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Sample records for sample problems involving

  1. Sampling problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flueck, J. A.; Crane, R. F.; Laughlin, C. R.; Bell, T. L.; Meiten, J. G.; Ruprecht, E.; Short, D. R.; Theon, J. S.; Vogel, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Precipitation estimates from satellites are subject to a number of uncertainties involving design characteristics, satellite positioning, natural variability of precipitation, and the noncontinuous acquisition of data. The sources and sizes of these uncertainties are in need of proper evaluation and estimation. The present sampling and estima-theory seems to be adequate for some measurement problems (e.g., determining precipitation at a point), while others require further theoretical work (e.g., determining the time history of precipitation over large areas).

  2. ITOUGH2 sample problems

    SciTech Connect

    Finsterle, S.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains a collection of ITOUGH2 sample problems. It complements the ITOUGH2 User`s Guide [Finsterle, 1997a], and the ITOUGH2 Command Reference [Finsterle, 1997b]. ITOUGH2 is a program for parameter estimation, sensitivity analysis, and uncertainty propagation analysis. It is based on the TOUGH2 simulator for non-isothermal multiphase flow in fractured and porous media [Preuss, 1987, 1991a]. The report ITOUGH2 User`s Guide [Finsterle, 1997a] describes the inverse modeling framework and provides the theoretical background. The report ITOUGH2 Command Reference [Finsterle, 1997b] contains the syntax of all ITOUGH2 commands. This report describes a variety of sample problems solved by ITOUGH2. Table 1.1 contains a short description of the seven sample problems discussed in this report. The TOUGH2 equation-of-state (EOS) module that needs to be linked to ITOUGH2 is also indicated. Each sample problem focuses on a few selected issues shown in Table 1.2. ITOUGH2 input features and the usage of program options are described. Furthermore, interpretations of selected inverse modeling results are given. Problem 1 is a multipart tutorial, describing basic ITOUGH2 input files for the main ITOUGH2 application modes; no interpretation of results is given. Problem 2 focuses on non-uniqueness, residual analysis, and correlation structure. Problem 3 illustrates a variety of parameter and observation types, and describes parameter selection strategies. Problem 4 compares the performance of minimization algorithms and discusses model identification. Problem 5 explains how to set up a combined inversion of steady-state and transient data. Problem 6 provides a detailed residual and error analysis. Finally, Problem 7 illustrates how the estimation of model-related parameters may help compensate for errors in that model.

  3. Sequences of Numbers Involved in Unsolved Problems

    E-print Network

    Florentin Smarandache

    2006-04-03

    Over 300 sequences and many unsolved problems and conjectures related to them are presented herein together with theorems corollaries, formulae, examples, mathematical criteria, etc. (about integer sequences, numbers, quotients, residues, exponents, sieves, pseudo-primes/squares/cubes/factorials, almost primes, mobile periodicals, functions, tables, prime/square/factorial bases, generalized factorials, generalized palindromes, etc.).

  4. Unsaturated geotechnics applied to geoenvironmental engineering problems involving geosynthetics

    E-print Network

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    Unsaturated geotechnics applied to geoenvironmental engineering problems involving geosynthetics of geosynthetic types and geosynthetic applications in geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineering (Bouazza et

  5. iTOUGH2 Sample Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Finsterle, Stefan

    2002-06-18

    iTOUGH2 is a program for parameter estimation, sensitivity analysis, and uncertainty propagation analysis. It is based on the TOUGH2 simulator for non-isothermal multiphase flow in fractured and porous media. This report contains a collection of iTOUGH2 sample problems.

  6. Gambling involvement and increased risk of gambling problems.

    PubMed

    Phillips, James G; Ogeil, Rowan; Chow, Yang-Wai; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2013-12-01

    The opportunity to gamble has undergone rapid expansion with technology allowing for access to gambling products 24 h a day. This increased online availability challenges governments' abilities to restrict access to gambling. Indeed, the ready access to multiple forms of gambling may potentially contribute to impaired control over urges for problem gamblers. The present study considered whether problem gamblers manifested a tendency to engage in multiple forms of gambling and identified forms of gambling which were more strongly related to problem gambling. In reanalyses of two surveys (Sample 1, N = 464, Sample 2, N = 1141), significant relationships accounting for between 11.3 and 13.5% of the variance were found between the numbers of forms of gambling accessed and degree of problem. Participation in online poker, playing cards and sports wagering were linked to problem gambling. Access to multiple forms of gambling may pose difficulties for the tracking and control of gambling. PMID:22820995

  7. Parent Involvement, Emotional Support, and Behavior Problems: An Ecological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Meghan P.; Cappella, Elise; O'Connor, Erin E.; McClowry, Sandee G.

    2013-01-01

    We examined relations between parent involvement and kindergarten students' behavior problems in classrooms with varying levels of teacher emotional support. Multi-informant data were collected on "n" = 255 low-income Black and Hispanic students, and "n" = 60 kindergarten classrooms in the baseline year of an intervention…

  8. Breadth and depth involvement: Understanding Internet gambling involvement and its relationship to gambling problems.

    PubMed

    LaPlante, Debi A; Nelson, Sarah E; Gray, Heather M

    2014-06-01

    The "involvement effect" refers to the finding that controlling for gambling involvement often reduces or eliminates frequently observed game-specific associations with problem gambling. In other words, broader patterns of gambling behavior, particularly the number of types of games played over a defined period, contribute more to problem gambling than playing specific games (e.g., lottery, casino, Internet gambling). This study extends this burgeoning area of inquiry in three primary ways. First, it tests independently and simultaneously the predictive power of two gambling patterns: breadth involvement (i.e., the number of games an individual plays) and depth involvement (i.e., the number of days an individual plays). Second, it includes the first involvement analyses of actual betting activity records that are associated with clinical screening information. Third, it evaluates and compares the linearity of breadth and depth effects. We conducted analyses of the actual gambling activity of 1,440 subscribers to the bwin.party gambling service who completed an online gambling disorder screen. In all, 11 of the 16 games we examined had a significant univariate association with a positive screen for gambling disorder. However, after controlling for breadth involvement, only Live Action Internet sports betting retained a significant relationship with potential gambling-related problems. Depth involvement, though significantly related to potential problems, did not impact game-based gambling disorder associations as much as breadth involvement. Finally, breadth effects appeared steeply linear, with a slight quadratic component manifesting beyond four games played, but depth effects appeared to have a strong linear component and a slight cubic component. PMID:23915365

  9. Longitudinal Modeling of Adolescents' Activity Involvement, Problem Peer Associations, and Youth Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Aaron; Dawes, Nickki; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    Longitudinal associations among different types of organized activity involvement, problem peer associations, and cigarette smoking were examined in a sample of 1,040 adolescents (mean age = 15.62 at baseline, 16.89 at 15-month assessment, 17.59 at 24 months) enriched for smoking experimentation (83% had tried smoking). A structural equation model tested longitudinal paths between three categories of involvement (team sports, school clubs and activities, and religious activities, measured at baseline and 15 months), problem peer associations (baseline and 15 months), and cigarette smoking behavior (baseline and 24 months). Multi-group analyses indicated pathways differed by type of activity and adolescent gender. Boys’ baseline team sports and religious involvement predicted lower levels of smoking at 24 months via continued activity involvement at 15 months. Girls’ involvement in school clubs and activities and religious activities indirectly predicted lower levels of smoking at 24 months via reduced exposure to problem peers at 15 months. PMID:21603061

  10. Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior Problems, Peer Affiliations, and Bullying Involvement across the Transition to Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Irvin, Matthew J.; Motoca, Luci M.; Leung, Man-Chi; Hutchins, Bryan C.; Brooks, Debbie S.; Hall, Cristin M.

    2015-01-01

    Continuity and change in children's involvement in bullying was examined across the transition to middle school in relation to externalizing and internalizing behavior problems in fifth grade and peer affiliations in fifth and sixth grades. The sample consisted of 533 students (223 boys, 310 girls) with 72% European American, 25% African…

  11. The New Workforce Generation: Understanding the Problems Facing Parental Involvement in Jordanian Kindergartens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihmeideh, Fathi; Khasawneh, Samer; Mahfouz, Safi; Khawaldeh, Moustafa

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the problems facing parental involvement in Jordanian kindergartens from the parents' perspectives. A 36-item questionnaire that addressed five domains was designed by the researchers and distributed among the study participants. The study sample consisted of 297 parents of kindergarten children from various…

  12. Longitudinal Modeling of Adolescents' Activity Involvement, Problem Peer Associations, and Youth Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Aaron; Dawes, Nickki; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal associations among different types of organized activity involvement, problem peer associations, and cigarette smoking were examined in a sample of 1040 adolescents (mean age = 15.62 at baseline, 16.89 at 15-month assessment, 17.59 at 24 months) enriched for smoking experimentation (83% had tried smoking). A structural equation model…

  13. [Adolescents previously involved in Satanism: mental health problems experience].

    PubMed

    Heathcote, H; Gmeiner, A; Poggenpoel, M

    1998-03-01

    As far as the phenomena of adolescents previously involved with satanism that experience obstacles in the strive for mental health, no research has previously been done. Adolescents previously involved in satanism, presents behaviour problems like aggressive outbursts depression, "psychosis", or suicide attempts that can even lead to suicide. In the phenomena-analysis semi-structured, phenomenological interviews with the respondents and their parents, were performed. The respondents were requested to write a naive sketch about there life. After the data-control was done, guidelines for nursing staff had been set. The guidelines are set for the management of adolescents that has previously been involved in satanism, and experiences obstacles in their strive for mental health. Interviews with experts in satanism was done, literature in the form of books, magazines and newsclippings were used to verify the findings in the research. The most important guidelines are that: the caregivers have to be reborn Christians; they are not allowed to show, any fear or sympathy; they have to have sufficient knowledge about satanism; the adolescent has to be unconditionally accepted; the caregivers have to work in a team; the adolescents have to be taught to deal with their emotions. PMID:9791342

  14. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism experiencing mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Heathcote, H; Gmeiner, A; Poggenpoel, M

    1999-06-01

    No research has previously been done regarding the phenomenon of adolescents who have previously been involved in Satanism and who experience obstacles in their strive for mental health. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism present behavioral problems like aggressive outbursts, depression, "psychosis" or suicide attempts, that could lead to suicide. In the phenomenon-analysis semi-structured, phenomenological interviews were performed with the respondents and their parents. The respondents were requested to write a naïve sketch about their life. After completion of the data-control, guidelines for nursing staff were set. The guidelines are set for the management of adolescents who have previously been involved in Satanism and who experience obstacles in their strive for mental health. Interviews with experts in Satanism were conducted, literature in the form of books, magazines and newspaper-clippings were used to verify the research findings. The most important guidelines are that the caregivers have to be reborn Christians; they are not allowed to show any fear or sympathy; they must have sufficient knowledge about Satanism; the adolescents have to be unconditionally accepted; the caregivers have to work in a team and the adolescents have to be taught to deal with their emotions. PMID:11040620

  15. Experimental quantum annealing: case study involving the graph isomorphism problem

    PubMed Central

    Zick, Kenneth M.; Shehab, Omar; French, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Quantum annealing is a proposed combinatorial optimization technique meant to exploit quantum mechanical effects such as tunneling and entanglement. Real-world quantum annealing-based solvers require a combination of annealing and classical pre- and post-processing; at this early stage, little is known about how to partition and optimize the processing. This article presents an experimental case study of quantum annealing and some of the factors involved in real-world solvers, using a 504-qubit D-Wave Two machine and the graph isomorphism problem. To illustrate the role of classical pre-processing, a compact Hamiltonian is presented that enables a reduced Ising model for each problem instance. On random N-vertex graphs, the median number of variables is reduced from N2 to fewer than N log2 N and solvable graph sizes increase from N?=?5 to N?=?13. Additionally, error correction via classical post-processing majority voting is evaluated. While the solution times are not competitive with classical approaches to graph isomorphism, the enhanced solver ultimately classified correctly every problem that was mapped to the processor and demonstrated clear advantages over the baseline approach. The results shed some light on the nature of real-world quantum annealing and the associated hybrid classical-quantum solvers. PMID:26053973

  16. Experimental quantum annealing: case study involving the graph isomorphism problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zick, Kenneth M.; Shehab, Omar; French, Matthew

    2015-06-01

    Quantum annealing is a proposed combinatorial optimization technique meant to exploit quantum mechanical effects such as tunneling and entanglement. Real-world quantum annealing-based solvers require a combination of annealing and classical pre- and post-processing; at this early stage, little is known about how to partition and optimize the processing. This article presents an experimental case study of quantum annealing and some of the factors involved in real-world solvers, using a 504-qubit D-Wave Two machine and the graph isomorphism problem. To illustrate the role of classical pre-processing, a compact Hamiltonian is presented that enables a reduced Ising model for each problem instance. On random N-vertex graphs, the median number of variables is reduced from N2 to fewer than N log2 N and solvable graph sizes increase from N?=?5 to N?=?13. Additionally, error correction via classical post-processing majority voting is evaluated. While the solution times are not competitive with classical approaches to graph isomorphism, the enhanced solver ultimately classified correctly every problem that was mapped to the processor and demonstrated clear advantages over the baseline approach. The results shed some light on the nature of real-world quantum annealing and the associated hybrid classical-quantum solvers.

  17. Analyzing the many skills involved in solving complex physics problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Wendy K.; Wieman, Carl E.

    2015-05-01

    We have empirically identified over 40 distinct sub-skills that affect a person's ability to solve complex problems in many different contexts. The identification of so many sub-skills explains why it has been so difficult to teach or assess problem solving as a single skill. The existence of these sub-skills is supported by several studies comparing a wide range of individuals' strengths and weaknesses in these sub-skills, their "problem solving fingerprint," while solving different types of problems including a classical mechanics problem, quantum mechanics problems, and a complex trip-planning problem with no physics. We see clear differences in the problem solving fingerprint of physics and engineering majors compared to the elementary education majors that we tested. The implications of these findings for guiding the teaching and assessing of problem solving in physics instruction are discussed.

  18. Comorbid Problem Gambling and Major Depression in a Community Sample.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Leanne; Yakovenko, Igor; Hodgins, David C; Dobson, Keith S; El-Guebaly, Nady; Casey, David M; Currie, Shawn R; Smith, Garry J; Williams, Robert J; Schopflocher, Don P

    2015-12-01

    Major depression is among the most common comorbid conditions in problem gambling. However, little is known about the effects of comorbid depression on problem gambling. The present study examined the prevalence of current major depression among problem gamblers (N = 105) identified from a community sample of men and women in Alberta, and examined group differences in gambling severity, escape motivation for gambling, family functioning, childhood trauma, and personality traits across problem gamblers with and without comorbid depression. The prevalence of major depression among the sample of problem gamblers was 32.4 %. Compared to problem gamblers without depression (n = 71), problem gamblers with comorbid depression (n = 34) reported more severe gambling problems, greater history of childhood abuse and neglect, poorer family functioning, higher levels of neuroticism, and lower levels of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Furthermore, the problem gamblers with comorbid depression had greater levels of childhood abuse and neglect, worse family functioning, higher neuroticism, and lower agreeableness and conscientiousness than a comparison sample of recreational gamblers with depression (n = 160). These findings underscore the need to address comorbid depression in assessment and treatment of problem gambling and for continued research on how problem gambling is related to frequently co-occurring disorders such as depression. PMID:25112217

  19. Variational stability of optimal control problems involving subdifferential operators

    SciTech Connect

    Tolstonogov, Aleksandr A

    2011-04-30

    This paper is concerned with the problem of minimizing an integral functional with control-nonconvex integrand over the class of solutions of a control system in a Hilbert space subject to a control constraint given by a phase-dependent multivalued map with closed nonconvex values. The integrand, the subdifferential operators, the perturbation term, the initial conditions and the control constraint all depend on a parameter. Along with this problem, the paper considers the problem of minimizing an integral functional with control-convexified integrand over the class of solutions of the original system, but now subject to a convexified control constraint. By a solution of a control system we mean a 'trajectory-control' pair. For each value of the parameter, the convexified problem is shown to have a solution, which is the limit of a minimizing sequence of the original problem, and the minimal value of the functional with the convexified integrand is a continuous function of the parameter. This property is commonly referred to as the variational stability of a minimization problem. An example of a control parabolic system with hysteresis and diffusion effects is considered. Bibliography: 24 titles.

  20. "Our interests are in complex decision problems that involve humans,

    E-print Network

    Zhigilei, Leonid V.

    -scale Adaptive Decision Support Decision-making in complex systems often involves a variety of decisions defined research group is focused on decision-making in complex systems, with emphasis on Bayesian scoring models ­ Fundamental Research on Adaptive Wireless Video Systems. SEAS Re

  1. MORSE Monte Carlo radiation transport code system. [Sample problems

    SciTech Connect

    Emmett, M.B.

    1984-07-02

    For a number of years the MORSE user community has requested additional help in setting up problems using various options. The sample problems distributed with MORSE did not fully demonstrate the capability of the code. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory the code originators had a complete set of sample problems, but funds for documenting and distributing them were never available. Recently the number of requests for listings of input data and results for running some particular option the user was trying to implement has increased to the point where it is not feasible to handle them on an individual basis. Consequently it was decided to package a set of sample problems which illustrates more adequately how to run MORSE. This write-up may be added to Part III of the MORSE report. These sample problems include a combined neutron-gamma case, a neutron only case, a gamma only case, an adjoint case, a fission case, a time-dependent fission case, the collision density case, an XCHEKR run and a PICTUR run.

  2. Some New Twists to Problems Involving the Gaussian Probability Integral

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Marvin K.; Divsalar, Dariush

    1997-01-01

    Using an alternate form of the Gaussian probability integral discovered a number of years ago, it is shown that the solution to a number of previously considered communication problems can be simplified and in some cases made more accurate(i.e., exact rather than bounded).

  3. A few practice midterm problems involving probability Problem 1. A professor has noticed that 40% of the students who regularly

    E-print Network

    Hunter, David

    A few practice midterm problems involving probability Problem 1. A professor has noticed that 40) together, what is the probability of obtaining a total of 3 heads in 10 coin flips of a fair coin? Problem at random. What is the conditional probability that student receives an A, given that he/she regularly

  4. Some open problems in mutual stationarity involving inner model theory: a commentary.

    E-print Network

    Welch, Philip

    Some open problems in mutual stationarity involving inner model theory: a commentary. P are interested here in particular problems in the theory of mutual sta- tionarity as defined by Foreman| mutually stationary if the following set

  5. An Experience Sampling Study of PTSD and Alcohol Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Gaher, Raluca M.; Simons, Jeffrey S.; Hahn, Nicole L; Hofman, Jamie Hansen; Hofman, Jamie Hansen; Buchkoski, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) represents a debilitating psychiatric condition that is affecting the lives of many returning veterans. PTSD and alcohol use and dependence are highly comorbid. The purpose of this study was to understand the functional mechanisms between PTSD and alcohol use and problems. Specifically, the role of negative urgency and emotional intelligence were investigated as vulnerability and resiliency factors, respectively. This study utilized experience sampling to test associations between PTSD symptoms and alcohol use and related problems in a sample of 90 OIF/OEF veterans. Participants completed eight brief questionnaires daily for two weeks on palmtop computers. Elevations in PTSD symptoms during the day were associated with subsequent increases in alcohol use and associated problems that night. PTSD symptoms were associated with greater problems above and beyond the effect of drinking level at both the within- and between- person level. Emotional intelligence was associated with lower negative urgency, fewer PTSD symptoms, and less alcohol use and associated problems. The effects of emotional intelligence were primarily indirect via negative urgency and the effects of negative urgency on alcohol use and problems were indirect via its positive association with PTSD symptoms. Hypothesized cross-level effects of emotional intelligence and negative urgency were not supported. The findings suggest a functional association between PTSD symptoms and alcohol consumption. The association between PTSD symptoms and alcohol consumption is consistent with a self-medication model. However, the significant associations between PTSD symptoms and alcohol problems, after controlling for use level, suggest a broader role of dysregulation. PMID:25134021

  6. Problems of sampling and radiation balances: Their problematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crommelynck, D.

    1980-01-01

    Problems associated with the measurement of the Earth radiation balances are addressed. It is demonstrated that the knowledge of the different radiation budgets with their components is largely dependent on the space time sampling of the radiation field of the Earth atmosphere system. Whichever instrumental approach is adopted (wide angle view of high resolution) it affects the space time integration of the fluxes measured directly or calculated. In this case the necessary knowledge of the reflection pattern depends in addition on the angular sampling of the radiances. A series of questions is considered, the answers of which are a prerequisite to the the organization of a global observation system.

  7. Math 435 Number Theory I Sample ProblemsMidterm 2

    E-print Network

    Marker, David

    for this material is on the webpage http://www.math.uic.edu/marker/math435/435comp.pdf http://www.math.uic.edu/marker/math435/rm.pdf I have also posted a list of key concepts and results that you should be familiar with http://www.math.uic.edu/marker/mathMath 435 Number Theory I Sample Problems­Midterm 2 Midterm 2 will cover chapters 4­7.4 of Jones

  8. Association between Parental Involvement in School and Child Conduct, Social, and Internalizing Problems: Teacher Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkhaug, Bente; Drugli, May Britt; Klockner, Christian A.; Morch, Willy-Tore

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the factor structure of the Teacher Involvement Questionnaire (Involve-T) by means of exploratory factor analysis and examined the association between children's socio-emotional and behavioural problems and teacher-reported parental involvement in school, using structural equation modelling. The study was conducted with…

  9. Reference range determination: the problem of small sample sizes.

    PubMed

    Leslie, W D; Greenberg, I D

    1991-12-01

    The process of developing and validating a quantitative test includes determination of a reference range. Traditionally this has been taken as the mean +/- 2 standard deviations for a random sampling from a reference population. However, this method fails to recognize the substantial variability in the sample mean and standard deviation for the small sample sizes frequently encountered in nuclear medicine. A new approach, which involves calculating confidence intervals for the upper and lower bounds of the traditionally defined range, recognizes three ranges of values: normal, indeterminate, and abnormal. The principles of this approach are illustrated using differential renal function in twelve renal transplant donors. The 99mTc-DTPA differential uptake between 1 and 2 min gave a traditionally-defined single-kidney range of 50% +/- 8%, whereas with our method the normal range would be 50% +/- 6% with indeterminate ranges of 37%-44% and 56%-63%. These values are consistent with the wide variation in reference ranges reported in the literature, and suggest that much of this variability may be a statistical artifact resulting from inadequate sample sizes. A nomogram has been derived that permits the power of the reference range determination to be easily calculated from the sample size. Analysis of the effect of sample size on the accuracy of the upper and lower bounds of the reference range is advocated whenever small reference populations are used. PMID:1744721

  10. Psychosocial Correlates of Marijuana Use and Problem Drinking in a National Sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jessor, Richard; Chase, James A.; Donovan, John E.

    1980-01-01

    Personality, environmental, and behavioral variables representing psychosocial risk factors for adolescent problem behavior were assessed in a 1974 national sample study of over 10,000 junior and senior high school students. Significant correlations were found with marijuana use, and the relationships held across differences in age, sex, and ethnic group membership. Greater involvement in marijuana use was associated with greater value on independence than on academic achievement, lower expectations for academic achievement, lesser religiosity, greater tolerance of deviance, less compatibility between friends and parents, greater influence of friends relative to parents, greater models and support for problem behavior, greater actual involvement in other problem behaviors such as drunkenness, and less involvement in conventional behavior such as attending church. Multiple regression analyses show that this pattern of psychosocial correlates accounts for over 50 per cent of the variation in marijuana use. The pattern is nearly identical to the pattern that accounts for problem drinking in these same adolescents. The similarity of the patterns of psychosocial risk, and the substantial correlations of marijuana use with problem drinking and with other problem behaviors, suggest that marijuana use is best seen as part of a syndrome of adolescent problem behavior. (Am J Public Health 70:604- 613,1980.) PMID:7377436

  11. Parabolic equation solution of seismo-acoustics problems involving variations in bathymetry and sediment thickness

    E-print Network

    Parabolic equation solution of seismo-acoustics problems involving variations in bathymetry to extend this approach to a larger class of seismo-acoustics problems. The variable rotated parabolic on improving accuracy for range-dependent seismo-acoustics problems. The introduction of the ur,w formulation,6

  12. First Evidence of Comorbidity of Problem Gambling and Other Psychiatric Problems in a Representative Urban Sample of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Carla; Dellis, Andrew; Hofmeyr, Andre; Kincaid, Harold; Ross, Don

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the extent to which problem gambling in a recent South African sample, as measured by the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI), is comorbid with depression, anxiety and substance abuse. Data are from the 2010 South African National Urban Prevalence Study of Gambling Behavior. A representative sample of the urban adult population in South Africa (N = 3,000). Responses to the 9-item PGSI and ratings on the Beck Depression Index, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the World Health Organization Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Tool (WHO ASSIST). Cross tabulations and Chi square analyses along with logistic regression analyses with and without controls for socio-demographic and/or socio-economic variables were used to identify comorbidities. The prevalence of depression, anxiety, alcohol and substance use were clearly higher among the sample at risk for problem gambling. Black African racial status and living in areas characterized by migrant mining workers was associated with increased risk of problem gambling and comorbidities. There is strong evidence that findings of comorbidities between pathological gambling and depression, anxiety and substance abuse in developed countries generalize to the developing country of South Africa. Historical context, however, gives those comorbidities a unique demographic distribution. PMID:24927870

  13. Child Involvement in Interparental Conflict and Child Adjustment Problems: A Longitudinal Study of Violent Families

    PubMed Central

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee; Mueller, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether child involvement in interparental conflict predicts child externalizing and internalizing problems in violent families. Participants were 119 families (mothers and children) recruited from domestic violence shelters. One child between the ages of 7 and 10 years in each family (50 female, 69 male) completed measures of involvement in their parents’ conflicts, externalizing problems, and internalizing problems. Mothers completed measures of child externalizing and internalizing problems, and physical intimate partner violence. Measures were completed at three assessments, spaced 6 months apart. Results indicated that children’s involvement in their parents’ conflicts was positively associated with child adjustment problems. These associations emerged in between-subjects and within-subjects analyses, and for child externalizing as well as internalizing problems, even after controlling for the influence of physical intimate partner violence. In addition, child involvement in parental conflicts predicted later child reports of externalizing problems, but child reports of externalizing problems did not predict later involvement in parental conflicts. These findings highlight the importance of considering children’s involvement in their parents’ conflicts in theory and clinical work pertaining to high-conflict families. PMID:24249486

  14. Effect of scaffolding on helping introductory physics students solve quantitative problems involving strong alternative conceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that introductory physics students often have alternative conceptions that are inconsistent with established physical principles and concepts. Invoking alternative conceptions in the quantitative problem-solving process can derail the entire process. In order to help students solve quantitative problems involving strong alternative conceptions correctly, appropriate scaffolding support can be helpful. The goal of this study is to examine how different scaffolding supports involving analogical problem-solving influence introductory physics students' performance on a target quantitative problem in a situation where many students' solution process is derailed due to alternative conceptions. Three different scaffolding supports were designed and implemented in calculus-based and algebra-based introductory physics courses involving 410 students to evaluate the level of scaffolding needed to help students learn from an analogical problem that is similar in the underlying principles involved but for which the problem-solving process is not derailed by alternative conceptions. We found that for the quantitative problem involving strong alternative conceptions, simply guiding students to work through the solution of the analogical problem first was not enough to help most students discern the similarity between the two problems. However, if additional scaffolding supports that directly helped students examine and repair their knowledge elements involving alternative conceptions were provided, e.g., by guiding students to contemplate related issues and asking them to solve the targeted problem on their own first before learning from the analogical problem provided, students were more likely to discern the underlying similarities between the problems and avoid getting derailed by alternative conceptions when solving the targeted problem. We also found that some scaffolding supports were more effective in the calculus-based course than in the algebra-based course. This finding emphasizes the fact that appropriate scaffolding support which is commensurate with students' prior knowledge and skills must be determined via research in order to be effective.

  15. Advanced Curation: Solving Current and Future Sample Return Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fries, M.; Calaway, M.; Evans, C.; McCubbin, F.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Curation is a wide-ranging and comprehensive research and development effort at NASA Johnson Space Center that identifies and remediates sample related issues. For current collections, Advanced Curation investigates new cleaning, verification, and analytical techniques to assess their suitability for improving curation processes. Specific needs are also assessed for future sample return missions. For each need, a written plan is drawn up to achieve the requirement. The plan draws while upon current Curation practices, input from Curators, the analytical expertise of the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) team, and suitable standards maintained by ISO, IEST, NIST and other institutions. Additionally, new technologies are adopted on the bases of need and availability. Implementation plans are tested using customized trial programs with statistically robust courses of measurement, and are iterated if necessary until an implementable protocol is established. Upcoming and potential NASA missions such as OSIRIS-REx, the Asteroid Retrieval Mission (ARM), sample return missions in the New Frontiers program, and Mars sample return (MSR) all feature new difficulties and specialized sample handling requirements. The Mars 2020 mission in particular poses a suite of challenges since the mission will cache martian samples for possible return to Earth. In anticipation of future MSR, the following problems are among those under investigation: What is the most efficient means to achieve the less than 1.0 ng/sq cm total organic carbon (TOC) cleanliness required for all sample handling hardware? How do we maintain and verify cleanliness at this level? The Mars 2020 Organic Contamination Panel (OCP) predicts that organic carbon, if present, will be present at the "one to tens" of ppb level in martian near-surface samples. The same samples will likely contain wt% perchlorate salts, or approximately 1,000,000x as much perchlorate oxidizer as organic carbon. The chemical kinetics of this reaction are poorly understood at present under the conditions of cached or curated martian samples. Among other parameters, what is the maximum temperature allowed during storage in order to preserve native martian organic compounds for analysis? What is the best means to collect headspace gases from cached martian (and other) samples? This gas will contain not only martian atmosphere but also off-gassed volatiles from the cached solids.

  16. Sampling problems: The small scale structure of precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, R. K.

    1981-01-01

    The quantitative measurement of precipitation characteristics for any area on the surface of the Earth is not an easy task. Precipitation is rather variable in both space and time, and the distribution of surface rainfall data given location typically is substantially skewed. There are a number of precipitation process at work in the atmosphere, and few of them are well understood. The formal theory on sampling and estimating precipitation appears considerably deficient. Little systematic attention is given to nonsampling errors that always arise in utilizing any measurement system. Although the precipitation measurement problem is an old one, it continues to be one that is in need of systematic and careful attention. A brief history of the presently competing measurement technologies should aid us in understanding the problem inherent in this measurement task.

  17. Defining the Mars Ascent Problem for Sample Return

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J

    2008-07-31

    Lifting geology samples off of Mars is both a daunting technical problem for propulsion experts and a cultural challenge for the entire community that plans and implements planetary science missions. The vast majority of science spacecraft require propulsive maneuvers that are similar to what is done routinely with communication satellites, so most needs have been met by adapting hardware and methods from the satellite industry. While it is even possible to reach Earth from the surface of the moon using such traditional technology, ascending from the surface of Mars is beyond proven capability for either solid or liquid propellant rocket technology. Miniature rocket stages for a Mars ascent vehicle would need to be over 80 percent propellant by mass. It is argued that the planetary community faces a steep learning curve toward nontraditional propulsion expertise, in order to successfully accomplish a Mars sample return mission. A cultural shift may be needed to accommodate more technical risk acceptance during the technology development phase.

  18. On the continuous dependence with respect to sampling of the linear quadratic regulator problem for distributed parameter systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, I. G.; Wang, C.

    1990-01-01

    The convergence of solutions to the discrete or sampled time linear quadratic regulator problem and associated Riccati equation for infinite dimensional systems to the solutions to the corresponding continuous time problem and equation, as the length of the sampling interval (the sampling rate) tends toward zero (infinity) is established. Both the finite and infinite time horizon problems are studied. In the finite time horizon case, strong continuity of the operators which define the control system and performance index together with a stability and consistency condition on the sampling scheme are required. For the infinite time horizon problem, in addition, the sampled systems must be stabilizable and detectable, uniformly with respect to the sampling rate. Classes of systems for which this condition can be verified are discussed. Results of numerical studies involving the control of a heat/diffusion equation, a hereditary of delay system, and a flexible beam are presented and discussed.

  19. Examining Masculinity Norms, Problem Drinking, and Athletic Involvement as Predictors of Sexual Aggression in College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Benjamin D.; Mahalik, James R.

    2005-01-01

    Male sexual aggression toward women is a serious social problem, particularly on college campuses. In this study, college men's sexually aggressive behavior and rape myth acceptance were examined using conformity to 11 masculine norms and 2 variables previously linked to sexual aggression: problem drinking and athletic involvement. Results…

  20. Some open problems in mutual stationarity involving inner model theory: a commentary.

    E-print Network

    Welch, Philip

    Some open problems in mutual stationarity involving inner model theory: a commentary. P are interested here in particular problems in the theory of mutual sta- tionarity as de#12;ned by Foreman, with S#11; #18; #20;#11; \\ cof #21; (#21; mutually stationary if the following set

  1. Family Involvement in Preschool Education: Rationale, Problems and Solutions for the Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocyigit, Sinan

    2015-01-01

    This aim of this study is to examine the views of teachers, administrators and parents about the problems that emerge during family involvement in preschool activities and solutions for these problems. The participants were 10 teachers, 10 parents and 10 administrators from 4 preschools and 6 kindergartens in the Palandöken and Yakutiye districts…

  2. Convergence of infinite dimensional sampled LQR problems - Theory and numerical results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, I. G.; Wang, C.

    1989-01-01

    A theory is developed for the convergence of the closed-loop solution to infinite-dimensional discrete-time linear-quadratic regulator (LQR) problems on the infinite time interval to the solution of a corresponding continuous-time LQR problem as the length of the sampling interval tends toward zero. Convergence of solutions to the operator algebraic Riccati equation and corresponding optimal feedback control gains is guaranteed under appropriate uniform stabilizability and detectability conditions and consistent sampling. Also presented are numerical results involving the optimal LQ control of a heat or diffusion equation, a hereditary or delay differential equation, and a hybrid system of ordinary and partial differential equations describing the transverse vibration of a cantilevered Voigt-Kelvin viscoelastic beam with tip mass.

  3. Short-term trajectories of substance use in a sample of drug-involved probationers.

    PubMed

    Caudy, Michael S; Tang, Liansheng; Wooditch, Alese; Taxman, Faye S

    2014-02-01

    The current study estimates trajectories of illegal substance use in a sample of 251 drug-involved probationers to identify risk profiles that predict group membership and explores the impact of treatment participation across these trajectories. Trajectory analyses reveal five patterns of drug use during probation supervision. Age and the use of hard drugs are identified as the strongest predictors of involvement in illicit drug use while on probation. The effect of participation in substance use treatment varies across treatment settings and trajectory groups. Prior research has tended to treat drug abusers as a homogeneous population, but the current study findings suggest considerable heterogeneity amongst drug users involved in the criminal justice system. Identifying trajectories of drug use during supervision can help identify individuals who may be more likely to persist in drug use, can inform practice by identifying individuals in need of more intensive treatment services, and can assist in developing new drug treatment strategies. PMID:23953166

  4. Short-term Trajectories of Substance Use in a sample of Drug-involved Probationers

    PubMed Central

    Caudy, Michael S.; Tang, Liansheng; Wooditch, Alese; Taxman, Faye S.

    2013-01-01

    The current study estimates trajectories of illegal substance use in a sample of 251 drug-involved probationers to identify risk profiles that predict group membership and explores the impact of treatment participation across these trajectories. Trajectory analyses reveal five patterns of drug use during probation supervision. Age and the use of hard drugs are identified as the strongest predictors of involvement in illicit drug use while on probation. The effect of participation in substance use treatment varies across treatment settings and trajectory groups. Prior research has tended to treat drug abusers as a homogeneous population, but the current study findings suggest considerable heterogeneity amongst drug users involved in the criminal justice system. Identifying trajectories of drug use during supervision can help identify individuals who may be more likely to persist in drug use, can inform practice by identifying individuals in need of more intensive treatment services, and can assist in developing new drug treatment strategies. PMID:23953166

  5. Sample Problems for Exam 3 Course : Introduction to Probability and Statistics, Math 113 Section 3234

    E-print Network

    Champanerkar, Abhijit

    Sample Problems for Exam 3 Course : Introduction to Probability and Statistics, Math 113 Section 26th. · Best way to prepare for the midterm is to solve the Sample problems and MyStatLab problems. 1 to pass the exam ? 4. Normal distribution (Draw pictures to solve the problems) (a) In a standard normal

  6. Risky Alcohol Use, Peer and Family Relationships and Legal Involvement in Adolescents with Antisocial Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ybrandt, Helene

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine risk and vulnerability factors contributing to problems with alcohol use in adolescence. Data relating to seven life areas (medical status, school status, social relationships, family background and relationships, psychological functioning, legal involvement, and alcohol use) was gathered using the ADAD…

  7. Behaviour Problems across Home and Kindergarten in an Australian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Maite; Little, Emma

    2005-01-01

    The current study examined the extent to which kindergarten children display behaviour problems in the clinical range at both home and kindergarten. Differences and similarities between parents' and teachers' responses to misbehaviour were also assessed. The co-occurrence of problems at home and kindergarten was assessed using the Preschool and…

  8. Sample problems on linear algebra and probability Use these problems to prepare for the final. Some of these problems, or similar

    E-print Network

    Timorin, Vladlen

    Sample problems on linear algebra and probability Use these problems to prepare for the final. Some over [0, 1]. Find the distribution function and the probability density for max(X, Y 2 ). Problem 3 distribution over [-1, 1]. What is the probability that the roots of this quadratic equation are real? Problem

  9. Hybrid transfinite element modeling/analysis of nonlinear heat conduction problems involving phase change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamma, Kumar K.; Railkar, Sudhir B.

    1988-01-01

    The present paper describes the applicability of hybrid transfinite element modeling/analysis formulations for nonlinear heat conduction problems involving phase change. The methodology is based on application of transform approaches and classical Galerkin schemes with finite element formulations to maintain the modeling versatility and numerical features for computational analysis. In addition, in conjunction with the above, the effects due to latent heat are modeled using enthalpy formulations to enable a physically realistic approximation to be dealt computationally for materials exhibiting phase change within a narrow band of temperatures. Pertinent details of the approach and computational scheme adapted are described in technical detail. Numerical test cases of comparative nature are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed formulations for numerical modeling/analysis of nonlinear heat conduction problems involving phase change.

  10. An empirical coverage test for the g-sample problem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orlowski, L.A.; Grundy, W.D.; Mielke, P.W., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A nonparametric g-sample empirical coverage test has recently been developed for univariate continuous data. It is based upon the empirical coverages which are spacings of multiple random samples. The test is capable of detecting any distributional differences which may exist among the parent populations, without additional assumptions beyond randomness and continuity. The test can be effective with the limited and/or unequal sample sizes most often encountered in geologic studies. A computer program for implementing this procedure, G-SECT 1, is available. ?? 1991 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  11. Sampling-based algorithms for optimal path planning problems

    E-print Network

    Karaman, Sertac

    2012-01-01

    Sampling-based motion planning received increasing attention during the last decade. In particular, some of the leading paradigms, such the Probabilistic RoadMap (PRM) and the Rapidly-exploring Random Tree (RRT) algorithms, ...

  12. Involvement in Child Rearing and Firm Control Parenting by Male Cohabiting Partners in Black Low-Income Stepfamilies: Forecasting Adolescent Problem Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin; Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan; Lafko, Nicole

    2015-09-01

    Cohabitation is a family structure that is rapidly increasing in the United States. The current longitudinal study examined the interplay of involvement in a youth's daily activities and firm control parenting by male cohabiting partners (MCPs) on change in adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems. In a sample of 111 inner-city African American families, adolescents reported on involvement and parenting by MCPs at Wave 1 and biological mothers reported on adolescent problem behaviors at Waves 1 and 2. A significant interaction indicated that low involvement and low firm control by MCPs at Wave 1 were associated with the highest level of internalizing problems at Wave 2. An interaction did not emerge when externalizing problems served as the outcome. The findings indicate that male partners play an important role in parenting adolescents in cohabiting families and should be considered potential participants in prevention and intervention programs. PMID:26007695

  13. Communication Problems in Turner Syndrome: A Sample Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Borsel, John; Dhooge, Inge; Verhoye, Kristof; Derde, Kristel; Curfs, Leopold

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 128 females (ages 2-58) with Turner syndrome found almost one quarter were receiving or had received treatment for stuttering, articulation problems, and/or delayed language development, with the latter two disorders being checked most frequently. Only 4 or the 68 individuals receiving growth hormone treatment reported voice changes.…

  14. Determination of ethyl glucuronide in hair: a rapid sample pretreatment involving simultaneous milling and extraction.

    PubMed

    Mönch, Bettina; Becker, Roland; Nehls, Irene

    2014-01-01

    A combination of simultaneous milling and extraction known as micropulverized extraction was developed for the quantification of the alcohol marker ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair samples using a homogeneous reference material and a mixer mill. Best extraction results from 50 mg of hair were obtained with 2-mL plastic tubes containing two steel balls (? = 5 mm), 0.5 mL of water and with an oscillating frequency of 30 s(-1) over a period of 30 min. EtG was quantified employing a validated GC-MS procedure involving derivatization with pentafluoropropionic acid anhydride. This micropulverization procedure was compared with dry milling followed by separate aqueous extraction and with aqueous extraction after manual cutting to millimeter-size snippets. Micropulverization yielded 28.0?±?1.70 pg/mg and was seen to be superior to manually cutting (23.0?±?0.83 pg/mg) and equivalent to dry grinding (27.7?±?1.71 pg/mg) with regard to completeness of EtG extraction. The option to process up to 20 samples simultaneously makes micropulverization especially valuable for the high throughput of urgent samples. PMID:24221575

  15. Greater involvement and diversity of Internet gambling as a risk factor for problem gambling

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Alex; Blaszczynski, Alex; Hing, Nerilee

    2015-01-01

    Background: Concerns that Internet gambling has elevated the prevalence of problem gambling have not been substantiated; however, evidence suggests a subgroup of Internet gamblers do experience higher rates of gambling harms. Greater overall involvement in gambling appears to be predictive of harms. The purpose of this study was to examine differences between Internet gamblers with a single or multiple online gambling accounts, including their gambling behaviours, factors influencing their online gambling and risk of experiencing gambling problems. Methods: Internet gamblers (3178) responding to an online survey that assessed their gambling behaviour, and use of single or multiple online gambling accounts. Results: Results revealed that multiple account holders were more involved gamblers, gambling on more activities and more frequently, and had higher rates of gambling problems than single account holders. Multiple account holders selected gambling sites based on price, betting options, payout rates and game experience, whereas single account holders prioritized legality and consumer protection features. Conclusion: Results suggest two different types of Internet gamblers: one motivated to move between sites to optimize preferred experiences with a tendency to gamble in a more volatile manner; and a smaller, but more stable group less influenced by promotions and experiences, and seeking a reputable and safe gambling experience. As the majority of Internet gamblers use multiple accounts, more universal responsible gambling strategies are needed to assist gamblers to track and control their expenditure to reduce risks of harm. PMID:25745873

  16. Propionibacterium acnes populations involved in deep pathological samples and their dynamics along the cardiac surgical pathway.

    PubMed

    Romano-Bertrand, S; Beretta, M; Jean-Pierre, H; Frapier, J-M; Calvet, B; Parer, S; Jumas-Bilak, E

    2015-02-01

    Propionibacterium acnes belongs to the normal skin microbiota, but it is also responsible for acne vulgaris and causes serious infections such as endocarditis and surgical site infections (SSI). The P. acnes population is structured into phylogenetic groups, with phylotype I being associated with acne. Herein, we explore the link between phylotypes and clinical origins in a collection of P. acnes isolated from different body sites, involved in deep infections or healthcare-associated infections (HAI), with particular emphasis on strains from cardiac SSI. Cardiac SSI have been further studied in terms of P. acnes population dynamics during the care pathway. The recA and tly genes phylotypes were compared to hemolytic behavior, susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, and clinical origins. An original approach of recA polymerase chain reaction temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (PCR-TTGE) was developed and applied for the direct identification of P. acnes phylotypes in surgical samples, in order to assess their temporal dynamics during the surgical course. Our results underlined the preferential involvement of IA-2/IB and II phylogroups in HAI and SSI. Unlike IA and II, type IA-2/IB presented a gradual increase with the depth of sampling in the peroperative phase of cardiac surgery. Phylotypes IA and IA-2/IB were both predominant in scar tissues and on postoperative skin, suggesting a specific predisposition to recolonize skin. Particular association of the phylotype IA-2/IB with SSI and its propensity to colonize wounds in cardiac surgery was observed. We assumed that the follow-up of P. acnes phylotypes during pathological processes could give new clues for P. acnes pathogenicity. PMID:25169966

  17. NASTRAN thermal analyzer: Theory and application including a guide to modeling engineering problems, volume 2. [sample problem library guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, C. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A sample problem library containing 20 problems covering most facets of Nastran Thermal Analyzer modeling is presented. Areas discussed include radiative interchange, arbitrary nonlinear loads, transient temperature and steady-state structural plots, temperature-dependent conductivities, simulated multi-layer insulation, and constraint techniques. The use of the major control options and important DMAP alters is demonstrated.

  18. Near-optimal, asymptotic tracking in control problems involving state-variable inequality constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markopoulos, N.; Calise, A. J.

    1993-01-01

    The class of all piecewise time-continuous controllers tracking a given hypersurface in the state space of a dynamical system can be split by the present transformation technique into two disjoint classes; while the first of these contains all controllers which track the hypersurface in finite time, the second contains all controllers that track the hypersurface asymptotically. On this basis, a reformulation is presented for optimal control problems involving state-variable inequality constraints. If the state constraint is regarded as 'soft', there may exist controllers which are asymptotic, two-sided, and able to yield the optimal value of the performance index.

  19. A numerical treatment of geodynamic viscous flow problems involving the advection of material interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenardic, A.; Kaula, W. M.

    1993-01-01

    Effective numerical treatment of multicomponent viscous flow problems involving the advection of sharp interfaces between materials of differing physical properties requires correction techniques to prevent spurious diffusion and dispersion. We develop a particular algorithm, based on modern shock-capture techniques, employing a two-step nonlinear method. The first step involves the global application of a high-order upwind scheme to a hyperbolic advection equation used to model the distribution of distinct material components in a flow field. The second step is corrective and involves the application of a global filter designed to remove dispersion errors that result from the advection of discontinuities (e.g., material interfaces) by high-order, minimally dissipative schemes. The filter introduces no additional diffusion error. Nonuniform viscosity across a material interface is allowed for by the implementation of a compositionally weighted-inverse interface viscosity scheme. The combined method approaches the optimal accuracy of modern shock-capture techniques with a minimal increase in computational time and memory. A key advantage of this method is its simplicity to incorporate into preexisting codes be they finite difference, element, or volume of two or three dimensions.

  20. Stability and storage problems in organotin speciation in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Ariza, J L; Giráldez, I; Morales, E; Ariese, F; Cofino, W; Quevauviller, P

    1999-04-01

    The stability of both tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) in water, sediment, oysters and cockles was studied over a period of 18 months using several storage conditions. Butyltins were stable in unacidified sea-water stored in polycarbonate bottles in the dark at 4 degrees C for 7 months, but half of the TBT concentration was lost after 540 d. A comparable preservation time was achieved for butyltins stored on C18 cartridges at room temperature. However, phenyltins extracted from sea-water were stable for only 60 d stored on cartridges and even more pronounced losses (about 90% after 540 d) occurred when they were stored in either polycarbonate or Pyrex glass bottles. Losses of organotins were observed in sediments after air drying and pasteurization treatments using a freeze-dried sediment as a comparator, whereas both butyltin and phenyltin species remained stable in sediments stored at -20 degrees C for the 18 months tested, irrespective of the treatment used for stabilization. Air drying followed by pasteurization was shown to be superior to other treatments for the stabilization of organotin compounds in sediments stored at higher temperatures, but 30% of TBT was lost after 540 d at 25 degrees C. Finally, butyltins were stable in both frozen cockles and oysters in the dark over a 7 month period and in freeze-dried samples stored at 4 degrees C for 5 months, but TBT losses of about 70% were observed after 540 d. PMID:11529100

  1. A hybrid computer program for rapidly solving flowing or static chemical kinetic problems involving many chemical species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclain, A. G.; Rao, C. S. R.

    1976-01-01

    A hybrid chemical kinetic computer program was assembled which provides a rapid solution to problems involving flowing or static, chemically reacting, gas mixtures. The computer program uses existing subroutines for problem setup, initialization, and preliminary calculations and incorporates a stiff ordinary differential equation solution technique. A number of check cases were recomputed with the hybrid program and the results were almost identical to those previously obtained. The computational time saving was demonstrated with a propane-oxygen-argon shock tube combustion problem involving 31 chemical species and 64 reactions. Information is presented to enable potential users to prepare an input data deck for the calculation of a problem.

  2. Bootstrapping in a high dimensional but very low sample size problem 

    E-print Network

    Song, Juhee

    2006-08-16

    High Dimension, Low Sample Size (HDLSS) problems have received much attention recently in many areas of science. Analysis of microarray experiments is one such area. Numerous studies are on-going to investigate the behavior of genes by measuring...

  3. TOPAZ - the transient one-dimensional pipe flow analyzer: code validation and sample problems

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, W.S.

    1985-10-01

    TOPAZ is a ''user friendly'' computer code for modeling the one-dimensional-transient physics of multi-species gas transfer in arbitrary arrangements of pipes, valves, vessels, and flow branches. This document presents a series of sample problems designed to aid potential users in creating TOPAZ input files. To the extent possible, sample problems were selected for which analytical solutions currently exist. TOPAZ comparisons with such solutions are intended to provide a measure of code validation.

  4. Energy and the Confused Student V: The Energy/Momentum Approach to Problems Involving Rotating and Deformable Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewett, John W., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Energy is a critical concept in physics problem-solving, but is often a major source of confusion for students if the presentation is not carefully crafted by the instructor or the textbook. A common approach to problems involving deformable or rotating systems that has been discussed in the literature is to employ the work-kinetic energy theorem…

  5. A Model for Predicting Behavioural Sleep Problems in a Random Sample of Australian Pre-Schoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Wendy A.; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Silburn, Sven R.; Parsons, Deborah E.; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J.

    2007-01-01

    Behavioural sleep problems (childhood insomnias) can cause distress for both parents and children. This paper reports a model describing predictors of high sleep problem scores in a representative population-based random sample survey of non-Aboriginal singleton children born in 1995 and 1996 (1085 girls and 1129 boys) in Western Australia.…

  6. The k-Sample Problem When k is Large and n Small 

    E-print Network

    Zhan, Dongling

    2012-07-16

    The k-sample problem, i.e., testing whether two or more data sets come from the same population, is a classic one in statistics. Instead of having a small number of k groups of samples, this dissertation works on a large number of p groups...

  7. Entropy and information in neural spike trains: Progress on the sampling problem Ilya Nemenman,1,

    E-print Network

    Field, David

    Entropy and information in neural spike trains: Progress on the sampling problem Ilya Nemenman,1 is the reliable estimation of entropy-like quantities from small samples. We apply a recently introduced Bayesian entropy estimator to synthetic data inspired by experiments, and to real experimental spike trains

  8. A HUPO test sample study reveals common problems in mass spectrometrybased proteomics

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    A HUPO test sample study reveals common problems in mass spectrometry­based proteomics Alexander W chromatography­mass spectrometry­based proteomics. We distributed an equimolar test sample, comprising 20 highly determined missed identifications (false negatives), environmental contamination, database matching

  9. Problem Gambling and the Youth-to-Adulthood Transition: Assessing Problem Gambling Severity Trajectories in a Sample of Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Edgerton, Jason D; Melnyk, Timothy S; Roberts, Lance W

    2015-12-01

    In this study, using four wave longitudinal data, we examined problem gambling severity trajectories in a sample of young adults. Using latent growth curve modeling, we examined how initial level of problem gambling severity and the rate of change were affected by 11 time-invariant predictors: gender, age of onset of gambling, experiencing a big win early in gambling career, experiencing a big loss early in gambling career, alcohol dependence, drug dependence, anxiety, depression, perceived social support, illusion of control, and impulsiveness. Five of the eleven predictors affected initial levels of problem gambling severity; however only impulsiveness affected the rate of change across time. The mean trajectory was negative (lessening of problem gambling risk severity across time), but there was significant inter-individual variation in trajectories and initial levels of problem gambling severity. The main finding of problem gambling risk diminishing over time challenges the conventional picture of problem gambling as an inevitable "downward spiral," at least among young adults, and suggests that targeted prevention campaigns may be a cost-effective alternative for reaching treatment resistant youth. PMID:25260900

  10. Extremality Conditions and Regularity of Solutions to Optimal Partition Problems Involving Laplacian Eigenvalues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Miguel; Tavares, Hugo; Terracini, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    Let {? subset {R}^N} be an open bounded domain and {m in {N} . Given {k_1,ldots,k_m in {N} , we consider a wide class of optimal partition problems involving Dirichlet eigenvalues of elliptic operators, of the following form inf{F({?_{k1}(?_1),ldots,?_{k_m}(?_m)): (?_1,ldots, ?_m) in {P}_m(?)}, where {?_{k_i}(?_i)} denotes the k i -th eigenvalue of {(-?,H10(?_i))} counting multiplicities, and {P}_m(?)} is the set of all open partitions of {?} , namely {P}_m(?)={(?_1, ldots, ?_m):?_i subset ? open, ?i \\cap?_j=emptyset forall i ? j }. While the existence of a quasi-open optimal partition {(?_1,ldots, ?_m)} follows from a general result by uc(Bucur), uc(Buttazzo) and uc(Henrot) [Adv Math Sci Appl 8(2):571-579, 1998], the aim of this paper is to associate with such minimal partitions and their eigenfunctions some suitable extremality conditions and to exploit them, proving as well the Lipschitz continuity of some eigenfunctions, and the regularity of the partition in the sense that the free boundary {\\cup_{i=1}^m partial ?i \\cap ?} is, up to a residual set, locally a {C^{1,?} hypersurface. This last result extends the ones in the paper by uc(Caffarelli) and uc(Lin) [J Sci Comput 31(1-2):5-18, 2007] to the case of higher eigenvalues.

  11. Fracture Mechanics implications for apparent static friction coefficient in contact problems involving slip-weakening laws

    E-print Network

    A. Papangelo; M. Ciavarella; J. R. Barber

    2015-06-19

    We consider the effect of differing coefficients of static and dynamic friction coefficients on the behaviour of contacts involving microslip. The classic solutions of Cattaneo and Mindlin are unchanged if the transition in coefficients is abrupt, but if it occurs over some small slip distance, the solution has some mathematical similarities with those governing the normal tractions in adhesive contact problems. In particular, if the transition to dynamic slip occurs over a sufficiently small area, we can identify a `JKR' approximation, where the transition region is condensed to a line. A local singularity in shear traction is then predicted, with a stress-intensity factor that is proportional to the the square root of the local contact pressure and to a certain integral of the friction coefficient-slip distance relation. We can also define an equivalent of the `small-scale yielding' criterion, which enables us to assess when the singular solution provides a good approximation. One consequence of the results is that the static coefficient of friction determined from force measurements in experiments is significantly smaller than the value that holds at the microscale.

  12. Hybrid nested sampling algorithm for Bayesian model selection applied to inverse subsurface flow problems

    SciTech Connect

    Elsheikh, Ahmed H.; Wheeler, Mary F.; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2014-02-01

    A Hybrid Nested Sampling (HNS) algorithm is proposed for efficient Bayesian model calibration and prior model selection. The proposed algorithm combines, Nested Sampling (NS) algorithm, Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) sampling and gradient estimation using Stochastic Ensemble Method (SEM). NS is an efficient sampling algorithm that can be used for Bayesian calibration and estimating the Bayesian evidence for prior model selection. Nested sampling has the advantage of computational feasibility. Within the nested sampling algorithm, a constrained sampling step is performed. For this step, we utilize HMC to reduce the correlation between successive sampled states. HMC relies on the gradient of the logarithm of the posterior distribution, which we estimate using a stochastic ensemble method based on an ensemble of directional derivatives. SEM only requires forward model runs and the simulator is then used as a black box and no adjoint code is needed. The developed HNS algorithm is successfully applied for Bayesian calibration and prior model selection of several nonlinear subsurface flow problems.

  13. Stratified Sampling An important objective in any estimation problem is to obtain an estimator of a population parameter

    E-print Network

    Shalabh

    1 Chapter 4 Stratified Sampling An important objective in any estimation problem is to obtain sampling will yield a homogeneous sample and in turn, the sample mean will serve as a good estimator, then the sample drawn through simple random sampling is expected to provide a representative sample. Moreover

  14. Joint Associations of Residential Density and Neighborhood Involvement with Physical Activity among a Multiethnic Sample of Urban Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Schulz, Amy J.; Zenk, Shannon N.; Israel, Barbara A.; Wineman, Jean; Marans, Robert W.; Rowe, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity is associated with improvements in overall health. Although resident involvement in neighborhood social activities is positively associated with physical activity, neighborhood design features, including residential density, have varied associations with physical activity. Using data from a multiethnic sample of 696…

  15. Symptoms of Major Depression in a Sample of Fathers of Infants: Sociodemographic Correlates and Links to Father Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Moore, Kristin A.; Matthews, Gregory; Carrano, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Depression has been extensively studied for mothers but not for fathers. This study examines the sociodemographic correlates of symptoms of depression and how depression is associated with father involvement using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Short Form (CIDI-SF) for major depression. The study uses a sample of 2,139 resident…

  16. Visual perception involves coordination between sensory sampling of the world and active interpretation of the sensory data. Human

    E-print Network

    Visual perception involves coordination between sensory sampling of the world and active such conditions, vision lapses into a chain of continually alternating percepts, whereby a viable visual interpretation of the sensory data. Human perception of objects and scenes is normally stable and robust

  17. The Power of Optimization Over Randomization in Designing Experiments Involving Small Samples

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Mac

    Random assignment, typically seen as the standard in controlled trials, aims to make experimental groups statistically equivalent before treatment. However, with a small sample, which is a practical reality in many ...

  18. Family Background, Parental Involvement, and Parent Child Interactions as Predictors of Fifth-Graders Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tamala P.

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted to address childhood behavior problems, but much remains unknown regarding the causes and factors that affect internalizing and externalizing problems in children. The purpose of the current research study was to examine the relationships between children's internalizing and externalizing behavior problems and (a)…

  19. Efficient Gaussian Sampling for Solving Large-Scale Inverse Problems Using MCMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilavert, Clement; Moussaoui, Said; Idier, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    The resolution of many large-scale inverse problems using MCMC methods requires a step of drawing samples from a high dimensional Gaussian distribution. While direct Gaussian sampling techniques, such as those based on Cholesky factorization, induce an excessive numerical complexity and memory requirement, sequential coordinate sampling methods present a low rate of convergence. Based on the reversible jump Markov chain framework, this paper proposes an efficient Gaussian sampling algorithm having a reduced computation cost and memory usage. The main feature of the algorithm is to perform an approximate resolution of a linear system with a truncation level adjusted using a self-tuning adaptive scheme allowing to achieve the minimal computation cost. The connection between this algorithm and some existing strategies is discussed and its efficiency is illustrated on a linear inverse problem of image resolution enhancement.

  20. The Administrative Problems Involved in Executing Clinical Recommendations for the Treatment of Severe Reading Disorders Within an Ongoing Educational System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiffman, Gilbert B.

    Developing a program of treatment for dyslexic readers involves four major problems: (1) definition of the reading isability, (2) administrative and educational inertia, (3) organization of the treatment program, and (4) the need for evaluatio and research. There is great disagreement over definitions of reading disabilities, yet an effective…

  1. Identifying Depression in a National Sample of Caregivers Involved with Child Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Emmeline; Wells, Rebecca; Aarons, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Identifying depression is the first step in provision of treatment across service settings but can be challenging for non-mental health providers. This study examines how caseworker identification of depression among parents and other caregivers during the child welfare investigation or assessment process varies as a function of different agency, caseworker, and case characteristics. Methods Data were drawn from the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW II), a national probability sample of children referred to U.S. child welfare agencies between February 2008 and April 2009. The study sample was comprised of 889 parents and other caregivers whose children initially remained at home and whose confidential responses on the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short-Form indicated a major depressive episode within the last 12 months. Weighted logistic regression examined predictors of caseworker identification of caregiver depression at the agency, caseworker, and case level. Results Investigative caseworkers identified mental health needs in only 38% of caregivers. Caseworkers were more likely to identify caregiver mental health needs when child welfare agency policy specified use of a standardized mental health assessment and when the maltreatment report came from a health or mental health provider relative to other sources, such as teachers or family members. Investigative caseloads were negatively associated with identifying depression. Conclusions Structured mental health assessments may help non-mental health professionals identify mental health needs among vulnerable populations. PMID:24686832

  2. Sample Problems Final Examination Item Sets and DFA Construction: LR(0), LR(1), and LALR(1)

    E-print Network

    Demurjian, Steven A.

    . As the initial step in the design of an SLR parser, construct the DFA that corresponds to the LR(0) item sets. As the initial step in the design of an SLR parser, construct the DFA that corresponds to the LR(0) item setsSample Problems ­ Final Examination Item Sets and DFA Construction: LR(0), LR(1), and LALR(1) 1

  3. NRES 725 Plant Physiological Ecology Spring 2011 Leaf Energy Balance --Sample Problem Set

    E-print Network

    Nowak, Robert S.

    = 714 W m-2 ) 1.b) How much of this radiant energy would be absorbed by the leaf? (1592 W m-2 ) 1.cNRES 725 Plant Physiological Ecology Spring 2011 1 Leaf Energy Balance -- Sample Problem Set 1 handout (HO #1); what equation and concept goes with each of the arrows. 2) Leaves absorb and lose energy

  4. Caregiver Reports of Sleep Problems on a Convenience Sample of Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronk, Rebecca; Dahl, Ronald; Noll, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Caregivers reported on sleep in a convenience sample of 90 children with fragile X syndrome utilizing a standardized assessment tool, the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), and a 14-day sleep diary. CSHQ data indicated that 47% of participants had sleep problems at a level that suggested referral and further evaluation. Sleep diary data…

  5. Regularized discriminant analysis for the small sample size problem in face recognition

    E-print Network

    Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.

    Regularized discriminant analysis for the small sample size problem in face recognition Juwei Lu-dimensional pattern classification tasks such as face recognition (FR) often suffers from the so- called ``small; Face recognition 1. Introduction Face recognition (FR) has a wide range of ap- plications, such as face

  6. Racial Preferences for Participation in a Depression Prevention Trial Involving Problem-Solving Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kasckow, John; Brown, Charlotte; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Karpov, Irina; Bensasi, Salem; Thomas, Stephen B.; Ford, Angela; Reynolds, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study compared African Americans’ and Caucasians’ willingness to participate in an indicated intervention to prevent depression with problem-solving therapy. It also examined participants’ problem-solving skills. Hypotheses stated that there would be no racial differences in consent rates and that social problem-solving coping skills would be lower among African Americans than Caucasians. Methods Proportions of African Americans and Caucasians who consented were compared, as were Social Problem Solving Inventory scores between the groups. Results Of 2,788 individuals approached, 82 (4%) of 1,970 Caucasians and 46 (6%) of 818 African Americans signed consent, and the difference was not significant (p=.09). Racial differences were observed in neither Social Problem Solving Inventory scores nor in the relationship between problem-solving skills and depressive symptoms. Conclusions African Americans with depression demonstrated a willingness to participate in an indicated trial of depression prevention. Furthermore, both groups would appear to benefit from the problem-solving process. PMID:20592009

  7. Some free boundary problems involving non-local diffusion and aggregation.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, José Antonio; Vázquez, Juan Luis

    2015-09-13

    We report on recent progress in the study of evolution processes involving degenerate parabolic equations which may exhibit free boundaries. The equations we have selected follow two recent trends in diffusion theory: considering anomalous diffusion with long-range effects, which leads to fractional operators or other operators involving kernels with large tails; and the combination of diffusion and aggregation effects, leading to delicate long-term equilibria whose description is still incipient. PMID:26261360

  8. Some free boundary problems involving non-local diffusion and aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, José Antonio; Vázquez, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    We report on recent progress in the study of evolution processes involving degenerate parabolic equations which may exhibit free boundaries. The equations we have selected follow two recent trends in diffusion theory: considering anomalous diffusion with long-range effects, which leads to fractional operators or other operators involving kernels with large tails; and the combination of diffusion and aggregation effects, leading to delicate long-term equilibria whose description is still incipient. PMID:26261360

  9. Sample treatment methods involving combinatorial peptide ligand libraries for improved proteomes analyses.

    PubMed

    Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Boschetti, Egisto

    2015-01-01

    If used in an optimized manner, the technology of combinatorial peptide solid-phase libraries can easily improve the analytical determinations of proteomes by several factors. The discovery of novel species and of early stage biomarkers becomes thus reachable with a simple sample treatment. This report describes the most important point to consider (overloading and full recovery) along with a minimum scientific background and gives then detailed recipes to laboratory technicians. Orientations for optional routes are also given according to the objective of the experimental investigations. This covers different approaches to capture proteins of very low abundance. Total protein harvestings to prevent partial losses are also described such as single exhaustive desorption and fractionated elutions for more detailed analyses. Documented results are also reported demonstrating the capability of the technology well beyond what is the common assumption. PMID:25384740

  10. Bayesian approaches to bilinear inverse problems involving spatial evidence : color constancy and blind image deconvolution

    E-print Network

    Singh, Barun, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    This thesis examines two distinct but related problems in low-level computer vision: color constancy and blind-image deconvolution. The goal of the former is to separate the effect of global illumination from other properties ...

  11. Problems Involved in the Choice and Use of Materials in Airplane Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Paul

    1932-01-01

    The present state of the problem of materials in airplane construction is studied on the basis of data giving the principal characteristics of different materials and showing how they affect the form of airplane parts.

  12. Scurvy: a new problem for patients with chronic GVHD involving mucous membranes; an easy problem to resolve.

    PubMed

    Kletzel, Morris; Powers, Kim; Hayes, Meghan

    2014-08-01

    Vitamin C deficiency in developed countries is typically observed in patients with unique clinical conditions such as cystic fibrosis or anorexia nervosa, or in patients on long-term tube feeds. We report here a clinical observation in six pediatric and adolescent patients (median age 17.5 yr, range 9.8-23.5 yr) with chronic GVHD with mucous membrane involvement found to be vitamin C deficient. These patients' baseline serum vitamin C levels ranged from <0.12 to 0.94 mg/dL (normal value 0.20-1.90 mg/dL), with a mean level 0.56 ± 0.36 mg/dL and a median level 0.6 mg/dL. Among these patients, signs and symptoms of mucositis failed to respond to standard chronic GVHD therapy. After receiving treatment with 2000 mg of ascorbic acid by mouth, daily patients displayed increased serum vitamin C levels. Clinically, this correlated with a remarkable improvement in patients' mucositis and ability to eat. PMID:24816030

  13. Gender and Environmental Sustainability: Issues and Problems Involved for Persons with Special Needs in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egaga, Patrick I.; Aderibigbe, S. Akinwumi

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability of the environment is one of the major problems facing African people, most especially Nigerians. It is unfortunate that women, by the nature of their daily activities of managing the homes and families are in touch with nature and environment and are at greater risk of health hazards and foetal damage. This paper focuses on the…

  14. Shaping Local HIV/AIDS Services Policy through Activist Research: The Problem of Client Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabill, Jeffrey T.

    2000-01-01

    Argues for what activist technical writing research might look like, lays out an understanding of institutions that is helpful for influencing public policy, and illustrates promises and problems of both positions by using a case study focused on local HIV/AIDS policy making. Suggests that professional writing researchers can impact policy by…

  15. The Assessment of Children with Learning Problems: A Planning Process Involving the Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozer, Mark N.

    1978-01-01

    The role of the special resource teacher can be seen as that of a consultant to the classroom teacher in increasing the teacher's awareness of his or her own problem-solving experiences with the learning disabled child. (Author/PHR)

  16. Interval-valued optimization problems involving (?, ?)-right upper-Dini-derivative functions.

    PubMed

    Preda, Vasile

    2014-01-01

    We consider an interval-valued multiobjective problem. Some necessary and sufficient optimality conditions for weak efficient solutions are established under new generalized convexities with the tool-right upper-Dini-derivative, which is an extension of directional derivative. Also some duality results are proved for Wolfe and Mond-Weir duals. PMID:24982989

  17. Interval-Valued Optimization Problems Involving (?, ?)-Right Upper-Dini-Derivative Functions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We consider an interval-valued multiobjective problem. Some necessary and sufficient optimality conditions for weak efficient solutions are established under new generalized convexities with the tool-right upper-Dini-derivative, which is an extension of directional derivative. Also some duality results are proved for Wolfe and Mond-Weir duals. PMID:24982989

  18. Some thoughts on problems associated with various sampling media used for environmental monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, A.J.

    1997-01-01

    Modern analytical instrumentation is capable of measuring a variety of trace elements at concentrations down into the single or double digit parts-per-trillion (ng l-1) range. This holds for the three most common sample media currently used in environmental monitoring programs: filtered water, whole-water and separated suspended sediment. Unfortunately, current analytical capabilities have exceeded the current capacity to collect both uncontaminated and representative environmental samples. The success of any trace element monitoring program requires that this issue be both understood and addressed. The environmental monitoring of trace elements requires the collection of calendar- and event-based dissolved and suspended sediment samples. There are unique problems associated with the collection and chemical analyses of both types of sample media. Over the past 10 years, reported ambient dissolved trace element concentrations have declined. Generally, these decreases do not reflect better water quality, but rather improvements in the procedures used to collect, process, preserve and analyze these samples without contaminating them during these steps. Further, recent studies have shown that the currently accepted operational definition of dissolved constituents (material passing a 0.45 ??m membrane filter) is inadequat owing to sampling and processing artifacts. The existence of these artifacts raises questions about the generation of accurate, precise and comparable 'dissolved' trace element data. Suspended sediment and associated trace elements can display marked short- and long-term spatial and temporal variability. This implies that spatially representative samples only can be obtained by generating composites using depth- and width-integrated sampling techniques. Additionally, temporal variations have led to the view that the determination of annual trace element fluxes may require nearly constant (e.g., high-frequency) sampling and subsequent chemical analyses. Ultimately, sampling frequency for flux estimates becomes dependent on the time period of concern (daily, weekly, monthly, yearly) and the amount of acceptable error associated with these estimates.

  19. Exploring the Connection Between Sampling Problems in Bayesian Inference and Statistical Mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The Bayesian and statistical mechanical communities often share the same objective in their work - estimating and integrating probability distribution functions (pdfs) describing stochastic systems, models or processes. Frequently, these pdfs are complex functions of random variables exhibiting multiple, well separated local minima. Conventional strategies for sampling such pdfs are inefficient, sometimes leading to an apparent non-ergodic behavior. Several recently developed techniques for handling this problem have been successfully applied in statistical mechanics. In the multicanonical and Wang-Landau Monte Carlo (MC) methods, the correct pdfs are recovered from uniform sampling of the parameter space by iteratively establishing proper weighting factors connecting these distributions. Trivial generalizations allow for sampling from any chosen pdf. The closely related transition matrix method relies on estimating transition probabilities between different states. All these methods proved to generate estimates of pdfs with high statistical accuracy. In another MC technique, parallel tempering, several random walks, each corresponding to a different value of a parameter (e.g. "temperature"), are generated and occasionally exchanged using the Metropolis criterion. This method can be considered as a statistically correct version of simulated annealing. An alternative approach is to represent the set of independent variables as a Hamiltonian system. Considerab!e progress has been made in understanding how to ensure that the system obeys the equipartition theorem or, equivalently, that coupling between the variables is correctly described. Then a host of techniques developed for dynamical systems can be used. Among them, probably the most powerful is the Adaptive Biasing Force method, in which thermodynamic integration and biased sampling are combined to yield very efficient estimates of pdfs. The third class of methods deals with transitions between states described by rate constants. These problems are isomorphic with chemical kinetics problems. Recently, several efficient techniques for this purpose have been developed based on the approach originally proposed by Gillespie. Although the utility of the techniques mentioned above for Bayesian problems has not been determined, further research along these lines is warranted

  20. Quantification and molecular characterization of Salmonella isolated from food samples involved in salmonellosis outbreaks in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Mürmann, Lisandra; dos Santos, Maria Cecília; Longaray, Solange Mendes; Both, Jane Mari Corrêa; Cardoso, Marisa

    2008-01-01

    Data concerning the prevalence and populations of Salmonella in foods implicated in outbreaks may be important to the development of quantitative microbial risk assessments of individual food products. In this sense, the objective of the present study was to assess the amount of Salmonella sp. in different foods implicated in foodborne outbreaks in Rio Grande do Sul occurred in 2005 and to characterize the isolated strains using phenotypic and genotypic methods. Nineteen food samples involved in ten foodborne outbreaks occurred in 2005, and positive on Salmonella isolation at the Central Laboratory of the Health Department of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, were included in this study. Food samples were submitted to estimation of Salmonella using the Most Probable Number (MPN) technique. Moreover, one confirmed Salmonella colony of each food sample was serotyped, characterized by its XbaI-macrorestriction profile, and submitted to antimicrobial resistance testing. Foods containing eggs, mayonnaise or chicken were contaminated with Salmonella in eight outbreaks. Higher counts (>107 MPN.g-1) of Salmonella were detected mostly in foods containing mayonnaise. The isolation of Salmonella from multiple food items in five outbreaks probably resulted from the cross-contamination, and the high Salmonella counts detected in almost all analyzed samples probably resulted from storing in inadequate temperature. All strains were identified as S. Enteritidis, and presented a unique macrorestriction profile, demonstrating the predominance of one clonal group in foods involved in the salmonellosis outbreaks. A low frequency of antimicrobial resistant S. Enteritidis strains was observed and nalidixic acid was the only resistance marker detected. PMID:24031261

  1. Polygenic Scores Predict Alcohol Problems in an Independent Sample and Show Moderation by the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Salvatore, Jessica E.; Aliev, Fazil; Edwards, Alexis C.; Evans, David M.; Macleod, John; Hickman, Matthew; Lewis, Glyn; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Loukola, Anu; Korhonen, Tellervo; Latvala, Antti; Rose, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Dick, Danielle M.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol problems represent a classic example of a complex behavioral outcome that is likely influenced by many genes of small effect. A polygenic approach, which examines aggregate measured genetic effects, can have predictive power in cases where individual genes or genetic variants do not. In the current study, we first tested whether polygenic risk for alcohol problems—derived from genome-wide association estimates of an alcohol problems factor score from the age 18 assessment of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; n = 4304 individuals of European descent; 57% female)—predicted alcohol problems earlier in development (age 14) in an independent sample (FinnTwin12; n = 1162; 53% female). We then tested whether environmental factors (parental knowledge and peer deviance) moderated polygenic risk to predict alcohol problems in the FinnTwin12 sample. We found evidence for both polygenic association and for additive polygene-environment interaction. Higher polygenic scores predicted a greater number of alcohol problems (range of Pearson partial correlations 0.07–0.08, all p-values ? 0.01). Moreover, genetic influences were significantly more pronounced under conditions of low parental knowledge or high peer deviance (unstandardized regression coefficients (b), p-values (p), and percent of variance (R2) accounted for by interaction terms: b = 1.54, p = 0.02, R2 = 0.33%; b = 0.94, p = 0.04, R2 = 0.30%, respectively). Supplementary set-based analyses indicated that the individual top single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) contributing to the polygenic scores were not individually enriched for gene-environment interaction. Although the magnitude of the observed effects are small, this study illustrates the usefulness of polygenic approaches for understanding the pathways by which measured genetic predispositions come together with environmental factors to predict complex behavioral outcomes. PMID:24727307

  2. Geostatistical Sampling Methods for Efficient Uncertainty Analysis in Flow and Transport Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liodakis, Stylianos; Kyriakidis, Phaedon; Gaganis, Petros

    2015-04-01

    In hydrogeological applications involving flow and transport of in heterogeneous porous media the spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity is often parameterized in terms of a lognormal random field based on a histogram and variogram model inferred from data and/or synthesized from relevant knowledge. Realizations of simulated conductivity fields are then generated using geostatistical simulation involving simple random (SR) sampling and are subsequently used as inputs to physically-based simulators of flow and transport in a Monte Carlo framework for evaluating the uncertainty in the spatial distribution of solute concentration due to the uncertainty in the spatial distribution of hydraulic con- ductivity [1]. Realistic uncertainty analysis, however, calls for a large number of simulated concentration fields; hence, can become expensive in terms of both time and computer re- sources. A more efficient alternative to SR sampling is Latin hypercube (LH) sampling, a special case of stratified random sampling, which yields a more representative distribution of simulated attribute values with fewer realizations [2]. Here, term representative implies realizations spanning efficiently the range of possible conductivity values corresponding to the lognormal random field. In this work we investigate the efficiency of alternative methods to classical LH sampling within the context of simulation of flow and transport in a heterogeneous porous medium. More precisely, we consider the stratified likelihood (SL) sampling method of [3], in which attribute realizations are generated using the polar simulation method by exploring the geometrical properties of the multivariate Gaussian distribution function. In addition, we propose a more efficient version of the above method, here termed minimum energy (ME) sampling, whereby a set of N representative conductivity realizations at M locations is constructed by: (i) generating a representative set of N points distributed on the surface of a M-dimensional, unit radius hyper-sphere, (ii) relocating the N points on a representative set of N hyper-spheres of different radii, and (iii) transforming the coordinates of those points to lie on N different hyper-ellipsoids spanning the multivariate Gaussian distribution. The above method is applied in a dimensionality reduction context by defining flow-controlling points over which representative sampling of hydraulic conductivity is performed, thus also accounting for the sensitivity of the flow and transport model to the input hydraulic conductivity field. The performance of the various stratified sampling methods, LH, SL, and ME, is compared to that of SR sampling in terms of reproduction of ensemble statistics of hydraulic conductivity and solute concentration for different sample sizes N (numbers of realizations). The results indicate that ME sampling constitutes an equally if not more efficient simulation method than LH and SL sampling, as it can reproduce to a similar extent statistics of the conductivity and concentration fields, yet with smaller sampling variability than SR sampling. References [1] Gutjahr A.L. and Bras R.L. Spatial variability in subsurface flow and transport: A review. Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 42, 293-316, (1993). [2] Helton J.C. and Davis F.J. Latin hypercube sampling and the propagation of uncertainty in analyses of complex systems. Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 81, 23-69, (2003). [3] Switzer P. Multiple simulation of spatial fields. In: Heuvelink G, Lemmens M (eds) Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Spatial Accuracy Assessment in Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, Coronet Books Inc., pp 629?635 (2000).

  3. Prevalence of skin problems and leg ulceration in a sample of young injecting drug users

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Drug users suffer harm from the injecting process, and clinical services are reporting increasing numbers presenting with skin-related problems such as abscesses and leg ulcers. Skin breakdown can lead to long-term health problems and increased service costs and is often the first indication of serious systemic ill health. The extent of skin problems in injecting drug users has not previously been quantified empirically, and there is a dearth of robust topical literature. Where skin problems have been reported, this is often without clear definition and generic terms such as ‘soft tissue infection’ are used which lack specificity. The aim of this study was to identify the range and extent of skin problems including leg ulceration in a sample of injecting drug users. Definitions of skin problems were developed and applied to descriptions from drug users to improve rigour. Methods Data were collected in needle exchanges and methadone clinics across Glasgow, Scotland, from both current and former drug injectors using face-to-face interviews. Results Two hundred participants were recruited, of which 74% (n?=?148) were males and 26% (n?=?52) were females. The age range was 21–44 years (mean 35 years). Just under two thirds (64%, n?=?127) were currently injecting or had injected within the last 6 months, and 36% (n?=?73) had previously injected and had not injected for more than 6 months. Sixty per cent (n?=?120) of the sample had experienced a skin problem, and the majority reported more than one problem. Most common were abscesses, lumps, track marks and leg ulcers. Fifteen per cent (n?=?30) of all participants reported having had a leg ulcer. Conclusions This is an original empirical study which demonstrated unique findings of a high prevalence of skin disease (60%) and surprisingly high rates of leg ulceration (15%). Skin disease in injecting drug users is clearly widespread. Leg ulceration in particular is a chronic recurring condition that is costly to treat and has long-term implications for drug users and services caring for current or former injectors long after illicit drug use has ceased. PMID:25119472

  4. Multi-choice stochastic transportation problem involving general form of distributions.

    PubMed

    Quddoos, Abdul; Ull Hasan, Md Gulzar; Khalid, Mohammad Masood

    2014-01-01

    Many authors have presented studies of multi-choice stochastic transportation problem (MCSTP) where availability and demand parameters follow a particular probability distribution (such as exponential, weibull, cauchy or extreme value). In this paper an MCSTP is considered where availability and demand parameters follow general form of distribution and a generalized equivalent deterministic model (GMCSTP) of MCSTP is obtained. It is also shown that all previous models obtained by different authors can be deduced with the help of GMCSTP. MCSTP with pareto, power function or burr-XII distributions are also considered and equivalent deterministic models are obtained. To illustrate the proposed model two numerical examples are presented and solved using LINGO 13.0 software package. PMID:25332865

  5. A taxometric analysis of problem gambling data from a South African national urban sample.

    PubMed

    Kincaid, Harold; Daniels, Reza; Dellis, Andrew; Hofmeyr, Andre; Rousseau, Jacques; Sharp, Carla; Ross, Don

    2013-09-01

    We investigate the question whether problem gambling (PG) in a recent South African sample, as measured by the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI), is dimensional or categorical. We use two taxometric procedures, Mean Above Minus Below A Cut (MAMBAC) and Maxim Covariance (MAXCOV), to investigate the taxonic structure of PG as constructed by the PGSI. Data are from the 2010 South African National Urban Prevalence Study of Gambling Behavior. A representative sample of the urban adult population in South Africa (N = 3,000). Responses are to the 9 item PGSI. MAMBAC provided positive but modest evidence that PG as measured by the PGSI was taxonic. MAXCOV pointed more strongly to the same conclusion. These analyses also provide evidence that a PGSI cutoff score of 10 rather than the standard 8 may be called for. PG as constructed by the PGSI may best be thought of as categorical, but further studies with more theory based measurements are needed to determine whether this holds in a wider range of samples and for other screens. A higher cutoff score may be called for on the PGSI when it is used for research purposes to avoid false positives. PMID:22711182

  6. Prevalence of alcohol-use disorders and alcohol-related problems in a college student sample.

    PubMed

    Clements, R

    1999-11-01

    Most studies of alcohol consumption patterns and alcohol-related problems among college students have failed to include a diagnostic measure based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) criteria. Applying the DSM-IV standards would facilitate an analysis of the prevalence of alcohol-use disorders and individual symptoms of those disorders. A structured diagnostic interview based on DSM-IV criteria (the alcohol section of the Substance Abuse Module) and several alcohol screening instruments were administered to 306 undergraduate students at an urban commuter campus. The prevalence of current and lifetime alcohol-use disorders, individual symptoms of those disorders, and other alcohol-related problems are reported, as well as data regarding alcohol consumption patterns and binge drinking. The data are analyzed in terms of demographic variables, including sex, ethnicity, year in school, age, and marital status of those in the sample. PMID:10584445

  7. Methods for calculating the entropy and free energy and their application to problems involving protein flexibility and ligand binding

    PubMed Central

    Meirovitch, Hagai; Cheluvaraja, Srinath; White, Ronald P.

    2009-01-01

    The Helmholtz free energy, F and the entropy, S are related thermodynamic quantities with a special importance in structural biology. We describe the difficulties in calculating these quantities and review recent methodological developments. Because protein flexibility is essential for function and ligand binding, we discuss the related problems involved in the definition, simulation, and free energy calculation of microstates (such as the ?-helical region of a peptide). While the review is broad, a special emphasize is given to methods for calculating the absolute F (S), where our HSMC(D) method is described in some detail. PMID:19519453

  8. Accuracy Study of the Space-Time CE/SE Method for Computational Aeroacoustics Problems Involving Shock Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiao Yen; Chang, Sin-Chung; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.

    1999-01-01

    The space-time conservation element and solution element(CE/SE) method is used to study the sound-shock interaction problem. The order of accuracy of numerical schemes is investigated. The linear model problem.govemed by the 1-D scalar convection equation, sound-shock interaction problem governed by the 1-D Euler equations, and the 1-D shock-tube problem which involves moving shock waves and contact surfaces are solved to investigate the order of accuracy of numerical schemes. It is concluded that the accuracy of the CE/SE numerical scheme with designed 2nd-order accuracy becomes 1st order when a moving shock wave exists. However, the absolute error in the CE/SE solution downstream of the shock wave is on the same order as that obtained using a fourth-order accurate essentially nonoscillatory (ENO) scheme. No special techniques are used for either high-frequency low-amplitude waves or shock waves.

  9. Medical Problems in a Sample of Children with Intellectual Impairments in Jordan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yousef, Jamal M. S.

    1993-01-01

    Medical problems of 262 children attending special schools for persons having intellectual impairments in Jordan were examined. The most common problems were neurological problems (affecting 38.55%), followed by dental disease, orthopedic problems, vision and eye problems, hearing/ear problems, urinary diseases, and heart problems. (JDD)

  10. Movie Exposure to Alcohol Cues and Adolescent Alcohol Problems: A Longitudinal Analysis in a National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Thomas A.; Sargent, James D.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The authors tested a theoretical model of how exposure to alcohol cues in movies predicts level of alcohol use (ever use plus ever and recent binge drinking) and alcohol-related problems. A national sample of younger adolescents was interviewed by telephone with 4 repeated assessments spaced at 8-month intervals. A structural equation modeling analysis performed for ever-drinkers at Time 3 (N = 961) indicated that, controlling for a number of covariates, movie alcohol exposure at Time 1 was related to increases in peer alcohol use and adolescent alcohol use at Time 2. Movie exposure had indirect effects to alcohol use and problems at Times 3 and 4 through these pathways, with direct effects to problems from Time 1 rebelliousness and Time 2 movie exposure also found. Prospective risk-promoting effects were also found for alcohol expectancies, peer alcohol use, and availability of alcohol in the home; protective effects were found for mother’s responsiveness and for adolescent’s school performance and self-control. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:19290687

  11. Trans-dimensional Monte Carlo sampling applied to the magnetotelluric inverse problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandolesi, Eric; Piana Agostinetti, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The data required to build geological models of the subsurface are often unavailable from direct measurements or well logs. In order to image the subsurface geological structures several geophysical methods have been developed. The magnetotelluric (MT) method uses natural, time-varying electromagnetic (EM) fields as its source to measure the EM impedance of the subsurface. The interpretation of these data is routinely undertaken by solving inverse problems to produce 1D, 2D or 3D electrical conductivity models of the subsurface. In classical MT inverse problems the investigated models are parametrized using a fixed number of unknowns (i.e. fixed number of layers in a 1D model, or a fixed number of cells in a 2D model), and the non-uniqueness of the solution is handled by a regularization term added to the objective function. This study presents a different approach to the 1D MT inverse problem, by using a trans-dimensional Monte Carlo sampling algorithm, where trans-dimensionality implies that the number of unknown parameters is a parameter itself. This construction has been shown to have a built-in Occam razor, so that the regularization term is not required to produce a simple model. The influences of subjective choices in the interpretation process can therefore be sensibly reduced. The inverse problem is solved within a Bayesian framework, where posterior probability distribution of the investigated parameters are sought, rather than a single best-fit model, and uncertainties on the model parameters, and their correlation, can be easily measured.

  12. A lunar-based analytical laboratory and contamination problems in analysis of Moon and Mars samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrke, Charles W.

    1997-07-01

    A summary follows of our experiences and techniques used in the analysis of samples from Apollo Missions 11 to 17. The studies were conducted at the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, the University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, and the University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 1969 - 1974. Our search was directed to water-extractable compounds with emphasis on amino acids. Gas chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography and gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry were used for the analysis. It is our conclusion that amino acids are not present in the lunar regolith above the background levels of our investigation (ca. 1 - 3 ng/g). The scientific debate has become heated that primitive life existed on Mars 3.6 billion years ago as reported by the NASA-Stanford team led to David McKay. Mars is destined to receive humans early in the 21st Century, preceded by many international missions to Space Station Freedom and robotic missions to the Moon and Mars. First, we must `learn to live in space'. The Moon presents a base that provides the opportunities and challenges to assemble the international interdisciplinary intellectual scientific teams and partners with many disciplines to make the next step before human exploration of Mars and the search for evidence in Martian soil and samples returned to Earth laboratories. Our experiences learned in Moon analysis will be useful in Mars exploration and returned sample study. Sensitivity at the nanogram/gram level and selectivity of analysis are highly essential. As these figures show contamination of samples is a most serious problem. However with the use of ultraclean techniques in a 100 clean room contamination can be avoided. Our speck of dust, a tiny fragment of cigarette smoke, a particle of dandruff, a droplet of saliva, all can make your results questionable. In addition, the extraction of life molecules as amino acids from the Lunar samples was a difficult process and I am sure the same difficulties exist with handling and removing the very low levels of amino acids from Mars meteorites and returned samples.

  13. A Latent Class Analysis (LCA) of problem gambling among a sample of community-recruited gamblers.

    PubMed

    Cunningham-Williams, Renee M; Hong, Song Iee

    2007-11-01

    Problem gambling rates are relatively low (2%-4%), yet these gamblers experience multisystemic negative consequences, high comorbidity, and low treatment utilization. We aimed to characterize variations in gambling patterns to inform prevention and intervention efforts. Using community advertising, we recruited a diverse sample of lifetime gamblers (n = 312) for telephone interviews for a psychometric study of the newly developed Computerized-Gambling Assessment Module. Latent Class Analysis enumerated and classified gambling subgroups by distinctive gambling patterns, based on 8 composite scales functioning as validators of latent class membership (i.e., diagnostic gambling symptoms, reasons for gambling, gambling "withdrawal-like" symptoms, problem gambling perceptions, gambling venues, financial sources for gambling, gambling treatment/help-seeking, and religiosity/spirituality). Based on a distinguishing clustering pattern driven by 6 of 8 factors, we found a 6-class solution was the best-fitting solution. Gambling severity is most strongly characterized not only by symptomatology but also by the number of gambling treatment/help-seeking sources used. PMID:18000457

  14. THE TWO-SAMPLE PROBLEM FOR FAILURE RATES DEPENDING ON A CONTINUOUS MARK: AN APPLICATION TO VACCINE EFFICACY

    E-print Network

    Stephan, Frank

    THE TWO-SAMPLE PROBLEM FOR FAILURE RATES DEPENDING ON A CONTINUOUS MARK: AN APPLICATION TO VACCINE University and University of North Carolina at Charlotte Abstract: The efficacy of an HIV vaccine to prevent the problem of using data on the HIV sequences that infect vaccine efficacy trial participants to 1) test

  15. Eating Problems and Their Risk Factors: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study of a Population Sample of Norwegian Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansi, Juliska; Wichstrom, Lars; Bergman, Lars R.

    2005-01-01

    The longitudinal stability of eating problems and their relationships to risk factors were investigated in a representative population sample of 623 Norwegian girls aged 13-14 followed over 7 years (3 time points). Three eating problem symptoms were measured: Restriction, Bulimia-food preoccupation, and Diet, all taken from the 12-item Eating…

  16. Stat 401, Sample Final Exam Problems adapted from Dec. 1995 INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE FINAL EXAM

    E-print Network

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    & Confidence Intervals, one- and two-sample (F) t, two-sample t, ANOVA tests, Multiple Comparisons, (G) Law for large n. (8). Two samples of data each consist of the yield of corn from 15 plots, with corn raised

  17. Temporal stability of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder criteria in a problem-drinking sample.

    PubMed

    Keane, Terence M; Rubin, Amy; Lachowicz, Mark; Brief, Deborah; Enggasser, Justin L; Roy, Monica; Hermos, John; Helmuth, Eric; Rosenbloom, David

    2014-12-01

    The 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) reformulated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) based partially on research showing there were 4 main factors that underlie the symptoms of the disorder. The primary aim of this study was to examine the temporal stability of the DSM-5 factors as measured by the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5; Weathers et al., 2010). Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to examine the structure of DSM-5 PTSD, and temporal stability over 3 time points was examined to determine if the measure reflects a consistent construct over time. Our sample was 507 combat-exposed veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan who enrolled in an online intervention for problem drinking and combat-related stress (Brief et al., 2013). We administered the PCL-5 at baseline, 8-week postintervention, and 3-month follow-up assessments. The DSM-5 model provided an adequate fit to the data at baseline. Tests of equality of form and equality of factor loadings demonstrated stability of the factor structure over time, indicating temporal stability. This study confirmed the results of previous research supporting the DSM-5 model of PTSD symptoms (Elhai et al., 2012; Miller et al., 2013). This is the 1st study to demonstrate the temporal stability of the PCL-5, indicating its use in longitudinal studies measures the same construct over time. PMID:24932642

  18. Development of a branch and price approach involving vertex cloning to solve the maximum weighted independent set problem 

    E-print Network

    Sachdeva, Sandeep

    2006-04-12

    &P and gave descriptions of decomposition methods, and associated implementation issues. Mehrotra and Trick [18] used B&P to solve the minimum coloring problem, another important graph problem. The minimum coloring problem is to find the minimum 6...

  19. The Problem of Sample Contamination in a Fluvial Geochemistry Research Experience for Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Charles B.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the analysis of a river as an excellent way to teach geochemical techniques because of the relative ease of sample collection and speed of sample analysis. Focuses on the potential sources of sample contamination during sampling, filtering, and bottle cleaning processes, and reviews methods to reduce and detect contamination. Includes…

  20. The Role of Parenting in the Prediction of Criminal Involvement: Findings from a Nationally Representative Sample of Youth and a Sample of Adopted Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Schwartz, Joseph A.; Connolly, Eric J.; Al-Ghamdi, Mohammed Said; Kobeisy, Ahmed Nezar

    2015-01-01

    The role of parenting in the development of criminal behavior has been the source of a vast amount of research, with the majority of studies detecting statistically significant associations between dimensions of parenting and measures of criminal involvement. An emerging group of scholars, however, has drawn attention to the methodological…

  1. Stress, Mental Health and Substance Abuse Problems In a Sample of Diversion Program Youth: An Exploratory Latent Class Analysis*

    PubMed Central

    Dembo, Richard; Briones, Rhissa; Gulledge, Laura; Karas, Lora; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Greenbaum, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    Reflective of interest in mental health and substance abuse issues among youths involved with the justice system, we performed a latent class analysis on baseline information collected on 100 youths involved in two diversion programs. Results identified two groups of youths: Group 1: a majority of the youths, who had high levels of delinquency, mental health and substance abuse issues, Group 2: youths with low levels of these problems. Comparison of these two groups on a variety of psychosocial measures and parent/guardian reports found differences between them that were consistent with their problem group classification. Follow-up analysis confirmed problem behavior that was consistent with the youths’ latent class placement. Implications of the findings for research and practice will be presented. PMID:22685378

  2. Self-Report Measures of Child and Adolescent Psychopathy as Predictors of Offending in Four Samples of Justice-Involved Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boccaccini, Marcus T.; Epstein, Monica; Poythress, Norman; Douglas, Kevin S.; Campbell, Justin; Gardner, Gail; Falkenbach, Diana

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the relation between self-report psychopathy measures and official records of offending in four samples of justice-involved youth (total N = 447). Psychopathy measures included the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) and a modified version of the Childhood Psychopathy Scale (mCPS). Measures of offending included the…

  3. An Investigation of Eighth Grade Students' Problem Posing Skills (Turkey Sample)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arikan, Elif Esra; Ünal, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    To pose a problem refers to the creative activity for mathematics education. The purpose of the study was to explore the eighth grade students' problem posing ability. Three learning domains such as requiring four operations, fractions and geometry were chosen for this reason. There were two classes which were coded as class A and class B.…

  4. Etiologies of Associations between Childhood Sleep and Behavioral Problems in a Large Twin Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Alice M.; Eley, Thalia C.; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the etiologies of covariation of childhood sleep problems and other behavioral/emotional problems in young children. Method: The parents of more than 6,000 twin pairs provided information on their twins' anxiety, conduct, and hyperactivity at ages 3, 4, and 7 by completing the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire.…

  5. Investigation of Problem Solving Ability of Students in School of Physical Education and Sports (Kafkas University Sample)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmutlu, Ilker

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine the problem solving abilities of School of Physical Education and Sports students. To achieve this aim, in the academic year 2013-2014, a research group did a study of 433 students of the School of Physical Education and Sports, Kafkas University. This sample consisted of 184 female and 249 male students.…

  6. Processes involved in sweeping as sample enrichment method in cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography of hydrophobic basic analytes.

    PubMed

    El-Awady, Mohamed; Pyell, Ute

    2014-03-01

    Sweeping is an enrichment method in MEKC, which includes following steps: stacking/destacking of the micelles, sweeping of analyte by the stacked/destacked micelles, destacking/stacking of the swept analyte zone and additional focusing/defocusing due to the retention factor gradient effect (RFGE). In this study, we investigate additional processes, regarding online focusing in cyclodextrin-modified MEKC (CD-MEKC) of hydrophobic basic analytes: dynamic pH junction (sample with pH different from that of BGE) and adsorption of analyte onto the capillary wall within the sample zone. It is demonstrated that the developed method for the assessment of the sweeping efficiency is also applicable to CD-MEKC taking ethylparaben as an example of acidic analytes and desloratadine as an example of basic analytes using different types of ?-cyclodextrin. Our previous results regarding RFGE as an additional focusing/defocusing effect in sweeping-MEKC are confirmed for the case that the apparent distribution coefficient differs for the sample and the BGE due to a different content of the complex-forming agent cyclodextrin and due to a pH difference between the sample and the BGE. Despite being significantly more hydrophobic than ethylparaben, desloratadine shows an unexpectedly low enrichment factor. This enrichment factor is nearly unaffected by the addition of CD to the BGE. This unexpected behavior is attributed to wall adsorption of the protonated hydrophobic basic analyte within the sample zone, which significantly counteracts the sweeping process. This assumption is corroborated by an improvement in the enrichment factor achieved via addition of a dynamic coating agent (triethylamine) to the sample solution. PMID:24338927

  7. Hyperbolic heat conduction problems involving non-Fourier effects - Numerical simulations via explicit Lax-Wendroff/Taylor-Galerkin finite element formulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamma, Kumar K.; Namburu, Raju R.

    1989-01-01

    Numerical simulations are presented for hyperbolic heat-conduction problems that involve non-Fourier effects, using explicit, Lax-Wendroff/Taylor-Galerkin FEM formulations as the principal computational tool. Also employed are smoothing techniques which stabilize the numerical noise and accurately predict the propagating thermal disturbances. The accurate capture of propagating thermal disturbances at characteristic time-step values is achieved; numerical test cases are presented which validate the proposed hyperbolic heat-conduction problem concepts.

  8. Application of the Tripartite Model to a Complicated Sample of Residential Youth with Externalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Eu Gene; Ebesutani, Chad; Young, John

    2013-01-01

    The tripartite model of anxiety and depression has received strong support among child and adolescent populations. Clinical samples of children and adolescents in these studies, however, have usually been referred for treatment of anxiety and depression. This study investigated the fit of the tripartite model with a complicated sample of…

  9. The Determination of Ergosterol in Environmental Samples. An Interdisciplinary Project Involving Techniques of Analytical and Organic Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volker, Eugene J.; Dilella, Dan; Terneus, Kim; Baldwin, Carson; Volker, Ilona

    2000-12-01

    In this undergraduate laboratory experiment, a naturally formed steroid that is an important environmental indicator of biological activity is extracted and quantified. The target compound is ergosterol, a steroid found only in fungi and an accepted measure of fungal biomass. Maple leaves were used as a representative sample, but the procedure can be extended to soils, fruits, and grains. The environmental sample is first saponified with methanolic KOH to release ergosterol from any bound forms. Next, the steroid is transferred into pentane to separate it from the polar components of the initial extract. After evaporation of the pentane, the residue containing the steroid is dissolved in methanol and filtered. This solution is analyzed on an HPLC instrument equipped with a reversed-phase column. Typical values for ergosterol in the maple leaf samples analyzed ranged from 22 to 240 mg/g of dry leaf. Leaves collected shortly after falling have low values, and those collected later have progressively higher values. The experiment has been tested in Analytical Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry, and Organic Chemistry classes and can be performed in two 3-hour laboratory periods.

  10. Target problem (mis) matching: predictors and consequences of parent-youth agreement in a sample of anxious youth.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Lauren J; Chu, Brian C

    2015-04-01

    Parents and youth often report discrepant target problems upon seeking treatment for youth psychopathology, which can have important impact on therapy processes (e.g., dropout) and treatment outcomes, as entry-level attitudes have been found to be influential in ultimate use and benefit of treatment. The current study examined parent-youth agreement within an anxiety disordered sample by assessing demographic and diagnostic factors that may predict matching, as well as the impact of matching on attrition, treatment outcome, and parental satisfaction. Ninety-five youth with principal anxiety disorders received cognitive-behavioral treatment for anxiety at a university outpatient clinic. Youth and parents independently identified target problems during the pretreatment assessment. Target problems were coded into 25 qualitative categories representing diagnostic, symptom, and functional impairment domains, including diffuse anxiety, social anxiety, academic achievement, oppositional/behavior problems, sleep problems, suicidal ideation, and family functioning. The majority of parent-youth dyads (67.4%) agreed on at least one target problem. Although problems related to diffuse anxiety and social anxiety were reported most frequently, relatively low rates of agreement were found in these domains. Kappa values demonstrated higher levels of agreement for problems with specific fears, school attendance, and panic and lower levels of agreement for difficulties with worry, shame, and self-esteem. Further, youth diagnosed with comorbid externalizing disorders were less likely to agree with their parents on at least one target problem. No effects were found for gender, age, or number of diagnoses in predicting agreement. Target problem agreement did not significantly impact rates of attrition or diagnostic remission, but did predict some measures of parental satisfaction. Results suggest that disagreement on treatment goals exists even within a narrow treatment population and may predict important consumer variables such as satisfaction. Findings emphasize that initial goals disagreement warrants careful assessment and monitoring. PMID:25638516

  11. The role of pharmacists in identifying and addressing drug-related problems, defined by the Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe as "an event or circumstance involving

    E-print Network

    Soloveichik, David

    by the Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe as "an event or circumstance involving drug therapyThe role of pharmacists in identifying and addressing drug-related problems, defined week showed a reduction in adverse drug events (ADEs) and avoidance of costs, and a study of aged care

  12. The Effects of the Family-Involved SDLMI on Academic Engagement and Goal Attainment of Middle School Students with Disabilities Who Exhibit Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Nam Hee; Park, Jiyeon

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the Family-Involved Self-Determination Learning Model of Instruction (SDLMI) on academic engagement and goal attainment of middle school students with disabilities who exhibit problem behavior. Intervention was provided to the experimental group (12 students with their families and special…

  13. Low Occurrence of Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in Clinical, Food, and Environmental Samples: a Methodological Problem

    PubMed Central

    Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Korkeala, Hannu

    2003-01-01

    While Yersinia enterocolitica is an important pathogen, which can cause yersiniosis in humans and animals, its epidemiology remains obscure. The pig is the major reservoir of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica of bioserotype 4/O:3, the most common type found in humans. Y. enterocolitica is thought to be a significant food-borne pathogen, although pathogenic isolates have seldom been recovered from foods. The low isolation rate of this pathogenic bacterium in natural samples, including clinical, food, and environmental samples, may be due to the limited sensitivity of culture methods. During the last decade, numerous DNA-based methods, such as PCR and colony hybridization assays, have been designed to detect pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in natural samples more rapidly and with better sensitivity than can be achieved by culture methods. In addition, the occurrence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in natural samples is clearly higher with PCR than with culture methods. The methods available for detection of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in natural samples are reviewed in this article. PMID:12692095

  14. Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…

  15. Variants of Callous-Unemotional Conduct Problems in a Community Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanti, Kostas A.; Demetriou, Chara A.; Kimonis, Eva R.

    2013-01-01

    Callous-unemotional traits are believed to be a childhood precursor to psychopathy, and among youth with conduct problems they designate those showing a particularly severe, stable, and aggressive pattern of antisocial behavior. Youth with callous-unemotional traits are a heterogeneous population and, analogous to adults with psychopathy, research…

  16. Interrelationships between LGBT-based victimization, suicide, and substance use problems in a diverse sample of sexual and gender minorities.

    PubMed

    Mereish, Ethan H; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Bradford, Judith B

    2014-01-01

    Research has documented significant relationships between sexual and gender minority stress and higher rates of suicidality (i.e. suicidal ideation and attempts) and substance use problems. We examined the potential mediating role of substance use problems on the relationship between sexual and gender minority stress (i.e. victimization based on lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender identity [LGBT]) and suicidality. A nonprobability sample of LGBT patients from a community health center (N = 1457) ranged in age from 19-70 years. Participants reported history of lifetime suicidal ideation and attempts, substance use problems, as well as experiences of LGBT-based verbal and physical attacks. Substance use problems were a significant partial mediator between LGBT-based victimization and suicidal ideation and between LGBT-based victimization and suicide attempts for sexual and gender minorities. Nuanced gender differences revealed that substance use problems did not significantly mediate the relationship between victimization and suicide attempts for sexual minority men. Substance use problems may be one insidious pathway that partially mediates the risk effects of sexual and gender minority stress on suicidality. Substances might be a temporary and deleterious coping resource in response to LGBT-based victimization, which have serious effects on suicidal ideation and behaviors. PMID:23535038

  17. Aggressive Behavior Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Prevalence and Correlates in a Large Clinical Sample

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Alison Presmanes; Zuckerman, Katharine E.; Hagen, Arlene D.; Kriz, Daniel J.; Duvall, Susanne W.; van Santen, Jan; Nigg, Joel; Fair, Damien; Fombonne, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behavior problems (ABP) are frequent yet poorly understood in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and are likely to co-vary significantly with comorbid problems. We examined the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of ABP in a clinical sample of children with ASD (N = 400; 2–16.9 years). We also investigated whether children with ABP experience more intensive medical interventions, greater impairments in behavioral functioning, and more severe comorbid problems than children with ASD who do not have ABP. One in four children with ASD had Child Behavior Checklist scores on the Aggressive Behavior scale in the clinical range (T-scores ? 70). Sociodemographic factors (age, gender, parent education, race, ethnicity) were unrelated to ABP status. The presence of ABP was significantly associated with increased use of psychotropic drugs and melatonin, lower cognitive functioning, lower ASD severity, and greater comorbid sleep, internalizing, and attention problems. In multivariate models, sleep, internalizing, and attention problems were most strongly associated with ABP. These comorbid problems may hold promise as targets for treatment to decrease aggressive behavior and proactively identify high-risk profiles for prevention. PMID:25221619

  18. Gas generation and migration studies involving recently generated /sup 238/Pu-contaminated waste for the TRU Waste Sampling Program

    SciTech Connect

    Zerwekh, A.; Warren, J.L.

    1986-07-01

    This study is part of the multicontractor TRU Waste Sampling Program. Radiolytically generated gases were vented through a filtering device to determine its effectiveness in maintaining hydrogen concentrations within acceptably safe levels. In the second part of the study measurements were made to determine the ability of these gases, particularly hydrogen, to migrate through a sealed rigid polyethylene drum liner. Void volumes in these drums were found to be generally in excess of 90%. The carbon composite filter was found to satisfactorily vent hydrogen up to moderately high levels of alpha activity in the waste substrate. The sealed 90-mil liner was found to inhibit, but not prevent, the migration of hydrogen and other radiolytically generated gases.

  19. Problems Found Using a Radon Stripping Algorithm for Retrospective Assessment of Air Filter Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Hayes

    2008-04-01

    An evaluation of a large number of air sample filters was undertaken using a commercial alpha and beta spectroscopy system employing a passive implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detector. Samples were only measured after air flow through the filters had ceased. Use of a commercial radon stripping algorithm was implemented to discriminate anthropogenic alpha activity on the filters from the radon progeny. When uncontaminated air filters were evaluated, the results showed that there was a time-dependent bias in both average estimates and measurement dispersion of anthropogenic activity estimates with the relative bias being small compared to the dispersion, indicating that the system would not give false positive indications for an appropriately set decision level. By also measuring environmental air sample filters simultaneously with electroplated alpha filters, use of the radon stripping algorithm demonstrated a number of substantial unexpected deviations from calibrated values indicating that the system would give false negative indications. Use of the current algorithm is, therefore, not recommended for general assay applications. Use of the PIPS detector should only be utilized for gross counting without appropriate modifications to the curve-fitting algorithm. As a screening method, the radon stripping algorithm might be expected to see elevated alpha activities on air sample filters (not due to radon progeny) around the 200 disintegrations per minute level.

  20. PROBLEMS WITH A NAFION (TRADE NAME) MEMBRANE DRYER FOR DRYING CHROMATOGRAPHIC SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Nafion membrane dryer was used to dry samples of organic gases emitted by vegetation before chromatographic separation to reduce water-related retention time variations on a fused-silica column. The dryer caused rearrangement of several monoterpenes and removed several importan...

  1. Problems associated with using filtration to define dissolved trace element concentrations in natural water samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, A.J.; Lum, K.R.; Garbarino, J.R.; Hall, G.E.M.; Lemieux, C.; Demas, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    Field and laboratory experiments indicate that a number of factors associated with filtration other than just pore size (e.g., diameter, manufacturer, volume of sample processed, amount of suspended sediment in the sample) can produce significant variations in the 'dissolved' concentrations of such elements as Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, Pb, Co, and Ni. The bulk of these variations result from the inclusion/exclusion of colloidally associated trace elements in the filtrate, although dilution and sorption/desorption from filters also may be factors. Thus, dissolved trace element concentrations quantitated by analyzing filtrates generated by processing whole water through similar pore-sized filters may not be equal or comparable. As such, simple filtration of unspecified volumes of natural water through unspecified 0.45-??m membrane filters may no longer represent an acceptable operational definition for a number of dissolved chemical constituents.

  2. Longitudinal Associations of Alcohol Involvement with Subjective Well-Being in Adolescence and Prediction to Alcohol Problems in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, W. Alex; Spoth, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent alcohol involvement is associated with numerous negative outcomes, but also appears to have positive correlates, including subjective well-being. Additional research is needed to understand these paradoxical findings. The current study examines alcohol use, adverse alcohol-related (and other substance-related) consequences, and…

  3. Peculiar velocities in large-scale structure - The problem of incomplete sampling. [Of galactic clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Bothun, G.D.; West, M.J.; Mould, J.R.; Schommer, R.A. Palomar Observatory, Pasadena, CA Observatorio Interamericano de Cerro Tololo, La Serena )

    1990-04-01

    Using N-body simulations of gravitational clustering scenarios with various amounts of power on large scales, the nature of observed peculiar velocity field that arises when incompletely sampling a distant but very large structure is examined. Consideration is given to the effect of placing the centroid of a large mass distribution at a distance of 45/h Mpc from the observer and imposing a distance cutoff such that only the near side of this mass distribution is actually sampled. Under these circumstances, simulations with significant large-scale power produce clusters which can have mean peculiar velocities of as high as 600 km/s, but this is rare. A more typical value is 300-400 km/s. The effects of projection, distance errors, and cluster internal velocity dispersion on the observed peculiar velocity field are evaluated. It is concluded that much of the cluster peculiar velocities are due to infall at or near the turnaround radius of the largest structure at the simulation center. 65 refs.

  4. A framework for analyzing and responding to the equity problems involved in high-level radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Kasperson, R.E.; Ratick, S.; Renn, O.

    1988-06-01

    As used in the discussion that follows, and in our research papers treating equity in the Yucca Mountain Socioeconomic Impact Study, equity refers to the fairness of the process or results of a particular activity or development on the various affected groups or individuals. The proper role for equity analyses, in our view, is not to provide final answers for the difficult issues involved. Any such solutions would require absolute values to which all interested and affected parties would subscribe. They would also require agreement as to the meaning of ``harm,`` ``benefit,`` and ``burden`` as well as how these factors should most appropriately be measured and valued. Such absolute values and social consensus is not realistic. So no overall quantitative expression of the amount of inequity can be definitively calculated or stated.

  5. Mycotoxin Cocktail in the Samples of Oilseed Cake from Early Maturing Cotton Varieties Associated with Cattle Feeding Problems

    PubMed Central

    Yunus, Agha W.; Sulyok, Michael; Böhm, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Cottonseed cake in South East Asia has been associated with health issues in ruminants in the recent years. The present study was carried out to investigate the health issues associated with cottonseed cake feeding in dairy animals in Pakistan. All the cake samples were confirmed to be from early maturing cotton varieties (maturing prior to or during Monsoon). A survey of the resource persons indicated that the feeding problems with cottonseed cake appeared after 4–5 months of post-production storage. All the cake samples had heavy bacterial counts, and contaminated with over a dozen different fungal genera. Screening for toxins revealed co-contamination with toxic levels of nearly a dozen mycotoxins including aflatoxin B1 + B2 (556 to 5574 ppb), ochratoxin A + B (47 to 2335 ppb), cyclopiazonic acid (1090 to 6706 ppb), equisetin (2226 to 12672 ppb), rubrofusarin (81 to 1125), tenuazonic acid (549 to 9882 ppb), 3-nitropropionic acid (111 to 1032 ppb), and citrinin (29 to 359 ppb). Two buffalo calves in a diagnostic feed trial also showed signs of complex toxicity. These results indicate that inappropriate processing and storage of the cake, in the typical conditions of the subcontinent, could be the main contributory factors regarding the low quality of cottonseed cake. PMID:26075378

  6. Mycotoxin Cocktail in the Samples of Oilseed Cake from Early Maturing Cotton Varieties Associated with Cattle Feeding Problems.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Agha W; Sulyok, Michael; Böhm, Josef

    2015-06-01

    Cottonseed cake in South East Asia has been associated with health issues in ruminants in the recent years. The present study was carried out to investigate the health issues associated with cottonseed cake feeding in dairy animals in Pakistan. All the cake samples were confirmed to be from early maturing cotton varieties (maturing prior to or during Monsoon). A survey of the resource persons indicated that the feeding problems with cottonseed cake appeared after 4-5 months of post-production storage. All the cake samples had heavy bacterial counts, and contaminated with over a dozen different fungal genera. Screening for toxins revealed co-contamination with toxic levels of nearly a dozen mycotoxins including aflatoxin B1 + B2 (556 to 5574 ppb), ochratoxin A + B (47 to 2335 ppb), cyclopiazonic acid (1090 to 6706 ppb), equisetin (2226 to 12672 ppb), rubrofusarin (81 to 1125), tenuazonic acid (549 to 9882 ppb), 3-nitropropionic acid (111 to 1032 ppb), and citrinin (29 to 359 ppb). Two buffalo calves in a diagnostic feed trial also showed signs of complex toxicity. These results indicate that inappropriate processing and storage of the cake, in the typical conditions of the subcontinent, could be the main contributory factors regarding the low quality of cottonseed cake. PMID:26075378

  7. Systematic evaluation of sequential geostatistical resampling within MCMC for posterior sampling of near-surface geophysical inverse problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggeri, Paolo; Irving, James; Holliger, Klaus

    2015-08-01

    We critically examine the performance of sequential geostatistical resampling (SGR) as a model proposal mechanism for Bayesian Markov-chain-Monte-Carlo (MCMC) solutions to near-surface geophysical inverse problems. Focusing on a series of simple yet realistic synthetic crosshole georadar tomographic examples characterized by different numbers of data, levels of data error and degrees of model parameter spatial correlation, we investigate the efficiency of three different resampling strategies with regard to their ability to generate statistically independent realizations from the Bayesian posterior distribution. Quite importantly, our results show that, no matter what resampling strategy is employed, many of the examined test cases require an unreasonably high number of forward model runs to produce independent posterior samples, meaning that the SGR approach as currently implemented will not be computationally feasible for a wide range of problems. Although use of a novel gradual-deformation-based proposal method can help to alleviate these issues, it does not offer a full solution. Further, we find that the nature of the SGR is found to strongly influence MCMC performance; however no clear rule exists as to what set of inversion parameters and/or overall proposal acceptance rate will allow for the most efficient implementation. We conclude that although the SGR methodology is highly attractive as it allows for the consideration of complex geostatistical priors as well as conditioning to hard and soft data, further developments are necessary in the context of novel or hybrid MCMC approaches for it to be considered generally suitable for near-surface geophysical inversions.

  8. Preschool boys' development of emotional self-regulation strategies in a sample at risk for behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Supplee, Lauren H; Skuban, Emily Moye; Trentacosta, Christopher J; Shaw, Daniel S; Stoltz, Emilee

    2011-01-01

    Little longitudinal research has been conducted on changes in children's emotional self-regulation strategy (SRS) use after infancy, particularly for children at risk. In this study, the authors examined changes in boys' emotional SRS from toddlerhood through preschool. Repeated observational assessments using delay of gratification tasks at ages 2, 3, and 4 years were examined with both variable- and person-oriented analyses in a low-income sample of boys (N = 117) at risk for early problem behavior. Results were consistent with theory on emotional SRS development in young children. Children initially used more emotion-focused SRS (e.g., comfort seeking) and transitioned to greater use of planful SRS (e.g., distraction) by 4 years of age. Person-oriented analysis using trajectory analysis found similar patterns from 2 to 4 years, with small groups of boys showing delayed movement away from emotion-focused strategies or delay in the onset of regular use of distraction. The results provide a foundation for future researchers to examine the development of SRS in low-income young children. PMID:21675542

  9. Competitiveness facets and sensation seeking as predictors of problem gambling among a sample of university student gamblers.

    PubMed

    Harris, Nicholas; Newby, Jennifer; Klein, Rupert G

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the factors that contribute to problem gambling (PG) is imperative. Individual differences in sensation seeking (SS), as measured by the Sensation Seeking Scale Form (SSS-V), have been found to be predictive of PG among university student samples. However, what is less clear, is if the four SSS-V subscales capture unique facets of SS that are particularly predictive of PG. Much less studied than SS, competitiveness has also been found to be predictive of PG. The Competitiveness Orientation Measure (COM) is a newly developed measure of competitiveness, comprising of four facets. The main purpose of the current study was to examine if these four facets of competitiveness predicted variance in PG over and above the variance predicted by the four SSS-V subscales. Participants included 158 university student gamblers. Sequential regression analysis showed that after accounting for gender, age, and the four SSS-V subscales the only facet of the COM found to be a significant predictor of PG severity was Dominant Competitiveness. Dominant Competitiveness predicted an additional 11% of PG severity. These results provide support for the Dominant Competitiveness subscale of the COM as having utility in predicting PG over and above the predictive utility of the SSS-V subscales. Practical implications for the current findings are discussed. PMID:24337941

  10. Predictors of Parent Stress in a Sample of Children with ASD: Pain, Problem Behavior, and Parental Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Caitlin E.; Mulder, Emile; Tudor, Megan E.

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that children with ASD have increased severity and incidence of pain symptoms compared to typically developing children and children with other disorders. Pain has also been shown to act as a setting event for problem behavior. Further, problem behavior is one of the biggest impediments to quality of life for families and highly…

  11. Differences in Parent and Teacher Ratings of Preschool Problem Behavior in a National Sample: The Significance of Gender and SES

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Scott L., Jr.; Blake, Jamilia; Kim, Eun Sook

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that informant disagreement is common with the use of rating scales to assess problem behavior in school-age populations. However, much less is known about this phenomenon in preschool populations. This is important because the accurate assessment of problem behavior in preschool is complex due to the rapid…

  12. Parent-Reported Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptomatology and Sleep Problems in a Preschool-Age Pediatric Clinic Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Michael T.; Angold, Adrian; Egger, Helen L.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates the relation between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptomatology and parent-reported sleep problems among preschoolers aged 2 to 5 years. Results indicate that neither condition was uniquely related to parent-reported sleep problems, but inattentive symptomatology was uniquely associated with daytime sleepiness.

  13. Pervasive and Non-Pervasive Conduct Problems in a Clinic Sample Aged 4-8 Years: Child, Family and Day-Care/School Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drugli, May Britt; Larsson, Bo; Clifford, Graham; Fossum, Sturla

    2007-01-01

    Differences between pervasive (home and day-care/school) versus non-pervasive (home only) conduct problems were examined in regard to various child, parent/family, and day-care/school characteristics in an outpatient clinic sample of 120 children aged 4-8 years. All children scored above the 90th percentile on the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory…

  14. The Problems with Access to Compulsory Education in China and the Effects of the Policy of Direct Subsidies to Students: An Empirical Study Based on a Small Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanqing, Ding

    2012-01-01

    After a brief review of the achievements and the problems in compulsory education enrollment in the thirty years since the reform and opening up, this study analyzes the current compulsory education enrollment and dropout rates in China's least-developed regions and the factors affecting school enrollment based on survey data from a small sample

  15. Are Problems Prevalent and Stable in Non-Clinical Populations? Problems and Test-Retest Stability of a Patient-Generated Measure, PSYCHLOPS (Psychological Outcome Profiles), in a Non-Clinical Student Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Chris; Ashworth, Mark; Peters, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    In straightened times counselling must evidence the changes it promotes on reputable measures. Patient-generated measures complement nomothetic measures and may be nearer the ethos of counselling in eliciting individuals' problems. Scores from such measures from non-clinical samples are rarely reported, making their test-retest stability…

  16. The link between ethnicity, social disadvantage and mental health problems in a school-based multiethnic sample of children in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Adriaanse, Marcia; Veling, Wim; Doreleijers, Theo; van Domburgh, Lieke

    2014-11-01

    To investigate to what extent differences in prevalence and types of mental health problems between ethnic minority and majority youth can be explained by social disadvantage. Mental health problems were assessed in a sample of 1,278 schoolchildren (55% Dutch, 32% Moroccan and 13% Turkish; mean age: 12.9 ± 1.8) using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire self-report and teacher report. Measures of family socioeconomic status, neighbourhood deprivation, perceived discrimination, family structure, repeating a school year, housing stability and neighbourhood urbanization were used as indicators of social disadvantage, based on which a cumulative index was created. Ethnic minority youth had more externalizing and fewer internalizing problems than majority youth. Perceived discrimination and living in an unstable social environment were associated with mental health problems, independent of ethnicity. A dose-response relationship was found between social disadvantage and mental health problems. The adjusted odds ratio for mental health problems was 4.16 (95% CI 2.49-6.94) for more than four compared with zero indicators of social disadvantage. Social disadvantage was more common in ethnic minority than in majority youth, explaining part of the differences in prevalence of mental health problems. Ethnic minority youth in the Netherlands have a different profile of mental health problems than majority youth. In all ethnic groups, the risk of mental health problems increases with the degree of social disadvantage. The higher prevalence of externalizing problems among ethnic minority youth is explained partly by their disadvantaged social position. The findings suggest that social factors associated with ethnicity are likely to explain mental health problems in ethnic groups. PMID:24927803

  17. Parallel mediation effects by sleep on the parental warmth-problem behavior links: evidence from national probability samples of Georgian and Swiss adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vazsonyi, Alexander T; Harris, Charlene; Terveer, Agnes M; Pagava, Karaman; Phagava, Helen; Michaud, Pierre-Andre

    2015-02-01

    Previous research has documented the importance of parenting on adolescent health and well-being; however, some of the underlying mechanisms that link the quality of parent-child relationship to health, adjustment, and well-being are not clearly understood. The current study seeks to address this gap by examining the extent to which sleep functioning mediates the effects by parental warmth on different measures of adolescent problem behaviors. Specifically, we test whether sleep functioning, operationalized by sleep quality and sleep quantity, mediates the relationship between the parental warmth and three measures of problem behaviors, namely alcohol use, illegal drug use, and deviance, in two nationally representative samples of Georgian (N = 6,992; M = 15.83, 60% females, and Swiss (N = 5,575; M = 17.17, 50% females) adolescents. Based on tests for parallel mediating effects by sleep functioning of parental warmth on problem behaviors in the MEDIATE macro in SPSS, the findings provided evidence that both sleep quality and sleep quantity independently and cumulatively mediated the effects of parental warmth on each of the three problem behaviors in both samples, with one exception. These results highlight the salience of positive parenting on sleep functioning among teens in two different cultural contexts, and, in turn, on measures of problem behaviors. PMID:25148792

  18. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use and Involvement in Violent Behavior in a Nationally Representative Sample of Young Adult Males in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Vaughn, Michael G.; DeLisi, Matt; Wright, John Paul

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroid use on serious violent behavior. Multivariate models based on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 6823) were used to examine the association between lifetime and past-year self-reported anabolic-androgenic steroid use and involvement in violent acts. Compared with individuals who did not use steroids, young adult males who used anabolic-androgenic steroids reported greater involvement in violent behaviors after we controlled for the effects of key demographic variables, previous violent behavior, and polydrug use. PMID:18923108

  19. Attention Problems Mediate the Association between Severity of Physical Abuse and Aggressive Behavior in a Sample of Maltreated Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Edward F.; Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.; Raviv, Tali

    2011-01-01

    Empirical evidence has accumulated documenting an association between childhood physical abuse and aggressive behavior. Relatively fewer studies have explored possible mediating mechanisms that may explain this association. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether caregiver- and youth-reported attention problems mediate the…

  20. Predictors and Moderators of Parent Training Efficacy in a Sample of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Serious Behavioral Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Cristan; Lecavalier, Luc; Yu, Sunkyung; Arnold, L. Eugene; McDougle, Christopher J.; Scahill, Lawrence; Handen, Benjamin; Johnson, Cynthia R.; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Bearss, Karen; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Aman, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    The Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology-Autism Network reported additional benefit when adding parent training (PT) to antipsychotic medication in children with autism spectrum disorders and serious behavior problems. The intent-to-treat analyses were rerun with putative predictors and moderators. The "Home Situations Questionnaire"…

  1. Sex Differences in Childhood Sexual Abuse Characteristics and Victims' Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Findings from a National Sample of Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maikovich-Fong, Andrea Kohn; Jaffee, Sara R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The first objective of this study was to test for sex differences in four childhood sexual abuse characteristics--penetration, substantiation, perpetrator familial status, and multi-maltreatment--in a national sample of youth. The second objective was to test for sex differences in how these abuse characteristics were associated with…

  2. Assessing Social Competence and Behavior Problems in a Sample of Italian Preschoolers Using the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sette, Stefania; Baumgartner, Emma; MacKinnon, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The main goals of this study were to examine the factor validity of the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation (SCBE-30) scale using exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis and to test factor invariance across gender in a sample of Italian preschool-age children (241 boys, 252 girls). The concurrent…

  3. Personality dimensions and emotional problems: the mediating role of irrational beliefs in Pakistani adult non-clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Jibeen, Tahira

    2015-03-01

    This study presents the first examination of the relation between the Big Five personality traits, irrational beliefs and emotional problems in Pakistan, which is an understudied country in the psychological distress literature. A total of 195 participants (aged 25-60 years), employees at COMSATS University, completed a demographic information sheet, the Big Five Personality Questionnaire, the Irrational Belief Inventory and two subscales of the Brief Symptom Inventory including depression and anxiety. Direct effects of neuroticism, openness and conscientiousness were also observed for depression and anxiety. Structural Equation Modelling demonstrated that irrational beliefs played a significant mediating role in the relationship between neuroticism and anxiety and neuroticism and depression. The results highlight the importance of cognitive beliefs in functionally linking personality traits and emotional problems. PMID:25721878

  4. Chemical Engineering students learn to solve practical problems that in one way or another involve chemistry --including biochemistry --as well as the composition or structure of materials. They are specifically concerned with the principles and processes

    E-print Network

    Bustamante, Fabián E.

    Chemical Engineering students learn to solve practical problems that in one way or another involve to modern civilization. Chemical engineering also plays a major role in developing methods for protecting COURSES Chem Eng 355 - Chemical Product Design Chem Eng 361 - Introduction to Polymers Chem Eng 365

  5. Applied Math students learn to apply math to real-world problems involving the physical and biological sciences, engineering, and the social sciences. Students learn to explain observed phenomena and to predict new, as yet unobserved, phenomena. The appli

    E-print Network

    Bustamante, Fabián E.

    Applied Math students learn to apply math to real-world problems involving the physical areas of application. Information Technology HOW STUDENTS report that they SPEND THEIR TIME UPPER, Cancer, Neuroscience, Population Dynamics Climate, Ecology, Social Systems Reaction-diffusion Systems

  6. Sample Preparation Problem Solving for Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry with Liquid Introduction Systems I. Solubility, Chelation, and Memory Effects

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, R. Steven

    2015-01-01

    This tutorial was adapted from the first half of a course presented at the 7th International Conference on Sector Field Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry in 2008 and the 2012 Winter Conference on Plasma Spectrochemistry on sample preparation for liquid introduction systems. Liquid introduction in general and flow injection specifically are the most widely used sample introduction methods for inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Nevertheless, problems persist in determination of analytes that are commonly investigated, as well as in specialty applications for those seldom considered by most analysts. Understanding the chemistry that is common to different groups of analytes permits the development of successful approaches to rinse-out and elimination of memory effects. This understanding also equips the analyst for development of successful elemental analytical approaches in the face of a broad spectrum of matrices and other analytical challenges, whether the sample is solid or liquid. PMID:26321788

  7. A simple method for overcoming some problems when observing thick reflective biological samples with a confocal scanning laser microscope.

    PubMed

    Rumio, C; Morini, M; Miani, A; Barajon, I; Castano, P

    1995-01-01

    A simple device is described, which allows the range of depth of scanning to be reduced when observing thick reflecting biological samples with a confocal scanning laser microscope (CSLM). Thick histological sections of human skin and rat brain stem were mounted between two coverslips ('sandwich' style) and the optical tomography was performed from both sides by turning the 'sandwich' upside-down. The samples were impregnated using standard Golgi-Cox, 'rapid Golgi' or other silver methods. The ability to turn the 'sandwich' upside-down is particularly useful when the reflective structure inspected is deep inside the section, i.e., near the lower surface of the specimen, or when it is opaque to the laser beam or excessively reflective. PMID:7897649

  8. The concerned significant others of people with gambling problems in a national representative sample in Sweden – a 1 year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research into the impact of problem gambling on close social networks is scarce with the majority of studies only including help-seeking populations. To date only one study has examined concerned significant others (CSOs) from an epidemiological perspective and it did not consider gender. The aim of this study is to examine the health, social support, and financial situations of CSOs in a Swedish representative sample and to examine gender differences. Methods A population study was conducted in Sweden in 2008/09 (n?=?15,000, response rate 63%). Respondents were defined as CSOs if they reported that someone close to them currently or previously had problems with gambling. The group of CSOs was further examined in a 1-year follow up (weighted response rate 74% from the 8,165 respondents in the original sample). Comparisons were also made between those defined as CSOs only at baseline (47.7%, n?=?554) and those defined as CSOs at both time points. Results In total, 18.2% of the population were considered CSOs, with no difference between women and men. Male and female CSOs experienced, to a large extent, similar problems including poor mental health, risky alcohol consumption, economic hardship, and arguments with those closest to them. Female CSOs reported less social support than other women and male CSOs had more legal problems and were more afraid of losing their jobs than other men. One year on, several problems remained even if some improvements were found. Both male and female CSOs reported more negative life events in the 1 year follow-up. Conclusions Although some relationships are unknown, including between the CSOs and the individuals with gambling problems and the causal relationships between being a CSO and the range of associated problems, the results of this study indicate that gambling problems not only affect the gambling individual and their immediate close family but also the wider social network. A large proportion of the population can be defined as a CSO, half of whom are men. While male and female CSOs share many common problems, there are gender differences which need to be considered in prevention and treatment. PMID:24261955

  9. Multivariate Analysis, Retrieval, and Storage System (MARS). Volume 6: MARS System - A Sample Problem (Gross Weight of Subsonic Transports)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hague, D. S.; Woodbury, N. W.

    1975-01-01

    The Mars system is a tool for rapid prediction of aircraft or engine characteristics based on correlation-regression analysis of past designs stored in the data bases. An example of output obtained from the MARS system, which involves derivation of an expression for gross weight of subsonic transport aircraft in terms of nine independent variables is given. The need is illustrated for careful selection of correlation variables and for continual review of the resulting estimation equations. For Vol. 1, see N76-10089.

  10. Health and Social Problems Associated with Prescription Opioid Misuse Among a Diverse Sample of High Risk Substance-Using MSM

    PubMed Central

    Buttram, Mance E.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Surratt, Hilary L.; Levi-Minzi, Maria A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines associations between prescription opioid misuse and demographics, substance use, sexual behavior, and related health and social problems. Baseline data were collected between 2008 and 2010 from 515 high risk men who have sex with men (MSM), ages 18–55, in the Miami-Ft. Lauderdale metropolitan area who reported heavy substance use and HIV risk in the past 90 days. Prescription opioid misuse was associated with other substance use, drug injection, substance dependence, and history of arrest. Implications, limitations, and directions for future study are discussed. PMID:23971894

  11. What are some of the cognitive, psychological, and social factors that facilitate or hinder licensed vocational nursing students' acquisition of problem-solving skills involved with medication-dosage calculations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Arthur William

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cognitive and psychological factors that either enhanced or inhibited Licensed Vocational Nurse (LVN) students' abilities to solve medication-dosage calculation problems. A causal-comparative approach was adopted for use in this study which encompassed aspects of both qualitative and quantitative data collection. A purposive, maximum-variation sample of 20 LVN students was chosen from among a self-selected population of junior college LVN students. The participants' views and feelings concerning their training and clinical experiences in medication administration was explored using a semi-structured interview. In addition, data revealing the students' actual competence at solving sample medication-dosage calculation problems was gathered using a talk-aloud protocol. Results indicated that few participants anticipated difficulty with medication-dosage calculations, yet many participants reported being lost during much of the medication-dosage problem solving instruction in class. While many participants (65%) were able to solve the medication-dosage problems, some (35%) of the participants were unable to correctly solve the problems. Successful students usually spent time analyzing the problem and planning a solution path, and they tended to solve the problem faster than did unsuccessful participants. Successful participants relied on a formula or a proportional statement to solve the problem. They recognized conversion problems as a two-step process and solved the problems in that fashion. Unsuccessful participants often went directly from reading the problem statement to attempts at implementing vague plans. Some unsuccessful participants finished quickly because they just gave up. Others spent considerable time backtracking by rereading the problem and participating in aimless exploration of the problem space. When unsuccessful participants tried to use a formula or a proportion, they were unsure of the formula's or the proportion's format. A few unsuccessful participants lacked an understanding of basic algebraic procedures and of metric measurements. Even participants who had great difficulty solving medication-dosage calculation problems could expeditiously solve more complex problems if the medication used in the problem was well known to them.

  12. The Clark Phase-able Sample Size Problem: Long-Range Phasing and Loss of Heterozygosity in GWAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halldórsson, Bjarni V.; Aguiar, Derek; Tarpine, Ryan; Istrail, Sorin

    A phase transition is taking place today. The amount of data generated by genome resequencing technologies is so large that in some cases it is now less expensive to repeat the experiment than to store the information generated by the experiment. In the next few years it is quite possible that millions of Americans will have been genotyped. The question then arises of how to make the best use of this information and jointly estimate the haplotypes of all these individuals. The premise of the paper is that long shared genomic regions (or tracts) are unlikely unless the haplotypes are identical by descent (IBD), in contrast to short shared tracts which may be identical by state (IBS). Here we estimate for populations, using the US as a model, what sample size of genotyped individuals would be necessary to have sufficiently long shared haplotype regions (tracts) that are identical by descent (IBD), at a statistically significant level. These tracts can then be used as input for a Clark-like phasing method to obtain a complete phasing solution of the sample. We estimate in this paper that for a population like the US and about 1% of the people genotyped (approximately 2 million), tracts of about 200 SNPs long are shared between pairs of individuals IBD with high probability which assures the Clark method phasing success. We show on simulated data that the algorithm will get an almost perfect solution if the number of individuals being SNP arrayed is large enough and the correctness of the algorithm grows with the number of individuals being genotyped.

  13. [Family Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance: The Newsletter of the National Transition Alliance, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This theme issue provides four articles that address family involvement in the transition of youth with disabilities from school to work. The first article, "Family Involvement" by Marge Goldberg and Shauna McDonald, offers evidence of the importance of family involvement at this stage of the individual's life, reports on families' experiences,…

  14. Histories of Childhood Victimization and Subsequent Mental Health Problems, Substance Use, and Sexual Victimization for a Sample of Incarcerated Women in the US

    PubMed Central

    Tripodi, Stephen J.; Pettus-Davis, Carrie

    2012-01-01

    Women are entering US prisons at nearly double the rate of men and are the fastest growing prison population. Current extant literature focuses on the prevalence of the incarceration of women, but few studies exist that emphasize the different trajectories to prison. For example, women prisoners have greater experiences of prior victimization, more reports of mental illness, and higher rates of illicit substance use. The purpose of this study was to understand the prevalence of childhood victimization and its association with adult mental health problems, substance abuse disorders, and further sexual victimization. The research team interviewed a random sample of 125 women prisoners soon to release from prison to gather information on their childhood physical and sexual victimization, mental health and substance abuse problems as an adult, and sexual victimization in the year preceding incarceration. Results indicate that women prisoners in this sample who were both physically and sexually victimized as a child were more likely to be hospitalized as an adult for a psychological or emotional problem. Women who were sexually victimized or both physically and sexually victimized were more likely to attempt suicide. Women who experienced physical victimization as children and women who were both physically and sexually victimized were more likely to have a substance use disorder and women who were sexually abused as children or both physically and sexually victimized were more likely to be sexually abused in the year preceding prison. This article ends with a discussion about prisons’ role in providing treatment for women prisoners and basing this treatment on women’s trajectories to prison, which disproportionately includes childhood victimization and subsequent mental health and substance use problems. PMID:23196054

  15. Problems in determination of skeletal lead burden in archaeological samples: an example from the First African Baptist Church population.

    PubMed

    Wittmers, L E; Aufderheide, A C; Pounds, J G; Jones, K W; Angel, J L

    2008-08-01

    Human bone lead content has been demonstrated to be related to socioeconomic status, occupation and other social and environmental correlates. Skeletal tissue samples from 135 individuals from an early nineteenth century Philadelphia cemetery (First African Baptist Church) were studied by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and X-ray fluorescence for lead content. High bone lead levels led to investigation of possible diagenetic effects. These were investigated by several different approaches including distribution of lead within bone by X-ray fluorescence, histological preservation, soil lead concentration and acidity as well as location and depth of burial. Bone lead levels were very high in children, exceeding those of the adult population that were buried in the cemetery, and also those of present day adults. The antemortem age-related increase in bone lead, reported in other studies, was not evidenced in this population. Lead was evenly deposited in areas of taphonomic bone destruction. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence studies revealed no consistent pattern of lead microdistribution within the bone. Our conclusions are that postmortem diagenesis of lead ion has penetrated these archaeological bones to a degree that makes their original bone lead content irretrievable by any known method. Increased bone porosity is most likely responsible for the very high levels of lead found in bones of newborns and children. PMID:18386797

  16. Problems in determination of skeletal lead burden in archaeological samples: An example from the First African Baptist Church population

    SciTech Connect

    Whittmers Jr., L. E.; Aufderheide, A. C.; Pounds, Joel G.; Jones, Keith W.; Angel, J. L.

    2008-08-01

    Human bone lead content has been demonstrated to be related to socioeconomic status, occupation and other social and environmental correlates. Skeletal tissue samples from 135 individuals from an early nineteenth century Philadelphia cemetery (First African Baptist Church) were studied by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and x-ray fluorescence for lead content. High bone lead levels led to investigation of possible diagenetic effects. These were investigated by several different approaches including distribution of lead within bone by x-ray fluorescence, histological preservation, soil lead concentration and acidity as well as location and depth of burial. Bone lead levels were very high in the children, exceeding those of the adult population that were buried in the cemetery, and also those of present day adults. The antemortem age-related increase in bone lead, reported in other studies, was not evidenced in this population. Lead was even deposited in areas of taphonomic bone destruction. Synchrotron x-ray fluorescence studies revealed no consistent pattern of lead microdistribution within the bone. Our conclusions are that postmortem diagenesis of lead ion has penetrated these archaeological bones to a degree that makes their original bone lead content irretrievable by any known method. Increased bone porosity is most likely responsible for the very high levels of lead found in bones of newborns and children.

  17. Problems in Determination of Skeletal Lead Burden in Archaeological Samples: An Example From the First African Baptist Church Population

    SciTech Connect

    Whittmers Jr., L. E.; Aufderheide, A. C.; Pounds, Joel G.; JONES, Keith; Angel, J. L.

    2008-08-01

    ABSTRACT Human bone lead content has been demonstrated to be related to socioeconomic status, occupation and other social and environmental correlates. Skeletal tissue samples from 135 individuals from an early nineteenth century Philadelphia cemetery (First African Baptist Church) were studied by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and x-ray fluorescence for lead content. High bone lead levels led to investigation of possible diagenetic effects. These were investigated by several different approaches including distribution of lead within bone by x-ray fluorescence, histological preservation, soil lead concentration and acidity as well as location and depth of burial. Bone lead levels were very high in children, exceeding those of the adult population that were buried in the cemetery, and also those of present day adults. The antemortem age-related increase in bone lead, reported in other studies, was not evidenced in this population. Lead was even deposited in areas of taphonomic bone destruction. Synchrotron x-ray fluorescence studies revealed no consistent pattern of lead microdistribution within the bone. Our conclusions are that postmortem diagenesis of lead ion has penetrated these archaeological bones to a degree that makes their original bone lead content irretrievable by any known method. Increased bone porosity is most likely responsible for the very high levels of lead found in bones of newborns and children.

  18. Psychiatric Stigma in Treatment-Seeking Adults with Personality Problems: Evidence from a Sample of 214 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Catthoor, Kirsten; Schrijvers, Didier; Hutsebaut, Joost; Feenstra, Dineke; Sabbe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Stigmatization is a major burden in adult psychiatric patients with Axis-I diagnoses, as shown consistently in most studies. Significantly fewer studies on the emergence of psychiatric stigma in adult patients with personality disorders (PDs) exist, although the resulting evidence is conclusive. Some authors consider patients with PDs at risk for severe stigmatization because of intense difficulties during interpersonal contact, even in a psychotherapeutic relationship. The aim of this study was primarily the assessment of pre-existing stigma in patients referred for intensive treatment for PDs. The study enrolled 214 patients admitted to the adult department of a highly specialized mental health care institute offering psychotherapy for patients with severe and complex personality pathology. All patients underwent a standard assessment with self-report questionnaires and a semi-structured interview to measure Axis II PDs. The stigma consciousness questionnaire and the perceived devaluation-discrimination questionnaire, both validated instruments, were used to measure perceived and actual experiences of stigma. Independent sample t-tests were used to investigate differences in the mean total stigma scores for patients both with and without a PD. One-way ANOVAs were performed to assess the differences between having a borderline PD, another PD, or no PD diagnosis. Multiple regression main effect analyses were conducted in order to explore the impact of the different PD diagnosis on the level of stigma. The mean scores across all patient groups were consistent with rather low stigma. No differences were found for patients with or without a PD diagnosis. Level of stigma in general was not associated with an accumulating number of PDs. Given the remarkable results, we would strongly recommend further investigations in the field to better understand the phenomenon of stigma in all its aspects. PMID:26217243

  19. Adaptive Peer Sampling with Newscast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tölgyesi, Norbert; Jelasity, Márk

    The peer sampling service is a middleware service that provides random samples from a large decentralized network to support gossip-based applications such as multicast, data aggregation and overlay topology management. Lightweight gossip-based implementations of the peer sampling service have been shown to provide good quality random sampling while also being extremely robust to many failure scenarios, including node churn and catastrophic failure. We identify two problems with these approaches. The first problem is related to message drop failures: if a node experiences a higher-than-average message drop rate then the probability of sampling this node in the network will decrease. The second problem is that the application layer at different nodes might request random samples at very different rates which can result in very poor random sampling especially at nodes with high request rates. We propose solutions for both problems. We focus on Newscast, a robust implementation of the peer sampling service. Our solution is based on simple extensions of the protocol and an adaptive self-control mechanism for its parameters, namely—without involving failure detectors—nodes passively monitor local protocol events using them as feedback for a local control loop for self-tuning the protocol parameters. The proposed solution is evaluated by simulation experiments.

  20. An Empirical Investigation of Sampling Errors in Educational Survey Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Kenneth N.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that using formulae for the estimation of sampling errors based on simple random sampling, when a design actually involves cluster sampling, can lead to serious underestimation of error. Jackknife and balanced repeated replication are recommended as techniques for dealing with this problem. (Author/CTM)

  1. Do adolescent drug use consequences predict externalizing and internalizing problems in emerging adulthood as well as traditional drug use measures in a Hispanic sample?

    PubMed Central

    Grigsby, Timothy J.; Forster, Myriam; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel W.; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2014-01-01

    The present study compares statistical models for three conceptualizations of drug use in 11th grade (past 30 day ever/never use, past 30 day frequency of drug use and past 30 day drug use consequences) with externalizing and internalizing problems in emerging adulthood when controlling for age, academic achievement and socioeconomic status in a Hispanic sample. Multivariate logistic regression models for the different drug use variables were compared when modeling weapon carrying, arrest, multiple lifetime sex partners, drug/alcohol use before sex and condom use in emerging adulthood. A multivariate linear regression model was used to model depression in emerging adulthood as a function of drug use measurement controlling for other covariates and depression in adolescence. Our findings suggest that any conceptualization of drug use will produce equitable results and model fit statistics when examining externalizing problems. However, when investigating internalizing problems, such as depression, lower frequency drug use—and not high frequency—was more strongly associated with depression whereas experiencing high levels of drug use consequences—and not low levels of consequences—was associated with depression in emerging adulthood despite similar model fit values. Variation between drug use and the experience of drug use consequences may lead to misspecification of “at-risk” subgroups of drug users. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:24345310

  2. General and substance-specific predictors of young adult nicotine dependence, alcohol use disorder, and problem behavior: Replication in two samples*

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, J.A; Samek, D.R.; Keyes, M.A.; Hill, K.G.; Hicks, B. M.; McGue, M.; Iacono, W.G.; Epstein, M.; Catalano, R.F.; Haggerty, K.P.; Hawkins, J.D.

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper presents two replications of a heuristic model for measuring environment in studies of gene-environment interplay in the etiology of young adult problem behaviors. Methods Data were drawn from two longitudinal, U.S. studies of the etiology of substance use and related behaviors: the Raising Healthy Children study (RHC; N = 1,040, 47% female) and the Minnesota Twin Family Study (MTFS; N = 1,512, 50% female). RHC included a Pacific Northwest, school-based, community sample. MTFS included twins identified from state birth records in Minnesota. Both studies included commensurate measures of general family environment and family substance-specific environments in adolescence (RHC ages 10–18; MTFS age 18), as well as young adult nicotine dependence, alcohol and illicit drug use disorders, HIV sexual risk behavior, and antisocial behavior (RHC ages 24, 25; MTFS age 25). Results Results from the two samples were highly consistent and largely supported the heuristic model proposed by Bailey et al. (2011). Adolescent general family environment, family smoking environment, and family drinking environment predicted shared variance in problem behaviors in young adulthood. Family smoking environment predicted unique variance in young adult nicotine dependence. Family drinking environment did not appear to predict unique variance in young adult alcohol use disorder. Conclusions Organizing environmental predictors and outcomes into general and substance-specific measures provides a useful way forward in modeling complex environments and phenotypes. Results suggest that programs aimed at preventing young adult problem behaviors should target general family environment and family smoking and drinking environments in adolescence. PMID:24631001

  3. Community Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Hayden R., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This publication features thirteen articles on community involvement. Several programs and individuals concerned with the role of the community in educational development and improvement are discussed. The main points made in all of the articles are: 1) research on community involvement appears limited, and 2) research "experts" are grass roots…

  4. Parent Involvement 

    E-print Network

    Howard, Jeff W.

    2005-05-10

    To be successful, a 4-H program must have parent involvement. Although 4-H leaders and Extension agents may interest young people in becoming members, they need the parents' goodwill and support to keep them interested, ...

  5. Youth: Criminal Involvement and Problems of Resocialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lelekov, V. A.; Prokhorov, Iu. N.

    1995-01-01

    Reports on a survey of youth crime, youthful criminals, and efforts at resocialization in contemporary Russia. Asserts that political and social change have resulted in social stratification and criminal behavior. Maintains that the high level of recidivism is caused by a lack of coordinated efforts by public institutions. (CFR)

  6. Sampling Development

    PubMed Central

    Adolph, Karen E.; Robinson, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Research in developmental psychology requires sampling at different time points. Accurate depictions of developmental change provide a foundation for further empirical studies and theories about developmental mechanisms. However, overreliance on widely spaced sampling intervals in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs threatens the validity of the enterprise. This article discusses how to sample development in order to accurately discern the shape of developmental change. The ideal solution is daunting: to summarize behavior over 24-hour intervals and collect daily samples over the critical periods of change. We discuss the magnitude of errors due to undersampling, and the risks associated with oversampling. When daily sampling is not feasible, we offer suggestions for sampling methods that can provide preliminary reference points and provisional sketches of the general shape of a developmental trajectory. Denser sampling then can be applied strategically during periods of enhanced variability, inflections in the rate of developmental change, or in relation to key events or processes that may affect the course of change. Despite the challenges of dense repeated sampling, researchers must take seriously the problem of sampling on a developmental time scale if we are to know the true shape of developmental change. PMID:22140355

  7. A cross-sectional analysis of women’s mental health problems: examining the association with different types of violence among a sample of Brazilian mothers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mental health problems are the major cause of disability in poor countries, and women are the individuals most affected. The World Health Organization points out that violence against women is the leading cause of mental health problems. This study seeks to identify explanatory factors for women’s mental health problems, highlighting situations of violence suffered by them during childhood, when living with a partner and in the community. Method A cross-sectional analysis was conducted with 389 mothers with schoolchildren in a city in the state of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Profile variables and childhood and adult life experiences were researched and organized in three analytical blocks. A binary logistic regression model was used, divided into hierarchical blocks. Results The final model shows that women who were the victims of severe physical violence by their partner were more likely (OR?=?8.2) to suffer from mental health problems than those who had never been exposed to this type of violence. The mothers of children with behavior problems are more likely to have mental health problems (OR?=?3.0) than mothers whose children do not manifest behavioral problems. Conclusion This study shows that women’s mental health problems are particularly related to the experience of physical violence, especially that occurring in intimate partner relationships. Based on this premise, this work recommends that multidimensional issues need to be included in women’s health assistance programs duly incorporating the specificity of victimization by violence. PMID:23587110

  8. Sex Differences in the Reciprocal Relationships between Mild and Severe Corporal Punishment and Children's Internalizing Problem Behavior in a Chinese Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xing, Xiaopei; Wang, Meifang

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the sex differences in the reciprocal relations between parental corporal punishment and child internalizing problem behavior in China. Four hundred fifty-four Chinese elementary school-age children completed measures of their parental corporal punishment toward them and their own internalizing problem behavior at…

  9. Does the Association with Psychosomatic Health Problems Differ between Cyberbullying and Traditional Bullying?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckman, Linda; Hagquist, Curt; Hellstrom, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    The association between mental health problems and traditional bullying is well known, whereas the strength of the association in cyberbullying is less known. This study aimed to compare the association between mutually exclusive groups of bullying involvement and psychosomatic problems as measured by the PsychoSomatic Problems scale. The sample

  10. Musculoskeletal involvement in sarcoidosis*, **

    PubMed Central

    Nessrine, Akasbi; Zahra, Abourazzak Fatima; Taoufik, Harzy

    2014-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disorder of unknown cause. It most commonly affects the pulmonary system but can also affect the musculoskeletal system, albeit less frequently. In patients with sarcoidosis, rheumatic involvement is polymorphic. It can be the presenting symptom of the disease or can appear during its progression. Articular involvement is dominated by nonspecific arthralgia, polyarthritis, and Löfgren's syndrome, which is defined as the presence of lung adenopathy, arthralgia (or arthritis), and erythema nodosum. Skeletal manifestations, especially dactylitis, appear mainly as complications of chronic, multiorgan sarcoidosis. Muscle involvement in sarcoidosis is rare and usually asymptomatic. The diagnosis of rheumatic sarcoidosis is based on X-ray findings and magnetic resonance imaging findings, although the definitive diagnosis is made by anatomopathological study of biopsy samples. Musculoskeletal involvement in sarcoidosis is generally relieved with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or corticosteroids. In corticosteroid-resistant or -dependent forms of the disease, immunosuppressive therapy, such as treatment with methotrexate or anti-TNF-?, is employed. The aim of this review was to present an overview of the various types of osteoarticular and muscle involvement in sarcoidosis, focusing on their diagnosis and management. PMID:24831403

  11. Measuring Family Problem Solving: The Family Problem Solving Diary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieren, Dianne K.

    The development and use of the family problem-solving diary are described. The diary is one of several indicators and measures of family problem-solving behavior. It provides a record of each person's perception of day-to-day family problems (what the problem concerns, what happened, who got involved, what those involved did, how the problem

  12. Problems in isolation of Campylobacter jejuni from frozen-stored raw milk and bovine fecal samples: genetic confirmation using multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Murinda, Shelton E; Nguyen, Lien T; Oliver, Stephen P

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of various protocols for the isolation of Campylobacter jejuni from bulk tank milk and bovine fecal samples that were stored frozen for varying times, and to develop a rapid DNA-based protocol that distinguishes C. jejuni from other thermophilic Campylobacter spp. The pathogen was recovered from fecal samples that had been stored for 96-251 days at -20 degrees C with glycerol as the cryopreservative. In a separate study, C. jejuni-positive bovine fecal samples were stored at 5 degrees C for up to 70 days without compromising subsequent recovery of the pathogen. However, the pathogen could not be recovered from pathogenpositive fecal samples stored with or without glycerol (5 mL/11 g sample) for 21 days at -20 degrees C. Bolton broth (BB) and Bolton broth with 5% blood (BBB), containing BB supplement, were used for enrichment. Bacterial isolation was achieved by streaking from BB and BBB, and filtering from BBB onto blood-free charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (CCDA). The use of BB for the recovery of Campylobacter was more sensitive than BBB, and streaking achieved better isolation rates than filtration. Multiplex PCR incorporating thermophilic Campylobacter-specific 23S rRNA and C. jejuni-specific hippuricase gene sequences was used to confirm C. jejuni. All 265 bulk tank milk samples analyzed were negative for C. jejuni, whereas five of 411 (1.2%) fecal samples tested positive. This is the first report that has used a combination of sequences of the two genes in a multiplex format to identify C. jejuni to the species level. The method described has potential for routine use in the detection of thermophilic Campylobacter in farm environmental samples as well as other samples. PMID:15992276

  13. Abstract -A self-cancellation scheme is proposed to cope with the sample frequency offset (SFO) problem in OFDM systems in

    E-print Network

    Ingram, Mary Ann

    ) problem in OFDM systems in the presence of a carrier frequency offset (CFO). Making use of the symmetry tracking for residual CFO, so that both SFO and residual CFO can be removed with low complexity-cancellation schemes proposed before for the inter-carrier interference (ICI) caused by carrier frequency offset (CFO

  14. Math 466 -Practice Problems for Exam 2 1. Suppose that X1, . . . , Xn for a random sample from a uniform distri-

    E-print Network

    Watkins, Joseph C.

    for this test (b) Determine the size of this test. 2. The lifetime (in years) of a particular brand of car battery has a mean of µ and a standard deviation of . (a) Suppose the population mean µ is 4.3 and the population standard deviation is 4.8. The lifetimes of a sample of n batteries are found. The probability

  15. * In addition to following this sample docking problem, the user is encouraged to review the following sections of the Rosetta 3.2 user guide

    E-print Network

    Meiler, Jens

    Extract Atomtree Diffs Ligand Docking Example Problem HIV-1 protease inhibitors often lose their efficacy downloaded "ROC-ideal.sdf" from http://www.pdb.org/pdb/ligand/ligandsummary.do?hetId=ROC. c. Create a .mol/python/apps/public/molfile_to_params.py --help". b. Type "molfile_to_params.py -n ROC -p ROC ROC_with_aromatic.sdf" c. Now ROC

  16. Organized Activity Involvement among Rural Youth: Gender Differences in Associations between Activity Type and Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Kaitlyn A.; Oosterhoff, Benjamin; Metzger, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined associations between organized activity involvement, academic achievement, and problem behavior in a sample of youth from a non-agricultural based rural community (M[subscript age] = 15.26, Age range = 11-19 years, N = 456). Analyses examined whether associations varied as a function of adolescent gender and age.…

  17. Genetic and environmental etiology of the relationship between childhood hyperactivity/inattention and conduct problems in a South Korean twin sample.

    PubMed

    Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2015-06-01

    Recently, there has been increased research into the etiology of the comorbidity between hyperactivity/inattention problems (HIP) and conduct problems (CP). However, the nature of the etiology of the comorbidity has remained unclear. Mothers of 507 pairs of twins, comprised of 221 monozygotic (MZ) and 286 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs aged from 6 to 13 years (mean = 9.6 years; SD = 2.0 years), completed the HIP and the CP scale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) via a telephone interview. The phenotypic correlation between HIP and CP was 0.43 (p < .01). MZ and DZ twin correlations were, respectively, 0.48 (95%CI: 0.37-0.58) and 0.06 (95% CI: -0.06-0.19) for HIP and 0.38 (95% CI: 0.26-0.49) and 0.35 (95% CI: 0.25-0.45) for CP. The bivariate model-fitting results revealed additive genetic correlation of 1.0 (95% CI: 0.72-1.00), a complete overlap of additive genetic variance component between HIP and CP, supporting the importance of correlated additive genetic risk factors for the comorbid condition of HIP and CP. HIP was additionally influenced by non-additive genetic factors that did not contribute to the relationship between HIP and CP. There was a significant but moderate child-specific environmental correlation (r e = 0.37) between HIP and CP. CP was additionally influenced by shared family environmental influences. While the results of the present study are generally consistent with the findings from Western twin studies of the relationship between HIP and CP, they add a new finding to the extant literature by showing that it is additive rather than non-additive genetic factors that are responsible for the co-occurrence of HIP and CP. PMID:25926162

  18. Problems, possibilities and limitations of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry in the determination of platinum, palladium and rhodium in samples with different matrix composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, P.; Velichkov, S.; Velitchkova, N.; Havezov, I.; Daskalova, N.

    2010-02-01

    The economic and geological importance of platinum group of elements has led to the development of analytical methods to quantify them in different types of samples. In the present paper the quantitative information for spectral interference in radial viewing 40.68 MHz inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry in the determination of Pt, Pd and Rh in the presence of complex matrix, containing Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, P and Ti as matrix constituents was obtained. The database was used for optimum line selections. By using the selected analysis lines the following detection limits in ng g - 1 were obtained: Pt 1700, Pd-1440, Rh-900. The reached detection limits determine the possibilities and limitation of the direct ICP-AES method in the determination of Pt, Pd and Rh in geological and environmental materials. The database for spectral interferences in the presence of aluminum can be used for the determination of platinum group of elements in car catalysts. The accuracy of the analytical results was experimentally demonstrated by two certified reference materials that were analyzed: SARM 7, Pt ore and recycled auto-catalyst certified reference material SRM 2556.

  19. Constructing Cooperative Logic Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munakata, Mika

    2005-01-01

    The complexities involved in writing mathematics problems and a cooperative learning activity that gives students the challenge of writing mathematical logic problems for their peers is discussed. Making students construct mathematics problems taps into several important skills in mathematics and students are asked to consider what it means to…

  20. Sampling of bosonic qubits

    E-print Network

    Vincenzo Tamma

    2015-06-16

    The boson sampling problem has brought a lot of attention in the quantum information field because it is not efficiently solvable with a classical computer; nonetheless it can be implemented with linear optical interferometers with single-boson sources. Recently, we introduced a more general problem, the multi-boson correlation sampling problem, which allows us to take advantage of the multi-mode spectral distribution of the bosonic sources together with time-correlated measurements in order to achieve sampling not only over the output ports of the interferometer but also over the joint detection times. This problem was analyzed for both single-photon sources and thermal sources. In this work, we demonstrate that it is possible to use single qubit bosonic sources in order to sample not only over the described "space-time" degree of freedom but also over all the possible exponential number of multi-qubit output states.

  1. INVESTIGATOR CHECKLIST FOR STUDIES INVOLVING PRISONERS

    E-print Network

    Flann, Nicholas

    more prevalent in prisons than elsewhere; and research on social and psychological problemsINVESTIGATOR CHECKLIST FOR STUDIES INVOLVING PRISONERS DEFINITION OF "PRISONER" FOR THE APPLICATION OF SPECIAL PROTECTIONS Prisoner means any individual involuntarily confined or detained in a penal

  2. Capillary sample

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in the diagnosis of medical conditions. Capillary blood sampling offers several advantages over drawing blood from a ... sugar several times a day using capillary blood sampling. Disadvantages to capillary blood sampling include: Only a ...

  3. Digitales Video 3. SAMPLING THEORY

    E-print Network

    Digitales Video 1 3. SAMPLING THEORY 3.1. INTRODUCTION This chapter reviews the principal ideas of digital filtering and sampling theory. A brief review is appropriate in order to grasp the key issues-fold problem addressed by sampling theory: Given a continuous input signal g(x) and its sampled counterpart gs

  4. Fibonacci's Triangle: A Vehicle for Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette, Hugh

    1979-01-01

    A method for solving certain types of problems is illustrated by problems related to Fibonacci's triangle. The method involves pattern recognition, generalizing, algebraic manipulation, and mathematical induction. (MP)

  5. 32 CFR 651.36 - Public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... involvement of other agencies, organizations, and individuals in the development of EAs and EISs enhances collaborative issue identification and problem solving. Such involvement demonstrates that the Army is committed... considering the extent practicable of public interaction (40 CFR 1501.4(b)), factors to be weighed include:...

  6. 32 CFR 651.36 - Public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... involvement of other agencies, organizations, and individuals in the development of EAs and EISs enhances collaborative issue identification and problem solving. Such involvement demonstrates that the Army is committed... considering the extent practicable of public interaction (40 CFR 1501.4(b)), factors to be weighed include:...

  7. Sample Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Kenneth N.

    1987-01-01

    This article considers various kinds of probability and non-probability samples in both experimental and survey studies. Throughout, how a sample is chosen is stressed. Size alone is not the determining consideration in sample selection. Good samples do not occur by accident; they are the result of a careful design. (Author/JAZ)

  8. Energy Problems and Environmental Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Train, Russell E.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses problems encountered in energy extraction and consumption, involving nuclear power plant construction, environmental consequences of energy systems, and energy conservation ethics. Indicates that the increasing concern over environmental quality is not the true cause of present energy problems. (CC)

  9. Sampling diffusive transition paths

    SciTech Connect

    F. Miller III, Thomas; Predescu, Cristian

    2006-10-12

    We address the problem of sampling double-ended diffusive paths. The ensemble of paths is expressed using a symmetric version of the Onsager-Machlup formula, which only requires evaluation of the force field and which, upon direct time discretization, gives rise to a symmetric integrator that is accurate to second order. Efficiently sampling this ensemble requires avoiding the well-known stiffness problem associated with sampling infinitesimal Brownian increments of the path, as well as a different type of stiffness associated with sampling the coarse features of long paths. The fine-features sampling stiffness is eliminated with the use of the fast sampling algorithm (FSA), and the coarse-feature sampling stiffness is avoided by introducing the sliding and sampling (S&S) algorithm. A key feature of the S&S algorithm is that it enables massively parallel computers to sample diffusive trajectories that are long in time. We use the algorithm to sample the transition path ensemble for the structural interconversion of the 38-atom Lennard-Jones cluster at low temperature.

  10. Involving Faculty in Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluepfel, Gail A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes Rutgers University's Gateway retention program which involves a number of academic departments in the development of retention programs. Highlights particular Gateway courses in the sciences, humanities, and social sciences. Discusses the benefits of faculty involvement and the importance of incentives for involvement. Reports a 90%…

  11. Affective Involvement Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemlech, Johanna K.

    1970-01-01

    The Affective Involvement Instrument (AII) describes and classifies affective involvement in the process of decision-making as it occurs during classroom activities such as role-playing or group discussions. The thirty-celled instrument behaviorizes the six processes involved in decision-making and combines them with the taxonomic levels of the…

  12. Sample Handling in Extreme Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avellar, Louisa; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2013-01-01

    Harsh environments, such as that on Venus, preclude the use of existing equipment for functions that involve interaction with the environment. The operating limitations of current high temperature electronics are well below the actual temperature and pressure found on Venus (460 deg C and 92 atm), so proposed lander configurations typically include a pressure vessel where the science instruments are kept at Earth-like temperature and pressure (25 deg C and 1 atm). The purpose of this project was to develop and demonstrate a method for sample transfer from an external drill to internal science instruments for a lander on Venus. The initial concepts were string and pneumatically driven systems; and the latter system was selected for its ability to deliver samples at very high speed. The pneumatic system was conceived to be driven by the pressure difference between the Venusian atmosphere and the inside of the lander. The pneumatic transfer of a small capsule was demonstrated, and velocity data was collected from the lab experiment. The sample transfer system was modeled using CAD software and prototyped using 3D printing. General structural and thermal analyses were performed to approximate the proposed system's mass and effects on the temperature and pressure inside of the lander. Additionally, a sampler breadboard for use on Titan was tested and functionality problems were resolved.

  13. Identifying viable "need-solution pairs": Problem solving without problem formulation

    E-print Network

    von Hippel, Eric A.

    2013-11-27

    Problem-solving research, and formal problem-solving practice as well, begins with the assumption that a problem has been identified or formulated for solving. The problem-solving process then involves a search for a ...

  14. Collecting Samples

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Collecting Samples at Embden 3. Embden 3 is a 60-degree V trapezoidal flume in a bured concreate culvert located on the other side of the north-south road east of the large data shelter. The flow is measured and sampled from the V flume underground and periodic QW grab samples are taken form the blu...

  15. Balance Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady or as ... fall-related injuries, such as hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  16. Macrodystrophia lipomatosa of foot involving great toe.

    PubMed

    Gaur, A K; Mhambre, A S; Popalwar, H; Sharma, R

    2014-06-01

    Macrodystrophia lipomatosa is a rare form of congenital disorder in which there is localized gigantism characterized by progressive overgrowth of all mesenchymal elements with a disproportionate increase in the fibroadipose tissues. The adipose tissue infiltration involves subcutaneous tissue, periosteum, nerves and bone marrow. Most of the cases reported have hand or foot involvement. Patient seeks medical help for improving cosmesis or to get the size of the involved part reduced in order to reduce mechanical problems. We report a case of macrodystrophia lipomatosa involving medial side of foot with significant enlargement of great toe causing concern for cosmesis and inconvenience due to mechanical problems. The X-rays showed increased soft tissue with more of adipose tissue and increased size of involved digits with widening of ends. Since the patient's mother did not want any surgical intervention he was educated about foot care and proper footwear design was suggested. PMID:24703060

  17. Quantum rejection sampling

    E-print Network

    Maris Ozols; Martin Roetteler; Jérémie Roland

    2011-12-13

    Rejection sampling is a well-known method to sample from a target distribution, given the ability to sample from a given distribution. The method has been first formalized by von Neumann (1951) and has many applications in classical computing. We define a quantum analogue of rejection sampling: given a black box producing a coherent superposition of (possibly unknown) quantum states with some amplitudes, the problem is to prepare a coherent superposition of the same states, albeit with different target amplitudes. The main result of this paper is a tight characterization of the query complexity of this quantum state generation problem. We exhibit an algorithm, which we call quantum rejection sampling, and analyze its cost using semidefinite programming. Our proof of a matching lower bound is based on the automorphism principle which allows to symmetrize any algorithm over the automorphism group of the problem. Our main technical innovation is an extension of the automorphism principle to continuous groups that arise for quantum state generation problems where the oracle encodes unknown quantum states, instead of just classical data. Furthermore, we illustrate how quantum rejection sampling may be used as a primitive in designing quantum algorithms, by providing three different applications. We first show that it was implicitly used in the quantum algorithm for linear systems of equations by Harrow, Hassidim and Lloyd. Secondly, we show that it can be used to speed up the main step in the quantum Metropolis sampling algorithm by Temme et al.. Finally, we derive a new quantum algorithm for the hidden shift problem of an arbitrary Boolean function and relate its query complexity to "water-filling" of the Fourier spectrum.

  18. Parent Predictors of Changes in Child Behavior Problems

    PubMed Central

    Tichovolsky, Marianne H.; Arnold, David H.; Baker, Courtney N.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether ineffective discipline, single parent status, social support, parent involvement, and parent depression predicted changes in preschoolers’ (N = 129) behavior problems. This study also evaluated whether child sex and ethnicity moderated the relationships between these variables and changes in problem behavior. Parents completed questionnaires at the beginning of the study, and parent, teacher, and observational ratings of children’s behavior problems were collected twice during the school year. Parents’ own social support predicted improvement for boys and parent depression was associated with worsening symptoms for girls. Single parenthood and parent involvement predicted changes in behavior problems for the sample as a whole. Several significant ethnic differences emerged, highlighting the importance of considering cultural context in studies of parenting and child externalizing behavior. PMID:24347757

  19. An analysis of factors contributing to train-involved crashes 

    E-print Network

    Cooner, Scott Allen

    1995-01-01

    . Crashes involving trains and vehicles are a significant safety problem in Texas each year. This research attempts to identify and analyze contributing factors to train-involved accidents in Texas. Three years of accident data (1328 total accidents) were...

  20. Curriculum and Community Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldmann, Doug

    2006-01-01

    Historically, the consolidation of school districts has brought with it many promises and perils. In this paper, the author links curriculum and community involvement within the consolidation context.

  1. A Sample of Sampling Definitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobko, Philip; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes a study examing 34 introductory psychological statistics texts for their usage and definitions of the terms "random sample" and "simple random sampling." Results showed a high percentage of conceptual errors. (CK)

  2. Involving the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jardine, Douglas K.

    When a college is held in high esteem by the important and prominent leaders in the larger community, that community can be counted on in times of need or crisis. Therefore, community involvement, though clearly a high moral imperative, also grows out of the college's enlightened self-interest. In an effort to increase involvement in and with the…

  3. High Involvement Work Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    These three papers were presented at a symposium on high-involvement work teams moderated by Michael Leimbach at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Beyond Training to the New Learning Environment: Workers on the High-Involvement Frontline" (Joseph Anthony Ilacqua, Carol Ann Zulauf) shows the link between an…

  4. [Drugs detection in street samples].

    PubMed

    Schiavone, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    The various steps of the analytical process are taken into account with reference to procedural problems linked to sampling operations, too. In particular, these aspects are treated: sampling procedures related to the various aspects of street samples, representative sampling of big amounts of controlled drugs, procedural problems in sampling of small amounts of drugs, the main methods of concealing. Up-to-date methods of extraction and chromatographic analysis are described. In the end, chemical profiling methods used to link different seizures of controlled drugs are briefly discussed. PMID:15815111

  5. Small-sample brain mapping: sparse recovery on spatially correlated designs with randomization and clustering

    E-print Network

    Kaski, Samuel

    Small-sample brain mapping: sparse recovery on spatially correlated designs with randomization Abstract Functional neuroimaging can measure the brain's response to an external stimulus. It is used to perform brain mapping: identi- fying from these observations the brain re- gions involved. This problem

  6. Sampling Theorems for Uniform and Periodic Nonuniform MIMO Sampling of Multiband Signals

    E-print Network

    Lanterman, Aaron

    in sampling theory, and we call this sampling scheme MIMO sampling. To focus on the sampling issues, we is an important problem in sampling theory in its own right. Several sam- pling schemes can be expressed1 Sampling Theorems for Uniform and Periodic Nonuniform MIMO Sampling of Multiband Signals Raman

  7. Sampling for area estimation: A comparison of full-frame sampling with the sample segment approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hixson, M.; Bauer, M. E.; Davis, B. J. (principal investigators)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Full-frame classifications of wheat and non-wheat for eighty counties in Kansas were repetitively sampled to simulate alternative sampling plans. Evaluation of four sampling schemes involving different numbers of samples and different size sampling units shows that the precision of the wheat estimates increased as the segment size decreased and the number of segments was increased. Although the average bias associated with the various sampling schemes was not significantly different, the maximum absolute bias was directly related to sampling size unit.

  8. Microwave Boson Sampling

    E-print Network

    Borja Peropadre; Gian Giacomo Guerreschi; Joonsuk Huh; Alán Aspuru-Guzik

    2015-10-27

    The first post-classical computation will most probably be performed not on a universal quantum computer, but rather on a dedicated quantum hardware. A strong candidate for achieving this is represented by the task of sampling from the output distribution of linear quantum optical networks. This problem, known as boson sampling, has recently been shown to be intractable for any classical computer, but it is naturally carried out by running the corresponding experiment. However, only small scale realizations of boson sampling experiments have been demonstrated to date. Their main limitation is related to the non-deterministic state preparation and inefficient measurement step. Here, we propose an alternative setup to implement boson sampling that is based on microwave photons and not on optical photons. The certified scalability of superconducting devices indicates that this direction is promising for a large-scale implementation of boson sampling and allows for more flexible features like arbitrary state preparation and efficient photon-number measurements.

  9. Lava Sampling

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    An HVO geologist takes a sample of active lava within a lava tube. The fluid lava sticks to the heavy hammer head at the end of the cable when it is lowered into the swiftly moving lava stream. These samples are analyzed routinely to track changes in lava chemistry. ...

  10. Sampling Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adolph, Karen E.; Robinson, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Research in developmental psychology requires sampling at different time points. Accurate depictions of developmental change provide a foundation for further empirical studies and theories about developmental mechanisms. However, overreliance on widely spaced sampling intervals in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs threatens the validity of…

  11. MIMO Sampling: Necessary Density Conditions Raman Venkataramani and Yoram Bresler

    E-print Network

    Lanterman, Aaron

    inversion problem can be restated as one in sampling theory, and we call this sampling scheme MIMO sampling. We study this problem entirely from the perspective of sampling theory, although the problem couldMIMO Sampling: Necessary Density Conditions Raman Venkataramani and Yoram Bresler Coordinated

  12. Eye Involvement in TSC

    MedlinePLUS

    ... what we see to the brain via the optic nerve. Retinal and optic nerve involvement in TSC are well known today, ... hamartomas (non-cancerous tumors) of the retina or optic nerve. The most common type of retinal hamartoma ...

  13. Balance Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Balance Problems About Balance Problems Have you ever felt dizzy, lightheaded, or ... dizziness problem during the past year. Why Good Balance is Important Having good balance means being able ...

  14. Elevating sampling

    PubMed Central

    Labuz, Joseph M.; Takayama, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    Sampling – the process of collecting, preparing, and introducing an appropriate volume element (voxel) into a system – is often under appreciated and pushed behind the scenes in lab-on-a-chip research. What often stands in the way between proof-of-principle demonstrations of potentially exciting technology and its broader dissemination and actual use, however, is the effectiveness of sample collection and preparation. The power of micro- and nanofluidics to improve reactions, sensing, separation, and cell culture cannot be accessed if sampling is not equally efficient and reliable. This perspective will highlight recent successes as well as assess current challenges and opportunities in this area. PMID:24781100

  15. Telescope loading: A problem reduction approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bresina, John L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a problem reduction approach to telescope loading. To study time-varying celestial behavior, astronomers submit periodic observation campaigns which involve a sequence of observations at a given sampling frequency over months or years. The loader's task is to generate an assignment of observation tasks to each night in the time window such that resource demand does not exceed resource capacity and such that the observations usefully contribute to the campaigns' scientific purposes, in a manner that is fair to all participating astronomers.

  16. DIAMONDS: a new Bayesian nested sampling tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsaro, Enrico; De Ridder, Joris

    2015-09-01

    In the context of high-quality asteroseismic data provided by the NASA Kepler Mission, we developed a new code, termed DIAMONDS (high-DImensional And multi-MOdal NesteD Sampling), for fast Bayesian parameter estimation and model comparison by means of the Nested Sampling Monte Carlo (NSMC) algorithm, an e?cient and powerful method very suitable for high-dimensional problems (like the peak bagging analysis of solar-like oscillations) and multi-modal problems (i.e. problems that show multiple solutions). We applied the code to the peak bagging analysis of solar-like oscillations observed in a challenging F-type star. By means of DIAMONDS one is able to detect the different backgrounds in the power spectrum of the star (e.g. stellar granulation and faculae activity) and to understand whether one or two oscillation peaks can be identified or not. In addition, we demonstrate a novel approach to peak bagging based on multi-modality, which is able to reduce significantly the number of free parameters involved in the peak bagging model. This novel approach is therefore of great interest for possible future automatization of the entire analysis technique. Software package available at the DIAMONDS code website: http://https://fys.kuleuven.be/ster/Software/Diamonds/.

  17. DIAMONDS: A new Bayesian nested sampling tool

    E-print Network

    Corsaro, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    In the context of high-quality asteroseismic data provided by the NASA Kepler mission, we developed a new code, termed Diamonds (high-DImensional And multi-MOdal NesteD Sampling), for fast Bayesian parameter estimation and model comparison by means of the Nested Sampling Monte Carlo (NSMC) algorithm, an efficient and powerful method very suitable for high-dimensional problems (like the peak bagging analysis of solar-like oscillations) and multi-modal problems (i.e. problems that show multiple solutions). We applied the code to the peak bagging analysis of solar-like oscillations observed in a challenging F-type star. By means of Diamonds one is able to detect the different backgrounds in the power spectrum of the star (e.g. stellar granulation and faculae activity) and to understand whether one or two oscillation peaks can be identified or not. In addition, we demonstrate a novel approach to peak bagging based on multimodality, which is able to reduce significantly the number of free parameters involved in th...

  18. [Chronic diseases, functional ability, social involvement and satisfaction in community-dwelling elderly: the Fibra study].

    PubMed

    Pinto, Juliana Martins; Neri, Anita Liberalesso

    2013-12-01

    The scope of this article is to describe variations in the measurement of chronic diseases, functional ability, social involvement and satisfaction with respect to memory, problem solving, social relationships, environment, health services and transportation. This is done according to gender, age and income. It analyzes correlations between social involvement and functional ability in independent community dwelling-elderly aged 65 and above. 2,472 seniors without cognitive deficit, from probabilistic samples of seven Brazilian locations, were submitted to self-reported measurement concerning all variables, with the exception of grip strength and gait speed assessed by objective tests. Mean age was 72.2 ± 5.5 years and mean income was 3.9 ± 4.9 MW; 65.7% were women, who had more diseases, worse functional performance and greater social involvement than men; those aged 80 and above and the poorest participants had worse functional performance and less social involvement. Correlations were observed between functional ability and social involvement. Level of income was related to satisfaction concerning memory, problem solving, health and transport services. Health, functionality and satisfaction interact in old age, influencing patterns of activity and social involvement. PMID:24263862

  19. Calculation of complex equilibria involving vaporization into vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paule, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    A simplified, direct approach is presented to the description of complex equilibria involving vaporization into vacuum. Emphasis is on the basic problem-solving process and on modification of existing techniques. Sequential solutions are presented to problems involving purification of a melt by vaporization into vacuum. The effects of concentration of melt and oxygen partial pressures on vaporization rates are demonstrated.

  20. Relationships with Adults as Predictors of Substance Use, Gang Involvement, and Threats to Safety among Disadvantaged Urban High-School Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Linda G.; Miller-Loessi, Karen; Nieri, Tanya

    2007-01-01

    Using a resilience framework, the authors examined the protective effects of parental support, self-disclosure to parents, parent-initiated monitoring of adolescent behavior, and relationships with school personnel on three critical problems of adolescents: substance use, gang involvement, and perceived threats to safety at school. The sample

  1. Ear recognition from one sample per person.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Mu, Zhichun; Zhang, Baoqing; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Biometrics has the advantages of efficiency and convenience in identity authentication. As one of the most promising biometric-based methods, ear recognition has received broad attention and research. Previous studies have achieved remarkable performance with multiple samples per person (MSPP) in the gallery. However, most conventional methods are insufficient when there is only one sample per person (OSPP) available in the gallery. To solve the OSPP problem by maximizing the use of a single sample, this paper proposes a hybrid multi-keypoint descriptor sparse representation-based classification (MKD-SRC) ear recognition approach based on 2D and 3D information. Because most 3D sensors capture 3D data accessorizing the corresponding 2D data, it is sensible to use both types of information. First, the ear region is extracted from the profile. Second, keypoints are detected and described for both the 2D texture image and 3D range image. Then, the hybrid MKD-SRC algorithm is used to complete the recognition with only OSPP in the gallery. Experimental results on a benchmark dataset have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method in resolving the OSPP problem. A Rank-one recognition rate of 96.4% is achieved for a gallery of 415 subjects, and the time involved in the computation is satisfactory compared to conventional methods. PMID:26024226

  2. Ear Recognition from One Sample Per Person

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Long; Mu, Zhichun; Zhang, Baoqing; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Biometrics has the advantages of efficiency and convenience in identity authentication. As one of the most promising biometric-based methods, ear recognition has received broad attention and research. Previous studies have achieved remarkable performance with multiple samples per person (MSPP) in the gallery. However, most conventional methods are insufficient when there is only one sample per person (OSPP) available in the gallery. To solve the OSPP problem by maximizing the use of a single sample, this paper proposes a hybrid multi-keypoint descriptor sparse representation-based classification (MKD-SRC) ear recognition approach based on 2D and 3D information. Because most 3D sensors capture 3D data accessorizing the corresponding 2D data, it is sensible to use both types of information. First, the ear region is extracted from the profile. Second, keypoints are detected and described for both the 2D texture image and 3D range image. Then, the hybrid MKD-SRC algorithm is used to complete the recognition with only OSPP in the gallery. Experimental results on a benchmark dataset have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method in resolving the OSPP problem. A Rank-one recognition rate of 96.4% is achieved for a gallery of 415 subjects, and the time involved in the computation is satisfactory compared to conventional methods. PMID:26024226

  3. Jocks, gender, race, and adolescent problem drinking.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kathleen E; Hoffman, Joseph H; Barnes, Grace M; Farrell, Michael P; Sabo, Don; Melnick, Merrill J

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol remains the drug of choice for many adolescents; however, the nature of the relationship between athletic involvement and alcohol misuse remains ambiguous. In this article, we used a longitudinal sample of over 600 Western New York adolescents and their families to explore the gender-specific and race-specific relationships between identification with the "jock" label and adolescent alcohol consumption, specifically problem drinking. Operationalization of problem drinking included frequency measures of heavy drinking, binge drinking, and social problems related to alcohol (e.g., trouble with family, friends, school officials over drinking). Self-identified adolescent "jocks" were more likely to engage in problem drinking than their non-jock counterparts, even after controlling for gender, age, race, socioeconomic status, physical maturity, social maturity, and frequency of athletic activity. Jock identity was strongly associated with higher binge drinking frequency in Black adolescent girls. This study underscores the need to distinguish between objective and subjective meanings of athletic involvement when assessing the relationship between sport and adolescent health-risk behavior. PMID:15237868

  4. PBINT, A Logic for Modelling Search Problems Involving Arithmetic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasharrofi, Shahab; Ternovska, Eugenia

    Motivated by computer science challenges, Grädel and Gurevich [13] suggested to extend the approach and methods of finite model theory beyond finite structures, an approach they called Metafinite Model Theory. We develop this direction further, in application to constraint specification/modelling languages. Following [27], we use a framework based on embedded model theory, but with a different background structure, the structure of arithmetic which contains at least (?; 0, 1, + , ×, < , || ||), where ||x|| returns the size of the binary encoding of x. We prove that on these structures, we can unconditionally capture NP using a variant of a guarded logic. This improves the result of [27] (and thus indirectly [13]) by eliminating the small cost condition on input structures.

  5. Finite-element model for environmental problems involving complex terrain

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.L.; Leone, J.M. Jr.; Gresho, P.M.; Chan, S.T.

    1982-02-01

    The objective is to develop advanced models capable of predicting wind fields, with observations used only for initial and boundary conditions. This paper briefly describes the planetary boundary layer (PBL) model and presents preliminary numerical examples related to the initialization of PBL flow over complex terrain. (ACR)

  6. PROBLEMS INVOLVED IN COOPERATION BETWEEN UNIVERSITIES AND GOVERNMENT AGENCIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SHIRLEY, JOHN W.

    THE UNRESOLVED PURPOSE OF EDUCATION IN A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY--WHETHER ACADEMIC OR PRAGMATIC GOALS SHOULD PREVAIL--IS IDENTIFIED AS THE BASIC CAUSE OF THE CONFLICT BETWEEN THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT AND INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION. SINCE WORLD WAR II, FEDERAL SUPPORT HAS BEEN INCREASINGLY DIRECTED TOWARD ACTION PROGRAMS, INCLUDING SPECIAL…

  7. Annealed Importance Sampling Reversible Jump MCMC algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Karagiannis, Georgios; Andrieu, Christophe

    2013-03-20

    It will soon be 20 years since reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (RJ-MCMC) algorithms have been proposed. They have significantly extended the scope of Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation methods, offering the promise to be able to routinely tackle transdimensional sampling problems, as encountered in Bayesian model selection problems for example, in a principled and flexible fashion. Their practical efficient implementation, however, still remains a challenge. A particular difficulty encountered in practice is in the choice of the dimension matching variables (both their nature and their distribution) and the reversible transformations which allow one to define the one-to-one mappings underpinning the design of these algorithms. Indeed, even seemingly sensible choices can lead to algorithms with very poor performance. The focus of this paper is the development and performance evaluation of a method, annealed importance sampling RJ-MCMC (aisRJ), which addresses this problem by mitigating the sensitivity of RJ-MCMC algorithms to the aforementioned poor design. As we shall see the algorithm can be understood as being an “exact approximation” of an idealized MCMC algorithm that would sample from the model probabilities directly in a model selection set-up. Such an idealized algorithm may have good theoretical convergence properties, but typically cannot be implemented, and our algorithms can approximate the performance of such idealized algorithms to an arbitrary degree while not introducing any bias for any degree of approximation. Our approach combines the dimension matching ideas of RJ-MCMC with annealed importance sampling and its Markov chain Monte Carlo implementation. We illustrate the performance of the algorithm with numerical simulations which indicate that, although the approach may at first appear computationally involved, it is in fact competitive.

  8. Gene-by-Preschool Interaction on the Development of Early Externalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

    2013-01-01

    Background: Preschool involves an array of new social experiences that may impact the development of early externalizing behavior problems over the transition to grade school. Methods: Using longitudinal data from a nationally representative sample of over 600 pairs of US twins, we tested whether the genetic and environmental influences on…

  9. The Association between Parental Personality Patterns and Internalising and Externalising Behaviour Problems in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertino, Melanie D.; Connell, Gabrielle; Lewis, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relationship between parental personality patterns and internalising and externalising behaviour problems in a clinically referred sample of children (aged 4-8) and adolescents (aged 12-18). Methods: Data from families involved in two clinical trials in Victoria, Australia were analysed (n = 59). Families…

  10. Problems on Divisibility of Binomial Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Thomas J.; Smoak, James

    2004-01-01

    Twelve unusual problems involving divisibility of the binomial coefficients are represented in this article. The problems are listed in "The Problems" section. All twelve problems have short solutions which are listed in "The Solutions" section. These problems could be assigned to students in any course in which the binomial theorem and Pascal's…

  11. Predicting the Problem Behavior in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaman, Neslihan G.

    2013-01-01

    Problem statement: Problem behavior theory describes both protective factors and risk factors to explain adolescent problem behaviors, such as delinquency, alcohol use, and reckless driving. The theory holds that problem behaviors involving risky behavior are used by adolescents as a means to gain peer acceptance and respect. Problem behaviors…

  12. SOIL AND SEDIMENT SAMPLING METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response's (OSWER) Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI) needs innovative methods and techniques to solve new and difficult sampling and analytical problems found at the numerous Superfund sites throughout th...

  13. Asthma, Allergic Rhinitis, and Sleep Problems in Urban Children

    PubMed Central

    Koinis-Mitchell, Daphne; Kopel, Sheryl J.; Boergers, Julie; Ramos, Kara; LeBourgeois, Monique; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Esteban, Cynthia A.; Seifer, Ronald; Fritz, Gregory K.; Klein, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In this study, we examine the association of asthma (asthma symptoms, asthma control, lung function) and sleep problems in a group of urban children. The role of allergic rhinitis (AR), a comorbid condition of asthma, on children's sleep problems is also examined. Finally, we investigate whether sleep hygiene moderates the association between asthma and sleep problems, and whether there are differences in these associations based on ethnic background. Methods: Non-Latino White, Latino, and African American urban children with asthma (n = 195) ages 7–9 (47% female) and their primary caregivers participated in a baseline visit involving interview-based questionnaires on demographics, asthma and rhinitis control, and caregiver report of children's sleep problems and sleep hygiene. Children and their caregivers participated in a clinical evaluation of asthma and AR, followed by a month monitoring period of children's asthma using objective and subjective methods. Results: Total sleep problem scores were higher in children of the sample who were from African American and Latino backgrounds, compared to non-Latino white children. Poor asthma control was predictive of higher levels of sleep problems in the entire sample. Poorer AR control also was related to more sleep problems, over and above children's asthma in the sample. This association was more robust in non-Latino white children. Poor sleep hygiene heightened the association between poor asthma control and sleep problems in the entire sample and in African American children. Conclusions: Multidisciplinary interventions integrating the co-management of asthma, AR, and the effects of both illnesses on children's sleep, need to be developed and tailored to children and their families' ethnic background. Citation: Koinis-Mitchell D, Kopel SJ, Boergers J, Ramos K, LeBourgeois M, McQuaid EL, Esteban CA, Seifer R, Fritz GK, Klein RB. Asthma, allergic rhinitis, and sleep problems in urban children. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(2):101–110. PMID:25515273

  14. [Cardiac involvement in polymyositis].

    PubMed

    Romdhane, M B; Mahdhaoui, A; Khelifa, M B; Lagren, A; Hajri, S E; Bouraoui, H; Trimeche, B; Ghannouchi, N; Jeridi, G; Bahri, F

    2012-08-01

    Cardiovascular involvement in polymyositis constitutes a major cause of death. However, the cardiac location is rarely symptomatic and does not usually represent the principle clinical feature at the time of the initial presentation. We present here an unusual case of polymyositis with severe and polymorph cardiac disturbances that predominant the muscular signs. PMID:20709312

  15. Involving Today's Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Music Educators Journal, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Presents the attempts of four teachers to get parents involved in and excited about school music. Includes a description of a school concert that included a performance by band parents; parents clubs for orchestra, band, or choral groups; newsletters; and a band class in which parents learned to play their child's instrument. (DK)

  16. Sampling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, N.R.; King, L.L.; Jackson, P.O.; Zulich, A.W.

    1989-07-18

    A sampling apparatus is provided for sampling substances from solid surfaces. The apparatus includes first and second elongated tubular bodies which telescopically and sealingly join relative to one another. An absorbent pad is mounted to the end of a rod which is slidably received through a passageway in the end of one of the joined bodies. The rod is preferably slidably and rotatably received through the passageway, yet provides a selective fluid tight seal relative thereto. A recess is formed in the rod. When the recess and passageway are positioned to be coincident, fluid is permitted to flow through the passageway and around the rod. The pad is preferably laterally orientable relative to the rod and foldably retractable to within one of the bodies. A solvent is provided for wetting of the pad and solubilizing or suspending the material being sampled from a particular surface. 15 figs.

  17. Sampling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Norman R. (Kennewick, WA); King, Lloyd L. (Benton, WA); Jackson, Peter O. (Richland, WA); Zulich, Alan W. (Bel Air, MD)

    1989-01-01

    A sampling apparatus is provided for sampling substances from solid surfaces. The apparatus includes first and second elongated tubular bodies which telescopically and sealingly join relative to one another. An absorbent pad is mounted to the end of a rod which is slidably received through a passageway in the end of one of the joined bodies. The rod is preferably slidably and rotatably received through the passageway, yet provides a selective fluid tight seal relative thereto. A recess is formed in the rod. When the recess and passageway are positioned to be coincident, fluid is permitted to flow through the passageway and around the rod. The pad is preferably laterally orientable relative to the rod and foldably retractable to within one of the bodies. A solvent is provided for wetting of the pad and solubilizing or suspending the material being sampled from a particular surface.

  18. Problem drinkers and their problems

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, I. C.; Buckley, E. G.; Deacon, G. L. S.; Irvine, R.; Ryan, M. P.

    1981-01-01

    From general practice records of 9,763 patients, 106 problem drinkers were compared with a control group. The drinkers had a substantially higher number of problems and they consulted their doctor and attended casualty departments frequently. Social and marital problems were especially prevalent in the families of problem drinkers. PMID:7277292

  19. Astronauts' menu problem.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesso, W. G.; Kenyon, E.

    1972-01-01

    Consideration of the problems involved in choosing appropriate menus for astronauts carrying out SKYLAB missions lasting up to eight weeks. The problem of planning balanced menus on the basis of prepackaged food items within limitations on the intake of calories, protein, and certain elements is noted, as well as a number of other restrictions of both physical and arbitrary nature. The tailoring of a set of menus for each astronaut on the basis of subjective rankings of each food by the astronaut in terms of a 'measure of pleasure' is described, and a computer solution to this problem by means of a mixed integer programming code is presented.

  20. Are accidents scheduled. [safety management problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, C.

    1976-01-01

    Two major sets of safety problems associated with project scheduling are examined. The first set involves problems resulting from the improper scheduling of the safety tasks. The second involves problems which result from inadequate attention to scheduling of those project tasks which lead to tests and operations and includes condensed schedules, modified schedules, schedule workarounds, eliminated portions of the schedules and strung out schedules.

  1. Sand Sampling

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon Drilling Platform exploded and sank, causing an enormous oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. U.S. Geological Survey field offices responded immediately by organizing teams to take pre-spill sediment and water samples in order to establish a baseline survey. This...

  2. Sample Containers

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon Drilling Platform exploded and sank, causing an enormous oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. U.S. Geological Survey field offices responded immediately by organizing teams to take pre-spill sediment and water samples in order to establish a baseline survey. This...

  3. Water Sampling

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon Drilling Platform exploded and sank, causing an enormous oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. U.S. Geological Survey field offices responded immediately by organizing teams to take pre-spill sediment and water samples in order to establish a baseline survey. This...

  4. Importance sampling : promises and limitations.

    SciTech Connect

    West, Nicholas J.; Swiler, Laura Painton

    2010-04-01

    Importance sampling is an unbiased sampling method used to sample random variables from different densities than originally defined. These importance sampling densities are constructed to pick 'important' values of input random variables to improve the estimation of a statistical response of interest, such as a mean or probability of failure. Conceptually, importance sampling is very attractive: for example one wants to generate more samples in a failure region when estimating failure probabilities. In practice, however, importance sampling can be challenging to implement efficiently, especially in a general framework that will allow solutions for many classes of problems. We are interested in the promises and limitations of importance sampling as applied to computationally expensive finite element simulations which are treated as 'black-box' codes. In this paper, we present a customized importance sampler that is meant to be used after an initial set of Latin Hypercube samples has been taken, to help refine a failure probability estimate. The importance sampling densities are constructed based on kernel density estimators. We examine importance sampling with respect to two main questions: is importance sampling efficient and accurate for situations where we can only afford small numbers of samples? And does importance sampling require the use of surrogate methods to generate a sufficient number of samples so that the importance sampling process does increase the accuracy of the failure probability estimate? We present various case studies to address these questions.

  5. Production quality control problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doney, Thomas A.

    1991-02-01

    The food industry offers many automated inspection challenges that are not readily solved using commercial industrial vision systems. A discussion of these challenges includes a package inspection involving a variable " good" package color analysis of a baked product high speed verification of a coating process and a high speed printed web inspection. Solutions for these problems are solicited.

  6. Chemical Reaction Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veal, William

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the role of chemical-equation problem solving in helping students predict reaction products. Methods for helping students learn this process must be taught to students and future teachers by using pedagogical skills within the content of chemistry. Emphasizes that solving chemical reactions should involve creative cognition where…

  7. Children Solve Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bono, Edward

    A group of children were presented with several tasks, including the invention of a sleep machine and a machine to weigh elephants. The tasks were chosen to involve the children in coping with problems of a distinct character. A study of the children's drawings and interpretations shows that children's thinking ability is not very different from…

  8. Organic contamination problems in the Viking molecular analysis experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flory, D. A.; Oro, J.; Fennessey, P. V.

    1974-01-01

    A principal problem in interpreting the results of an organic analysis of an extraterrestrial sample is that of distinguishing contaminating material from indigenous material when unknown types and amounts of contaminants make their way into the sample being analyzed. An approach to control of sample integrity in the Viking molecular analysis experiment has been devised which it is believed, will eliminate such problems. Basically this involves (1) placing an upper limit on the amount of terrestrial contamination that can be tolerated and still allow scientifically meaningful analysis, (2) identifying the potential sources of contamination and analyzing their relative significance, (3) establishing methods to control these sources, and (4) obtaining complete information on the chemical composition of potential contaminants. Previous experience in the Apollo mission has been of great value in developing the Viking program, perhaps the most important carryover being the recognition of the importance of establishing a comprehensive contamination control program in the early stages of mission planning and hardware design.

  9. Principles for Sampling Airborne Radioactivity from Stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, John A.

    2010-10-18

    This book chapter describes the special processes involved in sampling the airborne effluents from nuclear faciities. The title of the book is Radioactive Air Sampling Methods. The abstract for this chapter was cleared as PNNL-SA-45941.

  10. Walking Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... get around, and exercise. Having a problem with walking can make daily life more difficult. The pattern ... an abnormal gait and lead to problems with walking. These include: Injuries, diseases, or abnormal development of ...

  11. Sleeping Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... asthma, arthritis or heart failure Medicines and certain foods or drinks back to top Why Is It Important to Get Help? Poor sleep can slow your loved one’s recovery. Sleep problems can lead to depression, memory problems ...

  12. Erection problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... may include: Taking your blood pressure Examining your penis and rectum to check for problems Your doctor ... check for normal nighttime erections Ultrasound of your penis to check for blood flow problems Rigidity monitoring ...

  13. Joint Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ankles and toes. Other types of arthritis include gout or pseudogout. Sometimes, there is a mechanical problem ... for more information on osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and gout. How Common are Joint Problems? Osteoarthritis, which affects ...

  14. Drug samples: friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Coolidge, Melvin P

    2002-07-01

    The common practice of drug manufacturers in providing 'free' samples to physicians has influenced the business of medicine in several ways. This article analyzes some of the pros and cons of drug sampling, including from professional, societal, economical, legal, and practical perspectives, and provides suggestions on how to dispense with some of the problems inherent in the current system. PMID:12847754

  15. Purposive Sampling in Clinical Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royeen, Charlotte Brasic; Fortune, Jim Carlton

    This paper identifies typical sampling problems, including improper application of the Central Limit Theorem, that are associated with the probability-based sampling procedures currently used in clinical psychology research. It then presents two alternative research designs, the theory validation model and the extended case study model, which…

  16. Sampling Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Three locations to the right of the test dig area are identified for the first samples to be delivered to the Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA), the Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL), and the Optical Microscope (OM) on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. These sampling areas are informally labeled 'Baby Bear', 'Mama Bear', and 'Papa Bear' respectively. This image was taken on the seventh day of the Mars mission, or Sol 7 (June 1, 2008) by the Surface Stereo Imager aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Solving Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Norman; Lindelow, John

    Chapter 12 in a volume on school leadership, this chapter cites the work of several authorities concerning problem-solving or decision-making techniques based on the belief that group problem-solving effort is preferable to individual effort. The first technique, force-field analysis, is described as a means of dissecting complex problems into…

  18. New developments in sampling and aggregation for remotely sensed surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiveson, A. H. (principal investigator)

    1979-01-01

    Sampling techniques used to construct large area crop estimates are briefly reviewed. Problem areas in sampling and aggregation are covered. The natural sampling strategy, two phase sampling, weighted aggregation, and multiyear estimation are among the topics discussed.

  19. Experiment Problems for Electricity and Magnetism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Heuvelen, Alan; Allen, Leith; Mihas, Pavlos

    1999-01-01

    Gives several sample experiment problems for electricity and magnetism. To solve an experiment problem, students have to do one or more of the following: clarify a poorly defined problem, divide a problem into parts, access the appropriate concept needed to solve each problem part, decide whether approximations are appropriate, design an…

  20. Ectomycorrhizas involving sebacinoid mycobionts.

    PubMed

    Urban, Alexander; Weiss, Michael; Bauer, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences characteristic of Sebacinaceae were detected by direct amplification of DNA from field collected ectomycorrhizal samples. A study was undertaken to confirm the formation of ectomycorrhizas by Sebacinaceae and to characterise representative samples genetically, morphologically and ultrastructurally. The investigated sebacinoid mycorrhizas were sufficiently characteristic to be identified morphologically. They are distinguished by a characteristic, clampless, hydrophilic extramatrical mycelium, which is very variable in diameter and in wall thickness, and by the presence of distinctive, y-shaped, inflated multibranchings. Differences in the mantle structure clearly discriminate the two investigated sebacinoid mycorrhizal types. Comparison of the D1/D2 domains of the nuclear large subunit pseudogene and the ITS1 and ITS2 regions identifies the fungal partner of one of the mycorrhizal samples as Sebacina incrustans. Ultrastructural investigations of the ectomycorrhizas show a doliporus/parenthesome architecture consistent with that of the Sebacinaceae. Recently published sequence data obtained from sebacinoid mycorrhizas are compared to our sequences and the complex trophic relationships in the Sebacinaceae are discussed. Observations on ectomycorrhizas and basidiomes suggest that species of Sebacinaceae are fairly common mycobionts in various ectomycorrhizal plant communities. PMID:12735239

  1. The Contribution of Game Genre and other Use Patterns to Problem Video Game Play among Adult Video Gamers.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Luther; Ream, Geoffrey; McGinsky, Elizabeth; Dunlap, Eloise

    2012-12-01

    AIMS: To assess the contribution of patterns of video game play, including game genre, involvement, and time spent gaming, to problem use symptomatology. DESIGN: Nationally representative survey. SETTING: Online. PARTICIPANTS: Large sample (n=3,380) of adult video gamers in the US. MEASUREMENTS: Problem video game play (PVGP) scale, video game genre typology, use patterns (gaming days in the past month and hours on days used), enjoyment, consumer involvement, and background variables. FINDINGS: Study confirms game genre's contribution to problem use as well as demographic variation in play patterns that underlie problem video game play vulnerability. CONCLUSIONS: Identification of a small group of game types positively correlated with problem use suggests new directions for research into the specific design elements and reward mechanics of "addictive" video games. Unique vulnerabilities to problem use among certain groups demonstrate the need for ongoing investigation of health disparities related to contextual dimensions of video game play. PMID:23284310

  2. The Contribution of Game Genre and other Use Patterns to Problem Video Game Play among Adult Video Gamers

    PubMed Central

    Ream, Geoffrey; McGinsky, Elizabeth; Dunlap, Eloise

    2012-01-01

    Aims To assess the contribution of patterns of video game play, including game genre, involvement, and time spent gaming, to problem use symptomatology. Design Nationally representative survey. Setting Online. Participants Large sample (n=3,380) of adult video gamers in the US. Measurements Problem video game play (PVGP) scale, video game genre typology, use patterns (gaming days in the past month and hours on days used), enjoyment, consumer involvement, and background variables. Findings Study confirms game genre's contribution to problem use as well as demographic variation in play patterns that underlie problem video game play vulnerability. Conclusions Identification of a small group of game types positively correlated with problem use suggests new directions for research into the specific design elements and reward mechanics of “addictive” video games. Unique vulnerabilities to problem use among certain groups demonstrate the need for ongoing investigation of health disparities related to contextual dimensions of video game play. PMID:23284310

  3. Individualized Math Problems in Whole Numbers. Oregon Vo-Tech Mathematics Problem Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosler, Norma, Ed.

    This is one of eighteen sets of individualized mathematics problems developed by the Oregon Vo-Tech Math Project. Each of these problem packages is organized around a mathematical topic and contains problems related to diverse vocations. Solutions are provided for all problems. Problems in this set require computations involving whole numbers.…

  4. Individualized Math Problems in Fractions. Oregon Vo-Tech Mathematics Problem Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosler, Norma, Ed.

    This is one of eighteen sets of individualized mathematics problems developed by the Oregon Vo-Tech Math Project. Each of these problem packages is organized around a mathematical topic and contains problems related to diverse vocations. Solutions are provided for all problems. This package contains problems involving computation with common…

  5. Individualized Math Problems in Graphs and Tables. Oregon Vo-Tech Mathematics Problem Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosler, Norma, Ed.

    This is one of eighteen sets of individualized mathematics problems developed by the Oregon Vo-Tech Math Project. Each of these problem packages is organized around a mathematical topic and contains problems related to diverse vocations. Solutions are provided for all problems. Problems involving the construction and interpretation of graphs and…

  6. Individualized Math Problems in Ratio and Proportion. Oregon Vo-Tech Mathematics Problem Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosler, Norma, Ed.

    This is one of eighteen sets of individualized mathematics problems developed by the Oregon Vo-Tech Math Project. Each of these problem packages is organized around a mathematical topic and contains problems related to diverse vocations. Solutions are provided for all problems. This volume contains problems involving ratio and proportion. Some…

  7. The Problem of Managing a Strategic Reserve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, David; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The problem of managing the reserve of cobalt is presented, followed by a method for bringing the stockpiled amount from any level to a desired goal. Solving a stochastic programming problem is involved. The procedure is discussed in detail. (MNS)

  8. Word Problems: A "Meme" for Our Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leamnson, Robert N.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses a novel approach to word problems that involves linear relationships between variables. Argues that working stepwise through intermediates is the way our minds actually work and therefore this should be used in solving word problems. (JRH)

  9. Problem Solving, Scaffolding and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shih-Yin

    2012-01-01

    Helping students to construct robust understanding of physics concepts and develop good solving skills is a central goal in many physics classrooms. This thesis examine students' problem solving abilities from different perspectives and explores strategies to scaffold students' learning. In studies involving analogical problem solving…

  10. MANUAL OF ANALYTICAL QUALITY CONTROL FOR PESTICIDES AND RELATED COMPOUNDS IN HUMAN AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES. A COMPENDIUM OF SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURES DESIGNED TO ASSIST IN THE PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF ANALYTICAL PROBLEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual provides the pesticide chemist with a systematic protocol for the quality control of analytical procedures and the problems that arise in the analysis of human or environmental media. It also serves as a guide to the latest and most reliable methodology available for ...

  11. Sampling for area estimation: A comparison of full-frame sampling with the sample segment approach. [Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hixson, M. M.; Bauer, M. E.; Davis, B. J.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of sampling on the accuracy (precision and bias) of crop area estimates made from classifications of LANDSAT MSS data was investigated. Full-frame classifications of wheat and non-wheat for eighty counties in Kansas were repetitively sampled to simulate alternative sampling plants. Four sampling schemes involving different numbers of samples and different size sampling units were evaluated. The precision of the wheat area estimates increased as the segment size decreased and the number of segments was increased. Although the average bias associated with the various sampling schemes was not significantly different, the maximum absolute bias was directly related to sampling unit size.

  12. Behçet Disease With Vascular Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Alibaz-Oner, Fatma; Karadeniz, Asl?; Y?lmaz, Sema; Balkarl?, Ay?e; Kimyon, Gezmi?; Yaz?c?, Ayten; Ç?nar, Muhammet; Y?lmaz, Sedat; Y?ld?z, Fatih; Bilge, ?ule Ya?ar; Bilgin, Emre; Coskun, Belkis Nihan; Omma, Ahmet; Çetin, Gözde Y?ld?r?m; Ça?atay, Yonca; Karaaslan, Ya?ar; Sayarl?o?lu, Mehmet; Pehlivan, Yavuz; Kalyoncu, Umut; Karada?, Ömer; Ka?ifo?lu, Timuçin; Erken, Eren; Pay, Salih; Çefle, Ay?e; K?sac?k, Bünyamin; Onat, Ahmet Mesut; Çobankara, Veli; Direskeneli, Haner

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Vascular involvement is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in Behçet disease (BD). There are no controlled studies for the management of vascular BD (VBD), and according to the EULAR recommendations, only immunosuppressive (IS) agents are recommended. In this study, we aimed to investigate the therapeutic approaches chosen by Turkish physicians during the initial event and relapses of VBD and the association of different treatment options with the relapses retrospectively. Patients with BD (n?=?936, female/male: 347/589, mean age: 37.6?±?10.8) classified according to ISG criteria from 15 rheumatology centers in Turkey were included. The demographic data, clinical characteristics of the first vascular event and relapses, treatment protocols, and data about complications were acquired. VBD was observed in 27.7% (n?=?260) of the patients during follow-up. In 57.3% of the VBD patients, vascular involvement was the presenting sign of the disease. After the first vascular event, ISs were given to 88.8% and AC treatment to 59.8% of the patients. Median duration of AC treatment was 13 months (1–204) and ISs, 22 months (1–204). Minor hemorrhage related to AC treatment was observed in 7 (4.7%) patients. A second vascular event developed in 32.9% (n?=?86) of the patients. The vascular relapse rate was similar between patients taking only ISs and AC plus IS treatments after the first vascular event (29.1% vs 22.4%, P?=?0.28) and was significantly higher in group taking only ACs than taking only ISs (91.6% vs 29.1%, P?involvement in patients with BD. Severe complications related to AC treatment were also not detected. Our results suggest that short duration of IS treatments and compliance issues of treatment are the major problems in VBD associated with vascular relapses during follow-up. PMID:25674739

  13. Applying Employee Involvement in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohrman, Susan Albers; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The applicability of employee-involvement approaches to the management of schools is explored, describing three approaches (parallel-suggestion involvement, job involvement, and high involvement). Design issues (technology; organizational structure; leadership; organizational boundaries, customer definition, and relation to stakeholder; measures;…

  14. Parking Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Colin

    2012-01-01

    This is the story of a real problem, not a problem that is contrived, or invented for the convenience of the appropriate planning tool. This activity by a group of students, defined simply as "8FN", might be likened to an "end of term concert". If you just happened to be a delegate at the ATM Conference 2003 you might remember the analogy. Social…

  15. Balance Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Balance Problems Basic Facts & Information What are Balance Problems? Having good balance means being able to ... Only then can you “keep your balance.” Why Balance is Important Your feelings of dizziness may last ...

  16. Covariance Matrix Estimation for the Cryo-EM Heterogeneity Problem*

    PubMed Central

    Katsevich, E.; Katsevich, A.; Singer, A.

    2015-01-01

    In cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), a microscope generates a top view of a sample of randomly oriented copies of a molecule. The problem of single particle reconstruction (SPR) from cryo-EM is to use the resulting set of noisy two-dimensional projection images taken at unknown directions to reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the molecule. In some situations, the molecule under examination exhibits structural variability, which poses a fundamental challenge in SPR. The heterogeneity problem is the task of mapping the space of conformational states of a molecule. It has been previously suggested that the leading eigenvectors of the covariance matrix of the 3D molecules can be used to solve the heterogeneity problem. Estimating the covariance matrix is challenging, since only projections of the molecules are observed, but not the molecules themselves. In this paper, we formulate a general problem of covariance estimation from noisy projections of samples. This problem has intimate connections with matrix completion problems and high-dimensional principal component analysis. We propose an estimator and prove its consistency. When there are finitely many heterogeneity classes, the spectrum of the estimated covariance matrix reveals the number of classes. The estimator can be found as the solution to a certain linear system. In the cryo-EM case, the linear operator to be inverted, which we term the projection covariance transform, is an important object in covariance estimation for tomographic problems involving structural variation. Inverting it involves applying a filter akin to the ramp filter in tomography. We design a basis in which this linear operator is sparse and thus can be tractably inverted despite its large size. We demonstrate via numerical experiments on synthetic datasets the robustness of our algorithm to high levels of noise. PMID:25699132

  17. Eyelid Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... wine stain, because of its resemblance to a dark red wine. If this birthmark involves the eye, ... examined by an ophthalmologist shortly after birth. Small dark moles, called nevi, on the eyelids or on ...

  18. Sports Participation and Problem Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Darren; DePadilla, Lara; Thompson, Nancy J.; Kushner, Howard I.; Windle, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Sports participation, though offering numerous developmental benefits for youths, has been associated with adolescent alcohol use. Differences also exist between men/boys and women/girls in both sports participation and patterns of alcohol-related behaviors, but there are few longitudinal investigations of this relationship. Purpose This study investigated the relationship between school-based sports participation and alcohol-related behaviors using data from a multiwave national study of adolescent men/boys and women/girls. Methods Nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, collected between 1994 and 2001, were analyzed in 2009 (n = 8271). Latent growth modeling, accommodating the complex sampling design, was applied to examine whether participation in school-based sports was associated with initial levels and change in problem alcohol use over three waves of data collection. Results After taking into account time-invariant covariates including demographics and other predictors of alcohol use, greater involvement in sports during adolescence was associated with faster average acceleration in problem alcohol use over time among youths who took part in only sports. The findings suggest, however, that the relationship between sports participation and problem alcohol use depends on participation in sports in combination with other activities, but it does not differ between men/boys and women/girls. Conclusions Sports may represent an important and efficient context for selective interventions to prevent problem alcohol use and negative consequences of alcohol use among adolescents. PMID:20409498

  19. Multidrug toxicity involving sumatriptan.

    PubMed

    Knittel, Jessica L; Vorce, Shawn P; Levine, Barry; Hughes, Rhome L; Bosy, Thomas Z

    2015-01-01

    A multidrug fatality involving sumatriptan is reported. Sumatriptan is a tryptamine derivative that acts at 5-HT(1B/1D) receptors and is used for the treatment of migraines. The decedent was a 21-year-old white female found dead in bed by her spouse. No signs of physical trauma were observed and a large number of prescription medications were discovered at the scene. Toxicological analysis of the central blood revealed sumatriptan at a concentration of 1.03 mg/L. Following therapeutic dosing guidelines, sumatriptan concentrations do not exceed 0.095 mg/L. Sumatriptan was isolated by solid-phase extraction and analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring mode. A tissue distribution study was completed with the following concentrations measured: 0.61 mg/L in femoral blood, 0.56 mg/L in iliac blood, 5.01 mg/L in urine, 0.51 mg/kg in liver, 3.66 mg/kg in kidney, 0.09 mg/kg in heart, 0.32 mg/kg in spleen, 0.01 mg/kg in brain, 15.99 mg/kg in lung and 78.54 mg/45 mL in the stomach contents. Carisoprodol, meprobamate, fluoxetine, doxylamine, orphenadrine, dextromethorphan and hydroxyzine were also present in the blood at the following concentrations: 3.35, 2.36, 0.63, 0.19, 0.06, 0.55 and 0.16 mg/L. The medical examiner ruled the cause of death as acute mixed drug toxicity and the manner of death as accident. PMID:25324526

  20. SST Sample Characterization Analysis of Archive Samples 102-C, 105-C, and 106-C

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, F. T.; Kaye, J. H.; Steele, R. T.; Stromatt, R. W.; Thomas, D. L.; Urie, M. W.

    1990-04-01

    A substantial effort is planned to be initiated at the Hanford Site regarding the characterization of 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) containing the byproducts of reprocessing during the 1950s and 1960s. Sampling and analysis, in distinct phases, are planned to involve laboratory investigations to determine both chemical and radionuclide inventories, so that waste disposal decisions can be developed. During 1989, trial analyses were performed on four archived samples from SSTs at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory using established U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) protocols and radiochemical procedures. The analysis of the archived SST waste material provides three important types of data for use in planning Phase I-A and Phase 1-B sample analysis. The types of data served as input to I) fi na 1 i zing the waste samp 1 e analysis procedures and methods and identify where procedure developmen~ may be needed, 2) evaluating the impact of normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) lubricant {used in field sampling) on extracting inorganics or radionuclides from the SST sample, and 3) identifying trends in amounts of occupational radiation exposure expected from performing the various analysis procedures. Overall, the results are qualitative in nature, and the conclusions given are to be used with appropriate respect for the limitations of small amounts of data from four samples used in development processes. The results of the Phase I-A and I-B sample analysis will provide essential data for method performance for use in finalizing Phase I-C planning and methods development scope. Section 2.0, Inorganic Analysis, encompasses sample preparation, sample analysis, identification of methods performance limitations, and possible alternatives. Performance of the inorganic analytical methods was evaluated and changes were made to some of the procedures. In some cases, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (referred to in this report as ICP) did not provide the levels of accuracy and precision usually required for EPA work due to interference by other elements. In these cases, other methods are suggested as appropriate for trial as alternatives. In all cases, duplicates, spikes, and blanks were used to establish performance of the methods for the specific waste matrix. Results focused on problems in using the methods tested on the samples, the suitability of the ICP method of determining EP Toxicity metal ions and 22 EPA pollutant metal ions, and the suitability of cold vapor atomic absorption (CVAA) for mercury determinations. Problems areas identified are ICP spectral corrections, poor reproducibility from water leach and EP Toxicity methods, and adjustments needed for mercury analysis by CVAA. Section 3.0, Organics Analysis, details two screening procedures [total organic carbon (TOC) and gas chromatography (GC)], extraction procedures and related problems, surrogate spiking to test extraction efficiencies and matrix effects, and semivolatile organics via GC/mass spectroscopy (MS). The results show that the GC/MS is vulnerable to fouling and overload and that a combination of dilution and perhaps acidification are required to provide acceptable results. NPH and silicone-based lubricants from the sampling process impact the semivolatile analysis; however, with some modification the semivolatile method based on EPA SOW 288 can be used. Section 4.0, Radionuclide Analysis, evaluates procedures used to measure the radionuclides that might be found in the SST tank waste samples and establishes the level of accuracy and precision that can be expected. These data reveal that additional procedure development is needed in order to measure all of the radionuclides listed in Table 4-14 of the Waste Characterization Plan. In addition, the archive samples analyzed may not be representative of the tank population and considerable adaptation of the radiochemical procedures may be necessary to perform the desired measurements. NPH tests were conducted to determine whether the NPH from the field sampling process extracted significan

  1. Acceptance sampling using judgmental and randomly selected samples

    SciTech Connect

    Sego, Landon H.; Shulman, Stanley A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Wilson, John E.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Sieber, W. Karl

    2010-09-01

    We present a Bayesian model for acceptance sampling where the population consists of two groups, each with different levels of risk of containing unacceptable items. Expert opinion, or judgment, may be required to distinguish between the high and low-risk groups. Hence, high-risk items are likely to be identifed (and sampled) using expert judgment, while the remaining low-risk items are sampled randomly. We focus on the situation where all observed samples must be acceptable. Consequently, the objective of the statistical inference is to quantify the probability that a large percentage of the unsampled items in the population are also acceptable. We demonstrate that traditional (frequentist) acceptance sampling and simpler Bayesian formulations of the problem are essentially special cases of the proposed model. We explore the properties of the model in detail, and discuss the conditions necessary to ensure that required samples sizes are non-decreasing function of the population size. The method is applicable to a variety of acceptance sampling problems, and, in particular, to environmental sampling where the objective is to demonstrate the safety of reoccupying a remediated facility that has been contaminated with a lethal agent.

  2. Childbirth Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with the position of the baby, such as breech, in which the baby is going to come out feet first Birth injuries For some of these problems, the baby may need to be delivered surgically by a Cesarean section.

  3. Elimination Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sign of a YEAST INFECTION, ALLERGY to toilet paper or PINWORMS. Nonprescription antifungal medications for yeast infections ... is your problem, try using white, unscented toilet paper. See your doctor if your symptoms don't ...

  4. Urination Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... back or groin? Yes You may have a KIDNEY STONE or another serious problem. EMERGENCY See your doctor ... the bladder, called INTERSTITIAL CYSTITIS, or from a KIDNEY STONE stuck in the bladder, or a chemical in ...

  5. Thyroid Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... treated differently. Common thyroid disorders and problems include: Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism is a disorder in which your thyroid doesn’ ... normal after you get better. If you have hypothyroidism, however, the levels of T4 in your blood ...

  6. Erection problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your blood flow (circulation) An exam of your penis and rectum An exam of your nervous system ... Have you noticed changes in feeling to your penis? Do you have any problems with urination? Tests ...

  7. Sleep Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Sleep Problems Share Tweet ... Flickr FDA Archive Combination Products Advisory Committees ... Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to ...

  8. Speech Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are thinking, but it becomes disorganized while actually speaking. Because of this disorganization, someone who clutters may ... refuse to wait patiently for them to finish speaking. If you have a speech problem, don't ...

  9. Sampling and sample processing in pesticide residue analysis.

    PubMed

    Lehotay, Steven J; Cook, Jo Marie

    2015-05-13

    Proper sampling and sample processing in pesticide residue analysis of food and soil have always been essential to obtain accurate results, but the subject is becoming a greater concern as approximately 100 mg test portions are being analyzed with automated high-throughput analytical methods by agrochemical industry and contract laboratories. As global food trade and the importance of monitoring increase, the food industry and regulatory laboratories are also considering miniaturized high-throughput methods. In conjunction with a summary of the symposium "Residues in Food and Feed - Going from Macro to Micro: The Future of Sample Processing in Residue Analytical Methods" held at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry, this is an opportune time to review sampling theory and sample processing for pesticide residue analysis. If collected samples and test portions do not adequately represent the actual lot from which they came and provide meaningful results, then all costs, time, and efforts involved in implementing programs using sophisticated analytical instruments and techniques are wasted and can actually yield misleading results. This paper is designed to briefly review the often-neglected but crucial topic of sample collection and processing and put the issue into perspective for the future of pesticide residue analysis. It also emphasizes that analysts should demonstrate the validity of their sample processing approaches for the analytes/matrices of interest and encourages further studies on sampling and sample mass reduction to produce a test portion. PMID:25677085

  10. Mixed Methods Sampling: A Typology with Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teddlie, Charles; Yu, Fen

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of mixed methods (MM) sampling techniques. MM sampling involves combining well-established qualitative and quantitative techniques in creative ways to answer research questions posed by MM research designs. Several issues germane to MM sampling are presented including the differences between probability and…

  11. Minimax Analysis of Stochastic Problems Alexander Shapiro

    E-print Network

    Kleywegt, Anton

    problem. We show that, under mild regularity conditions, such a min-max problem generates a probability the Monte Carlo sample average approach to solving such min-max problems. Key words: stochastic programming be used if the probability distribution µ of the random variables in the problem is not known

  12. Sampling design for spatially distributed hydrogeologic and environmental processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christakos, G.; Olea, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    A methodology for the design of sampling networks over space is proposed. The methodology is based on spatial random field representations of nonhomogeneous natural processes, and on optimal spatial estimation techniques. One of the most important results of random field theory for physical sciences is its rationalization of correlations in spatial variability of natural processes. This correlation is extremely important both for interpreting spatially distributed observations and for predictive performance. The extent of site sampling and the types of data to be collected will depend on the relationship of subsurface variability to predictive uncertainty. While hypothesis formulation and initial identification of spatial variability characteristics are based on scientific understanding (such as knowledge of the physics of the underlying phenomena, geological interpretations, intuition and experience), the support offered by field data is statistically modelled. This model is not limited by the geometric nature of sampling and covers a wide range in subsurface uncertainties. A factorization scheme of the sampling error variance is derived, which possesses certain atttactive properties allowing significant savings in computations. By means of this scheme, a practical sampling design procedure providing suitable indices of the sampling error variance is established. These indices can be used by way of multiobjective decision criteria to obtain the best sampling strategy. Neither the actual implementation of the in-situ sampling nor the solution of the large spatial estimation systems of equations are necessary. The required values of the accuracy parameters involved in the network design are derived using reference charts (readily available for various combinations of data configurations and spatial variability parameters) and certain simple yet accurate analytical formulas. Insight is gained by applying the proposed sampling procedure to realistic examples related to sampling problems in two dimensions. ?? 1992.

  13. Adjustment, Performance, and Involvement of College Students with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroeger, Sue; Scalia, Vincent

    1988-01-01

    Examined group of disabled college students (N=50) to determine whether psychosocial problems exist with these students and, if so, whether these problems can predict academic performance/involvement. Results indicated subjects were less disturbed than normative group, did not differ in body attitudes, and were more distorted on beliefs leading to…

  14. Measuring Involvement with Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Glen J.; Salmon, Charles T.

    A study applied research concepts from consumer product involvement to test a model for research on involvement with social issues. Issue involvement was defined as the state or level of perceived importance and/or interest evoked by a stimulus (issue) within a specific situation. Attitudes on four social issues--abortion, pornography, the…

  15. RESEARCH OR TEACHING INVOLVING ANIMALS

    E-print Network

    Victoria, University of

    Page 1 RESEARCH OR TEACHING INVOLVING ANIMALS University Policy No: RH8110 Classification: Research for Conducting Research or Teaching Involving Animals Animal Care Committee Terms of Reference PURPOSE 1.00 The purpose of this policy is to set out provisions to ensure that all research or teaching involving animals

  16. Identifying Callous-Unemotional Subtypes among Justice-Involved Youth 

    E-print Network

    Magyar, Melissa Sue

    2014-08-06

    trait variants, consistent with theoretical and empirical conceptualizations of primary and secondary variants of psychopathy. The study involved a multi-ethinic, community corrections sample comprised of 151 male juvenile offenders. The entire...

  17. STACK SAMPLING FOR ORGANIC EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reviews some of the more important principles involved in stack sampling for organics, briefly describes and discusses recently developed equipment, and points out a few of the more serious pitfalls. Extensive references are provided, many of which are often overlooked ...

  18. Ethical issues involving the internet

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, T.J.; Kallman, E.A.; Lelewer, D.

    1994-12-31

    During the 90`s, the {open_quotes}Information Superhighway{close_quotes} has received widespread publicity. Many campuses have participated in this drive to an information based society by becoming participating nodes on the Internet. As an information provider, the Internet has the potential to change the college experience in many ways, both good and bad. It also poses a number of problems for college students in areas such as privacy, access, and honesty. It provides professors with a dynamic information storage and retrieval tool that offers the opportunity to modernize both curriculum experiences and pedagogical approaches. On some campuses, Internet access and capability has become so important that course modules and whole courses are being built. The panelists will each discuss a different issue involved with making the Internet more integral to the collegiate environment. The first panelist will consider risks and threats that an institution of higher learning must consider as it approaches Internet use will be presented. The steps an institution took to build policies and deal with {open_quotes}inevitable incidents{close_quotes} that will occur as the Internet is opened to full use by both students and faculty. The second panelist will present four computer ethics Each module uses the abundance and dynamism of Internet information to provide challenging {open_quotes}Ethics in the Computer Workplace{close_quotes} experiences that could not easily be done by traditional means. The third panelist will discuss a course module that explores both the positive and negative potential of the Internet. The costs and ease of Internet access, as well as normally available Internet tools, are also presented. This module has been used in a course called {open_quotes}Ethical and Social Issues in Computer Science{close_quotes} and will be used in a general-education course to be offered beginning in 1994-95.

  19. Gift and sacrifice: parental involvement in Latino adolescents' education.

    PubMed

    Ceballo, Rosario; Maurizi, Laura K; Suarez, Gloria A; Aretakis, Maria T

    2014-01-01

    Although myriad studies document the benefits of parental involvement in education on various indicators of children's academic performance, less research examines parental involvement among adolescents in low-income Latino families. Incorporating a multidimensional conceptualization of parental involvement, this study examined the relation between parental involvement and academic outcomes in a sample of 223 low-income, Latino adolescents. Results indicated that three types of parental involvement (gift/sacrifice, future discussions/academic socialization, and school involvement) had significant, positive associations with academic outcomes. Moreover, our results suggest that parents' stories about struggles with poverty and immigration are an important component of parental involvement, contributing to adolescents' desire to succeed academically and "give back" to parents. Additionally, our findings indicated that the positive relations between parental involvement and academic outcomes were stronger for immigrant youth and for those with higher endorsements of the Latino cultural value of respeto (respect). PMID:23834259

  20. Random sampling and superoscillations: "Beating" Nyquist's rate

    E-print Network

    Vilela Mendes, Rui

    Random sampling and superoscillations: "Beating" Nyquist's rate Rui Vilela Mendes CMAF and IPFN, IST http://label2.ist.utl.pt/vilela/ RVM () random sampling, superoscillations 1 / 39 #12;Contents The Whittaker-Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem Problems and generalizations Asymptotic reconstruction for quasi

  1. Fourier Sampling Coset States of Nonabelian Groups

    E-print Network

    Hallgren, Sean

    55 Chapter 6 Fourier Sampling Coset States of Nonabelian Groups In this chapter we analyze the HSP problem, to the HSP over the symmetric group S n . In particular, we will analyze Fourier sampling coset states when the group is nonabelian. We show that Fourier sampling a polynomial number of coset states

  2. A systematic approach to representative sampling in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Chai, E.Y.

    1996-12-31

    In environmental sampling, samples are taken for the purpose of solving a problem in a target population. The problem may not be correctly solved if bias is present in the samples, in the measurement of the samples, and/or in the use of the sample data to make conclusions about the population. This paper discusses a systematic approach which considers all these potential sources of bias when attempting to obtain a representative set of samples for making inference about the population.

  3. Ground Water Sampling at ISCO Sites - Residual Oxidant Impact on Sample Quality and Sample Preservation Guideline

    EPA Science Inventory

    In-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) involves the delivery of a chemical oxidant into the subsurface where oxidative reactions transform ground water contaminants into less toxic or harmless byproducts. Due to oxidant persistence, ground water samples collected at hazardous waste si...

  4. Cosmological Constant Problems and Renormalization Group

    E-print Network

    Ilya L. Shapiro; Joan Sola

    2007-01-05

    The Cosmological Constant Problem emerges when Quantum Field Theory is applied to the gravitational theory, due to the enormous magnitude of the induced energy of the vacuum. The unique known solution of this problem involves an extremely precise fine-tuning of the vacuum counterpart. We review a few of the existing approaches to this problem based on the account of the quantum (loop) effects and pay special attention to the ones involving the renormalization group.

  5. Involvement of males in promoting reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Maja, T M M

    2007-03-01

    At the international conference on Population and Development held in Cairo 1994, specific aspects of reproductive health addressed endorsed among others, were that unwanted pregnancies must always be given the highest priority and that every attempt should be made to eliminate the need for abortion. This paper focused on the involvement of males in promoting reproductive health through prevention of unplanned and unwanted pregnancies. A total of 71 males (48 adults and 23 adolescents) were selected conveniently from two health care centres, North of Tshwane, Gauteng province. Structured questionnaires having open and closed questions were used for data collection. Results indicated that most males (young and old) had general information about contraceptives and common side effects associated with contraceptive use. Despite this knowledge, only (29.2%) adults and almost half the number (50.0%) adolescents reportedly used condoms every time when having sex, whilst (35.0%) adults and only (13.6%) adolescents had never used condoms when having sex. Generally, males felt positive and wished to be involved in issues affecting their relationships, such as open communication about contraceptives used by their partners, discussing contraceptive problems together, planning families jointly with partner only, being informed about contraceptive failures and also playing a role in resolving such problems. Recommendations were made to encourage more visible involvement of males in promoting sexuality issues and reproductive health. PMID:17515319

  6. Heat Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Heat problems and heat cramps related to jogging can be caused by fluid imbalances, medications, dietary insufficiency, vomiting or diarrhea, among other factors. If the condition keeps reoccurring, the advice of a physician should be sought. Some preventive measures that can be taken include: (1) running during the cooler hours of the day; (2)…

  7. Puzzles & Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Pat, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    "Exploring" is a magazine of science, art, and human perception, produced by Exploratorium in collaboration with other participating museums. This issue focuses on puzzles and problem solving. Brain teasers, puzzles, and the strategies for solving them are included. Features include: (1) "Homework Assignment #3" (Paul Doherty); (2) "The Case of…

  8. Improved sample size determination for attributes and variables sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Stirpe, D.; Picard, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    Earlier INMM papers have addressed the attributes/variables problem and, under conservative/limiting approximations, have reported analytical solutions for the attributes and variables sample sizes. Through computer simulation of this problem, we have calculated attributes and variables sample sizes as a function of falsification, measurement uncertainties, and required detection probability without using approximations. Using realistic assumptions for uncertainty parameters of measurement, the simulation results support the conclusions: (1) previously used conservative approximations can be expensive because they lead to larger sample sizes than needed; and (2) the optimal verification strategy, as well as the falsification strategy, are highly dependent on the underlying uncertainty parameters of the measurement instruments. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  9. Problem Behaviors among Israeli Undergraduate Students: Applying Jessor’s Problem Behavior Theory among Young Adult Students

    PubMed Central

    Korn, Liat; Shaked, Yael; Fogel-Grinvald, Haya

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The current study tested the applicability of Jessor’s problem behavior theory (PBT) in Ariel University. Methods: A structured, self-reported, anonymous questionnaire was administered to undergraduate students. The final study sample included 1,360 participants (882 females and 478 males, mean age 25, SD?=?2.9, range?=?17). Results: Findings indicated that the PBT was replicated in this sample. As shown from the hierarchal linear regression model, religiosity and high-academic achievements were found to be strong and significant protective factors that reduce risk behaviors. Among young and religious students, the personal vulnerability has almost no impact on involvement in risk behaviors. Conclusion: The PBT finds empirical support in this young adult undergraduate Israeli sample. PMID:25566519

  10. Locally adaptive sampling

    E-print Network

    Feizi-Khankandi, Soheil

    In this paper, we introduce a class of Locally Adaptive Sampling schemes. In this sampling family, time intervals between samples can be computed by using a function of previously taken samples, called a sampling function. ...

  11. Interleaved Sampling Alexander Keller

    E-print Network

    Heidrich, Wolfgang

    Interleaved Sampling Alexander Keller , Wolfgang Heidrich ¡ ¢ University of Kaiserslautern sampling methods can roughly be grouped into regular and irregular sampling. While regular sampling can these artifacts can easily be masked by noise using irregular sampling which, however, is more expensive

  12. Attributes Heeded When Representing an Osmosis Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuckerman, June Trop

    Eighteen high school science students were involved in a study to determine what attributes in the problem statement they need when representing a typical osmosis problem. In order to realize this goal students were asked to solve problems aloud and to explain their answers. Included as a part of the results are the attributes that the students…

  13. Reduction of severe behavior problems in the community using a multicomponent treatment approach.

    PubMed Central

    Carr, E G; Carlson, J I

    1993-01-01

    Problem behavior often prevents community integration of people with developmental disabilities. Therefore, we evaluated a multicomponent approach for remediating problem behavior in public community settings (specifically, supermarkets). We selected treatments based on hypotheses about the variables controlling the problem behavior (hypothesis-driven model). The multicomponent intervention included choice making, embedding, functional communication training, building tolerance for delay of reinforcement, and presenting discriminative stimuli for nonproblem behavior. Treatment progress was monitored using measures of latency and task completion rather than traditional measures of frequency and time sampling. Results showed substantial increases in task completion and duration of time spent in supermarkets without problem behavior. Outcomes were socially validated by group-home staff and cashiers. We discuss how the intervention approach taken can resolve some of the issues involved in assessing, measuring, and treating problem behavior in the community. PMID:8331013

  14. Medical problems of musicians.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, A H

    1989-01-26

    Surveys of performing musicians indicate that almost half of them experience playing-related medical problems, some of which threaten or end their careers. Overuse injuries involving the muscle--tendon unit are the most common problem, with symptoms ranging from mild pain while the musician is playing to pain severe enough to preclude any use of the affected hand. String players are the most commonly affected, and percussionists the least. The most important predisposing characteristic is the use of repetitive movements during long hours of practice, but awkward body positions mandated by the shape and weight of the instrument, the technical difficulty of the repertoire, and unfamiliar instruments may also play a part. Women are more commonly affected than men. Rest is the cornerstone of therapy. Neural impingement syndromes affecting the median or ulnar nerves or the thoracic outlet affect many musicians. Focal dystonias may involve part or all of a hand or the muscles forming the embouchure (the position of the lips in wind players). These are very resistant to therapy and may terminate or drastically alter a career. Stress, especially performance anxiety, may impede performance. Beta-adrenergic blocking agents prevent the symptoms of performance anxiety and are frequently used by musicians without medical supervision. A recognition of the unique problems of musician-patients has led to the formation of successful specialty clinics in a number of cities. PMID:2643048

  15. Sampling design for face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yanjun; Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2006-04-01

    A face recognition system consists of two integrated parts: One is the face recognition algorithm, the other is the selected classifier and derived features by the algorithm from a data set. The face recognition algorithm definitely plays a central role, but this paper does not aim at evaluating the algorithm, but deriving the best features for this algorithm from a specific database through sampling design of the training set, which directs how the sample should be collected and dictates the sample space. Sampling design can help exert the full potential of the face recognition algorithm without overhaul. Conventional statistical analysis usually assume some distribution to draw the inference, but the design-based inference does not assume any distribution of the data and it does not assume the independency between the sample observations. The simulations illustrates that the systematic sampling scheme performs better than the simple random sampling scheme, and the systematic sampling is comparable to using all available training images in recognition performance. Meanwhile the sampling schemes can save the system resources and alleviate the overfitting problem. However, the post stratification by sex is not shown to be significant in improving the recognition performance.

  16. Tank Problems Here are some additional problems involving flow in and out of a container. These kinds of problems

    E-print Network

    Ikenaga, Bruce

    of pure water. Water containing 2 pounds of dissolved yogurt per gallon enters the tank at 4 gallons per minute. The well­stirred mixture drains out at 4 gallons per minute. How much yogurt is dissolved in the tank mixutre after 10 minutes? Find the limiting amount of yogurt in the tank as t !1. Let Y

  17. Reconstruction from non-uniform samples

    E-print Network

    Leow, Kwang Siong Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Exact reconstruction of a band-limited signal from its non-uniform samples involves the use of Lagrange interpolation, which is impractical to implement as it is computationally difficult. This thesis develops approximate ...

  18. The application of cost averaging techniques to robust control of the benchmark problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagood, Nesbitt W.; Crawley, Edward F.

    1991-01-01

    A method is presented for the synthesis of robust controllers for linear time invariant systems with parameterized uncertainty structures. The method involves minimizing the average quadratic (H2) cost over the parameterized system. Bonded average cost implies stability over the set of systems. The average cost functional is minimized to derive robust fixed-order dynamic compensators. The robustness properties of these controllers are demonstrated on the sample problem.

  19. Ethical Issues in Clinical Trials Involving Nanomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.; Tinkle, Sally S.

    2009-01-01

    Nanomedicine shows tremendous promise for improving medical diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, but it also raises a variety of ethical concerns. Because of the paucity of data on the physicochemical properties of nanoscale materials in biological systems, clinical trials of nanomedicine products present some unique challenges related to risk minimization, management and communication involving human subjects. Although these clinical trials do not raise any truly novel ethical issues, the rapid development of nanotechnology and its potentially profound social and environmental impacts, add a sense of urgency to the problems that arise. PMID:17166777

  20. Evaluation of expressions involving higher order derivations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, Robert

    1990-01-01

    The local geometric properties of a nonlinear control system defined by vector fields E(sub 1),..., E(sub M) are determined by the algebraic properties of the iterated Lie brackets of the E(sub j)'s. The problem of rewriting expressions is examined involving the E(sub j)'s in terms of the D(sub mu)'s in such a way as to handle effectively any cancellation occurring due to commuting of the D(sub mu)'s. A data structure is introduced which allows us to organize the computation to take advantage of the symmetries in the expression and reduce the operation count.

  1. US Cultural Involvement and Its Association With Suicidal Behavior Among Youths in the Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Zayas, Luis H.; Cabrera-Nguyen, Peter; Vega, William A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined how US cultural involvement related to suicide attempts among youths in the Dominican Republic. Methods. We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of youths attending high school in the Dominican Republic (n?=?8446). The outcome of interest was a suicide attempt during the past year. The US cultural involvement indicators included time spent living in the United States, number of friends who had lived in the United States, English proficiency, and use of US electronic media and language. Results. Time lived in the United States, US electronic media and language, and number of friends who had lived in the United States had robust positive relationships with suicide attempts among youths residing in the Dominican Republic. Conclusions. Our results are consistent with previous research that found increased risk for suicide or suicide attempts among Latino youths with greater US cultural involvement. Our study adds to this research by finding similar results in a nonimmigrant Latin American sample. Our results also indicate that suicide attempts are a major public health problem among youths in the Dominican Republic. PMID:22397348

  2. Involving Families in School Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrera, John M.; Warner, Laverne

    2006-01-01

    The relationship of schools to diverse communities demands attention by administrators, teachers, staff members, and volunteers. How well the three constructs mesh depends on the abilities and sensitivities of all constituencies involved. Three components are essential to successful programs that involve families in an educational setting:…

  3. A comparison of methods for representing sparsely sampled random quantities.

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, Vicente Jose; Swiler, Laura Painton; Urbina, Angel; Mullins, Joshua

    2013-09-01

    This report discusses the treatment of uncertainties stemming from relatively few samples of random quantities. The importance of this topic extends beyond experimental data uncertainty to situations involving uncertainty in model calibration, validation, and prediction. With very sparse data samples it is not practical to have a goal of accurately estimating the underlying probability density function (PDF). Rather, a pragmatic goal is that the uncertainty representation should be conservative so as to bound a specified percentile range of the actual PDF, say the range between 0.025 and .975 percentiles, with reasonable reliability. A second, opposing objective is that the representation not be overly conservative; that it minimally over-estimate the desired percentile range of the actual PDF. The presence of the two opposing objectives makes the sparse-data uncertainty representation problem interesting and difficult. In this report, five uncertainty representation techniques are characterized for their performance on twenty-one test problems (over thousands of trials for each problem) according to these two opposing objectives and other performance measures. Two of the methods, statistical Tolerance Intervals and a kernel density approach specifically developed for handling sparse data, exhibit significantly better overall performance than the others.

  4. Replication of Significant Correlations in Small Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemons, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers conducting studies involving individuals with exceptionalities are often prevented from involving large numbers of participants in their study samples. When this is the case, some say significant correlations are likely to replicate because the relation between two variables must be robust enough to be detected even with low…

  5. The nature and frequency of chimeras in eukaryotic metagenetic samples.

    PubMed

    Porazinska, Dorota L; Giblin-Davis, Robin M; Sung, Way; Thomas, W Kelley

    2012-03-01

    Pyrosequencing of an artificially assembled nematode community of known nematode species at known densities allowed us to characterize the potential extent of chimera problems in multi-template eukaryotic samples. Chimeras were confirmed to be very common, making up to 17% of all high quality pyrosequencing reads and exceeding 40% of all OCTUs (operationally clustered taxonomic units). Typically, chimeric OCTUs were made up of single or double reads, but very well covered OCTUs were also present. As expected, the majority of chimeras were formed between two DNA molecules of nematode origin, but a small proportion involved a nematode and a fragment of another eukaryote origin. In addition, examples of a combination of three or even four different template origins were observed. All chimeras were associated with the presence of conserved regions with 80% of all recombinants following a conserved region of about 25bp. While there was a positive influence of species abundance on the overall number of chimeras, the influence of specific-species identity was less apparent. We also suggest that the problem is not nematode exclusive, but instead applies to other eukaryotes typically accompanying nematodes (e.g. fungi, rotifers, tardigrades). An analysis of real environmental samples revealed the presence of chimeras for all eukaryotic taxa in patterns similar to that observed in artificial nematode communities. This information warrants caution for biodiversity studies utilizing a step of PCR amplification of complex DNA samples. When unrecognized, generated abundant chimeric sequences falsely overestimate eukaryotic biodiversity. PMID:23482827

  6. Analog Processor To Solve Optimization Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A.; Eberhardt, Silvio P.; Thakoor, Anil P.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed analog processor solves "traveling-salesman" problem, considered paradigm of global-optimization problems involving routing or allocation of resources. Includes electronic neural network and auxiliary circuitry based partly on concepts described in "Neural-Network Processor Would Allocate Resources" (NPO-17781) and "Neural Network Solves 'Traveling-Salesman' Problem" (NPO-17807). Processor based on highly parallel computing solves problem in significantly less time.

  7. Entanglement sampling and applications

    E-print Network

    Frédéric Dupuis; Omar Fawzi; Stephanie Wehner

    2015-06-15

    A natural measure for the amount of quantum information that a physical system E holds about another system A = A_1,...,A_n is given by the min-entropy Hmin(A|E). Specifically, the min-entropy measures the amount of entanglement between E and A, and is the relevant measure when analyzing a wide variety of problems ranging from randomness extraction in quantum cryptography, decoupling used in channel coding, to physical processes such as thermalization or the thermodynamic work cost (or gain) of erasing a quantum system. As such, it is a central question to determine the behaviour of the min-entropy after some process M is applied to the system A. Here we introduce a new generic tool relating the resulting min-entropy to the original one, and apply it to several settings of interest, including sampling of subsystems and measuring in a randomly chosen basis. The sampling results lead to new upper bounds on quantum random access codes, and imply the existence of "local decouplers". The results on random measurements yield new high-order entropic uncertainty relations with which we prove the optimality of cryptographic schemes in the bounded quantum storage model.

  8. Generalized Sampling-Based Feedback Motion Planners 

    E-print Network

    Kumar, Sandip

    2012-02-14

    states. In the deterministic robotics motion planning community, sampling based algorithms like probabilistic roadmaps (PRM) and rapidly exploring random trees (RRTs) have been successful in solving very high dimensional deterministic problem. However...

  9. Sampling-based algorithms for dimension reduction

    E-print Network

    Deshpande, Amit Jayant

    2007-01-01

    Can one compute a low-dimensional representation of any given data by looking only at its small sample, chosen cleverly on the fly? Motivated by the above question, we consider the problem of low-rank matrix approximation: ...

  10. A sampling technique based on LDPC codes

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Xuhong, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2015-01-01

    Given an inference problem, it is common that exact inference algorithms are computationally intractable and one has to resort to approximate inference algorithms. Monte Carlo methods, which rely on repeated sampling of ...

  11. SAMPLING PROCEDURES FOR GROUND WATER QUALITY INVESTIGATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To provide a realistic assessment of current and potential pollution problems and a rational basis for ground water quality protection, it is necessary to collect representative samples from this remote and relatively inaccessible environment. This article presents some procedure...

  12. How to Show that Sample Size Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozak, Marcin

    2009-01-01

    This article suggests how to explain a problem of small sample size when considering correlation between two Normal variables. Two techniques are shown: one based on graphs and the other on simulation. (Contains 3 figures and 1 table.)

  13. Romantic Relationship Status and Alcohol Use and Problems Across the First Year of College

    PubMed Central

    Salvatore, Jessica E; Kendler, Kenneth S; Dick, Danielle M

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We examined the associations between romantic relationship status and alcohol use and problems in a large sample of first-year college students. Method: Participants (n = 2,056) came from a longitudinal study of college students who answered questions about relationship status (single, in an exclusive relationship, or dating several people), alcohol use, and alcohol problems at two time points across their first year. Results: After we controlled for a number of covariates (parental alcohol problems, high school conduct problems, peer deviance, and extraversion), we found that dating several people was associated with higher alcohol use and problems, compared with being single or being in an exclusive relationship, at the follow-up assessment only, with modest effect sizes. Being in an exclusive relationship was not associated with lower alcohol use or problems compared with being single. Relationship dissolution was associated with a modest longitudinal increase in alcohol problems. Conclusions: It is important to consider alternative relationship statuses (e.g., dating several people) for understanding the association of romantic status with alcohol use and problems in college-aged samples. Involvement in an exclusive romantic relationship (vs. being single) in this age group is not associated with the behavioral health benefits documented in older-adult samples. College students dating several people may be at risk for high levels of alcohol use or problems and may benefit from targeted interventions. Those who have recently experienced a breakup also may be at risk for increases in alcohol problems, although the clinical relevance of this finding should be tempered by the small observed effect size. PMID:24988257

  14. Evaporative cooling feature selection for genotypic data involving interactions

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, B.A.; Reif, D.M.; White, B.C.; Crowe, J.E.; Moore, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    Motivation: The development of genome-wide capabilities for genotyping has led to the practical problem of identifying the minimum subset of genetic variants relevant to the classification of a phenotype. This challenge is especially difficult in the presence of attribute interactions, noise and small sample size. Methods: Analogous to the physical mechanism of evaporation, we introduce an evaporative cooling (EC) feature selection algorithm that seeks to obtain a subset of attributes with the optimum information temperature (i.e. the least noise). EC uses an attribute quality measure analogous to thermodynamic free energy that combines Relief-F and mutual information to evaporate (i.e. remove) noise features, leaving behind a subset of attributes that contain DNA sequence variations associated with a given phenotype. Results: EC is able to identify functional sequence variations that involve interactions (epistasis) between other sequence variations that influence their association with the phenotype. This ability is demonstrated on simulated genotypic data with attribute interactions and on real genotypic data from individuals who experienced adverse events following smallpox vaccination. The EC formalism allows us to combine information entropy, energy and temperature into a single information free energy attribute quality measure that balances interaction and main effects. Availability: Open source software, written in Java, is freely available upon request. Contact: brett.mckinney@gmail.com PMID:17586549

  15. Sampling by Length.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handley, John C.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of sampling methods used in information science research focuses on Fussler's method for sampling catalog cards and on sampling by length. Highlights include simple random sampling, sampling with probability equal to size without replacement, sampling with replacement, and examples of estimating the number of books on shelves in certain…

  16. Coring Sample Acquisition Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, Nicolas E.; Murray, Saben D.; Walkemeyer, Phillip E.; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Kriechbaum, Kristopher L.; Richardson, Megan; Klein, Kerry J.

    2012-01-01

    A sample acquisition tool (SAT) has been developed that can be used autonomously to sample drill and capture rock cores. The tool is designed to accommodate core transfer using a sample tube to the IMSAH (integrated Mars sample acquisition and handling) SHEC (sample handling, encapsulation, and containerization) without ever touching the pristine core sample in the transfer process.

  17. Breathing Problems: An Individualized Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vodola, Thomas M.

    As one of the components of the Project ACTIVE (All Children Totally Involved Exercising) Teacher Training Model Kit, the manual is designed to enable the educator to organize, conduct, and evaluate individualized-personalized physical education programs for children (prekindergarten through high school) with breathing problems. An introductory…

  18. The Legal Audit: Preventing Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Daniel H.

    1987-01-01

    Suffolk University initiated two audits that proved beneficial: a legal audit and an insurance audit. A legal audit involves having an attorney review a college's contracts, personnel handbooks, catalogs, etc., in order to anticipate and prevent problems. An insurance audit reviews an institution's risk coverage. (MLW)

  19. Grasers: proposals, problems, and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, G.C.

    1982-01-01

    The possibility and potentiality of amplification of recoilless radiation emitted by nuclear isomers has long been recognized; nevertheless, development of gamma-ray lasers continues to await resolution of the pumping vs. linebreadth dilemma. Problems that accompany proposals for reducing the excitation requirements and suggest areas of investigation that may contribute to resolving the dilemma are identified; several involve use of optical lasers.

  20. Sleep Problems in Individuals with Angelman Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert; Smits, Marcel G.; Curfs, Leopold M. G.

    2004-01-01

    Prevalence of severe sleep problems and its association with other variables were investigated with 109 individuals who have Angelman syndrome. Severe settling problems, frequent night waking, and early waking were found in 2%, 37%, and 10% of the individuals, respectively. Sleep problems were persistent in this sample. No statistically…

  1. Student Involvement in Scientific Research

    E-print Network

    Holzwarth, Natalie

    classwork, provides a first-hand experience of the scientific method For example, picture yourself hereStudent Involvement in Scientific Research Department of Physics Sept. 5 & 12, 2012 #12;Department

  2. Sampling of systematic errors to estimate likelihood weights in nuclear data uncertainty propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helgesson, P.; Sjöstrand, H.; Koning, A. J.; Rydén, J.; Rochman, D.; Alhassan, E.; Pomp, S.

    2016-01-01

    In methodologies for nuclear data (ND) uncertainty assessment and propagation based on random sampling, likelihood weights can be used to infer experimental information into the distributions for the ND. As the included number of correlated experimental points grows large, the computational time for the matrix inversion involved in obtaining the likelihood can become a practical problem. There are also other problems related to the conventional computation of the likelihood, e.g., the assumption that all experimental uncertainties are Gaussian. In this study, a way to estimate the likelihood which avoids matrix inversion is investigated; instead, the experimental correlations are included by sampling of systematic errors. It is shown that the model underlying the sampling methodology (using univariate normal distributions for random and systematic errors) implies a multivariate Gaussian for the experimental points (i.e., the conventional model). It is also shown that the likelihood estimates obtained through sampling of systematic errors approach the likelihood obtained with matrix inversion as the sample size for the systematic errors grows large. In studied practical cases, it is seen that the estimates for the likelihood weights converge impractically slowly with the sample size, compared to matrix inversion. The computational time is estimated to be greater than for matrix inversion in cases with more experimental points, too. Hence, the sampling of systematic errors has little potential to compete with matrix inversion in cases where the latter is applicable. Nevertheless, the underlying model and the likelihood estimates can be easier to intuitively interpret than the conventional model and the likelihood function involving the inverted covariance matrix. Therefore, this work can both have pedagogical value and be used to help motivating the conventional assumption of a multivariate Gaussian for experimental data. The sampling of systematic errors could also be used in cases where the experimental uncertainties are not Gaussian, and for other purposes than to compute the likelihood, e.g., to produce random experimental data sets for a more direct use in ND evaluation.

  3. AO13 Aerosol sampling April 29, 2008

    E-print Network

    Oxford, University of

    direct sampling of aerosol particles at altitude, and published studies have involved aircraft mounted samplers. A cheap autonomous sonde mounted sampler was designed and constructed together with functional], and Pusechel at al [3], employed NASA ER-2 and DC-8 research aircraft mounted sampling devices. These aircraft

  4. Decisions from Experience: Why Small Samples?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertwig, Ralph; Pleskac, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    In many decisions we cannot consult explicit statistics telling us about the risks involved in our actions. In lieu of such data, we can arrive at an understanding of our dicey options by sampling from them. The size of the samples that we take determines, ceteris paribus, how good our choices will be. Studies of decisions from experience have…

  5. Replica trick for rare samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Tommaso

    2014-05-01

    In the context of disordered systems with quenched Hamiltonians I address the problem of characterizing rare samples where the thermal average of a specific observable has a value different from the typical one. These rare samples can be selected through a variation of the replica trick which amounts to replicating the system and dividing the replicas intwo two groups containing, respectively, M and -M replicas. Replicas in the first (second) group experience a positive (negative) small field O (1/M) conjugate to the observable considered and the M ?? limit is to be taken in the end. Applications to the random-field Ising model and to the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model are discussed.

  6. Microfabricated Devices for Sample Extraction, Concentrations, and Related Sample Processing Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe

    2006-12-01

    This is an invited book chapter. As with other analytical techniques, sample pretreatments, sample extraction, sample introduction, and related techniques are of extreme importance for micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). Bio-MEMS devices and systems start with a sampling step. The biological sample then usually undergoes some kinds of sample preparation steps before the actual analysis. These steps may involve extracting the target sample from its matrix, removing interferences from the sample, derivatizing the sample to detectable species, or performing a sample preconcentration step. The integration of the components for sample pretreatment into microfluidic devices represents one of the remaining the bottle-neck towards achieving true miniaturized total analysis systems (?TAS). This chapter provides a thorough state-of-art of the developments in this field to date.

  7. Metacognitions in problem gambling.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Annika; Fernie, Bruce A; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2011-03-01

    Problem gambling is heterogeneous in nature, ranging in severity from occasional but problematic gambling episodes, to extreme, impulsive and pervasive gambling behaviour. Problem gambling may be accompanied by a sense of impaired control and can give rise to financial, interpersonal, legal and vocational costs for the sufferer, their families and society. This study investigated the relationship among metacognitions, anxiety, depression and gambling in a sample of problem gamblers. A total of 91 individuals attending gambling treatment services completed a battery of self-report instruments that consisted of the Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 (MCQ-30), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the South Oaks Gambling Scale (SOGS). Correlation analyses showed that anxiety, depression and metacognitions were positively and significantly correlated with both gambling consequences and behaviour. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that two metacognitive constructs (negative beliefs about thoughts concerning uncontrollability and danger and beliefs about the need to control thoughts) predicted gambling behaviour independently of anxiety and depression. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that metacognitions play a role in problem gambling. PMID:20429027

  8. LOGISTICS OF ECOLOGICAL SAMPLING ON LARGE RIVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this document are to provide an overview of the logistical problems associated with the ecological sampling of boatable rivers and to suggest solutions to those problems. It is intended to be used as a resource for individuals preparing to collect biological dat...

  9. 1. Introduction Obtaining valid reservoir fluid samples is

    E-print Network

    Williams, John M.

    ten years R&D work around the world has led to major changes in fluid sampling technology. Surface to formation test samples. 3. Research studies on BHS techniques State-of-the-art BHS technology now involves

  10. History matching and uncertainty quantificiation using sampling method 

    E-print Network

    Ma, Xianlin

    2009-05-15

    Uncertainty quantification involves sampling the reservoir parameters correctly from a posterior probability function that is conditioned to both static and dynamic data. Rigorous sampling methods like Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) are known...

  11. Phobos Sample Return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyi, Lev; Zakharov, A.; Martynov, M.; Polischuk, G.

    Very mysterious objects of the Solar system are the Martian satellites, Phobos and Deimos. Attempt to study Phobos in situ from an orbiter and from landers have been done by the Russian mission FOBOS in 1988. However, due to a malfunction of the onboard control system the landers have not been delivered to the Phobos surface. A new robotics mission to Phobos is under development now in Russia. Its main goal is the delivery of samples of the Phobos surface material to the Earth for laboratory studies of its chemical, isotopic, mineral composition, age etc. Other goals are in situ studies of Phobos (regolith, internal structure, peculiarities in orbital and proper rotation), studies of Martian environment (dust, plasma, fields). The payload includes a number of scientific instruments: gamma and neutron spectrometers, gaschromatograph, mass spectrometers, IR spectrometer, seismometer, panoramic camera, dust sensor, plasma package. To implement the tasks of this mission a cruise-transfer spacecraft after the launch and the Earth-Mars interplanetary flight will be inserted into the first elliptical orbit around Mars, then after several corrections the spacecraft orbit will be formed very close to the Phobos orbit to keep the synchronous orbiting with Phobos. Then the spacecraft will encounter with Phobos and will land at the surface. After the landing the sampling device of the spacecraft will collect several samples of the Phobos regolith and will load these samples into the return capsule mounted at the returned vehicle. This returned vehicle will be launched from the mother spacecraft and after the Mars-Earth interplanetary flight after 11 monthes with reach the terrestrial atmosphere. Before entering into the atmosphere the returned capsule will be separated from the returned vehicle and will hopefully land at the Earth surface. The mother spacecraft at the Phobos surface carrying onboard scientific instruments will implement the "in situ" experiments during an year after the kickoff of the returned spacecraft. We plan to desribe the current status of the project and existing problems of its implementation. The main drive for Phobos investigation is strongly supported by the need to understand the basic scientific issues related to the Martian moons both as the representatives of the family of the small bodies in the Solar system and as principal components of the Martian environment: primordial matter of the Solar system (what, as many believe, they are). We plan to study the characteristics of the Martian satellites and hope to understand their origin. This may give a clue to the formation of satellite systems of the other planets.

  12. The worldwide "wildfire" problem.

    PubMed

    Gill, A Malcolm; Stephens, Scott L; Cary, Geoffrey J

    2013-03-01

    The worldwide "wildfire" problem is headlined by the loss of human lives and homes, but it applies generally to any adverse effects of unplanned fires, as events or regimes, on a wide range of environmental, social, and economic assets. The problem is complex and contingent, requiring continual attention to the changing circumstances of stakeholders, landscapes, and ecosystems; it occurs at a variety of temporal and spatial scales. Minimizing adverse outcomes involves controlling fires and fire regimes, increasing the resistance of assets to fires, locating or relocating assets away from the path of fires, and, as a probability of adverse impacts often remains, assisting recovery in the short-term while promoting the adaptation of societies in the long-term. There are short- and long-term aspects to each aspect of minimization. Controlling fires and fire regimes may involve fire suppression and fuel treatments such as prescribed burning or non-fire treatments but also addresses issues associated with unwanted fire starts like arson. Increasing the resistance of assets can mean addressing the design and construction materials of a house or the use of personal protective equipment. Locating or relocating assets can mean leaving an area about to be impacted by fire or choosing a suitable place to live; it can also mean the planning of land use. Assisting recovery and promoting adaptation can involve insuring assets and sharing responsibility for preparedness for an event. There is no single, simple, solution. Perverse outcomes can occur. The number of minimizing techniques used, and the breadth and depth of their application, depends on the geographic mix of asset types. Premises for policy consideration are presented. PMID:23634593

  13. Individual-level risk factors for gun victimization in a sample of probationers.

    PubMed

    Wells, William; Chermak, Steven

    2011-07-01

    Interventions aimed at preventing the important problem of gun injuries could be improved with an understanding of whether there are unique factors that place individuals at an increased risk of gun victimization. Much remains to be known about the victims of gun violence. The purpose of this article is to assess whether there are individual-level variables uniquely related to the likelihood of experiencing a gun victimization in a sample of probationers, individuals already at a heightened risk for criminal victimization. Self-report data were collected from 235 felony probationers about, for instance, gun and nongun victimization, gang involvement, and drug sales. Results show different variables are related to nongun victimization and gun victimization. In the current sample, involvement in gun crimes are linked to an increased risk of gun victimization. Violent offending and residential stability are associated with an increased chance of crime victimization. PMID:21362679

  14. Social Orientation: Problem Behavior and Motivations Toward Interpersonal Problem Solving Among High Risk Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kuperminc, Gabriel P.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2006-01-01

    A model of problematic adolescent behavior that expands current theories of social skill deficits in delinquent behavior to consider both social skills and orientation toward the use of adaptive skills was examined in an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of 113 male and female adolescents. Adolescents were selected on the basis of moderate to serious risk for difficulties in social adaptation in order to focus on the population of youth most likely to be targeted by prevention efforts. Structural equation modeling was used to examine cross-sectional data using multiple informants (adolescents, peers, and parents) and multiple methods (performance test and self-report). Adolescent social orientation, as reflected in perceived problem solving effectiveness, identification with adult prosocial values, and self-efficacy expectations, exhibited a direct association to delinquent behavior and an indirect association to drug involvement mediated by demonstrated success in using problem solving skills. Results suggest that the utility of social skill theories of adolescent problem behaviors for informing preventive and remedial interventions can be enhanced by expanding them to consider adolescents’ orientation toward using the skills they may already possess. PMID:16929380

  15. Online decision problems with large strategy sets

    E-print Network

    Kleinberg, Robert David

    2005-01-01

    In an online decision problem, an algorithm performs a sequence of trials, each of which involves selecting one element from a fixed set of alternatives (the "strategy set") whose costs vary over time. After T trials, the ...

  16. Eldercare at Home: Problems of Daily Living

    MedlinePLUS

    ... IADL. You may hear these terms used in discussions of your problems. ADL stands for "activities of ... care. (See Eldercare at Home: Caregiving for more discussion of involving older persons in planning their own ...

  17. A Mars Sample Return Sample Handling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, David; Stroker, Carol

    2013-01-01

    We present a sample handling system, a subsystem of the proposed Dragon landed Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission [1], that can return to Earth orbit a significant mass of frozen Mars samples potentially consisting of: rock cores, subsurface drilled rock and ice cuttings, pebble sized rocks, and soil scoops. The sample collection, storage, retrieval and packaging assumptions and concepts in this study are applicable for the NASA's MPPG MSR mission architecture options [2]. Our study assumes a predecessor rover mission collects samples for return to Earth to address questions on: past life, climate change, water history, age dating, understanding Mars interior evolution [3], and, human safety and in-situ resource utilization. Hence the rover will have "integrated priorities for rock sampling" [3] that cover collection of subaqueous or hydrothermal sediments, low-temperature fluidaltered rocks, unaltered igneous rocks, regolith and atmosphere samples. Samples could include: drilled rock cores, alluvial and fluvial deposits, subsurface ice and soils, clays, sulfates, salts including perchlorates, aeolian deposits, and concretions. Thus samples will have a broad range of bulk densities, and require for Earth based analysis where practical: in-situ characterization, management of degradation such as perchlorate deliquescence and volatile release, and contamination management. We propose to adopt a sample container with a set of cups each with a sample from a specific location. We considered two sample cups sizes: (1) a small cup sized for samples matching those submitted to in-situ characterization instruments, and, (2) a larger cup for 100 mm rock cores [4] and pebble sized rocks, thus providing diverse samples and optimizing the MSR sample mass payload fraction for a given payload volume. We minimize sample degradation by keeping them frozen in the MSR payload sample canister using Peltier chip cooling. The cups are sealed by interference fitted heat activated memory alloy caps [5] if the heating does not affect the sample, or by crimping caps similar to bottle capping. We prefer cap sealing surfaces be external to the cup rim to prevent sample dust inside the cups interfering with sealing, or, contamination of the sample by Teflon seal elements (if adopted). Finally the sample collection rover, or a Fetch rover, selects cups with best choice samples and loads them into a sample tray, before delivering it to the Earth Return Vehicle (ERV) in the MSR Dragon capsule as described in [1] (Fig 1). This ensures best use of the MSR payload mass allowance. A 3 meter long jointed robot arm is extended from the Dragon capsule's crew hatch, retrieves the sample tray and inserts it into the sample canister payload located on the ERV stage. The robot arm has capacity to obtain grab samples in the event of a rover failure. The sample canister has a robot arm capture casting to enable capture by crewed or robot spacecraft when it returns to Earth orbit

  18. Sampling for Contaminants in Ecological Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberhardt, L. Lee; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This paper is concerned with problems in assessing the behavior of trace substances introduced into natural systems, sampling models of five classes that might be used in the study of contaminants are reviewed. Adaptation of an industrial experimentation method and techniques used in economic geology to ecological sampling is recommended.…

  19. Effect of sample disturbance in opalinus clay shales

    E-print Network

    Pei, Jianyong, 1975-

    2004-01-01

    The sample disturbance problem for different geomaterials is reviewed in this thesis. A general discussion on the disturbance sources and complexities of the disturbance problem is followed by detailed reviews on disturbance ...

  20. Differential Effects of Counselor Self-Disclosure, Self-Involving Statements, and Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, E. Thomas; Boroto, Daniel R.

    1982-01-01

    College students (N=217) rated counselor characteristics after viewing a simulated counseling session ending with the counselor summarizing the session, disclosing a past personal problem, disclosing a present personal problem, engaging in self-involving statements, or offering dynamic interpretations. Self-disclosure and self-involving statements…

  1. Gapped sampled spectrum Doppler estimation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Paul; Liu, Dong

    2013-07-01

    Duplex and triplex transmit patterns that involve gaps in the spectrum Doppler samples allow pulse repetition frequency increases and/or frame rate increases that cannot be flexibly achieved by conventional uniformly sampled transmit schemes. We make two claims in this paper. First, previously reported nonparametric gapped sampled spectrum estimators are technically feasible for handling the duplex and triplex transmit patterns found in common medical ultrasound applications. Second, such estimators that coherently average within an axial/temporal 2-D window have superior SNR compared with their incoherent counterparts. Moreover, this fact extends to previously reported fully sampled incoherent estimators, which can be improved by using their coherent version. We verify the methods by steady-state flow phantom experiments and in vivo examples of the left clavicular artery and the ascending aorta. For the flow phantom experiments, we use the three quantitative metrics of SNR, root mean square error, and zero frequency peak full-width at half-maximum to evaluate robustness and resolution. Results indicate that through proper parameters, periodically gapped estimators can produce results similar to their fully sampled counterparts. Fourier synthesis of the spectral estimates produces the fully sampled time-domain audio signal, and we give stereo audio examples for the clavicular artery. PMID:25004500

  2. New approach to the fault location problem using synchronized sampling 

    E-print Network

    Mrkic, Jasna

    1994-01-01

    . The main idea of the fault location concept is based on the general characteristics of any transmission line. At any location along the unfaulted line, the instantaneous values of voltage and current signals are related to the instantaneous values...

  3. Appendix E: Sample Lab Report STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    that when you let go of something, it will fall because it is pulled down by the gravitational force the definition of average acceleration. In this case, since the gravitational force on the object does not change was to determine if the mass of an object affects the time it takes for the object to fall. We want to know

  4. [Heart involvement in Friedreich's ataxia].

    PubMed

    Weidemann, F; Scholz, F; Florescu, C; Liu, D; Hu, K; Herrmann, S; Ertl, G; Störk, S

    2015-03-01

    Friedreich's ataxia is a rare hereditary disease and although the gene defect has already been identified as a deficiency of the mitochondrial protein frataxin, the pathophysiology is still unknown. Although a multisystem disorder organ involvement is predominantly neurological. Besides the characteristic features of spinocerebellar ataxia the heart is frequently also affected. Cardiac involvement typically manifests as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, which can progress to heart failure and death. So far most research has focused on the neurological aspects and cardiac involvement in Friedreich's ataxia has not been systematically investigated. Thus, a better understanding of the progression of the cardiomyopathy, cardiac complications and long-term cardiac outcome is warranted. Although no specific treatment is available general cardiac therapeutic options for cardiomyopathy should be considered. The current review focuses on clinical and diagnostic features of cardiomyopathy and discusses potential therapeutic developments for Friedreich's ataxia. PMID:24848865

  5. Intracranial involvement in Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed

    Akyüz, Canan; Yalcin, Bilgehan; Atahan, I Lale; Varan, Ali; Kutluk, M Tezer; Büyükpamukçu, Münevver

    2005-01-01

    The authors report 3 cases of Hodgkin's disease with intracranial involvement. The patients were 4, 12, and 15 years old (male/female=1/2). Initially, they were treated with ABVD or COPP chemotherapies and low-dose involved field radiotherapy. Intracranial recurrences occurred 27, 40, and 42 months after initial diagnosis, respectively. Two patients experienced convulsions and the other complained of diplopia. The metastatic lesions were located supratentorially with CT or MRI. Despite initial response achieved following systemic chemotherapy and external irradiation to cranial lesions, all patients died with disseminated disease. In patients with intracranial involvement of Hodgkin's disease, prolonged disease-free survival may be achieved by combined modality treatment. PMID:16166052

  6. Technology for return of planetary samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Technological requirements of a planetary return sample mission were studied. The state-of-the-art for problems unique to this class of missions was assessed and technological gaps were identified. The problem areas where significant advancement of the state-of-the-art is required are: life support for the exobiota during the return trip and within the Planetary Receiving Laboratory (PRL); biohazard assessment and control technology; and quarantine qualified handling and experimentation methods and equipment for studying the returned sample in the PRL. Concepts for solving these problems are discussed.

  7. Sleep promotes analogical transfer in problem solving.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, Padraic; Sio, Ut Na; Lau, Sum Wai; Woo, Hoi Kei; Linkenauger, Sally A; Ormerod, Thomas C

    2015-10-01

    Analogical problem solving requires using a known solution from one problem to apply to a related problem. Sleep is known to have profound effects on memory and information restructuring, and so we tested whether sleep promoted such analogical transfer, determining whether improvement was due to subjective memory for problems, subjective recognition of similarity across related problems, or by abstract generalisation of structure. In Experiment 1, participants were exposed to a set of source problems. Then, after a 12-h period involving sleep or wake, they attempted target problems structurally related to the source problems but with different surface features. Experiment 2 controlled for time of day effects by testing participants either in the morning or the evening. Sleep improved analogical transfer, but effects were not due to improvements in subjective memory or similarity recognition, but rather effects of structural generalisation across problems. PMID:26113445

  8. Energy-Efficient Time-Stampless Adaptive Nonuniform Sampling

    E-print Network

    Goyal, Vivek K

    Energy-Efficient Time-Stampless Adaptive Nonuniform Sampling Soheil Feizi RLE at MIT Email: sfeizi- operated devices are involved in applications with continuous sensing, development of an efficient sampling aspects of a recently proposed adap- tive nonuniform sampling. This sampling scheme minimizes the energy

  9. Multisystem involvement in neuromyelitis optica

    PubMed Central

    Langille, Megan M.; Desai, Jay

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of pediatric neuromyelitis optica (NMO) with muscle and lung involvement in addition to central nervous system disease. Our patient initially presented with features of area postrema syndrome, then subsequently with optic neuritis. The patient also had recurrent hyperCKemia that responded to corticosteroids. Finally, axillary and hilar adenopathy with pulmonary consolidation were noted as well and responded to immunomodulation. Our case highlights multisystem involvement in NMO including non-infectious pulmonary findings which have not been described in the pediatric population previously. PMID:26538850

  10. Liver involvement in systemic infection

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    The liver is often involved in systemic infections, resulting in various types of abnormal liver function test results. In particular, hyperbilirubinemia in the range of 2-10 mg/dL is often seen in patients with sepsis, and several mechanisms for this phenomenon have been proposed. In this review, we summarize how the liver is involved in various systemic infections that are not considered to be primarily hepatotropic. In most patients with systemic infections, treatment for the invading microbes is enough to normalize the liver function tests. However, some patients may show severe liver injury or fulminant hepatic failure, requiring intensive treatment of the liver. PMID:25276279

  11. A multiscale framework for Bayesian inference in elliptic problems

    E-print Network

    Parno, Matthew David

    2011-01-01

    The Bayesian approach to inference problems provides a systematic way of updating prior knowledge with data. A likelihood function involving a forward model of the problem is used to incorporate data into a posterior ...

  12. Statistical problems in the assessment of nuclear risks

    SciTech Connect

    Easterling, R. G.

    1980-01-01

    Information on nuclear power plant risk assessment is presented concerning attitudinal problems; and methodological problems involving expert opinions, human error probabilities, nonindependent events, uncertainty analysis, and acceptable risk criteria.

  13. Introduction Sampling & Distributions

    E-print Network

    Bremen, Universität

    Introduction Sampling & Distributions Statistical Inference Bootstrapping Prediction Error Bootstrapping Holger Schultheis 06.01.2014 1 / 29 #12;Introduction Sampling & Distributions Statistical Inference Bootstrapping Prediction Error Topics 1 Introduction 2 Sampling & Distributions 3 Statistical

  14. Comet Surface Sampling Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacny, K.; Chu, P.; Paulsen, G.; Indyk, S.

    2014-06-01

    The goal of the Comet Surface Sample Return (CSSR) is to acquire and return to Earth a ?500 cc) sample. Honeybee developed several sampling technologies including a standalone CSSR Probe (CSSRP) and Pyramid Comet Sampler (PyCoS).

  15. An Introduction to Boson-Sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gard, Bryan T.; Motes, Keith R.; Olson, Jonathan P.; Rohde, Peter P.; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2015-06-01

    Boson-sampling is a simplified model for quantum computing that may hold the key to implementing the first ever post-classical quantum computer. Boson-sampling is a non-universal quantum computer that is significantly more straightforward to build than any universal quantum computer proposed so far. We begin this chapter by motivating boson-sampling and discussing the history of linear optics quantum computing. We then summarize the boson-sampling formalism, discuss what a sampling problem is, explain why boson-sampling is easier than linear optics quantum computing, and discuss the Extended Church-Turing thesis. Next, sampling with other classes of quantum optical states is analyzed. Finally, we discuss the feasibility of building a boson-sampling device using existing technology.

  16. Sampling from Gaussian graphical models using subgraph perturbations

    E-print Network

    Liu, Ying

    The problem of efficiently drawing samples from a Gaussian graphical model or Gaussian Markov random field is studied. We introduce the subgraph perturbation sampling algorithm, which makes use of any pre-existing tractable ...

  17. Optimizations for sampling-based motion planning algorithms

    E-print Network

    Bialkowski, Joshua John

    2014-01-01

    Sampling-basedalgorithms solve the motion planning problem by successively solving several separate suproblems of reduced complexity. As a result, the efficiency of the sampling-based algorithm depends on the complexity ...

  18. Family Involvement with Assistive Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroth, Roger; Bolson, Mary-Dale

    1996-01-01

    Expectations for family involvement and professional behavior are different when working with families of children who use adaptive technology than they are with families of other children with special needs. The article addresses some of the differences, describing family and professional roles in assessment, interpersonal communication,…

  19. RESEARCH ESSAY Identifying Proteins Involved

    E-print Network

    Haughn, George

    RESEARCH ESSAY Identifying Proteins Involved in Plant Cell Wall Modification: How Forward Genetics of plant cell walls. Plant cells make pectin and secrete it to the wall, where it acts as an adhesive, keeping cells glued together. When plants need to shed organs, such as when trees lose their leaves

  20. Promoting Active Involvement in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conderman, Greg; Bresnahan, Val; Hedin, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a rationale for using active involvement techniques, describes large- and small-group methods based on their documented effectiveness and applicability to K-12 classrooms, and illustrates their use. These approaches include ways of engaging students in large groups (e.g., unison responses, response cards, dry-erase boards,…

  1. Elements Involved in Academic Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Charles U., Ed.

    The present document presents 3 papers that were prepared for an invitational conference on the Dynamics of Academic Change. The purpose of the conference was to develop an awareness of elements involved in bringing about academic change. The plan was for small groups of faculty and administrators to study sociological, psychological, and…

  2. Parent Involvement as Ritualized Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucet, Fabienne

    2011-01-01

    This article examines parent involvement (PI) as a ritual system using Turner's concept of root paradigms. Through a twofold analysis, I argue that the highly ritualized nature of PI practices creates a group identity among mainstream parents and schools that marginalizes diverse families. First, I point out three root paradigms in the ritual…

  3. Explorations of Adolescent Drug Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfredson, Gary D.

    The most important theoretical perspectives on adolescent drug use are probably those of Akers which use ideas from differential association theory and a variant of social learning theory; Oetting and Beauvais' peer group perspective; and the family perspective of Patterson and Dishion. This research involved an examination of stages of initiation…

  4. Managing Parent Involvement during Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriman, Lynette S.

    2008-01-01

    In the wake of 9/11, Hurricane Katrina, and the Virginia Tech shooting tragedy, it is no surprise that concern for students' safety is the primary reason attributed to parents' increased involvement. Parents and university administrators share in their commitment to student safety. However, college and university staff who assume responsibility…

  5. MIT LINCOLN LABORATORY COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT

    E-print Network

    Herr, Hugh

    science fairs and science-based activities. The Laboratory is committed to giving back to the community EDUCATIONAL OUTREACH 6 K­12 Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Outreach 18 Partnerships in engineering and science. There are many opportunities to be involved. The Laboratory's educational outreach

  6. Involving students in peer review

    E-print Network

    Pearce, Jon

    , 2005; Van den Berg et al.; 2006). Peer review is a form of peer assessment that has been used for over to name a few. The peer-review process involves collaborative learning in which students assess one et al., 2000). This is distinguished from peer assessment for grading or summative purposes

  7. Systemic involvement in mycosis fungoides.

    PubMed

    Burg, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Mycosis fungoides (MF) represents almost 50% of all primary cutaneous lymphomas and more than 70% of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL). Arising from preferentially skin-homing lymphocytes with genetic instability, MF evolves through stages (IA-IVB), producing inconspicuous inflammatory features in the beginning and finally resulting in a proliferation of cytomorphologic, phenotypic, and genotypic abnormal tumor cells. Over the past 200 years, there has been much confusion in the classification of lymphomas due to semantic disagreements (MF, CTCL, parapsoriasis, lymphosarcoma, reticulum cell sarcoma, and many other terms), lack of diagnostic standard criteria, and new molecular diagnostic methods. Studies on extracutaneous involvement in early stages (IA-IIA) are almost completely lacking. In advanced stages of MF (IIB-IVB), discovery of extracutaneous involvement is dependent on the methods used (physical examination, technology, molecular diagnostics, autopsy, and laparoscopy) and reveals a wide range of results. Due to the inflammation-simulating features in the beginning of the disease, early diagnosis is very difficult to assess. Extracutaneous involvement has previously been documented in more than 70% of autopsies. More recent studies give much lower figures. Like all lymphomas, MF is a systemic disease from the very beginning, with distinct homing preferences in tumor cells. Organs most commonly involved during the lengthy course of the disease are, in descending frequency, lymph node/peripheral blood, liver, spleen, lung, bone marrow, GI tract, pancreas, and kidney. PMID:26321404

  8. The augmented lagrange multipliers method for matrix completion from corrupted samplings with application to mixed Gaussian-impulse noise removal.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fan; Yang, Xiaomei; Zhou, Chenghu

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of the restoration of images corrupted by mixed Gaussian-impulse noise. In recent years, low-rank matrix reconstruction has become a research hotspot in many scientific and engineering domains such as machine learning, image processing, computer vision and bioinformatics, which mainly involves the problem of matrix completion and robust principal component analysis, namely recovering a low-rank matrix from an incomplete but accurate sampling subset of its entries and from an observed data matrix with an unknown fraction of its entries being arbitrarily corrupted, respectively. Inspired by these ideas, we consider the problem of recovering a low-rank matrix from an incomplete sampling subset of its entries with an unknown fraction of the samplings contaminated by arbitrary errors, which is defined as the problem of matrix completion from corrupted samplings and modeled as a convex optimization problem that minimizes a combination of the nuclear norm and the l(1)-norm in this paper. Meanwhile, we put forward a novel and effective algorithm called augmented Lagrange multipliers to exactly solve the problem. For mixed Gaussian-impulse noise removal, we regard it as the problem of matrix completion from corrupted samplings, and restore the noisy image following an impulse-detecting procedure. Compared with some existing methods for mixed noise removal, the recovery quality performance of our method is dominant if images possess low-rank features such as geometrically regular textures and similar structured contents; especially when the density of impulse noise is relatively high and the variance of Gaussian noise is small, our method can outperform the traditional methods significantly not only in the simultaneous removal of Gaussian noise and impulse noise, and the restoration ability for a low-rank image matrix, but also in the preservation of textures and details in the image. PMID:25248103

  9. Employer involvement in defined contribution investment education.

    PubMed

    Blau, G; VanDerhei, J L

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the authors consider the personnel problems that may arise for defined contribution plan sponsors if major market corrections cause older employees to delay retirement beyond previous expectations. We move from that basic premise to argue that, given the continued evolution from defined benefit (DB) to defined contribution (DC) retirement plans, employers need to be more "proactive" in educating their employees about their retirement planning. A human resources perspective is used to support this argument, apart from and in addition to legal considerations such as ERISA Section 404(c). Specifics of employer involvement and its place as a component of an organization's culture are discussed. Finally, recommendations are given for employers to consider. PMID:11126058

  10. Therapist Focus on Parent Involvement in Community-Based Youth Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haine-Schlagel, Rachel; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Fettes, Danielle L.; Baker-Ericzen, Mary; Garland, Ann F.

    2012-01-01

    Parent involvement in the treatment of childhood disruptive behavior problems is a critical component of effective care. Yet little is known about the amount of time therapists are involving parents in treatment and factors that predict therapists' efforts to involve parents in routine care. The purpose of this study is to examine therapists'…

  11. Problem Solved: How To Coach Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krynock, Karoline; Robb, Louise

    1999-01-01

    When faced with real-world problems, students devise accurate, logical, and creative solutions using skills connecting to different subject areas. Students are intrigued by assignments involving preservation of species and design of environmentally friendly products and transit systems. Problem-based learning depends on coaching, modeling, and…

  12. How to Generate Good Profit Maximization Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lewis

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author considers the merits of two classes of profit maximization problems: those involving perfectly competitive firms with quadratic and cubic cost functions. While relatively easy to develop and solve, problems based on quadratic cost functions are too simple to address a number of important issues, such as the use of…

  13. Taking "From Scratch" out of Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    Solving problems and creating processes and procedures from the ground up has long been part of the IT department's way of operating. IT staffs will continue to encounter new problems to solve and new technologies to be implemented. They also must involve their constituents in the creation of solutions. Nonetheless, for many issues they no longer…

  14. Using Programmable Calculators to Solve Electrostatics Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerian, Stephen C.; Denker, Dennis A.

    1985-01-01

    Provides a simple routine which allows first-year physics students to use programmable calculators to solve otherwise complex electrostatic problems. These problems involve finding electrostatic potential and electric field on the axis of a uniformly charged ring. Modest programing skills are required of students. (DH)

  15. Empirical Evidence or Intuition? An Activity Involving the Scientific Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overway, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Students need to have basic understanding of scientific method during their introductory science classes and for this purpose an activity was devised which involved a game based on famous Monty Hall game problem. This particular activity allowed students to banish or confirm their intuition based on empirical evidence.

  16. The Relationship between Attitude towards Conflict & Drug Involvement Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohmeier, Jill H.; Schmitt, Vicki L.; Frey, Bruce B.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the success of many drug and alcohol prevention programs, drug and alcohol use by adolescents continues to be a problem. One important factor in preventing drug and alcohol use may be determining, in a non-intrusive manner, which students are most at risk for drug involvement. In the present study, the predictive relationship between…

  17. An Examination of Family-Involved Approaches to Alcoholism Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, James G.

    2003-01-01

    Introduces the development and theoretical underpinnings of family-involved treatment for alcoholism. Describes several interventions from the family therapy literature with an emphasis on behavioral techniques. Outlines efficacy research and considers some problems with the family approach. (Contains 42 references.) (GCP)

  18. How Sample Size Affects a Sampling Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulekar, Madhuri S.; Siegel, Murray H.

    2009-01-01

    If students are to understand inferential statistics successfully, they must have a profound understanding of the nature of the sampling distribution. Specifically, they must comprehend the determination of the expected value and standard error of a sampling distribution as well as the meaning of the central limit theorem. Many students in a high…

  19. A noninformative Bayesian approach for twostage cluster sampling

    E-print Network

    Meeden, Glen

    A noninformative Bayesian approach for two­stage cluster sampling Glen Meeden \\Lambda School sampling SUMMARY The polya posterior gives a noninformative Bayesian justification for various single­stage sampling procedures. Here this type of reasoning is extended to two­stage cluster sampling problems

  20. Precision Power Method for Selecting Regression Sample Sizes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Gordon P.; Barcikowski, Robert S.

    When multiple regression is used to develop a prediction model, sample size must be large enough to ensure stable coefficients. If sample size is inadequate, the model may not predict well in future samples. Unfortunately, there are problems and contradictions among the various sample size methods in regression. For example, how does one reconcile…

  1. RAPID DETERMINATION OF {sup 210} PO IN WATER SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.

    2013-05-22

    A new rapid method for the determination of {sup 210}Po in water samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that can be used for emergency response or routine water analyses. If a radiological dispersive device (RDD) event or a radiological attack associated with drinking water supplies occurs, there will be an urgent need for rapid analyses of water samples, including drinking water, ground water and other water effluents. Current analytical methods for the assay of {sup 210}Po in water samples have typically involved spontaneous auto-deposition of {sup 210}Po onto silver or other metal disks followed by counting by alpha spectrometry. The auto-deposition times range from 90 minutes to 24 hours or more, at times with yields that may be less than desirable. If sample interferences are present, decreased yields and degraded alpha spectrums can occur due to unpredictable thickening in the deposited layer. Separation methods have focused on the use of Sr Resin?, often in combination with 210Pb analysis. A new rapid method for {sup 210}Po in water samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that utilizes a rapid calcium phosphate co-precipitation method, separation using DGA Resin? (N,N,N?,N? tetraoctyldiglycolamide extractant-coated resin, Eichrom Technologies or Triskem-International), followed by rapid microprecipitation of {sup 210}Po using bismuth phosphate for counting by alpha spectrometry. This new method can be performed quickly with excellent removal of interferences, high chemical yields and very good alpha peak resolution, eliminating any potential problems with the alpha source preparation for emergency or routine samples. A rapid sequential separation method to separate {sup 210} Po and actinide isotopes was also developed. This new approach, rapid separation with DGA Resin plus microprecipitation for alpha source preparation, is a significant advance in radiochemistry for the rapid determination of {sup 210}Po.

  2. Approximate resolution of hard numbering problems

    SciTech Connect

    Bailleux, O.; Chabrier, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    We present a new method for estimating the number of solutions of constraint satisfaction problems. We use a stochastic forward checking algorithm for drawing a sample of paths from a search tree. With this sample, we compute two values related to the number of solutions of a CSP instance. First, an unbiased estimate, second, a lower bound with an arbitrary low error probability. We will describe applications to the Boolean Satisfiability problem and the Queens problem. We shall give some experimental results for these problems.

  3. Using Centrality of Concept Maps as a Measure of Problem Space States in Computer-Supported Collaborative Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clariana, Roy B.; Engelmann, Tanja; Yu, Wu

    2013-01-01

    Problem solving likely involves at least two broad stages, problem space representation and then problem solution (Newell and Simon, Human problem solving, 1972). The metric centrality that Freeman ("Social Networks" 1:215-239, 1978) implemented in social network analysis is offered here as a potential measure of both. This development research…

  4. Small Sample Whole-Genome Amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, C A; Nguyen, C P; Wheeler, E K; Sorensen, K J; Arroyo, E S; Vrankovich, G P; Christian, A T

    2005-09-20

    Many challenges arise when trying to amplify and analyze human samples collected in the field due to limitations in sample quantity, and contamination of the starting material. Tests such as DNA fingerprinting and mitochondrial typing require a certain sample size and are carried out in large volume reactions; in cases where insufficient sample is present whole genome amplification (WGA) can be used. WGA allows very small quantities of DNA to be amplified in a way that enables subsequent DNA-based tests to be performed. A limiting step to WGA is sample preparation. To minimize the necessary sample size, we have developed two modifications of WGA: the first allows for an increase in amplified product from small, nanoscale, purified samples with the use of carrier DNA while the second is a single-step method for cleaning and amplifying samples all in one column. Conventional DNA cleanup involves binding the DNA to silica, washing away impurities, and then releasing the DNA for subsequent testing. We have eliminated losses associated with incomplete sample release, thereby decreasing the required amount of starting template for DNA testing. Both techniques address the limitations of sample size by providing ample copies of genomic samples. Carrier DNA, included in our WGA reactions, can be used when amplifying samples with the standard purification method, or can be used in conjunction with our single-step DNA purification technique to potentially further decrease the amount of starting sample necessary for future forensic DNA-based assays.

  5. Small sample whole-genome amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Christine; Nguyen, Christine; Wheeler, Elizabeth; Sorensen, Karen; Arroyo, Erin; Vrankovich, Greg; Christian, Allen

    2005-11-01

    Many challenges arise when trying to amplify and analyze human samples collected in the field due to limitations in sample quantity, and contamination of the starting material. Tests such as DNA fingerprinting and mitochondrial typing require a certain sample size and are carried out in large volume reactions; in cases where insufficient sample is present whole genome amplification (WGA) can be used. WGA allows very small quantities of DNA to be amplified in a way that enables subsequent DNA-based tests to be performed. A limiting step to WGA is sample preparation. To minimize the necessary sample size, we have developed two modifications of WGA: the first allows for an increase in amplified product from small, nanoscale, purified samples with the use of carrier DNA while the second is a single-step method for cleaning and amplifying samples all in one column. Conventional DNA cleanup involves binding the DNA to silica, washing away impurities, and then releasing the DNA for subsequent testing. We have eliminated losses associated with incomplete sample release, thereby decreasing the required amount of starting template for DNA testing. Both techniques address the limitations of sample size by providing ample copies of genomic samples. Carrier DNA, included in our WGA reactions, can be used when amplifying samples with the standard purification method, or can be used in conjunction with our single-step DNA purification technique to potentially further decrease the amount of starting sample necessary for future forensic DNA-based assays.

  6. Predictors of Extradyadic Sexual Involvement in Unmarried Opposite-Sex Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Maddox Shaw, Amanda M.; Rhoades, Galena K.; Allen, Elizabeth S.; Stanley, Scott M.; Markman, Howard J.

    2012-01-01

    Using a sample of unmarried individuals in opposite-sex romantic relationships that was representative of the United States (N = 933), the current study prospectively evaluated predictors of extradyadic sexual involvement (ESI) over 20-months. Data were collected with self-report questionnaires via U.S. mail. Participants were 18–35 years old and were 34.9% male. Variables tested as predictors included involved-partner factors such as demographic characteristics, sexual history, and mental health, as well as relationship-related factors including communication, sexual dynamics, and aspects of commitment. Future ESI was significantly predicted by lower baseline relationship satisfaction, negative communication, aggression, lower dedication, absence of plans to marry, suspicion of partner’s ESI, and partner’s ESI. It was not predicted by sexual frequency, sexual dissatisfaction, or cohabitation status. Although more problems with alcohol use, more previous sex partners, and having parents who never married one another predicted future ESI, there were many involved-partner demographic factors that did not predict later ESI (e.g., gender, age, education, religiosity, having divorced parents, and having children). None of the results were moderated by gender. These results suggest that compared to demographic characteristics, relationship dynamics and negative interactions are more strongly predictive of future ESI. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:22524318

  7. Parental Problem Drinking and Adolescent Psychological Problems: The Moderating Effect of Adolescent-Parent Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine whether adolescent-parent communication moderates the relationship between parental problem drinking and adolescent psychological problems. Surveys were administered to a community sample of 1,001 adolescents in the spring of 2007. Results indicate that paternal problem drinking was associated with…

  8. Constructing a Coherent Problem Model to Facilitate Algebra Problem Solving in a Chemistry Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngu, Bing Hiong; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Phan, Huy P.

    2015-01-01

    An experiment using a sample of 11th graders compared text editing and worked examples approaches in learning to solve dilution and molarity algebra word problems in a chemistry context. Text editing requires students to assess the structure of a word problem by specifying whether the problem text contains sufficient, missing, or irrelevant…

  9. A technique for extracting blood samples from mice in fire toxicity tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucci, T. J.; Hilado, C. J.; Lopez, M. T.

    1976-01-01

    The extraction of adequate blood samples from moribund and dead mice has been a problem because of the small quantity of blood in each animal and the short time available between the animals' death and coagulation of the blood. These difficulties are particularly critical in fire toxicity tests because removal of the test animals while observing proper safety precautions for personnel is time-consuming. Techniques for extracting blood samples from mice were evaluated, and a technique was developed to obtain up to 0.8 ml of blood from a single mouse after death. The technique involves rapid exposure and cutting of the posterior vena cava and accumulation of blood in the peritoneal space. Blood samples of 0.5 ml or more from individual mice have been consistently obtained as much as 16 minutes after apparent death. Results of carboxyhemoglobin analyses of blood appeared reproducible and consistent with carbon monoxide concentrations in the exposure chamber.

  10. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Anthony R. (Espanola, NM); Johnston, Roger G. (Las Alamos, NM); Martinez, Ronald K. (Santa Cruz, NM)

    2000-01-01

    A fluid-sampling tool for obtaining a fluid sample from a container. When used in combination with a rotatable drill, the tool bores a hole into a container wall, withdraws a fluid sample from the container, and seals the borehole. The tool collects fluid sample without exposing the operator or the environment to the fluid or to wall shavings from the container.

  11. Advances in air sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the papers presented at the February 1987 Advances in Air Sampling Symposium in Pacific Grove, CA. The five sections of the book are Particle Size-Selective Sampling, Sampling Gases and Vapors for Analysis, Special Topics, Real-Time Aerosol Samplers, and Sampling Strategy. Most of the references are from the 1970s to the mid-1980s.

  12. Selecting a Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Lois A., Ed.; Sue, Valerie M., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of sampling methods that are appropriate for conducting online surveys. The authors review some of the basic concepts relevant to online survey sampling, present some probability and nonprobability techniques for selecting a sample, and briefly discuss sample size determination and nonresponse bias. Although some…

  13. PLANT PROBLEM CLINIC & NEMATODE ASSAY LAB SUPPLIES ORDER FORM

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    PLANT PROBLEM CLINIC & NEMATODE ASSAY LAB SUPPLIES ORDER FORM Type the name of your County@clemson.edu or sprsn@clemson.edu REQUESTING OFFICE/COUNTY County Name: PLANT PROBLEM CLINIC SUPPLIES ITEM No. Requested Plant Problem Clinic Sampling Guidelines Plastic Sample Bags: (10 per Bundle) Small Large Order

  14. Operators tackle Anadarko cementing problems

    SciTech Connect

    Spradlin, W.N.

    1983-06-01

    Successful cementing in the deep Anadarko Basin, as in other deep producing provinces, requires meticulous attention to detail. Problems encountered during cementing operations include high temperature, high pressure, gas migration, and lost circulation. At times, these problems stretch the bounds of technology in rheological control of drilling mud and cement slurry. Although successful cementing techniques for Anadarko Basin deep wells present particular challenges, the principles involved also apply to other deep producing provinces. Deep well programs vary from one area of the Anadarko Basin to another. The variation is a function of the pressure encountered while drilling.

  15. Neutrophil labeling: problems and pitfalls

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, M.L.; Seifert, C.L.; Madsen, M.T.; McKenney, S.M.; Desai, A.G.; Park, C.H.

    1984-04-01

    The use of neutrophils labeled with gamma-emitting radionuclides has been shown to be acceptable for in vivo kinetic studies as well as for imaging inflammatory foci. Among the gamma-emitting radionuclides, indium-/sup 111/ appears to be the agent of choice. Labeling neutrophils with 111In, however, is a relatively new technique. Although simple to perform, it involves several stages, none of which could be carried out without problems. These are discussed and the current research aimed at eliminating the problems is outlined. The knowledge of specific chemotactic receptors and surface antigens has stimulated investigations into selective neutrophil labeling that will continue to be challenging and exciting.

  16. Involving Advocates in Cancer Research.

    PubMed

    Perlmutter, Jane; Roach, Nancy; Smith, Mary Lou

    2015-10-01

    Advocates can play an important role in cancer research. In 2010, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Advocate in Research Working Group (ARWG) defined a "research advocate" as an individual who brings and can convey a nonscientific viewpoint to the research process and can communicate a collective patient perspective through knowledge of multiple disease experiences. Experiences cited in this review are related to publically funded research. They, exemplify challenges and successes of advocate engagement and involvement in the cancer research process. PMID:26433549

  17. Probabilistic sampling of finite renewal processes

    E-print Network

    Antunes, Nelson; 10.3150/10-BEJ321

    2012-01-01

    Consider a finite renewal process in the sense that interrenewal times are positive i.i.d. variables and the total number of renewals is a random variable, independent of interrenewal times. A finite point process can be obtained by probabilistic sampling of the finite renewal process, where each renewal is sampled with a fixed probability and independently of other renewals. The problem addressed in this work concerns statistical inference of the original distributions of the total number of renewals and interrenewal times from a sample of i.i.d. finite point processes obtained by sampling finite renewal processes. This problem is motivated by traffic measurements in the Internet in order to characterize flows of packets (which can be seen as finite renewal processes) and where the use of packet sampling is becoming prevalent due to increasing link speeds and limited storage and processing capacities.

  18. Nonterrorist suicidal deaths involving explosives.

    PubMed

    Shields, Lisa B E; Hunsaker, Donna M; Hunsaker, John C; Humbert, Karl A

    2003-06-01

    Suicidal deaths involving explosives unconnected to terrorism are rare. The investigation of deaths from explosive devices requires a multidisciplinary collaborative effort, as demonstrated in this study. Reported are 2 cases of nonterrorist suicidal explosive-related deaths with massive craniocerebral destruction. The first case involves a 20-year-old man who was discovered in the basement apartment of his father's home seconds after an explosion. At the scene investigators recovered illegal improvised power-technique explosive devices, specifically M-100s, together with the victim's handwritten suicide note. The victim exhibited extensive craniofacial injuries, which medicolegal officials attributed to the decedent's intentionally placing one of these devices in his mouth. The second case involves a 46-year-old man who was found by his wife at his home. In the victim's facial wound, investigators recovered portions of a detonator blasting cap attached to electrical lead wires extending to his right hand. A suicide note was discovered at the scene. The appropriate collection of physical evidence at the scene of the explosion and a detailed examination of the victim's history is as important as documentation of injury patterns and recovery of trace evidence at autopsy. A basic understanding of the variety of explosive devices is also necessary. This investigatory approach greatly enhances the medicolegal death investigator's ability to reconstruct the fatal event as a means of separating accidental and homicidal explosive-related deaths from this uncommon form of suicide. PMID:12773843

  19. Athletic Involvement and Adolescent Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kathleen E.; Melnick, Merrill J.; Barnes, Grace M.; Sabo, Don; Farrell, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    Although conventional wisdom suggests that organized sport deters delinquency by building character, structuring adolescents' time, and providing incentives for socially approved behavior, the empirical evidence to date has been mixed. Based on a sample of approximately 600 Western New York adolescents, the present study examined how self-reported…

  20. Maybe Small Is Too Small a Term: Introduction to Advancing Small Sample Prevention Science.

    PubMed

    Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Allen, James

    2015-10-01

    Prevention research addressing health disparities often involves work with small population groups experiencing such disparities. The goals of this special section are to (1) address the question of what constitutes a small sample; (2) identify some of the key research design and analytic issues that arise in prevention research with small samples; (3) develop applied, problem-oriented, and methodologically innovative solutions to these design and analytic issues; and (4) evaluate the potential role of these innovative solutions in describing phenomena, testing theory, and evaluating interventions in prevention research. Through these efforts, we hope to promote broader application of these methodological innovations. We also seek whenever possible, to explore their implications in more general problems that appear in research with small samples but concern all areas of prevention research. This special section includes two sections. The first section aims to provide input for researchers at the design phase, while the second focuses on analysis. Each article describes an innovative solution to one or more challenges posed by the analysis of small samples, with special emphasis on testing for intervention effects in prevention research. A concluding article summarizes some of their broader implications, along with conclusions regarding future directions in research with small samples in prevention science. Finally, a commentary provides the perspective of the federal agencies that sponsored the conference that gave rise to this special section. PMID:26245527

  1. Jordanian School Counselor Involvement in School-Family-Community Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaith, Souad Mansour; Banat, Suhaila Mahmood; Hamad, Ghada Esmail; Albadareen, Ghaleb Salman

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the level of partnership between the school counselor, families and the local community in Jordan, as well as highlighting the factors that affect this partnership. A "School Counselor Involvement in School-Family-Community Partnerships Scale" was developed and administered to a sample of 152 school…

  2. Factors Affecting Teen Involvement in Pennsylvania 4-H Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Bart E.; Ewing, John C.; Bruce, Jacklyn A.

    2010-01-01

    The study reported here determined the factors that affect teen involvement in 4-H programming. The design of the study was descriptive and correlational in nature. Using a purposive sampling procedure, a survey questionnaire was distributed to all (N=214) 4-H members attending the 4-H State Leadership Conference. The major findings of the study…

  3. Involvement among Resident Fathers and Links to Infant Cognitive Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Carrano, Jennifer; Horowitz, Allison; Kinukawa, Akemi

    2008-01-01

    Using a sample of resident fathers in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (9-month Father Study), this study examined how father involvement is associated with infant cognitive outcomes in two domains (babbling and exploring objects with a purpose). Results from a series of logistic regression models indicate that varied aspects of…

  4. Teachers' Self-Efficacy vs. Parental Involvement: Prediction and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Yael; Kostelitz, Yifat

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the influence of teachers' views regarding parental involvement on their perception of self-efficacy. Data were collected from a sample of 319 Israeli elementary schools teachers. A path analysis procedure was employed to test the mediating effect of personal background and organizational variables and perceived parental…

  5. Father Involvement and Student Achievement: Variations Based on Demographic Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Brent A.; Dyer, W. Justin; Laxman, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to longitudinally examine the relationship between father involvement in school settings and student achievement. The sample, pulled from the first and second waves of the PSID-CDS data set, consisted of 596 families with children aged 5-12 at time 1. Results revealed variations in the relationship between father…

  6. Parental Involvement Routines and Former Head Start Children's Literacy Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dove, Meghan Kicklighter; Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey; Wright, David W.; Wallinga, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between parental involvement routines and former Head Start children's literacy outcomes. Former Head Start children (n = 3, 808) from the National Head Start/Public School Transition Demonstration Research Project comprised the sample. Family routines and literacy outcomes in kindergarten were examined,…

  7. Involvement in Civil Rights: The Case of White Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Rhoda Lois

    In depth interviews were conducted with a reputational sample of 40 New Jersey white women known as highly involved activists in the civil rights movement for this study. It aimed: (1) to develop theory on the relationship between white women's active participation in a minority movement and their roles as women; (2) to note the relationship…

  8. Job Involvement in a Career Transition from University to Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanch, Angel; Aluja, Anton

    2010-01-01

    Job involvement-alienation was studied over three time points with a sample of undergraduate engineers undergoing a career transition from university to paid employment. Data from Newton and Keenan (1991) were re-analyzed under a latent growth curve modelling (LGCM) perspective, in order to provide an alternative analysis of the development of job…

  9. Reciprocal Longitudinal Relations between Nonresident Father Involvement and Adolescent Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Medeiros, Bethany L.

    2007-01-01

    Using a representative sample of low-income, primarily minority adolescents (N=647, aged 10-14 years at Wave 1), this study examined bidirectional longitudinal relations between nonresident father involvement, defined as contact and responsibility for children's care and behavior, and adolescent engagement in delinquent activities. Autoregressive…

  10. Parent-Child Communication and Parental Involvement in Latino Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Tatiana M.; Cardemil, Esteban V.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the associations among parent-child relationship characteristics, acculturation and enculturation, and child externalizing symptoms in a sample of 40 Latino parent-adolescent dyads. Specifically, the associations between parent-child relationship characteristics (i.e., communication and parental involvement) and adolescents'…

  11. When Problem Size Matters: Differential Effects of Brain Stimulation on Arithmetic Problem Solving and Neural Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Rütsche, Bruno; Hauser, Tobias U.; Jäncke, Lutz; Grabner, Roland H.

    2015-01-01

    The problem size effect is a well-established finding in arithmetic problem solving and is characterized by worse performance in problems with larger compared to smaller operand size. Solving small and large arithmetic problems has also been shown to involve different cognitive processes and distinct electroencephalography (EEG) oscillations over the left posterior parietal cortex (LPPC). In this study, we aimed to provide further evidence for these dissociations by using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Participants underwent anodal (30min, 1.5 mA, LPPC) and sham tDCS. After the stimulation, we recorded their neural activity using EEG while the participants solved small and large arithmetic problems. We found that the tDCS effects on performance and oscillatory activity critically depended on the problem size. While anodal tDCS improved response latencies in large arithmetic problems, it decreased solution rates in small arithmetic problems. Likewise, the lower-alpha desynchronization in large problems increased, whereas the theta synchronization in small problems decreased. These findings reveal that the LPPC is differentially involved in solving small and large arithmetic problems and demonstrate that the effects of brain stimulation strikingly differ depending on the involved neuro-cognitive processes. PMID:25789486

  12. Childhood abuse and neglect and transitions in stages of alcohol involvement among women: A latent transition analysis approach

    PubMed Central

    La Flair, Lareina N.; Reboussin, Beth A.; Storr, Carla L.; Letourneau, Elizabeth; Green, Kerry M.; Mojtabai, Ramin; Pacek, Lauren R.; Alvanzo, Anika A.H.; Cullen, Bernadette; Crum, Rosa M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood abuse and neglect have been linked with alcohol disorders in adulthood yet less is known about the potential of early trauma to influence transitions in stages of alcohol involvement among women. Study aims were to (1) identify stages of women’s alcohol involvement, (2) examine the probability of transitions between stages, and (3) investigate the influence of four domains of childhood abuse and neglect (sexual abuse, physical abuse, neglect, and witness to domestic violence), assessed individually and as poly-victimization, on transitions. Methods The sample consisted of 11,750 adult female current drinkers identified in Wave 1 (2001–2002) and re-interviewed in Wave 2 (2004–2005) of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Results Three stages of alcohol involvement emerged from latent class analysis of 11 DSM-IV abuse/dependence criteria: severe (1.5% at Wave 1, 1.9% at Wave 2), hazardous (13.6% at Wave 1, 16.0% at Wave 2), and non-problem drinking (82.1% at Wave 1, 84.5% at Wave 2). Adjusted latent transition analyses determined transition probabilities between stages across waves. Women reporting any childhood abuse and neglect were more likely to advance from the non-problem drinking class at Wave 1 to severe (AOR = 3.90, 95% CI = 1.78–8.53) and hazardous (AOR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.22–2.01) drinking classes at Wave 2 relative to women without this history. Associations were also observed between individual domains and transition from no problems to severe alcohol stage. Conclusions Results suggest a long-term impact of childhood abuse and neglect as drivers of progression in women’s alcohol involvement. PMID:23639389

  13. Optimization and geophysical inverse problems

    SciTech Connect

    Barhen, J.; Berryman, J.G.; Borcea, L.; Dennis, J.; de Groot-Hedlin, C.; Gilbert, F.; Gill, P.; Heinkenschloss, M.; Johnson, L.; McEvilly, T.; More, J.; Newman, G.; Oldenburg, D.; Parker, P.; Porto, B.; Sen, M.; Torczon, V.; Vasco, D.; Woodward, N.B.

    2000-10-01

    A fundamental part of geophysics is to make inferences about the interior of the earth on the basis of data collected at or near the surface of the earth. In almost all cases these measured data are only indirectly related to the properties of the earth that are of interest, so an inverse problem must be solved in order to obtain estimates of the physical properties within the earth. In February of 1999 the U.S. Department of Energy sponsored a workshop that was intended to examine the methods currently being used to solve geophysical inverse problems and to consider what new approaches should be explored in the future. The interdisciplinary area between inverse problems in geophysics and optimization methods in mathematics was specifically targeted as one where an interchange of ideas was likely to be fruitful. Thus about half of the participants were actively involved in solving geophysical inverse problems and about half were actively involved in research on general optimization methods. This report presents some of the topics that were explored at the workshop and the conclusions that were reached. In general, the objective of a geophysical inverse problem is to find an earth model, described by a set of physical parameters, that is consistent with the observational data. It is usually assumed that the forward problem, that of calculating simulated data for an earth model, is well enough understood so that reasonably accurate synthetic data can be generated for an arbitrary model. The inverse problem is then posed as an optimization problem, where the function to be optimized is variously called the objective function, misfit function, or fitness function. The objective function is typically some measure of the difference between observational data and synthetic data calculated for a trial model. However, because of incomplete and inaccurate data, the objective function often incorporates some additional form of regularization, such as a measure of smoothness or distance from a prior model. Various other constraints may also be imposed upon the process. Inverse problems are not restricted to geophysics, but can be found in a wide variety of disciplines where inferences must be made on the basis of indirect measurements. For instance, most imaging problems, whether in the field of medicine or non-destructive evaluation, require the solution of an inverse problem. In this report, however, the examples used for illustration are taken exclusively from the field of geophysics. The generalization of these examples to other disciplines should be straightforward, as all are based on standard second-order partial differential equations of physics. In fact, sometimes the non-geophysical inverse problems are significantly easier to treat (as in medical imaging) because the limitations on data collection, and in particular on multiple views, are not so severe as they generally are in geophysics. This report begins with an introduction to geophysical inverse problems by briefly describing four canonical problems that are typical of those commonly encountered in geophysics. Next the connection with optimization methods is made by presenting a general formulation of geophysical inverse problems. This leads into the main subject of this report, a discussion of methods for solving such problems with an emphasis upon newer approaches that have not yet become prominent in geophysics. A separate section is devoted to a subject that is not encountered in all optimization problems but is particularly important in geophysics, the need for a careful appraisal of the results in terms of their resolution and uncertainty. The impact on geophysical inverse problems of continuously improving computational resources is then discussed. The main results are then brought together in a final summary and conclusions section.

  14. Adaptive Sampling in Hierarchical Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Knap, J; Barton, N R; Hornung, R D; Arsenlis, A; Becker, R; Jefferson, D R

    2007-07-09

    We propose an adaptive sampling methodology for hierarchical multi-scale simulation. The method utilizes a moving kriging interpolation to significantly reduce the number of evaluations of finer-scale response functions to provide essential constitutive information to a coarser-scale simulation model. The underlying interpolation scheme is unstructured and adaptive to handle the transient nature of a simulation. To handle the dynamic construction and searching of a potentially large set of finer-scale response data, we employ a dynamic metric tree database. We study the performance of our adaptive sampling methodology for a two-level multi-scale model involving a coarse-scale finite element simulation and a finer-scale crystal plasticity based constitutive law.

  15. Brain involvement in Alström syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alström Syndrome (AS) is a rare ciliopathy characterized by cone–rod retinal dystrophy, sensorineural hearing loss, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiomyopathy. Most patients do not present with neurological issues and demonstrate normal intelligence, although delayed psychomotor development and psychiatric disorders have been reported. To date, brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) abnormalities in AS have not been explored. Methods We investigated structural brain changes in 12 genetically proven AS patients (mean-age 22 years; range: 6–45, 6 females) and 19 matched healthy and positive controls (mean-age 23 years; range: 6–43; 12 females) using conventional MRI, Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). Results 6/12 AS patients presented with brain abnormalities such as ventricular enlargement (4/12), periventricular white matter abnormalities (3/12) and lacune-like lesions (1/12); all patients older than 30 years had vascular-like lesions. VBM detected grey and white matter volume reduction in AS patients, especially in the posterior regions. DTI revealed significant fractional anisotropy decrease and radial diffusivity increase in the supratentorial white matter, also diffusely involving those regions that appeared normal on conventional imaging. On the contrary, axial and mean diffusivity did not differ from controls except in the fornix. Conclusions Brain involvement in Alström syndrome is not uncommon. Early vascular-like lesions, gray and white matter atrophy, mostly involving the posterior regions, and diffuse supratentorial white matter derangement suggest a role of cilia in endothelial cell and oligodendrocyte function. PMID:23406482

  16. Diet, Obesity, and Political Involvement.

    PubMed

    Craig, Robert M

    2015-09-01

    This essay is an opinion article addressed to the busy practitioner. It provides information on nutrition, diet, nutritional science, and obesity to serve as a reference in teaching his patients on these issues. It is composed by a gastroenterologist who has been engaged in clinical gastroenterology and nutrition, research, and teaching in an academic medical center for 35 years. It also relates the information to conclusions on reasonable involvement of the national government in these topics. Finally, its audience might include the interested, well-educated, lay public. Hence, excessive scientific parlance and referencing have been avoided. PMID:26106846

  17. Apollo 14 rock samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, I. C.

    1978-01-01

    Petrographic descriptions of all Apollo 14 samples larger than 1 cm in any dimension are presented. The sample description format consists of: (1) an introductory section which includes information on lunar sample location, orientation, and return containers, (2) a section on physical characteristics, which contains the sample mass, dimensions, and a brief description; (3) surface features, including zap pits, cavities, and fractures as seen in binocular view; (4) petrographic description, consisting of a binocular description and, if possible, a thin section description; and (5) a discussion of literature relevant to sample petrology is included for samples which have previously been examined by the scientific community.

  18. Rain sampling device

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Danny A. (Richland, WA); Tomich, Stanley D. (Richland, WA); Glover, Donald W. (Prosser, WA); Allen, Errol V. (Benton City, WA); Hales, Jeremy M. (Kennewick, WA); Dana, Marshall T. (Richland, WA)

    1991-01-01

    The present invention constitutes a rain sampling device adapted for independent operation at locations remote from the user which allows rainfall to be sampled in accordance with any schedule desired by the user. The rain sampling device includes a mechanism for directing wet precipitation into a chamber, a chamber for temporarily holding the precipitation during the process of collection, a valve mechanism for controllably releasing samples of said precipitation from said chamber, a means for distributing the samples released from the holding chamber into vessels adapted for permanently retaining these samples, and an electrical mechanism for regulating the operation of the device.

  19. Rain sampling device

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, D.A.; Tomich, S.D.; Glover, D.W.; Allen, E.V.; Hales, J.M.; Dana, M.T.

    1991-05-14

    The present invention constitutes a rain sampling device adapted for independent operation at locations remote from the user which allows rainfall to be sampled in accordance with any schedule desired by the user. The rain sampling device includes a mechanism for directing wet precipitation into a chamber, a chamber for temporarily holding the precipitation during the process of collection, a valve mechanism for controllably releasing samples of the precipitation from the chamber, a means for distributing the samples released from the holding chamber into vessels adapted for permanently retaining these samples, and an electrical mechanism for regulating the operation of the device. 11 figures.

  20. Stardust Sample: Investigator's Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carl

    2006-01-01

    In January 2006, the Stardust spacecraft returned the first in situ collection of samples from a comet, and the first samples of contemporary interstellar dust. Stardust is the first US sample return mission from a planetary body since Apollo, and the first ever from beyond the moon. This handbook is a basic reference source for allocation procedures and policies for Stardust samples. These samples consist of particles and particle residues in aerogel collectors, in aluminum foil, and in spacecraft components. Contamination control samples and unflown collection media are also available for allocation.

  1. Parent involvement and science achievement: A latent growth curve analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Ursula Yvette

    This study examined science achievement growth across elementary and middle school and parent school involvement using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten Class of 1998--1999 (ECLS-K). The ECLS-K is a nationally representative kindergarten cohort of students from public and private schools who attended full-day or half-day kindergarten class in 1998--1999. The present study's sample (N = 8,070) was based on students that had a sampling weight available from the public-use data file. Students were assessed in science achievement at third, fifth, and eighth grades and parents of the students were surveyed at the same time points. Analyses using latent growth curve modeling with time invariant and varying covariates in an SEM framework revealed a positive relationship between science achievement and parent involvement at eighth grade. Furthermore, there were gender and racial/ethnic differences in parents' school involvement as a predictor of science achievement. Findings indicated that students with lower initial science achievement scores had a faster rate of growth across time. The achievement gap between low and high achievers in earth, space and life sciences lessened from elementary to middle school. Parents' involvement with school usually tapers off after elementary school, but due to parent school involvement being a significant predictor of eighth grade science achievement, later school involvement may need to be supported and better implemented in secondary schooling.

  2. Heuristic-biased stochastic sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Bresina, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a search technique for scheduling problems, called Heuristic-Biased Stochastic Sampling (HBSS). The underlying assumption behind the HBSS approach is that strictly adhering to a search heuristic often does not yield the best solution and, therefore, exploration off the heuristic path can prove fruitful. Within the HBSS approach, the balance between heuristic adherence and exploration can be controlled according to the confidence one has in the heuristic. By varying this balance, encoded as a bias function, the HBSS approach encompasses a family of search algorithms of which greedy search and completely random search are extreme members. We present empirical results from an application of HBSS to the realworld problem of observation scheduling. These results show that with the proper bias function, it can be easy to outperform greedy search.

  3. Selecting a Sample for Your Experiment: A Non-Random Stratified Sampling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipton, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a more general method for sample recruitment in experiments that is purposive (not random) and that results in a sample that is compositionally similar to the generalization population. This work builds on Tipton et al. (2011) by offering solutions to a larger class of problems than the non-overlapping…

  4. Vestibular pathways involved in cognition

    PubMed Central

    Hitier, Martin; Besnard, Stephane; Smith, Paul F.

    2014-01-01

    Recent discoveries have emphasized the role of the vestibular system in cognitive processes such as memory, spatial navigation and bodily self-consciousness. A precise understanding of the vestibular pathways involved is essential to understand the consequences of vestibular diseases for cognition, as well as develop therapeutic strategies to facilitate recovery. The knowledge of the “vestibular cortical projection areas”, defined as the cortical areas activated by vestibular stimulation, has dramatically increased over the last several years from both anatomical and functional points of view. Four major pathways have been hypothesized to transmit vestibular information to the vestibular cortex: (1) the vestibulo-thalamo-cortical pathway, which probably transmits spatial information about the environment via the parietal, entorhinal and perirhinal cortices to the hippocampus and is associated with spatial representation and self-versus object motion distinctions; (2) the pathway from the dorsal tegmental nucleus via the lateral mammillary nucleus, the anterodorsal nucleus of the thalamus to the entorhinal cortex, which transmits information for estimations of head direction; (3) the pathway via the nucleus reticularis pontis oralis, the supramammillary nucleus and the medial septum to the hippocampus, which transmits information supporting hippocampal theta rhythm and memory; and (4) a possible pathway via the cerebellum, and the ventral lateral nucleus of the thalamus (perhaps to the parietal cortex), which transmits information for spatial learning. Finally a new pathway is hypothesized via the basal ganglia, potentially involved in spatial learning and spatial memory. From these pathways, progressively emerges the anatomical network of vestibular cognition. PMID:25100954

  5. Entheseal involvement in systemic disorders.

    PubMed

    Slobodin, Gleb; Rimar, Doron; Boulman, Nina; Kaly, Lisa; Rozenbaum, Michael; Rosner, Itzhak; Odeh, Majed

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to review the data on entheseal involvement in systemic disorders. A Pubmed search utilizing the indexing terms "enthesis" and "enthesitis" was conducted and the data pertinent to the aim of the review was extracted and organized in accordance with the preplanned structure of the manuscript. A number of cadaver-based studies, as well as studies using ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging, have detailed new distinct aspects of enthesis physiology and pathology in a variety of rheumatic and non-rheumatic systemic disorders. Major progress has been done in characterization of separate components of the enthesis organ, imaging of entheses, elaboration of the role and features of entheseal disease in spondyloarthropathies, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, osteoarthritis, familial Mediterranean fever, hyperuricemia, and other systemic conditions. The knowledge acquired and summarized herein shows that entheses can be affected in various ways in variety of medical disorders with different pathogenesis. Better understanding of the risk factors, mechanisms and natural history of enthesopathies is warranted. The current progress in the understanding of entheseal involvement in systemic disorders represents just the first step in resolving the entheses-related enigmas. PMID:26354427

  6. [Renal involvement in Legionnaires' disease].

    PubMed

    Heule, H; Reutter, F W; Gloor, F; Giger, T

    1986-12-01

    9 consecutive cases of Legionnaires' disease are presented, all of which involved either a pathological urinary sediment or acute renal insufficiency. Diabetic glomerular sclerosis and terminal septic shock in one patient accounted per se for the urinary findings and terminal oliguric renal failure. In the remaining 8 patients the renal abnormalities are interpreted as manifestations of Legionnaires' disease: these were acute renal insufficiency in 6, requiring dialysis treatment in 4, proteinuria in 7, hematuria in 5, leukocyturia in 5 and cylindruria in 3 patients. One patient died of pneumonia and one patient, without Legionella-related renal involvement, of septic shock. Renal histology of 5 patients showed acute interstitial nephritis in one and diffuse sclerosing interstitial nephritis in a second patient, whose biopsy was obtained after 3 months' hemodialysis treatment. In 3 patients renal biopsy findings were explained by preexisting renal pathology, i.e. diabetic nephropathy, chronic transplant rejection and shock kidney respectively. Renal failure requiring hemodialysis and urinary abnormalities were largely reversible. PMID:3810099

  7. Boson sampling for molecular vibronic spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Joonsuk; Guerreschi, Gian Giacomo; Peropadre, Borja; McClean, Jarrod R.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2015-09-01

    Controllable quantum devices open novel directions to both quantum computation and quantum simulation. Recently, a problem known as boson sampling has been shown to provide a pathway for solving a computationally intractable problem without the need for a full quantum computer, instead using a linear optics quantum set-up. In this work, we propose a modification of boson sampling for the purpose of quantum simulation. In particular, we show that, by means of squeezed states of light coupled to a boson sampling optical network, one can generate molecular vibronic spectra, a problem for which no efficient classical algorithm is currently known. We provide a general framework for carrying out these simulations via unitary quantum optical transformations and supply specific molecular examples for future experimental realization.

  8. Fire Classifications Fires involving the ordinary

    E-print Network

    Jia, Songtao

    Fire Classifications Fires involving the ordinary combustible materials such as wood, cloth, paper, plastics, etc. Fires involving combustible or flammable liquids such as gasoline, kerosene, oils, grease, paints and chemicals. Fires involving energized electrical equipment such as appliances, including

  9. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics, Spring 2015 Problem Set 12

    E-print Network

    Woit, Peter

    involving products of annihilation and creation operators, can you write this interaction term as a momentum space integral involving products of annihilation and creation operators (in terms of the FourierIntroduction to Quantum Mechanics, Spring 2015 Problem Set 12 Due Tuesday, March 24 Problem 1

  10. Sample Acquisition Techniques for Exobiology Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Carle, Glenn C.; Stratton, David M.; Valentin, Jose R.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Exobiology Flight Experiments involve complex analyses conducted in environments far different than those encountered in terrestrial applications. A major part of the analytical challenge is often the selection, acquisition, delivery and, in some cases, processing of a sample suitable for the analytical requirements of the mission. The added complications of severely limited resources and sometimes rigid time constraints combine to make sample acquisition potentially a major obstacle for successful analyses. Potential samples come in a wide range including planetary atmospheric gas and aerosols (from a wide variety of pressures), planetary soil or rocks, dust and ice particles streaming off of a comet, and cemetery surface ice and rocks. Methods to collect and process sample are often mission specific, requiring continual development of innovative concepts and mechanisms. These methods must also maintain the integrity of the sample for the experimental results to be meaningful. We present here sample acquisition systems employed from past missions and proposed for future missions.

  11. Application of the Method of Auxiliary Sources to the Wideband Electromagnetic Induction Problem

    E-print Network

    Shubitidze, Fridon

    Application of the Method of Auxiliary Sources to the Wideband Electromagnetic Induction Problem F of auxiliary sources (MAS) is formulated and applied to solution of wideband electromagnetic induction problems. INTRODUCTION The investigation of electromagnetic induction (EMI) problems involving highly conducting

  12. Design of bioaerosol sampling inlets 

    E-print Network

    Nene, Rohit Ravindra

    2007-09-17

    because the collected sample contained particles with sizes larger than those that would penetrate into the thoracic region of the human lung system. The TSP standard was health-based, and the non-thoracic fraction of the aerosol was not considered... particles that could not enter the thoracic region of the human lung tree. The inlet displayed characteristics independent of wind speed up to 9 km/h (2.5 m/s). Later studies showed there to be problems with both the fractionator and with inadvertent...

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING AND MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods of probability sampling provide a rigorous protocol which scientifically reliable information on environmental issues may e obtained. he authors review fundamentals of probability sampling from the perspective of monitoring environmental resources. hey first describe basi...

  14. GEOTHERMAL EFFLUENT SAMPLING WORKSHOP

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report outlines the major recommendations resulting from a workshop to identify gaps in existing geothermal effluent sampling methodologies, define needed research to fill those gaps, and recommend strategies to lead to a standardized sampling methodology.

  15. GROUND WATER SAMPLING ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining representative ground water samples is important for site assessment and
    remedial performance monitoring objectives. Issues which must be considered prior to initiating a ground-water monitoring program include defining monitoring goals and objectives, sampling point...

  16. Lunar sample analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housley, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    The surface composition of lunar fines, the solar wind sputtering process, and the profile of reduced Fe in lunar samples are reported. Atomic absorption studies of trace metal, especially lead, distribution in lunar fines samples are described.

  17. DSMC multicomponent aerosol dynamics: Sampling algorithms and aerosol processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniswaamy, Geethpriya

    The post-accident nuclear reactor primary and containment environments can be characterized by high temperatures and pressures, and fission products and nuclear aerosols. These aerosols evolve via natural transport processes as well as under the influence of engineered safety features. These aerosols can be hazardous and may pose risk to the public if released into the environment. Computations of their evolution, movement and distribution involve the study of various processes such as coagulation, deposition, condensation, etc., and are influenced by factors such as particle shape, charge, radioactivity and spatial inhomogeneity. These many factors make the numerical study of nuclear aerosol evolution computationally very complicated. The focus of this research is on the use of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique to elucidate the role of various phenomena that influence the nuclear aerosol evolution. In this research, several aerosol processes such as coagulation, deposition, condensation, and source reinforcement are explored for a multi-component, aerosol dynamics problem in a spatially homogeneous medium. Among the various sampling algorithms explored the Metropolis sampling algorithm was found to be effective and fast. Several test problems and test cases are simulated using the DSMC technique. The DSMC results obtained are verified against the analytical and sectional results for appropriate test problems. Results show that the assumption of a single mean density is not appropriate due to the complicated effect of component densities on the aerosol processes. The methods developed and the insights gained will also be helpful in future research on the challenges associated with the description of fission product and aerosol releases.

  18. 40 CFR 1065.170 - Batch sampling for gaseous and PM constituents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Batch sampling for gaseous and PM constituents. 1065...Equipment Specifications § 1065.170 Batch sampling for gaseous and PM constituents. Batch sampling involves collecting and storing...

  19. 40 CFR 1065.170 - Batch sampling for gaseous and PM constituents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Batch sampling for gaseous and PM constituents. 1065...Equipment Specifications § 1065.170 Batch sampling for gaseous and PM constituents. Batch sampling involves collecting and storing...

  20. 40 CFR 1065.170 - Batch sampling for gaseous and PM constituents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch sampling for gaseous and PM constituents. 1065...Equipment Specifications § 1065.170 Batch sampling for gaseous and PM constituents. Batch sampling involves collecting and storing...

  1. 40 CFR 1065.170 - Batch sampling for gaseous and PM constituents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Batch sampling for gaseous and PM constituents. 1065...Equipment Specifications § 1065.170 Batch sampling for gaseous and PM constituents. Batch sampling involves collecting and storing...

  2. 40 CFR 1065.170 - Batch sampling for gaseous and PM constituents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Batch sampling for gaseous and PM constituents. 1065...Equipment Specifications § 1065.170 Batch sampling for gaseous and PM constituents. Batch sampling involves collecting and storing...

  3. Microorganism sample device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, L. L.; Smith, J. M.

    1971-01-01

    Device, based on gel-impingement technique, collects microorganism specimens from circulating air streams. Device is useful to air pollution studies involving the collection of airborne microbial specimens.

  4. Image Processing: Some Challenging Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T. S.; Aizawa, K.

    1993-11-01

    Image processing can be broadly defined as the manipulation of signals which are inherently multidimensional. The most common such signals are photographs and video sequences. The goals of processing or manipulation can be (i) compression for storage or transmission; (ii) enhancement or restoration; (iii) analysis, recognition, and understanding; or (iv) visualization for human observers. The use of image processing techniques has become almost ubiquitous; they find applications in such diverse areas as astronomy, archaeology, medicine, video communication, and electronic games. Nonetheless, many important problems in image processing remain unsolved. It is the goal of this paper to discuss some of these challenging problems. In Section I, we mention a number of outstanding problems. Then, in the remainder of this paper, we concentrate on one of them: very-low-bit-rate video compression. This is chosen because it involves almost all aspects of image processing.

  5. Contingency contracting with school problems

    PubMed Central

    Cantrell, Robert P.; Cantrell, Mary Lynn; Huddleston, Clifton M.; Wooldridge, Ralph L.

    1969-01-01

    Contingency contracting procedures used in managing problems with school-age children involved analyzing teacher and/or parental reports of behavior problem situations, isolating the most probable contingencies then in effect, the range of reinforcers presently available, and the ways in which they were obtained. The authors prepared written contracts delineating remediative changes in reinforcement contingencies. These contracts specified ways in which the child could obtain existing individualized reinforcers contingent upon approximations to desired appropriate behaviors chosen as incompatible with the referral problem behaviors. Contract procedures were administered by the natural contingency managers, parents and/or teachers, who kept daily records of contracted behaviors and reinforcers. These records were sent to the authors and provided feedback on the progress of the case. Initial results of this procedure have been sufficiently encouraging to warrant recommending an experimental analysis of contingency contracting as a clinical method. PMID:16795222

  6. APPLICATION OF THEOREM PROVING TO PROBLEM SOLVING Cordell Green

    E-print Network

    to sample problems including the "Monkey and Bananas " puzzle and the "Tower of Hanoi " puzzle. The paper. I and II, a solution to the class ic "Monkey and Bananas " problem is provided in Sec. I I I . Next

  7. A Mathematical Optimization Problem in Bioinformatics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyer, Laurie J.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the sequence alignment problem in bioinformatics. Through examples, we formulate sequence alignment as an optimization problem and show how to compute the optimal alignment with dynamic programming. The examples and sample exercises have been used by the author in a specialized course in bioinformatics, but could be adapted…

  8. Depression and Related Problems in University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeannette

    2012-01-01

    Method: Depression and related problems were studied in a sample of 283 university students. Results: The students with high depression scores also had high scores on anxiety, intrusive thoughts, controlling intrusive thoughts and sleep disturbances scales. A stepwise regression suggested that those problems contributed to a significant proportion…

  9. Emotion dysregulation, problem-solving, and hopelessness.

    PubMed

    Vatan, Sevginar; Lester, David; Gunn, John F

    2014-04-01

    A sample of 87 Turkish undergraduate students was administered scales to measure hopelessness, problem-solving skills, emotion dysregulation, and psychiatric symptoms. All of the scores from these scales were strongly associated. In a multiple regression, hopelessness scores were predicted by poor problem-solving skills and emotion dysregulation. PMID:24897914

  10. Using Bibliotherapy To Teach Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgan, James W.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses how students with high-incidence disabilities can benefit from using bibliotherapy by learning to become proactive problem solvers. A sample lesson plan is presented based on a teaching framework for bibliotherapy and problem solving that contains the elements of prereading, guided reading, post-reading discussion, and a…

  11. PROBLEMS IN THE TRANSFORMATIONAL ANALYSIS OF AZERBAIJANI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FRAENKEL, GERD

    THIS PAPER PROPOSES SOME INSIGHTS INTO THE PROBLEMS FACED BY SOMEONE ABOUT TO EMBARK ON A GENERATIVE GRAMMAR OF AZERBAIJANI. IT IS NOT A SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS, BUT A SAMPLING OF IDEAS PERTINENT TO SUCH AN ANALYSIS. THE PROBLEMS DEALT WITH ARE (1) GRAMMATICAL DEPTH IN AZERBAIJANI BASED ON VICTOR YNGVE'S DEFINITION OF "DEPTH"--A NUMBER OF SENTENCES OF…

  12. Privacy of bodily samples.

    PubMed

    Falcon, Jennifer

    2010-12-01

    Privacy law in Victoria does not cover human tissue and other bodily samples. To ensure that individuals have some control over how their samples are collected, used and transferred, legislative amendments are required. Can concerns raised by the Australian Law Reform Commission about the lack of privacy protection afforded to bodily samples be addressed in the Human Tissue Act 1982 (Vic)? PMID:21355436

  13. ORGANIC SPECIATION SAMPLING ARTIFACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sampling artifacts for molecular markers from organic speciation of particulate matter were investigated by analyzing forty-one samples collected in Philadelphia as a part of the Northeast Oxidant and Particulate Study (NEOPS). Samples were collected using a high volume sampler ...

  14. Developing Water Sampling Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Participants in the D-19 symposium on aquatic sampling and measurement for water pollution assessment were informed that determining the extent of waste water stream pollution is not a cut and dry procedure. Topics discussed include field sampling, representative sampling from storm sewers, suggested sampler features and application of improved…

  15. Decision by Sampling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Neil; Chater, Nick; Brown, Gordon D. A.

    2006-01-01

    We present a theory of decision by sampling (DbS) in which, in contrast with traditional models, there are no underlying psychoeconomic scales. Instead, we assume that an attribute's subjective value is constructed from a series of binary, ordinal comparisons to a sample of attribute values drawn from memory and is its rank within the sample. We…

  16. Interpretation of criteria commonly used to determine lead poisoning problem areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, Milton

    1985-01-01

    Determination of lead poisoning problem areas is complicated by the nature of the disease process. Rigorous documentation of lead poisoning as a cause of mortality in birds requires the integration and evaluation of pathological and toxicological data by an experienced diagnostician. No single technique provides unequivocal proof that lead exposure occurred at the site of death. However, evaluation processes that integrate knowledge regarding the course of lead poisoning in birds, bird movement patterns in specific geographic areas, and findings from studies involving criteria commonly used to measure exposure to lead shot provide a sound basis for determination of specific problem areas. Sequential sampling during the period of bird use is an important requirement for establishing strong cause and effect relations. Knowledge of lead poisoning characteristics as a disease process are also useful in identifying lead poisoning problem areas.

  17. Sampling plans for the psocids Liposcelis entomophila and Liposcelis decolor (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) in steel bins containing wheat.

    PubMed

    Opit, G P; Throne, J E; Flinn, P W

    2009-08-01

    Psocids are an emerging problem in grain storage, handling, and processing facilities in the United States. We used data from two steel bins each containing 32.6 metric tonnes of wheat, Triticum aestivum L., to develop sampling plans for Liposcelis entomophila (Enderlein), Liposcelis decolor (Pearman) (both Psocoptera: Liposcelididae), and a mixture of the two species. Taylor's coefficients a (a sampling factor) and b (an index of aggregation) for these pests were calculated and incorporated into sampling protocols to improve accuracy. The optimal binomial sample sizes for estimating populations of these psocids at densities of < 25 psocids per refuge were large; therefore, we recommend the use of numerical sampling within this range of densities. Numerical sampling of L. entomophila and L. decolor at densities of < 25 psocids per refuge should not be too laborious given the low psocid numbers involved; we recommend using 10 refuges per bin. For presence-absence sampling of L. entomophila or L. decolor, 20 refuges per bin should be used at densities of 25-100 psocids per refuge. The sampling plans we have developed based on the use of cardboard refuges are convenient for use in steel bins containing wheat because they are inexpensive, provide a rapid assessment of psocid population incidence, and are easy to implement. These sampling plans can be used to monitor populations of and the efficacy of management strategies used against L. entomophila and L. decolor. PMID:19736788

  18. Food production -- problems and prospects.

    PubMed

    Anifowoshe, T O

    1990-03-01

    Improvements are needed in balancing the problems associated with population growth and food production. A review of the problems of rapid population growth and declining food production and suggestions for resolution are given. World population has increased over the past 10 years by 760 million, which is equal to adding the combined population of Africa and South America. Future increases are expected to bring total population to 6.1 billion by the year 2000 and 8.2 billion in 2025 (exponential increases). Food production/capita has declined since 1971 in the world and in Nigeria, particularly in the recent past. The food production problem is technical, environmental, social, political, and economic. Various scientific and technological methods for increasing food production are identified: mechanization, irrigation, use of fertilizers, control of weeds and insects, new varieties of farm animals or high-yielding strains of grain, land reclamation, soil conservation, river basin development, adequate storage facilities, infrastructure development, and birth control. Economic and social approaches involve short-term and long-term strategies in social readjustment and institutional change. For instance, large scale farmers should become contract growers for certain firms. Bureaucratic red tape should be eliminated in institutions which provide agricultural services. Environmental problems need urgent attention. Some of these problems are soil erosion from mechanization, water salinization from irrigation, accumulation of DDT in food and water and animal life from pesticide use, and water pollution from chemical fertilizers. Food production can be increased with more ecologically sound practices. Information about weather and weather forecasting allows for more suitable land management. The influence of rainfall (the amount and distribution) in Nigeria is greater than any other climatic factor. Solar radiation is a significant feature in production of dry matter and yield. Shifting cultivation and land tenure systems should involve conservation farming techniques. organic manures and appropriate use of chemical fertilizers can raise soil fertility. Other problems are identified as the spread of bilharzia and the settlement of nomadic tribes. PMID:12317928

  19. Multirate sampled-data yaw-damper and modal suppression system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Martin C.; Mason, Gregory S.

    1990-01-01

    A multirate control law synthesized algorithm based on an infinite-time quadratic cost function, was developed along with a method for analyzing the robustness of multirate systems. A generalized multirate sampled-data control law structure (GMCLS) was introduced. A new infinite-time-based parameter optimization multirate sampled-data control law synthesis method and solution algorithm were developed. A singular-value-based method for determining gain and phase margins for multirate systems was also developed. The finite-time-based parameter optimization multirate sampled-data control law synthesis algorithm originally intended to be applied to the aircraft problem was instead demonstrated by application to a simpler problem involving the control of the tip position of a two-link robot arm. The GMCLS, the infinite-time-based parameter optimization multirate control law synthesis method and solution algorithm, and the singular-value based method for determining gain and phase margins were all demonstrated by application to the aircraft control problem originally proposed for this project.

  20. Class and Home Problems: Optimization Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Brian J.; Hissam, Robin S.; Shaeiwitz, Joseph A.; Turton, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Optimization problems suitable for all levels of chemical engineering students are available. These problems do not require advanced mathematical techniques, since they can be solved using typical software used by students and practitioners. The method used to solve these problems forces students to understand the trends for the different terms…