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1

Protocols for surveys, sampling, post-collection handling, and analysis of grain samples involved in mycotoxin problems.  

PubMed

This report examines and summarizes current knowledge regarding mycotoxin surveys, sampling techniques, conditions conducive to post-collection production of mycotoxins in grain samples, and analytical methods for mycotoxin analysis. Priority attention is given to samples of corn suspected of containing aflatoxin. The report includes recommendations where deems appropriate by the Ad Hoc Work Group. PMID:7380799

Davis, N D; Dickens, J W; Freie, R L; Hamilton, P B; Shotwell, O L; Wyllie, T D; Fulkerson, J F

1980-01-01

2

ITOUGH2 sample problems  

SciTech Connect

This report contains a collection of ITOUGH2 sample problems. It complements the ITOUGH2 User`s Guide [Finsterle, 1997a], and the ITOUGH2 Command Reference [Finsterle, 1997b]. ITOUGH2 is a program for parameter estimation, sensitivity analysis, and uncertainty propagation analysis. It is based on the TOUGH2 simulator for non-isothermal multiphase flow in fractured and porous media [Preuss, 1987, 1991a]. The report ITOUGH2 User`s Guide [Finsterle, 1997a] describes the inverse modeling framework and provides the theoretical background. The report ITOUGH2 Command Reference [Finsterle, 1997b] contains the syntax of all ITOUGH2 commands. This report describes a variety of sample problems solved by ITOUGH2. Table 1.1 contains a short description of the seven sample problems discussed in this report. The TOUGH2 equation-of-state (EOS) module that needs to be linked to ITOUGH2 is also indicated. Each sample problem focuses on a few selected issues shown in Table 1.2. ITOUGH2 input features and the usage of program options are described. Furthermore, interpretations of selected inverse modeling results are given. Problem 1 is a multipart tutorial, describing basic ITOUGH2 input files for the main ITOUGH2 application modes; no interpretation of results is given. Problem 2 focuses on non-uniqueness, residual analysis, and correlation structure. Problem 3 illustrates a variety of parameter and observation types, and describes parameter selection strategies. Problem 4 compares the performance of minimization algorithms and discusses model identification. Problem 5 explains how to set up a combined inversion of steady-state and transient data. Problem 6 provides a detailed residual and error analysis. Finally, Problem 7 illustrates how the estimation of model-related parameters may help compensate for errors in that model.

Finsterle, S.

1997-11-01

3

AIR SAMPLING: SOME PROBLEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problems of monitoring occupational hazards in installations in ; which radioactive dust is present atmospherically are described. Sampling ; techniques and equipment are also described. Various types of filter paper or ; membranes may be used for collection of the airborne particulates. In general, ; filter papers are not 100% effective collectors and collection efficiency is ; dependent upon

Saxby

1961-01-01

4

Adaptive sampling for noisy problems  

SciTech Connect

The usual approach to deal with noise present in many real-world optimization problems is to take an arbitrary number of samples of the objective function and use the sample average as an estimate of the true objective value. The number of samples is typically chosen arbitrarily and remains constant for the entire optimization process. This paper studies an adaptive sampling technique that varies the number of samples based on the uncertainty of deciding between two individuals. Experiments demonstrate the effect of adaptive sampling on the final solution quality reached by a genetic algorithm and the computational cost required to find the solution. The results suggest that the adaptive technique can effectively eliminate the need to set the sample size a priori, but in many cases it requires high computational costs.

Cantu-Paz, E

2004-03-26

5

Paternal Involvement and Children's Behavior Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the National Survey of Families and Households, research tests the hypothesis that positive father involvement is associated with fewer behavior problems in children. Positive paternal and maternal involvement was independently and significantly associated with children's behavior problems. Estimated effects were similar for…

Amato, Paul R.; Rivera, Fernando

1999-01-01

6

Sampling expansions associated with Kamke problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The present paper is devoted to the derivation of sampling expansions for entire functions which are represented as integral\\u000a transforms where a differential operator is acting on the kernels. The situation generalizes the results obtained in sampling\\u000a theory associated with boundary value problems to the case when the differential equation has the form where N and P are two

M. H. Annaby; G. Freiling

2000-01-01

7

iTOUGH2 Sample Problems  

SciTech Connect

iTOUGH2 is a program for parameter estimation, sensitivity analysis, and uncertainty propagation analysis. It is based on the TOUGH2 simulator for non-isothermal multiphase flow in fractured and porous media. This report contains a collection of iTOUGH2 sample problems.

Finsterle, Stefan

2002-06-18

8

A Two-Step Sample Size Problem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A problem in sampling is given in which an estimator of the mean of a normal population is determined such that the estimator deviates from the true population parameter by less than a given percentage of the true parameter with at least a certain specifi...

R. C. Rounding

1965-01-01

9

A Facility Layout Problem Involving Lattice Points.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problem considered in this paper is to find a layout of a given number of identical facilities so that the total (or average) rectilinear distance between facilities is minimized. The potential locations for the facilities are lattice points in the pl...

A. W. Chan R. L. Francis

1974-01-01

10

Problems of sampling in market research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the last 10 years considerable improvement has been made in the methods of sampling a prospective consumer market. Representativeness and the size of the sample are major considerations; each can be checked and controlled. 3 types of sampling techniques are: accidental, random, and stratified. Each is discussed. Stratified sampling ensures the most adequate representativeness.

F. Stanton

1941-01-01

11

A Level-Set Approach For Inverse Problems Involving Obstacles  

Microsoft Academic Search

. An approach for solving inverse problems involving obstacles is proposed. The approach uses alevel-set method which has been shown to be effective in treating problems of moving boundaries, particularly thosethat involve topological changes in the geometry. We develop two computational methods based on this idea. Onemethod results in a nonlinear time-dependent partial differential equation for the level-set function whose

Fadil Santosa

1996-01-01

12

Physics Suite Sample Problems: Momentum and Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains a series of problems on the topic of momentum developed for use with The Physics Suite, an activity-based learning project. Each problem was designed to help build qualitative understanding of physics and was built around student acquisition of knowledge as observed in recent studies. The problems vary in format and include estimation, context-based reasoning, multiple choice, short answer, qualitative questions, and essay questions. Topics covered include conservation of energy, conservation of momentum, collisions, springs, gravitational potential energy, work, and graphical analysis. This item is part of a larger collection of problems, in-class questions, and interactive resources developed by the University of Maryland Physics Education Research Group.

Redish, Edward F.

2008-07-19

13

Problems in sample treatment in trace analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important parts of any analytical procedure is the initial decomposition of the sample. Not only must the sample matrix be dissolved but the element sought must be converted reliably to the proper ionic form before chemical reactions characteristic of that element can be obtained. Fusion with molten potassium fluoride is one of the simplest and most

Sill

1976-01-01

14

CAUSES OF PROBLEMS IN ANALYZING PE SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA's Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory in Las Vegas (EMSL-LV), is responsible for overseeing quality assurance of EPA's Superfund Contract Laboratory Program. n part, this oversight role involves examining QA data provided by the labs in order to investigate p...

15

MORSE Monte Carlo radiation transport code system. [Sample problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a number of years the MORSE user community has requested additional help in setting up problems using various options. The sample problems distributed with MORSE did not fully demonstrate the capability of the code. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory the code originators had a complete set of sample problems, but funds for documenting and distributing them were never available.

Emmett

1984-01-01

16

Estimation Problem in Faulty Inspection Sampling. Revised.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Suppose samples of size n are chosen at random from lots of size N and examined for the presence (or absence) of a certain type (or types) of defect. If inspection is not perfect, there may be a probability, p, of failing to detect a defect when it is, in...

N. L. Johnson S. Kotz

1984-01-01

17

Suicidal ideation among adolescent school children, involvement in bully-victim problems, and perceived social support.  

PubMed

Relationships among suicidal ideation, involvement in bully-victim problems at school, and perceived social support were investigated with samples of adolescent students (N = 1103 and N = 845) attending secondary school in South Australia. Results obtained from self-reports and peer nomination procedures to identify bullies and victims indicated that involvement in bully-victim problems at school, especially for students with relatively little social support, was significantly related to degree of suicidal ideation. PMID:10407965

Rigby, K; Slee, P

1999-01-01

18

Level Set Methods for Optimization Problems Involving Geometry and Constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many problems in engineering design involve optimizing the geometry to maximize a certain design objective. Geometrical constraints are often imposed. In this paper, we use the level set method devised in (Osher and Sethian, J. Comput. Phys.79, 12 (1988)), the variational level set calculus presented in (Zhao et al., J. Comput. Phys.127, 179 (1996)), and the projected gradient method, as

Stanley J. Osher; Fadil Santosa

2001-01-01

19

Power and Sample Size Calculations for Studies Involving Linear Regression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents methods for sample size and power calculations for studies involving linear regression. These approaches are applicable to clinical trials designed to detect a regression slope of a given magnitude or to studies that test whether the slopes or intercepts of two independent regression lines differ by a given amount. The investigator may either specify the values of

William D. Dupont; Walton D. Plummer

1998-01-01

20

Solving the Small Sample Size Problem of LDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small sample size problem is often encountered in pattern recognition. It results in the singularity of the within-class scatter matrix Sw in Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). Different methods have been proposed to solve this problem in face recognition literature. Some methods reduce the dimension of the original sample space and hence unavoidably remove the null space of Sw, which

Rui Huang; Qingshan Liu; Hanqing Lu; Songde Ma

2002-01-01

21

Exponential locality preserving projections for small sample size problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Locality preserving projections (LPP) is a widely used manifold reduced dimensionality technique. However, it suffers from two problems: (1) small sample size problem and (2) the performance is sensitive to the neighborhood size k. In order to address these problems, we propose an exponential locality preserving projections (ELPP) by introducing the matrix exponential in this paper. ELPP avoids the singular

Su-Jing Wang; Hui-Ling Chen; Xu-Jun Peng; Chun-Guang Zhou

2011-01-01

22

Longitudinal Modeling of Adolescents' Activity Involvement, Problem Peer Associations, and Youth Smoking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Longitudinal associations among different types of organized activity involvement, problem peer associations, and cigarette smoking were examined in a sample of 1040 adolescents (mean age = 15.62 at baseline, 16.89 at 15-month assessment, 17.59 at 24 months) enriched for smoking experimentation (83% had tried smoking). A structural equation model…

Metzger, Aaron; Dawes, Nickki; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Lauren

2011-01-01

23

The New Workforce Generation: Understanding the Problems Facing Parental Involvement in Jordanian Kindergartens  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study aimed to investigate the problems facing parental involvement in Jordanian kindergartens from the parents' perspectives. A 36-item questionnaire that addressed five domains was designed by the researchers and distributed among the study participants. The study sample consisted of 297 parents of kindergarten children from various…

Ihmeideh, Fathi; Khasawneh, Samer; Mahfouz, Safi; Khawaldeh, Moustafa

2008-01-01

24

Ethnicity and bullying involvement in a national UK youth sample.  

PubMed

This study investigated ethnic differences in bullying involvement (as victim and bully) among a UK wide sample of adolescents, controlling for potential confounders, including age, gender, economic situation, family structure and parent-adolescent relationships. 4668 youths, aged 10 to 15, who participate in the UK Household Longitudinal Study were assessed for bullying involvement. Binary logistic regression models were used to estimate ethnic differences across bullying roles while controlling for potential confounders. Overall, ethnic minority youths were not more likely to be victims; African boys and girls were significantly less likely to be victimised than same sex White youths. Pakistani and Caribbean girls were significantly more likely to have bullied others compared to White girls. Further research is necessary to explore why Pakistani and Caribbean girls may be more often perpetrators of bullying than girls in other ethnic groups. PMID:23849658

Tippett, Neil; Wolke, Dieter; Platt, Lucinda

2013-05-15

25

The french involvement in Mars sample return program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The French scientific community is involved in planetary exploration for more than thirty years, at the beginning mainly in cooperation with the former USSR (e.g. missions Phobos 1 and 2 in the 80's), then through ESA (Mars - Express). In 97, following the success of the US Pathfinder mission, NASA proposed to CNES to participate to the first Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission. This idea created a tremendous excitation in the French scientific community and CNES took the decision to contribute to the MSR program. Conscious that only the very best laboratories will be selected to analyse Mars samples, the French ministry of Research has created in May 99, the CSEEM (Comité Scientifique pour l'Etude des Echantillons Martiens). This Committee mandated to coordinate the national endeavour, has released late 99 an AO aimed at implementing a national preparatory program to Mars samples analysis. More than 40 proposals have been submitted involving more than 450 scientists from around 60 French labs. Most of these proposals are interdisciplinarity jointly submitted by planetologists, mineralogists, geochemists, astrobiologists and biologists. The first stage of this preparatory program is on going and will last until mid-2003. Amongst the priorities of the preparatory program are development of dedicated instrumentation, capability of analysing as small as possible samples, measurements integration; rock-macromolecule interaction; bacteria behaviour under Martian conditions; sample transportation under quarantine conditions, etc In the late 90's, the French participation to the NASA led 2003-2005 MSR mission was mainly consisting in a sample return orbiter to be launched by an Ariane V rocket. This contribution to MSR was one of the two priorities of the CNES Mars Exploration Program named PREMIER together with the NetLander network. Unfortunately late 99, due the failure of the two NASA missions MPL and MCO, a rearchitecture of the program has been decided and the first MSR mission is now expected not sooner than 2013. In spite of this great deception, France still intents to cooperate to the first MSR mission and the PREMIER program has been rearchitectured to take into account the new schedule. CNES will launch in 2007 the PREMIER-2007 mission that will consist in a Mars orbiter (MO-07) that will carry the NetLander and will test critical technologies for the future MSR missions such Rendezvous and Capture in Mars orbit.

Counil, J.; Bonneville, R.; Rocard, F.

26

MORSE Monte Carlo radiation transport code system. [Sample problems  

SciTech Connect

For a number of years the MORSE user community has requested additional help in setting up problems using various options. The sample problems distributed with MORSE did not fully demonstrate the capability of the code. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory the code originators had a complete set of sample problems, but funds for documenting and distributing them were never available. Recently the number of requests for listings of input data and results for running some particular option the user was trying to implement has increased to the point where it is not feasible to handle them on an individual basis. Consequently it was decided to package a set of sample problems which illustrates more adequately how to run MORSE. This write-up may be added to Part III of the MORSE report. These sample problems include a combined neutron-gamma case, a neutron only case, a gamma only case, an adjoint case, a fission case, a time-dependent fission case, the collision density case, an XCHEKR run and a PICTUR run.

Emmett, M.B.

1984-07-02

27

Parallel Tempering for sampling and optimization in seismic inverse problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of seismology is rich with inverse problems. Seismologists are constantly seeking new ways to use seismic waveforms, and data products derived from them, to constrain subsurface structure in the form of Earth properties in 1-, 2- and 3 dimensions, as well as seismic sources in space and time. Every approach has its limitations and a virtual smorgasbord of methods exist, and have been applied over thirty years, with varying degrees of success. In this presentation we discuss a new class of approach. Parallel Tempering (PT) is a technique originating in the field of computational statistics that is finding increasing success for probabilistic sampling problems in astro and quantum physics, and more recently ocean acoustics but appears to be virtually unknown in the solid earth geosciences. In seismology two classes of inference approach are common for nonlinear inverse problems, Bayesian (probabilistic) sampling and optimization. Parallel Tempering can be applied to both situations and is related to better known methods such as Simulated Annealing and Metropolis Sampling. PT is distinguished as it has a theoretical basis for being superior to both. PT is best viewed as a `meta' algorithm. In a sense wrapping around existing optimization or Bayesian sampling methods to facilitate more robust performance (optimization) and more rapid exploration of parameter space (sampling). PT has generated much interest across the physical sciences with encouraging results emerging. This presentation will describe the basic ideas, and present results of implementations on seismic waveform inversion for both sampling and optimization.

Sambridge, Malcolm

2013-04-01

28

LINEAR APPROXIMATION OF RANDOM PROCESSES AND SAMPLING DESIGN PROBLEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linear approximation of random processes is considered as a three-layers problem: for a single process; for a fixed method, an optimization of a sample points design; for a class of random processes, the best approximation order. The close relationship between the smoothness properties of a function and the best rate of its linear approximation is one of the basic ideas

O. V. SELEZNJEV

1999-01-01

29

Random sampling and approximation of MAX-CSP problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new efficient sampling method for approximating r-dimensional Maximum Constraint Satisfaction Problems, MAX-rCSP, on n variables up to an additive error ?nr. We prove a newgeneral paradigm in that it suffices, for a given set of constraints, to pick a small uniformly random subset of its variables, and the optimum value of the subsystem induced on these variables

Noga Alon; Wenceslas Fernandez de la Vega; Ravi Kannan; Marek Karpinski

2002-01-01

30

A resolution of the ascertainment sampling problem. III. Pedigrees.  

PubMed Central

When nuclear families are sampled by an ascertainment procedure whose properties are not known, biased estimates of genetic parameters will arise if an incorrect specification of the ascertainment procedure is made. Elsewhere we have put forward a resolution of this problem by introducing an ascertainment-assumption-free (AAF) method, for nuclear family data, which gives asymptotically unbiased estimators no matter what the true nature of the ascertainment process. In the present paper we extend this method to cover pedigree data. Problems that arise with pedigrees but not with families--for example, the question of which families in a pedigree are "ascertainable"--are also considered. Comparisons of numerical results for pedigrees and nuclear families are also made.

Shute, N C; Ewens, W J

1988-01-01

31

Continuous-time optimization problems involving invex functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In [D.H. Martin, The essence of invexity, J. Optim. Theory Appl. 47 (1985) 65-76] Martin introduced the notions of KKT-invexity and WD-invexity for mathematical programming problems. These notions are relaxations of invexity. In this work we generalize these concepts for continuous-time nonlinear optimization problems. We prove that the notion of KKT-invexity is a necessary and sufficient condition for global optimality

V. A. de Oliveira; M. A. Rojas-Medar

2007-01-01

32

Continuous-time optimization problems involving invex functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In [D.H. Martin, The essence of invexity, J. Optim. Theory Appl. 47 (1985) 65–76] Martin introduced the notions of KKT-invexity and WD-invexity for mathematical programming problems. These notions are relaxations of invexity. In this work we generalize these concepts for continuous-time nonlinear optimization problems. We prove that the notion of KKT-invexity is a necessary and sufficient condition for global optimality

V. A. de Oliveira; M. A. Rojas-Medar

2007-01-01

33

Defining the Mars Ascent Problem for Sample Return  

SciTech Connect

Lifting geology samples off of Mars is both a daunting technical problem for propulsion experts and a cultural challenge for the entire community that plans and implements planetary science missions. The vast majority of science spacecraft require propulsive maneuvers that are similar to what is done routinely with communication satellites, so most needs have been met by adapting hardware and methods from the satellite industry. While it is even possible to reach Earth from the surface of the moon using such traditional technology, ascending from the surface of Mars is beyond proven capability for either solid or liquid propellant rocket technology. Miniature rocket stages for a Mars ascent vehicle would need to be over 80 percent propellant by mass. It is argued that the planetary community faces a steep learning curve toward nontraditional propulsion expertise, in order to successfully accomplish a Mars sample return mission. A cultural shift may be needed to accommodate more technical risk acceptance during the technology development phase.

Whitehead, J

2008-07-31

34

On a non-homogeneous eigenvalue problem involving a potential: An Orlicz-Sobolev space setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we study a non-homogeneous eigenvalue problem involving variable growth conditions and a potential V. The problem is analyzed in the context of Orlicz-Sobolev spaces. Connected with this problem we also study the optimization problem for the particular eigenvalue given by the infimum of the Rayleigh quotient associated to the problem with respect to the potential V when

Mihai Mihù; Vicentiu Rù

35

Resection-line involvement in gastric cancer: a continuing problem.  

PubMed

Surgeons are aware of the adverse effect that resection-line disease has on anastomotic leakage, perioperative mortality and long-term survival. In an attempt to assess the effect of this knowledge on surgical practice, patients entered into the second British Stomach Cancer Group adjuvant therapy trial were studied. The presence of resection-line disease was compared with the operative stage. Of 555 patients for whom complete data were available, resection-line disease was present in 105 (19 per cent). Of 424 patients undergoing what the surgeon considered to be a potentially curative operation, 55 (13 per cent) had involvement of one or both resection lines, rendering the surgery palliative. Only 9 per cent of patients with stage I-III disease and resection-line involvement survived beyond 5 years, compared with 27 per cent of those with clear lines. Despite knowledge of the adverse effects of resection-line disease, surgeons continue to perform inadequate resections. This demonstrates the need for a more aggressive approach to assessment of resection margins at operation. PMID:8252353

Hallissey, M T; Jewkes, A J; Dunn, J A; Ward, L; Fielding, J W

1993-11-01

36

Optimal Stopping with Sampling Cost: The Secretary Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

A secretary problem is an optimal stopping problem based on relative ranks. To the usual formulation of the secretary problem we add a cumulative interview cost function $h(\\\\cdot)$, no longer obtaining \\

Thomas J. Lorenzen

1981-01-01

37

On a shock problem involving a linear viscoelastic bar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the initial-boundary value problem for the linear wave equation(1)utt-?(t)uxx+Ku+?ut=f(x,t),0x1,0tT,u(0,t)=0,-?(t)ux(1,t)=Q(t),u(x,0)=u0(x),ut(x,0)=u1(x),where K, ? are given constants and u0, u1, f, ? are given functions, the unknown function u(x,t) and the unknown boundary value Q(t) satisfy the following linear integral equation(2)Q(t)=K1(t)u(1,t)+?1(t)ut(1,t)-g(t)-?0tk(t-s)u(1,s)ds,where g, k, K1, ?1 are given functions. The paper consists of four parts. In Part 1 we prove

Nguyen Thanh Long; Le Van Ut; Nguyen Thi Thao Truc

2005-01-01

38

Atmospheric processes involved in the stratospheric ozone problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is pointed out that during the past decade, a decrease in the ozone layer and an increase in the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere have jointed urban smog as major threats to the atmospheric environment. An outline is provided of the present state of knowledge about the atmosphere relating to the ozone problem, and the nature of major uncertainties are indicated. A temperature profile of the atmosphere is considered along with details regarding the stratospheric chemistry, atmospheric models, predictions of ozone depletion by halocarbons, comparisons between one-dimensional models and atmosheric measurements, model predictions for halocarbon releases, and two-dimensional model results. Atention is also given to estimates of uncertainties in model predictions, feedbacks and interactions with other pollutants, postozone trends as a possible early warning system, and other possible threats to the O3 layer.

Schiff, H. I.

39

Eigensolutions for the Reflection Problem Involving the Interface of Two Chiral Half Spaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Silberstein wave-field decomposition of electromagnetic fields is applied to the problem of wave propagation in chiral medium. The problem involving a planar interface between two chiral media is considered and eigensolutions for the reflection and tr...

A. J. Viitanen I. V. Lindell A. H. Sihvola S. A. Tretyakov

1989-01-01

40

Analysing the problems involved in assessing hydro-meteorological triggers.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A key component in risk assessments is quantifying the probability of occurrence and the intensity of the hazards, which will alter with climate change. However, before future changes in these hazards can be determined, the current relationship between the hazard and the meteorological trigger should be understood. It is known that intense short duration precipitation, long-lasting rainfall and snow-melt are all important for mountainous areas in Europe, yet determining the precise triggers and their temporal probability faces many challenges. While long records are necessary to capture natural variations in the climate and a number of hazard occurrences, long records are often incomplete and not homogeneous. There is also often a spatial mismatch between climate observations and the meteorological mechanism which is actually triggering a flood or a landslide. Furthermore, meteorological triggers do not act alone - land cover and use, engineering works and changes in the slope conditions can all influence the probability of occurrence. The objective of this work is to explore the current challenges faced when trying to determine the temporal probability of hydro-meteorological triggers as well as potential solutions to the challenges identified. Examples are drawn from floods and landslides observed in the Ubaye Valley (France) and in the Fella River Basin (Italy), focusing on how data availability and quality, conceptualization of the problem and different statistically based approaches all alter the temporal probability of hydro-meteorological triggers. With a better understanding of the underlying uncertainties in meteorological triggering conditions for hydro-meteorological hazards, this will hopefully lead to a better understanding and quantification of hydro-meteorological hazards for risk assessment, for now and future projections. This work is part of the "CHANGES" project, funded by the European Community's 7th Framework Programme.

Turkington, Thea; Breinl, Korbinian; van Westen, Cees J.; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Ettema, Janneke

2013-04-01

41

Problem drinking and the dimension of involvement with drugs: a Guttman scalogram analysis of adolescent drug use.  

PubMed Central

Analyses of data from two nationwide surveys of high school students, one carried out in 1974 and the other in 1978, suggest that problem drinking may be seen as yet another step along an underlying dimension of involvement with both licit and illicit drugs. The dimension of involvement with drugs consists of the following levels: nonuse of alcohol or illicit drugs; nonproblem use of alcohol; marijuana use; problem drinking; use of pills (amphetamines, barbiturates, hallucinogenic drugs); and the use of "hard drugs" such as cocaine or heroin. The dimension possesses excellent Guttman-scale properties in both national samples as well as in subsamples differing in gender and ethnic background. The ordering of the levels of involvement was confirmed by the ordering of the alcohol-drug involvement groups based on their mean scores on measures of psychosocial proneness for involvement in problem behavior. The excessive use of a licit drug, i.e., problem drinking, appears to indicate greater involvement in drug use than does the use of an illicit drug, marijuana. This finding points to the importance of distinguishing between use and problem use of drugs in efforts to understand adolescent drug involvement.

Donovan, J E; Jessor, R

1983-01-01

42

Problem?solving abilities of participants with and without diffuse neurologic involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Impaired problem solving is a frequent consequence of brain trauma and other conditions that result in diffuse neurologic involvement. Information about how individuals with diffuse neurologic involvement solve problems is important to the development of strategies designed to help them achieve the highest degree of independent living despite neuropsychological compromise, and may aid clinical decision making in general.Aims: To

Robert C. Marshall; Susan R. McGurk; Colleen M. Karow; Tamar J. Kairy

2007-01-01

43

Physics Suite Sample Problems: Circular and Rotational Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains a series of problems on the topic of circular and rotational motion developed for use with The Physics Suite, an activity-based learning project. Each problem was designed to help build qualitative understanding of physics and was built around student acquisition of knowledge as observed in recent studies. The problems vary in format and include estimation, context-based reasoning, multiple choice, short answer, qualitative questions, and essay questions. Topics covered include rotational energy, torque, angular momentum, and rotational kinematics. This item is part of a larger collection of problems, in-class questions, and interactive resources developed by the University of Maryland Physics Education Research Group.

Redish, Edward F.

2008-07-18

44

Relationships Among Paternal Involvement and Young Children's Perceived Self-Competence and Behavioral Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relationships of father involvement to young children's perceived self-competence and fathers' and mothers' perceptions of their children's internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems. The results indicated that mothers in families in which father involvement is high may have a more positive outlook regarding their child's behavior than do mothers in families in which father involvement is low. Fathers

Rex E. Culp; Stephanie Schadle; Linda Robinson; Anne M. Culp

2000-01-01

45

Teaching Physics with the Physics Suite: Sample Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains a series of introductory physics questions posted in support of the "Teaching Physics with the Physics Suite", an activity-based learning project. Each problem was designed to help build qualitative understanding of physics and was built around results from Physics Education Research. The problems vary in format and include estimation, context-based reasoning, multiple choice, short answer, qualitative questions, and essay questions. This material is part of a larger collection of problems, in-class questions, and interactive resources developed by the University of Maryland Physics Education Research Group.

Redish, Edward F.

2008-07-18

46

Problems caused by land-misuse; the sample of Erzurum  

Microsoft Academic Search

In especially urban areas and their proximity, environmental pollution has reached a level which threatens both people and\\u000a public health. Although environmental problems in Turkey have been studied for many cities, including Erzurum, no study is\\u000a present combining all the environmental matters of the city with short definitions of problems it faces, therefore, this study\\u000a attempts to reveal the definition

Nalan Demircio?lu Yildiz; Hasan Yilmaz; Suleyman Toy

2008-01-01

47

The effect of unlabeled samples in reducing the small sample size problem and mitigating the Hughes phenomenon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors study the use of unlabeled samples in reducing the problem of small training sample size that can severely affect the recognition rate of classifiers when the dimensionality of the multispectral data is high. The authors show that by using additional unlabeled samples that are available at no extra cost, the performance may be improved, and therefore the Hughes

Behzad M. Shahshahani; David A. Landgrebe

1994-01-01

48

Examining Masculinity Norms, Problem Drinking, and Athletic Involvement as Predictors of Sexual Aggression in College Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male sexual aggression toward women is a serious social problem, particularly on college campuses. In this study, college men's sexually aggressive behavior and rape myth acceptance were examined using conformity to 11 masculine norms and 2 variables previously linked to sexual aggression: problem drinking and athletic involvement. Results indicated that men who use alcohol problematically and conform to specific masculine

Benjamin D. Locke; James R. Mahalik

2005-01-01

49

Examining Masculinity Norms, Problem Drinking, and Athletic Involvement as Predictors of Sexual Aggression in College Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Male sexual aggression toward women is a serious social problem, particularly on college campuses. In this study, college men's sexually aggressive behavior and rape myth acceptance were examined using conformity to 11 masculine norms and 2 variables previously linked to sexual aggression: problem drinking and athletic involvement. Results…

Locke, Benjamin D.; Mahalik, James R.

2005-01-01

50

A Sample Time Optimization Problem in a Digital Control System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper a phenomenon of the existence of a sample time minimizing the settling time in a digital control system is described. As a control plant an experimental heat object was used. The control system was built with the use of a soft PLC system SIEMENS SIMATIC. As the control algorithm a finite dimensional dynamic compensator was applied. During tests of the control system it was observed that there exists a value of the sample time which minimizes the settling time in the system. This phenomenon is tried to explain.

Mitkowski, Wojciech; Oprz?dkiewicz, Krzysztof

51

Problem Solving Process Research of Everyone Involved in Innovation Based on CAI Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is very important that non-technical department personnel especially bottom line employee serve as innovators under the requirements of everyone involved in innovation. According the view of this paper, it is feasible and necessary to build everyone involved in innovation problem solving process under Total Innovation Management (TIM) based on the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ). The tools under the CAI technology: How TO mode and science effects database could be very useful for all employee especially non-technical department and bottom line for innovation. The problem solving process put forward in the paper focus on non-technical department personnel especially bottom line employee for innovation.

Chen, Tao; Shao, Yunfei; Tang, Xiaowo

52

Problems in sampling the Native American and Alaska Native populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selecting a scientific national sample of Native Americans and Alaska Natives is difficult for at least four reasons: (1) they are a small proportion of the total population, (2) they are not so segregated that geographic oversampling can reach most of the population, (3) criteria for deciding who is a member of the Native American and Alaska Native population are

EUGENE P. ERICKSEN

1997-01-01

53

Solving maximum-entropy sampling problems using factored masks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a practical approach to Anstreicher and Lee's masked spectral bound for maximum-entropy sampling, and we describe favorable re- sults that we have obtained with a Branch-and-Bound algorithm based on our approach. By representing masks in factored form, we are able to easily satisfy a semidefiniteness constraint. Moreover, this representation allows us to re- strict the rank of the

Samuel Burer; Jon Lee

2007-01-01

54

A resolution of the ascertainment sampling problem. II. Generalizations and numerical results.  

PubMed Central

The ascertainment problem arises when families are sampled by a nonrandom process and some assumption about this sampling process must be made in order to estimate genetic parameters. Under classical ascertainment assumptions, estimation of genetic parameters cannot be separated from estimation of the parameters of the ascertainment process, so that any misspecification of the ascertainment process causes biases in estimation of the genetic parameters. Ewens and Shute proposed a resolution to this problem, involving conditioning the likelihood of the sample on the part of the data which is "relevant to ascertainment." The usefulness of this approach can only be assessed by examining the properties (in particular, bias and standard error) of the estimates which arise by using it for a wide range of parameter values and family size distributions and then comparing these biases and standard errors with those arising under classical ascertainment procedures. These comparisons are carried out in the present paper, and we also compare the proposed method with procedures which condition on, or ignore, parts of the data.

Shute, N C; Ewens, W J

1988-01-01

55

Problems with counting air-filter samples and radioiodine-collection cartridges together as composite samples  

SciTech Connect

Several readers working in nuclear reactor or related environmental laboratories have recently asked, if it was possible to save counting time on their gamma-ray detector systems by counting an airborne particulate (filter) sample and a gaseous iodine collection cartridge (charcoal or silver zeolite) together as a composite sample. Whereas this technique can be easily applied as a screening technique for qualitative analysis, quantitative analysis is more difficult. This article examines the possible advantages and limitation of gamma-ray counting these two different types of samples as a composite sample. Calibration procedures are also discussed.

McFarland, R.C. [Analytics, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

1996-09-01

56

A variational approach to a quasilinear elliptic problem involving the p Laplacian and nonlinear boundary condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the technique of Brown and Wu [K.J. Brown, T.F. Wu, A semilinear elliptic system involving nonlinear boundary condition and sign changing weight function, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 337 (2008) 1326–1336], we present a note on the paper [T.F. Wu, A semilinear elliptic problem involving nonlinear boundary condition and sign-changing potential, Electron. J. Differential Equations 131 (2006) 1–15] by Wu.

G. A. Afrouzi; S. H. Rasouli

2009-01-01

57

Design of progressively censored group sampling plans for Weibull distributions: An optimization problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimization algorithms provides efficient solutions to many statistical problems. Essentially, the design of sampling plans for lot acceptance purposes is an optimization problem with several constraints, usually related to the quality levels required by the producer and the consumer. An optimal acceptance sampling plan is developed in this paper for the Weibull distribution with unknown scale parameter. The proposed plan

Arturo J. Fernández; Carlos J. Pérez-González; Muhammad Aslam; Chi-Hyuck Jun

2011-01-01

58

Using orthogonal array sampling to cope with uncertainty in ground water problems.  

PubMed

Uncertainty in ground water hydrology originates from different sources. Neglecting uncertainty in ground water problems can lead to incorrect results and misleading output. Several approaches have been developed to cope with uncertainty in ground water problems. The most widely used methods in uncertainty analysis are Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) and Latin hypercube sampling (LHS), developed from MCS. Despite the simplicity of MCS, many runs are required to achieve a reliable result. This paper presents orthogonal array (OA) sampling as a means to cope with uncertainty in ground water problems. The method was applied to an analytical stream depletion problem. To examine the convergence rate of the OA sampling, the results were compared to MCS and LHS. This study shows that OA can be applied to ground water problems. Results reveal that the convergence rate of the OA sampling is faster than MCS and LHS, with a smaller error of estimate when applied to a stream depletion problem. PMID:19735309

Baalousha, Husam

59

Parent Involvement in Compensatory Education Programs: Problems and Potential Strategies Across 32 School Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parent participation as a requirement of Title I programs is examined in this report. The extent and degree to which this participation is effectively implemented in 116 schools in eight states is described. Data from Federal, State and local officials and from Title I parents were used to determine what problems mandated parent involvement might…

Kaplan, Bernard A.; Forgione, Pascal D., Jr.

60

The solution to water wave scattering and radiation problems involving semi-immersed circular cylinders  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this technical report we describe the method of solution to a variety of two- dimensional problems involving semi-immersed cylinders in the free surface. These include: (i) determining the reflection and transmission coefficients for the scattering of incident waves by a single fixed cylinder; (ii) determining the added mass and radiation damping for a cylinder forced to move with unit

R. Porter

2008-01-01

61

Critical Points for Least-Squares Problems Involving Certain Analytic Functions, with Applications to Sigmoidal Nets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with nonlinear least-squares problems involving the tting to data of parameterized analytic functions. For generic regression data, a general result establishes the countability, and under stronger assumptions niteness, of the set of functions giving rise to critical points of the quadratic loss function. In the special case of what are usually called \\\\single-hidden layer neural networks,\\

Eduardo D. Sontag

1996-01-01

62

Risky Alcohol Use, Peer and Family Relationships and Legal Involvement in Adolescents with Antisocial Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of the study was to examine risk and vulnerability factors contributing to problems with alcohol use in adolescence. Data relating to seven life areas (medical status, school status, social relationships, family background and relationships, psychological functioning, legal involvement, and alcohol use) was gathered using the ADAD…

Ybrandt, Helene

2010-01-01

63

Motor Vehicle Crash Involvements: A Multi-Dimensional Problem Size Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The size of the U.S. police-reported motor vehicle crash problem is analyzed in four dimensions: crash involvement type/role (e.g., single vehicle roadway departure, left turn across path); subject vehicle body type (i.e., passenger cars, light trucks/van...

J. S. Wang R. R. Knipling L. J. Blincoe

1996-01-01

64

Personifying self in physics problem situations involving forces as a student help strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How can physics teachers best guide students regarding physics problem situations involving forces? A suggestion is made here to personify oneself as the object in question, that is, to pretend to be the object undergoing forces and then qualify and quantify those forces according to their vectors for the system at hand. This personification is not meant to empower the object to act, just to sense the forces it is experiencing. This strategy may be especially useful to beginning physics learners attacking problems that involve both multiple forces AND multiple objects, since each object acted upon needs to be considered separately, using the idea that one cannot be two places at once. An example of this type of problem expounded on here is Atwood's machine: two weights hung over a pulley with a single rope. Another example given is electromagnetic forces on one charge caused by other charges in the vicinity. Discussion is made on implementation of classroom strategies.

Tabor-Morris, A. E.

2013-03-01

65

Concurrent Mental Health and Substance Use Problems among Street-Involved Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among marginalized populations, homeless adults are known to have elevated rates of mental health and substance use problems\\u000a compared to the general population, but less is known about their youthful homeless counterparts. While few studies currently\\u000a exist, what research has been conducted among street-involved youth has confirmed high rates of comorbidity among this population.\\u000a However, few of these studies explore

Maritt Kirst; Tyler Frederick; Patricia G. Erickson

66

Planning paths to multiple targets: memory involvement and planning heuristics in spatial problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

For large numbers of targets, path planning is a complex and computationally expensive task. Humans, however, usually solve\\u000a such tasks quickly and efficiently. We present experiments studying human path planning performance and the cognitive processes\\u000a and heuristics involved. Twenty-five places were arranged on a regular grid in a large room. Participants were repeatedly\\u000a asked to solve traveling salesman problems (TSP),

J. M. Wiener; N. N. Ehbauer; H. A. Mallot

2009-01-01

67

A primal-dual algorithm for the fermat-weber problem involving mixed gauges  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give a new algorithm for solving the Fermat-Weber location problem involving mixed gauges. This algorithm, which is derived\\u000a from the partial inverse method developed by J.E. Spingarn, simultaneously generates two sequences globally converging to\\u000a a primal and a dual solution respectively. In addition, the updating formulae are very simple; a stopping rule can be defined\\u000a though the method is

C. MICHELOTand; O. Lefebvre

1987-01-01

68

Health Literacy Impact on Patient-Provider Interactions Involving the Treatment of Dental Problems  

PubMed Central

Health literacy-related problems can interfere with effective doctor-patient communication and effective patient care. This study examined several health literacy-related markers for patients seeking treatment in hospital emergency departments and physician and dentist offices for dental problems and injuries. Participants consisted of low-income white, black, and Hispanic adults who had experienced a dental problem or injury during the previous twelve months and who visited a hospital emergency department, physician, or dentist for treatment. A stratified random sample of Maryland households participated in a cross-sectional telephone survey. Interviews were completed with 94.8 percent of 423 eligible individuals. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. Only 10.0 percent of the respondents expressed a difficulty understanding what they were told by the health provider, while 4.9 percent expressed a difficulty understanding the dental or medical forms they were asked to complete and 6.9 percent reported that they had difficulty getting the health provider to understand their dental problem or injury. Logistic regression analysis found that males and Hispanics were significantly (p<0.05) more likely to experience health literacy-related problems. In general, respondents did not express health literacy-related problems. Additional research is needed to identify health literacy-related barriers to effective patient-provider communication.

Cohen, Leonard A.; Bonito, Arthur J.; Eicheldinger, Celia; Manski, Richard J.; Edwards, Robert R.; Khanna, Niharika

2012-01-01

69

TOPAZ - the transient one-dimensional pipe flow analyzer: code validation and sample problems  

SciTech Connect

TOPAZ is a ''user friendly'' computer code for modeling the one-dimensional-transient physics of multi-species gas transfer in arbitrary arrangements of pipes, valves, vessels, and flow branches. This document presents a series of sample problems designed to aid potential users in creating TOPAZ input files. To the extent possible, sample problems were selected for which analytical solutions currently exist. TOPAZ comparisons with such solutions are intended to provide a measure of code validation.

Winters, W.S.

1985-10-01

70

NMR measurements of diffusion in concentrated samples: avoiding problems with radiation damping.  

PubMed

Pulsed field gradient spin echo NMR is generally the method of choice for diffusion measurements on liquid samples. With modern high field instruments, however, severe problems can arise when it is applied to samples with very high proton concentrations because of the presence of radiation damping. The problems may be greatly reduced by a suitable choice of experimental parameters, in particular the use of modified stimulated echo pulse sequences with a reduced flip angle for the first pulse. PMID:15214418

Connell, Mark A; Davis, Adrain L; Kenwright, Alan M; Morris, Gareth A

2004-03-01

71

H? type problem for sampled-data control systems-a solution via minimum energy characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims at deriving a solution for H? type problem for sampled-data control systems. The solution is given in terms of an equivalent discrete-time H? problem. The reduction procedure is viewed and characterized from the viewpoint of minimum energy principle and J-unitary transformations

Yoshikazu Hayakawa; Shinji Hara; Yutaka Yamamoto

1994-01-01

72

A Model for Predicting Behavioural Sleep Problems in a Random Sample of Australian Pre-Schoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Behavioural sleep problems (childhood insomnias) can cause distress for both parents and children. This paper reports a model describing predictors of high sleep problem scores in a representative population-based random sample survey of non-Aboriginal singleton children born in 1995 and 1996 (1085 girls and 1129 boys) in Western Australia.…

Hall, Wendy A.; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Silburn, Sven R.; Parsons, Deborah E.; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J.

2007-01-01

73

The Prevalence and Incremental Validity of Identity Problem Symptoms in a High School Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines the expression, prevalence, and incremental validity of identity problem symptoms in adolescence. A sample of high school students (N = 140) aged 15-18 completed measures of identity problem symptoms, identity status, and psychological symptom severity. Findings suggested that 14.3% would meet DSM IV criteria for identity…

Berman, Steven L.; Weems, Carl F.; Petkus, Veronica F.

2009-01-01

74

12-Step involvement among a U.S. national sample of Oxford House residents  

PubMed Central

A longitudinal analysis was conducted among a U.S. national sample of persons affiliated with Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous living in self-run recovery homes (Oxford Houses). Categorical involvement in a set of 12-step activities (i.e., having a sponsor, reading 12-step literature, doing service work, and calling other members for help) and averaged summary scores of involvement were examined in relation to abstinence and self-efficacy for abstinence. Participants who were categorically involved in all 12-step activities reported significantly higher levels of abstinence and self-efficacy for abstinence at 1 year compared with those who were less involved, whereas averaged summary scores of involvement were not a significant predictor of abstinence. Participants’ number of days in Oxford Houses, but not rates of 12-step meeting attendance, was significantly related to increased abstinence. Findings suggest that categorical involvement in a number of 12-step activities equip persons with substance use disorders with resources for ongoing recovery.

Majer, John M.; Jason, Leonard A.; Ferrari, Joseph R.; Miller, Steve A.

2011-01-01

75

Religious Involvement Measurement Model in a National Sample of African Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the factor structure of a brief measure of religious involvement developed previously in research with\\u000a African American women. Telephone interview methods were used with a national sample of both African American women and men\\u000a (N = 2,370). Confirmatory factor analyses supported the distinction between religious beliefs and religious behaviors factors\\u000a and indicated that the factor loadings were equivalent for

David L. Roth; Isaac Mwase; Cheryl L. Holt; Eddie M. Clark; Susan N. Lukwago; Matthew W. Kreuter

76

Ethnolinguistic Identity and Youth Activity Involvement in a Sample of Minority Canadian Francophone Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the concept of “ethnolinguistic identity” in a national sample of 333 minority Canadian Francophone youth. Youth were categorized into one of four ethnolinguistic categories (integration, separation, assimilation, marginalization) based on commitment\\/affiliation and self-identification with Francophone and Anglophone cultures. Differences among categories were observed for activity-related identity performance, psychological engagement, and perceived impact of involvement. Youth in the separation

David Y. Bourgeois; Michael A. Busseri; Linda Rose-Krasnor

2009-01-01

77

Nonlinear approaches for the single-distance phase retrieval problem involving regularizations with sparsity constraints.  

PubMed

The phase retrieval process is a nonlinear ill-posed problem. The Fresnel diffraction patterns obtained with hard x-ray synchrotron beam can be used to retrieve the phase contrast. In this work, we present a convergence comparison of several nonlinear approaches for the phase retrieval problem involving regularizations with sparsity constraints. The phase solution is assumed to have a sparse representation with respect to an orthonormal wavelets basis. One approach uses alternatively a solution of the nonlinear problem based on the Fréchet derivative and a solution of the linear problem in wavelet coordinates with an iterative thresholding. A second method is the one proposed by Ramlau and Teschke which generalizes to a nonlinear problem the classical thresholding algorithm. The algorithms were tested on a 3D Shepp-Logan phantom corrupted by white Gaussian noise. The best simulation results are obtained by the first method for the various noise levels and initializations investigated. The reconstruction errors are significantly decreased with respect to the ones given by the classical linear phase retrieval approaches. PMID:23759845

Davidoiu, Valentina; Sixou, Bruno; Langer, Max; Peyrin, Francoise

2013-06-10

78

Spectral methods for a nonlinear initial value problem involving pseudo differential operators  

SciTech Connect

Spectral methods (Fourier methods) for approximating the solution of a nonlinear initial value problem involving pseudo differential operators are defined and analyzed. A semidiscrete approximation to the nonlinear equation based on an L/sup 2/ projection is described. The semidiscrete L/sup 2/ approximation is shown to be a priori stable and convergent under sufficient decay and smoothness assumptions on the initial data. It is shown that the semidiscrete method converges with infinite order, that is, higher order decay and smoothness assumptions imply higher order error bounds. Spectral schemes based on spacial collocation are also discussed.

Pasciak, J.E.

1982-02-01

79

Factorial dimensions of the Revised Behavior Problem Checklist: Replication and validation within a kindergarten sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factor structure of the Revised Behavior Problem Checklist (RBPC) was examined in a large sample of suburban kindergarten children. Teacher-rated dimensions of Conduct Disorder, Attention Problems-Immaturity, Anxiety-Withdrawal, and Psychotic Behavior were closely replicated, and a new factor labeled Unmotivated-Isolated was also revealed. These principal components were consistent across gender and across subsamples of children differing as to risk status

Stephen P. Hinshaw; Delmont C. Morrison; Estol T. Carte; Carol Cornsweet

1987-01-01

80

The Relationship Between Depression and Other Psychosocial Problems in a Sample of Adolescent Pregnancy Termination Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

At-risk adolescents experience troubling levels of depression but there is a dearth of research related to the levels of depression\\u000a and associated psychosocial problems experienced by adolescent abortion patients. The relationship between depression and\\u000a 16 other psychosocial life problems is examined in a sample of adolescent pregnancy termination patients. Using the Multidimensional\\u000a Adolescent Assessment Scale (MAAS), depression and related psychosocial

Gretchen E. Ely; Chris Flaherty; Gary S. Cuddeback

2010-01-01

81

The relationship between dating violence and psychosocial problems in a sample of adolescent pregnancy termination patients.  

PubMed

The relationship between dating violence and 13 psychosocial problems, conceptually organized into three symptom clusters--depressive, family problem, and posttraumatic stress--was investigated in a sample of adolescent pregnancy termination patients, ages 14 to 21. Results of a multivariate multiple-regression analysis indicated that, after controlling for age, ethnicity, general aggression problems, and problems with peers, dating violence was significantly related with the symptoms clusters. At the univariate level, the results suggested that dating violence was significantly related with self-esteem problems, guilt, and suicidal thinking from the depressive symptoms cluster and with guilt and stress from the posttraumatic stress cluster. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:19852400

Ely, Gretchen E; Nugent, William R; Flaherty, Chris

2009-01-01

82

The Statistical Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA Polymorphisms: X * and the Problem of Small Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significance levels obtained from a x2 contingency test are suspect when sample sizes are small. Traditionally this has meant that data must be combined. However, such an approach may obscure heterogeneity and hence potentially reduce the power of the statistical test. In this paper, we present a Monte Carlo solution to this problem: by this method, no lumping of data

Derek A. Roff; Paul Bentzen

83

Caregiver Reports of Sleep Problems on a Convenience Sample of Children with Fragile X Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Caregivers reported on sleep in a convenience sample of 90 children with fragile X syndrome utilizing a standardized assessment tool, the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), and a 14-day sleep diary. CSHQ data indicated that 47% of participants had sleep problems at a level that suggested referral and further evaluation. Sleep diary…

Kronk, Rebecca; Dahl, Ronald; Noll, Robert

2009-01-01

84

Improving Creative Problem-Solving in a Sample of Third Culture Kids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We investigated the effects of divergent thinking training (with explicit instruction) on problem-solving tasks in a sample of Third Culture Kids (Useem and Downie, 1976). We were specifically interested in whether the children's originality and fluency in responding increased following instruction, not only on classroom-based worksheets and the…

Lee, Young Ju; Bain, Sherry K.; McCallum, R. Steve

2007-01-01

85

Effective classification image space which can solve small sample size problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is one of the most popular methods in feature extraction and dimension reduction. However, in many real applications, particularly in image recognition applications such as face recognition, conventional LDA algorithm will often encounter small sample size problem. In this paper, an effective classification image space is defined and optimal features are extracted from this space. With

Yu-jie Zheng; Jing-yu Yang; Jian Yang; Xiao-jun Wu

2006-01-01

86

Psychopathic Subtypes and Associations with Mental Health Problems in an Incarcerated Sample of Adolescent Boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research suggests a distinction between high and low anxious psychopathic individuals. However, research on psychopathic subtypes in youth offender populations is largely lacking. Therefore, this study examined psychopathic subtypes in a sample of incarcerated adolescents, and explored the relationship of these subtypes with various (mental health) problems. The Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory was used to measure psychopathic traits in a

Violaine C. Veen; Henrik Andershed; Gonneke W. J. M. Stevens; Theo A. H. Doreleijers; Wilma A. M. Vollebergh

2011-01-01

87

Heritability of Problem Drinking and the Genetic Overlap with Personality in a General Population Sample  

PubMed Central

This study examined the heritability of problem drinking and investigated the phenotypic and genetic relationships between problem drinking and personality. In a sample of 5,870 twins and siblings and 4,420 additional family members from the Netherlands Twin Register. Data on problem drinking (assessed with the AUDIT and CAGE; 12 items) and personality [NEO Five-Factor Inventory (FFI); 60 items] were collected in 2009/2010 by surveys. Confirmatory factor analysis on the AUDIT and CAGE items showed that the items clustered on two separate but highly correlated (r?=?0.74) underlying factors. A higher-order factor was extracted that reflected those aspects of problem drinking that are common to the AUDIT and CAGE, which showed a heritability of 40%. The correlations between problem drinking and the five dimensions of personality were small but significant, ranging from 0.06 for Extraversion to ?0.12 for Conscientiousness. All personality dimensions (with broad-sense heritabilities between 32 and 55%, and some evidence for non-additive genetic influences) were genetically correlated with problem drinking. The genetic correlations were small to modest (between |0.12| and |0.41|). Future studies with longitudinal data and DNA polymorphisms are needed to determine the biological mechanisms that underlie the genetic link between problem drinking and personality.

de Moor, Marleen H. M.; Vink, Jacqueline M.; van Beek, Jenny H. D. A.; Geels, Lot M.; Bartels, Meike; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I.

2011-01-01

88

Energy and the Confused Student V: The Energy/Momentum Approach to Problems Involving Rotating and Deformable Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Energy is a critical concept in physics problem-solving, but is often a major source of confusion for students if the presentation is not carefully crafted by the instructor or the textbook. A common approach to problems involving deformable or rotating systems that has been discussed in the literature is to employ the work-kinetic energy theorem…

Jewett, John W., Jr.

2008-01-01

89

The solution to the phase retrieval problem using the sampling theorem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2D phase-retrieval problem is investigated analytically, and the solution is applied to an optics example. In the case considered, only the Fourier-transform modulus and the support of the object function are known. The approach taken is based on the Whittaker-Shannon sampling theorem (Goodman, 1968), using the sin c function as interpolator. The algorithm developed is shown to converge rapidly

K. Chalasinska-Macukow

1983-01-01

90

Sampling-resampling techniques for the computation of posterior densities in normal means problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Implementation of Bayesian methods is complicated in many contexts by the apparent need for specialized numerical integration\\u000a techniques, unfamiliar to most statistical practitioners. In fact, a shift of focus to a sampling-resampling perspective enables\\u000a one to carry out Bayesian calculations without recourse to numerical integration. Such an approach is illustrated here in\\u000a the familiar context of normal means inference problems,

D. A. Stephens; A. F. M. Smith

1992-01-01

91

High dimensional model representation (HDMR) coupled intelligent sampling strategy for nonlinear problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-dimensional model representation (HDMR) is a general set of metamodel assessment and analysis tools to improve the efficiency of high dimensional underlying system behavior. Compared with the current popular modeling methods, such as Kriging (KG), radial basis function (RBF), and the moving least square approximation method (MLS), the distinctive characteristic of the HDMR is to decouple the input variables. Therefore, a high dimensional problem can be transformed as a low, middle or combination of middle dimensional function. Although the HDMR is a feasible method for high dimensional problems, the computational cost is still a bottleneck for complex engineering problems. To improve the efficiency of the HDMR method further, the purpose of this study is to use an intelligent sampling method for the HDMR. Because the HDMR cannot be integrated with the sampling method directly, a projection-based intelligent method is suggested. Compared with the popular HDMR methods, the construction procedure for the HDMR-based model is optimized. To validate the performance of the suggested method, multiple mathematical test functions are given to illustrate the modeling principles, procedures, and the efficiency and accuracy of HDMR models with problems of a wide scope of dimensionalities.

Li, Enying; Wang, Hu; Li, Guangyao

2012-09-01

92

Some thoughts on problems associated with various sampling media used for environmental monitoring  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Modern analytical instrumentation is capable of measuring a variety of trace elements at concentrations down into the single or double digit parts-per-trillion (ng l-1) range. This holds for the three most common sample media currently used in environmental monitoring programs: filtered water, whole-water and separated suspended sediment. Unfortunately, current analytical capabilities have exceeded the current capacity to collect both uncontaminated and representative environmental samples. The success of any trace element monitoring program requires that this issue be both understood and addressed. The environmental monitoring of trace elements requires the collection of calendar- and event-based dissolved and suspended sediment samples. There are unique problems associated with the collection and chemical analyses of both types of sample media. Over the past 10 years, reported ambient dissolved trace element concentrations have declined. Generally, these decreases do not reflect better water quality, but rather improvements in the procedures used to collect, process, preserve and analyze these samples without contaminating them during these steps. Further, recent studies have shown that the currently accepted operational definition of dissolved constituents (material passing a 0.45 ??m membrane filter) is inadequat owing to sampling and processing artifacts. The existence of these artifacts raises questions about the generation of accurate, precise and comparable 'dissolved' trace element data. Suspended sediment and associated trace elements can display marked short- and long-term spatial and temporal variability. This implies that spatially representative samples only can be obtained by generating composites using depth- and width-integrated sampling techniques. Additionally, temporal variations have led to the view that the determination of annual trace element fluxes may require nearly constant (e.g., high-frequency) sampling and subsequent chemical analyses. Ultimately, sampling frequency for flux estimates becomes dependent on the time period of concern (daily, weekly, monthly, yearly) and the amount of acceptable error associated with these estimates.

Horowitz, A. J.

1997-01-01

93

Improved Monte Carlo sampling in a real space approach to the crystallographic phase problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A real space approach has been proposed to solve the x-ray phase problem formulated as a minimization problem. The cost function consists of two parts: one represents the usual crystallographical residual while the other enforces the probability distribution of the invariant phase triplets. Starting from a random real space structure, the atoms are moved one by one to gradually reduce the cost function (simulated annealing). In addition, the atoms are encouragd to preferentially sample the high density regions in space determined by an approximate density map which in turn is updated and modified by averaging and Fourier synthesis. Such a reduction of the configurational space has led to considerable improvement of the algorithm compared to an earlier version. Trial calculations for structures including hexadecaisoleucinomycin (HEXIL) and a collagenlike peptide (PPG) are presented.

Liu, Xiangan; Su, W. P.

2002-12-01

94

[Problems in sampling the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and air-dispersed particles].  

PubMed

Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are difficult to monitor and quantify. This study has been worked-out to evaluate various sampling methods for monitoring PAH in the work environment: the sampling devices were tested on the field in a carbon electrodes factory. During the field surveys we used the following sampling procedures that actually are the most adopted: Glass fiber filter, Silver membrane (Teflon, cellulosic esters), The over mentioned membrane filters followed by solid substrate (Amberlite XAD-2). For the analytical quantification we followed this procedure: PAH s extraction from membranes and resins by solvent in ultrasonic bath; quantification by GS-MS (single ion monitor, capillary column, on column injection). Results of field testing show that for completely retain PAHs during air sampling in work environment it is necessary to use a membrane filter followed by a back-up tube of Amberlite-XAD-2 resin: the use of this sampling device is particularly recommended during monitoring of work operations with temperature greater than or equal to 150 degrees C involving coke oven procedure, charcoal production, asphalt production, petroleum coking operations. PMID:6545210

Pozzoli, L; Cottica, D

95

MCOCO: a computer program for seismic analysis of the HTGR core. Volume 2. Sample problem output  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contained in this section is output for the sample problem from t = 1.0 to 1.2 seconds. It consists of one initial run (t = 1.0 to 1.03 seconds) and six restart runs (t = 1.03 to 1.06, 1.06 to 1.09, 1.09 to 1.12, 1.12 to 1.15, 1.15 to 1.18 and 1.18 to 1.2 seconds). Total output is included for

Thompson

1978-01-01

96

Role of differential sample responding in the differential outcomes effect involving delayed matching by pigeons.  

PubMed

The role of differential sample responding in the differential outcomes effect was examined. In Experiment 1, we trained pigeons on a one-to-many matching task with differential sample responding required. Differential outcomes were associated with samples and comparisons, with comparisons only, or with neither samples nor comparisons. Slopes of delay functions for trials with pecked versus nonpecked samples suggested use of a single-code-default strategy in the nondifferential-outcomes group but not in the differential-outcomes groups. In Experiment 2, differential sample responding and differential outcomes were manipulated independently. Again, there were significant differences in the relative slopes of the delay functions. Results suggest that differential outcomes exert their effect independently of differential sample responding. PMID:7964521

Zentall, T R; Sherburne, L M

1994-10-01

97

Energy and the Confused Student V: The Energy\\/Momentum Approach to Problems Involving Rotating and Deformable Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy is a critical concept in physics problem-solving, but is often a major source of confusion for students if the presentation is not carefully crafted by the instructor or the textbook. A common approach to problems involving deformable or rotating systems that has been discussed in the literature is to employ the work-kinetic energy theorem together with a ``pseudowork-kinetic energy

John W. Jewett

2008-01-01

98

Problems in detection of cytomegalovirus in urine samples by dot blot hybridization.  

PubMed Central

A hybridization assay for the detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in urine specimens was established. Two different DNA fragments were used as hybridization probes: the HindIII L fragment (11.7 kilobases) and the EcoRI J fragment (10.6 kilobases) of the human CMV strain AD169. These probes were used in an isolated and highly purified form and therefore did not cross hybridize with vector sequences. As shown by hybridization with DNA from CMV-infected and uninfected cells, the assay was highly CMV specific and sensitive (detection limit, 750 to 500 fg of CMV DNA). A total of 122 urine specimens were examined by DNA hybridization, virus isolation, and the detection of CMV-induced early nuclear protein. The results coincided in 91% of the samples. The application of DNA hybridization to urine samples, however, is not without problems, and some of the pitfalls and drawbacks are discussed. Images

Augustin, S; Popow-Kraupp, T; Heinz, F X; Kunz, C

1987-01-01

99

Marriage and Involvement in Crime: A Consideration of Reciprocal Effects in a Nationally Representative Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some theories contend that marriage leads to desistance from crime. Indeed, many studies have reported married persons are less involved in crime. Research has developed under the testable assumption that marriage affects criminal behavior but that criminal involvement does not affect marital propensity (i.e. no selection effect). The current study tests this assumption in two ways. First, we examine a

J. C. Barnes; Kristin Golden; Christina Mancini; Brian B. Boutwell; Kevin M. Beaver; Brie Diamond

2011-01-01

100

A sampling approach to estimate the log determinant used in spatial likelihood problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Likelihood-based methods for modeling multivariate Gaussian spatial data have desirable statistical characteristics, but the practicality of these methods for massive georeferenced data sets is often questioned. A sampling algorithm is proposed that exploits a relationship involving log-pivots arising from matrix decompositions used to compute the log determinant term that appears in the model likelihood. We demonstrate that the method can be used to successfully estimate log-determinants for large numbers of observations. Specifically, we produce an log-determinant estimate for a 3,954,400 by 3,954,400 matrix in less than two minutes on a desktop computer. The proposed method involves computations that are independent, making it amenable to out-of-core computation as well as to coarse-grained parallel or distributed processing. The proposed technique yields an estimated log-determinant and associated confidence interval.

Pace, R. Kelley; Lesage, James P.

2009-09-01

101

Childhood Peer Relationship Problems and Young People's Involvement with Deviant Peers in Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using prospective longitudinal data from the Christchurch Health and Development Study, this article examined the relationship between children's peer relationship problems in middle childhood and their subsequent risk of forming deviant peer affiliations in adolescence. The analysis proceeded in three steps. First, a structural equation model demonstrated a moderate association between early peer relationship problems and later deviant peer affiliations

David M. Fergusson; Lianne J. Woodward; L. John Horwood

1999-01-01

102

Some Existence Results for Vector Quasivariational Inequalities Involving Multifunctions and Applications to Traffic Equilibrium Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some existence results for vector quasivariational inequalities with multifunctions in Banach spaces are derived by employing the KKM-Fan theorem. In particular, we generalize a result by Lin, Yang and Yao, and avoid monotonicity assumptions. We also consider a new quasivariational inequality problem and propose notions of weak and strong equilibria while applying the results to traffic network problems.

Phan Quoc khanh; Le Minh luu

2005-01-01

103

Movie Exposure to Alcohol Cues and Adolescent Alcohol Problems: A Longitudinal Analysis in a National Sample  

PubMed Central

The authors tested a theoretical model of how exposure to alcohol cues in movies predicts level of alcohol use (ever use plus ever and recent binge drinking) and alcohol-related problems. A national sample of younger adolescents was interviewed by telephone with 4 repeated assessments spaced at 8-month intervals. A structural equation modeling analysis performed for ever-drinkers at Time 3 (N = 961) indicated that, controlling for a number of covariates, movie alcohol exposure at Time 1 was related to increases in peer alcohol use and adolescent alcohol use at Time 2. Movie exposure had indirect effects to alcohol use and problems at Times 3 and 4 through these pathways, with direct effects to problems from Time 1 rebelliousness and Time 2 movie exposure also found. Prospective risk-promoting effects were also found for alcohol expectancies, peer alcohol use, and availability of alcohol in the home; protective effects were found for mother’s responsiveness and for adolescent’s school performance and self-control. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

Wills, Thomas A.; Sargent, James D.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Stoolmiller, Mike

2009-01-01

104

Parental Choices and Ethical Dilemmas Involving Disabilities: Special Education and the Problem of Deliberately Chosen Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethical issues regarding children with disabilities have long involved their treatment after they are born. These issues remain important, but children may be deliberately created with or without characteristics that are usually thought of as disabilities. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and related technologies that involve human…

Kauffman, James M.; Hallahan, Daniel P.

2009-01-01

105

Parental Choices and Ethical Dilemmas Involving Disabilities: Special Education and the Problem of Deliberately Chosen Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethical issues regarding children with disabilities have long involved their treatment after they are born. These issues remain important, but children may be deliberately created with or without characteristics that are usually thought of as disabilities. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and related technologies that involve human reproduction will become more readily available and raise new issues about the nature of

James M. Kauffman; Daniel P. Hallahan

2009-01-01

106

Parental Choices and Ethical Dilemmas Involving Disabilities: Special Education and the Problem of Deliberately Chosen Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ethical issues regarding children with disabilities have long involved their treatment after they are born. These issues remain important, but children may be deliberately created with or without characteristics that are usually thought of as disabilities. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and related technologies that involve human…

Kauffman, James M.; Hallahan, Daniel P.

2009-01-01

107

Invertebrate community sampling of woodland field layers: Trials of two techniques involving enclosures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of enclosures in invertebrate sampling can circumvent or lessen many of the biases associated with open traps. Removing only a relatively small proportion of the community, enclosed traps avoid impacting too severely on populations that may be of conservational concern, so may have applications in protected areas. Two sampling techniques using enclosures, developed for use in woodland field

Colin Moffatt; Stuart McNeill; Alan J. Morton

2003-01-01

108

A series solution to smoothing, filtering, and prediction problems involving correlated signal and noise (Corresp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recently presented series solution to smoothing, filtering, and prediction problems is extended to include correlation between the white and colored components of the observations, as required in applications to feedback communications and feedback control.

W. Gardner

1975-01-01

109

Some Problems Involved in the Shared Cataloging Subsystem of the Ohio College Library Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report outlines the development of the Ohio College Library Center (OCLC) and considers some basic problems in OCLC shared cataloging--e.g., the uneven quality of input cataloging and increasing number of duplicate records. Summaries of findings from...

M. T. Sacco

1977-01-01

110

Level Set Methods for Optimization Problems Involving Geometry and Constraints I. Frequencies of a Two-Density Inhomogeneous Drum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many problems in engineering design involve optimizing the geometryto maximize a certain design objective. Geometrical constraints are oftenimposed. In this paper, we use the level set method devised in [11], thevariational level set calculus presented in [20], and the projected gradientmethod, as in [15], to construct a simple numerical approach for problemsof this type. We apply this technique to a

Stanley Osher; Fadil Santosa

2001-01-01

111

Prosocial Involvement and Antisocial Peer Affiliations as Predictors of Behavior Problems in Urban Adolescents: Main Effects and Moderating Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the relationships between prosocial involvement (PI), antisocial peer affiliations (APA), and the degree of their overlapping or independent prediction of behavior problems in urban adolescents. Two dimensions of behavior were assessed at ages 9-11 and at ages 13-15: disruptive, aggressive conduct and number of delinquent…

Kaufmann, Dagmar R.; Wyman, Peter A.; Forbes-Jones, Emma L.; Barry, Jason

2007-01-01

112

The direct effects of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity on peer problems and mediating roles of prosocial and conduct problem behaviors in a community sample of children.  

PubMed

Objective: This study tested whether children's symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity were associated with peer problems and whether these associations were mediated by conduct problems and prosocial behaviors. Method: A community sample of 500 children, including 245 boys and 255 girls, who ranged in age from 6 to 9 years (M = 7.6, SD = 0.91) were recruited. Teachers' report of children's inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, conduct problems, prosocial behaviors, and peer problems was collected. Results: Symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity were significantly positively associated with peer problems. Conduct problems were associated with more peer problems and prosocial behaviors with less peer problems. Conduct problems and prosocial behaviors partially mediated the association between hyperactivity/impulsivity and peer problems and fully mediated the inattention-peer problems association. Conclusion: Findings show that prosocial behaviors and conduct problems are important variables that account for some of the negative impact of symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity on peer functioning. PMID:22422723

Andrade, Brendan F; Tannock, Rosemary

2012-03-14

113

Reconstruction of bandlimited signal with lost samples at its Nyquist rate-the solution to a nonuniform sampling problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a formula for the sample values f(nj\\/2W), j=1, ..., N, of a W-bandlimited finite energy signal f in terms of the remaining sample values f(n\\/2W), n?nj, j=1, ..., N, and N sample values f(yj), j=1, ..., N with yj?n\\/2W, n?Z but otherwise arbitrarily chosen

Changbai Xiao

1995-01-01

114

Psychometric Analyses of the Problem-Focused Style of Coping (PF-SOC) Scale with Taiwanese Samples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current research comprises two samples that investigated the psychometric properties of the Problem-Focused Style of Coping (PF-SOC; Heppner, Cook, Wright, & Johnson) scale using two Taiwanese samples. In Sample 1 (N = 809), we investigated the structural dimensions of the PF-SOC using a principal component analysis (PCA) and confirmed three…

Chang, Yuhsuan; Lan, Yu-Ling; Lin, Hung-Yu; Heppner, Puncky Paul

2012-01-01

115

The inverse problem in magnetic force microscopy--inferring sample magnetization from MFM images.  

PubMed

Nanomagnetic structures have the potential to surpass silicon's scaling limitations both as elements in hybrid CMOS logic and as novel computational elements. Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) offers a convenient characterization technique for use in the design of such nanomagnetic structures. MFM measures the magnetic field and not the sample's magnetization. As such the question of the uniqueness of the relationship between an external magnetic field and a magnetization distribution is a relevant one. To study this problem we present a simple algorithm which searches for magnetization distributions consistent with an external magnetic field and solutions to the micromagnetic equations' qualitative features. The algorithm is not computationally intensive and is found to be effective for our test cases. On the basis of our results we propose a systematic approach for interpreting MFM measurements. PMID:23843602

Rawlings, Colin; Durkan, Colm

2013-07-10

116

Free Boundary Problem Involving a Cusp: Breakthrough of Salt Water. Modelling, Analysis and Simulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper we study a two-phase free boundary problem describing the stationary flow of fresh and salt water in a porous medium, when both fluids are drawn into a well. For given discharges at the well (Qf for fresh water and Qs for salt water) we form...

H. W. Alt C. J. van Duijn

1998-01-01

117

Team Involvement in Assessment-Based Interventions with Problem Behavior: 1997-2002  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Descriptive and qualitative analyses were applied to a database of 111 assessment-based studies published between 1997 and 2002 on the problem behavior of school-age individuals with disabilities, to determine how frequently key components of positive behavior support (PBS) were being used. While most of the database reported reductions in…

Snell, Martha E.; Voorhees, Mary D.; Chen, Lih-Yuan

2005-01-01

118

The computation of spectral density functions for singular Sturm-Liouville problems involving simple continuous spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

The software package SLEDGE has as one of its options the estimation of spectral density functions p(t) for a wide class of singular Strurm-Liouville problems. In this article the underlaying theory and implementation issues are discussed. Several examples exhibiting quite varied asymptotic behavior in p are presented.

Charles T. Fulton; Steven Pruess

1998-01-01

119

Some Problems Involved in the Shared Cataloging Subsystem of the Ohio College Library Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report outlines the development of the Ohio College Library Center (OCLC) and considers some basic problems in OCLC shared cataloging--e.g., the uneven quality of input cataloging and increasing number of duplicate records. Summaries of findings from an OCLC evaluative study and two surveys of shared cataloging are presented. The report…

Sacco, Margaret T.

120

A Minimax Facility Layout Problem Involving Distances Within and Between Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents a simple solution procedure for the problem of laying out n facilities, where each facility takes up a planar region of known area but with shape not prespecified, so as to minimize the maximum of the following terms: the greatest of t...

R. L. Francis J. J. Bartholdi R. L. Papineau

1975-01-01

121

A Minimax Facility Layout Problem Involving Distances between and within Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents a simple solution procedure for the problem of laying out n facilities, where each facility takes up a planar region of known area but with shape not prespecified, so as to minimize the maximum of the following terms: the greatest of t...

R. L. Papineau R. L. Francis J. J. Bartholdi

1974-01-01

122

Some Problems Involved in the Shared Cataloging Subsystem of the Ohio College Library Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report outlines the development of the Ohio College Library Center (OCLC) and considers some basic problems in OCLC shared cataloging--e.g., the uneven quality of input cataloging and increasing number of duplicate records. Summaries of findings from an OCLC evaluative study and two surveys of shared cataloging are presented. The report…

Sacco, Margaret T.

123

Adolescent Predictors of Young Adult and Adult Alcohol Involvement and Dysphoria in a Prospective Community Sample of Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adolescent predictors of later alcohol involvement (AI), dysphoria (D), and their shared association (AD) among women have not been adequately established. Three waves of data from an ethnically diverse community sample of women, assessed over 16 years are used to study how various psychosocial factors in adolescence influenced later drinking, depression, and their shared association. Structural equation models revealed

Thomas F. Locke; Michael D. Newcomb

2004-01-01

124

Factor Analyses and Score Validity of the Family Emotional Involvement and Criticism Scale in an Adolescent Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The factor structure of the Family Emotional Involvement and Criticism Scale (FEICS) is tested in a sample of Irish adolescents. Participants were 661 adolescents with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD = 1.26). Interpretation of both the exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the FEICS show support for the two-factor structure of the FEICS…

Nelis, Sharon M.; Rae, Gordon; Liddell, Christine

2006-01-01

125

Sample Size\\/Power Calculations for Population Pharmacodynamic Experiments Involving Repeated-Count Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeated discrete outcome variables such as count measurements often arise in pharmacodynamic experiments. Count measurements can only take nonnegative integer values; this and correlation between repeated measurements from an individual make the design and analysis of repeated-count data special. Sample size\\/power calculation is an important part of clinical trial design to ensure adequate power for detecting significant effect, and it

Kayode Ogungbenro; Leon Aarons

2010-01-01

126

Relationships Among Involvement, Attachment, and Behavioral Problems in Adolescence: Examining Father's Influence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the nature of the parent-child relationship during early adolescence. Differences between the mother-adolescent and father-adolescent relationships and possible behavioral correlates of parental involvement and attachment are examined. A multimodal data collection procedure was used to gather information from adolescents (N =…

Williams, Susan K.; Kelly, F. Donald

2005-01-01

127

Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving maxwell's equations in isotropic media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maxwell's equations are replaced by a set of finite difference equations. It is shown that if one chooses the field points appropriately, the set of finite difference equations is applicable for a boundary condition involving perfectly conducting surfaces. An example is given of the scattering of an electromagnetic pulse by a perfectly conducting cylinder.

KANE S. YEE

1966-01-01

128

Sampling riverine sediments impacted by acid mine drainage: problems and solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sampling acid mine drainage (AMD) or natural acid rock drainage (ARD)-impacted sediments is complex, requiring appropriate\\u000a field sampling techniques to ensure representative samples that are both repeatable and reproducible. The important factors\\u000a affecting sampling of riverine sediments are examined. These include sample site location, field observations, representative\\u000a sampling, sample collection techniques, and sample preservation. A recommended sampling and processing protocol

C. Herr; N. F. Gray

1997-01-01

129

Special problems involved in liquid scintillation counting Standardization of 87Y and 67Ga  

Microsoft Academic Search

S>The problems caused by non-coincident gamma -radiation and internal ; conversion electrons in the standardization of the electron-capture nuclides \\/sup ; 87\\/Y and ⁶⁷Ga are discussed. Determination of the disintegration rate by 4 ; pi X- gamma coincidence counting with use of the liquid scintillation counter as ; 4 pi -detector is described. Impulses caused by internal-conversion electrons ; and

J. Steyn

1973-01-01

130

The Comparative Impacts of Risk and Protective Factors on Alcohol-Related Problems in a Sample of University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to examine the comparative influences of various protective and risk factors on the alcohol-related problems of a sample of university students. The conceptualization of these protective and risk factors in the current undertaking was informed by problem behavior theory, and draws heavily on two sociological theories…

Durkin, Keith F.; Blackston, Amber; Dowd, Sabrina; Franz, Shalleigh; Eagle, Trevor

2009-01-01

131

Eating Problems and Their Risk Factors: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study of a Population Sample of Norwegian Adolescent Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The longitudinal stability of eating problems and their relationships to risk factors were investigated in a representative population sample of 623 Norwegian girls aged 13-14 followed over 7 years (3 time points). Three eating problem symptoms were measured: Restriction, Bulimia-food preoccupation, and Diet, all taken from the 12-item Eating…

Kansi, Juliska; Wichstrom, Lars; Bergman, Lars R.

2005-01-01

132

The Comparative Impacts of Risk and Protective Factors on Alcohol-Related Problems in a Sample of University Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the comparative influences of various protective and risk factors on the alcohol-related problems of a sample of university students. The conceptualization of these protective and risk factors in the current undertaking was informed by problem behavior theory, and draws heavily on two sociological theories of deviant behavior (social learning theory and social

Keith F. Durkin; Amber Blackston; Sabrina Dowd; Shalleigh Franz; Trevor Eagle

2009-01-01

133

Eating Problems and Their Risk Factors: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study of a Population Sample of Norwegian Adolescent Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The longitudinal stability of eating problems and their relationships to risk factors were investigated in a representative population sample of 623 Norwegian girls aged 13-14 followed over 7 years (3 time points). Three eating problem symptoms were measured: Restriction, Bulimia-food preoccupation, and Diet, all taken from the 12-item Eating…

Kansi, Juliska; Wichstrom, Lars; Bergman, Lars R.

2005-01-01

134

Substance use behaviors, mental health problems, and use of mental health services in a probability sample of college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined 1) the prevalence of substance use behaviors in college students, 2) gender and academic level as moderators of the associations between mental health problems and substance use, and 3) mental health service use among those with co-occurring frequent binge drinking and mental health problems. As part of the Healthy Minds Study, a probability sample of 2843 college

James A. Cranford; Daniel Eisenberg; Alisha M. Serras

2009-01-01

135

Radial solutions for the Brezis–Nirenberg problem involving large nonlinearities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let us consider the problem(0.1){??u+a(|x|)u=upin B1,u>0in B1,u=0on ?B1, where B1 is the unit ball in RN, N?3, and a(|x|)?0 is a smooth radial function.Under some suitable assumptions on the regular part of the Green function of the operator ?u??N?1ru+a(r)u, we prove the existence of a radial solution to (0.1) for p large enough.

Massimo Grossi

2008-01-01

136

Longitudinal Associations of Alcohol Involvement with Subjective Well-Being in Adolescence and Prediction to Alcohol Problems in Early Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescent alcohol involvement is associated with numerous negative outcomes, but also appears to have positive correlates,\\u000a including subjective well-being. Additional research is needed to understand these paradoxical findings. The current study\\u000a examines alcohol use, adverse alcohol-related (and other substance-related) consequences, and subjective well being in adolescence,\\u000a and prediction to problem alcohol use in early adulthood. Participants in this longitudinal study,

W. Alex MasonRichard; Richard L. Spoth

137

The relationship between acculturation and problem behavior proneness in a Hispanic youth sample: a longitudinal mediation model.  

PubMed

This study, using secondary data analysis, examined prospectively a mediation model of the relationship between acculturation and problem behavior proneness among 330 Hispanic children and adolescents from an urban school district in the southwest region of the United States. Acculturation was predicted to have an indirect, but positive, relationship to problem behavior proneness through parental involvement and self-esteem. The results partially supported the model and indicated that parental involvement, but not self-esteem, played a significant mediational role in children's problem behavior proneness. The individual indicators of problem behavior proneness among Hispanic youth were significantly interrelated, which is consistent with problem behavior theory as conceptualized by R. Jessor (1984) and R. Jessor and S. L. Jessor (1977). Findings from this study provide implications for future research and intervention designs. PMID:12041714

Dinh, Khanh T; Roosa, Mark W; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Lopez, Vera A

2002-06-01

138

Study on Efficient solution of Multi-objective Nonlinear Programming problem Involving Semilocally Pseudolinear functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isermann (1978) established that every efficient solution of optimization problem is properly efficient if the objective functions are linear and feasible set is polyhedral. Choo (1984) proved this result when the objective functions are linear fractional and the feasible set is a compact polyhedron. Chew and Choo (1984) established that every efficient solution of optimization problem which satisfies the following boundedness condition is properly efficient if all the objective functions and constraint functions are pseudolinear. A feasible point ??? is said to satisfy the boundedness condition if the set {Pi(?*,?)Pj(?*,?):fi(?)fj(?*),1<=i,j<=?} is bounded above, where pi is a proportional function corresponding to fi,i = 1,2,3,.........?. Gulati and Islam (1990) have shown that the above result still holds if we take the objective functions to be pseudolinear, constraint functions to be quasiconvex and certain constraint qualification is satisfied. In this paper we show that every efficient solution that satisfies the above boundedness condition and generalized constraint qualification, is properly efficient if all the objective functions and constraint functions defined on a convex set are semilocally pseudolinear and their right differentials at that efficient solution are convex.

Bhatnagar, Paras

2010-10-01

139

Experiences of Racial Discrimination & Relation to Violence Perpetration and Gang Involvement among a sample of Urban African American Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine racial discrimination and its relation to violence involvement among a sample of urban African American men. Methods Participants of this cross-sectional study were African American men (N = 703) between the ages of 18 and 65 years, recruited from four urban community health centers and two hospital-based clinics\\u000a within an urban center in the Northeast. Multivariate logistic regression models were

Elizabeth Reed; J. G. Silverman; J. R. Ickovics; J. Gupta; S. L. Welles; M. C. Santana; A. Raj

2010-01-01

140

On Sample Size Determination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A frequent request made prior to sampling involves the determination of the appropriate sample size necessary to estimate population characteristics (for example, the arithmetic mean) within a specified accuracy. Although the problem can be simply stated,...

1964-01-01

141

A function space approach to sampled data control systems and tracking problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new framework for hybrid sampled data control systems. Instead of considering the state only at sampling instants, this paper introduces a function piece during the sampling period as the state and gives an infinite-dimensional model with such a state space. This gives the advantage that sampled data systems with built-in intersample behavior can be regarded as

Yutaka Yamamoto

1994-01-01

142

The Problem of Sample Contamination in a Fluvial Geochemistry Research Experience for Undergraduates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduces the analysis of a river as an excellent way to teach geochemical techniques because of the relative ease of sample collection and speed of sample analysis. Focuses on the potential sources of sample contamination during sampling, filtering, and bottle cleaning processes, and reviews methods to reduce and detect contamination. Includes…

Andersen, Charles B.

2001-01-01

143

Profiles of Systems Involvement in a Sample of High-Risk Urban Adolescents with Unmet Treatment Needs  

PubMed Central

This study examined profiles of involvement in four systems (education, child welfare, legal, and treatment) in a sample of 253 high-risk urban adolescents with unmet behavioral health needs. Self-report data were collected on multiple dimensions of involvement within each system, demographics, and DSM-IV diagnoses. Latent class analysis revealed four profiles: Education System: Academic and Disciplinary, Education System: Academic Only, Legal/Juvenile Justice Involved, and Multiple Systems/Child Welfare. Profiles differed based on gender and psychiatric diagnoses. Boys were overrepresented in Education System: Academic and Disciplinary and Legal/Juvenile Justice Involved, and girls were overrepresented in Multiple Systems/Child Welfare. The two education system focused classes were characterized by depressive disorders and ADHD. Youth in Legal/Juvenile Justice Involved and Multiple Systems/Child Welfare were characterized by conduct disorder and substance abuse. Implications for assessment and treatment planning for high-risk youth and for the organization of community-based behavioral health services are discussed.

Dauber, Sarah; Hogue, Aaron

2011-01-01

144

Eating Problems and Their Risk Factors: A 7Year Longitudinal Study of a Population Sample of Norwegian Adolescent Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The longitudinal stability of eating problems and their relationships to risk factors were investigated in a representative\\u000a population sample of 623 Norwegian girls aged 13–14 followed over 7 years (3 time points). Three eating problem symptoms were\\u000a measured: Restriction, Bulimia-food preoccupation, and Diet, all taken from the12-item Eating Attitudes Test. The aim of the\\u000a study was to investigate the stability

Juliska Kansi; Lars Wichstrøm; Lars R. Bergman

2005-01-01

145

Negative Peer Involvement in Multisystemic Therapy for the Treatment of Youth Problem Behavior: Exploring Outcome and Process Variables in "Real-World" Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Associating with a negative peer group is related to involvement in problem behavior, yet very little research has considered the role of negative peer group affiliations in the context of "real-world" community-based treatments for problem behavior. This study examined the effects of negative peer involvement on case closure status and treatment…

Boxer, Paul

2011-01-01

146

A HUPO test sample study reveals common problems in mass spectrometry–based proteomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed a test sample study to try to identify errors leading to irreproducibility, including incompleteness of peptide sampling, in liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry–based proteomics. We distributed an equimolar test sample, comprising 20 highly purified recombinant human proteins, to 27 laboratories. Each protein contained one or more unique tryptic peptides of 1,250 Da to test for ion selection and sampling in

Alexander W Bell; Eric W Deutsch; Catherine E Au; Robert E Kearney; Ron Beavis; Salvatore Sechi; Tommy Nilsson; Thomas A Beardslee; Thomas Chappell; Gavin Meredith; Peter Sheffield; Phillip Gray; Mahbod Hajivandi; Marshall Pope; Paul Predki; Majlinda Kullolli; Marina Hincapie; William S Hancock; Wei Jia; Lina Song; Lei Li; Junying Wei; Bing Yang; Jinglan Wang; Wantao Ying; Yangjun Zhang; Yun Cai; Xiaohong Qian; Fuchu He; Helmut E Meyer; Christian Stephan; Martin Eisenacher; Katrin Marcus; Elmar Langenfeld; Caroline May; Steven A Carr; Rushdy Ahmad; Wenhong Zhu; Jeffrey W Smith; Samir M Hanash; Jason J Struthers; Hong Wang; Qing Zhang; Yanming An; Radoslav Goldman; Elisabet Carlsohn; Sjoerd van der Post; Kenneth E Hung; David A Sarracino; Kenneth Parker; Bryan Krastins; Raju Kucherlapati; Sylvie Bourassa; Guy G Poirier; Eugene Kapp; Heather Patsiouras; Robert Moritz; Richard Simpson; Benoit Houle; Sylvie LaBoissiere; Pavel Metalnikov; Vivian Nguyen; Tony Pawson; Catherine C L Wong; Daniel Cociorva; John R Yates III; Michael J Ellison; Ana Lopez-Campistrous; Paul Semchuk; Yueju Wang; Peipei Ping; Giuliano Elia; Michael J Dunn; Kieran Wynne; Angela K Walker; John R Strahler; Philip C Andrews; Brian L Hood; William L Bigbee; Thomas P Conrads; Derek Smith; Christoph H Borchers; Gilles A Lajoie; Sean C Bendall; Kaye D Speicher; David W Speicher; Masanori Fujimoto; Kazuyuki Nakamura; Young-Ki Paik; Sang Yun Cho; Min-Seok Kwon; Hyoung-Joo Lee; Seul-Ki Jeong; An Sung Chung; Christine A Miller; Rudolf Grimm; Katy Williams; Craig Dorschel; Jayson A Falkner; Lennart Martens; Juan Antonio Vizcaíno; John J M Bergeron

2009-01-01

147

Brief Psychosocial Assessment of a Clinical Sample: An Evaluation of the Personal Problems Checklist for Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

In light of the requirements for managed health care organizations to use assessment instruments that are psychometrically sound, cost and time efficient, and theoretically useful, the present study examined the psychometric properties of one such potential instrument, the Personal Problems Checklist for Adults (PPCA). Designed to measure problems in 13 areas of everyday functioning, the PPCA along with the Brief

Ralph L. Piedmont; Martin F. Sherman; Lisa Barrickman

2000-01-01

148

Etiologies of Associations between Childhood Sleep and Behavioral Problems in a Large Twin Sample.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the etiologies of covariation of childhood sleep problems and other behavioral/emotional problems in young children. Method: The parents of more than 6,000 twin pairs provided information on their twins' anxiety, conduct, and hyperactivity at ages 3, 4, and 7 by completing the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire.…

Gregory, Alice M.; Eley, Thalia C.; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Plomin, Robert

2004-01-01

149

Etiologies of Associations between Childhood Sleep and Behavioral Problems in a Large Twin Sample.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To examine the etiologies of covariation of childhood sleep problems and other behavioral/emotional problems in young children. Method: The parents of more than 6,000 twin pairs provided information on their twins' anxiety, conduct, and hyperactivity at ages 3, 4, and 7 by completing the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire.…

Gregory, Alice M.; Eley, Thalia C.; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Plomin, Robert

2004-01-01

150

School change, academic progress, and behavior problems in a sample of foster youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of school change on academic progress and behavioral problems. While the effect of placement change on behavioral problems, and case outcome has received considerable attention in the literature; its close correlate school change has largely been ignored. This paper addresses that gap. Structured interviews were used to collect retrospective data on youth's educational experiences while

Melissa J. Sullivan; Loring Jones; Sally Mathiesen

2010-01-01

151

Caregiver unresolved loss and abuse and child behavior problems: intergenerational effects in a high-risk sample.  

PubMed

This study examines the intergenerational effects of caregivers' unresolved loss and abuse on children's behavior problems from middle childhood to early adolescence in an economically disadvantaged sample. One hundred twenty-four caregivers completed the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and a lifetime trauma interview during the age 13 wave of the study. Child behavior problems were assessed at four time points (ages 6, 8, 10, and 13) with teacher-reported Child Behavior Checklist total problem scales. The children of insecure caregivers with unresolved loss showed a consistent pattern of increased behavior problems from middle childhood to early adolescence. Caregivers' AAI status accounted for more variance in child behavior problems than did an alternative model of caregiver psychopathology (depression and dissociation). The results extend the literature on the effects of caregiver unresolved states of mind beyond infancy to older children and adolescents. PMID:19144229

Zajac, Kristyn; Kobak, Roger

2009-01-01

152

Testing Jessor's problem behavior theory and syndrome: a nationally representative comparative sample of Latino and African American adolescents.  

PubMed

Based on Jessor's problem behavior theory (PBT; R. Jessor, 1987, Problem-behavior theory, psychosocial development, and adolescent problem drinking, British Journal of Addiction, Vol. 82, pp. 331-342), the comparability of a second-order problem behavior model (SPBM) was investigated employing structural equation modeling (SEM) and latent mean differences in problem behavior engagement were examined among racial/ethnic adolescents. Within a span of nearly 25 years, this study represents the first nationally representative sample of Latino and African American adolescents utilized in testing Jessor's PBT and problem behavior syndrome (PBS). Using a sample of 5,831 Latino, African American, and European American adolescents drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a series of invariance tests evidenced support for Jessor's PBT and PBS. Latent mean difference test results evidenced significant differences in problem behaviors (e.g., academic failure [AF], aggression [AG], substance use [SU], and risky sexual activity[RSA]) across racial/ethnic adolescent groups, which could be explained partially by PBS. A discussion of findings, limitations, and recommendations for future research is presented. PMID:23647329

Mobley, Michael; Chun, Heejung

2013-04-01

153

Problem Drinking, Unemployment, and Intimate Partner Violence among a Sample of Construction Industry Workers and their Partners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to determine the contribution of male unemployment and each partner’s problem drinking to risk\\u000a for male-to-female partner violence (MFPV) and female-to-male partner violence (FMPV) among a sample of construction industry\\u000a workers and their spouses\\/partners. Participants in the sample (n = 848 couples) completed cross-sectional health behavior surveys. Multivariate logistic regression models of MFPV and

Carol B. Cunradi; Michael Todd; Michael Duke; Genevieve Ames

2009-01-01

154

The role of grandparents in preventing aggressive and other externalizing behavior problems in children from rural, methamphetamine-involved families  

PubMed Central

Preventive interventions are urgently needed for children from rural, methamphetamine-involved families, who are at risk for the development of aggressive and other externalizing behavioral problems. This mixed method study explored naturally occurring sources of protection and considers the implications for targeted interventions. Participants were 41 children aged six to 14 years from rural families involved with methamphetamine and the public child welfare system, their primary caregivers, and 19 parents recovering from methamphetamine addiction. When invited during semi-structured interviews to talk about their families, 48% of children spontaneously described socially and emotionally supportive relationships with healthy grandparents. Children’s reports of support from grandparents were associated with lower scores on CBCL Social Problems, [t(37)= 2.23, p<.05 ]; externalizing behaviors, [t(37)= 2.07, p<.05]; and aggressive behaviors, [t(37)= 2.75, p<.01]. When asked to talk about their families, 58% of parents spontaneously described the support their children received from grandparents, and 26% also described the support that they had received from their own grandparents. Children’s and parents’ descriptions of grandparent support suggest how grandparents may protect children from the development of aggressive and other externalizing behavior problems. First, grandparents may prevent obstacles to healthy development by providing their grandchildren with safe shelter and basic child care when parents are incapacitated from substance misuse. Second, they may promote their grandchildren’s positive social-emotional development through supportive relationships. Third, they may promote social competence through enjoyable leisure activities with healthy adults and non-delinquent peers. Understanding naturally occurring sources of protection for children can inform the development of interventions by identifying strengths on which to build, and suggesting culturally sensitive approaches when children are struggling.

Sheridan, Kathryn; Haight, Wendy L.; Cleeland, Leah

2011-01-01

155

Longitudinal associations of alcohol involvement with subjective well-being in adolescence and prediction to alcohol problems in early adulthood.  

PubMed

Adolescent alcohol involvement is associated with numerous negative outcomes, but also appears to have positive correlates, including subjective well-being. Additional research is needed to understand these paradoxical findings. The current study examines alcohol use, adverse alcohol-related (and other substance-related) consequences, and subjective well being in adolescence, and prediction to problem alcohol use in early adulthood. Participants in this longitudinal study, which extended from age 11 to age 21, were 208 rural teens (109 girls) and their families. Covariates included early substance use, early conduct problems, early depressed mood, gender, and parent educational attainment. Structural equation modeling showed that subjective well-being at age 16 positively predicted increased alcohol use at age 18. Alcohol use was not a significant predictor of subjective well-being; however, alcohol use at age 18 positively predicted alcohol problems at age 21, even while controlling for earlier adverse consequences and other predictors. Results help to further elucidate both the negative and positive correlates of underage drinking, and support the value of delaying alcohol initiation. PMID:21286934

Mason, W Alex; Spoth, Richard L

2011-02-01

156

Analysis of Korean High School Students' Decision-Making Processes in Solving a Problem Involving Biological Knowledge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the cognitive characteristics of students'' decision-making processes centered on phases, difficulties, and strategies are analysed in the personal dailylife context involving biological knowledge. The subjects were first year science and general high school students in Seoul, Korea; 6 female students and 7 male students. The students'' decision-making processes were analysed by think-aloud and participant observation methods. On the whole, the students'' decision-making processes progressed in following order: recognizing a problem, searching for alternatives, evaluating the alternatives, and decision. During the decision-making processes, the above phases were repeated by trial and error. Students preferred noncompensatory rules that did not allow trade offs among alternatives for decisions, rather than compensatory rules of selection. Students had a tendency to have difficulties in analysing the difference between initial state and desirable state of the problem, organising biological knowledge-related problems, and clarifying values as selective criteria. Even students who had high achievement and more positive science-related attitudes did not apply biological knowledge to search for alternatives, and could not utilise scientific values as selective criteria very well. We discuss the implications of these results for teaching of decision-making in respect to scientific literacy.

Hong, Jung-Lim; Chang, Nam-Kee

2004-02-01

157

Relationships Between Learning Difficulties and Psychological Problems in Preadolescent Children From a Longitudinal Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo examine the relationships between learning difficulties and behavior problems in preadolescent children both concurrently and longitudinally, using data from the Australian Temperament Project, and to examine associations between DSM-diagnosed disorders and types of learning difficulties.

MARGOT PRIOR; DIANA SMART; ANN SANSON; FRANK OBERKLAID

1999-01-01

158

Nonmedical use of prescription drugs among a longitudinal sample of dependent and problem drinkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIncreasing trends in the nonmedical use of prescription drugs (NMPD) have been documented, yet little is known about the demographic, severity, and social network influences related to NMPD among treated and untreated problem and dependent drinkers.

Helen Matzger; Constance Weisner

2007-01-01

159

Efficient solution of boundary-value problems for image reconstruction via sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-invasive imaging based on wave scattering remains a difficult problem in those cases where the forward map can only be adequately simulated by solving the appropriate partial-differential equation (PDE) subject to boundary condi- tions. We develop a method for solving these linear boundary-value problems (BVP) which is efficient and exact, trading off storage requirements against computation time. The method is

Colin Fox; Geoff Nicholls; Mathias Palm

2000-01-01

160

Asymptotic Distribution of the Log Likelihood Ratio Based on Ranks in the Two-Sample Problem-II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The asymptotic normality under the alternative of the log likelihood ratio based on ranks in the two sample problem is established. This is a continuation of previous work with the same title by Savage and Sethuraman in the Proc. 6th Berkeley Symposium (1...

D. H. Jones J. Sethuraman

1972-01-01

161

Adolescent Psychological Health Problems and Delinquency among Volatile Substance Users in a School Sample in South London  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study assessed prevalence of volatile substance abuse (VSA), and its link to other forms of psychoactive substance use and to other problem behaviours among 14-15 year olds recruited from sixteen secondary schools in south-west London. Lifetime use of volatile substances was reported by 126 young people (6% of the sample) whose mean age of…

Best, David; Manning, Victoria; Gossop, Michael; Witton, John; Floyd, Karen; Rawaf, Salman; Strang, John

2004-01-01

162

Application of the Tripartite Model to a Complicated Sample of Residential Youth with Externalizing Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The tripartite model of anxiety and depression has received strong support among child and adolescent populations. Clinical samples of children and adolescents in these studies, however, have usually been referred for treatment of anxiety and depression. This study investigated the fit of the tripartite model with a complicated sample of…

Chin, Eu Gene; Ebesutani, Chad; Young, John

2013-01-01

163

CORRECTING PM10 OVER-SAMPLING PROBLEMS FOR AGRICULTURAL PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS: PRELIMINARY STUDY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The FRM ambient PM10 sampler does not always measure the true PM10 concentration. There are inherent sampling errors associated with the PM10 samplers due to the interaction of particle size distribution and sampler performance characteristics. These sampling errors, which are the relative differenc...

164

On solving the face recognition problem with one training sample per subject  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lack of adequate training samples and the considerable variations observed in the available image collections due to aging, illumination and pose variations are the two key technical barriers that appearance-based face recognition solutions have to overcome. It is a well- documented fact that their performance deteriorates rapidly when the number of training samples is smaller than the dimensionality of

Jie Wang; Kostas N. Plataniotis; Juwei Lu; Anastasios N. Venetsanopoulos

2006-01-01

165

[Technical problems in the preparation of biopsy samples of the spleen].  

PubMed

Spleen tissue sampling for bioptical examination should be performed after mutual consultation of clinician and pathologist. Clinician should know what is expected from the pathologist. This can influence preparation and sampling method considerably. In a great amount of cases the whole organ is removed. A lab technician is sampling on her own and her contribution to a good result can be either positive or negative. Imprint preparations from the tissue sections can be useful. Specialized examination should be performed in the presence of a pathologist or his co-workers. The active approach of a lab technician can significantly contribute to the value of examined sample of the spleen, of the organ until recently considered to be not important or full of mysteries. PMID:9560894

Jakubovská, V; Porubský, J; Trnka, J; Durdík, S; Zajícková, M; Kollárová, E; Balázová, K

1996-02-01

166

The problem of large samples: An activation analysis study of electronic waste material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-volume instrumental photon activation analysis (IPAA) was used for the investigation of shredded electronic waste material.\\u000a Sample masses from 1 to 150 grams were analyzed to obtain an estimate of the minimum sample size to be taken to achieve a\\u000a representativeness of the results which is satisfactory for a defined investigation task. Furthermore, the influence of irradiation\\u000a and measurement parameters

C. Segebade; P. Bode; W. Goerner

2007-01-01

167

Prevalence and Correlates of Gambling Problems Among a Nationally Representative Sample of Brazilian Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the study are: (a) to provide the first prevalence estimates of pathological gambling among Brazilian adolescents\\u000a using an age-specific instrument in a nationally representative sample; (b) to investigate the extent to which adolescents\\u000a participate in gambling activities in a developing country; and (c) to correlate different levels of gambling behavior with\\u000a demographic variables. Multistage cluster sampling selected

Daniel Tornaim Spritzer; Luis Augusto Rohde; Daniela Bumaguin Benzano; Ronaldo Ramos Laranjeira; Ilana Pinsky; Marcos Zaleski; Raul Caetano; Hermano Tavares

168

Variants of Callous-Unemotional Conduct Problems in a Community Sample of Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Callous-unemotional traits are believed to be a childhood precursor to psychopathy, and among youth with conduct problems they designate those showing a particularly severe, stable, and aggressive pattern of antisocial behavior. Youth with callous-unemotional traits are a heterogeneous population and, analogous to adults with psychopathy,…

Fanti, Kostas A.; Demetriou, Chara A.; Kimonis, Eva R.

2013-01-01

169

Interparental Conflict Styles and Youth Problem Behaviors: A Two-Sample Replication Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The association between interparental conflict and problem behaviors (internalized vs. externalized) of children is examined. Youth perceptions of three interparental conflict variables are studied: parents' frequency of disagreement, parents' use of an overt conflict style, and parents' covert conflict style. Individual and socioeconomic…

Buehler, Cheryl; Krishnakumar, Ambika; Stone, Gaye; Anthony, Christine; Pemberton, Sharon; Gerard, Jean; Barber, Brian K.

1998-01-01

170

Deductive method with Sample Problems on Computational Object Knowledge Base and construct to intelligent educational softwares  

Microsoft Academic Search

In computer science and information technology, ontology has been researched and developed in application for knowledge representation. Ontology COKB-ONT (Computational Object Knowledge Base) is an ontology was researched and applied in designing knowledge base systems, such as domain of knowledge about analytic geometry, linear algebra. However, when dealing with a practical problem, we often do not immediately find a new

Hien D. Nguyen

2010-01-01

171

Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…

Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

2010-01-01

172

Counting without sampling: new algorithms for enumeration problems using statistical physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new type of approximate counting algorithms for the problems of enumerating the number of independent sets and proper colorings in low degree graphs with large girth. Our algorithms are not based on a commonly used Markov chain technique, but rather are inspired by developments in statistical physics in connection with correlation decay properties of Gibbs measures and

Antar Bandyopadhyay; David Gamarnik

2006-01-01

173

EVOLUTIONARY MONTE CARLO: APPLICATIONS TO Cp MODEL SAMPLING AND CHANGE POINT PROBLEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by the success of genetic algorithms and simulated annealing in hard optimization problems, the authors propose a new Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm called an evolutionary Monte Carlo algorithm. This algorithm has incorporated several attractive features of genetic algorithms and simulated annealing into the framework of MCMC. It works by simulating a pop- ulation of Markov chains in

Faming Liang; Wing Hung Wong

2000-01-01

174

Dictums for problem solving and approximation in mathematical acoustics: examples involving low-frequency vibration and radiation.  

PubMed

A sequence of dictums for mathematical acoustics is given representing opinions intended to be regarded as authoritative, but not necessarily universally agreed upon. The dictums are presented in the context of the detailed solution for a class of problems involving the forced vibration of a long cylinder protruding half-way into a half-space bounded by a compliant surface (impedance boundary) characterized by a spring constant. One limiting case corresponds to a cylinder vibrating within an infinite rigid baffle, and another limiting case corresponds to a vibrating cylinder on the compliant surface of an incompressible fluid. The second limiting case is identified as analogous to that of a floating half-submerged cylinder whose vibrations cause water waves to propagate over the surface. Attention is focused on vibrations at very low frequencies. Difficulties with insuring a causal solution are pointed out and dictums are given as to how one overcomes such difficulties. Various approximation techniques are described. The derivations involve application of the theory of complex variables and the method of matched asymptotic expansions, and the results include the apparent entrained mass in the near field of the cylinder and the radiation resistance per unit length experienced by the vibrating cylinder. PMID:22423784

Pierce, Allan D; Thiam, Amadou G

2012-03-01

175

Problems found using a radon stripping algorithm for retrospective assessment of air filter samples.  

PubMed

An evaluation of a large number of air sample filters was undertaken using a commercial alpha and beta spectroscopy system employing a passive implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detector. Samples were only measured after air flow through the filters had ceased. Use of a commercial radon stripping algorithm was implemented to discriminate anthropogenic alpha activity on the filters from the radon progeny. When uncontaminated air filters were evaluated, the results showed that there was a time-dependent bias in both average estimates and measurement dispersion of anthropogenic activity estimates with the relative bias being small compared to the dispersion, indicating that the system would not give false positive indications for an appropriately set decision level. By also measuring environmental air sample filters simultaneously with electroplated alpha sources, use of the radon stripping algorithm demonstrated a number of substantial unexpected deviations from calibrated values indicating that the system would give false negative indications. Use of the current algorithm is, therefore, not recommended for general assay applications. Use of the PIPS detector should only be utilized for gross counting without appropriate modifications to the curve-fitting algorithm. As a screening method, the radon stripping algorithm might be expected to see elevated alpha activities from pure Pu on air sample filters (not due to radon progeny) around the 200 disintegrations per minute level. PMID:18332729

Hayes, Robert B

2008-04-01

176

PISA 2000: Sample Weight Problems in Austria. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 5  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As noted in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD's) "PISA 2000 Technical Report" (OECD, 2002), the Austrian sample for the PISA 2000 assessment did not adequately cover students enrolled in combined school and work-based vocational programmes as required by the OECD's technical standards for PISA. The purpose of this…

Neuwirth, Erich

2006-01-01

177

Problems Found Using a Radon Stripping Algorithm for Retrospective Assessment of Air Filter Samples  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation of a large number of air sample filters was undertaken using a commercial alpha and beta spectroscopy system employing a passive implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detector. Samples were only measured after air flow through the filters had ceased. Use of a commercial radon stripping algorithm was implemented to discriminate anthropogenic alpha activity on the filters from the radon progeny. When uncontaminated air filters were evaluated, the results showed that there was a time-dependent bias in both average estimates and measurement dispersion of anthropogenic activity estimates with the relative bias being small compared to the dispersion, indicating that the system would not give false positive indications for an appropriately set decision level. By also measuring environmental air sample filters simultaneously with electroplated alpha filters, use of the radon stripping algorithm demonstrated a number of substantial unexpected deviations from calibrated values indicating that the system would give false negative indications. Use of the current algorithm is, therefore, not recommended for general assay applications. Use of the PIPS detector should only be utilized for gross counting without appropriate modifications to the curve-fitting algorithm. As a screening method, the radon stripping algorithm might be expected to see elevated alpha activities on air sample filters (not due to radon progeny) around the 200 disintegrations per minute level.

Robert Hayes

2008-04-01

178

Assay of Small Samples of Low-Fired Plutonium Dioxide: Problem and a Simple Solution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Low-fired plutonium dioxide is hygroscopic and adsorbs carbon dioxide. This can cause gross changes in weight during sampling and shipment and bias the analytical result. The proposed procedure is based on accurately pre-weighing small subsamples at the t...

E. Kuhn S. Deron H. Aigner

1981-01-01

179

Robustness of Inference for One-sample Problem with Correlated Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inference about the population mean based on the standard t-test involves the assumption of normal population as well as independence of the observations. In this paper we examine the robustness of the inference in the presence of correlations among the observations. We consider the simplest correlation structure AR(1) and its impact on the t-test. A modification of the t-test

Perla Subbaiah; George Xia

2007-01-01

180

Family physicians' involvement and self-reported comfort and skill in care of children with behavioral and emotional problems: a population-based survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Little is known about general and family practitioners' (GP\\/FPs') involvement and confidence in dealing with children with common psychosocial problems and mental health conditions. The aims of this study were to ascertain GP\\/FPs' preferred level of involvement with, and perceived comfort and skill in dealing with children with behavioral problems, social-emotional difficulties, attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and mood disorders; and

Anton R Miller; Charlotte Johnston; Anne F Klassen; Stuart Fine; Michael Papsdorf

2005-01-01

181

Calculation of sample problems related to two-phase flow blowdown transients in pressure relief piping of a PWR pressurizer  

SciTech Connect

A method was published, based on the integral method of characteristics, by which the junction and boundary conditions needed in computation of a flow in a piping network can be accurately formulated. The method for the junction and boundary conditions formulation together with the two-step Lax-Wendroff scheme are used in a computer program; the program in turn, is used here in calculating sample problems related to the blowdown transient of a two-phase flow in the piping network downstream of a PWR pressurizer. Independent, nearly exact analytical solutions also are obtained for the sample problems. Comparison of the results obtained by the hybrid numerical technique with the analytical solutions showed generally good agreement. The good numerical accuracy shown by the results of our scheme suggest that the hybrid numerical technique is suitable for both benchmark and design calculations of PWR pressurizer blowdown transients.

Shin, Y.W.; Wiedermann, A.H.

1984-02-01

182

Robust two-time-level control strategy for sampled-data servomechanism problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-level control strategy consisting of a fast first-level analogue controller for ensuring rapid reduction of tracking error under process disturbance without unacceptable overshoot and a slow second-level digital-analogue robust servo-mechanism controller to ensure asymptotic tracking with disturbance rejection is proposed. Thanks to the inclusion of samplers with an adequately chosen sampling period, the second-level controller comes into action essentially

R. DORAISWAMI; F. BORDRY

1987-01-01

183

Non-Erotic Thoughts, Attentional Focus, and Sexual Problems in a Community Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to Barlow’s model of sexual dysfunction, anxiety in sexual situations leads to attentional focus on sexual performance\\u000a at the expense of erotic cues, which compromises sexual arousal. This negative experience will enhance anxiety in future sexual\\u000a situations, and non-erotic thoughts (NETs) relevant to performance will receive attentional priority. Previous research with\\u000a student samples (Purdon & Holdaway, 2006; Purdon &

Andrea L. Nelson; Christine Purdon

2011-01-01

184

The relationship between cognitive emotion regulation strategies and emotional problems: comparison between a clinical and a non-clinical sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on the relationship between the use of specific cognitive emotion regulation strategies and emotional problems. Two samples were included: 99 adults from a clinical population and 99 matched non-clinical adults. Data was obtained in both groups on the use of nine cognitive emotion regulation strategies: self-blame, other-blame, rumination, catastrophizing, putting into perspective, positive refocusing, positive reappraisal, acceptance,

Nadia Garnefski; Tessa Van Den Kommer; Vivian Kraaij; Jan Teerds; Jeroen Legerstee; Evert Onstein

2002-01-01

185

A latent class analysis of underage problem drinking: Evidence from a community sample of 16–20 year olds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to shed light on the nature of underage problem drinking by using an empirically based method to characterize the variation in patterns of drinking in a community sample of underage drinkers. A total of 4056 16–20-year-old current drinkers from 212 communities in the US were surveyed by telephone as part of the National Evaluation

Beth A. Reboussin; Eun-Young Song; Anshu Shrestha; Kurt K. Lohman; Mark Wolfson

2006-01-01

186

Ten-Year Comparisons of Problems and Competencies for National Samples of YouthSelf, Parent, and Teacher Reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Youth Self-Report (YSR;Achenbach, 1995),Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL;Achenbach,2001),and Teacher's Report Form (TRF; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001) were used to compare U.S. national samples of 11- to 18-year-olds assessed in 1989 and 1999. Reports by all informants concurred in showing small improvements in competencies and adaptive functioning and small declines in problems from 1989 to 1999. Correlations of .98 to .99

Thomas M. Achenbach; Levent Dumenci; Leslie A. Rescorla

2002-01-01

187

Clinically Significant Trauma Symptoms and Behavioral Problems in a Community-based Sample of Children Exposed to Domestic Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the associations of characteristics of domestic violence incidents with clinically significant levels\\u000a of traumatic symptoms and behavioral problems in a socio-economically and ethnically mixed sample of 687 children participating\\u000a in a community-service program for children witnessing violence. Study predictors included child\\/family demographic characteristics,\\u000a type and chronicity of exposure, and child’s perceptions of control over the event and

James C. Spilsbury; Lara Belliston; Dennis Drotar; Allyson Drinkard; Jeff Kretschmar; Rosemary Creeden; Daniel J. Flannery; Steve Friedman

2007-01-01

188

ADHD symptoms and peer relations of children in a community sample: Examining associated problems, self-perceptions, and gender differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined children's peer relations in relation to gender, symptoms of attention-deficit\\/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), associated behaviour problems, prosociality, and self-perceptions, in a community sample. Six hundred and thirty-five 12-year-old children (314 girls) provided peer nominations and rated feelings of loneliness and self-perceptions regarding global self-worth and behavioural conduct. We obtained teacher ratings of ADHD symptoms, conduct and internalising

Sofia Diamantopoulou; Lisbeth Henricsson; Ann-Margret Rydell

2005-01-01

189

Sex differences in childhood sexual abuse characteristics and victims' emotional and behavioral problems: Findings from a national sample of youth  

PubMed Central

Objective The first objective of this study was to test for sex differences in four childhood sexual abuse characteristics---penetration, substantiation, perpetrator familial status, and multi-maltreatment---in a national sample of youth. The second objective was to test for sex differences in how these abuse characteristics were associated with victims’ emotional and behavioral problems. Methods The sample was drawn from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a sample of children investigated by United States child welfare services. Youth in the current study (n = 573, including 234 adolescents) were investigated for alleged sexual abuse. Logistic regression and multivariate analysis of covariance were used to test for sex differences in abuse characteristics, and to determine whether sex moderated associations between abuse characteristics and emotional and behavioral problems. Results Girls were more likely than boys to have their abuse substantiated and to experience penetrative abuse (although differences in penetration status did not emerge among adolescents). Substantiation status and child age were positively associated with caregiver-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Sex did not moderate the relationship between abuse characteristics and youth emotional and behavioral problems. Conclusions Sexual abuse characteristics might not be highly predictive factors when making decisions about services needs. Furthermore, there may not be a strong empirical basis for operating on the assumption that one sex is more vulnerable to negative consequences of abuse than the other, or that abuse affects girls and boys differently. The processes explaining why some victims exhibit more impairment than others are likely complex.

Jaffee, Sara R.

2010-01-01

190

[Determinants of recovery from alcohol problems in treated and untreated individuals in a Spanish sample].  

PubMed

This study compared the recovery process of two groups of alcohol abusers in Spain, one that had recovered with treatment and one that had recovered without treatment. Using advertisements and other recruitment strategies, 32 Spanish participants (16 treatment-seekers and 16 self-changers) were recruited, all of whom had had problems with alcohol consumption and had recovered 1 year or more previously. Participants were interviewed on a single occasion about their alcohol use history and recovery. Results showed that the two groups differed significantly in variables such as degree of dependence, type of recovery, and coping strategies used in the maintenance of recovery. As in previous research, pressure and support from the person's family and social circle played an important role in recovery and maintenance, especially for the treatment-seekers. These results are highly similar to those found in studies with English-speaking populations. PMID:18299781

Carballo, José Luis; Fernández-Hermida, José Ramón; Secades-Villa, Roberto; García-Rodríguez, Olaya

2008-01-01

191

Doctor, can you spare some time? The role of workload in general practitioners' involvement in patients' mental health problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

GPs have an important position in the identification of patients’ mental health problems. As generalists, GPs are often the first health professionals contacted by patients with mental health problems and they are assigned to provide integrated care for both patients’ somatic and psychological problems. Early recognition and diagnosis of patients’ mental health problems are important because it may avoid the

E. M. Zangtinge

2008-01-01

192

The duration of acute health problems in people involved with the cleanup operation of the Hebei Spirit oil spill.  

PubMed

The authors investigated the duration of health problems of people involved with cleanup efforts for the Hebei Spirit oil spill, which occurred in December 2007 in Taean County, South Korea. The study identified risk factors correlated with the continuation of symptoms. Approximately one year after the accident, 442 people who had participated in the cleanup operation were examined. Data regarding demographic information, risk factors, and the continuation and duration of any symptoms were obtained. Eye symptoms (9.7 months), headaches (8.4 months), skin symptoms (8.3 months), and neurovestibular symptoms (6.9 months) had a relatively longer duration than did back pain (1.8 months) or respiratory symptoms (2.1 months). In particular, the remission of headaches had a negative correlation with female gender (HR 0.57, 0.34-0.95, 95% CI), and remission of eye symptoms had a negative correlation with the total hours of daily participation in the cleanup operation (HR 0.24, 0.06-0.95, 95% CI). PMID:22491025

Na, Ji Ung; Sim, Min Seob; Jo, Ik Joon; Song, Hyoung Gon

2012-04-09

193

[Water matrices samples: pre-concentration problems and methodologies for ecotoxicological assessment of fresh waters].  

PubMed

Biological monitoring and ecotoxicological investigation are research methods for water quality assessment included in the Italian regulation in force (DL.vo 152/99). Biological monitoring must be applied in every case while ecotoxicological investigation is not mandatory. While extended biotic index application methodologies are standardized, pre-concentration sample procedures applied for ecotoxicological investigation are not, because they are applied as research only. Pre-concentration for organic micro-pollutants can be carried out both by means of organic solvents and through SPE (solid phase extraction), being the latter more advantageous than the former. In any case, an intercalibration exercise should be undertaken to assess the applicability of the proposed procedure to all the national territory. PMID:16552130

Galassi, Silvana

2005-01-01

194

Attention Problems Mediate the Association between Severity of Physical Abuse and Aggressive Behavior in a Sample of Maltreated Early Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Empirical evidence has accumulated documenting an association between childhood physical abuse and aggressive behavior. Relatively fewer studies have explored possible mediating mechanisms that may explain this association. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether caregiver- and youth-reported attention problems mediate the association between physical abuse severity and aggressive behavior. A sample of 240 maltreated early adolescents (ages 9–11) and their caregivers were interviewed within 14 months of being removed from the home. Results from multiple regression analyses indicated that caregiver- and youth-reported attention problems were partial mediators of the association between physical abuse severity and aggressive behavior. These associations were significant even after controlling for children's intellectual functioning, sex, age, and severity of other maltreatment types. Possible explanations for the detrimental impact of physical abuse on behavior are discussed, along with the implications of the current study's results for interventions aimed at reducing early adolescent aggressive behavior.

Garrido, Edward F.; Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.; Raviv, Tali

2010-01-01

195

Confirming the factor structure of the alcohol and alcohol problems questionnaire (AAPPQ) in a sample of baccalaureate nursing students.  

PubMed

The Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaire (AAPPQ) is a multi-dimensional measure of clinicians' attitudes toward working with patients with alcohol problems. In the past 35 years, five- and six-subscale versions and a short version of the AAPPQ have been published. While the reliability of the AAPPQ subscales has remained acceptable, the factor structure has not been verified using confirmatory techniques. In the current study, we split a sample of 299 baccalaureate nursing students to use exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). When compared to the original six-factor solution and an imposed six-factor structure in CFA, the EFA seven-factor solution with three original items (19, 20, and 25) removed had the best model fit. PMID:23633092

Terhorst, Lauren; Gotham, Heather J; Puskar, Kathryn R; Mitchell, Ann M; Talcott, Kimberly S; Braxter, Betty; Hagle, Holly; Fioravanti, Marie; Woomer, Gail R

2013-04-30

196

Fast sample preparation involving MASE and coupled column normal phase liquid chromatography for the rapid trace analysis of dioxins in air-dust samples from fire catastrophe emissions.  

PubMed

A new approach has been developed and tested for the urgent analysis of dioxins in samples of air-dust filters originating from catastrophe emissions. The procedure consists of a fast extraction of the sample with microwave solvent extraction (MASE) and acetone as solvent followed by a fast cleanup of the extract with normal phase coupled column liquid chromatography (LC/LC). The multi-dimensional LC/LC system employs a 50 mm x4.6 mm i.d. column packed with 3mum silica and a 150 mm x4.6 mm i.d. column packed with 5mum PYE as the first and second analytical column, respectively. Iso-hexane is used on both columns to perform cleanup and dichloromethane to perform efficient back-flush elution of the compounds from the second column. The obtained polarity-based separation in the first dimension and molecular-structure based separation in the second dimension provides a fast and powerful cleanup. Validation was done by analysing samples of homemade RIVM air-dust with aged residues (n=8, spiking level about 15pgmg(-1) per compound) of dioxins/furans and samples of reference Urban Dust SRM 1649a (n=4) with both the new approach and the existing conventional procedure and were instrumentally analyzed with capillary gas chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometric detection (GC/HRMS). In comparison to the existing conventional procedure, the new approach reduces sample processing from several days to several hours per sample. As regards the aged-residue air-dust samples, the new method shows a good accuracy, precision and high selectivity providing a performance in good agreement with the existing procedure. In SRM air-dust, the concentration of a few compounds obtained by the new method was below (10-50%) the certified value. PMID:18969547

van Beuzekom, A C; Hijman, W C; Berkhoff, C J; Stoffelsen, B H G; den Boer, A C; Groenemeijer, G S; Mooibroek, D; Hoogerbrugge, R; Broekman, M H; Baumann, R A; Hogendoorn, E A

2004-08-01

197

Cognitive Analysis of U.S. and Chinese Students' Mathematical Performance on Tasks Involving Computation, Simple Problem Solving, and Complex Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is 7th in the Journal for Research in Mathematics Education monograph series. The mathematical performance of (n=250) U.S. 6th-grade students from both private and public schools and (n=425) Chinese 6th-graders from both key and common schools was examined on multiple-choice tasks assessing computation and simple problem solving, and…

Cai, Jinfa

1995-01-01

198

Parents with Mental Illness: Decision?making in Australian Children's Court Cases Involving Parents with Mental Health Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental illness is listed as a child protection concern for a number of families reported to child protection agencies in Australia. Parents with mental health problems are more vulnerable, as are their children, to having parenting and child welfare concerns. Studies undertaken in the Melbourne Children's Court (Victoria) have found that the children of parents with mental health problems comprise

Rosemary Sheehan; Greg Levine

2005-01-01

199

Enhance low-achieving students' learning involvement in Taiwan's higher education: an approach via e-learning with problem-based learning and self-regulated learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the effects of web-enabled pedagogies on students' involvement in learning. A series of quasi-experiments were conducted to investigate whether students' involvement increases over time if intervened, respectively, by problem-based learning (PBL), self-regulated learning (SRL), and their combinations. Two classes of 102 first-year students at a vocational school in a one-semester course were chosen for this empirical study.

Tsang-Hsiung Lee; Pei-Di Shen; Chia-Wen Tsai

2010-01-01

200

Deliberate self-harm and alcohol involvement in college-aged females: A controlled comparison in a nonclinical sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals who engage in deliberate self-harm (DSH) report using other problematic coping mecha- nisms. One potential problematic coping mechanism is alcohol consumption. Research on alcohol involvement and deliberate self-harm is conflicting. This study compared individuals who have engaged in deliberate self-harm to controls on a range of alcohol measures. Five hundred females completed questionnaires assessing deliberate self-harm and alcohol involvement.

Richard L. Ogle; Caroline M. Clements

2008-01-01

201

Looking back into one magazine's online presence raises questions about the problems involved with creating web archives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Survey Finds That Libraries Are Interested in Collaborating on Online Projects, but Don't Do It Yethttp://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2012/07/survey-finds-that-libraries-are-interested-in-collaborating-on-online-projects-but-dont-do-it-yet/259486/Neatline helps Map New World of Digital Humanities Scholarshiphttp://www.virginia.edu/uvatoday/newsRelease.php?id=19012Neatlinehttp://neatline.org/Internet Archivehttp://archive.org/index.phpInternet Memory Foundationhttp://internetmemory.org/en/Many people might wonder: "Who is keeping track of old webpages?" It is a question that fascinates many information science specialists, policy types, and those with a penchant for the history of technology. Recently the "Babbage" column in The Economist took a look around to explore the history of that august publication's own webpages. As it turns out, their first website went live in early 1994, and it cost a mere $120. The piece goes on to note that no screen shots actually exist of the world's first web page, which went online on August 6, 1991. Of course, there are many worthy projects that serve to document the early days of the Internet, such as the well-known and rather fun Wayback Machine. It was founded by Brewster Kahle, and it allows users to view the library's archived webpages as they appeared when first published online. On a related note, a recent post on The Atlantic's homepage remarked that while 96% of all libraries surveyed by the Library of Congress wanted to be involved in various web archiving projects, only 23% were actually doing it. Many organizations have some type of archiving project for formal documents, but they lag behind when it comes to archiving social media activities, such as Twitter or Facebook posts. The first link will take visitors to the very fine piece from The Economist which peers into that magazine's early online presence. The second link leads to the aforementioned piece by Robinson Meyer from The Atlantic which reports on collaborations between libraries. Moving on, the third link leads to a story from the University of Virginia about the new Neatline project, which allows interested parties to "merge maps, timelines, archives, and artifacts to create online narratives" for free. The fourth link will take users to the homepage of Neatline. Here they can view sample projects and download the software for their own use. The fifth link will whisk visitors to the homepage of the most remarkable Internet Archive, which contains digitized medieval manuscripts, Grateful Dead shows, and curious industrial films. The final link leads to the homepage of the Internet Memory Foundation, which "actively supports the preservation of the Internet as a new media for heritage and cultural purpose."

Grinnell, Max

2012-07-13

202

A Systematic Approach to Occupational Safety and Health Problems of Police and Law Enforcement Officers Involved in Crisis Negotiations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the problem of doing research and investigation in the field of police crisis negotiation lies in the use of anecdotal reporting because of the difficulties in the lack of scientific definitions. This paper introduces the scientific definition of the term police officer into the research literature which is encompassed in crisis negotiations. Until now, the lack of such

Ephraim Howard

2002-01-01

203

Processes involved in sweeping under inhomogeneous electric field conditions as sample enrichment procedure in micellar electrokinetic chromatography.  

PubMed

Sweeping under inhomogeneous electric field conditions has been described as a process that includes stacking or destacking of the micelles when entering the sample zone, sweeping of analytes by the stacked or destacked micelles, and destacking or stacking of the swept analyte zone. However, there is ongoing debate that not only the retention factor of the analyte but also the electric conductivity of the sample solution or the concentration of an added salt can have an impact on the enrichment efficiency. Revisiting the equations describing sweeping, a factor ? (phase ratio shift factor) is defined to quantitatively describe the change of the retention factor between the sample and separation zones. The influence of the sample matrix composition on the experimentally obtained sweeping efficiency is studied with SDS as pseudostationary phase taking parabens, benzamide and anilines as model analytes. To this end, a robust and reliable method for the assessment of the sweeping efficiency is developed. The values obtained via this method are very precise and agree well with theoretically predicted ones. The results obtained for varied buffer concentration and varied concentration of NaCl in the sample solution show that under the conditions of our experimental study, the approximation of assuming ? to be equal to the reciprocal value of the field strength enhancement factor ? is valid. Accordingly, the sweeping efficiency for neutral analytes is independent of the electric conductivity of the sample matrix. It is also shown that under specific conditions unexpectedly high enrichment factors are obtained which are ascribed to the focusing of neutral analytes by micellar transient isotachophoresis (mtITP). The results obtained in this study can be used as a guide for better understanding of the sweeping process and the factors affecting the sweeping efficiency in micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). PMID:23062880

El-Awady, Mohamed; Huhn, Carolin; Pyell, Ute

2012-09-23

204

Subjective Experiences in Activity Involvement and Perceptions of Growth in a Sample of First-Year Female University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We examined subjective experiences in activities and perceptions of growth in a sample of first-year female university students (N = 196; age range = 17 to 19 years old, M = 18.48, SD = 0.53; the most common ethnic affiliations were British Isles, 51% of respondents, Canadian, 34%, French, 14%, and German, 8%). Students described 4 activities,…

Busseri, Michael A.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda

2008-01-01

205

Analysis of Korean High School Students' Decision-Making Processes in Solving a Problem Involving Biological Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, the cognitive characteristics of students' decision-making processes centered on phases, difficulties, and strategies are analysed in the personal dailylife context involving biological knowledge. The subjects were first year science and general high school students in Seoul, Korea; 6 female students and 7 male students. The…

Hong, Jung-Lim; Chang, Nam-Kee

2004-01-01

206

Longitudinal Associations of Alcohol Involvement with Subjective Well-Being in Adolescence and Prediction to Alcohol Problems in Early Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Adolescent alcohol involvement is associated with numerous negative outcomes, but also appears to have positive correlates, including subjective well-being. Additional research is needed to understand these paradoxical findings. The current study examines alcohol use, adverse alcohol-related (and other substance-related) consequences, and…

Mason, W. Alex; Spoth, Richard L.

2011-01-01

207

Application of an alternating-direction finite-element method to heat transfer problems involving a change of phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient alternating-direction finite-element method is applied to the solution of nonlinear heat transfer problems. The technique is comparable in accuracy to standard finite-element methods while offering a substantial reduction in computer costs in terms of both processing time and core storage. The alternating-direction formulation is presented together with a discussion of the resulting matrix system and treatment of the

R. W. Lewis; K. Morgan; P. M. Roberts

1984-01-01

208

APPLICATION OF AN ALTERNATING-DIRECTION FINITE-ELEMENT METHOD TO HEAT TRANSFER PROBLEMS INVOLVING A CHANGE OF PHASE  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient alternating-direction finite-element method is applied to the solution of nonlinear heat transfer problems. The technique is comparable in accuracy to standard finite-element methods while offering a substantial reduction in computer costs in terms of both processing time and core storage. The alternating-direction formulation is presented together with a discussion of the resulting matrix system and treatment of the

R. W. Lewis; K. Morgan; P. M. Roberts

1984-01-01

209

Psychopathological status, behavior problems, and family adjustment of Kuwaiti children whose fathers were involved in the first gulf war  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: Following the end of the Gulf War that resulted in the liberation of Kuwait, there are no reports on the impact of veterans' traumatic exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on their children. We compared the severity of anxiety, depression, deviant behavior and poor family adjustment among the children of a stratified random sample of four groups of Kuwaiti

Fawziyah A Al-Turkait; Jude U Ohaeri

2008-01-01

210

Analysis of Korean High School Students' Decision-Making Processes in Solving a Problem Involving Biological Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the cognitive characteristics of students' decision-making processes centered on phases, difficulties, and strategies are analysed in the personal dailylife context involving biological knowledge. The subjects were first year science and general high school students in Seoul, Korea; 6 female students and 7 male students. The students' decision-making processes were analysed by “think-aloud” and participant observation methods. On

Jung-Lim Hong; Nam-Kee Chang

2004-01-01

211

Psychological and health problems in a geographically proximate population time-sampled continuously for three months after the September 11th, 2001 terrorist incidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the mental and physical health status and psychological problems related to the September 11th terrorist incidents among a representative sample of adults living near New York City, using continuously time-sampled data collected throughout 2001. Prevalence estimates for poor mental or physical health after September 11th (October through December) were comparable to those for the entire year of

Julian D. Ford; Mary L. Adams; Wayne F. Dailey

2007-01-01

212

Preschool Boys' Development of Emotional Self-regulation Strategies in a Sample At-risk for Behavior Problems  

PubMed Central

Little longitudinal research has been conducted on changes in children's emotional self-regulation strategy (SRS) use after infancy, particularly for children at risk. The current study examined changes in boys' emotional SRS from toddlerhood through preschool. Repeated observational assessments using delay of gratification tasks at ages 2, 3, and 4 were examined with both variable- and person-oriented analyses in a low-income sample of boys (N = 117) at-risk for early problem behavior. Results were consistent with theory on emotional SRS development in young children. Children initially used more emotion-focused SRS (e.g., comfort seeking) and transitioned to greater use of planful SRS (e.g., distraction) by age 4. Person-oriented analysis using trajectory analysis found similar patterns from 2–4, with small groups of boys showing delayed movement away from emotion-focused strategies or delay in the onset of regular use of distraction. The results provide a foundation for future research to examine the development of SRS in low-income young children.

Supplee, Lauren H.; Skuban, Emily Moye; Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Stoltz, Emilee

2011-01-01

213

Stepchildren's perceptions of noncustodial mothers and noncustodial fathers: differences in socioemotional involvement and associations with adolescent adjustment problems.  

PubMed

Caucasian stepchildren (aged 10-18) in the Nonshared Environment and Adolescent Development (NEAD) project rated noncustodial (NC) parents' socioemotional involvement. Stepfamilies had been together at least 5 years. Adolescents with NC mothers (n = 56) reported more phone calls, mail, overnight visits, and social support than adolescents with NC fathers (n = 143). The association between perceived social support and adolescent adjustment was compared for NC mothers versus NC fathers by using structural equation modeling; the association was stronger for NC mothers. No effects for sex of child or interactions of sex of child/sex of NC parent were obtained. NC fathers might increase their influence in adolescents' lives by behaving more like NC mothers (more frequent phone calls, overnights, etc.). PMID:15598161

Gunnoe, Marjorie Lindner; Hetherington, E Mavis

2004-12-01

214

Infinitely many solutions for a differential inclusion problem in {{R}^N} involving p( x)-Laplacian and oscillatory terms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we consider the differential inclusion in {{R}^N} involving the p( x)-Laplacian of the type {begin{array}{lll}-triangle_{p(x)} u+V(x)|u|^{p(x)-2}uin partial F(x,u(x)),in{R}^N,quadquadquadquadquadquad (P)} where {p: {R}^N to {{R}}} is Lipschitz continuous function satisfying some given assumptions. The approach used in this paper is the variational method for locally Lipschitz functions. Under suitable oscillatory assumptions on the potential F at zero or at infinity, we show the existence of infinitely many solutions of (P). We also establish a Bartsch-Wang type compact embedding theorem for variable exponent spaces.

Ge, Bin; Zhou, Qing-Mei; Xue, Xiao-Ping

2012-08-01

215

Improvements of the Bethe stopping power theory and their application to problems involving radiation in the environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latest advances in radiation oncology emphasizes the importance of the theory of energy loss of charged particles through matter. Since the development of the Bethe-Bloch stopping power for heavy charged incident particles in 1930, many corrections have been proposed to improve this equation's theoretical approximation. The region of applicability of this formula, with respect to the velocity and the charge of the incident particle as well as the characteristics of the target, is restricted by the validity of the approximation adopted. One of the major unsolved problems is the relativistic treatment of the inner-shell electrons for medium and heavy target elements. The stopping power theory treats atomic electrons non-relativistically for these targets which put serious limitation on the theory because the basic sum rules on which the theory relies are not amenable to vigorous relativistic generalization as pointed out by Fano. To solve this problem we assume completeness by employing the Dirac Hamiltonian, and then present a semi-relativistic approach to order v 2/c2 following the Foldy-Wouthuysen-Transformation (FWT) to exclude the contributions from the negative-energy states. To establish this goal we developed a very elegant, practical, and accurate step-by-step procedure using Baker-Hausdroff Lemma to do the FWT to any desired order for any functions of coordinate or momentum operator, or to any entire functions of both coordinate and momentum operators. We applied this procedure to general function of position where the result is then applied to find the TRK and Bethe sum rules by using semirelativistic Hamiltonian. This procedure can be used to find any desired sum rule by doing more computation relations of the transformed Hamiltonian of the system with the transformed function of position. For example, Sk sum rule will require k times commutation relations to be calculated. The resulting Bethe sum rule relativistic correction is then used to find the Sum Rule Relativistic Correction, DeltaR, to the Bethe stopping power and then we compare it numerically with other corrections for protons and alpha particles in different target materials.

Sinky, Hussein Mohammed

216

The Impact of Gender and Family Processes on Mental Health and Substance Use Issues in a Sample of Court-Involved Female and Male Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greater empirical attention directed toward gender-sensitive assessment strategies that concentrate on family-specific factors\\u000a is thought to be both timely and necessary, especially with regard to outcome variables associated with mental health and\\u000a substance abuse in at-risk adolescent populations. A sample of 2,646 court-involved adolescents was used to test two competing\\u000a models regarding relationships among disruptive family processes, mental health (as

Stephen M. Gavazzi; Ji-Young Lim; Courtney M. Yarcheck; Jennifer M. Bostic; Scott D. Scheer

2008-01-01

217

Computationally efficient parabolic equation solutions to seismo-acoustic problems involving thin or low-shear elastic layers.  

PubMed

Shallow-water environments typically include sediments containing thin or low-shear layers. Numerical treatments of these types of layers require finer depth grid spacing than is needed elsewhere in the domain. Thin layers require finer grids to fully sample effects due to elasticity within the layer. As shear wave speeds approach zero, the governing system becomes singular and fine-grid spacing becomes necessary to obtain converged solutions. In this paper, a seismo-acoustic parabolic equation solution is derived utilizing modified difference formulas using Galerkin's method to allow for variable-grid spacing in depth. Propagation results are shown for environments containing thin layers and low-shear layers. PMID:23556690

Metzler, Adam M; Collis, Jon M

2013-04-01

218

Conduct Problem Behaviors in a Stratified Random Sample of Children and Adolescents: New Standardization Data on the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents new standardization data on the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI), a parent-completed measure of conduct-problem behaviors. The ECBI was mailed to the parents of a stratified random sample of 3,600 students in Grades 1 to 12. A total of 1,003 completed ECBIs were returned (28%). Results indicated that the ECBI provides a homogenous measure of conduct-problem behaviors.

G. Leonard Burns; David R. Patterson

1990-01-01

219

Simple Sampling Techniques for Discovery Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY We explain three random sampling techniques that are simple but widely applicable for various problems involv- ing huge data sets. The first technique is an immediate applica- tion of large deviation bounds. The second and the third ones are sequential sampling or adaptive sampling techniques. We fix one simple problem and explain these techniques by demonstrating algorithms for this

Osamu Watanabe

2000-01-01

220

Predictors of Parent Stress in a Sample of Children with ASD: Pain, Problem Behavior, and Parental Coping  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Studies have shown that children with ASD have increased severity and incidence of pain symptoms compared to typically developing children and children with other disorders. Pain has also been shown to act as a setting event for problem behavior. Further, problem behavior is one of the biggest impediments to quality of life for families and…

Walsh, Caitlin E.; Mulder, Emile; Tudor, Megan E.

2013-01-01

221

Stress, Mental Health, and Substance Abuse Problems in a Sample of Diversion Program Youths: An Exploratory Latent Class Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reflective of interest in mental health and substance abuse issues among youths involved with the justice system, we performed a latent class analysis on baseline information collected on 100 youths involved in two diversion programs. Results identified two groups of youths: Group 1: a majority of the youths, who had high levels of delinquency, mental health, and substance abuse issues;

Richard Dembo; Rhissa Briones; Laura Gulledge; Lora Karas; Ken C. Winters; Steven Belenko; Paul E. Greenbaum

2012-01-01

222

Stress, Mental Health, and Substance Abuse Problems in a Sample of Diversion Program Youths: An Exploratory Latent Class Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reflective of interest in mental health and substance abuse issues among youths involved with the justice system, we performed a latent class analysis on baseline information collected on 100 youths involved in two diversion programs. Results identified two groups of youths: Group 1: a majority of the youths, who had high levels of delinquency,…

Dembo, Richard; Briones, Rhissa; Gulledge, Laura; Karas, Lora; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Greenbaum, Paul E.

2012-01-01

223

Optimization of high-reliability-based hydrological design problems by robust automatic sampling of critical model realizations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study demonstrates the high efficiency of the so-called stack-ordering technique for optimizing a groundwater management problem under uncertain conditions. The uncertainty is expressed by multiple equally probable model representations, such as realizations of hydraulic conductivity. During optimization of a well-layout problem for contaminant control, a ranking mechanism is applied that extracts those realizations that appear most critical for the optimization problem. It is shown that this procedure works well for evolutionary optimization algorithms, which are to some extent robust against noisy objective functions. More precisely, differential evolution (DE) and the Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (CMA-ES) are applied. Stack ordering is comprehensively investigated for a plume management problem at a hypothetical template site based on parameter values measured at and on a geostatistical model developed for the Lauswiesen study site near Tübingen, Germany. The straightforward procedure yields computational savings above 90% in comparison to always evaluating the full set of realizations. This is confirmed by cross testing with four additional validation cases. The results show that both evolutionary algorithms obtain highly reliable near-optimal solutions. DE appears to be the better choice for cases with significant noise caused by small stack sizes. On the other hand, there seems to be a problem-specific threshold for the evaluation stack size above which the CMA-ES achieves solutions with both better fitness and higher reliability.

Bayer, Peter; de Paly, Michael; Bürger, Claudius M.

2010-05-01

224

Prevalence of aggression and fear-related behavioral problems in a sample of Argentine Dogos in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Argentine Dogo breed is identified frequently as potentially dangerous in worldwide legislation. To investigate the prevalence of problem behaviors in this breed, 94 Argentine Dogo owners provided information on aggressive and fearful behaviors shown by their dogs (83 males, 98 females) in a questionnaire. The results were consistent with the origin of the Argentine Dogo (i.e., descending from fighting

Silvana Diverio; Gabriella Tami; Antonino Barone

2008-01-01

225

Substance Use, Related Problem Behaviors and Adult Attachment in a Sample of High Risk Older Adolescent Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested a hypothesis about the usefulness of attachment theory in aiding our understanding of substance use and related problem behaviors among a high-risk group of women. The data were from an ongoing longitudinal study of pregnant and parenting adolescents, and were collected via interview at 5.5 and 6 years postpartum (n = 232). At enrollment, the respondents were an

Seana Golder; Mary Rogers Gillmore; Susan Spieker; Diane Morrison

2005-01-01

226

Attention Problems Mediate the Association between Severity of Physical Abuse and Aggressive Behavior in a Sample of Maltreated Early Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Empirical evidence has accumulated documenting an association between childhood physical abuse and aggressive behavior. Relatively fewer studies have explored possible mediating mechanisms that may explain this association. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether caregiver- and youth-reported attention problems mediate the…

Garrido, Edward F.; Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.; Raviv, Tali

2011-01-01

227

Psychological and health problems in a geographically proximate population time-sampled continuously for three months after the September 11th, 2001 terrorist incidents.  

PubMed

This study assessed the mental and physical health status and psychological problems related to the September 11th terrorist incidents among a representative sample of adults living near New York City, using continuously time-sampled data collected throughout 2001. Prevalence estimates for poor mental or physical health after September 11th (October through December) were comparable to those for the entire year of 2001 (i.e. approximately 33%). Psychological problems related to the terrorist incidents were reported by more than half of the respondents, and appeared to peak in prevalence approximately two to three months following the incidents, followed by a decline in the next month and subsequent year. Poor mental health, female gender, media re-exposure, and ongoing or increased alcohol use were risk factors for psychological problems, while older age (65+ years old) and being married were protective factors. Risk factors for poor physical and mental health or psychological problems were generally stable over the three-month period following September 11th, but some changes were identified consistent with stage models of post-disaster psychological adjustment. Implications are discussed for using continuous time-sampling as a strategy to research patterns of relatively acute stress-related sequelae of terrorism in populations whose members are affected despite primarily not having been at the disaster epicenter. PMID:17999220

Ford, Julian D; Adams, Mary L; Dailey, Wayne F

2007-06-01

228

Predictors and Moderators of Parent Training Efficacy in a Sample of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Serious Behavioral Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology—Autism Network reported additional benefit when adding parent training\\u000a (PT) to antipsychotic medication in children with autism spectrum disorders and serious behavior problems. The intent-to-treat\\u000a analyses were rerun with putative predictors and moderators. The Home Situations Questionnaire (HSQ) and the Hyperactivity\\/Noncompliance subscale of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist were used as outcome measures. Candidate predictors and

Cristan Farmer; Luc Lecavalier; Sunkyung Yu; L. Eugene Arnold; Christopher J. McDougle; Lawrence Scahill; Benjamin Handen; Cynthia R. Johnson; Kimberly A. Stigler; Karen Bearss; Naomi B. Swiezy; Michael G. Aman

229

Reasons for drinking in relation to problem drinking behavior in a sample of Japanese high school students  

Microsoft Academic Search

To clarify reasons for drinking in relation to problem drinking behavior, 494 male students, aged 15 to 18 years old and attending\\u000a high schools in Tokyo, Japan, were examined by self-rating questionnaires including the Kurihama Alcoholism Screening Test\\u000a (KAST). Three hundred and forty-two students (69%) completed the questionnaires, of whom 143 indicated that they were current\\u000a drinkers of alcohol (42%

Kazuhito Yokoyama; Mariko Nishikitani; Shunichi Araki

1999-01-01

230

Reasons for Starting and Continuing Gambling in a Mixed Ethnic Community Sample of Pathological and Non-problem Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very few studies have investigated motivational differences between pathological gamblers (PG) and non-problem gamblers (NPG), or between men and women. Motives for starting gambling have not been distinguished from motives for continuing gambling. From a community survey questionnaire listing reasons generated from the population studied, the motives of 103 current PG met the DSM-IV-TR criteria of five or more symptoms

DAVE CLARKE; SAMSON TSE; MAX W. ABBOTT; SONIA TOWNSEND; PEFI KINGI; WIREMU MANAIA

2007-01-01

231

Sex Differences in Childhood Sexual Abuse Characteristics and Victims' Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Findings from a National Sample of Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: The first objective of this study was to test for sex differences in four childhood sexual abuse characteristics--penetration, substantiation, perpetrator familial status, and multi-maltreatment--in a national sample of youth. The second objective was to test for sex differences in how these abuse characteristics were associated with…

Maikovich-Fong, Andrea Kohn; Jaffee, Sara R.

2010-01-01

232

Mental Disorders and Problem Behavior in a Community Sample of Adults with Intellectual Disability: Three-Month Prevalence and Comorbidity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of mental disorders in a Norwegian sample of adults with intellectual disability (ID) using the "Psychopathology Checklists for Adults With Intellectual Disability" (P-AID; Hove & Havik, 2008), a screening instrument adopting diagnostic criteria from the "Diagnostic Criteria for Psychiatric…

Hove, Oddbjorn; Havik, Odd E.

2008-01-01

233

A biological sampling problem illustrated by the population structure and growth patterns of Sardinella aurita at Tripoli, Libya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis  \\u000a Sardinella aurita were sampled from catches of the lampara fishery at Tripoli, Libya during October 1979 through to September 1980. Landings\\u000a consisted mainly of adult fish with large (mode 21–26 cm total length), relatively fast growing 3–5-group individuals in winter\\u000a and spring and smaller (mode 14–20 cm total length), slow growing 2- and 3-group fish in summer. Gonad growth

Michael G. Pawsont; Mohammed S. Giama

1985-01-01

234

Temperamental predictors of externalizing problems among boys and girls: a longitudinal study in a high-risk sample from ages 3 months to 15 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a high-risk community sample, we examined the role of regulative temperament and emotionality as well as the extent of\\u000a gender specificity in the development of externalizing problems. 151 boys and 157 girls born at differing degrees of obstetric\\u000a and psychosocial risk were followed from birth into adolescence. In infancy and childhood, NYLS-derived temperamental characteristics\\u000a were assessed by a highly

Martina Pitzer; Guenter Esser; Martin H. Schmidt; Manfred Laucht

2009-01-01

235

Development, Problem Behavior, and Quality of Life in a Population Based Sample of Eight-Year-Old Children with Down Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveChildren with Down syndrome (DS) have delayed psychomotor development. We investigated levels of development, problem behavior, and Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in a population sample of Dutch eight-year-old children with DS. Developmental outcomes were compared with normative data of eight-year-old children from the general population.MethodOver a three-year-period all parents with an eight-year-old child with DS were approached by the

Helma B. M. van Gameren-Oosterom; Minne Fekkes; Simone E. Buitendijk; Ashna D. Mohangoo; Jeanet Bruil; Jacobus P. Van Wouwe

2011-01-01

236

Screening for Psychosocial Problems in 4-5-Year-Olds During Routine EPSDT Examinations: Validity and Reliability in a Mexican-American Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of the Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC) as a psychosocial screening measure to meet Federal Medicaid\\/Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) requirements was examined in 117 low-income preschool (aged 4—5 years old) Hispanic children during well-child examinations in three clinics over an 8-month period. The PSC identified 7% of the sample as at risk for psychosocial problems.

Maria Pagano; J. Michael Murphy; Maren Pedersen; Dee Mosbacher; Janet Crist-Whitzel; Pat Jordan; Carla Rodas; Michael S. Jellinek

1996-01-01

237

Effect of Problem-Solving-Based Diabetes Self-Management Training on Diabetes Control in a Low Income Patient Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Lower socioeconomic status is associated with excess disease burden from diabetes. Diabetes self-management support interventions\\u000a are needed that are effective in engaging lower income patients, addressing competing life priorities and barriers to self-care,\\u000a and facilitating behavior change.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  To pilot test feasibility, acceptability, and effect on disease control of a problem-based diabetes self-management training\\u000a adapted for low literacy and accessibility.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Two-arm

Felicia Hill-Briggs; Mariana Lazo; Mark Peyrot; Angela Doswell; Yi-Ting Chang; Martha N. Hill; David Levine; Nae-Yuh Wang; Frederick L. Brancati

238

Predictors and moderators of parent training efficacy in a sample of children with autism spectrum disorders and serious behavioral problems.  

PubMed

The Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology--Autism Network reported additional benefit when adding parent training (PT) to antipsychotic medication in children with autism spectrum disorders and serious behavior problems. The intent-to-treat analyses were rerun with putative predictors and moderators. The Home Situations Questionnaire (HSQ) and the Hyperactivity/Noncompliance subscale of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist were used as outcome measures. Candidate predictors and moderators included 21 demographics and baseline measures of behavior. Higher baseline HSQ scores predicted greater improvement on the HSQ regardless of treatment assignment, but no other predictors of outcome were observed. None of the variables measured in this study moderated response to PT. Antipsychotic medication plus PT appears to be equally effective for children with a wide range of demographic and behavioral characteristics. PMID:21822762

Farmer, Cristan; Lecavalier, Luc; Yu, Sunkyung; Eugene Arnold, L; McDougle, Christopher J; Scahill, Lawrence; Handen, Benjamin; Johnson, Cynthia R; Stigler, Kimberly A; Bearss, Karen; Swiezy, Naomi B; Aman, Michael G

2012-06-01

239

Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Problem solving is the thought processes involved in solving a problem. It is both a means of developing students' knowledge of mathematics and a critical outcome of a good mathematics education. A mathematical problem, as distinct from an exercise, requires the solver to search for a method for solving the problem rather than following a set procedure. Mathematical problem solving, therefore, requires an understanding of relevant concepts, procedures, and strategies. To become good problem solvers, students need many opportunities to formulate questions, model problem situations in a variety of ways, generalize mathematical relationships, and solve problems in both mathematical and everyday contexts.

K-12 Outreach,

240

Fast Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling for sparse Bayesian inference in high-dimensional inverse problems using L1-type priors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sparsity has become a key concept for solving of high-dimensional inverse problems using variational regularization techniques. Recently, using similar sparsity-constraints in the Bayesian framework for inverse problems by encoding them in the prior distribution has attracted attention. Important questions about the relation between regularization theory and Bayesian inference still need to be addressed when using sparsity promoting inversion. A practical obstacle for these examinations is the lack of fast posterior sampling algorithms for sparse, high-dimensional Bayesian inversion. Accessing the full range of Bayesian inference methods requires being able to draw samples from the posterior probability distribution in a fast and efficient way. This is usually done using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling algorithms. In this paper, we develop and examine a new implementation of a single component Gibbs MCMC sampler for sparse priors relying on L1-norms. We demonstrate that the efficiency of our Gibbs sampler increases when the level of sparsity or the dimension of the unknowns is increased. This property is contrary to the properties of the most commonly applied Metropolis-Hastings (MH) sampling schemes. We demonstrate that the efficiency of MH schemes for L1-type priors dramatically decreases when the level of sparsity or the dimension of the unknowns is increased. Practically, Bayesian inversion for L1-type priors using MH samplers is not feasible at all. As this is commonly believed to be an intrinsic feature of MCMC sampling, the performance of our Gibbs sampler also challenges common beliefs about the applicability of sample based Bayesian inference.

Lucka, Felix

2012-12-01

241

Problems in Determination of Skeletal Lead Burden in Archaeological Samples: An Example From the First African Baptist Church Population  

SciTech Connect

ABSTRACT Human bone lead content has been demonstrated to be related to socioeconomic status, occupation and other social and environmental correlates. Skeletal tissue samples from 135 individuals from an early nineteenth century Philadelphia cemetery (First African Baptist Church) were studied by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and x-ray fluorescence for lead content. High bone lead levels led to investigation of possible diagenetic effects. These were investigated by several different approaches including distribution of lead within bone by x-ray fluorescence, histological preservation, soil lead concentration and acidity as well as location and depth of burial. Bone lead levels were very high in children, exceeding those of the adult population that were buried in the cemetery, and also those of present day adults. The antemortem age-related increase in bone lead, reported in other studies, was not evidenced in this population. Lead was even deposited in areas of taphonomic bone destruction. Synchrotron x-ray fluorescence studies revealed no consistent pattern of lead microdistribution within the bone. Our conclusions are that postmortem diagenesis of lead ion has penetrated these archaeological bones to a degree that makes their original bone lead content irretrievable by any known method. Increased bone porosity is most likely responsible for the very high levels of lead found in bones of newborns and children.

Whittmers Jr., L. E.; Aufderheide, A. C.; Pounds, Joel G.; JONES, Keith; Angel, J. L.

2008-08-01

242

Problems in determination of skeletal lead burden in archaeological samples: An example from the First African Baptist Church population  

SciTech Connect

Human bone lead content has been demonstrated to be related to socioeconomic status, occupation and other social and environmental correlates. Skeletal tissue samples from 135 individuals from an early nineteenth century Philadelphia cemetery (First African Baptist Church) were studied by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and x-ray fluorescence for lead content. High bone lead levels led to investigation of possible diagenetic effects. These were investigated by several different approaches including distribution of lead within bone by x-ray fluorescence, histological preservation, soil lead concentration and acidity as well as location and depth of burial. Bone lead levels were very high in the children, exceeding those of the adult population that were buried in the cemetery, and also those of present day adults. The antemortem age-related increase in bone lead, reported in other studies, was not evidenced in this population. Lead was even deposited in areas of taphonomic bone destruction. Synchrotron x-ray fluorescence studies revealed no consistent pattern of lead microdistribution within the bone. Our conclusions are that postmortem diagenesis of lead ion has penetrated these archaeological bones to a degree that makes their original bone lead content irretrievable by any known method. Increased bone porosity is most likely responsible for the very high levels of lead found in bones of newborns and children.

Whittmers Jr., L. E.; Aufderheide, A. C.; Pounds, Joel G.; Jones, Keith W.; Angel, J. L.

2008-08-01

243

Molecular dissociation of hydrogen peroxide (HOOH) on a neural network ab initio potential surface with a new configuration sampling method involving gradient fitting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The O-O bond dissociation of HOOH is investigated on an analytic ab initio potential-energy surface obtained by fitting the energies of 25 608 configurations using neural network (NN) methods. The electronic structure calculations are executed using MP2 calculations with the 6-31G* basis set. A new data-sampling technique is introduced to collect HOOH configurations in the six-dimensional hyperspace. This method is based on a comparison of the NN-computed gradients at configuration points currently in the database with the target gradients. By requiring that the NN gradients closely fit the MP2 target gradients, both the potential and the gradients are more accurately fitted. The selection criteria also ensure a more uniform distribution of configuration points throughout the important regions of configuration space. Molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories are not involved in the sampling. The final NN fitting yields average absolute and root-mean-squared testing set errors of 0.0060 eV (0.58 kJ mol-1) and 0.0099 eV (0.96 kJ mol-1), respectively. The effectiveness of the support vector machine (SVM) method in fitting large ab initio databases for MD calculations is investigated by using this method to fit the same HOOH database. The SVM fitting quality is tested by comparison to the NN fit. It is found that the average absolute and root-mean-squared testing set errors for the SVM fit are significantly larger than those obtained using NN methods. The total number of parameters in the SVM fit is more than a factor of 11 times the number of parameters in the NN fit. The trajectory computation time using a single NN averages about 1.8 s per picosecond of trajectory time. This increases to 9.0 s per picosecond of trajectory time if a five-NN committee is employed. The corresponding SVM computational time is almost 24 s per picosecond of trajectory time. Consequently, we conclude that a SVM is not as effective in fitting large databases for MD calculations as previously proposed methods, and thus is not employed to conduct MD studies. We employ the five-member NN committee to perform MD calculations at five different internal energies from 3.4 to 4.2 eV, including zero point energy. The rate coefficients are obtained directly from the first-order decay plots. They vary from 0.117 to 0.324 ps-1. A Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel plot is found to exhibit good linearity.

Le, Hung M.; Huynh, Sau; Raff, Lionel M.

2009-07-01

244

Molecular dissociation of hydrogen peroxide (HOOH) on a neural network ab initio potential surface with a new configuration sampling method involving gradient fitting.  

PubMed

The O-O bond dissociation of HOOH is investigated on an analytic ab initio potential-energy surface obtained by fitting the energies of 25,608 configurations using neural network (NN) methods. The electronic structure calculations are executed using MP2 calculations with the 6-31G* basis set. A new data-sampling technique is introduced to collect HOOH configurations in the six-dimensional hyperspace. This method is based on a comparison of the NN-computed gradients at configuration points currently in the database with the target gradients. By requiring that the NN gradients closely fit the MP2 target gradients, both the potential and the gradients are more accurately fitted. The selection criteria also ensure a more uniform distribution of configuration points throughout the important regions of configuration space. Molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories are not involved in the sampling. The final NN fitting yields average absolute and root-mean-squared testing set errors of 0.0060 eV (0.58 kJ mol(-1)) and 0.0099 eV (0.96 kJ mol(-1)), respectively. The effectiveness of the support vector machine (SVM) method in fitting large ab initio databases for MD calculations is investigated by using this method to fit the same HOOH database. The SVM fitting quality is tested by comparison to the NN fit. It is found that the average absolute and root-mean-squared testing set errors for the SVM fit are significantly larger than those obtained using NN methods. The total number of parameters in the SVM fit is more than a factor of 11 times the number of parameters in the NN fit. The trajectory computation time using a single NN averages about 1.8 s per picosecond of trajectory time. This increases to 9.0 s per picosecond of trajectory time if a five-NN committee is employed. The corresponding SVM computational time is almost 24 s per picosecond of trajectory time. Consequently, we conclude that a SVM is not as effective in fitting large databases for MD calculations as previously proposed methods, and thus is not employed to conduct MD studies. We employ the five-member NN committee to perform MD calculations at five different internal energies from 3.4 to 4.2 eV, including zero point energy. The rate coefficients are obtained directly from the first-order decay plots. They vary from 0.117 to 0.324 ps(-1). A Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel plot is found to exhibit good linearity. PMID:19586096

Le, Hung M; Huynh, Sau; Raff, Lionel M

2009-07-01

245

Involving the commercial sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program is discussed to address the radon problem in New Jersey. The first component involves a statewide study to define New Jersey's radon problem in scientific terms. The aim of the study is to develop a listing of areas and housing types to be addressed early because of their potential for radon problems. The second component involves developing and

G. P. Nicholls; D. A. Deieso

1987-01-01

246

Parents' description of conduct problems in their children - a test of the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) in a Swedish sample aged 3-10.  

PubMed

The Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) is a widely used 36-item uni-dimensional parent rating scale constructed to measure disruptive behavior problems in children. However, in an American sample a 22-item version, including three subscales, has been suggested in order to increase the usefulness of the ECBI. Two studies were conducted to test the ECBI in a Swedish sample (N = 841). The aims of Study I were (a) examine the psychometric properties of the ECBI (b) to investigate the correspondence between mothers' and fathers' ratings, and (c) to obtain Swedish norms. The aim of Study II was to test the suggested three-factor solution in the Swedish sample using a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The ECBI showed good psychometric properties also in the present study, and Swedish normative data is presented. The best-fitting CFA-model was identical to the previously suggested three-factor model, which thus might be a useful alternative to the 36-item version. PMID:18705675

Axberg, Ulf; Johansson Hanse, Jan; Broberg, Anders G

2008-08-12

247

What are some of the cognitive, psychological, and social factors that facilitate or hinder licensed vocational nursing students' acquisition of problem-solving skills involved with medication-dosage calculations?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to examine the cognitive and psychological factors that either enhanced or inhibited Licensed Vocational Nurse (LVN) students' abilities to solve medication-dosage calculation problems. A causal-comparative approach was adopted for use in this study which encompassed aspects of both qualitative and quantitative data collection. A purposive, maximum-variation sample of 20 LVN students was chosen from among a self-selected population of junior college LVN students. The participants' views and feelings concerning their training and clinical experiences in medication administration was explored using a semi-structured interview. In addition, data revealing the students' actual competence at solving sample medication-dosage calculation problems was gathered using a talk-aloud protocol. Results indicated that few participants anticipated difficulty with medication-dosage calculations, yet many participants reported being lost during much of the medication-dosage problem solving instruction in class. While many participants (65%) were able to solve the medication-dosage problems, some (35%) of the participants were unable to correctly solve the problems. Successful students usually spent time analyzing the problem and planning a solution path, and they tended to solve the problem faster than did unsuccessful participants. Successful participants relied on a formula or a proportional statement to solve the problem. They recognized conversion problems as a two-step process and solved the problems in that fashion. Unsuccessful participants often went directly from reading the problem statement to attempts at implementing vague plans. Some unsuccessful participants finished quickly because they just gave up. Others spent considerable time backtracking by rereading the problem and participating in aimless exploration of the problem space. When unsuccessful participants tried to use a formula or a proportion, they were unsure of the formula's or the proportion's format. A few unsuccessful participants lacked an understanding of basic algebraic procedures and of metric measurements. Even participants who had great difficulty solving medication-dosage calculation problems could expeditiously solve more complex problems if the medication used in the problem was well known to them.

Allen, Arthur William

248

The Guide to the Assessment of Test Session Behavior: validity in relation to cognitive testing and parent-reported behavior problems in a clinical sample.  

PubMed

Examined the validity of the Guide to the Assessment of Test Session behavior (GATSB) in a clinical sample. The GATSB is a structured and standardized measure that was normed on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III) standardization sample. The purpose of this study was to extend validity research on the GATSB to cognitive measures other than the WISC-III and to parent-reported child behavior problems. Test observations were taken for 122 children ages 6 to 16 years who were referred to an outpatient psychology clinic for psychoeducational evaluations. GATSB scores demonstrated a moderate relation with general indexes from the WISC-III, the Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery-Revised (WJ-R), and the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML), but displayed low magnitude correlations with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). These results expand existing data supporting the validity of the GATSB and suggest that it may be fruitfully adopted into a clinic setting. PMID:12056109

Daleiden, Eric; Drabman, Ronald S; Benton, Jennifer

2002-06-01

249

Issues involved in a Martian sample return: Integrity preservation and the Curation and Analysis Planning Team for Extraterrestrial Materials (CAPTEM) position  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Returning geological samples from Mars is the next logical step as part of an integrated exploration program and is the critical subsequent stage in the search for evidence of life on the red planet. Analysis of such samples on Earth will generally produce data of superior accuracy and precision than can be accomplished in situ on the Martian surface, and such data will be invaluable in providing ground truth for remotely sensed observations. However, obtaining meaningful data requires that the samples returned to Earth suffer little (or preferably no) compositional or morphological changes during collection on Mars, transit to Earth, entry into Earth's atmosphere, impact on the surface, and long-term curation. This paper presents recommendations from NASA's committee for Curation and Analysis Planning Team for Extraterrestrial Materials (CAPTEM) for preserving the integrity of Martian samples during a return mission. Potential contaminants include dead bacteria on the outbound spacecraft and materials that come into contact with the samples during collection and storage. Therefore it is recommended that the spacecraft be sterilized and cleaned at least to Pathfinder standards, with the components that interact with the samples having a higher degree of cleanliness. Furthermore, it is recommended that only pure, homogeneous materials should be used for components that come into contact with the samples. The adverse effects of temperature on the samples are explored, and it is demonstrated that heat sterilization or undue temperature increases in transit or reentry have the potential to destroy important mineralogical and geochemical information. Concomitant with this will be degassing of the samples and stable isotopic fractionation. Therefore it is recommended that samples be kept at 240 K or below during transit, reentry, and curation. It is further recommended that heat sterilization not be used, except in extreme circumstances, and other sterilization techniques, such as radiation, be explored. While the purpose of this paper is not to design a sample return mission, the recommendations presented here are intended to act as guidelines for returning Martian samples in their pristine state. In essence, any procedure or piece of equipment that has the potential to compromise the pristinity of Martian samples during the collection, transportation, or curation needs to be fully evaluated by a scientific committee with the requisite expertise prior to implementation. CAPTEM is willing to serve in such a capacity if requested by NASA.

Neal, Clive R.

2000-09-01

250

A gene X environment interaction between DRD2 and religiosity in the prediction of adolescent delinquent involvement in a sample of males.  

PubMed

Human behavioral phenotypes are the result of complex interactions between genotype and the environment. Still, much remains unknown about the gene X environmental basis to adolescent delinquent involvement. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examine whether a polymorphism in the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene interacts with religiosity to predict variation in adolescent delinquent involvement. The results of the analyses revealed a gene X environment interaction between the A-1 allele of DRD2 and religiosity in the prediction of adolescent delinquency. Limitations are noted, and the implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:19835101

Beaver, Kevin M; Gibson, Chris L; Jennings, Wesley G; Ward, Jeffrey T

2009-01-01

251

Two-stage sampling in pharmaceutical applications.  

PubMed

In the pharmaceutical industry, some tests for quality assurance before, during and after the manufacture of a drug product involve a two-stage sampling technique. We propose statistical testing procedures in a two-stage sampling problem with large within-class sample sizes. We also derive a two-stage sampling plan by minimizing the expected squared volume (or the generalized variance) of the confidence region related to the test. We present two examples to illustrate the proposed methods. PMID:8296110

Shao, J; Chow, S C

1993-11-15

252

Risk and Protective Factors Among African American Adolescent Males That Predict Adult Involvement in the Criminal Justice System: Evidence From a National Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined risk and protective factors in adolescence that predicted involvement in the criminal justice system among young adult African American men. Participants (n = 2,274) drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were adolescents (11–19 years, M = 15) at Wave 1 and young adults (18–27, M = 22) at Wave 3. We examined how racial

Danelle Stevens-Watkins; Scott L. Graves

2011-01-01

253

Social and Economic Determinants of Disparities in Professional Help-Seeking for Child Mental Health Problems: Evidence from a National Sample  

PubMed Central

Objective To test the role of social determinants—including race, education, income, and demographic factors—of child mental health services use, defined as having had a visit to a mental health professional for depression, attention-deficit, or for any reason. Data Sources/Study Setting National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the Child/Young Adult supplement, a nationally representative sample of 7–14-year-old children born to women who were 14–22 years old at the start of data collection, in 1979. African Americans and Latinos were over-sampled, and population weights are available to make nationally representative inferences. Study Design Indicators of mental health service use were regressed on social and economic determinants, family structure variables, and insurance variables, controlling for need as captured by several different symptom scales. Principal Findings Girls are much less likely to obtain needed treatment for externalizing behavior disorders than are boys, and are somewhat less likely to obtain needed treatment for depression than boys. Middle children are less likely to obtain needed treatment for any mental health problem than are oldest, youngest, or only children. The presence of the father inhibits the likelihood that the child will receive treatment, particularly for depression. African Americans and Latinos are less likely than white children to receive treatment. In contrast to these rich results for the social and demographic determinants of children's specialty mental health utilization, the economic and insurance variables (including maternal education and income) seem to hold little predictive power. Conclusions These results argue for interventions to sensitize parents—especially fathers—to the need to pay attention to the mental health needs of their children, in particular girls and middle children. The analysis also suggests that the literature on intrahousehold decision making and on the gender dimensions of investment in children is worth extending to mental health treatment decisions.

Zimmerman, Frederick J

2005-01-01

254

Prevalence of mental health problems, treatment need, and barriers to care among primary care-seeking spouses of military service members involved in Iraq and Afghanistan deployments.  

PubMed

Military spouses must contend with unique issues such as a mobile lifestyle, rules and regulations of military life, and frequent family separations including peacekeeping and combat deployments. These issues may have an adverse effect on the health of military spouses. This study examined the mental health status, rates of care utilization, source of care, as well as barriers and stigma of mental health care utilization among military spouses who were seeking care in military primary care clinics. The data show spouses have similar rates of mental health problems compared to soldiers. Spouses were more likely to seek care for their mental health problems and were less concerned with the stigma of mental health care than were soldiers. Services were most often received from primary care physicians, rather than specialty mental health professionals, which may relate to the lack of availability of mental health services for spouses on military installations. PMID:19055177

Eaton, Karen M; Hoge, Charles W; Messer, Stephen C; Whitt, Allison A; Cabrera, Oscar A; McGurk, Dennis; Cox, Anthony; Castro, Carl A

2008-11-01

255

Estimating Sampling Errors in REA Survey: A Model Approach for the Synthetic Presentation of Results for Main Variables Involved in Economic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new sample business survey for agriculture, the REA survey, and a project of integration with the FADN network (RICA in\\u000a Italy) have significantly changed the production of statistical information nowadays available with reference to the agricultural\\u000a sector. On the basis of this relevant information, new economic analyses are being developed on farms’ performance, agricultural\\u000a households’ income and the Common

Salvatore Filiberti; Edoardo Pizzoli; Veronica Rondinelli

2007-01-01

256

Three-Year Course of Behavioral\\/Emotional Problems in a National Sample of 4- to 16-Year-Olds: 3. Predictors of Signs of Disturbance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested parent-reported family variables, problems, competencies, and stress as predictors of (a) academic problems, (b) school behavior problems, (c) receipt of mental health services, (d) child's need for additional help, (e) suicidal behavior, (f) police contacts, and (g) the sum of these 6 outcomes. Included in the study were 995 cases manifesting at least 1 sign of disturbance (from

Catherine Stanger; Thomas M. Achenbach; Stephanie H. McConaughy

1993-01-01

257

Predicting child behavior problems in maritally violent families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research indicates that children from violent marriages are more likely to suffer from conduct problems and\\/or anxiety disorders than children from nonviolent, satisfactory marriages. However, knowledge regarding specific factors present in violent marriages relating to child problems is limited. The present study examined the relationships involving interspousal aggression, parent-child aggression, and child behavior problems in a sample of 45

Ernest N. Jouriles; Julian Barling; K. Daniel O'Leary

1987-01-01

258

Adaptive Peer Sampling with Newscast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The peer sampling service is a middleware service that provides random samples from a large decentralized network to support gossip-based applications such as multicast, data aggregation and overlay topology management. Lightweight gossip-based implementations of the peer sampling service have been shown to provide good quality random sampling while also being extremely robust to many failure scenarios, including node churn and catastrophic failure. We identify two problems with these approaches. The first problem is related to message drop failures: if a node experiences a higher-than-average message drop rate then the probability of sampling this node in the network will decrease. The second problem is that the application layer at different nodes might request random samples at very different rates which can result in very poor random sampling especially at nodes with high request rates. We propose solutions for both problems. We focus on Newscast, a robust implementation of the peer sampling service. Our solution is based on simple extensions of the protocol and an adaptive self-control mechanism for its parameters, namely—without involving failure detectors—nodes passively monitor local protocol events using them as feedback for a local control loop for self-tuning the protocol parameters. The proposed solution is evaluated by simulation experiments.

Tölgyesi, Norbert; Jelasity, Márk

259

On-line sample processing involving microextraction techniques as a front-end to atomic spectrometric detection for trace metal assays: a review.  

PubMed

Within the last decade, liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) and micro-solid phase extraction (?SPE) approaches have emerged as substitutes for conventional sample processing procedures for trace metal assays within the framework of green chemistry. This review surveys the progress of the state of the art in simplification and automation of microextraction approaches by harnessing to the various generations of flow injection (FI) as a front end to atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) or inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry or mass spectrometry (ICP-AES/MS). It highlights the evolution of flow injection analysis and related techniques as vehicles for appropriate sample presentation to the detector and expedient on-line matrix separation and pre-concentration of trace levels of metals in troublesome matrices. Rather than being comprehensive this review is aimed at outlining the pros and cons via representative examples of recent attempts in automating green sample preparation procedures in an FI or sequential injection (SI) mode capitalizing on single-drop microextraction, dispersive liquid-phase microextraction and advanced sorptive materials including carbon and metal oxide nanoparticles, ion imprinted polymers, superparamagnetic nanomaterials and biological/biomass sorbents. Current challenges in the field are identified and the synergetic combination of flow analysis, nanotechnology and metal-tagged biomolecule detection is envisaged. PMID:23708278

Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald

2013-03-15

260

Determination of gold and the platinum group elements in geological samples by ICP-MS after nickel sulphide fire assay: difficulties encountered with different types of geological samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems involved in the determination of Au and the platinum group elements by the nickel sulphide fire assay (NiS-FA) procedure for black shale samples, samples containing magnetite, and samples containing As, Cu, and Fe were studied. The interference of the graphite in black shale samples was eliminated either by roasting the sample prior to fusion or by adding an oxidant

R Juvonen; T Lakomaa; L Soikkeli

2002-01-01

261

Epidemiological disaster research: the necessity to include representative samples of the involved disaster workers. Experience from the epidemiological study air disaster Amsterdam-ESADA  

PubMed Central

Objective To study whether the methods used to select participants in research on prevalence rates of the health effects of exposure to a disaster may cause bias. This study compared background characteristics, disaster exposure, and complaints reported by (1) police officers who participated in an epidemiological study and underwent a medical examination, and (2) police officers who only participated in an epidemiological study. Design and Setting In 2000, an epidemiological study was started to investigate the health status among police officers who were involved in assistance work related to the air disaster in Amsterdam: the epidemiological study air disaster Amsterdam (ESADA). These police officers were personally invited to participate in the epidemiological study and were additionally offered a medical examination, providing them with the opportunity to have their health checked by a medical doctor. Participants Of the total group of involved police officers who were invited, 834 (70%) participated in the ESADA: 224 (26.9%) only participated in the study, but 610 (73.1%) also underwent the medical examination. Main results Police officers who underwent a medical examination significantly more often reported one or more musculoskeletal complaints, skin complaints, general or non?specific complaints, had more often experienced an event with potentially traumatic impact, or had performed one or more potentially traumatic tasks. Conclusions The methods of selection of participants are important in research on health effects after disasters and can result in an overestimation of some of the effects, on average, by a factor of 1.5 to 2.

Huizink, Anja C; Smidt, Nynke; Twisk, Jos W R; Slottje, Pauline; Smid, Tjabe

2006-01-01

262

Some Insights into Analytical Bias Involved in the Application of Grab Sampling for Volatile Organic Compounds: A Case Study against Used Tedlar Bags  

PubMed Central

In this study, we have examined the patterns of VOCs released from used Tedlar bags that were once used for the collection under strong source activities. In this way, we attempted to account for the possible bias associated with the repetitive use of Tedlar bags. To this end, we selected the bags that were never heated. All of these target bags were used in ambient temperature (typically at or below 30°C). These bags were also dealt carefully to avoid any mechanical abrasion. This study will provide the essential information regarding the interaction between VOCs and Tedlar bag materials as a potential source of bias in bag sampling approaches.

Ghosh, Samik; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Sohn, Jong Ryeul

2011-01-01

263

Psychopathic Traits and Conduct Problems in Community and Clinic-Referred Samples of Children: Further Development of the Psychopathy Screening Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the structure of psychopathic traits in 2 samples of children. The nonreferred community sample included 1,136 children recruited from elementary schools in 2 school districts in the southeastern United States. The clinic sample included 160 children referred to an outpatient mental health clinic serving the same geographic region. In both samples, parent and teacher ratings of psychopathic

Paul J. Frick; S. Doug Bodin; Christopher T. Barry

2000-01-01

264

An In-Class Exercise Which Demonstrates Some of the Benefits and Problems Associated with Probability-Based Sampling in Marketing Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sampling exercise is described which has proved effective for both undergraduate and graduate sections of marketing research. The goal of this sampling exercise is to give students experience in drawing various types of samples, including simple random, systematic, cluster, and snowball samples. In addition, this exercise enables students to appreciate, perhaps for the first time, some of the underlying

Scot Burton; George M. Zinkhan

1986-01-01

265

Toddler behavioral problems and parent-child interaction in an inner-city early intervention sample: Implications for assessment and intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavior problems among very young children referred for early intervention services are a common concern. Given that serious problems tend to persist over time, placing children at risk for later personal and social maladjustment, it is important to identify early maladaptive patterns and intervene effectively. Several evolving contemporary developmental formulations that draw on empirical findings converge on the importance of

Jessica Linnell Hopkins

2001-01-01

266

A cross-sectional analysis of women's mental health problems: examining the association with different types of violence among a sample of Brazilian mothers  

PubMed Central

Background Mental health problems are the major cause of disability in poor countries, and women are the individuals most affected. The World Health Organization points out that violence against women is the leading cause of mental health problems. This study seeks to identify explanatory factors for women’s mental health problems, highlighting situations of violence suffered by them during childhood, when living with a partner and in the community. Method A cross-sectional analysis was conducted with 389 mothers with schoolchildren in a city in the state of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Profile variables and childhood and adult life experiences were researched and organized in three analytical blocks. A binary logistic regression model was used, divided into hierarchical blocks. Results The final model shows that women who were the victims of severe physical violence by their partner were more likely (OR?=?8.2) to suffer from mental health problems than those who had never been exposed to this type of violence. The mothers of children with behavior problems are more likely to have mental health problems (OR?=?3.0) than mothers whose children do not manifest behavioral problems. Conclusion This study shows that women’s mental health problems are particularly related to the experience of physical violence, especially that occurring in intimate partner relationships. Based on this premise, this work recommends that multidimensional issues need to be included in women’s health assistance programs duly incorporating the specificity of victimization by violence.

2013-01-01

267

Sex Differences in the Reciprocal Relationships between Mild and Severe Corporal Punishment and Children's Internalizing Problem Behavior in a Chinese Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study aimed to investigate the sex differences in the reciprocal relations between parental corporal punishment and child internalizing problem behavior in China. Four hundred fifty-four Chinese elementary school-age children completed measures of their parental corporal punishment toward them and their own internalizing problem behavior at…

Xing, Xiaopei; Wang, Meifang

2013-01-01

268

An Empirical Investigation of Sampling Errors in Educational Survey Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is shown that using formulae for the estimation of sampling errors based on simple random sampling, when a design actually involves cluster sampling, can lead to serious underestimation of error. Jackknife and balanced repeated replication are recommended as techniques for dealing with this problem. (Author/CTM)|

Ross, Kenneth N.

1979-01-01

269

THE RELATIONSHIP OF ALCOHOL PROBLEMS TO RISK FOR UNIDIRECTIONAL AND BIDIRECTIONAL INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE AMONG A SAMPLE OF BLUE-COLLAR COUPLES  

PubMed Central

Understanding how each partner's alcohol problems may contribute to the risk of male-to-female only, female-to-male only, or bidirectional partner violence is important for prevention and treatment of these problems. Multinomial regression analysis was conducted using data from 848 blue-collar couples. Findings suggest that male alcohol problems are linked with male-to-female and bidirectional partner violence, but not to female-to-male partner violence. Female alcohol problems do not appear to be related to any type of partner aggression. Each partner's level of impulsivity was associated with bidirectional partner violence. Male impulsivity was associated with male-to-female violence, and female impulsivity was associated with female-to-male violence. Prevention of male alcohol problems and promotion of non-confrontational conflict solving techniques may help reduce partner aggression among couples in the general household population.

Cunradi, Carol B.; Ames, Genevieve M.; Duke, Michael

2013-01-01

270

Delinquency and Substance Use among Gang-Involved Youth: The Moderating Role of Parenting Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses longitudinal data from an ethnically diverse sample of 300 ninth grade students to examine the moderating effect of parenting practices upon the relationship between gang involvement and adolescent problem behavior. Results of hierarchical linear modeling indicate that gang involvement is a highly significant positive predictor of each of three categories of problem behavior (minor delinquency, major delinquency,

Chanequa J. Walker-Barnes; Craig A. Mason

2004-01-01

271

Involving the commercial sector  

SciTech Connect

A program is discussed to address the radon problem in New Jersey. The first component involves a statewide study to define New Jersey's radon problem in scientific terms. The aim of the study is to develop a listing of areas and housing types to be addressed early because of their potential for radon problems. The second component involves developing and conducting an epidemiologic study of female lung cancer victims in the state in order to determine risk estimates. The third component is a confirmatory monitoring program to provide home owners having apparent evidence of a radon problem with state support.

Nicholls, G.P.; Deieso, D.A.

1987-03-01

272

The final round of the first World Physics Olympiad held in Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia: a sample of problems and solutions and student results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brief report on the final round of the first World Physics Olympiad (WoPhO) held in Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia is presented. The theoretical and experimental problems are presented and the mark distribution is discussed.

Kwee, H. J.; Gunawan, O.; Surya, Y.; Vigh, M.

2013-07-01

273

Two-stage sampling in surveys to substantiate freedom from disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disease in livestock populations tends to cluster at the herd level. In order to account for this—and to overcome the problems of simple random sampling from a very large population—large-scale livestock surveys usually involve two-stage sampling. However, the use of two-stage sampling presents particular problems for sample-size calculation and analysis. We developed a probability formula for two-stage sampling, initially based

Angus R. Cameron; F. Chris Baldock

1998-01-01

274

ADHD and other associated developmental problems in children with mild mental retardation. The use of the "Five-To-Fifteen" questionnaire in a population-based sample.  

PubMed

The aim was to examine the rates and types of parent reported neuropsychiatric problems in children and adolescents with mild mental retardation (MMR) (mild intellectual disability/UK) using the Five-To-Fifteen questionnaire (FTF). The target group comprised all pupils with clinically diagnosed MMR, aged between 7 and 15 years, attending the special schools for children with MMR in two municipalities in a region in the South-West of Sweden. The FTF is a 181-item parent questionnaire with age and gender specific Swedish norms covering eight domains, including the phenomenology of early symptomatic syndromes eliciting neurodevelopmental examinations (ESSENCE), including ADHD, autism, tic syndromes, and various kinds of language, memory, and learning problems. Parents of 63% (39/62) of the eligible target group completed the FTF. After scrutiny of the medical records, 6 of the 39 children were found not to meet criteria for MR. Scores exceeding the 90th centile of the norm group were considered indicative of neuropsychiatric problems. Such high scores are strongly associated with clinically valid ESSENCE/neuropsychiatric disorders. All the examined children with validated MR were reported by their parents to have learning problems. There were very high rates of problems reported in all the other seven FTF domains: perception (88%), language (79%), social skills/autism (76%), memory (67%), emotional problems (58%), motor skills (55%) and executive functions/ADHD (55%). School age children with MMR are all in need of a comprehensive work-up covering not only general cognitive abilities, but also many other areas, including motor skills, executive function/attention, social and emotional/behavioural symptoms/functioning. Such broad assessment (including child screening by parent report with the FTF) will enable a better basis for understanding their special needs of support through life. PMID:21703820

Lindblad, Ida; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

2011-06-23

275

Sampling Development  

PubMed Central

Research in developmental psychology requires sampling at different time points. Accurate depictions of developmental change provide a foundation for further empirical studies and theories about developmental mechanisms. However, overreliance on widely spaced sampling intervals in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs threatens the validity of the enterprise. This article discusses how to sample development in order to accurately discern the shape of developmental change. The ideal solution is daunting: to summarize behavior over 24-hour intervals and collect daily samples over the critical periods of change. We discuss the magnitude of errors due to undersampling, and the risks associated with oversampling. When daily sampling is not feasible, we offer suggestions for sampling methods that can provide preliminary reference points and provisional sketches of the general shape of a developmental trajectory. Denser sampling then can be applied strategically during periods of enhanced variability, inflections in the rate of developmental change, or in relation to key events or processes that may affect the course of change. Despite the challenges of dense repeated sampling, researchers must take seriously the problem of sampling on a developmental time scale if we are to know the true shape of developmental change.

Adolph, Karen E.; Robinson, Scott R.

2011-01-01

276

Is there a bidirectional relationship between maternal well-being and child behavior problems in autism spectrum disorders? Longitudinal analysis of a population-defined sample of young children.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine whether the relationship between maternal psychological well-being and behavior problems in children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is bidirectional. Data were available at 9 months, 3 years, and 5 years old for 132 children with ASD, identified from a population-representative sample of UK children. Three-wave cross-lagged models examined reciprocal effects between child behavior and maternal well-being (psychological distress, physical health functioning, and life satisfaction). Results indicated that the relationships between maternal well-being and child problem behaviors were not bidirectional. Specifically, findings suggested that while early behavior problems are not a risk factor for later maternal well-being, maternal psychological distress, physical health limitations, and lower life satisfaction are risk factors for later child behavior problems. PMID:23436803

Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard P; Emerson, Eric; Lancaster, Gillian A; Berridge, Damon M; Vagenas, Dimitrios

2013-02-21

277

A Survey of Perception, Knowledge, Awareness, and attitude in Regard to Environmental Problems in a Sample of two Different Social Groups in Jakarta, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative study was conducted in 1998 to investigate differences in perception, knowledge, awareness, and attitude with regard to environmental problems between educated and community groups and to identify human-dimension factors to improve public perception, knowledge, awareness, and attitude in relation to global environmental conservation concerns in developing countries. Educated and community groups in Jakarta were interviewed, and data obtained

Sigit Sudarmadi; Shosuke Suzuki; Tomoyuki Kawada; Herawati Netti; Soeharsono Soemantri; A. Tri Tugaswati

2001-01-01

278

ADHD and Other Associated Developmental Problems in Children with Mild Mental Retardation. The Use of the "Five-To-Fifteen" Questionnaire in a Population-Based Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim was to examine the rates and types of parent reported neuropsychiatric problems in children and adolescents with mild mental retardation (MMR) (mild intellectual disability/UK) using the Five-To-Fifteen questionnaire (FTF). The target group comprised all pupils with clinically diagnosed MMR, aged between 7 and 15 years, attending the…

Lindblad, Ida; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

2011-01-01

279

Youth: Criminal Involvement and Problems of Resocialization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a survey of youth crime, youthful criminals, and efforts at resocialization in contemporary Russia. Asserts that political and social change have resulted in social stratification and criminal behavior. Maintains that the high level of recidivism is caused by a lack of coordinated efforts by public institutions. (CFR)

Lelekov, V. A.; Prokhorov, Iu. N.

1995-01-01

280

Practical Problems Involving Phase Noise Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

RADAR systems, secure communications, space-based applications, precision navigation, and computer timing applications are among some of the increasingly large number of modern electronic systems with phase noise performance requirements. Making these mea...

W. F. Walls

2001-01-01

281

Problems with "n"th-Term Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An nth-term problem involves a sequence. Students must determine which expression will allow them to calculate the nth position of the sequence. To solve such problems, students are to find "a rule that determines the number of elements in a step from the step number." These types of problems help students develop concepts of functions,…

Matteson, Shirley M.

2010-01-01

282

ADHD and other associated developmental problems in children with mild mental retardation. The use of the “Five-To-Fifteen” questionnaire in a population-based sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim was to examine the rates and types of parent reported neuropsychiatric problems in children and adolescents with mild mental retardation (MMR) (mild intellectual disability\\/UK) using the Five-To-Fifteen questionnaire (FTF). The target group comprised all pupils with clinically diagnosed MMR, aged between 7 and 15 years, attending the special schools for children with MMR in two municipalities in a

Ida Lindblad; Christopher Gillberg; Elisabeth Fernell

2011-01-01

283

A Bayes Sequential Sampling Inspection Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given a lot of size $N$ whose items are obtained from a statistically controlled process with an unknown probability $p, 0 < p < 1$, of an item being defective, a rectifying sampling inspection problem arises when the loss involved in sending out the lot with $d, 0 \\\\leqq d \\\\leqq N$, defectives in it is $kd$ where $k >

Herman Chernoff; S. N. Ray

1965-01-01

284

Cryofocusing in the combination of gas chromatography with equilibrium headspace sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  When headspace gas chromatography utilizing capillary columns is used for trace analysis, sample enrichment is often needed. This involves splitless sample injection of fairly large gas volumes and relatively long sampling times. As a result of this, the band of the sample vapor may be too large causing peak distortion and poor resolution. This problem can be easily overcome by

B. Kolb; B. Liebhardt; L. S. Ettre

1986-01-01

285

Teacher Report of Children's Problem Behavior on The Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory-Revised (SESBI-R) in a Norwegian Sample of Preschool and School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the present study, the applicability of The Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory-Revised (SESBI-R) was explored within a Norwegian sample of 983 children aged 3-8 years. By using an exploratory factor analysis the same 2-factor solution as the original SESBI-R was supported by Principal Component Analysis. Good internal consistency (alpha…

Kirkhaug, Bente; Drugli, May Britt; Morch, Willy-Tore; Handegard, Bjorn Helge

2012-01-01

286

Comparison of experiments in statistical decision problems with fuzzy utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The choice of an optimal action in a decision-making problem involving fuzzy utilities has been reduced in most previous studies to modeling the fuzzy utilities and the expected fuzzy utility and selecting a technique for ranking fuzzy numbers that fits the situation. A new element is incorporated in the decision problem, namely, the sample information supplied by a random experiment

Maria Angeles Gil; Pramod Jain

1992-01-01

287

[Family Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This theme issue provides four articles that address family involvement in the transition of youth with disabilities from school to work. The first article, "Family Involvement" by Marge Goldberg and Shauna McDonald, offers evidence of the importance of family involvement at this stage of the individual's life, reports on families' experiences,…

Alliance: The Newsletter of the National Transition Alliance, 1996

1996-01-01

288

HIV Problem Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem space enables investigators to explore data from a published study by Markham et al on HIV evolution within individual patients. The study involved 15 injection drug users in Baltimore, Maryland (USA) who became infected with HIV between 1989 and 1992. Patients came in at approximately six-month intervals ("visits") to have blood samples taken. From these samples, the researchers extracted and sequenced multiple copies of proviral DNA. Patients' CD4 counts were also measured at each visit to assess their level of immune function. In this problem space, you will have access to the following materials: * background information on HIV/AIDS, * the original Markham et al. reference and other primary literature, * viral sequences from each visit of each patient, * patients' CD4 counts at each visit, * phylogenetic trees of the virus sequences from each patient, * a phylogenetic tree of each patient's starting consensus viral sequence, * a published activity using this data from the book Microbes Count!, * and additional materials prepared by other users of the problem space. You can use this data to explore a number of different questions. Here are a few general questions to get you started: * Does the virus evolve the same way in different patients? * Are there any specific mutations that cause rapid immune decline? * What types of natural selection might be influencing HIV evolution? * Is HIV being transmitted between patients after initial infection?

Anton Weisstein (Truman State University;Biology); Samuel Donovan (University of Pittsburgh;)

2005-12-16

289

An integrated approach for multi-level sample size determination  

SciTech Connect

this paper gives an integrated approach to sampling problems involving a series of increasingly sensitive measurements on correspondingly smaller sample sizes which proceeds logically from level to level with increasing accuracy. The methods and results are consistent with those presently used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), serve to elucidate the underlying concepts, and often simplify the calculations.

Lu, M.S.; Sanborn, J.B. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Teichmann, T. [Vienna (Austria)

1997-02-01

290

Oil Sampling Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sampling of oil in the environment, depending upon the thickness of the slick, can present certain operational problems, most paramount of which is the collection of an adequate volume of sample required for identification by chemical analyses. Several ba...

1969-01-01

291

Does the association with psychosomatic health problems differ between cyberbullying and traditional bullying?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between mental health problems and traditional bullying is well known, whereas the strength of the association in cyberbullying is less known. This study aimed to compare the association between mutually exclusive groups of bullying involvement and psychosomatic problems as measured by the PsychoSomatic Problems scale. The sample comprised 3820 students (13–16 years old) in Sweden. The results indicate

Linda Beckman; Curt Hagquist; Lisa Hellström

2012-01-01

292

Does the Association with Psychosomatic Health Problems Differ between Cyberbullying and Traditional Bullying?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The association between mental health problems and traditional bullying is well known, whereas the strength of the association in cyberbullying is less known. This study aimed to compare the association between mutually exclusive groups of bullying involvement and psychosomatic problems as measured by the PsychoSomatic Problems scale. The sample…

Beckman, Linda; Hagquist, Curt; Hellstrom, Lisa

2012-01-01

293

Does the Association with Psychosomatic Health Problems Differ between Cyberbullying and Traditional Bullying?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The association between mental health problems and traditional bullying is well known, whereas the strength of the association in cyberbullying is less known. This study aimed to compare the association between mutually exclusive groups of bullying involvement and psychosomatic problems as measured by the PsychoSomatic Problems scale. The sample…

Beckman, Linda; Hagquist, Curt; Hellstrom, Lisa

2012-01-01

294

Student Involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of my research was to find out what attracts students to get involved on campus. I wanted to take an in depth look at student involvement and what keeps students engaged in Western Michigan University. I asked students about student organization recruitment and advertising on campus. In addition, I asked students about WMU’s non-academic support services to gain

Brianne E. Miller

2011-01-01

295

Reverse mapping of normal tissue complication probabilities onto dose volume histogram space: the problem of randomness of the dose volume histogram sampling.  

PubMed

A very important issue in contemporary inverse treatment radiotherapy planning is the specification of proper dose-volume constraints limiting the treatment planning algorithm from delivering high doses to the normal tissue surrounding the tumor. Recently we have proposed a method called reverse mapping of normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP) onto dose-volume histogram (DVH) space, which allows the calculation of appropriate biologically based dose-volume constraints to be used in the inverse treatment planning. The method of reverse mapping requires random sampling from the functional space of all monotonically decreasing functions in the unit square. We develop, in this paper, a random function generator for the purpose of the reverse mapping. Since the proposed generator is based on the theory of random walk, it is therefore designated in this work, as a random walk DVH generator. It is theoretically determined that the distribution of the number of monotonically decreasing functions passing through a point in the dose volume histogram space follows the hypergeometric distribution. The proposed random walk DVH generator thus simulates, in a random fashion, trajectories of monotonically decreasing functions (finite series) that are situated in the unit square [0, 1] X [1,0] using the hypergeometric distribution. The DVH generator is an important tool in the study of reverse NTCP mapping for the calculation of biologically based dose-volume constraints for inverse treatment planning. PMID:17022240

Markov, Krassimir; Schinkel, Colleen; Stavreva, Nadia; Stavrev, Pavel; Weldon, Michael; Fallone, B Gino

2006-09-01

296

Reverse mapping of normal tissue complication probabilities onto dose volume histogram space: The problem of randomness of the dose volume histogram sampling  

SciTech Connect

A very important issue in contemporary inverse treatment radiotherapy planning is the specification of proper dose-volume constraints limiting the treatment planning algorithm from delivering high doses to the normal tissue surrounding the tumor. Recently we have proposed a method called reverse mapping of normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP) onto dose-volume histogram (DVH) space, which allows the calculation of appropriate biologically based dose-volume constraints to be used in the inverse treatment planning. The method of reverse mapping requires random sampling from the functional space of all monotonically decreasing functions in the unit square. We develop, in this paper, a random function generator for the purpose of the reverse mapping. Since the proposed generator is based on the theory of random walk, it is therefore designated in this work, as a random walk DVH generator. It is theoretically determined that the distribution of the number of monotonically decreasing functions passing through a point in the dose volume histogram space follows the hypergeometric distribution. The proposed random walk DVH generator thus simulates, in a random fashion, trajectories of monotonically decreasing functions (finite series) that are situated in the unit square [0,1]x[1,0] using the hypergeometric distribution. The DVH generator is an important tool in the study of reverse NTCP mapping for the calculation of biologically based dose-volume constraints for inverse treatment planning.

Markov, Krassimir; Schinkel, Colleen; Stavreva, Nadia; Stavrev, Pavel; Weldon, Michael; Fallone, B. Gino [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G1Z2 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Alberta, and Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G1Z2 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G1Z2 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G1Z2 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Alberta, and Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G1Z2 (Canada); Departments of Physics and Oncology, University of Alberta, and Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G1Z2 (Canada)

2006-09-15

297

The nature versus nurture problem. I. Definition of the problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a definition of the nature versus nurture problem which emphasizes throughout practical problems of social control, together with a criticism of attempts to solve the problem with experiments on sub-human species, and a catalogue of the necessary conditions, limitations, and implications involved in the formulation and solution of the problem. The immediate problem is \\

F. K. Shuttleworth

1935-01-01

298

Young children's performance on a task sensitive to the memory functions of the medial temporal lobe in adults--the delayed nonmatching-to-sample task--reveals problems that are due to non-memory-related task demands.  

PubMed

Delayed nonmatching-to-sample performance was examined in children and found to be poor from 12 months until almost 2 years even at 5-s delay, although 5 s is well within such children's memory capacity. After 12 months of age, performance did not differ by delay (5 or 30 s). Because children's problems seemed largely unrelated to the task's memory demands, the 2 final studies explored the role of other cognitive abilities (deduction of an abstract rule, speed of processing, and resistance to interference or distraction). Telling children the rule or quadrupling sample presentation time had little effect. Because a salient stimulus (the reward) might interfere with keeping one's attention on the sample, the reward was omitted during initial sample presentation. This helped; at the 5-s delay, 15-month-olds performed at least as well as 21-month-olds in the basic condition, and 12-month-olds performed almost as well. Implications for the cognitive abilities improving during the 2nd year and for the functions of the medial temporal lobe are discussed. PMID:7986361

Diamond, A; Towle, C; Boyer, K

1994-08-01

299

Redox spectrophotometric method involving electrolytically generated manganese(III) sulphate with diphenylamine for the determination of ascorbic acid present in the samples of various fruits, commercial juices and sprouted food grains.  

PubMed

A spectrophotometric method was developed for ascorbic acid present in various fruits, commercial fruit juices and sprouted food grains. The method involves the oxidation of ascorbic acid with excess manganese(III) following reduction of unreacted manganese(III) with diphenylamine or barium diphenylamine sulphonate forming a product ?(max) 570 nm the system 1 or 540 nm the system 2 and decrease in the colour intensity is proportional to the concentration of vitamin C with quantification range 0.3-3.0 ?g ml(-1). The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity values of the system 1 and the system 2 were 1.829 × 10(4) and 1.813 × 10(4)mol(-1)cm(-1) and 0.0096 and 0.0097 ?g cm(-2) respectively. The stoichiometry was 4:1 between manganese(III) and diphenylamine. The ascorbic acid contents of the same samples were determined separately following the procedures of the developed method as well as the reference method and the results were comparable. PMID:23411340

Shyla, B; Nagendrappa, G

2012-11-24

300

Sampling Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tremendous increase in computing capacity 1ias allowed us to solve the radiative transfer equation at several thousand frequency points during the iterative solution of the classic model atmosphere problem, and to construct a much more detailed and realistic sampling of the opacity than in earlier models. V,T the harmonic mean and straight mean enable a very fast computation of the model structure, the errors in such simple opacity treatments may be bigger than the errors due to neglect of all improvements in the physics included in computations of model atmospheres of cool stars during the last 25 years! Yet the most simple harmonic mean sampling method the Rosseland mean is often still used to compute boundary conditions for evolutionary models of cool stars. Statistical transformation of measured straight mean absorption coefficients into individual lines, followed by careful sampling, has been a considerable improvement over the direct use of the straight absorption coefficient in the construction of model atmospheres. Key words: OPACITIES - STARS: ATMOSPHERES

Jorgensen, U. G.

1992-03-01

301

Balance Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady or as ... fall-related injuries, such as hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

302

Gender Disparity in Mathematical Performance Revisited: Can Training in Problem Solving Bring Difference Between Boys and Girls?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the problem solving performance of male and female students' mathematical problem-solving performances using Conceptual Learning Strategy (CLS) and Procedural Learning Strategy (PLS).A sample of 124 science students assigned into CLS, PLS and Conventional Method (CM) groups were involved in the study making use of pretest, post test control group design. The sample was drawn from three intact

M. A. Adeleke

2007-01-01

303

Impact of couple patterns of problem solving on distress and nondistress in dating relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theory of couple patterns of problem solving that involves the Rusbult and Zembrodt (1983) exit- voice-loyalty-neglect typology of problem-solving responses is advanced and tested in a sample of dating relationships. Destructive problem-solving responses (exit and neglect) were more powerfully predictive of couple distress\\/nondistress than were constructive problem-solving behaviors (voice and loyalty). Tendencies to react with voice to mild relationship

Caryl E. Rusbult; Dennis J. Johnson; Gregory D. Morrow

1986-01-01

304

Young children's analogical problem solving: Gaining insights from video displays.  

PubMed

This study examined how toddlers gain insights from source video displays and use the insights to solve analogous problems. The sample of 2- and 2.5-year-olds viewed a source video illustrating a problem-solving strategy and then attempted to solve analogous problems. Older, but not younger, toddlers extracted the problem-solving strategy depicted in the video and spontaneously transferred the strategy to solve isomorphic problems. Transfer by analogy from the video was evident only when the video illustrated the complete problem goal structure, including the character's intention and the action needed to achieve a goal. The same action isolated from the problem-solving context did not serve as an effective source analogue. These results illuminate the development of early representation and processes involved in analogical problem solving. Theoretical and educational implications are discussed. PMID:24077465

Chen, Zhe; Siegler, Robert S

2013-09-27

305

Problems in monitoring dust levels within mines.  

PubMed

The collection of dust samples in mines is a multifaceted problem. Initially, one must define the situation being sampled and the purpose of the sampling in order to establish an appropriate sampling plan, including specification of the type of mining process (surface vs. underground, metal vs. nonmetal vs. coal) as well as the mining system employed (equipment). The next step is to decide the nature of the hazard being monitored (i.e., dust depositing in alveolar air spaces entails use of respirable dust sampling, upper airways entails thoracic-fraction sampler, and systemic effects call for an inhalable-fraction sampler) in order to select the appropriate sampler. Deciding on a particular sampling strategy is a complex issue involving federal regulations as well as compliance. PMID:8456351

Hearl, F J; Hewett, P

306

Test Problems for Hydrocodes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A collection of exact solutions to the inviscid (Euler) equations of motion is presented for use in testing finite-difference calculations. The emphasis is on problems involving solid explosives and inerts. (ERA citation 06:019162)

W. Fickett W. C. Rivard

1981-01-01

307

The “Coupon Collector's Problem” and Quality Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the classical “coupon collector's problem” and applies several key results to certain problems in quality control sampling. It is shown how solutions to the coupon sampling problem are readily adaptable to industrial sampling problems where the intent is to sample at least 1 of k specific product unit types in a well mixed stream of product where

Stephen N. Luko

2009-01-01

308

Wakeup Problem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We study a new problem, the wakeup problem that seems to be very fundamental in distributed computing. We present efficient solutions to the problem, and show how these solution can be used to solve the consensus problem, the leader election problem, and ...

G. Taubenfeld M. J. Fischer S. Moran S. Rudich

1990-01-01

309

California's Water Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This packet of instructional materials is designed to give social science students in grades 6-9 a first-hand experience in working out solutions to real-life problems involving the management of California's water. Students work in groups on one of three problems presented in the packet: (1) the management of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta…

Wheatley, Judy; Sudman, Rita Schmidt, Ed.

310

Expert sample analysis planner.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Analytical chemists are faced with the problem of choosing an appropriate analytical technique for a particular sample and weighing the options as they affect precision, time, and cost. This paper describes a computer technique to assist managers in revie...

W. A. Spencer W. S. Parks

1990-01-01

311

Response rates and selection problems, with emphasis on mental health variables and DNA sampling, in large population-based, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of adolescents in Norway  

PubMed Central

Background Selection bias is a threat to the internal validity of epidemiological studies. In light of a growing number of studies which aim to provide DNA, as well as a considerable number of invitees who declined to participate, we discuss response rates, predictors of lost to follow-up and failure to provide DNA, and the presence of possible selection bias, based on five samples of adolescents. Methods We included nearly 7,000 adolescents from two longitudinal studies of 18/19 year olds with two corresponding cross-sectional baseline studies at age 15/16 (10th graders), and one cross-sectional study of 13th graders (18/19 years old). DNA was sampled from the cheek mucosa of 18/19 year olds. Predictors of lost to follow-up and failure to provide DNA were studied by Poisson regression. Selection bias in the follow-up at age 18/19 was estimated through investigation of prevalence ratios (PRs) between selected exposures (physical activity, smoking) and outcome variables (general health, mental distress, externalizing problems) measured at baseline. Results Out of 5,750 who participated at age 15/16, we lost 42% at follow-up at age 18/19. The percentage of participants who gave their consent to DNA provision was as high as the percentage that consented to a linkage of data with other health registers and surveys, approximately 90%. Significant predictors of lost to follow-up and failure to provide DNA samples in the present genetic epidemiological study were: male gender; non-western ethnicity; postal survey compared with school-based; low educational plans; low education and income of father; low perceived family economy; unmarried parents; poor self-reported health; externalized symptoms and smoking, with some differences in subgroups of ethnicity and gender. The association measures (PRs) were quite similar among participants and all invitees, with some minor discrepancies in subgroups of non-western boys and girls. Conclusions Lost to follow-up had marginal impact on the estimated prevalence ratios. It is not likely that the invitation to provide DNA influenced the response rates of 18/19 year olds. Non-western ethnicity, male gender and characteristics related to a low social class and general and mental health problems measured at baseline are associated with lost to follow-up and failure to provide DNA.

2010-01-01

312

Energy Problems and Environmental Concern  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses problems encountered in energy extraction and consumption, involving nuclear power plant construction, environmental consequences of energy systems, and energy conservation ethics. Indicates that the increasing concern over environmental quality is not the true cause of present energy problems. (CC)|

Train, Russell E.

1973-01-01

313

Fibonacci's Triangle: A Vehicle for Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A method for solving certain types of problems is illustrated by problems related to Fibonacci's triangle. The method involves pattern recognition, generalizing, algebraic manipulation, and mathematical induction. (MP)|

Ouellette, Hugh

1979-01-01

314

The Perennial Problem of Police Gratuities: Public Concerns, Political Optics, and An Accountability Ethos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the perennial nature of the problem of gratuities in considerations of police ethics, many prior analyses of this issue have rested on anecdotal, piecemeal or hypothetical considerations. This paper draws on a unique sample of actual complaint cases involving gratuities, providing evidence of a range of public concerns about the problem. Gratuities are analysed and contextualised by reference to

Cindy Davids; Gordon Boyce

2008-01-01

315

Observer-Based Control for Sampled-Data Fuzzy Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate an observed-state feedback stabilization problem involving sampled-data fuzzy systems arising from rapid growth of digital controller implementations. The underlying closed-loop fuzzy system is shown to be asymptotically stable when intersampling effects are taken into account. Being a periodically time-varying hybrid discrete\\/continuous system, the Riccati inequality associated with the sampled-data system poses difficulties for stabilization analysis using LMI convex

Ji-Chang Lo; Li-Tsun Hsieh

2005-01-01

316

Systematic Sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives an account of the results of an investigation into one-dimensional systematic sampling, i.e. the sampling of sequences of quantitative values by the use of sampling points equally spaced along the sequence. New methods, using what are termed partial systematic samples, are evolved for estimating the systematic sampling error from short sections of sequences of completely enumerated numerical

F. Yates

1948-01-01

317

Sampling Error  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This one page article, created by Statistics Canada, describes the meaning behind random sampling error. It points our the relationship of the random sampling error with the sample size, population size, variability of the characteristic, sampling plan, and measuring sampling error. While brief, this provides valuable information and also links users to additional resources concerning statistics.

2009-01-07

318

Civic Involvement Survey, 1997  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In March 2001, the American Religion Data Archive posted data "on the level and types of civic involvement of a nationally representative sample of American adults. Extensive questions about respondents' religious activities and beliefs are also included in the survey." In addition to the data's description, users can view the codebook, download the data, and search or analyze the data. Download options include ExplorIt Software, MicroCase 4.0, SPSS portable file, and ASCII.

2001-01-01

319

Nadaraya-Watson estimator for sensor fusion problems  

SciTech Connect

The classical Nadaraya-Watson estimator is shown to solve a generic sensor fusion problem where the underlying sensor error densities are not known but a sample is available. By employing Haar kernels this estimator is shown to yield finite sample guarantees and also to be efficiently computable. Two simulation examples, and a robotics example involving the detection of a door using arrays of ultrasonic and infrared sensors, are presented to illustrate the performance.

Rao, N.S.V.

1996-10-01

320

Interpreting anonymous DNA samples from mass disasters - probabilistic forensic inference using genetic markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: The problem of identifying victims in a mass disa- ster using DNA fingerprints involves a scale of computation that requires efficient and accurate algorithms. In a typical scenario there are hundreds of samples taken from remains that must be matched to the pedigrees of the alleged victim's surviving relatives. Moreover the samples are often degraded due to heat and

Tien-ho Lin; Eugene W. Myers; Eric P. Xing

2006-01-01

321

IMAGE: Weekly Problem Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the Image for Magnetopause-to-Auroral Global Exploration (IMAGE) archive of weekly math, science, reading and art problems. New problems involving near-Earth space technology are emailed to participating teachers each week on Tuesday. The problems can be used in related lessons or as extra credit assignments. This web page is part of the outreach program of the IMAGE Satellite team to give teachers and students the latest information about aurora and the study of Earth's magnetic field, along with many programs that IMAGE has developed or participated in with NASA. A pdf document of extra credit problems is also available at this site.

Odenwald, Sten

322

Multiple Sampling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents a computer program designed for use in the development of up to seven step multiple sampling plans. Fixed lot sampling using attributes is discussed for single, double, and multiple sampling approaches. The paper presents some advantag...

J. G. Gilley

1973-01-01

323

Sampling the Ocean Floor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students take samples from an unseen model of the ocean floor and try to accurately describe its composition. It will introduce the students to the limitations of sampling and the problem of obtaining representative samples of sea floor sediments. The lesson can also be an introduction to a study of geological oceanography or local geology. Younger children can use symbols or icons to keep track of the different sediment types as they sample, and make graphs of the total numbers of each type of sediment. Older students can compute percentages and compare the accuracy of each sample group to the actual composition of the ocean floor.

324

Sport involvement, sport violence and health behaviours of Greek adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Within the context of problem-behaviour theory, this study investigated the intra-relationship between attitudes and behaviours towards exercise, sport involvement, violence in sport-related events, eating fruits, smoking and hashish or ecstasy use in a sample of Greek adolescents. Age and gender patterns are considered. Methods: Participants were 5991 Greek school pupils who responded to questionnaires assessing behaviour and attitudes towards

ATHANASIOS PAPAIOANNOU; CALLIOPE KARASTOGIANNIDOU; YANNIS THEODORAKIS

2004-01-01

325

Judgment by Sampling (2)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, created by A.F. Bissell of Abergavenny, follows Judgment by Sampling (1), in which the author analyzes a quality control problem. This paper presents the operating characteristic curve for the sampling plan devised in the first article. This is a brief lesson, but it still introduces many concepts pertinent to both statistical testing and sampling. The precursor to this lesson is available at this location:http://www.rsscse.org.uk/ts/bts/bissell1/text.html

Bissell, A. F.

2011-06-20

326

Inverse Problems in Wave Scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The workshop treated inverse problems for partial differential equations, especially inverse scattering problems, and their applications in technology. While special attention was paid to sampling methods, decom- position methods, Newton methods and questions of unique determination were also investigated.

Martin Hanke-Bourgeois; Andreas Kirsch; William Rundell

2007-01-01

327

Problem drinkers and their problems  

PubMed Central

From general practice records of 9,763 patients, 106 problem drinkers were compared with a control group. The drinkers had a substantially higher number of problems and they consulted their doctor and attended casualty departments frequently. Social and marital problems were especially prevalent in the families of problem drinkers.

Buchan, I. C.; Buckley, E. G.; Deacon, G. L. S.; Irvine, R.; Ryan, M. P.

1981-01-01

328

Simulation of a Forensic Chemistry Problem: A Multidisciplinary Project for Secondary School Chemistry Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multidisciplinary chemistry project for high school students is presented based upon a forensic theme and team problem solving approach. The project involves data collection and interpretation using FTIR, HPLC, NMR, and TLC. Simulated evidence sample formulations and a sample assignment scheme are presented.

G. A. Long

1995-01-01

329

Estudo de codigos de analises de reatores disponiveis no IPEN e suas aplicacoes em problemas de difusao de neutron em multigrupo. (Study of reactor analysis codes available at IPEN and their application to problems involving the diffusion theory).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two computer codes that are available at IPEN for analyses of static neutron diffusion problems are studied and applied. The CITATION code is animed at analyses of criticality, fuel burnup, flux and power distributions etc, in one, two, and three spatial ...

A. G. Mendonca

1980-01-01

330

Factors Associated with Time to Identify Physical Problems of Nursing Home Residents with Dementia  

PubMed Central

This study describes new problems emerging over six weeks for nursing home residents with advanced dementia and factors associated with time to identify the problems. The sample of 65 developed 149 new acute problems or exacerbations of existing conditions over the six weeks of data collection. The majority of these problems involved uncontrolled pain, new infections and severe psychoses. Nurse assessment skill was associated with a shorter time to identify the new problem and more time spent on the problem. A higher ratio of new to existing interventions was also associated with a shorter time to identify the problem. Other patient characteristics associated with time to identify problems included non-specific vocalizations, physical signs, cognitive status and length of stay. While future research is warranted, findings from this study highlight the frequency of problems requiring treatment and suggest that improved assessment of residents may decrease the time to identify new problems.

Kovach, Christine R.; Logan, Brent R.; Simpson, Michelle R.; Reynolds, Sheila

2010-01-01

331

National Sample Assessment Protocols  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These protocols represent a working guide for planning and implementing national sample assessments in connection with the national Key Performance Measures (KPMs). The protocols are intended for agencies involved in planning or conducting national sample assessments and personnel responsible for administering associated tenders or contracts,…

Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2012

2012-01-01

332

Treat Medication Samples with Respect  

MedlinePLUS

... a voucher program for medication samples. Problems with medication samples begin when they are dispensed from the office without clear instructions for use. Errors of all types have occurred when patients are ...

333

Sample Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article considers various kinds of probability and non-probability samples in both experimental and survey studies. Throughout, how a sample is chosen is stressed. Size alone is not the determining consideration in sample selection. Good samples do not occur by accident; they are the result of a careful design. (Author/JAZ)

Ross, Kenneth N.

1987-01-01

334

Walking Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... get around, and exercise. Having a problem with walking can make daily life more difficult. The pattern ... an abnormal gait and lead to problems with walking. These include: Injuries, diseases, or abnormal development of ...

335

Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Problem solving and thinking are inseparably linked together. We propose that a theory of thinking has to consider and incorporate\\u000a the notion of problem solving. In this chapter, we review the most important accounts of problem solving and hope to convince\\u000a the reader that problem solving may provide an ideal framework for developing a theory of thinking.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a We start with

Michael Öllinger; Vinod Goel

336

Speech Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... an accident, stroke, or birth defect may have speech and language problems. Apraxia is thought to be due to a brain impairment that may or may not show up on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ... problems, particularly articulation disorders, may have hearing problems. ...

337

Sampling diffusive transition paths  

SciTech Connect

We address the problem of sampling double-ended diffusive paths. The ensemble of paths is expressed using a symmetric version of the Onsager-Machlup formula, which only requires evaluation of the force field and which, upon direct time discretization, gives rise to a symmetric integrator that is accurate to second order. Efficiently sampling this ensemble requires avoiding the well-known stiffness problem associated with sampling infinitesimal Brownian increments of the path, as well as a different type of stiffness associated with sampling the coarse features of long paths. The fine-features sampling stiffness is eliminated with the use of the fast sampling algorithm (FSA), and the coarse-feature sampling stiffness is avoided by introducing the sliding and sampling (S&S) algorithm. A key feature of the S&S algorithm is that it enables massively parallel computers to sample diffusive trajectories that are long in time. We use the algorithm to sample the transition path ensemble for the structural interconversion of the 38-atom Lennard-Jones cluster at low temperature.

F. Miller III, Thomas; Predescu, Cristian

2006-10-12

338

Sampling Distribution of Sample Means  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet generates a graph of the sampling distribution of sample means and displays the probabilities associated with that distribution. Users enter the mean and standard deviation of the source population and the size of the samples. The applet also calculates the standard error of the sample means.

Lowry, Richard

2009-01-08

339

Sampling Distributions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet simulates and plots the sampling distribution of various statistics (i.e. mean, standard deviation, variance). The applet allows the user to specify the population distribution, sample size, and statistic. An animated sample from the population is shown and the statistic is plotted. This can be repeated to produce the sampling distribution of the statistic. After the sampling distribution is plotted it can be compared to a normal distribution by overlaying a normal curve. These features make it useful for introducing students in a first course to the idea of a sampling distribution. The site also includes instructions and exercises.

Lane, David M.

2009-11-26

340

Sampling Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Accurate analytical data for pharmaceutical dosage forms are dependent on adequate sample preparation and appropriate sample\\u000a analysis methods. In addition, in order for the results to truly reflect the quality of the overall batch, the sample tested\\u000a must be representative of the batch. Sampling is the first step and a critical aspect of the overall analysis process. Many\\u000a analysts, however,

Dawen Kou; Hua Ma; Edmund J. Bishop; Shangdong Zhan; Hitesh P. Chokshi

341

Probability Sampling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, created by author William M.K. Trochim, describes in detail five different types of random sampling. Some of these types include: simple random, stratified random, systematic random, cluster random, multi-stage sampling. The author provides examples, definitions, and the procedures behind the methods. Overall, this site provides a nice overview of probability sampling.

Trochim, William M.

2008-12-30

342

Delinquency and substance use among gang-involved youth: the moderating role of parenting practices.  

PubMed

This study uses longitudinal data from an ethnically diverse sample of 300 ninth grade students to examine the moderating effect of parenting practices upon the relationship between gang involvement and adolescent problem behavior. Results of hierarchical linear modeling indicate that gang involvement is a highly significant positive predictor of each of three categories of problem behavior (minor delinquency, major delinquency, and substance use). Three of the four parenting variables (behavioral control, psychological control, parent-adolescent conflict, and warmth) are found to moderate the relationship between gang involvement and problem behavior, with the most consistent effects found for behavioral control and warmth. These findings indicate that intervention efforts aimed at reducing the impact of gang involvement on adolescent development should consider factors that may decrease the deleterious behavioral outcomes associated with youth gangs. PMID:15663209

Walker-Barnes, Chanequa J; Mason, Craig A

2004-12-01

343

[Proposal of psychomotor skill assessment tests for drivers and a protocol for sampling and testing of saliva, blood and urine when there is reason to suspect involvement of substances with alcohol-like effect].  

PubMed

The paper proposes tests to assess psychomotor impairment in drivers suspected of using substances acting similarly to alcohol. The authors also present a proposal for the protocol to be used in sampling and testing of saliva, blood and urine when psychoactive substance abuse has been suspected. A detailed procedure is based on the joined experience of German, U.S. and Polish police from Gdansk. The purpose of the appendix is to help police officers to perform and document tests confirming psychomotor impairment, as well as to provide the basis for saliva, urine and blood analysis. PMID:23650844

Wiergowski, Marek; Jankowski, Zbigniew; Tomczak, Ewa; Anand, Jacek Sein; Zió?kowski, Rafa?; Staniszewski, Janusz

344

Dangers of lab-plant scaleup for filters involving solidliquid systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many laboratory procedures have been used for predicting the size of clarifiers, thickeners, filters, and centrifuges or choosing the optimum quantity of filter-aid and flocculants. Scaleup predictions are frequently based on experiments involving small pressure and vacuum filters, compression-permeability cells, and sedimentation rates. Among major problems related to the accuracy of scaleup are: (1) unrepresentative sampling, (2) aging of suspensions

Frank M. Tiller; Wenping Li; Carina Alles

2003-01-01

345

Weekly Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an archive of previous problems from "Math by the Month", a regular department of Teaching Children Mathematics Journal from NCTM for K-5 teachers that features activities organized by grades K-2 and grades 3-5 and usually based on a theme associated with the particular month. Activities and problems posed are classroom-tested with an inquiry or problem-solving orientation.

2011-01-01

346

Problem Stabilization  

PubMed Central

Background Public health nurse (PHN) home visiting programs have been widely employed to improve life course trajectories for high risk mothers. Home visiting programs are often lengthy, during which PHNs simultaneously address multiple problems using diverse interventions over several client encounters. To manage PHN caseloads it is critical to understand the trajectory of client improvement and the optimal duration or services. PHN documentation data enable intervention trajectory research for specific client problems. A new metric called problem stabilization is proposed for evaluating interim improvement during PHN home visiting. Problem stabilization is an intervention pattern for a client problem that is characterized by co-occurring actions (i.e. teaching, guidance, and counseling; treatments and procedures; case management; and/or surveillance) during a client encounter; followed by surveillance actions only for that problem during a subsequent client encounter. The purpose of the study was to investigate problem stabilization during home visiting services for high risk mothers. Methods A retrospective cohort was created using family home visiting intervention documentation data from a local Midwest public health agency over a six year period (2000–2005). The data set consisted of Omaha System interventions for 720 high risk mothers. Analysis was conducted using descriptive statistics and Kaplan Meier curves. Results On average 30.1% of the time, client problems stabilized before discharge. Stabilization patterns differed by problem. Time to stabilization was longest for Caretaking/parenting and Antepartum/postpartum problems, and shortest for Residence and Mental health problems. Conclusions Problem stabilization, a proposed intermediate outcome of PHN home visiting care, appears to be meaningful in describing client response to PHN intervention. This metric is an example of meaningful use of structured clinical electronic health record data for program evaluation and clinical decision support.

Monsen, K.A.; Farri, O.; McNaughton, D.B.; Savik, Kay

2011-01-01

347

A Sample of Sampling Definitions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a study examing 34 introductory psychological statistics texts for their usage and definitions of the terms "random sample" and "simple random sampling." Results showed a high percentage of conceptual errors. (CK)|

Bobko, Philip; And Others

1980-01-01

348

Parking Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is the story of a real problem, not a problem that is contrived, or invented for the convenience of the appropriate planning tool. This activity by a group of students, defined simply as "8FN", might be likened to an "end of term concert". If you just happened to be a delegate at the ATM Conference 2003 you might remember the analogy. Social…

Foster, Colin

2012-01-01

349

Packages problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

As is the case with any fledgling business, the cogeneration industry has experienced its fair share of problems. But those commercial system manufacturers still in the business are looking forward to the 1990s. The original market, they argue, still exists. If the problems many experienced in the 1980s can be overcome, they say, the independent energy market will continue to

Gawlicki

1990-01-01

350

Knee Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... have knee pain? Yes You may have a hip problem that feels like knee pain. See your doctor. No For more information, please talk to your doctor. If you think the problem is serious, call your doctor right away. This tool has been reviewed by doctors ...

351

Word Problems: Simple Interest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site explains to students the concept of simple interest, the four variables involved, and the formula for calculating simple interest. There is an example problem and two practice questions with hints and two more for students to take on individually. Students may check their answers when they are finished.

Taylor, Sharon

2005-01-01

352

Children Solve Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A group of children were presented with several tasks, including the invention of a sleep machine and a machine to weigh elephants. The tasks were chosen to involve the children in coping with problems of a distinct character. A study of the children's drawings and interpretations shows that children's thinking ability is not very different from…

De Bono, Edward

353

Chemical Reaction Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the role of chemical-equation problem solving in helping students predict reaction products. Methods for helping students learn this process must be taught to students and future teachers by using pedagogical skills within the content of chemistry. Emphasizes that solving chemical reactions should involve creative cognition where…

Veal, William

1999-01-01

354

Problem Patron Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document presents guidelines for handling disruptive behavior in the Schenectady County Public Library (New York). Specific responses are listed for dealing with questions about library selection policy and sudden patron illness or injury. Also listed are responses to problem situations involving angry or irate patrons, assault or physically…

Brown, Marion, Comp.; And Others

355

Sampling Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will learn about sampling through an investigation of rocks found in the schoolyard. This will provide a start to understanding everyday statistics. They will first collect and analyze a sample of rocks from the schoolyard and array the collected rocks by characteristics such as size, weight, and color, to see if any generalizations can be made about the types of rocks that can be found in the schoolyard. Students will then be introduced to the notion of a sample and how the size and method of collection of a sample can bias findings.

356

Snapshot samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a coverage model where an initial event that occurs at some point in time triggers an activity of random duration that leads to some subsequent event. A snapshot sample is constructed at a fixed point in chronological time either by sampling only subjects where the initial event has occurred but the subsequent event has yet to occur (active

Edward H. Kaplan

1997-01-01

357

Sampling Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research in developmental psychology requires sampling at different time points. Accurate depictions of developmental change provide a foundation for further empirical studies and theories about developmental mechanisms. However, overreliance on widely spaced sampling intervals in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs threatens the validity of…

Adolph, Karen E.; Robinson, Scott R.

2011-01-01

358

Sampling Bias  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will complete this activity in conjunction with an introductory statistics lesson about the importance of samples. Students will use the Oregon Reference Map and use the data to find basic statistics about samples with the help of spreadsheet software. This resource includes both a teaching guide and student lesson.

Longo, L.

2011-09-16

359

Environmental sampling  

SciTech Connect

Environmental Sampling (ES) is a technology option that can have application in transparency in nuclear nonproliferation. The basic process is to take a sample from the environment, e.g., soil, water, vegetation, or dust and debris from a surface, and through very careful sample preparation and analysis, determine the types, elemental concentration, and isotopic composition of actinides in the sample. The sample is prepared and the analysis performed in a clean chemistry laboratory (CCL). This ES capability is part of the IAEA Strengthened Safeguards System. Such a Laboratory is planned to be built by JAERI at Tokai and will give Japan an intrinsic ES capability. This paper presents options for the use of ES as a transparency measure for nuclear nonproliferation.

Puckett, J.M.

1998-12-31

360

Joint Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... soft tissues like muscles, tendons, and ligaments include: Rotator cuff injuries Tendonitis Frozen shoulder Fibromyalgia Carpal tunnel syndrome ... in older people as tissues lose their flexibility. Rotator cuff problems occur most often in the 55-85 ...

361

Kidney Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... and bases and many other chemicals (such as electrolytes) in your blood and tissues, and to eliminate ... problems from kidney disease may include: Fluid and electrolyte imbalance – e.g., too much or too little ...

362

Problem-Framing: A perspective on environmental problem-solving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The specter of environmental calamity calls for the best efforts of an involved public. Ironically, the way people understand the issues all too often serves to discourage and frustrate rather than motivate them to action. This article draws from problem-solving perspectives offered by cognitive psychology and conflict management to examine a framework for thinking about environmental problems that promises to help rather than hinder efforts to address them. Problem-framing emphasizes focusing on the problem definition. Since how one defines a problem determines one's understanding of and approach to that problem, being able to redefine or reframe a problem and to explore the “problem space” can help broaden the range of alternatives and solutions examined. Problem-framing incorporates a cognitive perspective on how people respond to information. It explains why an emphasis on problem definition is not part of people's typical approach to problems. It recognizes the importance of structure and of having ways to organize that information on one's problem-solving effort. Finally, problem-framing draws on both cognitive psychology and conflict management for strategies to manage information and to create a problem-solving environment that not only encourages participation but can yield better approaches to our environmental problems.

Bardwell, Lisa V.

1991-09-01

363

Experiment Problems for Electricity and Magnetism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Gives several sample experiment problems for electricity and magnetism. To solve an experiment problem, students have to do one or more of the following: clarify a poorly defined problem, divide a problem into parts, access the appropriate concept needed to solve each problem part, decide whether approximations are appropriate, design an…

Van Heuvelen, Alan; Allen, Leith; Mihas, Pavlos

1999-01-01

364

SAMPLING SYSTEM  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is given for the batch sampling of radioactive liquids such as slurries from a system by remote control, while providing shielding for protection of operating personnel from the harmful effects of radiation.

Hannaford, B.A.; Rosenberg, R.; Segaser, C.L.; Terry, C.L.

1961-01-17

365

Coal Sampling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This USGS publication explains the use of fluxes for preparation of coal for elemental analysis. The material would be useful to supplement textbooks concerning sample preparation and may be helpful in designing an XRF laboratory experiment.

Golightly, D. W.; Simon, Frederick Otto, 1939-

2011-03-29

366

Transparent sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low simulation speeds have a critical impact on the design process by limiting the number of design options which can be explored. Sampling is a popular fast simulation technique because it can achieve high simulation speed and high accuracy. However state-of-the-art sampling techniques either consider warm-up as an orthogonal issue and leave the choice of a warm-up technique to the

Taj Muhammad Khan; Daniel Gracia Pérez; Olivier Temam

2010-01-01

367

A Parallel Tempering algorithm for probabilistic sampling and multimodal optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-linear inverse problems in the geosciences often involve probabilistic sampling of multimodal density functions or global optimization and sometimes both. Efficient algorithmic tools for carrying out sampling or optimization in challenging cases are of major interest. Here results are presented of some numerical experiments with a technique, known as Parallel Tempering, which originated in the field of computational statistics but is finding increasing numbers of applications in fields ranging from Chemical Physics to Astronomy. To date, experience in use of Parallel Tempering within earth sciences problems is very limited. In this paper, we describe Parallel Tempering and compare it to related methods of Simulated Annealing and Simulated Tempering for optimization and sampling, respectively. A key feature of Parallel Tempering is that it satisfies the detailed balance condition required for convergence of Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC) algorithms while improving the efficiency of probabilistic sampling. Numerical results are presented on use of Parallel Tempering for trans-dimensional inversion of synthetic seismic receiver functions and also the simultaneous fitting of multiple receiver functions using global optimization. These suggest that its use can significantly accelerate sampling algorithms and improve exploration of parameter space in optimization. Parallel Tempering is a meta-algorithm which may be used together with many existing McMC sampling and direct search optimization techniques. It's generality and demonstrated performance suggests that there is significant potential for applications to both sampling and optimization problems in the geosciences.

Sambridge, Malcolm

2013-10-01

368

Fluidic sampling  

SciTech Connect

This paper covers the development of the fluidic sampler and its testing in a fluidic transfer system. The major findings of this paper are as follows. Fluidic jet samples can dependably produce unbiased samples of acceptable volume. The fluidic transfer system with a fluidic sampler in-line will transfer water to a net lift of 37.2--39.9 feet at an average ratio of 0.02--0.05 gpm (77--192 cc/min). The fluidic sample system circulation rate compares very favorably with the normal 0.016--0.026 gpm (60--100 cc/min) circulation rate that is commonly produced for this lift and solution with the jet-assisted airlift sample system that is normally used at ICPP. The volume of the sample taken with a fluidic sampler is dependant on the motive pressure to the fluidic sampler, the sample bottle size and on the fluidic sampler jet characteristics. The fluidic sampler should be supplied with fluid having the motive pressure of the 140--150 percent of the peak vacuum producing motive pressure for the jet in the sampler. Fluidic transfer systems should be operated by emptying a full pumping chamber to nearly empty or empty during the pumping cycle, this maximizes the solution transfer rate.

Houck, E.D.

1992-04-20

369

Conduct Problems, Depressive Symptomatology and Their Co-Occurring Presentation in Childhood as Predictors of Adjustment in Early Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated patterns in the development of conduct problems (CP), depressive symptoms, and their co-occurrence, and relations to adjustment problems, over the transition from late childhood to early adolescence. Rates of depressive symptoms and CP during this developmental period vary by gender; yet, few studies involving non-clinical samples have examined co-occurring problems and adjustment outcomes across boys and

Erin M. Ingoldsby; Gwynne O. Kohl; Robert J. McMahon; Liliana Lengua

2006-01-01

370

Validation of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test in a Swedish sample of suspected offenders with signs of mental health problems: Results from the Mental Disorder, Substance Abuse and Crime study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substance abuse is common among offenders. One method widely used for the detection of substance abuse is screening. This study explored the concurrent validity of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) screening tools in relation to (a) substance abuse and dependency diagnoses and (b) three problem severity domains of the sixth

Natalie Durbeej; Anne H. Berman; Clara H. Gumpert; Tom Palmstierna; Marianne Kristiansson; Charlotte Alm

2010-01-01

371

Sampling apparatus  

DOEpatents

A sampling apparatus is provided for sampling substances from solid surfaces. The apparatus includes first and second elongated tubular bodies which telescopically and sealingly join relative to one another. An absorbent pad is mounted to the end of a rod which is slidably received through a passageway in the end of one of the joined bodies. The rod is preferably slidably and rotatably received through the passageway, yet provides a selective fluid tight seal relative thereto. A recess is formed in the rod. When the recess and passageway are positioned to be coincident, fluid is permitted to flow through the passageway and around the rod. The pad is preferably laterally orientable relative to the rod and foldably retractable to within one of the bodies. A solvent is provided for wetting of the pad and solubilizing or suspending the material being sampled from a particular surface.

Gordon, Norman R. (Kennewick, WA); King, Lloyd L. (Benton, WA); Jackson, Peter O. (Richland, WA); Zulich, Alan W. (Bel Air, MD)

1989-01-01

372

Field sampling and field reconstruction: A new perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We address the problem of extracting the maximum amount of information on an electromagnetic field over a domain DO from field sample measurements on a domain DI, with a priori information on the source (or scatterer). The problem is faced in two steps. In the first one, the source reconstruction is dealt with by taking into account the available a priori information and the optimal probe positioning is determined as that optimizing the singular value dynamics of the involved linear radiation operator. The second step consists of reconstructing the field on DO as that radiated by the retrieved source. An extensive numerical analysis highlights the performance of the approach.

Capozzoli, A.; Curcio, C.; Liseno, A.; Vinetti, P.

2010-12-01

373

Enhanced conformational sampling using enveloping distribution sampling.  

PubMed

To lessen the problem of insufficient conformational sampling in biomolecular simulations is still a major challenge in computational biochemistry. In this article, an application of the method of enveloping distribution sampling (EDS) is proposed that addresses this challenge and its sampling efficiency is demonstrated in simulations of a hexa-?-peptide whose conformational equilibrium encompasses two different helical folds, i.e., a right-handed 2.710?12-helix and a left-handed 314-helix, separated by a high energy barrier. Standard MD simulations of this peptide using the GROMOS 53A6 force field did not reach convergence of the free enthalpy difference between the two helices even after 500 ns of simulation time. The use of soft-core non-bonded interactions in the centre of the peptide did enhance the number of transitions between the helices, but at the same time led to neglect of relevant helical configurations. In the simulations of a two-state EDS reference Hamiltonian that envelops both the physical peptide and the soft-core peptide, sampling of the conformational space of the physical peptide ensures that physically relevant conformations can be visited, and sampling of the conformational space of the soft-core peptide helps to enhance the transitions between the two helices. The EDS simulations sampled many more transitions between the two helices and showed much faster convergence of the relative free enthalpy of the two helices compared with the standard MD simulations with only a slightly larger computational effort to determine optimized EDS parameters. Combined with various methods to smoothen the potential energy surface, the proposed EDS application will be a powerful technique to enhance the sampling efficiency in biomolecular simulations. PMID:24116601

Lin, Zhixiong; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

2013-10-14

374

Enhanced conformational sampling using enveloping distribution sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To lessen the problem of insufficient conformational sampling in biomolecular simulations is still a major challenge in computational biochemistry. In this article, an application of the method of enveloping distribution sampling (EDS) is proposed that addresses this challenge and its sampling efficiency is demonstrated in simulations of a hexa-?-peptide whose conformational equilibrium encompasses two different helical folds, i.e., a right-handed 2.710/12-helix and a left-handed 314-helix, separated by a high energy barrier. Standard MD simulations of this peptide using the GROMOS 53A6 force field did not reach convergence of the free enthalpy difference between the two helices even after 500 ns of simulation time. The use of soft-core non-bonded interactions in the centre of the peptide did enhance the number of transitions between the helices, but at the same time led to neglect of relevant helical configurations. In the simulations of a two-state EDS reference Hamiltonian that envelops both the physical peptide and the soft-core peptide, sampling of the conformational space of the physical peptide ensures that physically relevant conformations can be visited, and sampling of the conformational space of the soft-core peptide helps to enhance the transitions between the two helices. The EDS simulations sampled many more transitions between the two helices and showed much faster convergence of the relative free enthalpy of the two helices compared with the standard MD simulations with only a slightly larger computational effort to determine optimized EDS parameters. Combined with various methods to smoothen the potential energy surface, the proposed EDS application will be a powerful technique to enhance the sampling efficiency in biomolecular simulations.

Lin, Zhixiong; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F.

2013-10-01

375

Individualized Math Problems in Graphs and Tables. Oregon Vo-Tech Mathematics Problem Sets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of eighteen sets of individualized mathematics problems developed by the Oregon Vo-Tech Math Project. Each of these problem packages is organized around a mathematical topic and contains problems related to diverse vocations. Solutions are provided for all problems. Problems involving the construction and interpretation of graphs and…

Cosler, Norma, Ed.

376

Equivalent differentiable optimization problems and descent methods for asymmetric variational inequality problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether or not the general asymmetric variational inequality problem can be formulated as a differentiable optimization problem has been an open question. This paper gives an affirmative answer to this question. We provide a new optimization problem formulation of the variational inequality problem, and show that its objective function is continuously differentiable whenever the mapping involved in the latter problem

Masao Fukushima

1992-01-01

377

Multicriteria Planar Ordered Median Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we deal with the determination of the entire set of Pareto solutions of location problems involving Q general criteria. These criteria include median, center, or centdian objective functions as particular instances. We characterize the set of Pareto solutions of all these multicriteria problems for any polyhedral gauge. An efficient algorithm is developed for the planar case and

S. Nickel; J. Puerto; A. M. Rodríguez-Chía; A. Weissler

2005-01-01

378

Respiratory problems in advanced cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Respiratory problems are an important issue in the palliative care setting, not only from a diagnostic and therapeutic point of view but also from emotion-related aspects involving both the patients and their families and also caregivers. In this paper we consider some of the most common respiratory problems, such as dyspnea, infections, hemoptysis, hiccup. A review of the literature was

Carla Ripamonti; Flavio Fusco

2002-01-01

379

Dewey's Problem.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that Dewey tried to solve social problems related to the growth of industrialism, increasing economic inequality, and political inequality. Argues that Dewey aspired to create a counterculture to correct the human and social devastation of industrial capitalism through a curriculum and instruction that rooted academic learning in…

Cohen, David K.

1998-01-01

380

Dewey's Problem.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Maintains that Dewey tried to solve social problems related to the growth of industrialism, increasing economic inequality, and political inequality. Argues that Dewey aspired to create a counterculture to correct the human and social devastation of industrial capitalism through a curriculum and instruction that rooted academic learning in…

Cohen, David K.

1998-01-01

381

Problem Periods  

MedlinePLUS

... regular schedule when you first start getting them. So how do you know when there’s a problem? It can ... that exercise is good for you. It is good for you — as long as you don’t overdo it. How do you know if you are exercising too much? ...

382

Tchebotaröv's problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give a complete solution to the extremal problem posed by N.G. Tchebotaröv in the mid 1920s, and we establish explicit parametric formulae for the extremals. To cite this article: P. Tamrazov, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Ser. I 341 (2005).

Promarz Tamrazov

2005-01-01

383

Community Providers' Views of Alcohol Problems and Drug Problems  

PubMed Central

This study contrasts community health and social service providers’ views on alcohol vs. other drug abuse. A probability sample of 457 social work and other providers from a county’s public and private medical and mental health clinics, welfare and criminal justice systems, and substance abuse programs, as well as clergy, private therapists, and physicians were interviewed. For both alcohol and drug problems, providers thought only of severe dysfunctions, which suggest that less severe forms of these problems may evade detection. In addition, drug problems were viewed as more harmful than alcohol problems, which may result in providers minimizing alcohol problems.

Gassman, Ruth A.; Weisner, Constance

2013-01-01

384

Sample Containers  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon Drilling Platform exploded and sank, causing an enormous oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. U.S. Geological Survey field offices responded immediately by organizing teams to take pre-spill sediment and water samples in order to establish a baseline survey. This...

2010-06-04

385

Sand Sampling  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon Drilling Platform exploded and sank, causing an enormous oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. U.S. Geological Survey field offices responded immediately by organizing teams to take pre-spill sediment and water samples in order to establish a baseline survey. This...

2010-06-04

386

Water Sampling  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon Drilling Platform exploded and sank, causing an enormous oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. U.S. Geological Survey field offices responded immediately by organizing teams to take pre-spill sediment and water samples in order to establish a baseline survey. This...

2010-06-04

387

SOIL AND SEDIMENT SAMPLING METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response's (OSWER) Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI) needs innovative methods and techniques to solve new and difficult sampling and analytical problems found at the numerous Superfund sites throughout th...

388

The Problem of Managing a Strategic Reserve.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The problem of managing the reserve of cobalt is presented, followed by a method for bringing the stockpiled amount from any level to a desired goal. Solving a stochastic programming problem is involved. The procedure is discussed in detail. (MNS)|

Cole, David; And Others

1986-01-01

389

Effect of the sample matrix on measurement uncertainty in X-ray fluorescence analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The estimation of measurement uncertainty, with reference to univariate calibration functions, is discussed in detail in the Eurachem Guide “Quantifying Uncertainty in Analytical Measurement”. The adoption of these recommendations to quantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) involves basic problems which are above all due to the strong influence of the sample matrix on the analytical response. In XRF-analysis, the proposed recommendations

P. Morgenstern; L. Brüggemann; R. Wennrich

2005-01-01

390

Persistence in Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 5-minute video third grade teacher Jean Saul demonstrates how she uses problem solving tasks to create a classroom climate that fosters persistence, independence, responsibility, and risk-taking. Students are asked to find three different methods for solving each problem and to record them on a Choose Three Ways graphic organizer. Through collaboration and presentation of their work to peers, students develop math language and discourse skills. A side bar provides reflection questions. Supporting materials include a transcript of the video (doc), the graphic organizer (doc), and two samples of student work (pdf).

2012-01-01

391

Sandy Samples  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this collecting/comparing activity, learners work with samples of sand from different places like a lakefront, river, or ocean beach. Learners note similarities and differences among sand samplesâlooking at them with just their own eyes, drawing them, describing them, rubbing them in their hands, looking at them through a magnifying glass to see different grain sizes, and examining other things in the sand such as tiny pieces of wood, plastic, or shells.

Science, Lawrence H.

2007-01-01

392

Protective factors associated with fewer multiple problem behaviors among homeless/runaway youth.  

PubMed

Although homeless youth exhibit numerous problem behaviors, protective factors that can be targeted and modified by prevention programs to decrease the likelihood of involvement in risky behaviors are less apparent. The current study tested a model of protective factors for multiple problem behavior in a sample of 474 homeless youth (42% girls; 83% minority) ages 12 to 24 years. Higher levels of problem solving and planning skills were strongly related to lower levels of multiple problem behaviors in homeless youth, suggesting both the positive impact of preexisting personal assets of these youth and important programmatic targets for further building their resilience and decreasing problem behaviors. Indirect relationships between the background factors of self-esteem and social support and multiple problem behaviors were significantly mediated through protective skills. The model suggests that helping youth enhance their skills in goal setting, decision making, and self-reliant coping could lessen a variety of problem behaviors commonly found among homeless youth. PMID:22023279

Lightfoot, Marguerita; Stein, Judith A; Tevendale, Heather; Preston, Kathleen

2011-01-01

393

Premature Adolescent Autonomy: Parent Disengagement and Deviant Peer Process in the Amplification of Problem Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Premature autonomy describes a developmental dynamic where parents of high-risk adolescents reduce their involvement and guidance when confronted with challenges of problem behaviour and the influence of deviant friendships. This dynamic was tested on the sample of Oregon Youth Study boys (N=206), whose family management practices and friendships…

Dishion, Thomas J.; Nelson, Sarah E.; Bullock, Bernadette Marie

2004-01-01

394

The Association between Parental Personality Patterns and Internalising and Externalising Behaviour Problems in Children and Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: This study investigated the relationship between parental personality patterns and internalising and externalising behaviour problems in a clinically referred sample of children (aged 4-8) and adolescents (aged 12-18). Methods: Data from families involved in two clinical trials in Victoria, Australia were analysed (n = 59). Families…

Bertino, Melanie D.; Connell, Gabrielle; Lewis, Andrew J.

2012-01-01

395

Examining the Role of Drinking Motives in College Student Alcohol Use and Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A motivational model of alcohol involvement (M. L. Cooper, M. R. Frone, M. Russell, & P. Mudar, 1995) was replicated and extended by incorporating social antecedents and motives and by testing this model cross-sectionally and longitudinally in a sample of college students. Participants (N = 388) completed a questionnaire battery assessing alcohol use and problems, alcohol expectancies, sensation seeking, negative

Jennifer P. Read; Mark D. Wood; Christopher W. Kahler; Jay E. Maddock; Tibor P. Palfai

2003-01-01

396

Illicit drug use, alcohol use and problem drinking among infrequent and frequent road ragers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationships between illicit drug and alcohol use, problem drinking, and road rage. Particular attention is devoted to the association between these behaviors and frequent involvement in road rage activities. The data are taken from the 2002 Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) Monitor, a representative telephone survey with a sample

Jennifer E. Butters; Reginald G. Smart; Robert E. Mann; Mark Asbridge

2005-01-01

397

Dimensions of Early Childhood Behavior Problems: Stability and Predictors of Change from 18 to 30 Months  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence, structure, stability, and predictors of change in early behavior problems were examined in a population-based sample of Norwegian children at 18 and 30 months of age (N = 750). A clear factor structure involving four dimensions emerged at both assessment times: Two factors were characterized by externalizing behaviors and were labeled Social Adjustment and Overactive-Inattentive; one factor tapped

Kristin S. Mathiesen; Ann Sanson

2000-01-01

398

Southern College Students' Cheating Behaviors: An Examination of Problem Behavior Correlates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understandings of cheating behavior by college students have focused on identifying rates at which students cheat and the identification of demographic characteristics. This paper focuses on demographic and other problem behaviors associated with cheating. Male and female samples from 12 southern colleges\\/universities are examined separately. Results show that males who cheat are more likely to be involved in four of

Elizabeth Ehrhardt Mustaine; Richard Tewksbury

2005-01-01

399

Gene-by-Preschool Interaction on the Development of Early Externalizing Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Preschool involves an array of new social experiences that may impact the development of early externalizing behavior problems over the transition to grade school. Methods: Using longitudinal data from a nationally representative sample of over 600 pairs of US twins, we tested whether the genetic and environmental influences on…

Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

2013-01-01

400

Special Problems in the Assessment of Children's Needs in the Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The needs assessment literature has not systematically addressed the special problems involved in evaluating the mental health needs of children. In an attempt to provide a low-cost, comprehensive approach to assessing these needs, a multi-modal design, which sampled the impressions of parents and key informants, along with agency and government…

Jenkins, Richard A.; And Others

401

Transformation method for problems involving perfect electromagnetic conductor (PEMC) structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfect electric conductor (PEC) and perfect magnetic conductor (PMC) can be generalized to perfect electromagnetic conductor (PEMC), a medium where certain linear combinations of electromagnetic fields are required to vanish. In differential-form representation, the corresponding medium is characterized as the simplest possible medium. It is defined through a scalar admittance parameter, whose zero and infinite limits yield the PMC and

Ismo V. Lindell; Ari H. Sihvola

2005-01-01

402

PROBLEMS INVOLVED IN COOPERATION BETWEEN UNIVERSITIES AND GOVERNMENT AGENCIES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THE UNRESOLVED PURPOSE OF EDUCATION IN A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY--WHETHER ACADEMIC OR PRAGMATIC GOALS SHOULD PREVAIL--IS IDENTIFIED AS THE BASIC CAUSE OF THE CONFLICT BETWEEN THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT AND INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION. SINCE WORLD WAR II, FEDERAL SUPPORT HAS BEEN INCREASINGLY DIRECTED TOWARD ACTION PROGRAMS, INCLUDING SPECIAL…

SHIRLEY, JOHN W.

403

Transonic Equivalence Rule: A Nonlinear Problem Involving Lift.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The inviscid transonic flow past a thin wing having swept leading edges, with smooth lift and thickness distributions, is shown to possess an outer nonlinear structure determined principally by a line source and a line doublet. Three domains (the thicknes...

H. K. Cheng M. M. Hafez

1974-01-01

404

Financial Stress, Social Support, and Alcohol Involvement: A Longitudinal Test of the Buffering Hypothesis in a General Population Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether specific facets of social support (tangible assistance, appraisal, and belonging) moderate the relationship between a specific type of stress (financial stress) and alcohol involvement (drinking to cope, heavy drinking, and alcohol problems). Data were derived from a community sample stratified by education and race. Respondents (N = 1, 040) were interviewed in 1986 and 1989 and

Robert S. Peirce; Michael R. Frone; Marcia Russell; M. Lynne Cooper

1996-01-01

405

Predicting early adolescent gang involvement from middle school adaptation.  

PubMed

This study examined the role of adaptation in the first year of middle school (Grade 6, age 11) to affiliation with gangs by the last year of middle school (Grade 8, age 13). The sample consisted of 714 European American (EA) and African American (AA) boys and girls. Specifically, academic grades, reports of antisocial behavior, and peer relations in 6th grade were used to predict multiple measures of gang involvement by 8th grade. The multiple measures of gang involvement included self-, peer, teacher, and counselor reports. Unexpectedly, self-report measures of gang involvement did not correlate highly with peer and school staff reports. The results, however, were similar for other and self-report measures of gang involvement. Mean level analyses revealed statistically reliable differences in 8th-grade gang involvement as a function of the youth gender and ethnicity. Structural equation prediction models revealed that peer nominations of rejection, acceptance, academic failure, and antisocial behavior were predictive of gang involvement for most youth. These findings suggest that the youth level of problem behavior and the school ecology (e.g., peer rejection, school failure) require attention in the design of interventions to prevent the formation of gangs among high-risk young adolescents. PMID:15677281

Dishion, Thomas J; Nelson, Sarah E; Yasui, Miwa

2005-03-01

406

Natural History of Alcohol Dependence and Remission Events for a Native American Sample*  

PubMed Central

Objective Examining the progression of a disorder cross-culturally may help distinguish elements common to addictions from those that are differentially shaped by culture. This study sought to construct a combined sequence of both problem emergence and recovery efforts with Native Americans. Method In a cross-sectional sample, 44 adult Native Americans (61% men) who had resolved alcohol dependence completed face-to-face interviews at a research center. The Alcohol Related Behaviors Survey and the Change Effort Card-sorts along with measures of alcohol involvement and current quality of life were administered. Results This sample’s sequence of alcohol-related events was compared to that reported for Jellinek’s historical while male sample (rs = .46, p = .001), a recent Navajo sample (rs = .33, p = .024), and a recent Mission Indian sample (rs = .28, p = 24). This sample’s sequence of change efforts was compared to that in the Navajo sample (rs = .33, p = .182). Conclusions Despite the small sample size precluding generalizability, there was greater concordance between this intertribal sample and Jellinek’s while male sample than between this sample and a Mission Indian sample, indicating both cross-cultural and intracultural variation. In addition, change efforts begin during the development of alcohol problems rather than waiting until the person “hits bottom,” as suggested by previous research. Integrating the pathology of substance-use disorders with the process of resolving those disorders extends our understanding of the course of alcohol dependence.

Venner, Kamilla L.; Feldstein, Sarah W.

2010-01-01

407

The College Alcohol Problems Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short, reliable two-factor instrument measuring drinking-related negative consequences was developed from a previous measure using two samples of college students. In Study I, data on alcohol use and problems associated with alcohol use were collected on 382 introductory psychology students. The original College Alcohol Problems Scale (CAPS) was tested and found to fit the data poorly. Sequential methods were

Jason E Maddock; Robert G Laforge; Joseph S Rossi; Thomas O'Hare

2001-01-01

408

Experiments with Linear Fractional Problems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents the results of a limited number of experiments with linear fractional problems. Six solution procedures were tested and the results are expressed in number of simplex-like pivots required to solve a sample of twenty problems randomly g...

G. R. Bitran

1978-01-01

409

Children's conceptions of psychological problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children in grades 5–12 (n = 818) were asked to list 3 problems for which someone might go to a clinical psychologist. Across the total sample, children were most likely to cite “social”; problems (e.g., “family”; and “marital\\

Stephen J. Dollinger; Mark H. Thelen; Mary L. Walsh

1980-01-01

410

School Parent Involvement Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This school parent involvement policy is divided into three sections: (1) Development and Adoption of the Parent Involvement Policy; (2) Contents of the Parent Involvement Policy; and (3) Distributing and Revising the School's Parent Involvement Policy. This paper presents the provision of the Section 1118 of Title I of the No Child Left Behind…

Center for Law and Education (NJ3), 2005

2005-01-01

411

Small School Ritual and Parent Involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inner-city and rural schools have the common problem of increasingly distant (literally and figuratively) populations. Often these same schools desire parents to be involved in their children's education. If their involvement is to improve, parents may need to be socialized about school ways, even while the school transforms itself to address the same issues. School rituals can be vehicles for

Mary Bushnell

1997-01-01

412

Heuristic sampling on DAGs  

SciTech Connect

Many problems in computer applications can in theory be solved by searching through a directed-acyclic graph (DAG). In practice, however, this approach has been hampered by our analytical inability to predict the search cost accurately without actually implementing and executing the program. To overcome this inability, a simple and quick heuristic procedure based on a stratified sampling approach is presented. In generalizes a tree sampling technique already shown to be useful in predicting the performance of tree-searching programs. With the addition of this DAG sampling procedure, we should be able to forecast the complexity and feasibility of alternative tree or DAG searching algorithms so that we may utilize our computational resources more effectively.

Chen, Pang-Chieh.

1992-06-01

413

An automated blood sampler for simultaneous sampling of systemic blood and brain microdialysates for drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: A major problem in preclinical drug development where blood sampling from small animals is a routine practice is the time and labor involved in the serial sampling of small blood volumes from small animals such as rats for the duration of pharmacokinetic\\/pharmacodynamic (PK\\/PD) studies. The traditional method of manually drawing blood from the animal requires the animal to be

P. Chandrani Gunaratna; Peter T. Kissinger; Candice B. Kissinger; James F. Gitzen

2004-01-01

414

43. Domain decomposition methods for welding problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper, a 2-D non-linear electric arc-welding problem is considered.It is assumed that the moving arc generates an unknown quantity of energywhich makes the problem an inverse problem with an unknown source. Robust algorithmsto solve such problems e#ciently, and in certain circumstances in real-time,are of great technological and industrial interest.There are other types of inverse problems which involve inverse determination

Tony Chan; Takashi Kako; Hideo Kawarada; Olivier Pironneau; C.-H. Lai; C. S. Ierotheou; C. J. Palansuriya; K. A. Pericleous

2001-01-01

415

The Contribution of Game Genre and other Use Patterns to Problem Video Game Play among Adult Video Gamers.  

PubMed

AIMS: To assess the contribution of patterns of video game play, including game genre, involvement, and time spent gaming, to problem use symptomatology. DESIGN: Nationally representative survey. SETTING: Online. PARTICIPANTS: Large sample (n=3,380) of adult video gamers in the US. MEASUREMENTS: Problem video game play (PVGP) scale, video game genre typology, use patterns (gaming days in the past month and hours on days used), enjoyment, consumer involvement, and background variables. FINDINGS: Study confirms game genre's contribution to problem use as well as demographic variation in play patterns that underlie problem video game play vulnerability. CONCLUSIONS: Identification of a small group of game types positively correlated with problem use suggests new directions for research into the specific design elements and reward mechanics of "addictive" video games. Unique vulnerabilities to problem use among certain groups demonstrate the need for ongoing investigation of health disparities related to contextual dimensions of video game play. PMID:23284310

Elliott, Luther; Ream, Geoffrey; McGinsky, Elizabeth; Dunlap, Eloise

2012-08-01

416

Opportunities in Workclothes: Problems & Problem-Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workbook suggests six problem-solving steps to help employees in workplace literacy programs learn how to solve problems: identify the problem; clarify goals; examine alternatives; choose; act; and evaluate and react. Fifteen problem scenarios are provided for group efforts in problem solving. A problem-solving questionnaire and questionnaire…

Falagrady, Teresa

417

Chromatographic background drift correction coupled with parallel factor analysis to resolve coelution problems in three-dimensional chromatographic data: quantification of eleven antibiotics in tap water samples by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector.  

PubMed

Chromatographic background drift correction has been an important field of research in chromatographic analysis. In the present work, orthogonal spectral space projection for background drift correction of three-dimensional chromatographic data was described in detail and combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) to resolve overlapped chromatographic peaks and obtain the second-order advantage. This strategy was verified by simulated chromatographic data and afforded significant improvement in quantitative results. Finally, this strategy was successfully utilized to quantify eleven antibiotics in tap water samples. Compared with the traditional methodology of introducing excessive factors for the PARAFAC model to eliminate the effect of background drift, clear improvement in the quantitative performance of PARAFAC was observed after background drift correction by orthogonal spectral space projection. PMID:23827465

Yu, Yong-Jie; Wu, Hai-Long; Fu, Hai-Yan; Zhao, Juan; Li, Yuan-Na; Li, Shu-Fang; Kang, Chao; Yu, Ru-Qin

2013-06-14

418

Social Problem Solving, Conduct Problems, and Callous-Unemotional Traits in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the association between social problem solving, conduct problems (CP), and callous-unemotional (CU) traits\\u000a in elementary age children. Participants were 53 children (40 boys and 13 girls) aged 7–12 years. Social problem solving was\\u000a evaluated using the Social Problem Solving Test-Revised, which requires children to produce solutions to eight hypothetical\\u000a social problems, including five problems involving acquiring a desired

Daniel A. Waschbusch; Trudi M. Walsh; Brendan F. Andrade; Sara King; Normand J. Carrey

2007-01-01

419

H2-optimal sampled-data control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The H2-optimal control of continuous-time linear time-invariant systems by sampled-data controllers is discussed. Two different solutions, state space and operator theoretic, are given. In both cases, the H2 sampled-data problem is shown to be equivalent to a certain discrete-time H2 problem. Other topics discussed include input-output stability of sampled-data systems, performance recovery in digital implementation of analog controllers, and sampled-data

Tongwen Chen; Bruce A. Francis

1991-01-01

420

Displacement and Suicide Risk for Juvenile Justice-Involved Youth with Mental Health Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examined the relationship between suicide behaviors and displacement, as defined by out-of-home placement, in a sample of juvenile-justice-involved youth with mental health issues. Participants included boys and girls between the ages of 10 and 18 who were enrolled in a juvenile justice diversion program for children with mental or behavioral health problems. Data collected included youth-reported suicide and

Jeff M. Kretschmar; Daniel J. Flannery

2011-01-01

421

Whippo Problem Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The investigations listed here are not intended to be an inclusive list of possibilities but instead represent a first pass at some different ways that beginning researchers might fruitfully engage with this problem space. Some of these investigations could be supported with data found in this problem space while others would involve seeking additional resources. Our hope in listing these ideas is that both faculty and students will be stimulated to engage in research, curriculum development, or other types of scholarship that can be shared with this community. Our overarching goal is to support biology teaching and learning that more closely reflects the ways that biologists work with data to develop arguments and test hypotheses.

Sam Donovan (University of Pittsburgh;)

2004-06-26

422

Overcoming Limitations of Sampling for Aggregation Queries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the problem of approximately answering ag- gregation queries using sampling. We observe that uniform sampling performs poorly when the distribution of the ag- gregated attribute is skewed. To address this issue, we intro- duce a technique calledoutlier-indexing. Uniform sampling is also ineffective for queries with low selectivity. We rely on weighted sampling based onworkload information to over- come

Surajit Chaudhuri; Gautam Das; Mayur Datar; Rajeev Motwani; Vivek R. Narasayya

2001-01-01

423

Sleep problems and heart rate variability over the working day.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to discover whether greater sleep problems are associated with reduced heart rate variability during working hours and at night, and to determine whether this association is in part mediated by experienced affective states. This study involved 199 working women with a mean age of 33.8years. Sleep problems were assessed with the Jenkins Sleep Problems Scale, and the Day Reconstruction Method was used to measure positive affect and stress on the evening before and during the working day. Heart rate variability was indexed by the mean square root of the successive standard difference in heart period. Disturbed sleep was inversely related to heart rate variability during the working day (P=0.022), independently of demographic and behavioural confounders. Additional adjustment for positive affect and stress did not lead to further reductions in the association between sleep problems and reduced heart rate variability over the work day. Sleep problems were not predictive of reduced night-time heart rate variability. This report extends the findings from experimental studies and clinical samples, and suggests that disturbed sleep might impair heart rate variability in real life settings, in particular during working hours. Reduced heart rate variability might be a potential pathway linking sleep problems with cardiovascular disease. Based on the current data there was little evidence that the inverse associations between sleep problems and heart rate variability were mediated by experienced affective states. PMID:22309485

Jackowska, Marta; Dockray, Samantha; Endrighi, Romano; Hendrickx, Hilde; Steptoe, Andrew

2012-02-07

424

PPS sampling of Web graph using preferential jumping strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sampling is the most powerful tool for researchers to study important characteristics of the continuously growing Web. On Web page sampling problem, we collect a number of pages which are representative to the Web population. However, we believe Web sampling greatly differs from generic sampling problem. First of all, the randomness principle can not be applied to Web sampling mechanically;

Yi Li; Xiaoming Li; J. J. H. Zhu

2010-01-01

425

Optimal Bayesian sampling plans for exponential distributions based on hybrid censored samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study variable sampling plans for exponential distributions based on type-I hybrid censored samples. For this problem, two sampling plans based on the non-failure sample proportion and the conditional maximum likelihood estimator are proposed by Chen et al. [J. Chen, W. Chou, H. Wu, and H. Zhou, Designing acceptance sampling schemes for life testing with mixed censoring, Naval Res. Logist.

TaChen Liang; Ming-Chung Yang

2011-01-01

426

Emotional stability components of human performance problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over half of all significant events that occur in nuclear plants involve human performance problems. There is increasing worldwide recognition that human performance problems have a significant impact on the safety, cost, and efficiency of nuclear plant operations. Emotional stability components have an important direct and indirect impact on human performance problems. This paper examines emotional stability components that are

Wexler

1987-01-01

427

Optimization Problems for Control of Distributed Resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a two-level optimization problem of resource allocation in communication networks, which is based on profit maximization of the network subject to capacity constraints. The cost function of the upper level problem involves a sum of non-differentiable functions whose values are computed algorithmically. The corresponding solution methods utilize duality theory and decomposition technique for optimization problems.

Konnov, Igor V.; Kashina, Olga A.; Laitinen, Erkki

2009-08-01

428

Evolutionary Algorithm for Large Scale Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) are a largely used search and optimization technique. They have been successfully applied to a wide variety of problems, overcoming traditional algorithms in performance. However, few EAs and traditional algorithms are able to handle complex combinatorial problems involving a large number of variables (thousands or millions). This paper proposes a new EA, capable of solving combinatorial problems

Thyago S. P. C. Duque; Kumara Sastry; Alexandre C. B. Delbem; David E. Goldberg

2007-01-01

429

Attributes Heeded When Representing an Osmosis Problem.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Eighteen high school science students were involved in a study to determine what attributes in the problem statement they need when representing a typical osmosis problem. In order to realize this goal students were asked to solve problems aloud and to explain their answers. Included as a part of the results are the attributes that the students…

Zuckerman, June Trop

430

Teaching Our Children to Solve "Fuzzy" Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how parents can teach children to be creative problem solvers, providing information from the University of Michigan's Future Problem Solving Program (FPSP). The FPSP model involves brainstorming subproblems, identifying important problem areas, brainstorming solutions, brainstorming criteria for evaluating ideas, evaluating solutions,…

Alvino, James

1993-01-01

431

Principles for Sampling Airborne Radioactivity from Stacks  

SciTech Connect

This book chapter describes the special processes involved in sampling the airborne effluents from nuclear faciities. The title of the book is Radioactive Air Sampling Methods. The abstract for this chapter was cleared as PNNL-SA-45941.

Glissmeyer, John A.

2010-10-18

432

Steered transition path sampling.  

PubMed

We introduce a path sampling method for obtaining statistical properties of an arbitrary stochastic dynamics. The method works by decomposing a trajectory in time, estimating the probability of satisfying a progress constraint, modifying the dynamics based on that probability, and then reweighting to calculate averages. Because the progress constraint can be formulated in terms of occurrences of events within time intervals, the method is particularly well suited for controlling the sampling of currents of dynamic events. We demonstrate the method for calculating transition probabilities in barrier crossing problems and survival probabilities in strongly diffusive systems with absorbing states, which are difficult to treat by shooting. We discuss the relation of the algorithm to other methods. PMID:22779577

Guttenberg, Nicholas; Dinner, Aaron R; Weare, Jonathan

2012-06-21

433

Steered transition path sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a path sampling method for obtaining statistical properties of an arbitrary stochastic dynamics. The method works by decomposing a trajectory in time, estimating the probability of satisfying a progress constraint, modifying the dynamics based on that probability, and then reweighting to calculate averages. Because the progress constraint can be formulated in terms of occurrences of events within time intervals, the method is particularly well suited for controlling the sampling of currents of dynamic events. We demonstrate the method for calculating transition probabilities in barrier crossing problems and survival probabilities in strongly diffusive systems with absorbing states, which are difficult to treat by shooting. We discuss the relation of the algorithm to other methods.

Guttenberg, Nicholas; Dinner, Aaron R.; Weare, Jonathan

2012-06-01

434

Metacognitions in problem gambling.  

PubMed

Problem gambling is heterogeneous in nature, ranging in severity from occasional but problematic gambling episodes, to extreme, impulsive and pervasive gambling behaviour. Problem gambling may be accompanied by a sense of impaired control and can give rise to financial, interpersonal, legal and vocational costs for the sufferer, their families and society. This study investigated the relationship among metacognitions, anxiety, depression and gambling in a sample of problem gamblers. A total of 91 individuals attending gambling treatment services completed a battery of self-report instruments that consisted of the Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 (MCQ-30), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the South Oaks Gambling Scale (SOGS). Correlation analyses showed that anxiety, depression and metacognitions were positively and significantly correlated with both gambling consequences and behaviour. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that two metacognitive constructs (negative beliefs about thoughts concerning uncontrollability and danger and beliefs about the need to control thoughts) predicted gambling behaviour independently of anxiety and depression. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that metacognitions play a role in problem gambling. PMID:20429027

Lindberg, Annika; Fernie, Bruce A; Spada, Marcantonio M

2011-03-01

435

STATISTICAL APPROACH TO TESTS INVOLVING PHYLOGENIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter reviews statistical testing involving phylogenies. We present both the classical framework with the use of sampling distributions involving the bootstrap and permutation tests and the Bayesian approach using posterior distributions. We give some examples of direct tests for deciding whether the data support a given tree or trees that share a particular property, comparative analyses using tests that

Susan Holmes

436

Problems in monitoring dust levels within mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collection of dust samples in mines is a multifaceted problem. Initially, one must define the situation being sampled and the purpose of the sampling in order to establish an appropriate sampling plan, including specification of the type of mining process (surface vs. underground, metal vs. nonmetal vs. coal) as well as the mining system employed (equipment). The next step

F. J. Hearl; P. Hewett

1993-01-01

437

Routing problems: A bibliography  

Microsoft Academic Search

This bibliography contains 500 references on four classical routing problems: the Traveling Salesman Problem, the Vehicle Routing Problem, the Chinese Postman Problem, and the Rural Postman Problem. References are presented alphabetically under a number of subheadings.

Gilbert Laporte; Ibrahim H. Osman

1995-01-01

438

Sample sizes to estimate proportions and correlation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very often statisticians have to deal with the problem of sample size calculation. However this is one of the most difficult questions to be answered since it depends on many considerations, assumptions and restrictions on the real problem being solved. In this paper we develop some methods, based on credible intervals, to calculate sample sizes for proportions and correlations.

de Melo, Brian A. R.; Cesar, Raony C. C.; Pereira, Carlos A. B.

2012-10-01

439

Functional Assessment of Problem Behavior in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Summary of 32 Outpatient Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine archival data from an outpatient clinic serving children with autism spectrum disorders\\u000a to investigate the occurrence of problem behavior functions in this sample. Results indicated that social reinforcement (e.g.,\\u000a attention from others) was involved in maintaining problem behavior for the majority of cases, suggesting that these children\\u000a lacked socially appropriate responses to

Jessa R. Love; James E. Carr; Linda A. LeBlanc

2009-01-01

440

Sampling of polar pesticides from water matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of the sampling of polar pesticides from water samples is presented. The sampling plans and strategies for different types of waters such as river, well and seawater samples are discussed. In situ preconcentration methods, involving on-line techniques or direct measurement methods are mentioned as alternatives to conventional techniques. Attention is devoted to the influence of organic matter and

D. Barceló; M. C. Hennion

1997-01-01

441

Sample Sizes for Usability Studies: Additional Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Recently, Virzi (1992) presented data that support three claims regarding sample sizes for usability studies. The claims were (1) observing four or five participants will allow a usability practitioner to discover 80% of a product's usability problems, (2) observing additional participants will reveal fewer and fewer new usability problems, and (3) more severe usability problems are easier to detect

James R. Lewis

442

Acceptance sampling using judgmental and randomly selected samples  

SciTech Connect

We present a Bayesian model for acceptance sampling where the population consists of two groups, each with different levels of risk of containing unacceptable items. Expert opinion, or judgment, may be required to distinguish between the high and low-risk groups. Hence, high-risk items are likely to be identifed (and sampled) using expert judgment, while the remaining low-risk items are sampled randomly. We focus on the situation where all observed samples must be acceptable. Consequently, the objective of the statistical inference is to quantify the probability that a large percentage of the unsampled items in the population are also acceptable. We demonstrate that traditional (frequentist) acceptance sampling and simpler Bayesian formulations of the problem are essentially special cases of the proposed model. We explore the properties of the model in detail, and discuss the conditions necessary to ensure that required samples sizes are non-decreasing function of the population size. The method is applicable to a variety of acceptance sampling problems, and, in particular, to environmental sampling where the objective is to demonstrate the safety of reoccupying a remediated facility that has been contaminated with a lethal agent.

Sego, Landon H.; Shulman, Stanley A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Wilson, John E.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Sieber, W. Karl

2010-09-01

443

High Involvement Work Teams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These three papers were presented at a symposium on high-involvement work teams moderated by Michael Leimbach at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Beyond Training to the New Learning Environment: Workers on the High-Involvement Frontline" (Joseph Anthony Ilacqua, Carol Ann Zulauf) shows the link between an…

1996

444

Genes Involved in Atherosclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease that involves several genes and proteins. The purpose of this article is to focus on the arterial wall and to review lipoprotein receptors, growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, matrix metalloproteinases, adhesion molecules, and apoptosis genes and their involvement in atherogenesis.

Johanna Laukkanen; Seppo Ylä-Herttuala

2002-01-01

445

Osseous involvement in rhinosporidiosis  

PubMed Central

Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic granulomatous disease caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi. It usually affects the mucocutaneous tissue of the nose. Bone involvement is rare. We report a case of Rhinosporidiosis of the nasopharynx which later involved the right little finger where ray amputation was performed.

Kundu, Atin Kumar; Phuljhele, Satyendra; Jain, Mantu; Srivastava, Raman Kumar

2013-01-01

446

Christmas gift giving involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The act of giving a gift at Christmas is a form of consumption that invokes different levels of involvement. The purpose of this paper is to explore and measure involvement in parental Christmas gift giving and giving branded items as gifts. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The required information was gathered via a self-administered survey method distributed to parents with at

Peter Clarke

2006-01-01

447

[Families Involved in Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This issue of "Community Update" focuses on families involved in learning. The first article briefly discusses the "Ready to Read, Ready to Learn" White House summit that highlighted new research on early childhood learning. The center spread of this issue offers "Priming the Primary Educator: A Look at L. A. County's Parent Involvement Programs"…

Ashby, Nicole, Ed.

2001-01-01

448

Commericial Involvement in Intramurals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Sport in general has long had ties with commercial interests, the most popular and widespread involving publicity. Intramural sports programs, however, have not cultivated many commercial involvements in publicity. The approach in intramural sports advertising is simple. A commercial interest pays for space or time in a given communication media…

Maas, Gerry

449

Commericial Involvement in Intramurals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sport in general has long had ties with commercial interests, the most popular and widespread involving publicity. Intramural sports programs, however, have not cultivated many commercial involvements in publicity. The approach in intramural sports advertising is simple. A commercial interest pays for space or time in a given communication media…

Maas, Gerry

450

Categories of Parent Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The growing interest in effective parent involvement has produced several ways to classify or describe ways parents are or should be involved. This article reviews and evaluates Ira Gordon's systems approach, the California-based System Development Corporation's categories, Eugenia H. Berger's parental role categories, Chavkin and Williams'…

Bauch, Jerold P.

1994-01-01

451

7 CFR 27.89 - Expenses; inspection; sampling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION...inspection and sampling, the preparation of the samples and...classification of the cotton involved. When a...requested and samples of the cotton involved are not in...inspection, sampling, preparation of samples, and...

2013-01-01

452

Complex Problem Solving: Identity Matching Based on Social  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex problems like drug crimes often involve a large number of variables interacting with each other. A complex problem may be solved by breaking it into parts (i.e., sub-problems), which can be tackled more easily. The identity matching problem, for example, is a part of the problem of drug and other types of crimes. It is often encountered during crime

Jennifer Xu; Jiexun Li; Michael Chau

453

Complex Problem Solving: Identity Matching Based on Social Contextual Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex problems like drug crimes often involve a large number of variables interacting with each other. A complex problem may be solved by breaking it into parts (i.e., sub-problems), which can be tackled more easily. The identity matching problem, for example, is a part of the problem of drug and other types of crimes. It is often encountered during crime

Jennifer Jie Xu; G. Alan Wang; Jiexun Li; Michael Chau

2007-01-01

454

Children's Problem Posing in Computational Contexts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Problem-posing abilities of 54 third graders who displayed different patterns of achievement in number concepts and novel problem solving were investigated in this paper. The children were administered a problem-posing pretest followed by an instructional program (for half the sample) and a delayed posttest. Among the findings are the limited…

English, Lyn D.

455

The worldwide "wildfire" problem.  

PubMed

The worldwide "wildfire" problem is headlined by the loss of human lives and homes, but it applies generally to any adverse effects of unplanned fires, as events or regimes, on a wide range of environmental, social, and economic assets. The problem is complex and contingent, requiring continual attention to the changing circumstances of stakeholders, landscapes, and ecosystems; it occurs at a variety of temporal and spatial scales. Minimizing adverse outcomes involves controlling fires and fire regimes, increasing the resistance of assets to fires, locating or relocating assets away from the path of fires, and, as a probability of adverse impacts often remains, assisting recovery in the short-term while promoting the adaptation of societies in the long-term. There are short- and long-term aspects to each aspect of minimization. Controlling fires and fire regimes may involve fire suppression and fuel treatments such as prescribed burning or non-fire treatments but also addresses issues associated with unwanted fire starts like arson. Increasing the resistance of assets can mean addressing the design and construction materials of a house or the use of personal protective equipment. Locating or relocating assets can mean leaving an area about to be impacted by fire or choosing a suitable place to live; it can also mean the planning of land use. Assisting recovery and promoting adaptation can involve insuring assets and sharing responsibility for preparedness for an event. There is no single, simple, solution. Perverse outcomes can occur. The number of minimizing techniques used, and the breadth and depth of their application, depends on the geographic mix of asset types. Premises for policy consideration are presented. PMID:23634593

Gill, A Malcolm; Stephens, Scott L; Cary, Geoffrey J

2013-03-01

456

PROBLEMS IN MODERN GREEK LEXICOGRAPHY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

PROBLEMS DEALING WITH LEVELS OF SPEECH AND LEVELS OF ANALYSIS IN CONNECTION WITH MODERN GREEK LEXICOGRAPHICAL STUDY WERE DISCUSSED. CONCERNING THE POSSIBLE CONSTRUCTION OF A COMPETENT BILINGUAL DICTIONARY, THE INVESTIGATORS SUGGESTED THAT THE VARIOUS STRUCTURES (NAMELY, PHONOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, AND SYNTAX) BE TIED TOGETHER TO INVOLVE (1) LISTING IN…

KAHANE, HENRY; KAHANE, RENEE

457

Radioecological problems of nuclear power  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central problem which will determine the developmental prospects for nuclear power is the study of the effects of radiation on the environment and on public health. The other main criteria involved in making an integral estimate of the prospects for various forms of power production (the reserves of fuel and of various material resources to ensure the steady functioning

R. M. Aleksakhin; I. I. Kryshev; S. V. Fesenko; N. I. Sanzharova

1990-01-01

458

On Problems with Short Certificates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider languages in NP whose certificate size is bounded by a fixed, slowly growing function (sayf (n)) of the input size. The classesf (n)-NP, which are related to classes of Kintala and Fischer, are defined in order to classify such languages. We show that several natural problems, involving Boolean satisfiability, graph colouring and Hamiltonian circuits, are complete forf (n)-NP.

Graham Farr

1994-01-01

459

GRASP for set packing problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principles of the Greedy Randomized Adaptative Search Procedure (GRASP) metaheuristic are instantiated for the set packing problem. We investigated several construction phases, and evaluated improvements based on advanced strategies. These improvements include a self-tuning procedure (using reactive GRASP), an intensification procedure (using path relinking) and a procedure involving the diversification of the selection (using a learning process). Two sets

Xavier Delorme; Xavier Gandibleux; Joaquin Rodriguez

2004-01-01

460

Illicit drug use, alcohol use and problem drinking among infrequent and frequent road ragers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationships between illicit drug and alcohol use, problem drinking, and road rage. Particular attention is devoted to the association between these behaviors and frequent involvement in road rage activities. The data are taken from the 2002 Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) Monitor, a representative telephone survey with a sample of 2421 adults aged 18 and older in Ontario. A cluster analysis was performed and analysis of variance procedures were used to test for group differences. The cluster analysis revealed five distinct groups involved in various types of road rage behavior. Frequent road ragers, accounting for 5.3% of the sample, were involved in the most severe forms of road rage behavior and were most likely (24%) to report problem drinking and past year cannabis (23.8%), cocaine (5.4%), and ecstasy (10%) use. These data indicate that illicit drug use and alcohol problems are significantly greater for those involved in the most serious forms of road rage behavior. Further work is needed to identify the mechanisms by which illicit drug use and problem drinking are linked to road rage. PMID:16216702

Butters, Jennifer E; Smart, Reginald G; Mann, Robert E; Asbridge, Mark

2005-11-01

461

An expert sample analysis planner  

SciTech Connect

Analytical chemists are faced with the problem of choosing an appropriate analytical technique for a particular sample and weighing the options as they affect precision, time, and cost. This paper describes a computer technique to assist managers in reviewing the alternatives and to match needs with the resources available. This paper proposes an expert system, knowledgeable of analytical chemistry techniques, to create sample plans. Sample planning is an appropriate topic for expert systems because scarce human expertise is required to complete sample plans. A sample plan is the description of how samples received at the Savannah River Laboratory are handled, controlled, measured, and dispositioned. Sample planning is difficult because multiple experts are needed, planning is not a static function, and planning is time consuming. An Expert Sample Analyses Planner (XSAP) is proposed to create sample plans for laboratory managers. XSAP supplements the scarce knowledge of analytical techniques creating sample plans based on analysis constraints, methods available, and time requirements. XSAP interacts with the chemist to suggest sample plans. XSAP considers equipment available locally, at other Savannah River laboratories, at other Department of Energy facilities, and at other commercial laboratories. XSAP allows options on scheduling: best solution, cheapest solution, best local solution, and fastest solution. 26 refs.

Spencer, W.A.; Parks, W.S.

1990-01-01

462

Doctors' involvement in torture.  

PubMed

Doctors from both non-democratic and democratic countries are involved in torture. The majority of doctors involved in torture are doctors at risk. Doctors at risk might compromise their ethical duty towards patients for the following possible reasons: individual factors (such as career, economic or ideological reasons), threats, orders from a higher ranking officer, political initiatives, working in atrocity-producing situations or dual loyalty. In dual loyalty conflicts, factors that might compromise doctors' ethical obligations towards detainees/patients are: ideological totalitarianism, moral disengagement, victim blame, patriotism, individual factors or threats. Another important reason why doctors are involved in torture is that not all doctors are trained in addressing human rights issues of detainees. Torture survivors report that they have experienced doctors' involvement in torture and doctors themselves report that they have been involved in torture. Testimonies from both torture survivors and doctors demonstrate that the most common way doctors are involved is in the diagnosis/medical examination of torture survivors/prisoners. And it is common before, during and after torture. Both torture survivors and doctors state that doctors are involved during torture by treatment and direct participation. Doctors also falsify journals, certificates and reports. When doctors are involved in torture it has devastating consequences for both torture survivors and doctors. The consequences for the survivors can be mistrust of doctors, avoidance of seeking doctors' help and nightmares involving doctors. Mistrust and avoidance of doctors could be especially fatal to the survivor, as it could mean a survivor who is ill may not seek medical attention. When the unambiguous role of the doctor as the protector and helper of people is questioned, it affects the medical profession all over the world. PMID:19491477

Jesper, Sonntag

2008-01-01

463

SST Sample Characterization Analysis of Archive Samples 102-C, 105-C, and 106-C  

SciTech Connect

A substantial effort is planned to be initiated at the Hanford Site regarding the characterization of 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) containing the byproducts of reprocessing during the 1950s and 1960s. Sampling and analysis, in distinct phases, are planned to involve laboratory investigations to determine both chemical and radionuclide inventories, so that waste disposal decisions can be developed. During 1989, trial analyses were performed on four archived samples from SSTs at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory using established U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) protocols and radiochemical procedures. The analysis of the archived SST waste material provides three important types of data for use in planning Phase I-A and Phase 1-B sample analysis. The types of data served as input to I) fi na 1 i zing the waste samp 1 e analysis procedures and methods and identify where procedure developmen~ may be needed, 2) evaluating the impact of normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) lubricant {used in field sampling) on extracting inorganics or radionuclides from the SST sample, and 3) identifying trends in amounts of occupational radiation exposure expected from performing the various analysis procedures. Overall, the results are qualitative in nature, and the conclusions given are to be used with appropriate respect for the limitations of small amounts of data from four samples used in development processes. The results of the Phase I-A and I-B sample analysis will provide essential data for method performance for use in finalizing Phase I-C planning and methods development scope. Section 2.0, Inorganic Analysis, encompasses sample preparation, sample analysis, identification of methods performance limitations, and possible alternatives. Performance of the inorganic analytical methods was evaluated and changes were made to some of the procedures. In some cases, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (referred to in this report as ICP) did not provide the levels of accuracy and precision usually required for EPA work due to interference by other elements. In these cases, other methods are suggested as appropriate for trial as alternatives. In all cases, duplicates, spikes, and blanks were used to establish performance of the methods for the specific waste matrix. Results focused on problems in using the methods tested on the samples, the suitability of the ICP method of determining EP Toxicity metal ions and 22 EPA pollutant metal ions, and the suitability of cold vapor atomic absorption (CVAA) for mercury determinations. Problems areas identified are ICP spectral corrections, poor reproducibility from water leach and EP Toxicity methods, and adjustments needed for mercury analysis by CVAA. Section 3.0, Organics Analysis, details two screening procedures [total organic carbon (TOC) and gas chromatography (GC)], extraction procedures and related problems, surrogate spiking to test extraction efficiencies and matrix effects, and semivolatile organics via GC/mass spectroscopy (MS). The results show that the GC/MS is vulnerable to fouling and overload and that a combination of dilution and perhaps acidification are required to provide acceptable results. NPH and silicone-based lubricants from the sampling process impact the semivolatile analysis; however, with some modification the semivolatile method based on EPA SOW 288 can be used. Section 4.0, Radionuclide Analysis, evaluates procedures used to measure the radionuclides that might be found in the SST tank waste samples and establishes the level of accuracy and precision that can be expected. These data reveal that additional procedure development is needed in order to measure all of the radionuclides listed in Table 4-14 of the Waste Characterization Plan. In addition, the archive samples analyzed may not be representative of the tank population and considerable adaptation of the radiochemical procedures may be necessary to perform the desired measurements. NPH tests were conducted to determine whether the NPH from the field sampling process extracted significan

Hara, F. T.; Kaye, J. H.; Steele, R. T.; Stromatt, R. W.; Thomas, D. L.; Urie, M. W.

1990-04-01

464

Cerebellar involvement in executive control.  

PubMed

The cerebellum has long been considered to be mainly involved in motor function. In the last 20 years, evidence from neuroimaging studies and from investigations of patients with cerebellar lesions has shown that the cerebellum plays a role in a range of cognitive functions. While cerebellar contributions have been shown for learning and memory, the cerebellum has also been linked to higher order cognitive control processes frequently referred to as executive functions. Although it is widely accepted that the cerebellum contributes to cognitive processing, the nature of cerebellar involvement is not well understood. The present paper focuses on the role of the cerebellum in executive processing, reviewing findings derived from neuroimaging studies or from studies investigating deficits related to cerebellar dysfunction. As executive functions cannot be considered as a unitary concept, special emphasis is put on cerebellar contributions to different aspects of executive control such as working memory, multitasking or inhibition. Referring to models derived from motor control, possible mechanisms of cerebellar involvement in executive processing are discussed. Finally, methodological problems in assessing executive deficits in general and in assessing the cerebellar contribution to executive processing in particular are addressed. PMID:17786814

Bellebaum, Christian; Daum, Irene

2007-01-01

465

Reduction of severe behavior problems in the community using a multicomponent treatment approach.  

PubMed Central

Problem behavior often prevents community integration of people with developmental disabilities. Therefore, we evaluated a multicomponent approach for remediating problem behavior in public community settings (specifically, supermarkets). We selected treatments based on hypotheses about the variables controlling the problem behavior (hypothesis-driven model). The multicomponent intervention included choice making, embedding, functional communication training, building tolerance for delay of reinforcement, and presenting discriminative stimuli for nonproblem behavior. Treatment progress was monitored using measures of latency and task completion rather than traditional measures of frequency and time sampling. Results showed substantial increases in task completion and duration of time spent in supermarkets without problem behavior. Outcomes were socially validated by group-home staff and cashiers. We discuss how the intervention approach taken can resolve some of the issues involved in assessing, measuring, and treating problem behavior in the community.

Carr, E G; Carlson, J I

1993-01-01

466

Rock Samples and Geochemistry Analyses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab set students use field work to collect a granite sample which will be prepared for whole-rock analyses through ICP-AES, AAS, and XRF methodologies, as well as mineral concentrations and thin sections for microprobe. The bulk of these exercices involve sample and data manipulation and also include some open-ended questions as comparisons between mineral and whole-rock composition, different kind of data presentation in geochemistry, and limitations and applicability of distinct analytical methodologies.

Lourdes, Maria R.

467

[Heart involvement in sarcoglycanopathies].  

PubMed

Sarcoglycanopathies (SG) are autosomic recessive muscular dystrophies, secondary to mutations of the sarcoglycan complex. Clinical pictures include muscle weakness affecting mainly the proximal limb girdle musculature. We review heart involvement in this group of disease. PMID:22405990

Fayssoil, A; Nardi, O; Orlikowski, D; Annane, D

2012-03-09

468

Improved sample size determination for attributes and variables sampling  

SciTech Connect

Earlier INMM papers have addressed the attributes/variables problem and, under conservative/limiting approximations, have reported analytical solutions for the attributes and variables sample sizes. Through computer simulation of this problem, we have calculated attributes and variables sample sizes as a function of falsification, measurement uncertainties, and required detection probability without using approximations. Using realistic assumptions for uncertainty parameters of measurement, the simulation results support the conclusions: (1) previously used conservative approximations can be expensive because they lead to larger sample sizes than needed; and (2) the optimal verification strategy, as well as the falsification strategy, are highly dependent on the underlying uncertainty parameters of the measurement instruments. 1 ref., 3 figs.

Stirpe, D.; Picard, R.R.

1985-01-01

469

Neonatal coagulation problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bleeding problems often occur during the neonatal period. Although thrombocytopenia is the most common cause, coagulation problems often occur, and the two problems may co-exist. The causes, diagnosis, and management of coagulation problems in newborn infants are reviewed.

E A Chalmers

2004-01-01

470

Inferences from biased samples with a memory effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biased sampling occurs often in observational studies. With one biased sample, the problem of nonparametrically estimating both a target density function and a selection bias function is unidentifiable. This paper studies the nonparametric estimation problem when there are two biased samples that have some overlapping observations (i.e. recaptures) from a finite population. Since an intelligent subject sampled previously may experience

B. Wang; J. Sun

2009-01-01

471

A global sampling method for alpha matting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alpha matting refers to the problem of softly extracting the foreground from an image. Given a trimap (specifying known foreground\\/background and unknown pixels), a straightforward way to compute the alpha value is to sample some known foreground and background colors for each unknown pixel. Existing sampling-based matting methods often collect samples near the unknown pixels only. They fail if good

Kaiming He; Christoph Rhemann; Carsten Rother; Xiaoou Tang; Jian Sun

2011-01-01

472

Correlation and Sampling in Relational Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data mining in relational data poses unique opportunities and challenges. In particular, relational autocorrelation provides an opportunity to increase the predictive power of statistical models, but it can also mislead investigators using traditional sampling approaches to evaluate data mining algorithms. We investi- gate the problem and provide new sampling approaches that correct the bias as- sociated with traditional sampling.

David Jensen; Jennifer Neville

473

On Designing Single Sampling Inspection Plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

In designing single sampling inspection plans, a problem is to find the acceptance number, $c$, and the smallest sample size, $n$, such that if the fraction defective of the material inspected is equal to an acceptable value, $p_1$, a large percentage, say, 95% of such lots will be accepted under the sample criteria, whereas if the fraction defective of the

Frank E. Grubbs

1949-01-01

474

Electrical discharge machining for vessel sample removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to aging-related problems or essential metallurgy information (plant-life extension or decommissioning) of nuclear plants, sample removal from vessels may be required as part of an examination. Vessel or cladding samples with cracks may be removed to determine the cause of cracking. Vessel weld samples may be removed to determine the weld metallurgy. In all cases, an engineering analysis must

Litka

1993-01-01

475

Psychiatric morbidity and health problems among black Americans: a national survey.  

PubMed Central

This study examined the relationship between symptoms of psychiatric morbidity and health problems among a nationally representative, cross-sectional sample of 2107 black adults from the National Survey of Black Americans. Subjects experiencing a high level of psychiatric symptomatology had a significantly higher number of health problems and reported a lower level of satisfaction with their overall health than blacks with low levels of psychiatric symptoms or those who never experienced emotional problems. Individuals with the highest level of psychiatric symptomatology were more likely to have been physician-diagnosed as having ulcers, hypertension, diabetes, kidney problems, nervous-emotional problems, and circulatory system difficulties. These relationships persisted after controlling for age, gender, socioeconomic factors, and traditional risk factors for health problems, such as smoking and alcohol use. Although generally consistent with previous research on predominantly white samples, these specific findings underscore the complexities involved in drawing inferences from associations between psychiatric symptomatology and health problems observed in cross-sectional surveys. Prospective psychiatric epidemiologic studies, utilizing better measures of psychological distress and objective health outcome measures, are needed to clarify the relationship between psychiatric difficulties and health problems among black Americans.

Johnson, E. H.

1989-01-01

476

The Relationship Between Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms and Substance Use Among Adolescents Involved with Child Welfare: Implications for Emerging Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in predicting substance use\\u000a and substance-related problems in a sample of older youth and emerging adults involved with child welfare. The sample was\\u000a drawn from the Maltreatment and Adolescent Pathways (MAP) longitudinal study (Wekerle et al. 2009). Participants were 253 youth and emerging adults

Abby L. Goldstein; Christine Wekerle; Lil Tonmyr; Tiffany Thornton; Randall Waechter; Jessica Pereira; Ronald Chung

477

Perception of Problem Constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem solver's perception of elements in a problem-situation will influence the extent to which he recognizes a problem and the nature of the constraints he associates with the problem. Constraints represent the extent to which the problem is defined or specified and problem formulation takes place as constraints are adjusted. Through such mechanisms as psychological set and functional fixedness,

Ronald N. Taylor

1975-01-01

478

Physics Suite Peer Instruction Problems: Kinematics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains a series of peer instruction problems on kinematics, designed to be solved in a classroom setting. The problems are presented with a qualitative (usually multiple choice) question that is carefully constructed to engage student difficulties with fundamental concepts. Students consider the problem individually and contribute their answers using personal response systems (clickers). Students then confer with their cooperative groups and vote again on the correct response. Topics covered include displacement, velocity, average velocity, speed, and interpreting position and velocity graphs. This problem set is part of the Physics Suite collection, containing sample problems, peer instruction problems, and alternative homework sets.

Redish, Edward F.

2008-08-11

479

Problem-Based Learning: Using Ill-Structured Problems in Biology Project Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This case study involved year 9 students carrying out project work in biology via problem-based learning. The purpose of the study was to (a) find out how students approach and work through ill-structured problems, (b) identify some issues and challenges related to the use of such problems, and (c) offer some practical suggestions on the…

Chin, Christine; Chia, Li-Gek

2006-01-01

480

Temporal Reasoning Involving Counterfactuals and Disjunctions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a mechanism for nonmonotonic tem­ poral reasoning involving counterfactuals and disjunctions. The mechanism supports a method for exploring alterna­ tives well suited to automatic planning. The application of these techniques to robot problem solving is discussed with an emphasis on reasoning about exclusive choices and monitoring the continued warrant and effectiveness of pre­ vention tasks. I. Introduction

Thomas Dean

1985-01-01

481

Adolescent Involvement in Discipline Decision Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the influence of (a) low, medium, or high adolescent involvement (degree to which adolescent input was solicited in determining consequence) in discipline decisions and (b) parental versus adolescent focus of impact of behavior problem (parent emphasized inconvenience to either self or adolescent). After viewing videotaped…

Deroma, Virginia M.; Lassiter, Kerry S.; Davis, Virginia A.

2004-01-01

482

The Processes Involved in Designing Software.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A design task involves a complex set of processes. Starting from a global statement of the problem, a designer must develop a precise plan for a solution that can be realized in some concrete way. Software design, which is investigated in this paper, is t...

M. E. Atwood R. Jeffries A. A. Turner P. G. Polson

1980-01-01

483

An approach to wicked problems in environmental policy making  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bstract: - In environmental policy making, the objectives are part of the decision-making problem. Policy making for sustainable development involves problems with lack of clear and definitive problem formulation which are to be solved by various stakeholders who judge the solutions with different values. In addition, risks and uncertainties involving future events and risks and uncertainties associated to the

NASSER AYOUB; RAFAEL BATRES; YUJI NAKA

484

Reading Problems and Depressed Mood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although reading difficulties show well-established overlaps with disruptive behavior disorders in childhood, much less is known about reading-disabled children's vulnerability to emotional difficul- ties. Using longitudinal data from 6 assessments of boys in the Pittsburgh Youth Study, we found robust links between severe, persistent reading problems and increased risk for depressed mood in a community sample of boys aged 7

Barbara Maughan; Richard Rowe; Rolf Loeber; Magda Stouthamer-Loeber

2003-01-01

485

Gang Involvement and Membership among Homeless and Runaway Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed the extent of gang involvement among homeless and runaway youth, comparing gang members, gang-involved youth (not members), and non-gang youth on several dimensions. Interview data indicated that 15.4 percent of the youth were gang members and 32.2 percent were involved in gangs. These youth reported more family problems and school…

Yoder, Kevin A.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.

2003-01-01

486

Gang Involvement and Membership among Homeless and Runaway Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Assessed the extent of gang involvement among homeless and runaway youth, comparing gang members, gang-involved youth (not members), and non-gang youth on several dimensions. Interview data indicated that 15.4 percent of the youth were gang members and 32.2 percent were involved in gangs. These youth reported more family problems and school…

Yoder, Kevin A.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.

2003-01-01

487

University of Delaware: Problem-Based Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at the University of Delaware, this set of peer-tested and vetted educational resources asks the important question: "How can I get my students to think?" Their educational philosophy places a premium on problem-based learning (PBL), which is an instructional method that asks students to work cooperatively in groups in order to seek solutions to real world problems. First-time visitors can take a look at some sample PBL problems. These sample problems include several group exercises that deal with everything from household wiring to a case study problem in molecular evolution. College instructors will want to definitely visit the "PBL Courses and Syllabi" area, where they can take a look at sample syllabi that draw inspiration from the problem-based learning perspective. Finally, visitors can also browse through the PBL Clearinghouse and look over a list of related educational sites.

488

STACK SAMPLING FOR ORGANIC EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper reviews some of the more important principles involved in stack sampling for organics, briefly describes and discusses recently developed equipment, and points out a few of the more serious pitfalls. Extensive references are provided, many of which are often overlooked ...

489

Fifty Environmental Problems of Timely Importance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper surveys some of the most recognizable and pressing problems of the environment, and includes comments on them from the current literature. Topics include short articles on pollution involving SST and stratospheric air force planes, Heat, DDT, Ai...

L. M. Libby

1970-01-01

490

Sampling the difficult-to-sample.  

PubMed

Difficult-to-sample populations are defined as rare populations or populations that are difficult to locate, enumerate or interview. This definition includes subgroups of the United States population that are at increased risk of adverse health effects associated with malnutrition. Examples include persons who are rare (pregnant women), difficult to locate (migrant farm workers), difficult to enumerate (homeless individuals) or difficult to interview (substance abusers). Probability methods to sample rare and elusive populations are reviewed briefly. Methods include disproportionately allocated sampling, multiplicity sampling and the use of multiple frames. The advantages and disadvantages of nonprobability sampling methods are compared using criteria typically applied to assess alternative probability sampling methods. The cost of data collection alone may prohibit consideration of probability sampling methods, but caution is urged before abandoning this statistically sound approach to sample selection. Considerations for sampling the difficult-to-sample are illustrated for one such population, the homeless. PMID:2002412

Lepkowski, J M

1991-03-01

491

Sickle cell disease: problem solving/coping methods among affected children and their non-affected siblings.  

PubMed

A small group of children with sickle cell disease and their non-affected siblings served as participants in a descriptive research project designed to describe how these children problem-solve and cope with social and academic stress at school. Data collection involved pictorial stimuli to evoke story telling. The study's results indicate that both problem-solving and coping methods were identical between affected and non-affected children in the sample: both groups utilized direct action in dealing with stressful situations. The study's generalizability is limited on account of small sample size. PMID:10085845

Lee, E J; Phoenix, D; Brown, W; Jackson, B S

1998-12-01

492

Class and Home Problems: Optimization Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Optimization problems suitable for all levels of chemical engineering students are available. These problems do not require advanced mathematical techniques, since they can be solved using typical software used by students and practitioners. The method used to solve these problems forces students to understand the trends for the different terms…

Anderson, Brian J.; Hissam, Robin S.; Shaeiwitz, Joseph A.; Turton, Richard

2011-01-01

493

Motorcycle licensure, ownership, and injury crash involvement.  

PubMed Central

The interrelationships among motorcycle licensure, ownership, and injury crash involvement were investigated in a sample of 2,723 motorcycle drivers severely or fatally injured in California in 1985-86. Owners of motorcycles in such crashes ("driver-owners") were less likely to have valid licenses than a random sample of motorcycle owners who had not been in crashes (42 vs. 57 percent). Thirty-three percent of the crash-involved drivers had valid motorcycle driver's licenses; 39 percent were operating motorcycles they did not own ("driver-nonowners"). Driver-nonowners were less likely to be validly licensed than driver-owners (20 percent vs. 44 percent). The licensing rate of crash-involved driver-nonowners was 15 percent if the owner was also unlicensed. Rates of valid licensure were lowest among the youngest drivers. Virtually no crash-involved driver-nonowners under age 21 were licensed in cases in which the owner was also young and unlicensed.

Kraus, J F; Anderson, C; Zador, P; Williams, A; Arzemanian, S; Li, W C; Salatka, M

1991-01-01

494

Comparison of direct and rejection sampling methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the authors compare direct sampling methods with rejection sampling for some common probability density functions (pdf's) used in Monte Carlo codes. Timing results obtained on several types of engineering workstation indicate that the direct sampling methods are always competitive with and usually faster than rejection schemes. Direct methods also involve coding that is easier to understand and

F. B. Brown; J. Vujic

1993-01-01

495

Mixed Methods Sampling: A Typology with Examples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a discussion of mixed methods (MM) sampling techniques. MM sampling involves combining well-established qualitative and quantitative techniques in creative ways to answer research questions posed by MM research designs. Several issues germane to MM sampling are presented including the differences between probability and…

Teddlie, Charles; Yu, Fen

2007-01-01

496

40 CFR 1065.150 - Continuous sampling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

You may use continuous sampling techniques for measurements that involve raw or dilute sampling. Make sure continuous sampling systems meet the specifications in § 1065.145. Make sure continuous analyzers meet the specifications in subparts C and D of this...

2013-07-01

497

Mixed Methods Sampling: A Typology with Examples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents a discussion of mixed methods (MM) sampling techniques. MM sampling involves combining well-established qualitative and quantitative techniques in creative ways to answer research questions posed by MM research designs. Several issues germane to MM sampling are presented including the differences between probability and…

Teddlie, Charles; Yu, Fen

2007-01-01

498

Litigation Involving FERPA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews the case law that has developed in litigating the rights of parents and students who have either been denied access to student records or whose records have been released in violation of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA). Considers some implications under FERPA for educational institutions involving issues of both…

Mawdsley, Ralph D.

1996-01-01