancement of the quality of education. The ultimate objective of this is to expand the social and cognitive capacities of pupils. In addition, special attention is paid to the children of low-educated and ethnic minority parents. Various forms of both parental and school-initiated…

  16. Lichen Planus With Esophageal Involvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Valdés; A. Caparrini; J. M. Calzada

    2007-01-01

    Lichen planus is an inflammatory disease of unknown etiology which may affect the esophagus. Patients with esophageal lichen planus are usually elderly women. The most frequent symptoms are dysphagia and odynophagia. There is usually concomitant oral involvement in cases of esophageal lichen planus. Endoscopic findings include erosions, exudates and stenosis. Systemic steroids are the most effective therapy for these patients.

  17. Parent Involvement as Ritualized Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucet, Fabienne

    2011-01-01

    This article examines parent involvement (PI) as a ritual system using Turner's concept of root paradigms. Through a twofold analysis, I argue that the highly ritualized nature of PI practices creates a group identity among mainstream parents and schools that marginalizes diverse families. First, I point out three root paradigms in the ritual…

  18. Involvement in Subject Learning Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bujold, Neree; Saint-Pierre, Henri; Bhushan, Vidya

    1997-01-01

    The Involvement in Subject Learning Scale (ISLS) was developed and validated as an educational outcome measure to be used in assessing higher education quality. The origins and development of the scale, its factor analysis, potential applications, limitations, and pilot use in France and Quebec (Canada) are described. The instrument is appended.…

  19. A technique for extracting blood samples from mice in fire toxicity tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucci, T. J.; Hilado, C. J.; Lopez, M. T.

    1976-01-01

    The extraction of adequate blood samples from moribund and dead mice has been a problem because of the small quantity of blood in each animal and the short time available between the animals' death and coagulation of the blood. These difficulties are particularly critical in fire toxicity tests because removal of the test animals while observing proper safety precautions for personnel is time-consuming. Techniques for extracting blood samples from mice were evaluated, and a technique was developed to obtain up to 0.8 ml of blood from a single mouse after death. The technique involves rapid exposure and cutting of the posterior vena cava and accumulation of blood in the peritoneal space. Blood samples of 0.5 ml or more from individual mice have been consistently obtained as much as 16 minutes after apparent death. Results of carboxyhemoglobin analyses of blood appeared reproducible and consistent with carbon monoxide concentrations in the exposure chamber.

  20. Antioxidant activity evaluation involving hemoglobin-related free radical reactivity.

    PubMed

    Mot, Augustin C; Bischin, Cristina; Damian, Grigore; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu

    2015-01-01

    Two methods for the measurement of antioxidant capacity are described: one based on a chronometric variation of a hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase assay and the other based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra collected upon alkaline treatment of ethanolic samples. The involved chemical mechanisms are discussed, alongside the most important benefits and shortcomings; the assays offer new qualitative and quantitative information on samples of biological as well as synthetic origin. PMID:25323512

  1. Online decision problems with large strategy sets

    E-print Network

    Kleinberg, Robert David

    2005-01-01

    In an online decision problem, an algorithm performs a sequence of trials, each of which involves selecting one element from a fixed set of alternatives (the "strategy set") whose costs vary over time. After T trials, the ...

  2. Probabilistic sampling of finite renewal processes

    E-print Network

    Antunes, Nelson; 10.3150/10-BEJ321

    2012-01-01

    Consider a finite renewal process in the sense that interrenewal times are positive i.i.d. variables and the total number of renewals is a random variable, independent of interrenewal times. A finite point process can be obtained by probabilistic sampling of the finite renewal process, where each renewal is sampled with a fixed probability and independently of other renewals. The problem addressed in this work concerns statistical inference of the original distributions of the total number of renewals and interrenewal times from a sample of i.i.d. finite point processes obtained by sampling finite renewal processes. This problem is motivated by traffic measurements in the Internet in order to characterize flows of packets (which can be seen as finite renewal processes) and where the use of packet sampling is becoming prevalent due to increasing link speeds and limited storage and processing capacities.

  3. Public involvement in chemical demilitarization

    SciTech Connect

    Bradbury, J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Branch, K.; Heerwagen, J.; Liebow, E. [Battelle Seattle Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses implications for public involvement of a study that Battelle completed last year for the Department of the Army. The study was conducted in communities located near the eight sites in the continental United States where the nation`s stockpile of chemical weapons is stored. The Army completed a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement on Chemical Weapons Disposal several years ago; however, plans for on-site incineration have encountered delay and escalating costs. Public opposition and delay in obtaining the required State environmental permits are widely regarded as contributing to this delay and increased cost. The Battelle study was designed to identify and analyze the nature of community concerns about the risks of incineration and other technologies and to make recommendations about ways in which the Army could work with the communities. The paper discusses three key findings: (1) across all sites, community residents` concerns were broader than issues related solely to the selection of a particular technology; (2) Army managers` views were different from many residents; (3) in the absence of a process to address their concerns, community residents tried to influence program decisions through government representatives, State permitting process, and the courts. Five primary implications are discussed: (1) public input is a given-- project proponents and program managers must decide whether they will guide the input process or be controlled by it; (2) public involvement must be linked to the decisions that are being made about a project or program; (3) public involvement programs must be designed to address the scope of issues that the public views as important; (4) public involvement must be established early and include the range of group perspectives on the issues; (5) public involvement is most productively viewed as an issues broker between an agency/project proponent and various parties potentially affected by a proposed project.

  4. Some integrals involving a class of filtering functions yyy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Capelas de Oliveira

    We discuss some properties of the function sin…x=…x which is (sometimes) indicated by the symbol sinc x. This function is associated with problems involving filtering or interpolating functions. Several integrals are presented and a general rule is discussed.

  5. Empirical Evidence or Intuition? An Activity Involving the Scientific Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overway, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Students need to have basic understanding of scientific method during their introductory science classes and for this purpose an activity was devised which involved a game based on famous Monty Hall game problem. This particular activity allowed students to banish or confirm their intuition based on empirical evidence.

  6. The Relationship between Attitude towards Conflict & Drug Involvement Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohmeier, Jill H.; Schmitt, Vicki L.; Frey, Bruce B.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the success of many drug and alcohol prevention programs, drug and alcohol use by adolescents continues to be a problem. One important factor in preventing drug and alcohol use may be determining, in a non-intrusive manner, which students are most at risk for drug involvement. In the present study, the predictive relationship between…

  7. An Examination of Family-Involved Approaches to Alcoholism Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, James G.

    2003-01-01

    Introduces the development and theoretical underpinnings of family-involved treatment for alcoholism. Describes several interventions from the family therapy literature with an emphasis on behavioral techniques. Outlines efficacy research and considers some problems with the family approach. (Contains 42 references.) (GCP)

  8. Word Problems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Blatto-Vallee, Gary

    This is the last topic in the series of lessons on math provided by DeafTEC. Gary Blatto-Vallee, a math and science instructor at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf, guides viewers through a variety of mathematical exercises in this DeafTEC video series. All lessons are fully captioned, signed in ASL, and voiced. In this section, three videos are included that show students how to solve word problems of systems of two equations. This section builds on everything students have learned in the previous videos about working with polynomials and exponents as well as methods for solving systems of two equations. See the main Math Video Resources page for an introduction to this video series.

  9. Predictors of Extradyadic Sexual Involvement in Unmarried Opposite-Sex Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Maddox Shaw, Amanda M.; Rhoades, Galena K.; Allen, Elizabeth S.; Stanley, Scott M.; Markman, Howard J.

    2012-01-01

    Using a sample of unmarried individuals in opposite-sex romantic relationships that was representative of the United States (N = 933), the current study prospectively evaluated predictors of extradyadic sexual involvement (ESI) over 20-months. Data were collected with self-report questionnaires via U.S. mail. Participants were 18–35 years old and were 34.9% male. Variables tested as predictors included involved-partner factors such as demographic characteristics, sexual history, and mental health, as well as relationship-related factors including communication, sexual dynamics, and aspects of commitment. Future ESI was significantly predicted by lower baseline relationship satisfaction, negative communication, aggression, lower dedication, absence of plans to marry, suspicion of partner’s ESI, and partner’s ESI. It was not predicted by sexual frequency, sexual dissatisfaction, or cohabitation status. Although more problems with alcohol use, more previous sex partners, and having parents who never married one another predicted future ESI, there were many involved-partner demographic factors that did not predict later ESI (e.g., gender, age, education, religiosity, having divorced parents, and having children). None of the results were moderated by gender. These results suggest that compared to demographic characteristics, relationship dynamics and negative interactions are more strongly predictive of future ESI. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:22524318

  10. Sampling and analysis of hexavalent chromium during exposure to chromic acid mist and welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Blomquist, G; Nilsson, C A; Nygren, O

    1983-12-01

    Sampling and analysis of hexavalent chromium during exposure to chromic acid mist and welding fumes. Scand j work environ & health 9 (1983) 489-495. In view of the serious health effects of hexavalent chromium, the problems involved in its sampling and analysis in workroom air have been the subject of much concern. In this paper, the stability problems arising from the reduction of hexavalent to trivalent chromium during sampling, sample storage, and analysis are discussed. Replacement of sulfuric acid by a sodium acetate buffer (pH 4) as a leaching solution prior to analysis with the diphenylcarbazide (DPC) method is suggested and is demonstrated to be necessary in order to avoid reduction. Field samples were taken from two different industrial processes-manual metal arc welding on stainless steel without shield gas and chromium plating. A comparison was made of the DPC method, acidic dissolution with atomic absorption spectrophotometric (AAS) analysis, and the carbonate method. For chromic acid mist, the DPC method and AAS analysis were shown to give the same results. In the analysis of welding fumes, the modified DPC method gave the same results as the laborious and less sensitive carbonate method. PMID:6673106

  11. Ethical issues involving the Internet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J. Scott; Ernest A. Kallman; Debra A. Lelewer

    1994-01-01

    During the 90's, the “Information Superhighway” has received widespread publicity. Many campuses have participated in this drive to an information based society by becoming participating nodes on the Internet. As an information provider, the Internet has the potential to change the college experience in many ways, both good and bad. It also poses a number of problems for college students

  12. Adaptive Sampling in Hierarchical Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Knap, J; Barton, N R; Hornung, R D; Arsenlis, A; Becker, R; Jefferson, D R

    2007-07-09

    We propose an adaptive sampling methodology for hierarchical multi-scale simulation. The method utilizes a moving kriging interpolation to significantly reduce the number of evaluations of finer-scale response functions to provide essential constitutive information to a coarser-scale simulation model. The underlying interpolation scheme is unstructured and adaptive to handle the transient nature of a simulation. To handle the dynamic construction and searching of a potentially large set of finer-scale response data, we employ a dynamic metric tree database. We study the performance of our adaptive sampling methodology for a two-level multi-scale model involving a coarse-scale finite element simulation and a finer-scale crystal plasticity based constitutive law.

  13. Apollo 14 rock samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, I. C.

    1978-01-01

    Petrographic descriptions of all Apollo 14 samples larger than 1 cm in any dimension are presented. The sample description format consists of: (1) an introductory section which includes information on lunar sample location, orientation, and return containers, (2) a section on physical characteristics, which contains the sample mass, dimensions, and a brief description; (3) surface features, including zap pits, cavities, and fractures as seen in binocular view; (4) petrographic description, consisting of a binocular description and, if possible, a thin section description; and (5) a discussion of literature relevant to sample petrology is included for samples which have previously been examined by the scientific community.

  14. Sampling SIM: Simulation Software

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chance, Beth

    Created by authors Beth Chance, Bob delMas and Joan Garfield, this program allows the student to explore the nature of sampling distributions of sample means and sample proportions. The software provides separate windows for building population distributions, drawing and viewing random samples from the population, exploring the behavior of sampling distributions of sample means, and exploring the behavior of confidence intervals. The software is written for the Apple Macintosh computer and will work on 68040 machines and higher (PowerPC, G3, and G4). A Windows version is also available that works with Windows 95 and higher.

  15. Socio?economic background, parental involvement and teacher perceptions of these in relation to pupil achievement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joep Bakker; Eddie Denessen

    2007-01-01

    Parental involvement and teacher perceptions of parental involvement in the education of children were studied in relation to level of parental education and pupil achievement. A questionnaire was administered to 218 parents and 60 teachers. Correlational analyses and paired?sample analyses showed teacher perceptions to be weakly related to parental reports of their own involvement and to operate at a different

  16. Modeling and Compensatory Processes Underlying Involvement in Child Care among Kibbutz-Reared Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaunt, Ruth; Bassi, Liat

    2012-01-01

    This study examined modeling and compensatory processes underlying the effects of an early paternal model on father involvement in child care. Drawing on social learning theory, it was hypothesized that father-son relationships would moderate the association between a father's involvement and his own father's involvement. A sample of 136 kibbutz…

  17. Family Involvement in School and Low-Income Children's Literacy: Longitudinal Associations Between and Within Families

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Dearing; Holly Kreider; Sandra Simpkins; Heather B. Weiss

    2006-01-01

    Longitudinal data from kindergarten to 5th grade on both family involvement in school and children's literacy performance were examined for an ethnically diverse, low-income sample (N = 281). Within families, increased school involvement predicted improved child literacy. In addition, although there was an achievement gap in average literacy performance between children of more and less educated mothers if family involvement

  18. Cluster randomised trials in maternal and child health: implications for power and sample size

    PubMed Central

    Reading, R.; Harvey, I.; Mclean, M.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Interventions based in the community can be evaluated by randomising clusters, such as general practices, rather than individuals, as in conventional randomised trials. This increases the sample size needed because of intracluster correlation.?AIMS—To estimate sample size requirements for cluster randomised trials of interventions based in general practice directed at common health problems affecting mothers and infants.?METHODS—Data were collected from a pilot trial of the effect of Citizen's Advice Bureau services involving six general practices. Outcome measures included the Edinburgh postnatal depression score, the Warwick child health and morbidity profile, number of visits to the general practitioner, and two questionnaires delivered at the beginning and end of the study. Intracluster correlation coefficients and inflation factors (the ratio of the sample size required for a cluster randomised trial to that required for an individually randomised trial) were calculated.?RESULTS—Intracluster correlation coefficients ranged from 0 (sleeping problems, accidental injury, hospitalisation) to 0.09 (maternal smoking), with most being < 0.04 (for example, maternal depression, breast feeding, general health, minor illness, behavioural problems, and visits to the general practitioner). Assuming 50 cases/practice, cluster randomised trials require sample sizes up to 3 times greater than individually randomised trials for most health outcomes measured.?CONCLUSIONS—These data enable sample sizes to be estimated for cluster randomised trials into a range of maternal and child health outcomes. Using such a design, approximately 40 practices would be sufficient to evaluate the effect of an intervention on maternal depression, sleeping, and behavioural problems, and non-routine visits to the general practitioner.?? PMID:10630921

  19. Maturing Out of Alcohol Involvement: Transitions in Latent Drinking Statuses from Late Adolescence to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Matthew R.; Chassin, Laurie; Villalta, Ian K.

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown a developmental process of “maturing out” of alcohol involvement beginning in young adulthood, but the precise nature of changes characterizing maturing out is unclear. We used latent transition analysis to investigate these changes in a high-risk sample from a longitudinal study of familial alcoholism (N=844; 51% children of alcoholics; 53% male, 71% non-Hispanic Caucasian, 27% Hispanic). Analyses classified participants into latent drinking statuses during late adolescence (ages 17–22), young adulthood (ages 23–28), and adulthood (ages 29–40), and characterized transitions among these statuses over time. The resulting four statuses were abstainers, low-risk drinkers who typically drank less than weekly and rarely binged or showed drinking problems, moderate-risk drinkers who typically binged less than weekly and showed moderate risk for drinking problems, and high-risk drinkers who typically binged at least weekly and showed high risk for drinking problems. Maturing out between late adolescence and young adulthood was most common among initial high-risk drinkers, but they typically declined to moderate-risk drinking rather than to non-risky drinking statuses. This suggests that the developmental phenomenon of maturing out pertains primarily to relatively high-risk initial drinkers, and that many high-risk drinkers who “mature out” merely reduce rather than eliminate their risky drinking. PMID:24229554

  20. Analysis of plutonium in soil samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. P. Rubio Montero; A. Mart??n Sánchez; M. T. Crespo Vázquez; J. L. Gascón Murillo

    2000-01-01

    Procedures for analysis of plutonium in soil samples were developed using anion exchange as a purification technique. Special attention was paid to removing impurities of 228Th which interferes in 238Pu determination by alpha spectrometry. Two anion-exchange methods were compared. The determination of plutonium in soil involves the conversion of soil samples to acid-soluble form. Two methods for the extraction of