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1

LUMINEX DETECTION OF FECAL INDICATORS IN RIVER SAMPLES, MARINE RECREATIONAL WATER, AND BEACH SAND  

PubMed Central

Research to understand and remediate coastal pollution is moving toward a multitiered approach in which traditional enumeration of fecal indicators is accompanied by molecular analysis of a variety of targets. Technology that rapidly detects multiple microbial contaminants would benefit from such an approach. The Luminex® 100™ system is a suspension array that assays multiple analytes rapidly in a single well of a microtiter plate. The ability of the system to simultaneously detect multiple fecal indicating bacteria in environmental samples was tested. Primer/probe sets were designed to simultaneously detect the following fecal indicators: the Bacteroides fragilis group, Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli & Shigella spp., B. distasonis, and Ent. faecalis. Specificity and sensitivity of the Luminex probes was tested against laboratory cultures. In addition, sequencing, culture plate testing, and specificity testing with environmental isolates were steps taken to validate the function of the assay with environmental samples. Luminex response to cultures and to environmental samples was consistent with sequencing results, suggesting that the technology has the potential to simultaneously detect multiple targets for coastal water quality applications, particularly as progress is made to efficiently extract DNA from water and sediment matrices.

Baums, Iliana B.; Goodwin, Kelly D.; Kiesling, Traci; Wanless, David; Fell, Jack W.

2007-01-01

2

HEALTH EFFECTS CRITERIA FOR MARINE RECREATIONAL WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents health effects quality criteria for marine recreational waters and a recommendation for a specific criterion among those developed. It is the mathematical relationship of the swimming-associated rate of gastrointestinal symptoms among bathers to the quality of...

3

Marine Engine Emissions in Recreational Lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Release of gasoline and other contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, from marine engines into fresh water lakes has become a concern both due to potential impacts on drinking water sources, but also due to potential ecological impacts. Lake Tahoe, an ultraoligotrophic lake shared by Nevada and California, receives extensive recreational watercraft use, and analysis of water samples in 1997 and 1998 revealed widespread occurrence of MTBE, benzene, toluene, xylenes and ethyl benzene. Because carbureted two-cycle engines are known to release approximately 25% of gasoline unburned, these marine engines were suspected as a primary source of these volatile constituents. Further tests on a variety of engines confirmed that the carbureted two-cycle engines released greater amounts of gasoline components into water than either the newer direct injected two-stroke engines (Ficht technology) or four stroke engines. Using toluene as a surrogate for gasoline, and comparing other engines to a two-stroke carbureted engine, the direct injected two-stroke engine had an approximate 80% reduction in toluene released, and a four stroke engine had greater 90% reduction in toluene released. Based on these and other data obtained, a modeling effort indicated that banning of carbureted two-stroke engines at Lake Tahoe would result in an 80% reduction in gasoline constituents in the Lake. In June of 1999 a near complete ban on these engines was implemented by the Tahoe Regional Planning Agency, and by late summer of 1999 gasoline constituents had been reduced by 80-95%. Further research on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons has indicated that two cycle engines are also a major source of these phototoxic contaminants.

Miller, G. C.; Hoonhout, C.; Sufka, E.; Fiore-Wagner, M.; Allen, B.; Reuter, J.

2001-12-01

4

Recreational impacts on the fauna of Australian coastal marine ecosystems.  

PubMed

This paper reviews recent research into the ecological impacts of recreation and tourism on coastal marine fauna in Australia. Despite the high and growing importance of water-based recreation to the Australian economy, and the known fragility of many Australian ecosystems, there has been relatively limited research into the effects of marine tourism and recreation, infrastructure and activities, on aquatic resources. In this paper we have reviewed the ecological impacts on fauna that are caused by outdoor recreation (including tourism) in Australian coastal marine ecosystems. We predict that the single most potentially severe impact of recreation may be the introduction and/or dispersal of non-indigenous species of marine organisms by recreational vessels. Such introductions, together with other impacts due to human activities have the potential to increasingly degrade recreation destinations. In response, governments have introduced a wide range of legislative tools (e.g., impact assessment, protected area reservation) to manage the recreational industry. It would appear, however, that these instruments are not always appropriately applied. PMID:20615603

Hardiman, Nigel; Burgin, Shelley

2010-11-01

5

Economic Assessment of Marine Recreational Fishing in Southern California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides a comprehensive economic analysis of marine recreational fishing (MRF) activity between Point Conception, California and the Mexican border during 1983. MRF participation, effort and catch are listed. The report describes the demand fo...

1986-01-01

6

Communication Networks in Marine Recreational Fishing: Information-Seeking Behavior, Fishing Knowledge, and Diffusion of Fishing Innovations Among Marine Recreational Fisherman in North Carolina.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project is an assessment and evaluation of the marine recreational fishing (MRF) information dissemination system in North Carolina. First, a content analysis and panel evaluation of MRF brochures was conducted to identify the primary informational co...

R. R. Perdue C. J. Betz

1991-01-01

7

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Northwest Marine and Fresh Water Recreational Beaches  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to determine the spatial distribution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA] at two marine and one fresh water recreational beaches in the Seattle area. Fifty-six marine water, 144 fresh water, and 96 sand samples were collected from June through August 2010. Isolates were biochemically verified as MRSA. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, multilocus sequence typing [MLST], pulse field gel electrophoresis [PFGE] and the presence of other antibiotic resistance genes were determined. Twenty-two fresh water [15.3%; n = 144], one dry sand [1.9%; n = 53], six wet sand [14%; n = 43], and 2 marine water samples [3.6%; n = 56] were MRSA positive. Of the 27 fresh water stream sites sampled multiple times, 37% of the sites were positive for MRSA and/or S. aureus ? 2 times. Twenty-one (67.7%) of 31 MRSA were SCCmec type IV, fifteen (48.4%) of the isolates had MLST types not previously associated with humans, and 29 (93.5%) of the isolates carried other antibiotic resistance genes. This study is the first to report and characterize repeated MRSA positive samples from fresh water drainages and creeks surrounding popular recreational beaches.

Levin-Edens, Emily; Soge, Olusegun O.; No, David; Stiffarm, Amy; Meschke, J. Scott; Roberts, Marilyn C.

2011-01-01

8

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Northwest marine and freshwater recreational beaches.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to determine the spatial distribution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at two marine and one freshwater recreational beaches in the Seattle area. Fifty-six marine water, 144 freshwater, and 96 sand samples were collected from June through August 2010. Isolates were biochemically verified as MRSA. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulse field gel electrophoresis and the presence of other antibiotic resistance genes were determined. Twenty-two freshwater (15.3%; n = 144), one dry sand (1.9%; n = 53), six wet sand (14%; n = 43), and two marine water samples (3.6%; n = 56) were MRSA positive. Of the 27 freshwater stream sites sampled multiple times, 37% of the sites were positive for MRSA and/or S. aureus ? 2 times. Twenty-one (67.7%) of 31 MRSA were SCCmec type IV, 15 (48.4%) of the isolates had MLST types not previously associated with humans, and 29 (93.5%) of the isolates carried other antibiotic resistance genes. This study is the first to report and characterize repeated MRSA-positive samples from freshwater drainages and creeks surrounding popular recreational beaches. PMID:22092827

Levin-Edens, Emily; Soge, Olusegun O; No, David; Stiffarm, Amy; Meschke, J Scott; Roberts, Marilyn C

2012-02-01

9

Recreation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue on recreation includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs, computer software, videos, books, magazines, and professional resources that deal with recreation for K-8 language arts, art/architecture, music/dance, science, math, social studies, and health/physical education. Sidebars discuss fun and games, recess recreation,…

Online-Offline, 1998

1998-01-01

10

77 FR 5751 - Marine Recreational Fisheries of the United States; National Saltwater Angler Registry and State...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...120118050-2049-01] RIN 0648-BB49 Marine Recreational Fisheries of the...Exemption Program AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...programs that are intended to recruit new anglers and license buyers...Regulatory Programs, National Marine Fisheries Service. For...

2012-02-06

11

Fuzzy experts on recreational vessels, a risk modelling approach for marine invasions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding risks from the human-mediated spread of non-indigenous species (NIS) is a critical component of marine biosecurity management programmes. Recreational boating is well-recognised as a NIS pathway, especially at a regional scale. Assessment of risks from this pathway is therefore desirable for coastal environments where recreational boating occurs. However, formal or quantitative risk assessment for the recreational vessel pathway is

Hernando Acosta; Dongrui Wu; Barrie M. Forrest

2010-01-01

12

Authorized Course of Instruction for the Quinmester Program. Science: Introduction to Marine Science; Recreation and the Sea; Oceanography; Marine Ecology of South Florida, and Invertebrate Marine Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All five units, developed for the Dade County Florida Quinmester Program, included in this collection concern some aspect of marine studies. Except for "Recreation and the Sea," intended to give students basic seamanship skills and experience of other marine recreation, all units are designed for students with a background in biology or chemistry.…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

13

Presence of Pathogens and Indicator Microbes at a Non-Point Source Subtropical Recreational Marine Beach ? †  

PubMed Central

Swimming in ocean water, including ocean water at beaches not impacted by known point sources of pollution, is an increasing health concern. This study was an initial evaluation of the presence of indicator microbes and pathogens and the association among the indicator microbes, pathogens, and environmental conditions at a subtropical, recreational marine beach in south Florida impacted by non-point sources of pollution. Twelve water and eight sand samples were collected during four sampling events at high or low tide under elevated or reduced solar insolation conditions. The analyses performed included analyses of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci, and Clostridium perfringens), human-associated microbial source tracking (MST) markers (human polyomaviruses [HPyVs] and Enterococcus faecium esp gene), and pathogens (Vibrio vulnificus, Staphylococcus aureus, enterovirus, norovirus, hepatitis A virus, Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp.). The enterococcus concentrations in water and sand determined by quantitative PCR were greater than the concentrations determined by membrane filtration measurement. The FIB concentrations in water were below the recreational water quality standards for three of the four sampling events, when pathogens and MST markers were also generally undetectable. The FIB levels exceeded regulatory guidelines during one event, and this was accompanied by detection of HPyVs and pathogens, including detection of the autochthonous bacterium V. vulnificus in sand and water, detection of the allochthonous protozoans Giardia spp. in water, and detection of Cryptosporidium spp. in sand samples. The elevated microbial levels were detected at high tide and under low-solar-insolation conditions. Additional sampling should be conducted to further explore the relationships between tidal and solar insolation conditions and between indicator microbes and pathogens in subtropical recreational marine waters impacted by non-point source pollution.

Abdelzaher, Amir M.; Wright, Mary E.; Ortega, Cristina; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Miller, Gary; Elmir, Samir; Newman, Xihui; Shih, Peter; Bonilla, J. Alfredo; Bonilla, Tonya D.; Palmer, Carol J.; Scott, Troy; Lukasik, Jerzy; Harwood, Valerie J.; McQuaig, Shannon; Sinigalliano, Chris; Gidley, Maribeth; Plano, Lisa R. W.; Zhu, Xiaofang; Wang, John D.; Fleming, Lora E.

2010-01-01

14

Presence of pathogens and indicator microbes at a non-point source subtropical recreational marine beach.  

PubMed

Swimming in ocean water, including ocean water at beaches not impacted by known point sources of pollution, is an increasing health concern. This study was an initial evaluation of the presence of indicator microbes and pathogens and the association among the indicator microbes, pathogens, and environmental conditions at a subtropical, recreational marine beach in south Florida impacted by non-point sources of pollution. Twelve water and eight sand samples were collected during four sampling events at high or low tide under elevated or reduced solar insolation conditions. The analyses performed included analyses of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci, and Clostridium perfringens), human-associated microbial source tracking (MST) markers (human polyomaviruses [HPyVs] and Enterococcus faecium esp gene), and pathogens (Vibrio vulnificus, Staphylococcus aureus, enterovirus, norovirus, hepatitis A virus, Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp.). The enterococcus concentrations in water and sand determined by quantitative PCR were greater than the concentrations determined by membrane filtration measurement. The FIB concentrations in water were below the recreational water quality standards for three of the four sampling events, when pathogens and MST markers were also generally undetectable. The FIB levels exceeded regulatory guidelines during one event, and this was accompanied by detection of HPyVs and pathogens, including detection of the autochthonous bacterium V. vulnificus in sand and water, detection of the allochthonous protozoans Giardia spp. in water, and detection of Cryptosporidium spp. in sand samples. The elevated microbial levels were detected at high tide and under low-solar-insolation conditions. Additional sampling should be conducted to further explore the relationships between tidal and solar insolation conditions and between indicator microbes and pathogens in subtropical recreational marine waters impacted by non-point source pollution. PMID:19966020

Abdelzaher, Amir M; Wright, Mary E; Ortega, Cristina; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Miller, Gary; Elmir, Samir; Newman, Xihui; Shih, Peter; Bonilla, J Alfredo; Bonilla, Tonya D; Palmer, Carol J; Scott, Troy; Lukasik, Jerzy; Harwood, Valerie J; McQuaig, Shannon; Sinigalliano, Chris; Gidley, Maribeth; Plano, Lisa R W; Zhu, Xiaofang; Wang, John D; Fleming, Lora E

2010-02-01

15

Is catch-and-release recreational angling compatible with no-take marine protected areas?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine protected areas (MPAs) have become a common conservation and management tool for reducing exploitation from the commercial and recreational fisheries sectors. However, the recreational fisheries sector has the potential to be compatible with no-take MPAs when catch-and-release angling is practiced because, in theory, no fish are actually harvested. This presumes that the effects of catch-and-release angling and related activities

Steven J. Cooke; Andy J. Danylchuk; Sascha E. Danylchuk; Cory D. Suski; Tony L. Goldberg

2006-01-01

16

A MARINE RECREATIONAL WATER QUALITY CRITERION CONSISTENT WITH INDICATOR CONCEPTS AND RISK ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

An overivew is provided of water quality criteria developed for marine recreational waters by EPA in 1979. The crierion used is the strength of the association with the rates of the important symptoms, such as those that correlate best with swimming in wastewater-polluted waters....

17

Recent developments Is catch-and-release recreational angling compatible with no-take marine protected areas?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine protected areas (MPAs) have become a common conservation and management tool for reducing exploitation from the commercial and recreational fisheries sectors. However, the recreational fisheries sector has the potential to be compatible with no-take MPAs when catch- and-release angling is practiced because, in theory, no fish are actually harvested. This presumes that the effects of catch-and-release angling and related

Steven J. Cooke; Andy J. Danylchuk; Sascha E. Danylchuk; Cory D. Suski; Tony L. Goldberg

2006-01-01

18

Recent developments Is catch-and-release recreational angling compatible with no-take marine protected areas?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine protected areas (MPAs) have become a common conservation and management tool for reducing exploitation from the commercial and recreational fisheries sectors. However, the recreational fisheries sector has the potential to be compatible with no-take MPAs when catch- and-release angling is practiced because, in theory, no fish are actually harvested. This presumes that the effects of catch-and-release angling and related

Steven J. Cooke; Andy J. Danylchuk; Sascha E. Danylchuk; Cory D. Suskie; Tony L. Goldberg

19

Human viruses and viral indicators in marine water at two recreational beaches in Southern California, USA.  

PubMed

Waterborne enteric viruses may pose disease risks to bather health but occurrence of these viruses has been difficult to characterize at recreational beaches. The aim of this study was to evaluate water for human virus occurrence at two Southern California recreational beaches with a history of beach closures. Human enteric viruses (adenovirus and norovirus) and viral indicators (F+ and somatic coliphages) were measured in water samples over a 4-month period from Avalon Beach, Catalina Island (n = 324) and Doheny Beach, Orange County (n = 112). Human viruses were concentrated from 40 L samples and detected by nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Detection frequencies at Doheny Beach were 25.5% (adenovirus) and 22.3% (norovirus), and at Avalon Beach were 9.3% (adenovirus) and 0.7% (norovirus). Positive associations between adenoviruses and fecal coliforms were observed at Doheny (p = 0.02) and Avalon (p = 0.01) Beaches. Human viruses were present at both beaches at higher frequencies than previously detected in the region, suggesting that the virus detection methods presented here may better measure potential health risks to bathers. These virus recovery, concentration, and molecular detection methods are advancing practices so that analysis of enteric viruses can become more effective and routine for recreational water quality monitoring. PMID:24642440

Love, David C; Rodriguez, Roberto A; Gibbons, Christopher D; Griffith, John F; Yu, Qilu; Stewart, Jill R; Sobsey, Mark D

2014-03-01

20

Incorporation of recreational fishing effort into design of marine protected areas.  

PubMed

Theoretical models of marine protected areas (MPAs) that explore benefits to fisheries or biodiversity conservation often assume a dynamic pool of fishing effort. For instance, effort is homogenously distributed over areas from which subsets of reserves are chosen. I tested this and other model assumptions with a case study of the multiple-use Jervis Bay Marine Park. Prior to zoning of the park I conducted 166 surveys of the park's recreational fisheries, plotting the location of 16,009 anglers. I converted these plots into diagrams of fishing effort and analyzed correlates between fishing and habitat and the effect of two reserve designs-the draft and final zoning plans of the park-on the 15 fisheries observed. Fisheries were strongly correlated with particular habitats and had negatively skewed and often bimodal spatial distribution. The second mode of intensely fished habitat could be 6 SD greater than the fishery's mean allocation of effort by area. In the draft-zoning plan, sanctuary zone (no-take) area and potential subduction of fishing effort were similar. In the final plan, which was altered in response to public comment, the area of sanctuary zone increased, and the impact on fishing effort decreased. In only one case was a fishery's most intensely targeted location closed to fishing. Because of the discriminating manner with which fishers target habitats, if simple percentage targets are used for planning, sanctuary location can be adjusted to avoid existing fishing effort. According to modeled outcomes, the implication of this may be diminished reserve effectiveness. To address this, reserve area should be implicitly linked to subducted fishing effort when promoting or modeling MPAs. PMID:17002764

Lynch, Tim P

2006-10-01

21

Implementation of a marine reserve has a rapid but short-lived effect on recreational angler use.  

PubMed

Changes in human behavior are a precursor to measurable impacts of no-take marine reserves. We investigated changes in recreational fishing site selection in response to the 2005 announcement of enforcement in a marine reserve in the Gulf of California, Mexico. We used a novel data set of daily self-reported boating destinations from emergency rescue logbooks for a recreational angling community from 2000 to 2008. Because the reserve system has no experimental control, we modeled the data two ways to test for robustness to model specification. We tested for changes in human fishing behavior with regression and fit a fleet-level discrete choice model to project a. counterfactual scenario. The counterfactual is the statistically constructed ex post expectation of the human behavior we would have observed if the reserve never existed. We included month and year fixed effects in our models to account for seasonal and interannual fluctuations in fishing behavior and catch rates. We detected a decrease in reserve use compared to the counterfactual, indicating that the reserve rapidly experienced a decrease in visitation. However, the reserve's effect to reduce trips diminished with time. These results indicate that the reserve is unlikely to meet its ecological goals without institutional changes that enhance compliance. This illustrates the value of human use data to understanding the processes underlying marine reserve function. We suggest that managers should consider human use with the same frequency, rigor, and tools as they do fishery stocks. Marine reserves directly affect people, and understanding human behavioral responses to marine reserves is an important step in marine reserve management. PMID:22611857

Fujitani, Marie L; Fenichel, Eli P; Torre, Jorge; Gerber, Leah R

2012-03-01

22

77 FR 14506 - Marine Recreational Fisheries of the United States; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Recreational Information Program (MRIP) Calibration Workshop...will convene a workshop to consider calibration methods for the MRFSS and MRIP estimates...times. ADDRESSES: The MRFSS/MRIP Calibration Workshop will be held at the...

2012-03-12

23

77 FR 42189 - Marine Recreational Fisheries of the United States; National Saltwater Angler Registry and State...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...improvements will address the recommendations of the National Research Council's 2006 Review of Recreational Fisheries Survey Methods and the requirements of Section 401(g) of the MSA. As new and improved survey and estimation methods are...

2012-07-18

24

77 FR 73433 - Appointments to a Recreational Fisheries Working Group by the Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...demonstrable expertise in the management or business of recreational...issues; an operational knowledge of federal agencies...interactions with the Fishery Management Councils and/or regional...3. Operational knowledge of federal agencies...interactions with the Fishery Management Councils and/or...

2012-12-10

25

MARINE RECREATIONAL WATER QUALITY CRITERION CONSISTENT WITH INDICATOR CONCEPTS AND RISK ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The development of water quality guidelines and standards for recreational waters has followed a well-defined pattern. The first step was the development of guidelines and standards dictated largely by adoption of the best available control technology. These were usually based on...

26

The inter-tidal zone is the pathway of input of enterococci to a subtropical recreational marine beach.  

PubMed

Efforts were made to evaluate the source of enterococci levels at a recreational beach. Four monitoring efforts were implemented which included tidal studies, hourly sampling, runoff sampling, and spatially intensive sediment sampling. Spatially intensive sediment sampling indicated that enterococci concentrations consistently decreased away from the inter-tidal zone, both seaward and landward. During dry conditions, the highest concentrations in the water were observed during high tide (71±48 CFU/100 mL) and lower concentrations were observed during low tide (4±3 CFU/100 mL). Runoff was characterised by very high levels (11,700 CFU/100 mL). Results from these monitoring efforts collectively showed that the source of enterococci to the study beach is geographically located within the inter-tidal zone. Wash-in from the inter-tidal zone through tidal action and runoff plays a major role in controlling enterococci levels within the water column. Such results are significant in identifying the source and transport mechanisms of enterococci, which can subsequently be used as part of a modelling effort aimed at predicting enterococci levels at recreational beaches. PMID:21278478

Wright, M E; Abdelzaher, A M; Solo-Gabriele, H M; Elmir, S; Fleming, L E

2011-01-01

27

Techniques for Sampling and Analyzing the Marine Macrobenthos.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents guidelines for the quantitative assessment of the effects of marine pollution on benthic community structure and population dynamics. The sampling design addresses the number and location of stations, survey frequency, sampling gear, ...

R. C. Swartz

1978-01-01

28

Adaptive Sampling in Autonomous Marine Sensor Networks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this thesis, an innovative architecture for real-time adaptive and cooperative control of autonomous sensor platforms in a marine sensor network is described in the context of the autonomous oceanographic network scenario. This architecture has three m...

D. P. Eickstedt

2006-01-01

29

Associations between marine phytoplankton and symptoms of illness among recreational beachgoers in Puerto Rico, 2009  

EPA Science Inventory

While phytoplankton generally have crucial roles in marine ecosystems, a small subset can release toxins and produce harmful algal blooms (HABs). HABs can be a threat to human health as symptoms from exposure range from neurological impairment to gastrointestinal (GI), dermal, a...

30

Recreation of Marine Atmospheric Corrosion Condition on Weathering Steel in Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salt spray test, autoclave corrosion test, SO2 salt spray test, and Relative humidity test are generally used to assess atmospheric corrosion in laboratories at accelerated rates. However, no test can absolutely simulate the service condition. One can get only approximate corrosion rates using the aforesaid tests which serve as an indicative of corrosion behavior of the material in a service condition. The present work is aimed at creating specific environmental condition in laboratory to get the corrosion test done in short duration to compare with on field exposure test which would otherwise take years to complete. In this work recreation of atmospheric environment of Digha was tried and it was simulated in such a manner that the results of laboratory test could be compared with long time field exposure at Digha. Weathering steel (WS) was taken for experimentations. Potentiostatic electrochemical tests route was adopted to simulate atmospheric condition of Digha. Laboratory test results compared well with 18 month field exposure data in terms of corrosion rate, SEM and Ramon Spectroscopy matching.

Guchhait, S. K.; Dewan, S.; Saha, J. K.; Mitra, P. K.

2014-04-01

31

Performance of barbed and barbless hooks in a marine recreational fishery  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used an angling study to examine catch per unit effort (CPUE), bait loss, and total landings by anglers fishing with natural bait on barbed and barbless hooks in a nearshore marine sport fishery located in the Gulf of Mexico near St. Petersburg, Florida. Anglers fished half the day with a barbed hook and half the day with a barbless hook. We also recorded anatomical hook placement, severity of injury or bleeding, and hook extraction times for each landed fish. Bait loss, CPUE, and mean length of catch did not differ between gears, but anglers landed 22% more fish with barbed hooks. Loss of hooked fish was significantly higher with barbless hooks, and efficiency appeared to vary among species. Mean unhooking times were significantly shorter with barbless hooks. Anatomical hook placement did not differ between gears and most fish were hooked in the jaws. Bleeding did not differ between gears because bleeding was influenced strongly by hook placement, but barbless hooks reduced unhooking injuries. In this fishery, barbless hooks probably did not reduce hooking mortality and conferred only slight benefits at the expense of reduced catches.

Schaeffer, Jeffrey S.; Hoffman, Elizabeth M.

2002-01-01

32

Quantifying Marine Microbes: A Simulation to Introduce Random Sampling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Colored beads in a bag are used to represent different types of microbes, with the bag itself representing the ocean. Working in groups, each learner randomly samples ten âmicrobesâ from the âocean,â and records the data. To learn about the inherent variability of random sampling, the learner then compares the composition of their individual samples, their groupâs pooled sample data, and that of the entire population. Introduce this lesson by reading and talking about the diversity of marine microbes.

Bruno, Barbara; Tice, Kimberly; Achilles, Kate; Matsuzaki, Joan

2012-01-01

33

Quantifying Marine Microbes: A Simulation to Introduce Random Sampling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces random sampling, one of the key concepts employed by scientists to study the natural environment, including microbial communities. Students first learn about the abundance and diversity of marine microbes. Colored beads in a bag are then used to represent different types of microbes, with the bag itself representing the ocean. Working in groups, each student randomly samples ten "microbes" from the "ocean", and records the data. To learn about the inherent variability of random sampling, the students then compare the composition of their individual samples, their group'Âs pooled sample data, and that of the entire population.

Bruno, Barbara

2012-01-01

34

Luminex detection of fecal indicators in river samples, marine recreational water, and beach sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research to understand and remediate coastal pollution is moving toward a multitiered approach in which traditional enumeration of fecal indicators is accompanied by molecular analysis of a variety of targets. Technology that rapidly detects multiple microbial contaminants would benefit from such an approach. The Luminex® 100™ system is a suspension array that assays multiple analytes rapidly in a single well

Iliana B. Baums; Kelly D. Goodwin; Traci Kiesling; David Wanless; Mara R. Diaz; Jack W. Fell

2007-01-01

35

Operation Recreation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents who have a child with a disability often find that recreational activities can be anything but accessible. Time for recreation is drowned by the priorities of caring for a child's needs, and the "umph" to get out can feel like an insurmountable obstacle. The activities parents love and aspire to share with their child may seem like one…

Schutz, Jeff; Schutz, Laurie

2010-01-01

36

Children's Recreational Physical Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored children's participation in recreational (physical) activities and the extent to which this participation was influenced by individual and household socio-demographics and characteristics of the social and physical environment. Travel and activity diaries were used to collect data on out-of-home recreational activities for a random sample of 4,293 children in primary schools in the Netherlands. These data were

Astrid D. A. M. Kemperman; Harry J. P. Timmermans

2011-01-01

37

Evaluation of Enterolert for enumeration of enterococci in recreational waters.  

PubMed

Enterolert (IDEXX Laboratories Inc., Westbrook, Maine), a semiautomated, most probable number method for enumeration of enterococci, was compared with the standard membrane filter method by parallel testing of 138 marine and freshwater recreational bathing water samples. No statistically significant difference and a strong linear correlation were found between methods. Culturing of 501 Enterolert test wells resulted in false-positive and false-negative rates of 5.1 and 0.4%, respectively. Less time for setup, incubation (24 versus 48 h), and reading of Enterolert permits more efficient monitoring of recreational bathing areas. PMID:8837446

Budnick, G E; Howard, R T; Mayo, D R

1996-10-01

38

Evaluation of Enterolert for enumeration of enterococci in recreational waters.  

PubMed Central

Enterolert (IDEXX Laboratories Inc., Westbrook, Maine), a semiautomated, most probable number method for enumeration of enterococci, was compared with the standard membrane filter method by parallel testing of 138 marine and freshwater recreational bathing water samples. No statistically significant difference and a strong linear correlation were found between methods. Culturing of 501 Enterolert test wells resulted in false-positive and false-negative rates of 5.1 and 0.4%, respectively. Less time for setup, incubation (24 versus 48 h), and reading of Enterolert permits more efficient monitoring of recreational bathing areas.

Budnick, G E; Howard, R T; Mayo, D R

1996-01-01

39

Analytical methods for the determination of sugars in marine samples: A historical perspective and future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical techniques employed over the past three decades for sugar determination in marine samples are reviewed. This review first summarizes the different hydrolysis protocols used by marine biogeochemists to extract sugars from various marine matrices including sinking particulate organic matter (POM), dissolved organic matter (DOM), ultrafiltrated dissolved organic matter (UDOM), and sediments. The most commonly used methods for total sugar

Christos Panagiotopoulos; Richard Sempéré

40

Isolation of microplastics in biota-rich seawater samples and marine organisms  

PubMed Central

Microplastic litter is a pervasive pollutant present in aquatic systems across the globe. A range of marine organisms have the capacity to ingest microplastics, resulting in adverse health effects. Developing methods to accurately quantify microplastics in productive marine waters, and those internalized by marine organisms, is of growing importance. Here we investigate the efficacy of using acid, alkaline and enzymatic digestion techniques in mineralizing biological material from marine surface trawls to reveal any microplastics present. Our optimized enzymatic protocol can digest >97% (by weight) of the material present in plankton-rich seawater samples without destroying any microplastic debris present. In applying the method to replicate marine samples from the western English Channel, we identified 0.27 microplastics m?3. The protocol was further used to extract microplastics ingested by marine zooplankton under laboratory conditions. Our findings illustrate that enzymatic digestion can aid the detection of microplastic debris within seawater samples and marine biota.

Cole, Matthew; Webb, Hannah; Lindeque, Pennie K.; Fileman, Elaine S.; Halsband, Claudia; Galloway, Tamara S.

2014-01-01

41

Isolation of microplastics in biota-rich seawater samples and marine organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microplastic litter is a pervasive pollutant present in aquatic systems across the globe. A range of marine organisms have the capacity to ingest microplastics, resulting in adverse health effects. Developing methods to accurately quantify microplastics in productive marine waters, and those internalized by marine organisms, is of growing importance. Here we investigate the efficacy of using acid, alkaline and enzymatic digestion techniques in mineralizing biological material from marine surface trawls to reveal any microplastics present. Our optimized enzymatic protocol can digest >97% (by weight) of the material present in plankton-rich seawater samples without destroying any microplastic debris present. In applying the method to replicate marine samples from the western English Channel, we identified 0.27 microplastics m-3. The protocol was further used to extract microplastics ingested by marine zooplankton under laboratory conditions. Our findings illustrate that enzymatic digestion can aid the detection of microplastic debris within seawater samples and marine biota.

Cole, Matthew; Webb, Hannah; Lindeque, Pennie K.; Fileman, Elaine S.; Halsband, Claudia; Galloway, Tamara S.

2014-03-01

42

Evaluation of Enterolert for Enumeration of Enterococci in Recreational Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterolert(IDEXXLaboratoriesInc.,Westbrook,Maine),asemiautomated,mostprobablenumbermethod for enumeration of enterococci, was compared with the standard membranefilter method by parallel testing of 138 marine and freshwater recreational bathing water samples. No statistically significant difference and a strong linear correlation were found between methods. Culturing of 501 Enterolert test wells resulted in false-positive and false-negative rates of 5.1 and 0.4%, respectively. Less time for setup, incubation (24

GARY E. BUDNICK; ROBERT T. HOWARD; ANDDONALD R. MAYO

1996-01-01

43

Kocuria sediminis sp. nov., isolated from a marine sediment sample.  

PubMed

A Gram-positive, pinkish-orange pigmented, coccoid strain, FCS-11(T) was isolated from a marine sediment sample taken from Kochi fort area, Kerala, India and subjected to polyphasic taxonomic study. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the strain was determined and the results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the strain FCS-11(T) should be assigned to the genus Kocuria. The chemotaxonomic data supported this taxonomic placement i.e. menaquinones MK-7(H(2)), MK-8(H(2)) and MK-9(H(2)); major fatty acids anteiso C15:0 and iso-C15:0 and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG) as major polar lipids. Further phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence confirmed that the strain FCS-11(T) belonged to the genus Kocuria and is closely related to Kocuria turfanensis MTCC 10790(T) (99.4%) followed by Kocuria polaris MTCC 3702(T) (98.2%), Kocuria rosea MTCC 2522(T) (98.2%), Kocuria flava MTCC 10971(T) (98.2%), Kocuria aegyptia MTCC 10791(T) (98.0%), Kocuria himachalensis MTCC 7020(T) (97.5%) and Kocuria atrinae MTCC 10972(T) (97.1%). However, the DNA-DNA hybridisation values obtained between strain FCS-11(T) and other related strains were well below the threshold that is required for the proposal of a novel species. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 60.7 mol%. The phenotypic and genotypic data showed that the strain FCS-11(T) merits the recognition as a representative of a novel species of the genus Kocuria. It is proposed that the isolate should be classified in the genus Kocuria as a novel species, Kocuria sediminis sp. nov. The type strain is FCS-11(T) (= MTCC 10969(T) = JCM 17929(T)). PMID:22012251

Bala, Monu; Kaur, Chandandeep; Kaur, Ishwinder; Khan, Fazlurrahman; Mayilraj, Shanmugam

2012-03-01

44

Bacillus tianshenii sp. nov., isolated from a marine sediment sample.  

PubMed

A novel Gram-stain-positive, motile, catalase- and oxidase-positive, aerobic, endospore-forming, peritrichous, rod-shaped bacterium, designated YIM M13235(T), was isolated from a marine sediment sample collected from the South China Sea. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain YIM M13235(T) belonged to the genus Bacillus. The strain grew optimally at 30 °C, pH 7.0 and in the presence of 2-4?% (w/v) NaCl. meso-Diaminopimelic acid was present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. Strain YIM M13235(T) exhibited a menaquinone system with MK-7, and the major polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, four unknown phospholipids and one unknown glycolipid. The major fatty acids (>5?%) were iso-C15?:?0, anteiso-C15?:?0, anteiso-C17?:?0, iso-C17?:?1?10c and summed feature 4 (anteiso-C17?:?1 and/or iso-C17?:?1). The genomic DNA G+C content was 42.1 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain YIM M13235(T) and its close relatives (16S rRNA gene sequence similarities >97?%) including Bacillus halmapalus DSM 8723(T), Bacillus horikoshii DSM 8719(T) and Bacillus zhanjiangensis JSM 099021(T) were 41?%, 44?% and 44?%, respectively. On the basis of genotypic, phenotypic and DNA-DNA relatedness data, it is apparent that strain YIM M13235(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus tianshenii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM M13235(T) (?=?DSM 25879(T)?=?KCTC 33044(T)). PMID:24614848

Jiang, Zhao; Zhang, Dao-Feng; Khieu, Thi-Nhan; Son, Chu Ky; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Cheng, Juan; Tian, Xin-Peng; Zhang, Si; Li, Wen-Jun

2014-06-01

45

Recreational Computing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urges teachers of gifted students to allow students unstructured recreational computer time in the classroom to encourage student exploration and discovery, to promote creativity, to develop problem-solving skills, and to allow time to revisit programs and complete their own tasks. Different types of educational computer programs are referenced.…

Strot, Melody

1999-01-01

46

Evaluation of conventional and alternative monitoring methods for a recreational marine beach with non-point source of fecal contamination  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were to compare enterococci (ENT) measurements based on the membrane filter, ENT(MF) with alternatives that can provide faster results including alternative enterococci methods (e.g. chromogenic substrate (CS), and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)), and results from regression models based upon environmental parameters that can be measured in real-time. ENT(MF) were also compared to source tracking markers (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacteroidales human and dog markers, and Catellicoccus gull marker) in an effort to interpret the variability of the signal. Results showed that concentrations of enterococci based upon MF (< 2 to 3,320 CFU/100mL) were significantly different from the CS and qPCR methods (p < 0.01). The correlations between MF and CS (r=0.58, p<0.01) were stronger than between MF and qPCR (r?0.36, p<0.01). Enterococci levels by MF, CS, and qPCR methods were positively correlated with turbidity and tidal height. Enterococci by MF and CS were also inversely correlated with solar radiation but enterococci by qPCR was not. The regression model based on environmental variables provided fair qualitative predictions of enterococci by MF in real-time, for daily geometric mean levels, but not for individual samples. Overall, ENT(MF) was not significantly correlated with source tracking markers with the exception of samples collected during one storm event. The inability of the regression model to predict ENT(MF) levels for individual samples is likely due to the different sources of ENT impacting the beach at any given time, making it particularly difficult to for environmental parameters to predict short-term variability of ENT(MF).

Shibata, Tomoyuki; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Sinigalliano, Christopher D.; Gidley, Maribeth L.; Plano, Lisa R.W.; Fleisher, Jay M.; Wang, John D.; Elmir, Samir M.; He, Guoqing; Wright, Mary E.; Abdelzaher, Amir M.; Ortega, Cristina; Wanless, David; Garza, Anna C.; Kish, Jonathan; Scott, Troy; Hollenbeck, Julie; Backer, Lorraine C.; Fleming, Lora E.

2010-01-01

47

Evaluation of conventional and alternative monitoring methods for a recreational marine beach with nonpoint source of fecal contamination.  

PubMed

The objectives of this work were to compare enterococci (ENT) measurements based on the membrane filter, ENT(MF) with alternatives that can provide faster results including alternative enterococci methods (e.g., chromogenic substrate (CS), and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)), and results from regression models based upon environmental parameters that can be measured in real-time. ENT(MF) were also compared to source tracking markers (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacteroidales human and dog markers, and Catellicoccus gull marker) in an effort to interpret the variability of the signal. Results showed that concentrations of enterococci based upon MF (<2 to 3320 CFU/100 mL) were significantly different from the CS and qPCR methods (p < 0.01). The correlations between MF and CS (r = 0.58, p < 0.01) were stronger than between MF and qPCR (r ? 0.36, p < 0.01). Enterococci levels by MF, CS, and qPCR methods were positively correlated with turbidity and tidal height. Enterococci by MF and CS were also inversely correlated with solar radiation but enterococci by qPCR was not. The regression model based on environmental variables provided fair qualitative predictions of enterococci by MF in real-time, for daily geometric mean levels, but not for individual samples. Overall, ENT(MF) was not significantly correlated with source tracking markers with the exception of samples collected during one storm event. The inability of the regression model to predict ENT(MF) levels for individual samples is likely due to the different sources of ENT impacting the beach at any given time, making it particularly difficult to to predict short-term variability of ENT(MF) for environmental parameters. PMID:20925349

Shibata, Tomoyuki; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Sinigalliano, Christopher D; Gidley, Maribeth L; Plano, Lisa R W; Fleisher, Jay M; Wang, John D; Elmir, Samir M; He, Guoqing; Wright, Mary E; Abdelzaher, Amir M; Ortega, Cristina; Wanless, David; Garza, Anna C; Kish, Jonathan; Scott, Troy; Hollenbeck, Julie; Backer, Lorraine C; Fleming, Lora E

2010-11-01

48

Realistic Job Previews for a Sample of Navy and Marine Corps Occupations: Development of Prototypes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research developed prototypic realistic job previews (RJPs) for a sample of entry-level Navy and Marine Corps occupations. The research reported here is expected to benefit the recruiting branches of the Navy and Marine Corps as well as the research ...

H. G. Baker J. M. Julius J. P. Wanous

1989-01-01

49

US Coast Guard Marine Safety Laboratory. Sample Handling and Transmittal Guide, Sixth Edition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Marine Safety Laboratory (MSL), under the auspices of the National Maritime Center, is the Coast Guards forensic laboratory for oil pollution. Samples collected by field units are analyzed at MSL to determine if a relationship exists between the spill...

2002-01-01

50

Yaquina Bay Marine Development Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study examines fishing, recreational and commercial, from catch to market; also retail facilities including marine repair and supply, marine oriented industrial development, and transportation related to marine oriented facilities. Phases I and II are...

1972-01-01

51

Multiplex biotoxin surface plasmon resonance method for marine biotoxins in algal and seawater samples.  

PubMed

A multiplex surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor method for the detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins, okadaic acid (and analogues) and domoic acid was developed. This method was compared to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods. Seawater samples (n=256) from around Europe were collected by the consortia of an EU project MIcroarrays for the Detection of Toxic Algae (MIDTAL) and evaluated using each method. A simple sample preparation procedure was developed which involved lysing and releasing the toxins from the algal cells with glass beads followed by centrifugation and filtering the extract before testing for marine biotoxins by both multi-SPR and ELISA. Method detection limits based on IC20 values for PSP, okadaic acid and domoic acid toxins were 0.82, 0.36 and 1.66 ng/ml, respectively, for the prototype multiplex SPR biosensor. Evaluation by SPR for seawater samples has shown that 47, 59 and 61 % of total seawater samples tested positive (result greater than the IC20) for PSP, okadaic acid (and analogues) and domoic acid toxins, respectively. Toxic samples were received mainly from Spain and Ireland. This work has demonstrated the potential of multiplex analysis for marine biotoxins in algal and seawater samples with results available for 24 samples within a 7 h period for three groups of key marine biotoxins. Multiplex immunological methods could therefore be used as early warning monitoring tools for a variety of marine biotoxins in seawater samples. PMID:23250726

McNamee, Sara E; Elliott, Christopher T; Delahaut, Philippe; Campbell, Katrina

2013-10-01

52

HEXACHLOROBENZENE IN SELECTED MARINE SAMPLES: AN ENVIRONMENTAL PERSPECTIVE  

EPA Science Inventory

Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was designated as a chemical of interest. A new sample of mussel homogenate was spiked with an authentic HCB standard. Recovery of the spike was 56%. Re-examination of previously analyzed GC chromatograms and archived samples revealed peaks that co-eluted ...

53

Determination of methylmercury in marine biota samples: Method validation.  

PubMed

Regulatory authorities are expected to measure concentration of contaminants in foodstuffs, but the simple determination of total amount cannot be sufficient for fully judging its impact on the human health. In particular, the methylation of metals generally increases their toxicity; therefore validated analytical methods producing reliable results for the assessment of methylated species are highly needed. Nowadays, there is no legal limit for methylmercury (MeHg) in food matrices. Hence, no standardized method for the determination of MeHg exists within the international jurisdiction. Contemplating the possibility of a future legislative limit, a method for low level determination of MeHg in marine biota matrixes, based on aqueous-phase ethylation followed by purge and trap and gas chromatography (GC) coupled to pyrolysis-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (Py-AFS) detection, has been developed and validated. Five different extraction procedures, namely acid and alkaline leaching assisted by microwave and conventional oven heating, as well as enzymatic digestion, were evaluated in terms of their efficiency to extract MeHg from Scallop soft tissue IAEA-452 Certified Reference Material. Alkaline extraction with 25% (w/w) KOH in methanol, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) with 5M HCl and enzymatic digestion with protease XIV yielded the highest extraction recoveries. Standard addition or the introduction of a dilution step were successfully applied to overcome the matrix effects observed when microwave-assisted extraction using 25% (w/w) KOH in methanol or 25% (w/v) aqueous TMAH were used. ISO 17025 and Eurachem guidelines were followed to perform the validation of the methodology. Accordingly, blanks, selectivity, calibration curve, linearity (0.9995), working range (1-800pg), recovery (97%), precision, traceability, limit of detection (0.45pg), limit of quantification (0.85pg) and expanded uncertainty (15.86%, k=2) were assessed with Fish protein Dorm-3 Certified Reference Material. The major contributions to the expanded uncertainty, i.e. 86.1%, arose from the uncertainty associated with recovery, followed by the contribution from fluorescence signal. Additional validation of the methodology developed was effectuated by the comparison with the values reported for MeHg in the IAEA-452 inter-laboratory comparison exercise. PMID:24720970

Carrasco, Luis; Vassileva, Emilia

2014-05-01

54

Detection of a Diverse Marine Fish Fauna Using Environmental DNA from Seawater Samples  

PubMed Central

Marine ecosystems worldwide are under threat with many fish species and populations suffering from human over-exploitation. This is greatly impacting global biodiversity, economy and human health. Intriguingly, marine fish are largely surveyed using selective and invasive methods, which are mostly limited to commercial species, and restricted to particular areas with favourable conditions. Furthermore, misidentification of species represents a major problem. Here, we investigate the potential of using metabarcoding of environmental DNA (eDNA) obtained directly from seawater samples to account for marine fish biodiversity. This eDNA approach has recently been used successfully in freshwater environments, but never in marine settings. We isolate eDNA from ½-litre seawater samples collected in a temperate marine ecosystem in Denmark. Using next-generation DNA sequencing of PCR amplicons, we obtain eDNA from 15 different fish species, including both important consumption species, as well as species rarely or never recorded by conventional monitoring. We also detect eDNA from a rare vagrant species in the area; European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus). Additionally, we detect four bird species. Records in national databases confirmed the occurrence of all detected species. To investigate the efficiency of the eDNA approach, we compared its performance with 9 methods conventionally used in marine fish surveys. Promisingly, eDNA covered the fish diversity better than or equal to any of the applied conventional methods. Our study demonstrates that even small samples of seawater contain eDNA from a wide range of local fish species. Finally, in order to examine the potential dispersal of eDNA in oceans, we performed an experiment addressing eDNA degradation in seawater, which shows that even small (100-bp) eDNA fragments degrades beyond detectability within days. Although further studies are needed to validate the eDNA approach in varying environmental conditions, our findings provide a strong proof-of-concept with great perspectives for future monitoring of marine biodiversity and resources.

Iversen, Lars L?nsmann; M?ller, Peter Rask; Rasmussen, Morten; Willerslev, Eske

2012-01-01

55

DEVELOPMENT OF THE MARINE INCINERATION BIOASSAY SAMPLING SYSTEM (MIBAS) FOR AT-SEA INCINERATION TESTING  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the development of the Marine Incineration Bioassay Sampling System (MIBAS) for at-sea incineration testing, as part of EPA's overall evaluation of the potential benefits and risks associated with the incineration of hazardous wastes at sea. The related strate...

56

Results of sediment and water sampling for inorganic, organic, and radionuclide analysis at recreation areas and water intakes -- Norris, Melton Hill, and Watts Bar Lakes. Data report  

SciTech Connect

Suspected water quality contamination in Watts Bar Reservoir as a result of activities in past decades at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge facility is of public concern. DOE, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the State of Tennessee, and other agencies and officials have received many inquiries from the public in recent years concerning this suspected pollution, especially how this potential contamination may affect the health and safety of those persons who use beaches in the area for swimming or other water-body-contact sports. As a result of these concerns, TVA conducted a study in May and June 1991 to obtain data on potential contaminants of concern in the water and sediment of Watts Bar Reservoir. TVA collected water and sediment samples at a total of 29 sites, including 18 recreation areas and 11 water intake locations, located throughout Norris, Melton Hill, and Watts Bar Reservoirs. The samples were analyzed for radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds which could pose a threat to human health.

NONE

1991-10-01

57

Results of sediment and water sampling and inorganic, organic, and radionuclide analysis at recreation areas and water intakes - Norris, Melton Hill, and Watts Bar Lakes - Data report  

SciTech Connect

Suspected water quality contamination in Watts Bar Reservoir as a result of activities in past decades at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge facility is of public concern. DOE, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the State of Tennessee, and other agencies and officials have received many inquiries from the public in recent years concerning this suspected pollution, especially how this potential contamination may affect the health and safety of those persons who use beaches in the area for swimming or other water-body-contact sports. As a result of these concerns, TVA conducted a study in May and June 1991 to obtain data on potential contaminants of concern in the water and sediment of Watts Bar Reservoir. TVA collected water and sediment samples at a total of 29 sites, including 18 recreation areas and 11 water intake locations, located throughout Norris, Melton Hill, and Watts Bar Reservoirs. The samples were analyzed for radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds which could pose a threat to human health.

NONE

1991-10-01

58

Development of the marine incineration bioassay sampling system (MIBAS) for at-sea incineration testing  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the development of the Marine Incineration Bioassay Sampling System (MIBAS) for at-sea incineration testing, as part of EPA's overall evaluation of the potential benefits and risks associated with the incineration of hazardous wastes at sea. The related strategy focuses on the acquisition of scientific information and on the development of new techniques designed to expand the knowledge of: (1) the chemical nature of incinerator emissions; (2) the behavior and fate of incinerator emission plumes; (3) the possible extent of exposure of marine organisms to these emissions; and (4) the possible environmental consequences of such an exposure.

Piispanen, W.H.; Jackson, M.D.; Redford, D.P.

1986-07-01

59

Meta-Analytic Benefit Transfer of Outdoor Recreation Economic Values: Testing Out-of-Sample Convergent Validity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A benefit transfer approach to recreationeconomic valuation using meta-analysis isexamined. Since the meta- regression modeltakes into account some of the study specificeffects on willingness to pay (WTP) estimates,benefit transfer using meta-analysis couldyield a valid WTP estimate of unstudiedrecreation resources. The convergent validityof the meta-analytic benefit transfer is testedusing out-of-sample original studies from theU.S. The analyses are performed usingpercentage difference, paired

Ram K. Shrestha; John B. Loomis

2003-01-01

60

Isolation strategies of marine-derived actinomycetes from sponge and sediment samples.  

PubMed

During the last two decades, discoveries of new members of actinomycetes and novel metabolites from marine environments have drawn attention to such environments, such as sediment and sponge. For the successful isolation of actinomycetes from marine environments, many factors including the use of enrichment and pre-treatment techniques, and the selection of growth media and antibiotic supplements should be taken into account. High-throughput cultivation is an innovative technique that mimics nature, eliminates undesired, fast-growing bacteria and creates suitable conditions for rare, slow-growing actinomycetes. This review comprehensively evaluates the traditional and innovative techniques and strategies used for the isolation of actinomycetes from marine sponge and sediment samples. PMID:22285852

Hame?-Kocaba?, E Esin; Uzel, Ataç

2012-03-01

61

Marine sediment sample preparation for analysis for low concentrations of fine detrital gold  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analyses by atomic absorption for detrital gold in more than 2,000 beach, offshore, marine-terrace, and alluvial sands from southern Oregon have shown that the values determined from raw or unconcentrated sediment containing small amounts of gold are neither reproducible nor representative of the initial sample. This difficulty results from a 'particle sparsity effect', whereby the analysis for gold in a given sample depends more upon the occurrence of random flakes of gold in the analyzed portion than upon the actual gold content of the sample. The particle sparsity effect can largely be eliminated by preparing a gold concentrate prior to analysis. A combination of sieve, gravimetric, and magnetic separation produces a satisfactory concentrate that yields accurate and reproducible analyses. In concentrates of nearly every marine and beach sand studied, the gold occurs in the nonmagnetic fraction smaller than 0.124 mm and with a specific gravity greater than 3.3. The grain size of gold in stream sediments is somewhat more variable. Analysis of concentrates provides a means of greatly increasing the sensitivity of the analytical technique in relation to the initial sample. Gold rarely exceeds 1 part per million in even the richest black sand analyzed; to establish the distribution of gold (and platinum) in marine sediments and its relationship to source and environmental factors, one commonly needs to know their content to the part per billion range. Analysis of a concentrate and recalculation to the value in the initial sample permits this degree of sensitivity.

Clifton, H. Edward; Hubert, Arthur; Phillips, R. Lawrence

1967-01-01

62

Multi-Scale Sampling to Evaluate Assemblage Dynamics in an Oceanic Marine Reserve  

PubMed Central

To resolve the capacity of Marine Protected Areas (MPA) to enhance fish productivity it is first necessary to understand how environmental conditions affect the distribution and abundance of fishes independent of potential reserve effects. Baseline fish production was examined from 2002–2004 through ichthyoplankton sampling in a large (10,878 km2) Southern Californian oceanic marine reserve, the Cowcod Conservation Area (CCA) that was established in 2001, and the Southern California Bight as a whole (238,000 km2 CalCOFI sampling domain). The CCA assemblage changed through time as the importance of oceanic-pelagic species decreased between 2002 (La Niña) and 2003 (El Niño) and then increased in 2004 (El Niño), while oceanic species and rockfishes displayed the opposite pattern. By contrast, the CalCOFI assemblage was relatively stable through time. Depth, temperature, and zooplankton explained more of the variability in assemblage structure at the CalCOFI scale than they did at the CCA scale. CalCOFI sampling revealed that oceanic species impinged upon the CCA between 2002 and 2003 in association with warmer offshore waters, thus explaining the increased influence of these species in the CCA during the El Nino years. Multi-scale, spatially explicit sampling and analysis was necessary to interpret assemblage dynamics in the CCA and likely will be needed to evaluate other focal oceanic marine reserves throughout the world.

Thompson, Andrew R.; Watson, William; McClatchie, Sam; Weber, Edward D.

2012-01-01

63

50 CFR 600.1417 - Requirements for exempted state designation based on submission of recreational survey data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...designation based on submission of recreational survey data. 600.1417 Section 600.1417...designation based on submission of recreational survey data. (a) To be designated as an...state's participation in a regional survey of marine and anadromous...

2013-10-01

64

Stereochemistry of amino acids in surface samples of a marine sediment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In two surface samples of marine sediment, the percentages of d-alanine and d-aspartic acid are significantly higher than the other d-amino acids and are similar to the range found in soils. The percentage of d-glutamic acid is also higher than the other amino acids but less than d-alanine and d-aspartic acid. These d-amino acids may come mainly from bacteria. ?? 1978.

Pollock, G. E.; Kvenvolden, K. A.

1978-01-01

65

An expanded radiocarbon age calibration procedure to correct for the marine reservoir effect in mixed marine and terrestrial samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the importance of statistical and probabilistic analysis to derive accurate 14C data has been recognized. This paper discusses a 14C calibration procedure to correct marine reservoir effect using the marine source contribution estimated as a probability distribution. In addition, we also developed the marine source estimation with ?13C and ?15N for the 14C calibration in order to cover a complex mixture of terrestrial and marine carbon such as a human. In our calibration procedure, the 14C date is weighted with the probability distribution of marine source contribution and the calibrated date depended on the marine 14C intake can be evaluated. The age range calibrated by our procedure can be also reduced more than by conventional calibration methods. We illustrated the character of our calibration procedure by the example of human bones found from the archaeological shell mounds in Japan.

Omori, Takayuki; Nakamura, Toshio

2010-04-01

66

Determination of Iodine-129 in fish samples as new tracer of marine biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of Iodine-129 in the surface environment is the anthropogenic origin, i.e., the result of the human nuclear activities. In the marine environment, like Pacific ocean, I-129 is transferred from atmosphere and slowly diffuses into deeper layer so that there is steep gradient of I-129 concentration, i.e., the surface layer has high I-129 concentration and it suddenly decreases going deeper. This peculiar depth profile is thus reflected by the isotopic ratio (I-129/I-127) profile because stable iodine (I-127) concentration is almost uniform in the seawater (ca. 60 ppb). Iodine isotopic ratio (I-129/I-127) of marine lives like fish should be determined by their habitats and the ways exchanging iodine with seawater. This means that the iodine isotopic ratio is potential indicator of marine biology. However there have been only few studies using I-129 for marine biology. This is because I-129 is so rare in the marine lives that ordinary analytical techniques cannot detect. Recently, the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry has been developed and demonstrates excellent sensitivity to detect I-129/I-127 ratio as low as 1E-14. However it requires typically 1 mg AgI sample. To obtain such amount of iodine several hundreds gram should be treated in the case of typical fish. In this study "carrier method" was adopted to overcome this difficulty. Our procedure is following: A fish sample was first dried completely then homogenized well. Iodine was extracted into an alkaline solution by the thermal hydrolysis from 0.1 to 0.5g of dried sample. An aliquot of this solution was taken for ICP-MS analysis to determine the stable iodine concentration. The remaining was, added with carrier iodine (about 1 mg), purified by solvent extraction and collected as AgI precipitation. I-129/I-127 ratio of obtained AgI was determined by AMS. From the AMS result and the stable iodine concentration, the isotopic ratio of the fish samples themselves can be calculated. The result of fish samples, collected from Suruga-bay (located on Pacific coast in the middle of Honshu, Japan) showed 1E-10 to 7E-10, which was consistent with that of surface seawater.

Kusuno, Haruka; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Toshi; Miyairi, Yosuke; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

2014-05-01

67

An expanded radiocarbon age calibration procedure to correct for the marine reservoir effect in mixed marine and terrestrial samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the importance of statistical and probabilistic analysis to derive accurate 14C data has been recognized. This paper discusses a 14C calibration procedure to correct marine reservoir effect using the marine source contribution estimated as a probability distribution. In addition, we also developed the marine source estimation with ?13C and ?15N for the 14C calibration in order to cover a

Takayuki Omori; Toshio Nakamura

2010-01-01

68

Traffic Monitoring In Recreational Recreational Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Traffic monitoring in recreational areas is often challenged by distinct traffic and roadway characteristics and the multitude of agencies responsible for the management of Federal lands and/or the collection of supporting traffic data. These challenges a...

C. Systems C. A. Zimmerman J. Carson L. J. Wilkinson S. Tuner

2010-01-01

69

40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart G of... - Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Marine Engines  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement...Appendix A to Subpart G of Part 91âSampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Marine Engines Table 1âSampling Plan Code Letter Annual...

2013-07-01

70

Recreational Water Illness (RWI): MRSA  

MedlinePLUS

... MRSA website. Can MRSA be spread at recreational water facilities? MRSA does not survive long in recreational ... myself, my family, and others when visiting recreational water facilities? Take action! There are steps you can ...

71

Metrics for Recreation & Tourism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of recreation and tourism students, this instructional package is one of three for the hospitality and recreation occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational…

Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

72

Recreation Leadership. Third Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This text is intended for use in college recreation courses. It presents leadership techniques and teaching methods for conducting successful recreation programs in community centers, schools, churches, industry, hospitals, prisons, and on playgrounds. Over 1,000 program ideas and ways to teach are suggested that cover a wide range of activities…

Vannier, Maryhelen

73

Outdoor Recreation Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The complex problems facing the manager of an outdoor recreation area are outlined and discussed. Eighteen chapters cover the following primary concerns of the manager of such a facility: (1) an overview of the management process; (2) the basic outdoor recreation management model; (3) the problem-solving process; (4) involvement of the public in…

Jubenville, Alan

74

Integrated Leisure and Recreation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This "feature issue" focuses on integrated leisure and recreation for developmentally disabled persons and includes descriptions of innovative leisure/recreation programs which allow the realization of the concepts of normalization and least restrictive environment. Brief articles include the following titles and authors: "Challenging the…

Schleien, Stuart, Ed.; Rynders, John, Ed.

1989-01-01

75

Coincident plasmids and antimicrobial resistance in marine bacteria isolated from polluted and unpolluted Atlantic Ocean Samples  

SciTech Connect

Sewage effluent and outfall confluence samples were collected at the Barceloneta Regional Treatment Plant in Barceloneta, Puerto Rico; outfall confluence samples at Ocean City, Md., were also collected. Samples from uncontaminated open ocean areas served as clean-water controls. Bacteria were enriched in marine broth 2216 amended with 1 ..mu..g of one of a set of chemical selected for study per ml: nitrobenzene, dibutyl phthalate, m-cresol, o-cresol, 4-nitroaniline, bis(tributyltin) oxide, and quinone. MICs of the chemicals were determined individually for all isolates. Bacterial isolates were evaluated for resistance to nine different antibiotics and for the presence of plasmid DNA. Treated sewage was found to contain large numbers of bacteria simultaneously possessing antibiotic resistance, chemical resistance, and multiple bands of plasmic DNA. Bacteria resistant to penicillin, erythromycin, nalidixic acid, ampicillin, m-cresol, quinone, and bis(tributyltin) oxide were detected in nearly all samples, but only sewage outfall confluence samples yielded bacterial isolates that were resistant to streptomycin. Bacteria resistant to a combination of antibiotics, including kanamycin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and tetracycline, were isolated only from sewage effluent samples. It is concluded that bacterial isolates derived from toxic chemical wastes more frequently contain plasmid DNA and demonstrate antimicrobial resistance than do bacterial isolates from domestic sewage-impacted waters or from uncontaminated open ocean sites.

Baya, A.M.; Brayton, P.R.; Brown, V.L.; Grimes, D.J.; Russek-Cohen, E.; Colwell, R.R.

1986-06-01

76

A method for sampling dimethylsulfide in polluted and remote marine atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods have been developed for the measurement of atmospheric dimethylsulfide in both polluted and clean marine environments, avoiding Sampling losses due to reactions with atmospheric oxidants. Preconcentration of DMS on Molecular Sieve 5A was followed by analysis using gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. Prolonged contact of polluted air samples with a potassium iodide-based solution resulted in total oxidant destruction. Dimethylsulfide was measured over the Atlantic Ocean during a cruise between the U.K. and the Antarctic, between October 1992 and January 1993. In equatorial regions (30° N-30° S) the atmospheric DMS concentration ranged from 5 to 90 ng m -3 with an average of 30 ng m -3 In the polar waters and regions south of the Falkland Islands concentrations from 5 to 1050 ng m -3 were observed with a mean concentration of 120 ng m -3

Davison, Brian M.; Allen, Andrew G.

78

Sampling design for long-term regional trends in marine rocky intertidal communities.  

PubMed

Probability-based designs reduce bias and allow inference of results to the pool of sites from which they were chosen. We developed and tested probability-based designs for monitoring marine rocky intertidal assemblages at Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve (GLBA), Alaska. A multilevel design was used that varied in scale and inference. The levels included aerial surveys, extensive sampling of 25 sites, and more intensive sampling of 6 sites. Aerial surveys of a subset of intertidal habitat indicated that the original target habitat of bedrock-dominated sites with slope ?30° was rare. This unexpected finding illustrated one value of probability-based surveys and led to a shift in the target habitat type to include steeper, more mixed rocky habitat. Subsequently, we evaluated the statistical power of different sampling methods and sampling strategies to detect changes in the abundances of the predominant sessile intertidal taxa: barnacles Balanomorpha, the mussel Mytilus trossulus, and the rockweed Fucus distichus subsp. evanescens. There was greatest power to detect trends in Mytilus and lesser power for barnacles and Fucus. Because of its greater power, the extensive, coarse-grained sampling scheme was adopted in subsequent years over the intensive, fine-grained scheme. The sampling attributes that had the largest effects on power included sampling of "vertical" line transects (vs. horizontal line transects or quadrats) and increasing the number of sites. We also evaluated the power of several management-set parameters. Given equal sampling effort, sampling more sites fewer times had greater power. The information gained through intertidal monitoring is likely to be useful in assessing changes due to climate, including ocean acidification; invasive species; trampling effects; and oil spills. PMID:23420521

Irvine, Gail V; Shelly, Alice

2013-08-01

79

Past-year recreational gambling in a nationally representative sample: Correlates of casino, non-casino, and both casino/non-casino gambling  

PubMed Central

Data from the Gambling Impact and Behavior Study (GIBS), a national survey of 2,417 U.S. adults, were examined by multivariate analysis to investigate characteristics of past-year recreational gamblers who participated in casino-only, non-casino-only, and both casino and non-casino gambling. Compared to non-casino-only gamblers, individuals who gambled in both locations had higher rates of alcohol use and abuse/dependence, lower rates of drug use, more frequent gambling, and larger wins and losses. Compared to casino-only gamblers, individuals who gambled in both locations reported less drug use, poorer subjective health, earlier age of gambling onset, greater frequency of gambling, and larger wins and losses. Compared to casino-only or non-casino-only gambling, gambling in both locations was associated with more frequent and heavier gambling. Findings suggest aspects of recreational gambling, such as gambling venue, may have important public health implications and should be considered in guidelines for responsible gambling.

Franco, Christine A.; Maciejewski, Paul K.; Potenza, Marc N.

2013-01-01

80

Forms of Recreation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two Oregon recreational facilities, the Tualatin Hills Sports Complex and the Corvallis Aquatic Center, designed by architects Broome, Oringdulph, O'Toole, Rudolf and Associates, share the bold application of color and clarity of design. (Author/MLF)

Progressive Architecture, 1981

1981-01-01

81

A sampling-based Bayesian model for gas saturation estimationusing seismic AVA and marine CSEM data  

SciTech Connect

We develop a sampling-based Bayesian model to jointly invertseismic amplitude versus angles (AVA) and marine controlled-sourceelectromagnetic (CSEM) data for layered reservoir models. The porosityand fluid saturation in each layer of the reservoir, the seismic P- andS-wave velocity and density in the layers below and above the reservoir,and the electrical conductivity of the overburden are considered asrandom variables. Pre-stack seismic AVA data in a selected time windowand real and quadrature components of the recorded electrical field areconsidered as data. We use Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) samplingmethods to obtain a large number of samples from the joint posteriordistribution function. Using those samples, we obtain not only estimatesof each unknown variable, but also its uncertainty information. Thedeveloped method is applied to both synthetic and field data to explorethe combined use of seismic AVA and EM data for gas saturationestimation. Results show that the developed method is effective for jointinversion, and the incorporation of CSEM data reduces uncertainty influid saturation estimation, when compared to results from inversion ofAVA data only.

Chen, Jinsong; Hoversten, Michael; Vasco, Don; Rubin, Yoram; Hou,Zhangshuan

2006-04-04

82

Recreational stream assessment using Malaysia water quality index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River water quality assessment is crucial in order to quantify and monitor spatial and temporally. Malaysia is producing WQI and NWQS indices to evaluate river water quality. However, the study on recreational river water quality is still scarce. A study was conducted to determine selected recreational river water quality area and to determine impact of recreation on recreational stream. Three recreational streams namely Sungai Benus, Sungai Cemperuh and Sungai Luruh in Janda Baik, Pahang were selected. Five sampling stations were chosen from each river with a 200-400 m interval. Six water quality parameters which are BOD5, COD, TSS, pH, ammoniacal-nitrogen and dissolved oxygen were measured. Sampling and analysis was conducted following standard method prepared by USEPA. These parameters were used to calculate the water quality subindex and finally an indicative WQI value using Malaysia water quality index formula. Results indicate that all recreational streams have excellent water quality with WQI values ranging from 89 to 94. Most of water quality parameter was homogenous between sampling sites and between streams. An one-way ANOVA test indicates that no significant difference was observed between each sub index values (p> 0.05, ?=0.05). Only BOD and COD exhibit slightly variation between stations that would be due to organic domestic wastes done by visitors. The study demonstrated that visitors impact on recreational is minimum and recreation streams are applicable for direct contact recreational.

Ibrahim, Hanisah; Kutty, Ahmad Abas

2013-11-01

83

Quantification of Diatom and Dinoflagellate Biomasses in Coastal Marine Seawater Samples by Real-Time PCR?  

PubMed Central

Two real-time PCR assays targeting the small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were designed to assess the proportional biomass of diatoms and dinoflagellates in marine coastal water. The reverse primer for the diatom assay was designed to be class specific, and the dinoflagellate-specific reverse primer was obtained from the literature. For both targets, we used universal eukaryotic SSU rDNA forward primers. Specificity was confirmed by using a BLAST search and by amplification of cultures of various phytoplankton taxa. Reaction conditions were optimized for each primer set with linearized plasmids from cloned SSU rDNA fragments. The number of SSU rDNA copies per cell was estimated for six species of diatoms and nine species of dinoflagellates; these were significantly correlated to the biovolumes of the cells. Nineteen field samples were collected along the Swedish west coast and subjected to the two real-time PCR assays. The linear regression of the proportion of SSU rDNA copies of dinoflagellate and diatom origin versus the proportion of dinoflagellate and diatom biovolumes or biomass per liter was significant. For diatoms, linear regression of the number of SSU rDNA copies versus biovolume or biomass per liter was significant, but no such significant correlation was detected in the field samples for dinoflagellates. The method described will be useful for estimating the proportion of dinoflagellate versus diatom biovolume or biomass and the absolute diatom biovolume or biomass in various aquatic disciplines.

Godhe, Anna; Asplund, Maria E.; Harnstrom, Karolina; Saravanan, V.; Tyagi, Anuj; Karunasagar, Indrani

2008-01-01

84

Increase in evenness and sampled alpha diversity through the Phanerozoic: Comparison of early Paleozoic and Cenozoic marine fossil assemblages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing reconstructions of the Phanerozoic history of biological diversity are based on occurrences of taxa and do not include abundance data. This study examines trends in the relative abundance of taxa and provides a new perspective on the Phanerozoic history of marine diversity. We compared the abundance versus diversity (AD) structure of early Paleozoic and Cenozoic samples of marine benthic genera compiled from the literature. The sample-standardized results indicate (1) a two-and-a-half fold increase in sampled alpha diversity but, concurrently, (2) an increase in the evenness of fossil samples through time. The observed evenness trend may be due to taphonomic biases, time-averaging trends, differences in sampling techniques, or real changes in the structure of marine communities. Regardless of the underlying factors, the results indicate that the evenness of fossil samples increased through the Phanerozoic, largely owing to a decrease in the relative abundance of the most common taxa. Because sampling fossil sites of different evenness can result in different estimates of species richness even if their total alpha diversity is the same, the observed changes in evenness may have contributed to the Phanerozoic increase in sampled alpha diversity and, at least in part, to the increase in global diversity. The incorporation of taxon abundance data into future studies should produce a more robust, perhaps even different, interpretation of the Phanerozoic history of diversity.

Powell, Matthew G.; Kowalewski, Michal

2002-04-01

85

Ultra-trace determination of plutonium in marine samples using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Sources of plutonium isotopes to the marine environment are well defined, both spatially and temporally, which makes Pu a potential tracer for oceanic processes. This paper presents the selection, optimisation and validation of a sample preparation method for the ultra-trace determination of Pu isotopes ((240)Pu and (239)Pu) in marine samples by multi-collector (MC) ICP-MS. The method was optimised for the removal of the interference from (238)U and the chemical recovery of Pu. Comparison of various separation strategies using AG1-X8, TEVA, TRU, and UTEVA resins to determine Pu in marine calcium carbonate samples is reported. A combination of anion-exchange (AG1-X8) and extraction chromatography (UTEVA/TRU) was the most suitable, with a radiochemical Pu yield of 87+/-5% and a U decontamination factor of 1.2 x 10(4). Validation of the method was accomplished by determining Pu in various IAEA certified marine reference materials. The estimated MC-ICP-MS instrumental limit of detection for (239)Pu and (240)Pu was 0.02 fg mL(-1), with an absolute limit of quantification of 0.11 fg. The proposed method allows the determination of ultra-trace Pu, at femtogram levels, in small size marine samples (e.g., 0.6-2.0 g coral or 15-20 L seawater). Finally, the analytical method was applied to determining historical records of the Pu signature in coral samples from the tropical Northwest Pacific and (239+240)Pu concentrations and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios in seawater samples as part of the 2008 GEOTRACES intercalibration exercise. PMID:20541644

Lindahl, Patric; Keith-Roach, Miranda; Worsfold, Paul; Choi, Min-Seok; Shin, Hyung-Seon; Lee, Sang-Hoon

2010-06-25

86

Screening for unicellular algae as possible bioassay organisms for monitoring marine water samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

ECOTOX is an automatic early warning system to monitor potential pollution of freshwater, municipal or industrial waste waters or aquatic ecosystems. It is based on a real time image analysis of the motility and orientation parameters of the unicellular, photosynthetic flagellate Euglena gracilis. In order to widen the use of the device to marine habitats and saline waters nine marine

Rosmary Millán de Kuhn; Christine Streb; Roman Breiter; Peter Richter; Thomas Neeße; Donat-Peter Häder

2006-01-01

87

Geostatistical analyses of interactions between killer whales ( Orcinus orca) and recreational whale-watching boats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Johnstone Strait in coastal British Columbia, Canada, is a core habitat for seasonal concentrations of killer whales (Orcinus orca), which have attracted considerable attention from commercial whale-watching operators and recreational boaters. Within the Strait lies the Robson Bight–Michael Bigg Ecological Reserve, a marine reserve set aside as critical habitat for killer whales and closed to recreational boat traffic. The geography

D. E. Jelinski; C. C. Krueger; D. A. Duffus

2002-01-01

88

Social Barriers to Sustainable Recreational Fisheries Management Under Quasicommon Property Fishing Rights Regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

When debated publicly, the challenge to reconcile fishery resource use and resource conservation is often only discussed with regard to marine commercial fisheries. Recreational fisheries are often not considered despite their high social and economic importance across the industrialized world. This paper addresses key obstacles to the reconciliation of fishery resource use and resource conservation with respect to freshwater recreational

ROBERT ARLINGHAUS

89

78 FR 73820 - Publicly Managed Recreation Opportunities, Recreation Fees  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The Forest Service is issuing a final directive providing direction on recreation fees in chapter 30 of new Forest Service Handbook (FSH) 2309.13. This chapter enumerates the requirements for recreation fees charged by the Forest Service under the...

2013-12-09

90

Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fort Pierce Marine Station's "Marine Ecosystems Exhibit" recreates six different Florida marine habitats; visitors can learn about the complexity and importance of regional marine ecosystems. Site offers a virtual tour of each habitat, as well as classroom registration and group admission information, educational program and tour options, and down-loadable tour worksheets.

91

Conditional Sampling of Updrafts and Downdrafts in the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of updrafts and downdrafts in the lower third of the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) over the central Pacific Ocean are investigated using a conditional sampling technique. When the drafts are classified according to their heat and moisture content, the properties of the major classes (moist updrafts and dry downdrafts) are in agreement with a parcel displacement model of vertical mixing. The minor class events appear to be the result of the reversal of motion of the major class events. Drafts that consume turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), although small in number in the lower third of the MABL, have spatial scales comparable with drafts that produce TKE. At the lowest level, the area occupied by positively buoyant downdraft exceeds the area occupied by negatively buoyant updrafts by a factor of 2. Updrafts and downdrafts produce a large fraction of the total fluxes of heat moisture and momentum, increasing from 75% at 0.07zi to 85% at 0.32zi. Of the draft contribution to the fluxes, 95% is due to the mean properties of the events and only 5% is due to the correlated fluctuations within the events. A convective man flux parameterization, based on the mean conditions within updraft and downdrafts, is obtained for the lower third of the mixed layer.

Singh Khalsa, Siri Jodha; Greenhut, Gary K.

1985-12-01

92

Partitioning of alcohol ethoxylates and polyethylene glycols in the marine environment: Field samplings vs laboratory experiments.  

PubMed

Nowadays, alcohol ethoxylates (AEOs) constitute the most important group of non-ionic surfactants, used in a wide range of applications such as household cleaners and detergents. Significant amounts of these compounds and their degradation products (polyethylene glycols, PEGs, which are also used for many other applications) reach aquatic environments, and are eliminated from the water column by degradation and sorption processes. This work deals with the environmental distribution of AEOs and PEGs in the Long Island Sound Estuary, a setting impacted by sewage discharges from New York City (NYC). The distribution of target compounds in seawater was influenced by tides, consistent with salinity differences, and concentrations in suspended solid samples ranged from 1.5 to 20.5?g/g. The more hydrophobic AEOs were mostly attached to the particulate matter whereas the more polar PEGs were predominant in the dissolved form. Later, the sorption of these chemicals was characterized in the laboratory. Experimental and environmental sorption coefficients for AEOs and PEGs showed average values from 3607 to 164,994L/kg and from 74 to 32,862L/kg, respectively. The sorption data were fitted to a Freundlich isotherm model with parameters n and log KF between 0.8-1.2 and 1.46-4.39L/kg, respectively. AEO and PEG sorptions on marine sediment were also found to be mostly not affected by changes in salinity. PMID:24887194

Traverso-Soto, Juan M; Brownawell, Bruce J; González-Mazo, Eduardo; Lara-Martín, Pablo A

2014-08-15

93

CHARACTERISTICS OF WILDERNESS USERS IN OUTDOOR RECREATION ASSESSMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wilderness use is often subsumed under outdoor recreation participation in large-scale assessments. Participation monitoring has indicated, however, that wilderness use has been increasing faster than outdoor recreation use in general. In a sample of Forest Service wilderness and nonwildemess users during the summer of 1985, detailed expenditure, activity, and travel profiles were developed. The purpose of this analysis is to

Alan E. Watson; H. Ken Cordell; Lawrence A. Hartmann

94

Bolivar County, Outdoor Recreation Plan, Mississippi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bolivar County Recreation Plan includes an inventory of existing recreation facilities, an analysis of need and demand for certain recreational facilities and recommendations based upon accepted standards of recreation. The study also includes design ...

1973-01-01

95

Therapeutic Recreation Directory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Therapeutic Recreation Directory has an abundance of information for the therapeutic recreation specialist, or those who study and teach in the field. There is an extensive collection of activity ideas, ranging from sports and cookery, for educators to experiment with in the classroom or for professionals to use on the job. This site also hosts inTeRlink, a long-running and constantly updated newsletter about developments in recreational therapy, found by clicking on the �News� link on the left hand side of the home page. All articles from the last ten years are available in the archive. A bulletin board, chat room, and forum keep professionals and students informed about current TR issues, and surveys help to gather and disseminate information and ideas about new developments in TR services. Visitors will also find the �Forms� link very helpful in nearly every aspect of providing recreational therapy to clients, including forms to help assess and treat patients, and guidelines on planning and implementing new therapeutic programs.

Dixon, Charles C.

2007-02-05

96

Recreational Vehicle Trades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in recreational vehicle trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and…

Felice, Michael

97

Ultradeep 16S rRNA Sequencing Analysis of Geographically Similar but Diverse Unexplored Marine Samples Reveal Varied Bacterial Community Composition  

PubMed Central

Background Bacterial community composition in the marine environment differs from one geographical location to another. Reports that delineate the bacterial diversity of different marine samples from geographically similar location are limited. The present study aims to understand whether the bacterial community compositions from different marine samples harbour similar bacterial diversity since these are geographically related to each other. Methods and Principal Findings In the present study, 16S rRNA deep sequencing analysis targeting V3 region was performed using Illumina bar coded sequencing. A total of 22.44 million paired end reads were obtained from the metagenomic DNA of Marine sediment, Rhizosphere sediment, Seawater and the epibacterial DNA of Seaweed and Seagrass. Diversity index analysis revealed that Marine sediment has the highest bacterial diversity and the least bacterial diversity was observed in Rhizosphere sediment. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominant taxa present in all the marine samples. Nearly 62–71% of rare species were identified in all the samples and most of these rare species were unique to a particular sample. Further taxonomic assignment at the phylum and genus level revealed that the bacterial community compositions differ among the samples. Conclusion This is the first report that supports the fact that, bacterial community composition is specific for specific samples irrespective of its similar geographical location. Existence of specific bacterial community for each sample may drive overall difference in bacterial structural composition of each sample. Further studies like whole metagenomic sequencing will throw more insights to the key stone players and its interconnecting metabolic pathways. In addition, this is one of the very few reports that depicts the unexplored bacterial diversity of marine samples (Marine sediment, Rhizosphere sediment, Seawater) and the host associated marine samples (Seaweed and Seagrass) at higher depths from uncharacterised coastal region of Palk Bay, India using next generation sequencing technology.

Karutha Pandian, Shunmugiah

2013-01-01

98

Trends in Selenium Utilization in Marine Microbial World Revealed through the Analysis of the Global Ocean Sampling (GOS) Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selenium is an important trace element that occurs in proteins in the form of selenocysteine (Sec) and in tRNAs in the form of selenouridine. Recent large-scale metagenomics projects provide an opportunity for understanding global trends in trace element utilization. Herein, we characterized the selenoproteome of the microbial marine community derived from the Global Ocean Sampling (GOS) expedition. More than 3,600

Yan Zhang; Vadim N. Gladyshev

2008-01-01

99

The use of prompt gamma activation analysis in sediment samples from a polluted marine environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine sediments pollution could either be caused by point sources discharge or from natural processes such as coastal erosion. A study on the pollution trend of a fairly polluted marine environment was carried out using the cold neutron prompt gamma activation analysis (CNPGAA) facility to identify certain elements with radionuclides of relatively short half-lives. This technique serves as a complementary tool in elemental analysis. Some of the results obtained can be used to construct a depth profile in terms of elemental distribution over time.

Yusof, A. M.; Marpongahtun, M.; Lindstrom, R. M.

1997-02-01

100

Survey of the Commercially Important Marine Finfish Landings of Alabama.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The marine finfish landings from Alabama waters and statistical zones 10 and 11 were determined for calendar year 1975. The recreational landings were determined via a four-part creel survey conducted by personnel of the Alabama Marine Resources Division....

C. W. Wade

1977-01-01

101

Nation-Wide Outdoor Recreation Supply Inventory, 1965.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 1965 nationwide area and agency inventory of public outdoor recreation supply covers federal, state, county, and city jurisdictions. It includes acreage, facilities, and visitation data. (Cities under 50,000 population were sampled.)

B. Collins

1965-01-01

102

The Spatial Dimension: A New Reservoir and Recreational Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An initial effort to estimate the nature and extent of a new reservoir's impact upon the recreational behavior of a sample population living in the surrounding area (Keystone Reservoir, Oklahoma) is described. (NQ)

Hecock, Richard D.

1974-01-01

103

Why is Female Choice not Unanimous? Insights from Costly Mate Sampling in Marine Iguanas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Females do not unanimously choose the single 'best' male, even when female choice is strong, such as in leks, or in polygynous mating situations. A possible explanation is that females base their choices on limited information, perhaps because gathering information is costly. We tested this hypothesis by continuously observing individual female marine iguanas throughout the mating period in order to

Martin Wikelski; Chris Carbone; Peter A. Bednekoff; Sharmila Choudhury; Sabine Tebbich

2001-01-01

104

Determination of vanadium and nickel in marine samples by flameless and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, oil contamination in marine environments by tanker collisions and accidental discharges from petroleum industries have occurred often. Therefore, oil contamination has become a serious problem not only with the coastal fishes and the cultural fisheries, but also for man, because various petroleum components easily transfer to man via fishes and shellfishes. For the fingerprint of oil contamination,

K. Ikebe; R. Tanaka

1979-01-01

105

Radiocarbon dating of marine samples from Gulf of Cadiz: The reservoir effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 14C content of marine shells can be used as a proxy for past coastal upwelling intensity. The Iberian coast of the Gulf of Cadiz can be divided in two regions with different oceanographic conditions: the southern Portuguese coast with an active upwelling, influenced by the Northeastern Atlantic circulation, and the southwestern Andalusian coast where, due to its configuration, a

António M. Monge Soares; José M. Matos Martins

2010-01-01

106

METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES IN MARINE AND ESTUARINE ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

This manual contains seven methods for the determination of nutrients, three metals, and chlorophyll a in marine and estuarine environmental matrices. wo of the metals methods are graphite furnace atomic absorption techniques and the third uses inductively coupled plasma mass spe...

107

TPH Criteria Working Group Demonstration Field Sampling Report: Marine Corps Air Station, El Toro, CA.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A demonstration of the Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Working Group approach for risk assessment was conducted on two former underground storage tank sites (Sites 380A and 529) at the Marine Corps Air Station in El Toro, CA. Site 380A is impacted by diesel f...

E. A. Merrill T. W. Heathman

1998-01-01

108

Arsenic speciation in marine product samples: comparison of extraction-HPLC method and digestion-cryogenic trap method.  

PubMed

For the arsenic speciation in marine product samples, two types of pretreatment-analysis combination were compared. One is the combination of solvent extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) followed by a highly sensitive arsenic detection, while the other is the combination of alkaline digestion and cryogenic trap (CT) method followed by a highly sensitive arsenic detection. For six certified reference materials (CRMs) of marine animal samples, the concentrations of arsenobetaine (AsB) obtained from the extraction-HPLC method were very consistent with those of trimethylated arsenic species measured by the digestion-CT method. For four seaweed samples, the determination of three arsenosugars (Sugar-1, Sugar-2, and Sugar-3) was favorably carried out by the extraction-HPLC method. Those seaweed samples were also subjected to the digestion-CT method, and the amounts of dimethylated arsenic species measured by the method were approximately equal to the sum of the amounts of dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA) and three arsenosugars (Sugar-1+Sugar-2+Sugar-3) obtained from the extraction-HPLC method. PMID:19559892

Geng, Wenhua; Komine, Rieko; Ohta, Toshiharu; Nakajima, Tsunenori; Takanashi, Hirokazu; Ohki, Akira

2009-07-15

109

Cell-based assay coupled with chromatographic fractioning: a strategy for marine toxins detection in natural samples.  

PubMed

Cell-based assays (CBA) have been proposed for the evaluation of toxicity caused by marine toxins in natural samples (fish, shellfish and microalgae). However, their application has been hindered due to the interferences present in biological matrices that may cause cellular response and interfere in toxicity evaluation. This work reviews in an extensive introduction the use of CBA for toxicity evaluation of marine toxins. Afterwards, the coupling of chromatographic fractioning with neuroblastoma Neuro-2a CBA is presented to enhance the applicability of CBA for complex matrices. Examples of application are provided for mussel samples (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and microalgae (Gambierdiscus sp.), and the results demonstrated the great potential of the combined strategy for reliable toxicological evaluation without ethical concern. Fractioning of an equivalent of 72 mg eq mL(-1) of mussel sample allowed the identification of non-toxic and toxic fractions whereas only 2.5mg eq mL(-1) of non-purified mussel sample was responsible for 20% of cell mortality. Furthermore, the application of CBA allowed selectively distinguishing between ciguatoxin-like and other unspecific toxicity in Gambierdiscus sp. extract. PMID:19720129

Caillaud, A; Cañete, E; de la Iglesia, P; Giménez, G; Diogène, J

2009-12-01

110

Marine Mammal Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A non-profit hospital located in the Golden Gate National Recreation Area near Sausalito, California that rescues and rehabilitates marine mammals. Site contains information on education, research, and adopt-a-seal; features a photo gallery and FAQs. Volunteer, membership, and donation opportunities available. Information on what to do when finding a stranded marine mammal and stay current with the Center's patients. Education programs available at the Center or at your location (fees associated).

2010-09-16

111

Comparison of methods for the detection of coliphages in recreational water at two California, United States beaches.  

PubMed

Methods for detection of two fecal indicator viruses, F+ and somatic coliphages, were evaluated for application to recreational marine water. Marine water samples were collected during the summer of 2007 in Southern California, United States from transects along Avalon Beach (n=186 samples) and Doheny Beach (n=101 samples). Coliphage detection methods included EPA method 1601 - two-step enrichment (ENR), EPA method 1602 - single agar layer (SAL), and variations of ENR. Variations included comparison of two incubation times (overnight and 5-h incubation) and two final detection steps (lysis zone assay and a rapid latex agglutination assay). A greater number of samples were positive for somatic and F+ coliphages by ENR than by SAL (p<0.01). The standard ENR with overnight incubation and detection by lysis zone assay was the most sensitive method for the detection of F+ and somatic coliphages from marine water, although the method takes up to three days to obtain results. A rapid 5-h enrichment version of ENR also performed well, with more positive samples than SAL, and could be performed in roughly 24h. Latex agglutination-based detection methods require the least amount of time to perform, although the sensitivity was less than lysis zone-based detection methods. Rapid culture-based enrichment of coliphages in marine water may be possible by further optimizing culture-based methods for saline water conditions to generate higher viral titers than currently available, as well as increasing the sensitivity of latex agglutination detection methods. PMID:22306107

Rodríguez, Roberto A; Love, David C; Stewart, Jill R; Tajuba, Julianne; Knee, Jacqueline; Dickerson, Jerold W; Webster, Laura F; Sobsey, Mark D

2012-04-01

112

From Recreational Mathematics to Recreational Programming, and Back  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recreational Programming (RecPro) is the discipline that encourages the study of computer programming through ludic problems. Problems that are typically studied within this discipline are similar to those of Recreational Mathematics (RecMat), which sometimes leads to the confusion of these two disciplines. The objective for RecPro is to write…

Ruiz Jimenez, B. C.; Ruiz Munoz, M.

2011-01-01

113

Comparison of Multi-Drug Resistant Environmental Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Recreational Beaches and High Touch Surfaces in Built Environments.  

PubMed

Over the last decade community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a major cause of disease in the general population with no health care exposure or known classical risk factors for MRSA infections. The potential community reservoirs have not been well defined though certain strains such as ST398 and USA300 have been well studied in some settings. MRSA has been isolated from recreational beaches, high-touch surfaces in homes, universities, and other community environmental surfaces. However, in most cases the strains were not characterized to determine if they are related to community-acquired or hospital-acquired clinical strains. We compared 55 environmental MRSA from 805 samples including sand, fresh, and marine water samples from local marine and fresh water recreational beaches (n?=?296), high touch surfaces on the University of Washington campus (n?=?294), surfaces in UW undergraduate housing (n?=?85), and the local community (n?=?130). Eleven USA300, representing 20% of the isolates, were found on the UW campus surfaces, student housing surfaces, and on the community surfaces but not in the recreational beach samples from the Northwest USA. Similarly, the predominant animal ST133 was found in the recreational beach samples but not in the high touch surface samples. All USA300 isolates were multi-drug resistant carrying two to six different antibiotic resistance genes coding for kanamycin, macrolides and/or macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramin B, and tetracycline, with the majority (72%) carrying four to six different antibiotic resistance genes. A surprising 98% of the 55 MRSA isolates were resistant to other classes of antibiotics and most likely represent reservoirs for these genes in the environment. PMID:23577006

Roberts, Marilyn C; Soge, Olusegun O; No, David

2013-01-01

114

Assessing the Value of Recreational Divers for Censusing Elasmobranchs  

PubMed Central

Background Around the world, researchers are using the observations and experiences of citizens to describe patterns in animal populations. This data is often collected via ongoing sampling or by synthesizing past experiences. Since elasmobranchs are relatively rare, obtaining data for broad-scale trend analysis requires high sampling effort. Elasmobranchs are also relatively large and conspicuous and therefore it may be possible to enlist recreational divers to collect data on their occurrence and relative abundance from daily dive activities. For this, however, a good understanding of the value of data collected by recreational divers is essential. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we explore the value of recreational divers for censusing elasmobranchs using a diverse set of data sources. First, we use a simulation experiment to explore detection rates of the roving diver technique, used by recreational divers, across a range of fish densities and speeds. Next, using a field survey, we show that inexperienced recreational divers detect and count elasmobranchs as well as experienced recreational divers. Finally, we use semi-structured interviews of recreational dive instructors to demonstrate the value of their recollections in terms of effort and their descriptions of spatial and temporal distributions of sharks in Thailand. Conclusions/Significance Overall, this study provides initial ground-work for using recreational divers for monitoring elasmobranch populations. If used appropriately, citizen-collected data may provide additional information that can be used to complement more standardized surveys and to describe population trends across a range of spatial and temporal scales. Due to the non-extractive nature of this data, recreational divers may also provide important insight into the success of conservation initiatives, such as shark sanctuaries and no-take zones.

Ward-Paige, Christine A.; Lotze, Heike K.

2011-01-01

115

Leisure and Recreation Behavior Checklist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Leisure and Recreation Behavior Checklist (LRBC) is an open-ended checklist for recording behaviors of mentally handicapped adults. Its function is to profile individuals' leisure or recreation activities for program, administration, and research purposes. Intended for use by care-givers, the measure stresses recording of observed behaviors…

Haller, Otto; And Others

116

Water ingestion during water recreation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative risk assessments have estimated health risks of water recreation. One input to risk assessment models is the rate of water ingestion. One published study estimated rates of water ingestion during swimming, but estimates of water ingestion are not available for common limited contact water recreation activities such as canoeing, fishing, kayaking, motor boating, and rowing. In the summer of

Samuel Dorevitch; Suraj Panthi; Yue Huang; Hong Li; Angela M. Michalek; Preethi Pratap; Meredith Wroblewski; Li Liu; Peter A. Scheff; An Li

2011-01-01

117

SOEP: Forestry, Conservation and Recreation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of nine articles discusses the viability of supervised occupational experience programs (SOEPs) in forestry, conservation, and recreation; pros and cons of vocational agricultural preparation for recreation management and forestry occupations; the school farm as a conservation laboratory; the importance of SOEPs in forestry; and forestry…

Kirts, Carla A.; And Others

1984-01-01

118

Recreation and the Rural Elderly.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review of the literature on recreation for the rural elderly is organized into seven sections. The first section is a brief overview of the values and socio-economic characteristics of the rural elderly. In the next section, studies on the leisure interests and the recreation participation patterns of the rural elderly are presented. The…

Leitner, Michael J.; And Others

119

Pioneers in Leisure and Recreation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book consists of brief biographies of people who have contributed to the field of leisure and recreation. The 26 pioneers chronicled span over two thousand years and cross many cultures. Some are theorists, others are practitioners, but all of them left their imprint on the leisure and recreation field. Arranged sequentially by dates, the…

Ibrahim, Hilmi; And Others

120

Development and validation of an SPE HG-AAS method for determination of inorganic arsenic in samples of marine origin.  

PubMed

The present paper describes a novel method for the quantitative determination of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in food and feed of marine origin. The samples were subjected to microwave-assisted extraction using diluted hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide, which solubilised the analytes and oxidised arsenite (As(III)) to arsenate (As(V)). Subsequently, a pH buffering of the sample extract at pH 6 enabled selective elution of As(V) from a strong anion exchange solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. Hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS) was applied to quantify the concentration of iAs (sum of As(III) and As(V)) as the total arsenic (As) in the SPE eluate. The results of the in-house validation showed that mean recoveries of 101-104% were achieved for samples spiked with iAs at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mg·kg(-1), respectively. The limit of detection was 0.08 mg kg(-1), and the repeatability (RSD(r)) and intra-laboratory reproducibility (RSD(IR)) were less than 8% and 13%, respectively, for samples containing 0.2 to 1.5 mg kg(-1) iAs. The trueness of the SPE HG-AAS method was verified by confirming results obtained by parallel analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. It was demonstrated that the two sets of results were not significantly different (P < 0.05). The SPE HG-AAS method was applied to 20 marine food and feed samples, and concentrations of up to 0.14 mg kg(-1) of iAs were detected. PMID:22526669

Rasmussen, Rie R; Hedegaard, Rikke V; Larsen, Erik H; Sloth, Jens J

2012-07-01

121

Screening for unicellular algae as possible bioassay organisms for monitoring marine water samples.  

PubMed

ECOTOX is an automatic early warning system to monitor potential pollution of freshwater, municipal or industrial waste waters or aquatic ecosystems. It is based on a real time image analysis of the motility and orientation parameters of the unicellular, photosynthetic flagellate Euglena gracilis. In order to widen the use of the device to marine habitats and saline waters nine marine flagellates were evaluated as putative bioassay organisms, viz. Dunaliella salina, Dunaliella viridis, Dunaliella bardawil, Prorocentrum minimum Kattegat, P. minimum Lissabon, Tetraselmis suecica, Heterocapsa triquetra, Gyrodinium dorsum and Cryptomonas maculata. Because of their slow growth the last three strains were excluded from further evaluation. Selection criteria were ease of culture, density of cell suspension, stability of motility and gravitactic orientation. The sensitivity toward toxins was tested using copper(II) ions. The instrument allows the user to automatically determine effect-concentration (EC) curves from which the EC(50) values can be calculated. For the interpretation of the EC curves a sigmoid logistic model was proposed which proved to be satisfactory for all tested strains. The inhibition of the motility was considered as the most appropriate movement parameter as an endpoint. The Dunaliella species had the lowest sensitivity to copper with EC(50) values of 220, 198 and 176 mg/L for D. salina, D. bardawil and D. viridis, respectively, followed by T. suecica with an EC(50) value of 40 mg/L. The Prorocentrum species were found to be the most sensitive with an EC(50) value of 13.5 mg/L for P. minimum Lissabon and 7.5 mg/L for P. minimum Kattegat. PMID:16806394

Millán de Kuhn, Rosmary; Streb, Christine; Breiter, Roman; Richter, Peter; Neesse, Thomas; Häder, Donat-Peter

2006-08-01

122

Validation of Ocean Color Satellite Data Products in Under Sampled Marine Areas. Chapter 6  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The planktonic marine cyanobacterium, Trichodesmium sp., is broadly distributed throughout the oligotrophic marine tropical and sub-tropical oceans. Trichodesmium, which typically occurs in macroscopic bundles or colonies, is noteworthy for its ability to form large surface aggregations and to fix dinitrogen gas. The latter is important because primary production supported by N2 fixation can result in a net export of carbon from the surface waters to deep ocean and may therefore play a significant role in the global carbon cycle. However, information on the distribution and density of Trichodesmium from shipboard measurements through the oligotrophic oceans is very sparse. Such estimates are required to quantitatively estimate total global rates of N2 fixation. As a result current global rate estimates are highly uncertain. Thus in order to understand the broader biogeochemical importance of Trichodesmium and N2 fixation in the oceans, we need better methods to estimate the global temporal and spatial variability of this organism. One approach that holds great promise is satellite remote sensing. Satellite ocean color sensors are ideal instruments for estimating global phytoplankton biomass, especially that due to episodic blooms, because they provide relatively high frequency synoptic information over large areas. Trichodesmium has a combination of specific ultrastructural and biochemical features that lend themselves to identification of this organism by remote sensing. Specifically, these features are high backscatter due to the presence of gas vesicles, and absorption and fluorescence of phycoerythrin. The resulting optical signature is relatively unique and should be detectable with satellite ocean color sensors such as the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS).

Subramaniam, Ajit; Hood, Raleigh R.; Brown, Christopher W.; Carpenter, Edward J.; Capone, Douglas G.

2001-01-01

123

Trends in Selenium Utilization in Marine Microbial World Revealed through the Analysis of the Global Ocean Sampling (GOS) Project  

PubMed Central

Selenium is an important trace element that occurs in proteins in the form of selenocysteine (Sec) and in tRNAs in the form of selenouridine. Recent large-scale metagenomics projects provide an opportunity for understanding global trends in trace element utilization. Herein, we characterized the selenoproteome of the microbial marine community derived from the Global Ocean Sampling (GOS) expedition. More than 3,600 selenoprotein gene sequences belonging to 58 protein families were detected, including sequences representing 7 newly identified selenoprotein families, such as homologs of ferredoxin–thioredoxin reductase and serine protease. In addition, a new eukaryotic selenoprotein family, thiol reductase GILT, was identified. Most GOS selenoprotein families originated from Cys-containing thiol oxidoreductases. In both Pacific and Atlantic microbial communities, SelW-like and SelD were the most widespread selenoproteins. Geographic location had little influence on Sec utilization as measured by selenoprotein variety and the number of selenoprotein genes detected; however, both higher temperature and marine (as opposed to freshwater and other aquatic) environment were associated with increased use of this amino acid. Selenoproteins were also detected with preference for either environment. We identified novel fusion forms of several selenoproteins that highlight redox activities of these proteins. Almost half of Cys-containing SelDs were fused with NADH dehydrogenase, whereas such SelD forms were rare in terrestrial organisms. The selenouridine utilization trait was also analyzed and showed an independent evolutionary relationship with Sec utilization. Overall, our study provides insights into global trends in microbial selenium utilization in marine environments.

Zhang, Yan; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

2008-01-01

124

Outdoor recreational opportunities in Alabama  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What comes to mind when you think about outdoor recreational opportunities? Diagram of the recreational opportunities to enjoy First we will look at the forest services and recreational opportunities. Forest Services There is plenty of hunting opportunities in Alabama to enjoy. Hunting Opportunities Outdoor tips can be essential when enjoying the outdoors. Outdoor Tips What a better way to spend a weekend then going fishing with family and friends. Places to Fish A great way to spend a weekend could also consist of hiking. Hiking Now ...

Smith, Adam

2012-04-04

125

Incorporation of organic contaminants into geochemical samples and an assessment of potential sources: Examples from Geoscience Australia marine survey S282  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic geochemists are increasingly involved in multi-disciplinary collaborative studies but not often in the initial sample collection phase, so understanding the origin and source of contaminants derived from sample handling and containers is of vital importance as standard laboratory blanks cannot assess this contamination. A variety of organic contaminants was detected in different sediments collected during Geoscience Australia marine survey

Emmanuelle Grosjean; Graham A. Logan

2007-01-01

126

Archival Policies and Collections Database for the Woods Hole Science Center's Marine Sediment Samples  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Woods Hole Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been an active member of the Woods Hole research community, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, for over 40 years. In that time there have been many projects that involved the collection of sediment samples conducted by USGS scientists and technicians for the research and study of seabed environments and processes. These samples were collected at sea or near shore and then brought back to the Woods Hole Science Center (WHSC) for analysis. While at the center, samples are stored in ambient temperature, refrigerated and freezing conditions ranging from +2? Celsius to -18? Celsius, depending on the best mode of preparation for the study being conducted or the duration of storage planned for the samples. Recently, storage methods and available storage space have become a major concern at the WHSC. The core and sediment archive program described herein has been initiated to set standards for the management, methods, and duration of sample storage. A need has arisen to maintain organizational consistency and define storage protocol. This handbook serves as a reference and guide to all parties interested in using and accessing the WHSC's sample archive and also defines all the steps necessary to construct and maintain an organized collection of geological samples. It answers many questions as to the way in which the archive functions.

Buczkowski, Brian J.; Kelsey, Sarah A.

2007-01-01

127

Healthy Swimming/Recreational Water  

MedlinePLUS

... Facts Index of Healthy Water-related Topics Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Home Drinking Water Healthy Swimming/ ... minimizing the risk of illness and injury. Recreational Water Illness (noun): Illness caused by germs and chemicals ...

128

Upper Colorado River Recreation Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Vicinity Map; General Description--Introduction, Area Description, Brief History; Outdoor Recreation Opportunities; Trip Planning--Access, Availability of Sites, Safety Precautions and Hazards; River Segment Descriptions and River Maps; Protecti...

1992-01-01

129

Introduction to Therapeutic Recreation Services  

MedlinePLUS

... to Therapeutic Recreation Services Kristin Ruprecht, MS, CTRS Photo of a young man using a wheelchair being ... Youth View all available listings for various References Photos View Listings of all the photos on NCPAD ...

130

Housing Management: Tenants Recreation System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is part of the Public Housing Management Improvement Program. This part of the program developed a tenant's recreation system. With the active involvement of tenants in the planning and development, the program aims at development of constructi...

1976-01-01

131

A new device for sampling small volumes of water from marine micro-environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments in microelectrode technology provide more sensitive measurement of biologically relevant redox species and require less water than traditional wet chemical techniques. To fully exploit the power of this new technology, water samplers capable of collecting small volumes (1-10 ml) from discrete micro-environments were developed. We have designed a new, low-cost water sampler (SIPPER) to draw small volume water samples from discrete locations at deep-sea hydrothermal vents. The sampler successfully operated with the deep submergence vehicle (DSV) ALVIN at 2600 m depth to extract water samples from the fragile tube dwellings of a small polychaete. These samples were electrochemically analyzed on board ship for the presence of biologically important redox species inside the worm tube. Although designed specifically for this study, the sampler can be readily modified for application in a variety of disciplines requiring discrete samples within aquatic micro-environments.

Di Meo, Carol A.; Wakefield, Jeffrey R.; Cary, S. Craig

1999-07-01

132

Sample Limited Characterization of a Novel Disulfide-Rich Venom Peptide Toxin from Terebrid Marine Snail Terebra variegata.  

PubMed

Disulfide-rich peptide toxins found in the secretions of venomous organisms such as snakes, spiders, scorpions, leeches, and marine snails are highly efficient and effective tools for novel therapeutic drug development. Venom peptide toxins have been used extensively to characterize ion channels in the nervous system and platelet aggregation in haemostatic systems. A significant hurdle in characterizing disulfide-rich peptide toxins from venomous animals is obtaining significant quantities needed for sequence and structural analyses. Presented here is a strategy for the structural characterization of venom peptide toxins from sample limited (4 ng) specimens via direct mass spectrometry sequencing, chemical synthesis and NMR structure elucidation. Using this integrated approach, venom peptide Tv1 from Terebra variegata was discovered. Tv1 displays a unique fold not witnessed in prior snail neuropeptides. The novel structural features found for Tv1 suggest that the terebrid pool of peptide toxins may target different neuronal agents with varying specificities compared to previously characterized snail neuropeptides. PMID:24713808

Anand, Prachi; Grigoryan, Alexandre; Bhuiyan, Mohammed H; Ueberheide, Beatrix; Russell, Victoria; Quinoñez, Jose; Moy, Patrick; Chait, Brian T; Poget, Sébastien F; Holford, Mandë

2014-01-01

133

Sample Limited Characterization of a Novel Disulfide-Rich Venom Peptide Toxin from Terebrid Marine Snail Terebra variegata  

PubMed Central

Disulfide-rich peptide toxins found in the secretions of venomous organisms such as snakes, spiders, scorpions, leeches, and marine snails are highly efficient and effective tools for novel therapeutic drug development. Venom peptide toxins have been used extensively to characterize ion channels in the nervous system and platelet aggregation in haemostatic systems. A significant hurdle in characterizing disulfide-rich peptide toxins from venomous animals is obtaining significant quantities needed for sequence and structural analyses. Presented here is a strategy for the structural characterization of venom peptide toxins from sample limited (4 ng) specimens via direct mass spectrometry sequencing, chemical synthesis and NMR structure elucidation. Using this integrated approach, venom peptide Tv1 from Terebra variegata was discovered. Tv1 displays a unique fold not witnessed in prior snail neuropeptides. The novel structural features found for Tv1 suggest that the terebrid pool of peptide toxins may target different neuronal agents with varying specificities compared to previously characterized snail neuropeptides.

Anand, Prachi; Grigoryan, Alexandre; Bhuiyan, Mohammed H.; Ueberheide, Beatrix; Russell, Victoria; Quinonez, Jose; Moy, Patrick; Chait, Brian T.; Poget, Sebastien F.; Holford, Mande

2014-01-01

134

New procedure for recovering extra- and intracellular DNA from marine sediment samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is a ubiquitous biological compound in aquatic sediment and soil. Despite major methodological advances, analysis of DNA from sediment is still technically challenging, not just because of the co-elution of inhibitory substances, but also due to co-elution of extracellular DNA, which potentially leads to an overestimate of the actual diversity. Previous studies suggested that eDNA might play an important role in biogeochemical element cycling, horizontal gene transfer and stabilization of biofilm structures. Several protocols based on the precipitation of eDNA e.g. with CTAB and ethanol have already been published. However, using these methods we did not succeed in quantifying very low amounts of eDNA (e.g. <1?g eDNA/g dry wt) in marine sediment even when using DNA carriers like glycogen. Since the recovery of eDNA by precipitation strongly depends on its concentration, these previously published procedures are not adequate for deep biosphere sediment due to the low eDNA content. We have focused on the question whether eDNA could be a source of nitrogen and phosphorus for microbes in the subseafloor biosphere. Therefore we developed a new method for the (semi)-quantitative extraction of eDNA from sediment. The new extraction procedure is based on sequential washing of the sediment to remove simultaneously eDNA and microbial cells without lysing them. After separation of the cells by centrifugation, the eDNA was extracted from the supernatant and purified by adsorption onto a solid phase, followed by removal of the solids and subsequent elution of the pure eDNA. Intracellular DNA (iDNA) was extracted and purified from the cell pellet using a commercial DNA extraction kit. Additional to a very low detection limit and reproducible quantification, this new method allows separation and purification of both extracellular and intracellular DNA to an extent that inhibitors are removed and downstream applications like PCR can be performed. To evaluate the new extraction method two sediments with rather opposing composition were analyzed. Sediment from the South Pacific Gyre, the most oligotrophic oceanic region on earth and organic-rich Baltic Sea sediment (Northern Germany) were processed. Using this new procedure high purity genomic iDNA and eDNA with a molecular size range between 20 bp and 50k bp can be simultaneously recovered even from very oligotrophic sediment with very low cell abundances. The main fraction of recovered eDNA was suitable for downstream applications like PCR and had a molecular size that indicates minimal shearing. Despite about two decades of research many questions about deep subsurface life remain unanswered. The fact that microbes can be found even in deep oligotrophic marine sediment raises the fundamental questions of the types and availability of substrates and their biogeochemical cycling. This is the first study that provides evidence that eDNA is an important potential substrate for microorganisms in the deep biosphere. Also, our results show a link between cell counts and eDNA content, indicating that the eDNA pool in the investigated sediment consist mainly of microbial DNA. Comparative sequence analysis of extracted iDNA and eDNA will provide deeper insights into the origin and turnover of eDNA and the apparent microbial community composition in the deep biosphere.

Alawi, M.; Kallmeyer, J.

2012-12-01

135

Applicability of passive sampling to bioanalytical screening of bioaccumulative chemicals in marine wildlife.  

PubMed

Quantification of bioaccumulative contaminants in biota is time and cost-intensive and the required extensive cleanup steps make it selective toward targeted chemical groups. Therefore tissue extracts prepared for chemical analysis are not amenable to assess the combined effects of unresolved complex mixtures. Passive equilibrium sampling with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has the potential for unbiased sampling of mixtures, and the PDMS extracts can be directly dosed into cell-based bioassays. The passive sampling approach was tested by exposing PDMS to lipid-rich tissue (dugong blubber; 85% lipid) spiked with a known mixture of hydrophobic contaminants (five congeners of tetra- to octachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxins). The equilibrium was attained within 24 h. Lipid-PDMS partition coefficients (Klip-PDMS) ranged from 20 to 38, were independent of hydrophobicity, and within the range of those previously measured for organochlorine compounds. To test if passive sampling can be combined with bioanalysis without the need for chemical cleanup, spiked blubber-PDMS extracts were dosed into the CAFLUX bioassay, which specifically targets dioxin-like chemicals. Small quantities of lipids coextracted by the PDMS were found to affect the kinetics in the regularly applied 24-h bioassay; however, this effect was eliminated by a longer exposure period (72 h). The validated method was applied to 11 unspiked dugong blubber samples with known (native) dioxin concentrations. These results provide the first proof of concept for linking passive sampling of lipid-rich tissue with cell-based bioassays, and could be further extended to other lipid rich species and a wider range of bioanalytical end points. PMID:23758596

Jin, Ling; Gaus, Caroline; van Mourik, Louise; Escher, Beate I

2013-07-16

136

Acoustically focused adaptive sampling and on-board routing for marine rapid environmental assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

article i nfo Variabilities in the coastal ocean environment span a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. From an acoustic viewpoint, the limited oceanographic measurements and today's ocean computational capabilities are not always able to provide oceanic-acoustic predictions in high-resolution and with enough accuracy. Adaptive Rapid Environmental Assessment (AREA) is an adaptive sampling concept being developed in connection with

Ding Wang; Pierre F. J. Lermusiaux; Patrick J. Haley; Donald Eickstedt; Wayne G. Leslie; Henrik Schmidt

2009-01-01

137

Sample preparation methods for quantitative detection of DNA by molecular assays and marine biosensors.  

PubMed

The need for quantitative molecular methods is growing in environmental, food, and medical fields but is hindered by low and variable DNA extraction and by co-extraction of PCR inhibitors. DNA extracts from Enterococcus faecium, seawater, and seawater spiked with E. faecium and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were tested by qPCR for target recovery and inhibition. Conventional and novel methods were tested, including Synchronous Coefficient of Drag Alteration (SCODA) and lysis and purification systems used on an automated genetic sensor (the Environmental Sample Processor, ESP). Variable qPCR target recovery and inhibition were measured, significantly affecting target quantification. An aggressive lysis method that utilized chemical, enzymatic, and mechanical disruption enhanced target recovery compared to commercial kit protocols. SCODA purification did not show marked improvement over commercial spin columns. Overall, data suggested a general need to improve sample preparation and to accurately assess and account for DNA recovery and inhibition in qPCR applications. PMID:23790450

Cox, Annie M; Goodwin, Kelly D

2013-08-15

138

Development of a subcritical fluid extraction and GC-MS validation method for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in marine samples.  

PubMed

This paper describes a new procedure for extracting polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from marine samples using subcritical 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a). The extraction procedure was optimized at temperatures varying from 20 to 70°C and pressures ranging from 3 to 15 MPa. The volume of the co-solvent was then optimized using 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a) as the subcritical phase. PCBs were characterized by GC-MS using the optimized conditions of 3 MPa, 30°C, and a co-solvent volume of 6 mL. The average yields of PCBs from subcritical fluid extraction of spiked oyster samples were measured and found to be greater than 90%, with relative standard deviations (RSD) of less than 10%. Detection limits of this method were in the range of 0.045-0.108 ng/g of dry mass. The method was compared to Soxhlet extraction and then applied for monitoring PCBs in oysters from Qingdao, Shandong, China. PMID:23455072

Jia, Kai; Feng, Xiaomei; Liu, Kun; Han, Yuqian; Xue, Yong; Xue, Changhu

2013-04-01

139

Deep Water, Shallow Water: Marine Animal Homes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the diversity of life in the oceans and ways in which teachers can explore ocean habitats with their students without leaving the classroom. Topic areas considered include: restricted habitats, people and marine habitats, pollution, incidental kills, and the commercial and recreational uses of marine waters. (JN)

Soltow, Willow

1984-01-01

140

Statistical Approach for Production of PUFA from Kocuria sp. BRI 35 Isolated from Marine Water Sample  

PubMed Central

In this study, Plackett-Burman design was used to identify the most influential parameters affecting PUFA production by Kocuria sp. BRI 35 isolated from Antarctic water sample. Amongst 10 variables evaluated, magnesium chloride, protease peptone, glucose, and temperature were significant. Response surface methodology consisting of a central composite design was developed to study the interactions between the variables and to determine optimal values of significant variables. A quadratic model (R = 0.9652, F = 14.64, P < 0.0001) was built. The contour plots indicated that the isolate produced maximum PUFA at lower concentrations of magnesium sulfate (0.9?g/L) and higher concentrations of protease peptone (5?g/L) and glucose (10?g/L) at 15°C. MgSO4 and glucose exhibited quadratic as well as interactive effect on PUFA production whereas protease peptone and temperature showed interactive effects only. After optimization, PUFA production per unit biomass increased from 0.94?mg/g to 11.12?mg/g. This represented an increase from 3% to 58.62% of the total fatty acids. Among PUFAs, the yield of ?-6 fatty acids increased from 9.66?mg/L to 107.71?mg/L with significant increase in linoleic acid (20.36?mg/L) whereas ?-3 fatty acids increased up to 12.37?mg/L with DHA being the major ?-3 fatty acid produced.

2014-01-01

141

Evaluating the multiple benefits of marine water quality improvements: how important are health risk reductions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine water pollution affects many recreational sites around the world. It has impacts not only on recreational activities but also on health risks for those who come into direct contact with the water. Few economic studies have explicitly considered the health risks of bathing in polluted marine waters and none have attempted to separate health benefits from other benefits of

Fernando S Machado; Susana Mourato

2002-01-01

142

Outdoor Recreation Plan, Door County, Wisconsin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents an analysis of outdoor recreation trends in Door County. It outlines a program for sound future outdoor recreation development, with major attention given to an action program for implementation of the proposals. The report is intended...

1969-01-01

143

50 CFR 26.32 - Recreational uses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... § 26.32 Recreational uses. Recreational uses such as, but not limited to, sightseeing, nature observation and photography, interpretive centers and exhibits, hunting and fishing, bathing, boating, camping, ice skating, picnicking,...

2013-10-01

144

Recreation Carrying Capacity Design and Management Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The increase in use of Corps recreation facilities and prospects of even greater demand have brought about two major consequences and concerns: resource overuse and user overcrowding. Most definitive recreation carrying capacity design and management guid...

1980-01-01

145

Vandalism Control Management for Parks and Recreation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vandalism nationally costs park and recreation departments over $500 million a year. This handbook, therefore, is designed to help park and recreation administrators systematically address vandalism as a management issue with solutions that have been prov...

M. L. Christiansen

1983-01-01

146

RECSAD: A Computer Program for Recreation Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A computer program (RECSAD: RECreation Supply And Demand) has been described which is believed to have some utility for planners. The program is designed to afford users flexibility with respect to availability of data, preferred assumptions about recreat...

S. W. Tweedie R. D. Hecock

1976-01-01

147

Iron mineralogy and bioaccessibility of dust generated from soils as determined by reflectance spectroscopy and magnetic and chemical properties--Nellis Dunes recreational area, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Atmospheric mineral dust exerts many important effects on the Earth system, such as atmospheric temperatures, marine productivity, and melting of snow and ice. Mineral dust also can have detrimental effects on human health through respiration of very small particles and the leaching of metals in various organs. These effects can be better understood through characterization of the physical and chemical properties of dust, including certain iron oxide minerals, for their extraordinary radiative properties and possible effects on lung inflammation. Studies of dust from the Nellis Dunes recreation area near Las Vegas, Nevada, focus on characteristics of radiative properties (capacity of dust to absorb solar radiation), iron oxide mineral type and size, chemistry, and bioaccessibility of metals in fluids that simulate human gastric, lung, and phagolysosomal fluids. In samples of dust from the Nellis Dunes recreation area with median grain sizes of 2.4, 3.1, and 4.3 micrometers, the ferric oxide minerals goethite and hematite, at least some of it nanosized, were identified. In one sample, in vitro bioaccessibility experiments revealed high bioaccessibility of arsenic in all three biofluids and higher leachate concentration and bioaccessibility for copper, uranium, and vanadium in the simulated lung fluid than in the phagolysosomal fluid. The combination of methods used here to characterize mineral dust at the Nellis Dunes recreation area can be applied to global dust and broad issues of public health.

Goldstein, Harland L.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Morman, Suzette A.; Moskowitz, Bruce; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Goossens, Dirk; Buck, Brenda J.; Flagg, Cody; Till, Jessica; Yauk, Kimberly; Berquó, Thelma S.

2013-01-01

148

Marine Debris  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Marine debris is an environmental problem of global importance, enlisting the concern and action of scientists, policy makers, as well as the general public. This three-lesson kit focuses primarily on plastic marine debris. Students critically examine data and samples and take part in activities that explore the causes, geographical distribution, and biological impacts of marine debris. Each lesson can be completed in about 50-60 minutes, but many of the activities are discrete and can be easily rearranged to fit various curricular objectives and time constraints.

2012-01-01

149

The History of Commercial Recreation and Its Role in the Provision of Family Recreation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Commercial recreation is the provision of facilities, equipment, and programs that satisfy public demand for activities during unobligated time and are profitable to the supplier. The term "commercial recreation" has been given a negative connotation in the field of recreation and leisure. This negative concept of commercial recreation continues…

Ellis, E. Taylor

150

Haptic Recreation of Elbow Spasticity  

PubMed Central

The aim of this paper is to develop a haptic device capable of presenting standardized recreation of elbow spasticity. Using the haptic device, clinicians will be able to repeatedly practice the assessment of spasticity without requiring patient involvement, and these practice opportunities will help improve accuracy and reliability of the assessment itself. Haptic elbow spasticity simulator (HESS) was designed and prototyped according to mechanical requirements to recreate the feel of elbow spasticity. Based on the data collected from subjects with elbow spasticity, a mathematical model representing elbow spasticity is proposed. As an attempt to differentiate the feel of each score in Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), parameters of the model were obtained respectively for three different MAS scores 1, 1+, and 2. The implemented haptic recreation was evaluated by experienced clinicians who were asked to give MAS scores by manipulating the haptic device. The clinicians who participated in the study were blinded to each other’s scores and to the given models. They distinguished the three models and the MAS scores given to the recreated models matched 100% with the original MAS scores from the patients.

Kim, Jonghyun; Damiano, Diane L.

2013-01-01

151

Heel Pain in Recreational Runners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides physicians with the signs, symptoms, and management of heel/sole pain in recreational runners (usually due to plantar fasciitis, Achilles tendinitis, and calcaneal stress fractures). Remedies involve palliative treatment of symptoms, correction of underlying biomechanical problems, and flexibility exercises. (SM)

Bazzoli, Allan S.; Pollina, Frank S.

1989-01-01

152

Design Guidelines for Recreational Roads.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design guidelines are the result of a 2-yr study which included: A review of the state-of-the-art of recreational road design; development of geometric design controls including a functional classification scheme, representative design vehicles, and d...

J. McNamara A. Moore J. Baerwald

1975-01-01

153

Whiskeytown National Recreation Area, California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Historic Resource Study on Whiskeytown National Recreation Area relates the development of the area due to the discovery of gold. The early growth of Shasta County, California, with the forty-niners is discussed in terms of physical growth and social ...

A. C. Toogood

1978-01-01

154

IN-SITU SAMPLING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NATURALLY OCCURRING MARINE METHANE HYDRATE USING THE D/V JOIDES RESOLUTION  

SciTech Connect

The primary activities accomplished during this quarter were continued efforts to develop plans for Phase 2 of this cooperative agreement based on the evolving operational planning for IODP Expedition 311, which will use the JOIDES Resolution to study marine methane hydrates along the Cascadia margin, offshore Vancouver Island. IODP Expedition 311 has been designed to further constrain the models for the formation of marine gas hydrate in subduction zone accretionary prisms. The objectives include characterizing the deep origin of the methane, its upward transport, its incorporation in gas hydrate, and its subsequent loss to the seafloor. The main attention of this expedition is on the widespread seafloor-parallel layer of dispersed gas hydrate located just above the base of the predicted stability field. In a gas hydrate formation model, methane is carried upward through regional sediment or small-scale fracture permeability, driven by the tectonic consolidation of the accretionary prism. The upward moving methane is incorporated into the gas hydrate clathrate as it enters the methane hydrate stability zone. Also important is the focusing of a portion of the upward methane flux into localized plumes or channels to form concentrations of near-seafloor gas hydrate. The amount of gas hydrate in local concentrations near the seafloor is especially important for understanding the response of marine gas hydrate to climate change. The expedition includes coring and downhole measurements at five sites across the Northern Cascadia accretionary prism. The sites will track the history of methane in an accretionary prism from (1) its production by mainly microbiological processes over a thick sediment vertical extent, (2) its upward transport through regional or locally focused fluid flow, (3) its incorporation in the regional hydrate layer above the BSR or in local concentrations at or near the seafloor, (4) methane loss from the hydrate by upward diffusion, and (5) methane oxidation and incorporation in seafloor carbonate, or expulsion to the ocean. This expedition builds on the previous Cascadia gas hydrate drilling of ODP Leg 146 and on more recent ODP Leg 204 off Oregon. Important experiments being considered for DOE/NETL funding as part of the JOI cooperative agreement include, (1) Logging-While-Drilling/Measurements-While-Drilling (LWD/MWD), (2) Pressure Core Sampling (PCS/HYACINTH) of gas hydrate, and fluid recovery under in situ conditions, (3) X-ray CT logging of whole cores under in situ conditions, and (4) Infrared thermal imaging of whole round cores to map temperature variations resulting from the presence of hydrate. Preliminary budget estimates have been made for each of these tasks and discussions are ongoing with DOE/NETL program managers to develop a final plan that can be implemented within the constraints of the available funding and logistical considerations.

Frank R. Rack; Tim Francis; Peter Schultheiss; Philip E. Long; Barry M. Freifeld

2005-04-01

155

Solar energy for a community recreation center  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 58,000 ft² recreation center in Shenandoah, Georgia is described. Rooftop solar collectors and reflectors serve as a basis for the active solar heating and cooling systems. The recreation center clearly demonstrates the technical feasibility of solar application in a recreation setting; economically, however, results are shown to be mixed. Although effective in the heating mode, solar cooling is considered

Libman

1980-01-01

156

Outdoor Recreation Action: Federal, State, Local, Private.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet reports on outdoor recreation actions taken at the federal, state, local, and private levels. The Land and Water Conservation Fund and the financing of outdoor recreation on all levels are discussed. New agencies, personnel, reorganizations, resolutions, and recommendations for the organization and administration of outdoor recreation

Kyle, George M., Ed.

157

Your Recreation Dollar. [Revised.] Money Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet on recreation, 1 in a series of 12, covers all the basic aspects of personal- and family-money management. Suitable for use by high school and college students as well as adults, this handbook suggests ways to plan recreation expenses for special activities, equipment, and vacation travel. Section 1 looks at the need for recreation

Baran, Nancy H., Ed.; Tarrant, Sharon M., Ed.

158

REGIONAL RECREATION DEMAND AND BENEFITS MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes a regional recreation demand and benefits model that is used to estimate recreation demand and value (consumers' surplus) of four activities at each of 195 sites in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and western Montana. The recreation activities considered are camp...

159

Recreation for Autistic and Emotionally Disturbed Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over 200 questionnaire responses from parents of autistic children describing recreational activities that appealed to their children are reported. Recreation is defined as a means of skill development, an outlet for emotions, and an inspiration for living. Parents are encouraged to stimulate recreational interests by taking children along on…

Dewey, Margaret A.

160

Rural Recreation: Concepts, Concerns and Challenges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses seven factors that impact upon the establishment/support of recreation/leisure services in rural environments: scale, recreation economics, community customs/traditions, work cycle, program delivery, focus on family, attitudinal variances. Examines how each factor has been used to justify limiting recreational opportunities and provides…

Neal, Larry L.; Long, Patrick T.

1987-01-01

161

Large Indoor Sports and Recreation Facilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an overview and analysis of field houses, stadiums, arenas, and campus recreation centers. All are large indoor sports or recreation facilities. In general, stadiums and arenas are spectator facilities while field houses and campus recreation centers are primarily designed for activity. A college field house is a structure that…

Seidler, Todd

162

Alcohol consumption among recreational boaters: factors for intervention.  

PubMed

Recreational boating is a popular leisure time activity in many countries. It is estimated that, in Australia, boating incidents cause more harm than rail and air crashes combined and, in terms of transport, are second only to motor vehicle crashes as a cause of serious injury. The consumption of alcohol among recreational boaters is considered an important risk factor for fatalities and injuries among both operators and passengers. Using a database of all recreational vessels registered in Western Australia (WA), a sample of 500 adult boaters was recruited to participate in a telephone survey. The effects of demographic variables and boating characteristics upon the use of alcohol among recreational boaters on their last trip were explored using logistic regression. The odds of not having a drink were associated, after adjusting for age, with having completed a boating education course and with carrying children less than 12 years on board. The use of alcohol was not found to be prevalent among WA recreational boat owners. Based on these findings, it is recommended that efforts to decrease boating-related incidents, such as through education and legislation measures, be monitored over time to determine the effects of these strategies upon safety behaviours. PMID:18329399

Miller, J R; Pikora, T J

2008-03-01

163

A stand along facility: The Cholla Recreation site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cholla Recreation Site in the Tonto National Forest is one of ten recreation sites planned for the Roosevelt Lake Recreation Area as a recreation enhancement measure of the Central Arizona Project. The Bureau of Reclamation plans to fund over $40 million in recreation development at the lake. The Forest Service will design, construct, operate and maintain planned recreational facilities

Killebrew

2009-01-01

164

Inventory and management of trespass recreation use at Upper Delaware and Scenic and Recreational River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recreational trespass on private lands within the Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River, located along the eastern border between Pennsylvania and New York, prompted this survey of recreational trespass sites. The National Park Service has been mandated to manage river recreational use within its boundaries but land ownership shall remain predominantly private. This survey was conducted to document the number and distribution of river recreation trespass sites and to recommend appropriate management actions to minimize trespass use.

Marion, J. L.

1989-01-01

165

Reducing the effects of environmental inhibition in quantitative real-time PCR detection of adenovirus and norovirus in recreational seawaters.  

PubMed

Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is used commonly to detect adenovirus (Ads) and norovirus (Nvs) in recreational waters. However, qPCR detection may be limited by interference from inhibitory substances found in recreational waters. In previous work, viruses in Avalon and Doheny Beach water samples were concentrated by electropositive cartridge filtration and PEG precipitation, and high inhibition was found in the samples when using qPCR for detection of Ads and Nvs. Therefore, different approaches were evaluated for removal or blocking of inhibitory compounds that affect qPCR. Avalon and Doheny concentrates were spiked with known amounts of Ads 41 and Nvs GII, and spiked deionized water was used as a positive control. Modifications included gel chromatography with columns of Sephadex G-200/Chelex 100, different sample volumes for nucleic acid extraction, organic solvent extraction, and nucleic acid precipitation. The efficiency of each treatment varied according to sampling location and virus type. The best option for improved Nvs detection by reverse transcription-qPCR was to reduce the sample volume for nucleic acid purification. The best option for improving Ads detection in both beach samples was Sephadex/Chelex spin column chromatography. Chloroform extraction only improved virus detection in Doheny Beach samples but not in Avalon Beach samples. Observed differences in effective treatments between viruses may be related to the different PCR targets, amplification conditions, and enzymes used in each assay, and differences between beaches may be related to differences in PCR inhibitory environmental compounds at each location. The results suggest that methods for detecting viruses from marine beaches, including treatments for the removal of PCR inhibitory compounds, should be optimized for each sampling site and probably for each virus of interest. PMID:22326277

Rodríguez, Roberto A; Thie, Lauren; Gibbons, Christopher D; Sobsey, Mark D

2012-04-01

166

Analyses of Tissues of Eight Marine Species from Atlantic and Pacific Coasts for Dioxin-Like Chlorobiphenyls (CBs) and Total CBs  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Eight commercially and recreationally important marine species were collected in 1993 and 1994 from several Atlantic and\\u000a Pacific coastal regions of the contiguous United States. Approximately 700 edible tissue samples (e.g., whole body of mussel, crustacean muscle and hepatopancreas, and fish muscle) were analyzed for dioxin-like chlorobiphenyls\\u000a (CBs) and other selected CB congeners using a rapid high-performance liquid chromatography

G. M. Ylitalo; J. Buzitis; M. M. Krahn

1999-01-01

167

Pilot Inventory of Mammals, Reptiles, and Amphibians, Golden Gate National Recreation Area, California, 1990-1997  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The United States Geological Survey Golden Gate Field Station conducted a baseline inventory of terrestrial vertebrates within the Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA), Marin, San Francisco, and San Mateo Counties, California between 1990 and 1997. We established 456 permanent study plots in 6 major park habitats, including grassland, coastal scrub, riparian woodland, coastal wetland, broad-leaved evergreen forest, and needle-leaved evergreen forest. We tested multiple inventory methods, including live traps, track plate stations, and artificial cover boards, across all years and habitats. In most years, sampling occurred in 3-4 primary sampling sessions between July and September. In 1994, additional sampling occurred in February and May in conjunction with an assessment of Hantavirus exposure in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). Overall, we detected 32 mammal, 14 reptile, and 6 amphibian species during 25,222 trap-nights of effort. The deer mouse-the most abundant species detected--accounted for 67% of total captures. We detected the Federal Endangered salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris) at one coastal wetland plot in 1992. This project represents the first phase in the development of a comprehensive terrestrial vertebrate inventory and monitoring program for GGNRA. This report summarizes data on relative abundance, frequency of occurrence, distribution across habitat types, and trap success for terrestrial vertebrates detected during this 7-year effort. It includes comprehensive descriptions of the inventory methods and sampling strategies employed during this survey and is intended to help guide the park in the implementation of future longterm ecological monitoring programs.

Semenoff-Irving, Marcia; Howell, Judd A.

2005-01-01

168

Pilot Inventory of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians, Golden Gate National Recreation Area, California, 1990-1997  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The United States Geological Survey Golden Gate Field Station conducted a baseline inventory of terrestrial vertebrates within the Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA), Marin, San Francisco, and San Mateo Counties, California between 1990 and 1997. We established 456 permanent study plots in 6 major park habitats, including grassland, coastal scrub, riparian woodland, coastal wetland, broad-leaved evergreen forest, and needle-leaved evergreen forest. We tested multiple inventory methods, including live traps, track plate stations, and artificial cover boards, across all years and habitats. In most years, sampling occurred in 3?4 primary sampling sessions between July and September. In 1994, additional sampling occurred in February and May in conjunction with an assessment of Hantavirus exposure in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). Overall, we detected 32 mammal, 14 reptile, and 6 amphibian species during 25,222 trap-nights of effort. The deer mouse?the most abundant species detected--accounted for 67% of total captures. We detected the Federal Endangered salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris) at one coastal wetland plot in 1992. This project represents the first phase in the development of a comprehensive terrestrial vertebrate inventory and monitoring program for GGNRA. This report summarizes data on relative abundance, frequency of occurrence, distribution across habitat types, and trap success for terrestrial vertebrates detected during this 7-year effort. It includes comprehensive descriptions of the inventory methods and sampling strategies employed during this survey and is intended to help guide the park in the implementation of future longterm ecological monitoring programs.

Semenoff-Irving, M.; Howell, J.A.

2005-01-01

169

Environmental Technology Verification Program: Microcystin Test Kit: Recreation Water Microcystin Detection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this verification test was to evaluate the microcystin test kit performance in analyzing known concentrations of microcystin in ASTM International Type II deionized (DI) water and in natural recreational water (RW) samples. The technology...

2011-01-01

170

Sampling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial covers some of the key terms in sampling like "population" and "sampling frame," some of the statistical terms used in sampling, and the major distinction between probability and Nonprobability sampling methods.

William Trochim (Cornell University)

2006-10-20

171

Risks of Recreational Exposure to Waterborne Pathogens Among Persons With HIV/AIDS in Baltimore, Maryland  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We assessed the prevalence of recreational activities in the waterways of Baltimore, MD, and the risk of exposure to Cryptosporidium among persons with HIV/AIDS. Methods. We studied patients at the Johns Hopkins Moore Outpatient AIDS Clinic. We conducted oral interviews with a convenience sample of 157 HIV/AIDS patients to ascertain the sites used for recreational water contact within Baltimore waters and assess risk behaviors. Results. Approximately 48% of respondents reported participating in recreational water activities (fishing, crabbing, boating, and swimming). Men and women were almost equally likely to engage in recreational water activities (53.3% versus 51.3%). Approximately 67% (105 of 157) ate their own catch or that of friends or family members, and a majority (61%, or 46 of 75) of respondents who reported recreational water contact reported consumption of their own catch. Conclusions. Baltimoreans with HIV/AIDS are engaging in recreational water activities in urban waters that may expose them to waterborne pathogens and recreational water illnesses. Susceptible persons, such as patients with HIV/AIDS, should be cautioned regarding potential microbial risks from recreational water contact with surface waters.

Lemerman, Hanna B.; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Moore, Richard D.; Graczyk, Thaddeus K.

2009-01-01

172

Predictors of Sexual Functioning in a Sample of U. S. Marine Recruits: An 11Year Follow-Up Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined predictors of sexual functioning in male and female U. S. Marines (n = 589) assessed longitudinally for approximately 11 years. Multiple domains of sexual functioning (dysfunctional sexual behaviors, sexual frequency, sexual problems, and sexual satisfaction) were assessed at the 11 year follow-up assessment (T5). T5 depressive symptoms emerged as the most robust predictor of all domains of sexual

Michael K. Suvak; Leah A. Brogan; Jillian C. Shipherd

2012-01-01

173

Isolation and identification of Acanthamoeba from Taiwan spring recreation areas using culture enrichment combined with PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the study, 52 spring water samples were collected from three hot spring recreation areas in northern Taiwan and Acanthamoebae were isolated from 11 samples (21.2%) on two hot spring recreation areas and mainly present in the hot spring water, hot tubs and wastewater. The most frequently identified Acanthamoeba genotype was T15, followed by T6, and then T5. Genotype T1,

Shih-Wei Huang; Bing-Mu Hsu

2010-01-01

174

Assessing the effectiveness of marine reserves on unsustainably harvested long-lived sessile invertebrates.  

PubMed

Although the rapid recovery of fishes after establishment of a marine reserve is well known, much less is known about the response of long-lived, sessile, benthic organisms to establishment of such reserves. Since antiquity, Mediterranean red coral (Corallium rubrum) has been harvested intensively for use in jewelry, and its distribution is currently smaller than its historical size throughout the Mediterranean Sea. To assess whether establishment of marine reserves is associated with a change in the size and number of red coral colonies that historically were not harvested sustainably, we analyzed temporal changes in mean colony diameter and density from 1992 to 2005 within red coral populations at different study sites in the Medes Islands Marine Reserve (established in 1992) and in adjacent unprotected areas. Moreover, we compared colony size in the Medes Islands Marine Reserve, where recreational diving is allowed and poaching has been observed after reserve establishment, with colony size in three other marine protected areas (Banyuls, Carry-le-Rouet, and Scandola) with the enforced prohibition of fishing and diving. At the end of the study, the size of red coral colonies at all sampling sites in the Medes Islands was significantly smaller than predicted by growth models and smaller than those in marine protected areas without fishing and diving. The annual number of recreational dives and the percent change in the basal diameter of red coral colonies were negatively correlated, which suggests that abrasion by divers may increase the mortality rates of the largest red coral colonies within this reserve . Our study is the first quantitative assessment of a poaching event, which was detected during our monitoring in 2002, inside the marine reserve. Poaching was associated with a loss of approximately 60% of the biomass of red coral colonies. PMID:22098377

Linares, Cristina; Garrabou, Joaquim; Hereu, Bernat; Diaz, David; Marschal, Christian; Sala, Enric; Zabala, Mikel

2012-02-01

175

Modern sampling and analytical methods for the determination of trace elements in marine particulate material using magnetic sector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Trace elements often limit phytoplankton growth in the ocean, and the quantification of particulate forms is essential to fully understand their biogeochemical cycling. There is presently a lack of reliable measurements on the trace elemental content of marine particles, in part due to the inadequacies of the sampling and analytical methods employed. Here we report on the development of a series of state-of-the-art trace metal clean methods to collect and process oceanic particulate material in open-ocean and sea ice environments, including sampling, size-fractionated filtration, particle digestions and analysis by magnetic sector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Particular attention was paid to the analysis of certified reference materials (CRMs) and field blanks, which are typically the limiting factor for the accurate analysis of low concentrations of trace metals in marine particulate samples. Theoretical detection limits (3 s of the blank) were low for all 17 elements considered, and varied according to filter material and porosity (sub-microg L(-1) for polycarbonate filters and 1-2 microg L(-1) for quartz and polyester filters). Analytical accuracy was verified using fresh water CRMs, with excellent recoveries noted (93-103%). Digestion efficiencies for various acid combinations were assessed using sediment and plankton CRMs. Using nitric acid only, good recoveries (79-90%) were achieved for Mo, Cd, Ba, Pb, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Ga. The addition of HF was necessary for the quantitative recovery of the more refractory trace elements such as U, Al, V and Cr. Bioactive elements such as P can also be analysed and used as a biomass normaliser. Our developed sampling and analytical methods proved reliable when applied during two major field programs in both the open Southern Ocean and Antarctic sea ice environments during the International Polar Year in 2007. Trace elemental data are presented for particulate samples collected in both suspended and sinking marine material, and also within sea ice cores. PMID:20800737

Bowie, Andrew R; Townsend, Ashley T; Lannuzel, Delphine; Remenyi, Tomas A; van der Merwe, Pier

2010-08-31

176

In-Situ Sampling and Characterization of Naturally Occurring Marine Methane Hydrate Using the D/V JOIDES Resolution  

SciTech Connect

The primary accomplishments of the JOI Cooperative Agreement with DOE/NETL in this quarter were the implementation of a scientific ocean drilling expedition to study marine methane hydrates along the Cascadia margin, in the NE Pacific as part of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 311 using the R/V JOIDES Resolution and the deployment of all required equipment and personnel to provide the required services during this expedition. IODP Expedition 311 shipboard activities on the JOIDES Resolution began on August 28 and were concluded on October 28, 2005. New ODP Pressure Coring System (PCS) aluminum autoclave chambers were fabricated prior to the expedition. During the expedition, 16 PCS autoclaves containing pressure cores were X-rayed before and after depressurization using a modified Geotek MSCL-P (multi-sensor core logger-pressure) system. These PCS cores were density scanned using the MSCL-V (multi-sensor core logger-vertical) during depressurization to monitor gas evolution. The MSCL-V was set up in a 20-foot-long refrigerated container provided by Texas A&M University through the JOI contract with TAMRF. IODP Expedition 311 was the first time that PCS cores were examined before (using X-ray), during (using MSCL-V gamma density) and after (using X-ray) degassing to determine the actual volume and distribution of sediment and gas hydrate in the pressurized core, which will be important for more accurate determination of mass balances between sediment, gas, gas hydrate, and fluids in the samples collected. Geotek, Ltd was awarded a contract by JOI to provide equipment and personnel to perform pressure coring and related work on IODP Expedition 311 (Cascadia Margin Gas Hydrates). Geotek, Ltd. provided an automated track for use with JOI's infrared camera systems. Four auxiliary monitors showed infrared core images in real time to aid hydrate identification and sampling. Images were collected from 185 cores during the expedition and processed to provide continuous core temperature data. The HYACINTH pressure coring tools, subsystems, and core logging systems were mobilized to Astoria, Oregon. Both HYACINTH pressure coring tools, the HRC (HYACE Rotary Corer) and the FPC (Fugro Pressure Corer) were mobilized and used during the expedition. Two HYACINTH engineers supervised the use of the tools and five good pressure cores were obtained. Velocity, density and X-ray linear scanning data were collected from these cores at near in situ pressure using the MSCL-P system. Dr. Barry Freifeld from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory provided an X-ray source and detector for X-ray imaging of pressure cores and helped Geotek with the design and mobilization of the MSCL-P system. Pressure core handling, transfer, and logging was performed in a refrigerated 20-foot container supplied by Geotek, Ltd. After scanning, the pressure cores were stored for on-shore analysis in aluminum barrels. Additional studies were conducted at the Pacific Geoscience Center (PGC), where a shore based laboratory was established after Expedition 311.

Frank Rack; Peter Schultheiss; IODP Expedition 311 Scientific Party

2005-12-31

177

Fuel used for off-highway recreation  

SciTech Connect

The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) established a National Recreational Trails Funding Program and the National Recreational Trails Trust Fund. ISTEA requires that tax revenue generated from the sales of motor fuel used for off-highway recreation by transferred from the Highway Trust Fund to the Trails Trust Fund for recreational trail and facility improvements. In order to apportion the Trails Trust Fund of individual states equitably, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) asked the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to estimate the amount of motor fuel used for off-highway recreation at the state level by different vehicle types. This report documents this estimation procedure. For this estimation procedure, off-highway recreational fuel use was defined as Federally taxed gasoline, gasohol, diesel fuel, or special fuel used in recreational motorized vehicles on recreational trails or back country terrain. Fuel used in outdoor non-engine recreational equipment, such as camp stoves, heaters, and lanterns, was excluded from the analysis. Vehicle types included in this study were: pickup truck, light utility vehicle, motorcycle, all terrain vehicle (ATV), and snowmobile.

Hu, P.S.; Trumble, D.; Lu, A.

1994-07-01

178

Proceedings of the Annual Student Symposium on Marine Affairs (4th) Held at University of Hawaii, Manoa on January 11-13, 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains thirty-four papers prepared by high school students in ten categories: marine transportation and energy, the mining of manganese nodules, marine pollution, aquaculture, ocean engineering, food from the sea, coastal recreation - marina...

R. Pfund

1979-01-01

179

Proceedings of the Third Annual Student Symposium on Marine Affairs (University of Hawaii, Manoa Campus, January 13, 1978).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume of the proceedings of the Third Annual Student Symposium on Marine Affairs contains 32 papers in eight categories: (1) coastal zone management; (2) marine resources; (3) aquaculture; (4) alternative marine energy sources; (5) ocean engineering; (6) recreational facilities; (7) marine biology; and (8) options. The papers are the…

1978

180

Predictors of Sexual Functioning in a Sample of U.S. Marines: An 11Year Follow-Up Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined predictors of sexual functioning in male and female U.S. Marines (n = 589) assessed longitudinally for approximately 11 years. Multiple domains of sexual functioning (dysfunctional sexual behaviors, sexual frequency, sexual problems, and sexual satisfaction) were assessed at the 11-year follow-up assessment (T5). T5 depressive symptoms emerged as the most robust predictor of all domains of sexual functioning. Different

Michael K. Suvak; Leah A. Brogan; Jillian C. Shipherd

2012-01-01

181

Comparison of Enterococcus density estimates in marine beach and bay samples by real-time polymerase chain reaction, membrane filtration and defined substrate testing.  

PubMed

Currently, densities of Enterococcus in marine bathing beach samples are performed using conventional methods which require 24 h to obtain results. Real-time PCR methods are available which can measure results in as little as 3 h. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a more rapid test method for the determination of bacterial contamination in marine bathing beaches to better protect human health. The geometric mean of Enterococcus densities using Enterolert® defined substrate testing and membrane filtration ranged from 5.2 to 150 MPN or CFU/100mL and corresponding qPCR results ranged from 6.6 to 1785 CCE/100 mL. The regression analysis of these results showed a positive correlation between qPCR and conventional tests with an overall correlation (r) of 0.71. qPCR was found to provide accurate and sensitive estimate of Enterococcus densities and has the potential to be used as a rapid test method for the quantification of Enterococcus in marine waters. PMID:21440266

Ferretti, James A; Tran, Hiep V; Cosgrove, Elizabeth; Protonentis, John; Loftin, Virginia; Conklin, Carol S; Grant, Robert N

2011-05-01

182

76 FR 4281 - Recreation Resource Advisory Committees Charter Reestablishment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement Act (REA), signed in December 2004, directs the...program; and fee- level changes. The REA grants flexibility to Recreation RACs by...Recreation RACs for the purposes stated in REA. Dated: December 13, 2010. Pearlie...

2011-01-25

183

The Influence of Building Codes on Recreation Facility Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Implications of building codes upon design and construction of recreation facilities are investigated (national building codes, recreation facility standards, and misperceptions of design requirements). Recreation professionals can influence architectural designers to correct past deficiencies, but they must understand architectural and…

Morrison, Thomas A.

1989-01-01

184

40 CFR 230.52 - Water-related recreation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Characteristics § 230.52 Water-related recreation. (a) Water-related recreation encompasses...adversely modify or destroy water use for recreation by changing...aesthetic qualities of sight, taste, odor, and...

2009-07-01

185

40 CFR 230.52 - Water-related recreation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Characteristics § 230.52 Water-related recreation. (a) Water-related recreation encompasses...adversely modify or destroy water use for recreation by changing...aesthetic qualities of sight, taste, odor, and...

2010-07-01

186

50 CFR 660.352 - Recreational fishery-prohibitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Recreational fishery-prohibitions. 660.352 Section 660.352 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION... West Coast Groundfish-Recreational Fisheries § 660.352 Recreational fisheryâprohibitions....

2013-10-01

187

50 CFR 660.351 - Recreational fishery-definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Recreational fishery-definitions. 660.351 Section 660.351 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION... West Coast Groundfish-Recreational Fisheries § 660.351 Recreational fisheryâdefinitions....

2013-10-01

188

50 CFR 660.384 - Recreational fishery management measures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...lat. (North-Central North of Point Arena Region), recreational fishing for all groundfish...lat. (North-Central South of Point Arena Region), recreational fishing for all...lat. (North Central North of Point Arena Region), recreational fishing for...

2009-10-01

189

50 CFR 660.384 - Recreational fishery management measures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...lat. (North-Central North of Point Arena Region), recreational fishing for all groundfish...lat. (North-Central South of Point Arena Region), recreational fishing for all...lat. (North Central North of Point Arena Region), recreational fishing for...

2010-10-01

190

Recreational ecstasy\\/MDMA and other drug users from the UK and Italy: psychiatric symptoms and psychobiological problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Recreational drug use is increas- ingly widespread amongst young people, but there are concerns that psychoactive drugs may be associated with psychiatric symptoms or psychobiological problems. Objectives: To assess the psychiatric health status of a large, non-clinical sample of young adults from Italy and the UK, and relate it to their use of ecstasy\\/MDMA and other recreational drugs. Methods:

Andy C. Parrott; Raffaella M. Milani; Rishee Parmar; John J. D. Turner

2001-01-01

191

Improvement in the Iatroscan thin-layer chromatographic-flame ionisation detection analysis of marine lipids. Separation and quantitation of monoacylglycerols and diacylglycerols in standards and natural samples.  

PubMed

Mono- and diacylglycerols are important intermediates in glycerolipid biodegradation and intracellular signalling pathways. A method for mass determination of these lipid classes in marine particles was developed using the Iatroscan, which combines thin layer chromatography (TLC) and flame ionisation detection (FID) techniques. We improved existing protocols by adding two elution steps: hexane-diethyl-ether-formic acid (70:30:0.2, v/v/v) after triacylglycerol and free fatty acid scan, and acetone 100% followed by chloroform-acetone-formic acid (99:1:0.2, v/v/v) after 1,2 diacylglycerols. Diacylglycerol isomers 1,2 and 1,3 were separated from each other, as well as from free sterols in standards and marine lipids from sediment trap particles. Monoacylglycerols were separated from pigments and galactosyl-lipids in the same trap samples and in a rich pigment phytoplankton extract of Dunaliella viridis. Quantitation of each class in samples was performed after calibration with 0.5 to 2 micrograms of standards. As many as 17 lipid classes can be identified and quantified in samples using this proposed six-step development. PMID:10457435

Striby, L; Lafont, R; Goutx, M

1999-07-23

192

EXETRA Perspectives: Concepts in Therapeutic Recreation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifteen papers address issues in therapeutic recreation for disabled persons from the perspectives of practitioners, educators, and students. The following papers are presented. "Therapeutic Recreation Service: The Past and Challenging Present" (H. Sessoms); "Therapeutic Recreatiion in an Era of Limits: A Crisis...A Challenge... An Opportunity"…

Neal, Larry L.; Edginton, Christopher R.

193

Intelligence and Past Use of Recreational Drugs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One motivation for trying recreational drugs is the desire for novel experiences. More intelligent people tend to value novelty more highly and may therefore be more likely to have tried recreational drugs. Using data from a national survey, it is shown that intelligence tends to be positively related to the probabilities of having tried alcohol,…

Wilmoth, Daniel R.

2012-01-01

194

75 FR 19608 - Recreation Resource Advisory Committees  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RACs can be obtained from the Forest Service Regional Office listed...Information for Recreation RACs Each Forest Service Recreation RAC shall...Show their past experience in working successfully as part of a collaborative...nor live in a State in which Forest Service-managed lands...

2010-04-15

195

Solid Waste Management in Recreational Forest Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, requested the Bureau of Solid Waste Management to conduct a study of National Forest recreation areas to establish waste generation rates for major recreation activities and to determine the cost of solid waste handling for selected Forest Service Districts. This report describes the 1968 solid…

Spooner, Charles S.

196

Nutritional needs of the recreational athlete  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article looks at the the nutritional requirements for recreational athletes. The author discusses the differences between recreational and competitive athletes. Requirements for energy intake are reviewed. The need for maintaining proper hydration and electrolyte levels is also noted. Differences in protein requirements for weightlifters and endurance athletes are discussed.

Kathleen M. Laquale

2009-01-01

197

Campus Recreation and Perceived Academic Stress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined interrelationships among campus recreation participation, leisure satisfaction, and academic stress. Findings from 343 university and community college students revealed that the more students participated in recreation activities, the less they perceived academic stress, and that the greater satisfaction with leisure that students…

Ragheb, Mounir G.; McKinney, Jennifer

1993-01-01

198

Physical Education and Recreation in Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physical education and research programs, and recreational and athletic facilities, in Yugoslavia, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, England, and the U.S.S.R. are examined by two faculty members from the University of Alberta. This publication is an abridgement of their report on European approaches to physical education and recreation, giving their…

Howell, M. L.; Van Vliet, M. L.

199

Adventure Recreation: Coming Soon to Your Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adventure recreation activities like mountain biking, bouldering, and kayaking used to require considerable travel to unique locations. This is changing, however, as the new trend emerges in the United State of providing adventure recreation experiences in cities and towns, such as New York City and Golden, Colorado. This article highlights…

Moorman, Marta; Schlatter, Barbara E.; Hurd, Amy R.

2007-01-01

200

COST IMPACT OF MARINE POLLUTION ON RECREATION TRAVEL PATTERNS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report of the National Commission on Water Quality (NCWR) September 5, 1975, indicated the clean-up (from point sources) of the nation's lakes and rivers would result in an estimated $6 billion in increased economic activity annually by 1985. Improving the quality of water to...

201

Cost Impact of Marine Pollution on Recreation Travel Patterns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report of the National Commission on Water Quality (NCWR) September 5, 1975, indicated the clean-up (from point sources) of the nation's lakes and rivers would result in an estimated $6 billion in increased economic activity annually by 1985. Improvin...

A. B. Bigler H. McCarty R. Shawn

1979-01-01

202

The effects of freeze/thaw periods and drying methods on isotopic and elemental carbon and nitrogen in marine organisms, raising questions on sample preparation.  

PubMed

Stable isotopes are an increasingly important tool in trophic linkage ecological studies. In studies of large marine animals, isotopic sampling is often given secondary priority to sampling for diversity and biomass aspects. Consequently, isotopic samples are frequently collected subsequent to repeated freezing and thawing of animals, and the results of these studies are often based on the assumption that this pre-treatment does not affect the isotopic values. Our study tested this assumption and examined the difference between oven- and freeze-drying on isotopic values and elemental carbon-to-nitrogen (C:N) ratios. The values for ?(15)N and ?(13)C, percentage nitrogen and carbon, and the C:N ratios were determined from the tissues of six marine species, including invertebrates and fish, as (1) fresh samples, (2) samples thawed once, and (3) samples thawed twice. The drying method, thawing treatment and their interaction did significantly affect the ?(15)N and ?(13)C isotope values for all species. Oven-dried samples had slightly higher ?(13)C and ?(15)N values than freeze-dried samples, although not significant in most instances. For most species, oven-drying produced lower carbon and nitrogen percentage than freeze-drying for samples that had been thawed once, but the C:N ratio was unaffected by the drying method. Repeated freezing and thawing did not affect the isotope values, but it did decrease the percentage carbon and nitrogen for both desiccation methods. We recommend drying samples from fresh wherever possible, and careful choice of desiccation method in light of the fact that most lipid models are based on oven-dried samples and oven-drying could cause enrichment of (15)N or (13)C through evaporation of volatile compounds richer in lighter isotopes such as some lipids. Finally, we recommend that further studies on the specific effects of freezing and desiccation on elasmobranchs is needed. Overall we recommend the use of freeze-drying when possible and to use the samples from freshly caught organisms. PMID:22095513

de Lecea, A M; Smit, A J; Fennessy, S T

2011-12-15

203

Fuel Used for Off-Highway Recreation  

SciTech Connect

The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) established a National Recreational Trails Funding Program and the National Recreational Trails Trust Fund. ISTEA requires that tax revenue generated from the sales of motor fuel used for off-highway recreation be transferred from the Highway Trust Fund to the Trails Trust Fund for recreational trail and facility improvements. In order to apportion the Trails Trust Fund to individual states equitably, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) asked the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to estimate the amount of motor fuel used for off-highway recreation at the state level by different vehicle types. This report documents this estimation procedure. For this estimation procedure, off-highway recreational fuel use was defined as Federally taxed gasoline, gasohol, diesel fuel, or special fuel used in recreational motorized vehicles on recreational trails or back country terrain. Fuel used in outdoor non-engine recreational equipment, such as camp stoves, heaters, and lanterns, was excluded from the analysis. Vehicle types included in this study were: pickup truck, light utility vehicle, motorcycle, all terrain vehicle (ATV), and snowmobile. Two factors governed the development of this estimation procedure. First, individual state shares of the total Trust Funds need to be developed using a uniform approach. Second, data needed for the estimation procedure should be publicly available and easily obtainable so that estimates for all subsequent years can be generated easily. Estimates were developed based on existing data sources. Adjustment factors were developed to take into account different vehicular off-highway recreational usage among states.

Hu, P.S.

1994-01-01

204

Competing Interests, Economics, and Marine Fisheries Management: An Educational Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Managing fish resources in the ocean, known as marine fisheries management, often involves disagreement among many groups of people: commercial fishers, recreational anglers, national and local conservationists, and several branches of government. While managing marine fisheries in federal waters, the federal government must rebuild marine fish…

Thorson, James T.; Berkson, Jim; Murphy, Brian

2010-01-01

205

Human error in recreational boating.  

PubMed

Each year over 600 people die and more than 4000 are reported injured in recreational boating accidents. As with most other accidents, human error is the major contributor. U.S. Coast Guard reports of 3358 accidents were analyzed to identify errors in each of the boat types by which statistics are compiled: auxiliary (motor) sailboats, cabin motorboats, canoes and kayaks, house boats, personal watercraft, open motorboats, pontoon boats, row boats, sail-only boats. The individual errors were grouped into categories on the basis of similarities in the behavior involved. Those presented here are the categories accounting for at least 5% of all errors when summed across boat types. The most revealing and significant finding is the extent to which the errors vary across types. Since boating is carried out with one or two types of boats for long periods of time, effective accident prevention measures, including safety instruction, need to be geared to individual boat types. PMID:17049472

McKnight, A James; Becker, Wayne W; Pettit, Anthony J; McKnight, A Scott

2007-03-01

206

Oregon State Parks and Recreation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What can you do in the great Oregon outdoors? From the world of Cannon Beach to the wild and rugged Snake River, the experiences are diverse, to say the least. The homepage features dramatic vistas, isolated lighthouses, and a whole range of wonderful images to entice visitors. In the Visit area, there is an interactive map of the state that will help plan any trip. Here visitors can select Activities and Facilities to look for specific amenities. Moving along, the Event Calendar area allows visitors to look for upcoming events at a specific park or by category. Policy folks will appreciate the About Us area, as it includes detailed information on the Oregon Parks and Recreation Department's budget, their annual report, information about upcoming initiatives, and construction projects.

207

Lake Mead National Recreation Area  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Lake Mead National Recreation Area site contains a section to plan a visit to the Boulder Basin, Lake Mohave, Overton Arm, and East Lake Mead areas; a park newspaper; park maps; and a photo archive. There is information on the natural history of plant and animal life in the park, including a species list of birds, mammals, plants, and reptiles; sections on bats, spring flowers, and algae bloom on Lake Mead; and a link about the geology of Lake Mead. Environmental lesson plans involving the Mojave Desert for grades 1-5 include: Animals Among Us, Cactus Clues, Going Buggy, Tortoise Tracks, Keyed Into Plants, Puzzle Pieces of the Past, Nocturnal Detective, Landforms in Motion, Weather Wise, and Do Not Be Trashy! There are also field trip guides to explore the Mojave Desert.

208

Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries website provides health advisories and closures related to seafood consumption and recreational fishing. Links are provided to the Division's programs and projects, including shellfish sanitation and management, and shellfish closures. Maps and notices regarding closures related to paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) are posted with each health notice, as well as a link to general information regarding PSP and the state's PSP monitoring program.

2010-02-12

209

Physical Education in a Marine Studies Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Underwater Education and Research Program at Temple University is a multidisciplinary marine studies program which encompasses the School of Medicine and the Colleges of Liberal Arts, Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, and Engineering Technology. The program has two purposes: it is involved in many research studies, and its…

Leahy, Robert

1981-01-01

210

Comparison of sample preparation methods, validation of an UPLC-MS/MS procedure for the quantification of tetrodotoxin present in marine gastropods and analysis of pufferfish.  

PubMed

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is one of the most potent marine neurotoxins reported. The global distribution of this toxin is spreading with the European Atlantic coastline now being affected. Climate change and increasing pollution have been suggested as underlying causes for this. In the present study, two different sample preparation techniques were used to extract TTX from Trumpet shells and pufferfish samples. Both extraction procedures (accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and a simple solvent extraction) were shown to provide good recoveries (80-92%). A UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the analysis of TTX and validated following the guidelines contained in the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC for chemical contaminant analysis. The performance of this procedure was demonstrated to be fit for purpose. This study is the first report on the use of ASE as a mean for TTX extraction, the use of UPLC-MS/MS for TTX analysis, and the validation of this method for TTX in gastropods. PMID:23194566

Nzoughet, Judith Kouassi; Campbell, Katrina; Barnes, Paul; Cooper, Kevin M; Chevallier, Olivier P; Elliott, Christopher T

2013-02-15

211

Decay of intestinal enterococci concentrations in high-energy estuarine and coastal waters: towards real-time T 90 values for modelling faecal indicators in recreational waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal enterococci are the principal ‘health-evidence-based’ parameter recommended by WHO for the assessment of marine recreational water compliance. Understanding the survival characteristics of these organisms in nearshore waters is central to public health protection using robust modelling to effect real-time prediction of water quality at recreation sites as recently suggested by WHO and the Commission of the European Communities Previous

D. Kay; C. M. Stapleton; M. D. Wyer; A. T. McDonald; J. Crowther; N. Paul; K. Jones; C. Francis; J. Watkins; J. Wilkinson; N. Humphrey; B. Lin; L. Yang; R. A. Falconer; S. Gardner

2005-01-01

212

IN-SITU SAMPLING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NATURALLY OCCURRING MARINE METHANE HYDRATE USING THE D/V JOIDES RESOLUTION  

SciTech Connect

The primary accomplishments of the JOI Cooperative Agreement with DOE/NETL in this quarter were that: (1) follow-up logging of pressure cores containing hydrate-bearing sediment; and (2) opening of some of these cores to establish ground-truth understanding. The follow-up measurements made on pressure cores in storage are part of a hydrate geriatric study related to ODP Leg 204. These activities are described in detail in Appendices A and B of this report. Work also continued on developing plans for Phase 2 of this cooperative agreement based on evolving plans to schedule a scientific ocean drilling expedition to study marine methane hydrates along the Cascadia margin, in the NE Pacific as part of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) using the R/V JOIDES Resolution.

Frank R. Rack; Peter Schultheiss; Melanie Holland

2005-01-01

213

Report on three aliphatic dimethylarsinoyl compounds as common minor constituents in marine samples. An investigation using high-performance liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Three water-soluble aliphatic arsenicals, dimethylarsinoyl acetate (DMAA), dimethylarsinoyl ethanol (DMAE), and dimethylarsinoyl propionate (DMAP), were identified in marine biological samples. Sample extracts in methanol/water (1 + 1) were analysed by cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC/ICPMS). Eluate fractions from the HPLC/ICPMS analyses containing the compounds in question were collected and subjected to analysis by electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS), which provided supportive evidence for the structures of the three compounds. The concentrations of the three arsenicals were determined in 37 marine organisms comprising algae, crustaceans, bivalves, fish and mammals by HPLC/ICPMS. The three arsenicals DMAA, DMAE and DMAP, which occurred at microg kg(-1) concentrations, were detected in 25, 23 and 17 of the 37 samples analysed, respectively. The limits of detection were 2-3 microg kg(-1) dry mass. The data illustrate that the three compounds are common minor constituents in marine samples. This is the first report on DMAE and DMAP as naturally occurring species in marine samples. The presence of DMAA and DMAE supports a proposed biosynthesis of arsenobetaine (AB) from dimethylarsinoylribosides. Alternative proposals, which explain the presence of the compounds in marine samples, are addressed briefly in the paper. PMID:15593252

Sloth, Jens J; Larsen, Erik H; Julshamn, Kåre

2005-01-01

214

The Potential for Using Very High Spatial Resolution Imagery for Marine Search and Rescue Surveillance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recreational boating activities represent one of the highest risk populations in the marine environment. Moreover, there is a trend of increased risk exposure by recreational boaters such as those who undertake adventure tourism, sport fishing\\/hunting, and personal watercraft (PWC) activities. When trying to plan search and rescue activities, there are data deficiencies regarding inventories, activity type, and spatial location of

Kevin H. Pegler; David J. Coleman; Yun Zhang; Ronald P. Pelot

2003-01-01

215

Improving Financial Management of U.S. Marine Corps Nonappropriated Fund Fixed Assets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Marine Corps offers morale, welfare and recreation activities to military personnel, retirees, and their dependents. The program includes leisure time activities such as the bowling and golf and the sale of goods and services. The morale, welfare and ...

J. M. White

1984-01-01

216

Elevated nitrogen-containing particles observed in Asian dust aerosol samples collected at the marine boundary layer of the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis (low-Z particle EPMA) shows powerful advantages for the characterization of ambient particulate matter in environmental and geological applications. By the application of the low-Z particle EPMA single particle analysis, an overall examination of 1800 coarse and fine particles (aerodynamic diameters: 2.5-10 ?m and 1.0-2.5 ?m, respectively) in six samples collected on 28 April-1 May 2006 in the marine boundary layer (MBL) of the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea was conducted. Three samples (D1, D2, and D3) were collected along the Bohai Bay, Bohai Straits, and Yellow Sea near Korea during an Asian dust storm event while the other three samples (N3, N2, and N1) were collected on non-Asian dust (NAD) days. Based on X-ray spectral and secondary electron image data, 15 different types of particles were identified, in which soil-derived particles were encountered with the largest frequency, followed by (C, N, O)-rich droplets (likely the mixture of organic matter and NH4NO3), particles of marine origin, and carbonaceous, Fe-rich, fly ash, and (C, N, O, S)-rich droplet particles. Results show that during the Asian dust storm event relative abundances of the (C, N, O)-rich droplets and the nitrate-containing secondary soil-derived particles were markedly increased (on average by a factor of 4.5 and 2, respectively in PM2.5-10 fraction and by a factor of 1.9 and 1.5, respectively in PM1.0-2.5 fraction) in the MBL of the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea, implying that Asian dust aerosols in springtime are an important carrier of gaseous inorganic nitrogen species, especially NOx (or HNO3) and NH3.

Geng, H.; Park, Y.; Hwang, H.; Kang, S.; Ro, C.-U.

2009-09-01

217

Elevated nitrogen-containing particles observed in Asian dust aerosol samples collected at the marine boundary layer of the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis (low-Z particle EPMA) shows powerful advantages for the characterization of ambient particulate matter in environmental and geological applications. By the application of the low-Z particle EPMA single particle analysis, an overall examination of 1800 coarse and fine particles (aerodynamic diameters: 2.5-10 ?m and 1.0-2.5 ?m, respectively) in six samples collected on 28 April-1 May 2006 in the marine boundary layer (MBL) of the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea was conducted. Three samples (D1, D2, and D3) were collected along the Bohai Bay, Bohai Straits, and Yellow Sea near Korea during an Asian dust storm event while the other three samples (N3, N2, and N1) were collected on normal days. Based on X-ray spectral and secondary electron image data, 15 different types of particles were identified, in which soil-derived particles were encountered with the largest frequency, followed by (C, N, O)-rich droplets (likely the mixture of organic matter and NH4NO3), particles of marine origin, and carbonaceous, Fe-rich, fly ash, and (C, N, O, S)-rich droplet particles. Results show that during the Asian dust storm event relative abundances of the (C, N, O)-rich droplets and the nitrate-containing secondary soil-derived particles were markedly increased (on average by a factor of 4.5 and 2, respectively in coarse fraction and by a factor of 1.9 and 1.5, respectively in fine fraction) in the MBL of the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea, implying that Asian dust aerosols in springtime are an important carrier of gaseous inorganic nitrogen species, especially NOx (or HNO3) and NH3.

Geng, H.; Park, Y.-M.; Hwang, H.-J.; Kang, S.; Ro, C.-U.

2009-06-01

218

Recreation and Sport Planning and Design. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book offers guidelines for planning and designing cost-effective community recreation and sports facilities and open spaces in Australia. Seven chapters include: (1) "Benefits of Recreation and Sport" (e.g., quality of life, and diversity of recreation and sport); (2) "Provision of Recreation and Sport Open Spaces" (e.g., overview of…

Daly, Jim

219

A Social Science Bibliography of Leisure and Recreation Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography provides an accessible source to social science research in leisure, recreation, and sports. Topical areas covered include: (1) bibliographic sources on leisure and recreation; (2) philosophical issues in leisure; (3) theories of leisure and recreation; (4) methods in leisure and recreation research; (5) evaluation of leisure and…

Burdge, Rabel J.; And Others

220

20 CFR 701.501 - What is a recreational vessel?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false What is a recreational vessel? 701.501 Section 701.501 Employees...TERMS Special Rules for the Recreational Vessel Exclusion from the Definition of âemployeeâ § 701.501 What is a recreational vessel? (a) Recreational vessel...

2013-04-01

221

DETERMINATION OF FENTHION RESIDUES IN SAMPLES OF MARINE BIOTA AND SEAWATER FROM LABORATORY EXPOSURES AND FIELD APPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A method for measuring fenthion in samples from the estuarine environment is described. The method was applied to samples from field applications of fenthion to control saltmarsh mosquitos. The method, offers an improvement in the silica gel cleanup of Watts (11), and yields grea...

222

Public Safety in Parks and Recreation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a national forum (scheduled for May 15-17, 1972) designed to formulate practical recommendations and guidelines that can be put to immediate use by public and private agencies concerned with public safety in recreational facilities. (MB)

Schwartz, Eugene P.; Hutchison, Ira J., Jr.

1972-01-01

223

Wheelchair Design Changes: New Opportunities for Recreation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Changes in wheelchair design (such as larger tires and lighter overall weight) make it possible for disabled persons to exercise more mobility and control and participate in a greater variety of recreational activities. (CL)

Exceptional Parent, 1984

1984-01-01

224

Recreation Therapy: Developing a Treatment Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Part one of this document defines what recreation is and then develops a model of the therapeutic process. The model shows three basic components of the process: client development, client's role, therapist's role. It also shows how these three components...

1985-01-01

225

Recreation in the Perceived Community Function Perspective.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This survey shows that the individuals judgments of the value of outdoor recreation facilities are multidimensional. The dimensions evaluated were (1) individualistic vs. community wide, (2) the change vs. stability continuum, and (3) the primary vs. seco...

B. F. Blake J. T. O'Lery M. B. Adams

1981-01-01

226

In-Situ Sampling and Characterization of Naturally Occurring Marine Methane Hydrate Using the D/V JOIDES Resolution  

SciTech Connect

The primary accomplishments of the JOI Cooperative Agreement with DOE/NETL in this quarter were to refine budgets and operational plans for Phase 2 of this cooperative agreement based on the scheduling of a scientific ocean drilling expedition to study marine methane hydrates along the Cascadia margin, in the NE Pacific as part of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) using the R/V JOIDES Resolution. The proposed statement of work for Phase 2 will include three primary tasks: (1) research management oversight, provided by JOI; (2) mobilization, deployment and demobilization of pressure coring and core logging systems, through a subcontract with Geotek Ltd., who will work with Fugro and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to accomplish some of the subtasks; and, (3) mobilization, deployment and demobilization of a refrigerated container van that will be used for degassing of the Pressure Core Sampler and density logging of these pressure cores, through a subcontract with the Texas A&M Research Foundation (TAMRF). More details about these tasks are provided in the following sections of this report. The appendices to this report contain a copy of the scientific prospectus for the upcoming IODP Expedition 311 (Cascadia Margin Hydrates), which provides details of operational and scientific planning for this expedition.

Frank Rack

2005-06-30

227

Sampling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage contains three activities that have students work through problems associated with sampling. Each activity includes a brief description, materials list, and a set of lesson worksheets. The last activity on the page, the "Cereal Toy Investigation" also includes an online simulator in the form of a Java applet.

Kawas, Terry

2012-01-01

228

International Marine-Atmospheric (222)Rn Measurement Intercomparison in Bermuda. Part 1. NIST Calibration and Methodology for Standardized Sample Additions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of an international 222Rn measurement intercomparison conducted at Bermuda in October 1991, NIST provided standardized sample additions of known, but undisclosed ('blind') 222Rn concentrations that could be related to U.S. national standards. The ...

R. Colle M. P. Unterweger P. A. Hodge J. M. R. Hutchinson

1996-01-01

229

Low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids and related polar compounds in the remote marine rain samples collected from Western Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the western Pacific Ocean cruise of R\\/V Hakuho-Maru (20°N-40°S), fourteen rainwater samples were collected. They were studied by a capillary gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS) for the molecular distributions of C2?C10 ?, ?-dicarboxylic acids and related polar compounds, i.e. ketoacids (C2?C9) and ?-dicarbonyls (C2?C3). Samples were also analysed for dissolved (DOC) and total organic carbon (TOC). Total

Richard Sempéré; Kimitaka Kawamura

1996-01-01

230

*THE LOGNORMAL DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF THE GEOMETRIC MEAN AND THE ARITHMETIC MEAN IN RECREATIONAL WATER QUALITY MEASUREMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Statistical Framework for Recreational Water Quality Criteria and Monitoring offers a practical guide to the statistical methods used for assessing health effects and monitoring and modelling water quality Both traditional and novel sampling designs are discussed. Written by a te...

231

Simultaneous analysis of organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from marine samples using automated pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and Power Prep™ clean-up.  

PubMed

An automated pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method followed by Power Prep™ clean-up was developed for organochlorinated pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) analysis in environmental marine samples of fish, squid, bivalves, shells, octopus and shrimp. OCPs and PCBs were simultaneously determined in a single chromatographic run using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-negative chemical ionization (GC-MS-NCI). About 5 g of each biological marine sample was mixed with anhydrous sodium sulphate and placed in the extraction cell of the PLE system. PLE is controlled by means of a PC using DMS 6000 software. Purification of the extract was accomplished using automated Power Prep™ clean-up with a pre-packed disposable silica column (6 g) supplied by Fluid Management Systems (FMS). All OCPs and PCBs were eluted from the silica column using two types of solvent: 80 mL of hexane and a 50 mL mixture of hexane and dichloromethane (1:1). A wide variety of fish and shellfish were collected from the fish market and analyzed using this method. The total PCB concentrations were 2.53, 0.25, 0.24, 0.24, 0.17 and 1.38 ng g(-1) (w/w) for fish, squid, bivalves, shells, octopus and shrimp, respectively, and the corresponding total OCP concentrations were 30.47, 2.86, 0.92, 10.72, 5.13 and 18.39 ng g(-1) (w/w). Lipids were removed using an SX-3 Bio-Beads gel permeation chromatography (GPC) column. Analytical criteria such as recovery, reproducibility and repeatability were evaluated through a range of biological matrices. PMID:22608412

Helaleh, Murad I H; Al-Rashdan, Amal; Ibtisam, A

2012-05-30

232

Identification and quantification of polybrominated hexahydroxanthene derivatives and other halogenated natural products in commercial fish and other marine samples.  

PubMed

During routine analysis of commercial fish on halogenated pollutants, an unknown tribromo component (TriBHD) was initially detected as an abundant peak in sample extracts from the Mediterranean Sea. The molecular formula was established to be C16H19Br3O by gas chromatography with electron ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC/EI-HRMS). GC/EI-MS data were virtually identical with a polybrominated hexahydroxanthene derivative (PBHD) previously isolated from an Australian sponge species known to occur in the Mediterranean Sea as well. A tetrabromo isomer (TetraBHD) was also found in the fish samples. The concentrations of TriBHD and other halogenated compounds in commercial fish (sea bass, gilt head bream, anchovy, sardine, and salmon) were estimated with GC/electron capture detection (ECD). Using the ECD response of trans-nonachlor, the concentration of TriBHD reached up to 90 ng/g lipid weight and accounted for up to >90% of the concentration of p,p'-DDE, which was the most abundant peak in the most samples investigated. On the basis of the GC/ECD response, TetraBHD amounted for approximately 1/7 of TriBHD in all fish samples investigated. The sample with the highest content was a green-lipped mussel from New Zealand (236 ng/g lipid weight). The halogenated natural products TBA, Q1, and MHC-1 were also present in most of the samples. We assume that the bulk of the residues in fish from aquaculture may originate from algae and sponges living in proximity of the fish farms. Detection of TriBHD and TetraBHD in blubber of a monk seal (Monachus monachus) suggests that both HNPs may reach the top predators of food webs and thus also humans. PMID:16569057

Hiebl, Josef; Melcher, Joachim; Gundersen, Hans; Schlabach, Martin; Vetter, Walter

2006-04-01

233

Detection of microsporidia in drinking water, wastewater and recreational rivers.  

PubMed

Diarrhea is the main health problem caused by human-related microsporidia, and waterborne transmission is one of the main risk factors for intestinal diseases. Recent studies suggest the involvement of water in the epidemiology of human microsporidiosis. However, studies related to the presence of microsporidia in different types of waters from countries where human microsporidiosis has been described are still scarce. Thirty-eight water samples from 8 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs), 8 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and 6 recreational river areas (RRAs) from Galicia (NW Spain) have been analyzed. One hundred liters of water from DWTPs and 50 L of water from WWTPs and RRAs were filtered to recover parasites, using the IDEXX Filta-Max® system. Microsporidian spores were identified by Weber's stain and positive samples were analyzed by PCR, using specific primers for Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Encephalitozoon intestinalis, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, and Encephalitozoon hellem. Microsporidia spores were identified by staining protocols in eight samples (21.0%): 2 from DWTPs, 5 from WWTPs, and 1 from an RRA. In the RRA sample, the microsporidia were identified as E. intestinalis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of human-pathogenic microsporidia in water samples from DWTPs, WWTPs and RRAs in Spain. These observations add further evidence to support that new and appropriate control and regulations for drinking, wastewater, and recreational waters should be established to avoid health risks from this pathogen. PMID:21774958

Izquierdo, Fernando; Castro Hermida, José Antonio; Fenoy, Soledad; Mezo, Mercedes; González-Warleta, Marta; del Aguila, Carmen

2011-10-15

234

Social-Psychological Factors Influencing Recreation Demand: Evidence from Two Recreational Rivers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional methods of estimating demand for recreation areas involve making inferences about individuals' preferences. Frequently, the assumption is made that recreationists' cost of traveling to a site is a reliable measure of the value they place on that resource and the recreation opportunities it provides. This assumption may ignore…

Smith, Jordan W.; Moore, Roger L.

2013-01-01

235

Dispositional Pessimism Predicts Illness-Related Disruption of Social and Recreational Activities Among Breast Cancer Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors tested whether dispositional pessimism would predict withdrawal from social activities among women treated for breast cancer. In a cross-sectional sample 3–12 months postsurgery, disruption of social and recreational activities (measured by the Sickness Impact Profile) correlated with concurrently assessed pessimism. This association appeared mediated by emotional distress and fatigue. A longitudinal sample was studied shortly postsurgery and over

Charles S. Carver; Jessica M. Lehman; Michael H. Antoni

2003-01-01

236

Decompression sickness and recreational scuba divers  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this study is to clear the status of recreational scuba divers in Japan for promoting safety in recreational diving. Methods: A five year (from 1996 to 2001) questionnaire survey was performed of Japanese divers at the Osezaki area in Japan. The subjects of this survey included diving instructors as well as recreational divers. Based on the obtained data, the study investigated the theory predicted incidence of decompression sickness (DCS) among Japanese recreational divers. Results: The average (SD) of the maximum depth for diving was 37.4 (13.1) metres, which was deeper than the recommended depth of recreational diving. The incident rate of nitrogen narcosis (12%) was the most frequent, followed by barotraumas of the ear (11%) and barotraumas of the paranasal sinus (5.6%). The rate of DCS was 1.9 % (60 divers) during investigated period, and that DCS occurred once per 19 011 dives in calculation. Conclusions: This investigation showed that the status of leisure diving in Japan is still serious, because DCS would be expected to occur once a weekend in Japan. It is speculated that many divers may develop DCS while moving through high altitudes after diving, particularly at the Osezaki diving spot in Japan. Based on the results of this study, it is emphasised that every Japanese leisure diver should take an increasing interest in the safety of diving activity.

Nakayama, H; Shibayama, M; Yamami, N; Togawa, S; Takahashi, M; Mano, Y

2003-01-01

237

18 CFR 8.11 - Information respecting use and development of public recreational opportunities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Information respecting use and development of public recreational opportunities... RECREATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES AND DEVELOPMENT AT LICENSED PROJECTS § 8.11 Information respecting use and development of public recreational...

2013-04-01

238

A trophic cascade triggers collapse of a salt-marsh ecosystem with intensive recreational fishing.  

PubMed

Overexploitation of predators has been linked to the collapse of a growing number of shallow-water marine ecosystems. However, salt-marsh ecosystems are often viewed and managed as systems controlled by physical processes, despite recent evidence for herbivore-driven die-off of marsh vegetation. Here we use field observations, experiments, and historical records at 14 sites to examine whether the recently reported die-off of northwestern Atlantic salt marshes is associated with the cascading effects of predator dynamics and intensive recreational fishing activity. We found that the localized depletion of top predators at sites accessible to recreational anglers has triggered the proliferation of herbivorous crabs, which in turn results in runaway consumption of marsh vegetation. This suggests that overfishing may be a general mechanism underlying the consumer-driven die-off of salt marshes spreading throughout the western Atlantic. Our findings support the emerging realization that consumers play a dominant role in regulating marine plant communities and can lead to ecosystem collapse when their impacts are amplified by human activities, including recreational fishing. PMID:22834380

Altieri, Andrew H; Bertness, Mark D; Coverdale, Tyler C; Herrmann, Nicholas C; Angelini, Christine

2012-06-01

239

In-Situ Sampling and Characterization of Naturally Occurring Marine Methane Hydrate Using the D/V JOIDES Resolution  

SciTech Connect

The primary accomplishments of the JOI Cooperative Agreement with DOE/NETL in this quarter were (1) the preliminary postcruise evaluation of the tools and measurement systems that were used during ODP Leg 204 to study hydrate deposits on Hydrate Ridge, offshore Oregon from July through September 2002; and (2) the preliminary study of the hydrate-bearing core samples preserved in pressure vessels and in liquid nitrogen cryofreezers, which are now stored at the ODP Gulf Coast Repository in College Station, TX. During ODP Leg 204, several newly modified downhole tools were deployed to better characterize the subsurface lithologies and environments hosting microbial populations and gas hydrates. A preliminary review of the use of these tools is provided herein. The DVTP, DVTP-P, APC-methane, and APC-Temperature tools (ODP memory tools) were used extensively and successfully during ODP Leg 204 aboard the D/V JOIDES Resolution. These systems provided a strong operational capability for characterizing the in situ properties of methane hydrates in subsurface environments on Hydrate Ridge during ODP Leg 204. Pressure was also measured during a trial run of the Fugro piezoprobe, which operates on similar principles as the DVTP-P. The final report describing the deployments of the Fugro Piezoprobe is provided in Appendix A of this report. A preliminary analysis and comparison between the piezoprobe and DVTP-P tools is provided in Appendix B of this report. Finally, a series of additional holes were cored at the crest of Hydrate Ridge (Site 1249) specifically geared toward the rapid recovery and preservation of hydrate samples as part of a hydrate geriatric study partially funded by the Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, the preliminary results from gamma density non-invasive imaging of the cores preserved in pressure vessels are provided in Appendix C of this report. An initial visual inspection of the samples stored in liquid nitrogen is provided in Appendix D of this report.

Frank Rack; Michael Storms; Derryl Schroeder; Brandon Dugan; Peter Schultheiss; ODP Leg 204 Shipboard Scientific Party

2002-12-31

240

High blood lead levels in recreational indoor-shooters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Recreational shooting in indoor firing ranges is very popular in Germany. Lead-containing ammunition is still in use. Therefore\\u000a we checked the blood lead levels (BLL) from 129 subjects doing several types of shooting disciplines.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In total, BLLs of 129 shooters (nine female) from 11 different shooting ranges with a mean age of 49 years were measured.\\u000a The blood samples were taken

Matthias Demmeler; Dennis Nowak; Rudolf Schierl

2009-01-01

241

Unveiling of the diversity of Prasinoviruses (Phycodnaviridae) in marine samples by using high-throughput sequencing analyses of PCR-amplified DNA polymerase and major capsid protein genes.  

PubMed

Viruses strongly influence the ecology and evolution of their eukaryotic hosts in the marine environment, but little is known about their diversity and distribution. Prasinoviruses infect an abundant and widespread class of phytoplankton, the Mamiellophyceae, and thereby exert a specific and important role in microbial ecosystems. However, molecular tools to specifically identify this viral genus in environmental samples are still lacking. We developed two primer sets, designed for use with polymerase chain reactions and 454 pyrosequencing technologies, to target two conserved genes, encoding the DNA polymerase (PolB gene) and the major capsid protein (MCP gene). While only one copy of the PolB gene is present in Prasinovirus genomes, there are at least seven paralogs for MCP, the copy we named number 6 being shared with other eukaryotic alga-infecting viruses. Primer sets for PolB and MCP6 were thus designed and tested on 6 samples from the Tara Oceans project. The results suggest that the MCP6 amplicons show greater richness but that PolB gave a wider coverage of Prasinovirus diversity. As a consequence, we recommend use of the PolB primer set, which will certainly reveal exciting new insights about the diversity and distribution of prasinoviruses at the community scale. PMID:24632251

Clerissi, Camille; Grimsley, Nigel; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Hingamp, Pascal; Poulain, Julie; Desdevises, Yves

2014-05-01

242

Prevalence of microplastics in Singapore's coastal marine environment.  

PubMed

Microplastics have been recently identified as marine pollutants of significant concern due to their persistence, ubiquity and potential to act as vectors for the transfer and exposure of persistent organic pollutants to marine organisms. This study documents, for the first time, the presence and abundance of microplastics (>1.6 microm) in Singapore's coastal environment. An optimized sampling protocol for the collection and analysis of microplastics was developed, and beach sediments and seawater (surface microlayer and subsurface layer) samples were collected from nine different locations around the coastline. Low density microplastics were separated from sediments by flotation and polymer types were identified using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry. Synthetic polymer microplastics identified in beach sediments included polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, nylon, polyvinyl alcohol and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. Microplastics were detected in samples from four out of seven beach environments, with the greatest quantity found in sediments from two popular beaches in the eastern part of Singapore. Polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene microplastics were also found in the surface microlayer (50-60 microm) and subsurface layer (1m) of coastal waters. The presence of microplastics in sediments and seawater is likely due to on-going waste disposal practices from industries and recreational activities, and discharge from shipping. PMID:16388828

Ng, K L; Obbard, J P

2006-07-01

243

Recreational damages from reservoir storage level changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several extreme events affecting recreation have occurred in the Humboldt River Basin of northern Nevada. In 1992, agricultural users completely drained Rye Patch Reservoir killing millions of fish. Additionally, since 1990 gold mines located in the basin have pumped and discharged water into the Humboldt River; in recent years, discharges have equaled approximately 60% of the river's annual flow. In this paper we develop and estimate a joint model of fish catch and recreation demand, both of which depend on water levels, to assess the losses and gains from water level changes tied to events in the basin.

Huszar, Eric; Shaw, W. Douglass; Englin, Jeffrey; Netusil, Noelwah

1999-11-01

244

Recreation activity monitoring system using proximity sensors.  

PubMed

This paper describes a recreational-activity monitoring system that records the existence of tools (removed or not from a predefined place) that are used in the recreation activities. The system is composed of three types (infrared, ultrasonic, and RFID) of proximity sensors to adapt to various sizes of the target object. The timings of when the target object was removed and returned are monitored. Simple experiments showed that the detectable range of the system was approximately 60 approximately 100 mm, and concluded that the infrared and ultrasonic sensors were useful for relatively large objects, and the RFID technology was suitable for small objects. PMID:19964355

Tsukamoto, Sosuke; Tsumagari, Yuko; Hoshino, Hiroshi; Tamura, Toshiyo

2009-01-01

245

In-Situ Sampling and Characterization of Naturally Occurring Marine Methane Hydrate Using the D/V JOIDES Resolution  

SciTech Connect

The primary accomplishment of the JOI Cooperative Agreement with DOE/NETL in this quarter was the deployment of tools and measurement systems on ODP Leg 204 to study hydrate deposits on Hydrate Ridge, offshore Oregon from July through September, 2002. During Leg 204, we cored and logged 9 sites on the Oregon continental margin to determine the distribution and concentration of gas hydrates in an accretionary ridge and adjacent slope basin, investigate the mechanisms that transport methane and other gases into the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ), and obtain constraints on physical properties of hydrates in situ. A 3D seismic survey conducted in 2000 provided images of potential subsurface fluid conduits and indicated the position of the GHSZ throughout the survey region. After coring the first site, we acquired Logging-While-Drilling (LWD) data at all but one site to provide an overview of downhole physical properties. The LWD data confirmed the general position of key seismic stratigraphic horizons and yielded an initial estimate of hydrate concentration through the proxy of in situ electrical resistivity. These records proved to be of great value in planning subsequent coring. The second new hydrate proxy to be tested was infrared thermal imaging of cores on the catwalk as rapidly as possible after retrieval. The thermal images were used to identify hydrate samples and to map estimate the distribution and texture of hydrate within the cores. Geochemical analyses of interstitial waters and of headspace and void gases provide additional information on the distribution and concentration of hydrate within the stability zone, the origin and pathway of fluids into and through the GHSZ, and the rates at which the process of gas hydrate formation is occurring. Bio- and lithostratigraphic description of cores, measurement of physical properties, and in situ pressure core sampling and thermal measurements complement the data set, providing ground-truth tests of inferred physical and sedimentological properties. Among the most interesting preliminary results are: (1) the discovery that gas hydrates are distributed through a broad depth range within the GHSZ and that different physical and chemical proxies for hydrate distribution and concentration give generally consistent results; (2) evidence for the importance of sediment properties for controlling the migration of fluids in the accretionary complex; (3) geochemical indications that the gas hydrate system at Hydrate Ridge contains significant concentrations of higher order hydrocarbons and that fractionation and mixing signals will provide important constraints on gas hydrate dynamics; and (4) the discovery of very high chlorinity values that extend for at least 10 mbsf near the summit, indicating that hydrate formation here must be very rapid.

Frank Rack; Gerhard Bohrmann; Anne Trehu; Michael Storms; Derryl Schroeder; ODP Leg 204 Shipboard Scientific Party

2002-09-30

246

In-Situ Sampling and Characterization of Naturally Occurring Marine Methane Hydrate Using the D/V JOIDES Resolution  

SciTech Connect

Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41329 between Joint Oceanographic Institutions and DOE-NETL was divided into two phases based on successive proposals and negotiated statements of work pertaining to activities to sample and characterize methane hydrates on ODP Leg 204 (Phase 1) and on IODP Expedition 311 (Phase 2). The Phase 1 Final Report was submitted to DOE-NETL in April 2004. This report is the Phase 2 Final Report to DOE-NETL. The primary objectives of Phase 2 were to sample and characterize methane hydrates using the systems and capabilities of the D/V JOIDES Resolution during IODP Expedition 311, to enable scientists the opportunity to establish the mass and distribution of naturally occurring gas and gas hydrate at all relevant spatial and temporal scales, and to contribute to the DOE methane hydrate research and development effort. The goal of the work was to provide expanded measurement capabilities on the JOIDES Resolution for a dedicated hydrate cruise to the Cascadia continental margin off Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada (IODP Expedition 311) so that hydrate deposits in this region would be well characterized and technology development continued for hydrate research. IODP Expedition 311 shipboard activities on the JOIDES Resolution began on August 28 and were concluded on October 28, 2005. The statement of work for this project included three primary tasks: (1) research management oversight, provided by JOI; (2) mobilization, deployment and demobilization of pressure coring and core logging systems, through a subcontract with Geotek Ltd.; and, (3) mobilization, deployment and demobilization of a refrigerated container van that will be used for degassing of the Pressure Core Sampler and density logging of these pressure cores, through a subcontract with the Texas A&M Research Foundation (TAMRF). Additional small tasks that arose during the course of the research were included under these three primary tasks in consultation with the DOE-NETL Program Manager. All tasks outlined in the original statement of work were accomplished except for the deployment and use of the X-ray CT system under Subtask 2-2. This reduction in scope provided resources that were applied to other activities to support the overall project. Post-expedition analysis of results and report writing will continue beyond this reporting period, however, all field deployments associated with this project have been successfully concluded as of this writing.

Frank R. Rack

2006-09-20

247

Motivations for Recreating on Farmlands, Private Forests, and State or National Parks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study explores the importance of different motivations to visit three types of recreational settings—farms, private forests, and state or national parks. Data were collected via a mail-back questionnaire administered to a stratified random sample of households in Missouri (USA). Descriptive and inferential statistics reveal both similarities and discontinuities in motivations for visiting farms, private forests, and state or national parks for recreation. Being with family, viewing natural scenery, and enjoying the smells and sounds of nature were all highly important motivations for visiting the three types of settings. However, all 15 motivations examined were perceived to be significantly more important for visits to state or national parks than to farms or private forests. Findings suggest that individuals are more strongly motivated to recreate at state and national parks relative to farmlands or forests. Post hoc paired t tests comparing motivations between both agricultural settings (farms and private forests) revealed significant differences in eight different recreational motivations. Individuals tended to place more importance on the ability to use equipment and test their skills when considering recreating on private forests. Conversely, social motivations (e.g., doing something with the family) were more important when individuals were considering recreating on farmland. Collectively, the findings suggest individuals expect distinctly different outcomes from their visits to farmlands, private forests, or state or national parks. Consequently, all three types of recreational settings have competitive advantages that their managers could capitalize on when making decisions about how to attract new visitors or produce the most desirable experiences for current recreationists.

Sotomayor, Sandra; Barbieri, Carla; Wilhelm Stanis, Sonja; Aguilar, Francisco X.; Smith, Jordan W.

2014-07-01

248

Motivations for recreating on farmlands, private forests, and state or national parks.  

PubMed

This study explores the importance of different motivations to visit three types of recreational settings-farms, private forests, and state or national parks. Data were collected via a mail-back questionnaire administered to a stratified random sample of households in Missouri (USA). Descriptive and inferential statistics reveal both similarities and discontinuities in motivations for visiting farms, private forests, and state or national parks for recreation. Being with family, viewing natural scenery, and enjoying the smells and sounds of nature were all highly important motivations for visiting the three types of settings. However, all 15 motivations examined were perceived to be significantly more important for visits to state or national parks than to farms or private forests. Findings suggest that individuals are more strongly motivated to recreate at state and national parks relative to farmlands or forests. Post hoc paired t tests comparing motivations between both agricultural settings (farms and private forests) revealed significant differences in eight different recreational motivations. Individuals tended to place more importance on the ability to use equipment and test their skills when considering recreating on private forests. Conversely, social motivations (e.g., doing something with the family) were more important when individuals were considering recreating on farmland. Collectively, the findings suggest individuals expect distinctly different outcomes from their visits to farmlands, private forests, or state or national parks. Consequently, all three types of recreational settings have competitive advantages that their managers could capitalize on when making decisions about how to attract new visitors or produce the most desirable experiences for current recreationists. PMID:24803234

Sotomayor, Sandra; Barbieri, Carla; Wilhelm Stanis, Sonja; Aguilar, Francisco X; Smith, Jordan W

2014-07-01

249

78 FR 78810 - Pacific Southwest Recreation Resource Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...will meet in San Bernardino, California. The Recreation RAC is authorized under the Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement Act (REA) (Pub. L. 108-447) and operates in compliance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) (Pub. L....

2013-12-27

250

36 CFR 30.3 - Recreation District I.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...use otherwise allowed within this district. (8) Recreational pursuits such as horseshoe pitching, archery, croquet, tennis, softball, volley ball, and similar outdoor game-type activities compatible with the recreational purposes of the...

2013-07-01

251

Tourist and Recreational Resources Lac du Flambeau Indian Reservation Wisconsin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Part I - Background; Part II - Recommendations; Classifying the recreation resources, General Outdoor recreation areas, Historic and cultural sites, Part III- Market and demand; Delineation of the market, Future demand potential, Chequamegon nat...

C. E. Aguar

1964-01-01

252

50 CFR 648.105 - Summer flounder recreational fishing season.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Summer flounder recreational fishing season. 648...UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.105 Summer flounder recreational fishing season....

2013-10-01

253

36 CFR 30.4 - Recreation District II.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WHISKEYTOWN-SHASTA-TRINITY NATIONAL RECREATION AREA: ZONING STANDARDS FOR WHISKEYTOWN UNIT § 30.4 Recreation District...comprise all those portions of the Whiskeytown Unit of the...

2009-07-01

254

Are the defined substrate-based methods adequate to determine the microbiological quality of natural recreational waters?  

PubMed

Monitoring the microbiological quality of water used for recreational activities is very important to human public health. Although the sanitary quality of recreational marine waters could be evaluated by standard methods, they are time-consuming and need confirmation. For these reasons, faster and more sensitive methods, such as the defined substrate-based technology, have been developed. In the present work, we have compared the standard method of membrane filtration using Tergitol-TTC agar for total coliforms and Escherichia coli, and Slanetz and Bartley agar for enterococci, and the IDEXX defined substrate technology for these faecal pollution indicators to determine the microbiological quality of natural recreational waters. ISO 17994:2004 standard was used to compare these methods. The IDEXX for total coliforms and E. coli, Colilert, showed higher values than those obtained by the standard method. Enterolert test, for the enumeration of enterococci, showed lower values when compared with the standard method. It may be concluded that more studies to evaluate the precision and accuracy of the rapid tests are required in order to apply them for routine monitoring of marine and freshwater recreational bathing areas. The main advantages of these methods are that they are more specific, feasible and simpler than the standard methodology. PMID:20009243

Valente, Marta Sofia; Pedro, Paulo; Alonso, M Carmen; Borrego, Juan J; Dionísio, Lídia

2010-03-01

255

Improving Recreational Reading Habits of Elementary Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the effectiveness of a program for improving the recreational reading habits of elementary students through the use of cross-age tutoring in critical reading strategies. The targeted population consisted of a kindergarten and a fourth-grade class in the growing upper-middle-class community of Geneva, Illinois, located…

Krug, Marline; Fordonski, Patricia

256

Recreational Gun Use by California Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most research on adolescents and firearms focuses on urban populations, handguns, and homicide. This study examines the prevalence and correlates of recreational gun use (RGU)--for hunting or target shooting--among 5,801 community-residing 12- to 17-year-old Californians. Data are from the first statewide California Health Interview Survey (CHIS),…

Vittes, Katherine A.; Sorenson, Susan B.

2005-01-01

257

Outdoor Recreation and Environmental Concern: A Restudy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 1,423 respondents in northwest Wisconsin shows that age, education, and place of residence appear to account for the variation in environmental concern, with no significant remaining effect accounted for by any of the types of recreation considered by Dunlap and Heffernan in their 1975 study. (Author/JC)

Geisler, Charles C.

1977-01-01

258

Olympic Park Recreational Reserve Reserve Management Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document is a Management Plan for the Olympic Park Reserve within Waitakere and Auckland Cities. The Plan has been developed as a guide for the protection, use and development of the Reserve, with an emphasis on managing its organised and informal recreation while recognising its cultural heritage and ecological rehabilitation opportunities.

259

An Exegesis of Outdoor Recreation Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this paper is to explore the state of recent recreational research by U. S. Geographers and social scientists. This report views the importance of recreationalists behavior patterns and describes the use of simulation models to predict demand data. Four research phases constitute the main organization of this paper: 1)…

Smith, Stephen L.

260

Public Administration of Recreational Services. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oriented toward a consideration of administration from the standpoint of departmental problems, this textbook deals with administrative techniques and practices pertaining to public administration of recreational services. It covers organization, operation, planning, development, and managerial procedures, and also describes the basic elements of…

Hjelte, George; Shivers, Jay S.

261

Recreation Research Publications. Bibliography 1961-1982.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography identifies, by author and subject matter, recreational research publications, by Forest Service scientists, that have been published from 1961 through 1982. Publications are classified under six major topic areas: (1) management of areas and facilities (including such topics as wilderness/backcountry resources and use of…

Echelberger, Herbert E., Comp.; And Others

262

Physical-Education Facilities/Recreation Centers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents K-12 and college physical education/recreation facilities considered outstanding in a competition, which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent two days reviewing projects, highlighting unique concepts and ideas. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm,…

American School & University, 2003

2003-01-01

263

A Bibliography of Recreational Mathematics, Volume 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a partially annotated bibliography of books, articles and periodicals concerned with mathematical games, puzzles, tricks, amusements, and paradoxes. Because the literature in recreational mathematics has proliferated to amazing proportions since Volume 2 of this series (ED 040 874), Volume 3 is more than just an updating of the…

Schaaf, William L.

264

Guidelines for Recreation and Athletic Field Lighting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guidelines for planning the lighting facilities for recreational and other athletic fields are presented (a softball field is used for an example). Guidelines are given for determining (1) lighting needs and levels of uniformity; (2) lamp choice; (3) structural requirements; (4) operating and maintenance costs; and (5) financing options. (PP)

Crookham, Joe P.

1982-01-01

265

Recreational Dwellings in the Louisiana Coastal Marsh.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Louisiana's 12,656 square miles of coastal marsh and intermingled water surfaces support an abundance of fish and wildlife that is eagerly pursued by users of 10,220 camps, i.e., temporarily occupied recreational dwellings. The marshes help to make possib...

D. L. Gary D. W. Davis

1979-01-01

266

Annual in Therapeutic Recreation. Volume 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume focuses on therapeutic recreation, as a subject of inquiry and as a treatment tool. The 11 articles include original field based research, program development initiatives, issue and theory of practice papers, and original tutorials in assessment and research. The article titles are: "The Role of Leisure Education with Family Caregivers…

Crawford, Michael E., Ed.; Card, Jaclyn A., Ed.

267

Therapeutic recreation treatment time during inpatient rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Objective Following spinal cord injury (SCI), certified therapeutic recreation specialists (CTRSs) work with patients during rehabilitation to re-create leisure lifestyles. Although there is much literature available to describe the benefits of recreation, little has been written about the process of inpatient or outpatient rehabilitation therapeutic recreation (TR) programs or the effectiveness of such programs. To delineate how TR time is used during inpatient rehabilitation for SCI. Methods Six rehabilitation centers enrolled 600 patients with traumatic SCI for an observational study. CTRSs documented time spent on each of a set of specific TR activities during each patient encounter. Patterns of time use are described, for all patients and by neurologic category. Ordinary least-squares stepwise regression models are used to identify patient and injury characteristics predictive of total treatment time (overall and average per week) and time spent in TR activities. Results Ninety-four percent of patients enrolled in the SCIRehab study participated in TR. Patients received a mean total of 17.5 hours of TR; significant differences were seen in the amount of time spent in each activity among and within neurologic groups. The majority (76%) of patients participated in at least one structured therapeutic outing. Patient and injury characteristics explained little of the variation in time spent within activities. Conclusion The large amount of variability seen in TR treatment time within and among injury group categories, which is not explained well by patient and injury characteristics, sets the stage for future analyses to associate treatments with outcomes.

Gassaway, Julie; Dijkers, Marcel; Rider, Cecelia; Edens, Kelly; Cahow, Claire; Joyce, Joan

2011-01-01

268

Outdoor Recreation. Curriculum Materials for Agricultural Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide for agricultural education contains nine chapters on outdoor recreation. Each is written by a different author (professors at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University) and follows a similar format: Objectives, list of references, list of teaching materials, notes on teacher preparation, content for presentation,…

McElwee, Robert; And Others

269

Outdoor Recreation in Two European Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questionnaires completed by older adults in Luxembourg (N=138) and in France (N=100) revealed a high extent of participation in outdoor recreation (a demonstrated predictor of successful aging) in the two countries. Identified similarities and differences in socioeconomic characteristics, attitudes, and environmental factors associated with…

Rubenstein, James M.

1987-01-01

270

78 FR 42486 - Notice of New Recreation Fee; Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...kitchen/dining room combination. It can accommodate up to four people. Both facilities have electric lights, heat, and running water. Other cabin rentals on National Forests in Arizona have shown the public appreciates the enhanced recreational...

2013-07-16

271

Recreational Reading of International Students in Academic Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recreational reading as a method of language learning has been a focus of investigation in second language education. This article considers recreational reading through the additional perspective of academic librarianship. Its purpose is to discover if recreational reading is a topic that lends itself to research through both perspectives. This…

Bordonaro, Karen

2011-01-01

272

Behavioral Responses of North American Elk to Recreational Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Off-road recreation on public lands in North America has increased dramatically in recent years. Wild ungulates are sensitive to human activities, but the effect of off-road recreation, both motorized and nonmotorized, is poorly understood. We measured responses of elk (Cervus elaphus) to recreational disturbance in northeast Oregon, USA, from April to October, 2003 and 2004. We subjected elk to 4

Leslie M. Naylor; Michael J. Wisdom; Robert G. Anthony

2009-01-01

273

Recreation Specialization and Boater Speed Compliance in Manatee Zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant growth in recreational watercraft use has been detrimental to the Florida manatee as their habitats often coincide with recreational boating areas. Vessel speed restrictions in manatee zones have been shown to reduce manatee mortality; however, compliant vessel operation in speed zones is critical. This study examined Florida boaters and associated predictors of compliance behaviors utilizing recreation specialization theory. On-water

John S. Jett; Brijesh Thapa; Yong Jae Ko

2009-01-01

274

Recreational Participation of Children with High Functioning Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recreation of children with High Functioning Autism (HFA) is not well understood. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to compare the recreational engagement of children with HFA and their typically developing peers. Children with HFA (n = 30) and peers (n = 31) were similar on key characteristics that may impact recreation except…

Potvin, Marie-Christine; Snider, Laurie; Prelock, Patricia; Kehayia, Eva; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon

2013-01-01

275

On the commodity value of travel time in recreational activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The allocation of individual time can have a ‘commodity value’ if the use of time is enjoyable. This paper investigates the commodity value of travel time in recreational activities. The study focuses on recreational boating in East Texas. After specifying a model of multisite recreational demand for boating, the commodity value of travel time to each site is estimated. Implications

Jean-Paul Chavas; John Stoll; Christine Sellar

1989-01-01

276

Baccalaureate Programs in Recreation, Park Resources, and Leisure Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a listing of baccalaureate programs in recreation, park resources, and leisure services that are accredited by the National Recreation and Park Association/American Association of Leisure and Recreation Council on Accreditation. Listings are alphabetical by state and present contact name, address, telephone, fax, email, website,…

Parks & Recreation, 2001

2001-01-01

277

Visitor response to outdoor recreation conflict: A conceptual approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outdoor recreation conflict involves both a visitor's perception of and response to conflict. While existing recreation conflict research has been insightful on factors leading to recreation conflict, it deals little with visitor response to conflict. To address the visitor?response dimension in conflict, a conceptual framework based upon response to stressful situations is presented. The model, adapted from Lazarus and Folkman's

Ingrid E. Schneider; William E. Hammitt

1995-01-01

278

Therapeutic Recreation in the Community: An Inclusive Approach. Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The second edition of Therapeutic Recreation in the Community: An Inclusive Approach reflects the changing and evolving nature of recreation and health care services. A number of social, economic, and political directives and technological advancements have fostered recreation in the community for all individuals. Due in part to a rising awareness…

Carter, Marcia Jean; LeConey, Stephen P.

2004-01-01

279

Identifying the Computer Competency Levels of Recreation Department Undergraduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer-based and web-based applications are as major instructional tools to increase undergraduates' motivation at school. In the recreation field usage of, computer and the internet based recreational applications has become more prevalent in order to present visual and interactive entertainment activities. Recreation department undergraduates…

Zorba, Erdal

2011-01-01

280

Organisation of Recreation for the Blind in the USSR.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The booklet contains a brief description of recreation under the auspices of the All-Russia Society for the Blind in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and a number of photographs illustrating recreational activities. It is noted that approximately 24,000 blind persons participate in recreational activities located in club rooms near their…

Kulicheva, N.

281

36 CFR 7.62 - Lake Chelan National Recreation Area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Chelan National Recreation Area. 7...OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.62 Lake Chelan National Recreation Area. (a...snowmobiles the following locations within the Lake Chelan National Recreation...

2013-07-01

282

36 CFR 7.69 - Ross Lake National Recreation Area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ross Lake National Recreation Area. 7.69 Section...NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.69 Ross Lake National Recreation Area. (a) Snowmobiles...the following locations within the Ross Lake National Recreation Area: (1)...

2013-07-01

283

36 CFR 7.57 - Lake Meredith National Recreation Area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Meredith National Recreation Area. 7...OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.57 Lake Meredith National Recreation Area. (a) The operation of motor vehicles within the Lake Meredith Recreation Area is...

2013-07-01

284

America's Outdoor Recreation Areas--Playgrounds for the Affluent.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to assess the societal benefits of outdoor recreation and to determine the relationship of social stratification to utilization of outdoor recreation facilities. Conclusions are that many of America's outdoor recreation sites are located at considerable distances from population concentrations and require substantial…

Hunt, John D.

285

Seeking Consensus on Designing Marine Protected Areas: Keeping the Fishing Community Engaged  

Microsoft Academic Search

A community group was formed to consider establishing marine reserves within the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary in southern California. Membership included representatives from resource agencies, environmental organizations, commercial and recreational fishing interests, and the general public. While the group agreed on several areas for fishing closures, members could not reach consensus on a specific network design. Several factors interfered

MARK HELVEY

2004-01-01

286

Cumulative effects, creeping enclosure, and the marine commons of New Jersey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to declining fish stocks and increased societal concern, the marine 'commons' of New Jersey is no longer freely available to commercial and recreational fisheries. We discuss the concept of 'creeping' enclosure in relation to New Jersey's marine commons and suggest that enclosure can be a process and function of multiple events and processes and need not be the

Grant Murray; Bonnie J. McCay; Satsuki Takahashi

287

Today's Youth in Tomorrow's Sea. Another Title in the Series "Marine Careers."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of many career possibilities related to the sea is presented. The false impressions many people have about the sea and about marine careers are dispelled. Among the career areas examined are offshore industry careers such as oil and gas drilling, careers in fishing, in seafaring, marine recreation, oceanography, aquaculture,…

Goodwin, Harold L.

288

Accumulation of Marine Debris on an Intertidal Beach in an Urban Park (Halifax Harbour, Nova Scotia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated monthly accumulation rates and types of marine debris washed ashore at a recreational beach in Point Pleasant Park, Halifax Harbour, between April and September 2005. Black Rock Beach is 70 m long and a total of 2129 marine debris items were collected and sorted, representing a mean accumulation rate of 355 (±68 SE) items month-1. The total

Tony R. Walker; Jon Grant; Marie-Claude Archambault

289

Managing for recreational experience opportunities: the case of hikers in protected areas in Catalonia, Spain.  

PubMed

Planning and management for recreational activities in protected areas involves an understanding of many complex factors. Segmentation of recreation demand and of the main physical or sporting activities can contribute to the design of more efficient management strategies, which may help to maintain or significantly enhance satisfaction with the recreation experience, and this in turn could improve the interest in and appreciation of the natural environment. The current study examined the motivations of hikers in three small Natura 2000 protected areas. It establishes a typology or categorization as a contribution to better management based on a survey conducted through on-site personal interviews with a representative sample of 569 hikers. Through an analysis of the principal intervening components by means of cluster analysis, we identified three groups of hikers based on three motivational dimensions: (1) nature-minded hikers, (2) sporting hikers and (3) general-purpose hikers. The most striking results were the significant differences among group variables related to visit behaviour (frequency and duration of visits and number of people per group), previous knowledge (protection status of the areas) and recreational frequentation (trail categories and protected areas visited). A positive correlation between the degree of sympathy for nature and the degree of satisfaction with the recreational experience (including positive evaluation of the public facilities, signposting and services offered) was also observed. The results are discussed in terms of their applicability and implications in hiking management in protected natural areas such as those of Natura 2000. PMID:21327562

Farías Torbidoni, Estela Inés

2011-03-01

290

Prospective epidemiological pilot study on the morbidity of bathers exposed to tropical recreational waters and sand.  

PubMed

A prospective cohort epidemiological pilot study was performed at three tropical beaches with point- and non-point-sources of fecal pollution to characterize the risk of illness among swimmers and non-swimmers. There was an increased risk of illness in swimmers as compared to non-swimmers, even when waters met current microbial standards for recreational water quality. Illnesses included gastrointestinal (GI), skin and respiratory symptoms, earache and fever. Odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 0.32 to 42.35 (GI illness), 0.69 to 3.12 (skin infections), 0.71 to 3.21 (respiratory symptoms), 0.52 to 15.32 (earache) and 0.80 to 1.68 (fever), depending on the beach sampled. The indicators that better predicted the risks of symptoms (respiratory) in tropical recreational waters were total (somatic and male-specific) coliphages (OR = 1.56, p < 0.10, R(2) = 3.79%) and Escherichia coli (OR = 1.38, p < 0.10, R(2) = 1.97%). The present study supports the potential of coliphages as good predictors of risks of respiratory illness in tropical recreational waters. This is the first study that has determined risks of illness after exposure to tropical recreational waters with point- and non-point sources of fecal contamination. The results give an opportunity to perform epidemiological studies in tropical recreational waters in Puerto Rico which can include more participants and other indicators and detection techniques. PMID:24937216

Sánchez-Nazario, Elia E; Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M; Toranzos, Gary A

2014-06-01

291

A trauma systems assessment of boating safety: a comparison of commercial and recreational boating practices.  

PubMed

Objective: With contemporary interest of Trauma Systems and injury prevention strategists focusing upon boating safety, a prospective study was designed to survey practices of commercial and recreational boaters' compliance with United States Coast Guard (USCG) regulations. Data were collected by interview survey. Information was obtained from 24 commercial and 57 recreational boaters. Prevalence rates were calculated for compliance with USCG regulations. An analysis for statistical difference was conducted using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Data analysis revealed that commercial boaters statistically spend more days on the water per year and have more years of boating experience than do recreational boaters (P < 0.05). No statistical difference was demonstrated between commercial and recreational boaters for life jacket-to-crew member ratio, swimming competency, or compliance with USCG safety equipment, with exception to flotation suits. The prevalence of alcohol use by the operators of commercial and recreational boats was found to be 8 and 12 per cent (P < 0.60) respectively, and for crew members 8 and 35 per cent (P < 0.01), respectively. Boating practices in these sample populations conform to USCG regulations. Swimming competency exhibited by these boaters is complementary to safe boating behaviors. The consumption of alcohol while boating, although comparable to reported statistics, is still of concern to injury prevention strategists. PMID:10888142

Ciraulo, D L; Smith, P; Ciraulo, S C

2000-06-01

292

Managing for Recreational Experience Opportunities: The Case of Hikers in Protected Areas in Catalonia, Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planning and management for recreational activities in protected areas involves an understanding of many complex factors. Segmentation of recreation demand and of the main physical or sporting activities can contribute to the design of more efficient management strategies, which may help to maintain or significantly enhance satisfaction with the recreation experience, and this in turn could improve the interest in and appreciation of the natural environment. The current study examined the motivations of hikers in three small Natura 2000 protected areas. It establishes a typology or categorization as a contribution to better management based on a survey conducted through on-site personal interviews with a representative sample of 569 hikers. Through an analysis of the principal intervening components by means of cluster analysis, we identified three groups of hikers based on three motivational dimensions: (1) nature-minded hikers, (2) sporting hikers and (3) general-purpose hikers. The most striking results were the significant differences among group variables related to visit behaviour (frequency and duration of visits and number of people per group), previous knowledge (protection status of the areas) and recreational frequentation (trail categories and protected areas visited). A positive correlation between the degree of sympathy for nature and the degree of satisfaction with the recreational experience (including positive evaluation of the public facilities, signposting and services offered) was also observed. The results are discussed in terms of their applicability and implications in hiking management in protected natural areas such as those of Natura 2000.

Farías Torbidoni, Estela Inés

2011-03-01

293

Genotoxicity of water concentrates from recreational pools after various disinfection methods.  

PubMed

Swimming and hot tub bathing are popular exercises and diversions. Disinfection of recreational pools is essential to prevent outbreaks of infectious disease. Recent research demonstrated an association between the application of disinfectants to recreational pools and adverse health outcomes. These pool waters represent extreme cases of disinfection that differ from disinfecting drinking waters. Pool waters are continuously exposed to disinfectants over average residence times extending to months. Disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursors include natural humic substances plus inputs from bathers through urine, sweat, hair, skin, and consumer products including cosmetics and sunscreens. This study presents a systematic mammalian cell genotoxicity analysis to evaluate different recreational waters derived from a common tap water source. The data demonstrated that all disinfected recreational pool water samples induced more genomic DNA damage than the source tap water. The type of disinfectant and illumination conditions altered the genotoxicity of the water. Accordingly, care should be taken in the disinfectant employed to treat recreational pool waters. The genotoxicity data suggest that brominating agents should be avoided. Combining chlorine with UV may be beneficial as compared to chlorination alone. During the recycling of pool water the organic carbon could be removed prior to disinfection. Behavior modification by swimmers may be critical in reducing the genotoxicity of pool water. Actions such as showering before entering the water and informing patrons about the potential harm from urinating in a pool could reduce the precursors of toxic DBPs. PMID:20380372

Liviac, Danae; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Mitch, William A; Altonji, Matthew J; Plewa, Michael J

2010-05-01

294

Recreational Exposure to Low Concentrations of Microcystins During an Algal Bloom in a Small Lake  

PubMed Central

We measured microcystins in blood from people at risk for swallowing water or inhaling spray while swimming, water skiing, jet skiing, or boating during an algal bloom. We monitored water samples from a small lake as a Microcystis aeruginosa bloom developed. We recruited 97 people planning recreational activities in that lake and seven others who volunteered to recreate in a nearby bloom-free lake. We conducted our field study within a week of finding a 10-?g/L microcystin concentration. We analyzed water, air, and human blood samples for water quality, potential human pathogens, algal taxonomy, and microcystin concentrations. We interviewed study participants for demographic and current health symptom information. Water samples were assayed for potential respiratory viruses (adenoviruses and enteroviruses), but none were detected. We did find low concentrations of Escherichia coli, indicating fecal contamination. We found low levels of microcystins (2 ?g/L to 5 ?g/L) in the water and (<0.1 ng/m3) in the aerosol samples. Blood levels of microcystins for all participants were below the limit of detection (0.147?g/L). Given this low exposure level, study participants reported no symptom increases following recreational exposure to microcystins. This is the first study to report that water-based recreational activities can expose people to very low concentrations of aerosol-borne microcystins; we recently conducted another field study to assess exposures to higher concentrations of these algal toxins.

Backer, Lorraine C.; Carmichael, Wayne; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Williams, Christopher; Irvin, Mitch; Zhou, Yue; Johnson, Trisha B.; Nierenberg, Kate; Hill, Vincent R.; Kieszak, Stephanie M.; Cheng, Yung-Sung

2008-01-01

295

Determinants of Intensity of Participation in Leisure and Recreational Activities by Children with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: To test a model of child, family, and service determinants of intensity of participation in leisure and recreational activities by children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Participants were 288 children with CP, age range 6 to 12 years (mean 9y 8mo, SD 2y), and their parents from seven children's hospitals. The sample comprised 166 (57.6%)…

Palisano, Robert J.; Chiarello, Lisa A.; Orlin, Margo; Oeffinger, Donna; Polansky, Marcy; Maggs, Jill; Bagley, Anita; Gorton, George

2011-01-01

296

The recreational fishery for blue marlin, Makaira nigricans (Pisces: Istiophoridae), in the US Virgin Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of trends in the recreational fishery for blue marlin (Makaira nigricans Lacepede) in the US Virgin Islands were conducted on data obtained from dockside sampling of sport fishing vessels. A total of 5729 blue marlin and 69 440 boat-hours of effort were recorded between the years 1983 and 1989.Annual catch per boat hour (CPUE) ranged from a low of

Alan Friedlander

1995-01-01

297

Fear Perceptions in Public Parks: Interactions of Environmental Concealment, the Presence of People Recreating, and Gender  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examined the effect of concealment (environmental cues), presence or absence of people recreating (social cues), and gender on individuals' fear of crime in a community park setting. Using a 7-point single-item indicator, 732 participants from two samples (540 park visitors and 192 college students) rated their estimates of fear…

Jorgensen, Lisa J.; Ellis, Gary D.; Ruddell, Edward

2013-01-01

298

Recreation benefits of natural area characteristics at the El Yunque National Forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper applies the Contingent Valuation Method using a visitor survey to determine trip values to three rivers in northeastern Puerto Rico. Sample data were obtained from 984 interviews conducted in 13 sites during the summer months. The trip value is statistically decomposed into components representing natural features and recreation activities. The median net economic value of a river visit

Luis E. Santiago; John Loomis

2009-01-01

299

Socioeconomic variations in perceived barriers to recreation participation among would?be participants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of fifteen barriers to participation were examined among people who expressed a desire for but were unable to participate in a new recreational activity. Work commitments, overcrowding of facilities, and lack of partners were the three main barriers. The effects of barriers were not perceived uniformly across the sample but varied between subgroups defined according to socioeconomic variables:

Mark S. Searle; Edgar L. Jackson

1985-01-01

300

Views of Students in the Department of Recreation and Sport Management on Distance Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to investigate viewpoints of students in recreation and sport management department on distance education, and the effects of sex, having computers and internet access at home, family's monthly income, district of the family, and students' level of class on these viewpoints. Survey method was used to carry out the study. The sample

Herguner, Gulten

2012-01-01

301

Survey of non-charter boat recreational fishing in the U.S. Virgin Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A telephone survey was conducted by the U.S. Virgin Islands Division of Fish and Wildlife from July- September 1986 to evaluate the efficacy of telephone surveys as a sampling technique for obtaining reliable fisheries data, and to collect fisheries data for the recreational non-charter boat fishery around the Virgin Islands. Results suggest that telephone surveys by themselves may provide biased data on recreational fishing in the Virgin Islands. Additional methods, such as mail surveys and limited creel surveys could be used to supplement the fisheries data gathered through telephone surveys. The results of this survey indicate that during the mid 1980s 10.8% of the residents of the Virgin Islands ( similar to 10,800) fished recreationally (i.e., non-charter boat anglers). These anglers made modest demands of the resources (effort: 19,200 manhours/yr;

Jennings, C. A.

1992-01-01

302

Gambling motivation and passion: a comparison study of recreational and pathological gamblers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the structural relationship among gambling motivation, gambling passion, and behavioral intentions to gamble between recreational and pathological gamblers. Specifically, this study aimed to shed light on the different ways in which gambling motivation and affective attitude are associated with recreational and pathological gamblers. Using a purposive sampling method, 400 subjects were selected for and participated in this study during their visits to a casino. Study results echoed the notion of distinctive and separate gambling motivations and passions between recreational and pathological gamblers. Also, results identified specific areas to which casino operators or policy makers should pay special attention in developing effective marketing strategies to promote responsible gambling. PMID:20680417

Back, Ki-Joon; Lee, Choong-Ki; Stinchfield, Randy

2011-09-01

303

Water Quality Conditions Associated with Cattle Grazing and Recreation on National Forest Lands  

PubMed Central

There is substantial concern that microbial and nutrient pollution by cattle on public lands degrades water quality, threatening human and ecological health. Given the importance of clean water on multiple-use landscapes, additional research is required to document and examine potential water quality issues across common resource use activities. During the 2011 grazing-recreation season, we conducted a cross sectional survey of water quality conditions associated with cattle grazing and/or recreation on 12 public lands grazing allotments in California. Our specific study objectives were to 1) quantify fecal indicator bacteria (FIB; fecal coliform and E. coli), total nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium, total phosphorus, and soluble-reactive phosphorus concentrations in surface waters; 2) compare results to a) water quality regulatory benchmarks, b) recommended maximum nutrient concentrations, and c) estimates of nutrient background concentrations; and 3) examine relationships between water quality, environmental conditions, cattle grazing, and recreation. Nutrient concentrations observed throughout the grazing-recreation season were at least one order of magnitude below levels of ecological concern, and were similar to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) estimates for background water quality conditions in the region. The relative percentage of FIB regulatory benchmark exceedances widely varied under individual regional and national water quality standards. Relative to USEPA’s national E. coli FIB benchmarks–the most contemporary and relevant standards for this study–over 90% of the 743 samples collected were below recommended criteria values. FIB concentrations were significantly greater when stream flow was low or stagnant, water was turbid, and when cattle were actively observed at sampling. Recreation sites had the lowest mean FIB, total nitrogen, and soluble-reactive phosphorus concentrations, and there were no significant differences in FIB and nutrient concentrations between key grazing areas and non-concentrated use areas. Our results suggest cattle grazing, recreation, and provisioning of clean water can be compatible goals across these national forest lands.

Roche, Leslie M.; Kromschroeder, Lea; Atwill, Edward R.; Dahlgren, Randy A.; Tate, Kenneth W.

2013-01-01

304

Epidemiology of recreational drug toxicity in a nightclub environment.  

PubMed

Data on 173 individuals with recreational drug toxicity requiring "medical" assistance in a large urban nightclub was collected from September 2007 to January 2008. Clubbers required assistance following use of a variety of recreational drugs, particularly gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), gammabutyrolactone (GBL), and ketamine. The majority of individuals were not first-time recreational drug users, and a significant proportion have recurrent recreational drug toxicity requiring assistance. Limitations related to data collection are discussed. Further studies are needed to investigate the use brief interventions in those with problem recreational drug use within the nightclub environment. PMID:19938928

Wood, David M; Nicolaou, Michelle; Dargan, Paul I

2009-01-01

305

Marine Lubricants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine diesel engines are classified by speed, either large (medium speed) or very large (slow speed) with high efficiencies and burning low-quality fuel. Slow-speed engines, up to 200 rpm, are two-stroke with separate combustion chamber and sump connected by a crosshead, with trunk and system oil lubricants for each. Medium-speed diesels, 300-1500 rpm, are of conventional automotive design with one lubricant. Slow-speed engines use heavy fuel oil of much lower quality than conventional diesel with problems of deposit cleanliness, acidity production and oxidation. Lubricants are mainly SAE 30/40/50 monogrades using paraffinic basestocks. The main types of additives are detergents/dispersants, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, anti-wear/load-carrying/ep, pour-point depressants and anti-foam compounds. There are no simple systems for classifying marine lubricants, as for automotive, because of the wide range of engine design, ratings and service applications they serve. There are no standard tests; lubricant suppliers use their own tests or the Bolnes 3DNL, with final proof from field tests. Frequent lubricant analyses safeguard engines and require standard sampling procedures before determination of density, viscosity, flash point, insolubles, base number, water and wear metal content.

Carter, B. H.; Green, D.

306

Does scapular positioning predict shoulder pain in recreational overhead athletes?  

PubMed

The objective of this prospective study is to investigate possible scapular related risk factors for developing shoulder pain. Therefore, a 2-year follow-up study in a general community sports centre setting was conducted. A sample of convenience of 113 recreational overhead athletes (59 women and 54 men) with a mean age of 34 (17-64; SD 12) years were recruited. At baseline, visual observation for scapular dyskinesis, measured scapular protraction, upward scapular rotation and dynamic scapular control were evaluated. 22% (n=25) of all athletes developed shoulder pain during the 24 months following baseline assessment. The Mean Shoulder Disability Questionnaire (SDQ) score for the painful shoulders was 34.8 (6.3-62.5; SD 17.4). None of the scapular characteristics predicted the development of shoulder pain. However, the athletes that developed shoulder pain demonstrated significantly less upward scapular rotation at 45° (p=0.010) and 90° (p=0.016) of shoulder abduction in the frontal plane at baseline in comparison to the athletes that remained pain-free. In conclusion, although these scapular characteristics are not of predictive value for the development of shoulder pain, this study increases our understanding of the importance of a scapular upward rotation assessment among recreational overhead athletes. PMID:23825003

Struyf, F; Nijs, J; Meeus, M; Roussel, N A; Mottram, S; Truijen, S; Meeusen, R

2014-01-01

307

Marine pollution  

SciTech Connect

This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.

Albaiges, J. (Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo, CSIC, Barcelona (ES))

1989-01-01

308

Lightning injuries in sports and recreation.  

PubMed

The powers of lightning have been worshiped and feared by all known human cultures. While the chance of being struck by lightning is statistically very low, that risk becomes much greater in those who frequently work or play outdoors. Over the past 2 yr, there have been nearly 50 lightning-related deaths reported within the United States, with a majority of them associated with outdoor recreational activities. Recent publications primarily have been case studies, review articles, and a discussion of a sixth method of injury. The challenge in reducing lightning-related injuries in organized sports has been addressed well by both the National Athletic Trainers' Association and the National Collegiate Athletic Association in their guidelines on lightning safety. Challenges remain in educating the general population involved in recreational outdoor activities that do not fall under the guidelines of organized sports. PMID:23478564

Thomson, Eric M; Howard, Thomas M

2013-01-01

309

Modeling the Demand for Outdoor Recreation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper critically reviews several of the new methodologies developed in the last 10 years to model the demand for recreation. There are three competing approaches to modeling heterogeneous recreation sites: partitioning, hedonic, and index models. Partitioning involves grouping sites into small homogeneous sets and treating each set as a unique good (multiple-site travel cost models). Hedonic involves disaggregating goods into their component characteristics and modeling the prices and demands for the characteristics (hedonic property value and the hedonic travel cost method). The index models involve measuring choices among limited alternatives using an index of characteristics (generalized travel cost, gravity, and discrete choice models). Although much work has been done on each method, limitations are noted with each approach, and additional research needs are identified.

Mendelsohn, Robert

1987-05-01

310

Seattle Parks & Recreation Sherwood History Files  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Seattle Parks & Recreation Sherwood History Files are the work of one Donald N. Sherwood, who worked as an engineer for the department for 22 years. In the course of his work, he began compiling sketch maps of the parks, and annotating them with historical tidbits and other pieces of information. Also, he began writing individual histories for each facility when the information didn't quite fit on the maps. This site afford interested parties access to these remarkable and truly unusual documents. All told, there are over 80 separate files here, documenting unique pieces of the Seattle parks landscape, including Alki Beach Park, Golden Gardens Park, and the celebrated Gas Works Park on Lake Union. For anyone with an interest in parks and recreation management or the Emerald City, this site will be a most welcome find.

2012-02-14

311

Therapeutic recreation programmes for children with epilepsy.  

PubMed

Amongst children with epilepsy, research has shown that most have a negative self-concept and consequently a low level of self-esteem. This elusive concept of the self is constantly being assessed and reassessed by each child throughout the process of social development. Early literature has suggested that children with disabilities, especially chronic medical or biological disabilities, typified by epilepsy and diabetes, are more susceptible to the development of psychopathology and negative self-concepts. This paper reports that intervention in the form of therapeutic recreation programmes can help rectify this problem of negative self-concept and low self-esteem in children with epilepsy. The Piers-Harris Self Concept Scale, a Self Report Inventory on six dimensions of self-concept, was assessed both pre- and post-therapeutic recreational intervention to show significant improvement in the child's self-concept and acceptance of their epilepsy. Educational components within the programme have demonstrated significant learning and increased treatment compliance--particularly with long-term medications. The Adolescent Psychosocial Seizure Inventory, an adolescent version of the Washington Psycho-Social Seizure Inventory (WPSI), both of which have been validated as a reliable clinical assessment for use in Australia, has provided further evidence to suggest that improvements occur in children's self-concept as a consequence of therapeutic recreation, however use of this protocol appears limited to adolescents over the age of 13 years. PMID:8162383

Regan, K J; Banks, G K; Beran, R G

1993-09-01

312

Contamination of soil with eggs of geohelminths in recreational areas in the Lublin region of Poland.  

PubMed

Recreational areas cover parks, bicycle paths, lawns, urban squares, sports complexes, holiday camp areas, playgrounds for children, beaches, and even spontaneously used green field open spaces. While using recreational areas, people take with them accompanying animals (dogs, cats). These animals constitute the main source and reservoir of many dangerous zoonoses, including parasitoses caused by roundworms of the genus Toxocara and Trichuris. The objective of the presented study was determination of the level of contamination of soil with parasites' developmental forms (eggs of Toxocara spp., Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp and Ancylostoma) in selected recreational areas in the Lublin Region of southeastern Poland. The material for the study was collected from beaches in recreational areas located around the Bia?e Lake near W?odawa, the water reservoirs in Krasnobród and Janów Lubelski. The studies were carried out from May-October 2010 durng which time a total number of 215 samples of sand were collected. Eggs of Ascaris spp. and Trichuris spp. were detected based on the Polish Standard PN-Z-19000-4/2001. Beaches on the Bia?e Lake were the most contaminated. The eggs of intestinal parasites were isolated from 6 per 15 samples examined, which is 40%. In one sample, the presence of the eggs of 3 types of parasites were observed, while the eggs of Ancylostoma were not found in any of the samples. Attention should also be paid to the possibility of contamination of recreational areas with the eggs of intestinal parasites by wild animals. Recently in Poland, as well as in many other European countries, the phenomenon of synantropization of wild living animals has been observed, which most frequently concerned wild boar (Sus scrofa) and red fox (Vulpes vulpes). PMID:22742799

Bojar, Hubert; K?ape?, Teresa

2012-01-01

313

Antibiotic-resistance and virulence genes in Enterococcus isolated from tropical recreational waters  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of enterococci harboring tetracycline and vancomycin-resistance genes, as well as the enterococcal surface protein (esp) has mostly been determined in clinical settings, but their prevalence in tropical recreational waters remains largely unknown. The present study determined the prevalence of tetM (tetracycline-resistance), vanA and vanB (vancomycin-resistance) in the bacterial and viral fractions, enterococci and their induced phages isolated from tropical recreational marine and fresh waters, dry and wet sands. Since lysogenic phages can act as vectors for antibiotic-resistance and virulence factors, the prevalence of the mentioned genes, as well as that of an integrase-encoding gene (int) specific for Enterococcus faecalis phages was determined. Up to 60 % and 54 % of the bacterial fractions and enterococci harbored at least one of the tested genes, respectively, suggesting that bacteria in tropical environments may be reservoirs of antibiotic-resistance and virulence genes. int was detected in the viral fractions and in one Enterococcus isolate after induction. This study opens the opportunity to determine if the presence of bacteria harboring antibiotic-resistance and virulence genes in tropical recreational waters represents a threat to public health.

Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M.; Rivera, Jessica I.; Coradin, Mariel; Toranzos, Gary A.

2014-01-01

314

Coupling a high-temperature catalytic oxidation total organic carbon analyzer to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer to measure natural-abundance delta13C-dissolved organic carbon in marine and freshwater samples.  

PubMed

The stable isotope composition of dissolved organic carbon (delta(13)C-DOC) provides powerful information toward understanding carbon sources and cycling, but analytical limitations have precluded its routine measurement in natural samples. Recent interfacing of wet oxidation-based dissolved organic carbon analyzers and isotope ratio mass spectrometers has simplified the measurement of delta(13)C-DOC in freshwaters, but the analysis of salty estuarine/marine samples still proves difficult. Here we describe the coupling of the more widespread high-temperature catalytic oxidation-based total organic carbon analyzer to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (HTC-IRMS) through cryogenic trapping of analyte gases exiting the HTC analyzer for routine analysis of delta(13)C-DOC in aquatic and marine samples. Targeted elimination of major sources of background CO2 originating from the HTC analyzer allows for the routine measurement of samples over the natural range of DOC concentrations (from 40 microM to over 2000 microM), and salinities (<0.1-36 g/kg). Because consensus reference natural samples for delta(13)C-DOC do not exist, method validation was carried out with water-soluble stable isotope standards as well as previously measured natural samples (IAEA sucrose, Suwannee River Fulvic Acids, Deep Sargasso Sea consensus reference material, and St. Lawrence River water) and result in excellent delta(13)C-DOC accuracy (+/-0.2 per thousand) and precision (+/-0.3 per thousand). PMID:18529015

Panetta, Robert J; Ibrahim, Mina; Gélinas, Yves

2008-07-01

315

Organochlorine Contaminants in blubber samples from stranded marine mammals collected from the Oregon and Washington coasts; implications for re-introducing California condors in Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The re-introduction of California condors into Oregon is currently being considered, but there are concerns about the safety of the potential food sources of this species. Condors are opportunistic feeders and a largely available food source for this species will be the carcasses of stranded marine mammals. Organochlorine contaminants are of particular concern due to the life history and trophic

Deke Gundersen; Tina Gundersen

2010-01-01

316

In-Situ Sampling and Characterization of Naturally Occurring Marine Methane Hydrate Using the D/V JOIDES Resolution. Technical Progress Report No. 17.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary accomplishments of the JOI Cooperative Agreement with DOE/NETL in this quarter were the implementation of a scientific ocean drilling expedition to study marine methane hydrates along the Cascadia margin, in the NE Pacific as part of Integrate...

F. Rack P. Scholtheiss

2006-01-01

317

Environmental contamination using accumulation of metals in marine sponge, Sigmadocia fibulata inhabiting the coastal waters of Gulf of Mannar, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal marine ecosystems in many parts of the world are under unrelenting stress caused by urban development, pollutants and other ecological impacts such as building of infrastructure, land reclamation for port and industrial development, habitat modification, tourism and recreational activities. The present work is a first extensive field study using the marine sponge, Sigmadocia fibulata as a bioindicator to detect

J. Venkateswara Rao; P. Kavitha; K. Srikanth; P. K. Usman; T. Gnaneshwar Rao

2007-01-01

318

Family Recreation: A Study of Visitors Who Travel with Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family recreation has been recognized as an effective vehicle in the provision of family customs and promotion of healthy youth development. In particular, outdoor-based recreation with its inherent challenges often offers opportunities for a family to grow together and maintain cohesive-ness. Building on antecedent research, this study attempts to explore factors associated with the motivation for the outdoor-based family recreation

Bob Lee; Alan Graefe; Robert Burns

2008-01-01

319

The national recreational fishing benefits of water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented of an effort to estimate the fresh water recreational fishing benefit derived from water pollution control efforts. Methodology is potentially applicable to other subcategories. (PSB)

Clifford S. Russell; William J. Vaughan

1982-01-01

320

Marine Debris  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students will perform experiments to examine if debris will float, or blow in the wind. They will discover which characteristics of trash affect the likelihood that it will become marine debris. Trash that floats or is easily blown around is more likely to become marine debris. As a result of this activity students will be able to define marine debris and categorize different types of debris.

Museum, Bishop

321

Geology of Lake Mead National Recreation Area  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and National Park Service (NPS) highlights the geologic history of Lake Mead National Recreation Area in Nevada and Arizona. From the Precambrian (1.8 billion years ago) until the present, the Lake Mead region has been shaped by collisions, uplift, erosion, volcanic activity, submergence, extension, and sedimentation. This site covers these major events and when they occurred in the Lake Mead area. There are links to information about geologic maps, geologic time, rocks and minerals, plate tectonics, and other Lake Mead information sources.

322

What's Recreational about "Recreational Rioting"? Children on the Streets in Belfast  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper was to explore teenagers' perception of the concept of "recreational rioting". It draws on focus group discussions with 80 Catholic and Protestant teenagers who live in one of the most contested interface areas in Northern Ireland, many of whom have experience of rioting. The majority of children who took part in the…

Leonard, Madeleine

2010-01-01

323

Distribution of recreational boating across lakes: do landscape variables affect recreational use?  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. Because people impact lake ecosystems, it is important to consider factors influencing the human use of freshwater resources. We investigated the influence of the landscape position, as well as lake area, recreational facilities, and distance to highways and urban centres, on lake use by boaters in the Northern Highland Lake District of Wisconsin, U.S.A. 2. In aerial surveys

Tar A. Reed-Andersen; Elena M. Bennett; BRADLEY S. JORGENSENy; George Lauster; David Bruce Lewis; David Nowacek; Joan L. Riera; Beth L. Sanderson; Richard Stedman

2000-01-01

324

Marine biology  

SciTech Connect

This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

1984-01-01

325

Survey of Naegleria from Taiwan recreational waters using culture enrichment combined with PCR.  

PubMed

Naegleria is a free-living amoeba. Pathogenic Naegleria may pose a health risk to people who come in contact with recreational waters. Here, we used Naegleria culture enrichment with PCR to identify the Naegleria species and investigated the distribution of Naegleria spp. in recreational waters including spring water, stream water and raw domestic water in central and southern Taiwan. In this study, Naegleria spp. were detected in 19 (17.8%) of the water samples. The occurrence of Naegleria in raw domestic water was 28.6%, higher than in stream water (14.7%) and in spring water (6.5%). The most frequently identified species exhibiting the closest phylogenetic relationships to the isolates were N. australiensis (n=4) and N. canariensis (n=4), followed by N. clarki (n=3) and N. philippinensis (n=3); N. americana (n=2). N. lovaniensis, N. dobsoni, and N. gruberi were each detected once. The pathogenic species N. fowleri was not detected, probably due to the low incubation temperature; however, the isolates exhibiting the closest phylogenetic relationships to the pathogenic species in mice of PAM, N. australiensis and N. philippinensis, were found. Results of this survey suggest the distribution of Naegleria spp. excluding N. fowleri in recreational waters. It should be considered a potential threat for health associated with human activities in recreational waters. PMID:21640066

Huang, Shih-Wei; Hsu, Bing-Mu

2011-08-01

326

Recreational gun use by California adolescents.  

PubMed

Most research on adolescents and firearms focuses on urban populations, handguns, and homicide. This study examines the prevalence and correlates of recreational gun use (RGU)--for hunting or target shooting--among 5,801 community-residing 12- to 17-year-old Californians. Data are from the first statewide California Health Interview Survey (CHIS), and person, design, and population weights were applied to the data. About one fifth (22.4%) of California adolescents report that they have gone hunting or target shooting. Nearly two thirds (62.8%) have hunted with a family member, typically (67.3%) their father. Recreational gun use among adolescents appears to be linked to a few basic demographic characteristics; most notably, male adolescents had an adjusted odds ratio of RGU nearly five times that of female adolescents. Some of the variables associated with RGU are consistent with those for violent gun use; differences, however, suggest that separate approaches to preventing firearm-related injury may be warranted. PMID:16267146

Vittes, Katherine A; Sorenson, Susan B

2005-12-01

327

Protocol for cardiac assessment of recreational athletes.  

PubMed

In this work, the development of a database on physical fitness is presented. As initial population to fill this database, people who practice recreational sports at the Universidad Simon Bolivar (USB) were chosen. The goal was studying individual physical fitness in order to structure exercise routines that gives certain benefits without risking the individual health, promoting a less sedentary way of life. Before the study, a low-cost noninvasive protocol was designed to determine the level of physical fitness. The methodology consisted of four steps: a) A review of existing protocols to propose a set of physical fitness (International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)), cardiovascular (heart rate variability, heart rate recovery time and arterial blood pressure), anthropomorphic, aerobic (maximum oxygen consumption) and mood state (Profile of Mood State (POMS)) measurements, which allow sketching a complete profile on the sportsman physical fitness. b) Instrumental data collection. c) Electrocardiographic signal processing. d) Data post-processing using multivariate analysis. The database was composed of 26 subject from USB. Ten subjects were soccer players, ten were mountain climbers and six were sedentary people. Results showed that the heart rate recover time after 2-3 min, IPAQ and maximum oxygen consumption have higher weights for classifying individuals according to their habitual physical activity. Heart rate variability, as well as, POMS did not contribute greatly for discriminating recreational sport from sedentary persons. PMID:23366343

Chinea, Ana M; Lollett, Carlos; Herrera, Hector; Passariello, Gianfranco; Wong, Sara

2012-01-01

328

Survey of Alaskan subsistence fish, marine mammal, and invertebrate samples collected 1989-91 for exposure to oil spilled from the Exxon Valdez. Volume 1. Technical memo  

SciTech Connect

The Exxon Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef, Prince William Sound, Alaska on March 24, 1989, spilling millions of gallons of Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBCO). During the weeks following the spill, large amounts of oil flowed towards southwestern Prince William Sound, and as a result, many shorelines were oiled. In the study, edible flesh of fish, marine mammals, and shellfish from 22 native subsistence food collection areas and from two reference areas (Angoon and Yakutat) were analyzed for aromatic compounds (ACs). Vertebrates can readily biotransform ACs to metabolites that are concentrated in bile for excretion. This process greatly limits the accumulation of ACs in tissues such as edible flesh. Thus, for fish and marine mammals, bile was first analyzed for the presence of fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) as an indication of exposure to petroleum.

Varanasi, U.; Brown, D.W.; Hom, T.; Burrows, D.G.; Sloan, C.A.

1993-10-01

329

Occurrence of Human Adenoviruses at Two Recreational Beaches of the Great Lakes?  

PubMed Central

Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) have been related to several waterborne diseases such as acute gastroenteritis, conjunctivitis, and respiratory illness, and it has been shown that an important human exposure pathway is through recreational waters. However, HAdV occurrence at recreational freshwater beaches has not been previously investigated. In this study, a total of 58 water samples were collected from two recreational beaches on Lake Michigan (i.e., Silver Beach and Washington Park Beach) during the summer of 2004. Occurrences of HAdVs in these lake samples were determined using two hexon-based real-time PCR assays (one for monitoring all 51 serotypes of HAdVs and another for specifically detecting F species HAdVs, i.e., serotypes 40 and 41) and compared to an integrated cell culture (ICC) PCR method. The real-time PCR results showed that 8 of 30 Silver Beach samples and 6 of 28 Washington Park Beach samples contained HAdVs, and F species HAdVs were detected in three of these positive samples. The concentrations of HAdVs ranged from (1.7 ± 0.7) × 101 to (3.4 ± 0.8) × 102 and from (7 ± 2) × 100 to (3.8 ± 0.3) × 103 virus particles/liter for Silver Beach and Washington Park Beach, respectively. F species HAdVs were detected at levels ranging from (4.8 ± 0.8) × 101 to (4.6 ± 1.5) × 102 virus particles/liter. Approximately 60% of the ICC-PCR analyses agreed with the real-time PCR results. This study revealed the occurrence of HAdVs at Lake Michigan recreational beaches. Given the potential health risks, further assessment regarding sources, virus transport, and survival is needed to improve the safety of the region.

Xagoraraki, Irene; Kuo, David H.-W.; Wong, Kelvin; Wong, Mark; Rose, Joan B.

2007-01-01

330

The occurrence of Naegleria fowleri in recreational waters in Arizona.  

PubMed

Naegleria fowleri is a free-living amoeba found in waters in warmer regions that causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, a rare but almost universally fatal disease. The goal of this project was to assess the occurrence of N. fowleri and other thermophilic amoebae in 33 recreational surface waters across Arizona to determine if their presence could be correlated with seasonal or other environmental factors. First, 1-L grab samples were collected over two years and analyzed using polymerase chain reaction and amoebae viability. Seasonality was observed, with N. fowleri and thermophilic amoebae (20% and 30%, respectively) being detected more often in the winter and spring combined than in the summer and fall combined (7.9% and 9.5%, respectively). The spring and fall both had an average temperature of 18°C, yet had different occurrence data (18.2% versus 5.9% for N. fowleri, respectively; 27.3% versus 0% for viable amoebae, respectively). These results are in stark contrast to previous studies in which N. fowleri has been found almost exclusively during warmer months. Over the two-year study, N. fowleri was detected in six and thermophilic amoebae in eight of the 33 recreational water bodies. Five of these were lakes near Phoenix that tested positive for N. fowleri and thermophilic amoebae over multiple seasons. These lakes differed significantly (P ? 0.05) from the other 28 surface waters, with a lower average temperature in the spring, a higher temperature in the fall, a higher pH and turbidity in the summer, and a lower electro-conductivity in the spring. They also had lower Escherichia coli and heterotrophic bacteria levels during colder months. Future N. fowleri monitoring in Arizona should focus on these five lakes to further elucidate the factors that contribute to the low occurrence of this amoeba in the summer or which might explain why these lakes appear to be reservoirs for the organism. PMID:24967566

Sifuentes, Laura Y; Choate, Brittany L; Gerba, Charles P; Bright, Kelly R

2014-09-19

331

Fish Consumption and Mercury Exposure among Louisiana Recreational Anglers  

PubMed Central

Background Methylmercury (MeHg) exposure assessments among average fish consumers in the United States may underestimate exposures among U.S. subpopulations with high intakes of regionally specific fish. Objectives We examined relationships among fish consumption, estimated mercury (Hg) intake, and measured Hg exposure within one such potentially highly exposed group, recreational anglers in the state of Louisiana, USA. Methods We surveyed 534 anglers in 2006 using interviews at boat launches and fishing tournaments combined with an Internet-based survey method. Hair samples from 402 of these anglers were collected and analyzed for total Hg. Questionnaires provided information on species-specific fish consumption during the 3 months before the survey. Results Anglers’ median hair Hg concentration was 0.81 ?g/g (n = 398; range, 0.02–10.7 ?g/g); 40% of participants had levels >1 ?g/g, which approximately corresponds to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s reference dose. Fish consumption and Hg intake were significantly positively associated with hair Hg. Participants reported consuming nearly 80 different fish types, many of which are specific to the region. Unlike the general U.S. population, which acquires most of its Hg from commercial seafood sources, approximately 64% of participants’ fish meals and 74% of their estimated Hg intake came from recreationally caught seafood. Conclusions Study participants had relatively elevated hair Hg concentrations and reported consumption of a wide variety of fish, particularly locally caught fish. This group represents a highly exposed subpopulation with an exposure profile that differs from fish consumers in other regions of the United States, suggesting a need for more regionally specific exposure estimates and public health advisories.

Lincoln, Rebecca A.; Shine, James P.; Chesney, Edward J.; Vorhees, Donna J.; Grandjean, Philippe; Senn, David B.

2011-01-01

332

Marine Reserves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video explains the concept of marine reserves, protected areas where fish and other species are allowed to live longer and grow larger. Other topics include sustainable fishing practices, and a case study about a marine reserve established by fishermen off the Canary Islands.

333

Effects of marine reserves on adjacent fisheries.  

PubMed

Marine reserves have been widely promoted as conservation and fishery management tools. There are robust demonstrations of conservation benefits, but fishery benefits remain controversial. We show that marine reserves in Florida (United States) and St. Lucia have enhanced adjacent fisheries. Within 5 years of creation, a network of five small reserves in St. Lucia increased adjacent catches of artisanal fishers by between 46 and 90%, depending on the type of gear the fishers used. In Florida, reserve zones in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge have supplied increasing numbers of world record-sized fish to adjacent recreational fisheries since the 1970s. Our study confirms theoretical predictions that marine reserves can play a key role in supporting fisheries. PMID:11729316

Roberts, C M; Bohnsack, J A; Gell, F; Hawkins, J P; Goodridge, R

2001-11-30

334

18 CFR 141.14 - Form No. 80, Licensed Hydropower Development Recreation Report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Form No. 80, Licensed Hydropower Development Recreation Report...141.14 Form No. 80, Licensed Hydropower Development Recreation Report. The form of the report, Licensed Hydropower Development Recreation...

2010-04-01

335

18 CFR 141.14 - Form No. 80, Licensed Hydropower Development Recreation Report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Form No. 80, Licensed Hydropower Development Recreation Report...141.14 Form No. 80, Licensed Hydropower Development Recreation Report. The form of the report, Licensed Hydropower Development Recreation...

2009-04-01

336

75 FR 17618 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Recreational Fishery; Emergency Rule...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Recreational Fishery; Emergency...rule that closed the recreational black sea bass fishery in the Federal waters...prohibition on recreational fishing for black sea bass in the EEZ beyond the...

2010-04-07

337

76 FR 82117 - Regulations Implementing the Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act: Recreational Vessels  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Workers' Compensation Act: Recreational Vessels AGENCY: Office of Workers' Compensation...the exclusion of certain recreational-vessel workers from the LHWCA's definition...both the definition of ``recreational vessel'' and those circumstances under...

2011-12-30

338

75 FR 63425 - Regulations Implementing the Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act: Recreational Vessels  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Workers' Compensation Act: Recreational Vessels AGENCY: Office of Workers' Compensation...Workers' Compensation Act: Recreational Vessels, published on August 17, 2010 (75 FR...the exclusion of certain recreational- vessel workers from the LHWCA's...

2010-10-15

339

77 FR 48535 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission...SUMMARY: The Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission...human remains may contact the Washington State Parks and Recreation...

2012-08-14

340

An Analysis of the Demand for and Value of Outdoor Recreation in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a study of demand equations for 37 outdoor recreational activities using a multicommunity, multisite travel cost model suggest that determinants of the demand for outdoor recreation include population, residence, income, age, price, quality, and recreational opportunity substitutes. (JD)

Bergstrom, John C.; Cordell, H. Ken

1991-01-01

341

Characterization of Enterococcus faecalis-infecting phages (enterophages) as markers of human fecal pollution in recreational waters.  

PubMed

Enterophages are a novel group of phages that specifically infect Enterococcus faecalis and have been recently isolated from environmental water samples. Although enterophages have not been conclusively linked to human fecal pollution, we are currently characterizing enterophages to propose them as viral indicators and possible surrogates of enteric viruses in recreational waters. Little is known about the morphological or genetic diversity which will have an impact on their potential as markers of human fecal contamination. In the present study we are determining if enterophages can be grouped by their ability to replicate at different temperatures, and if different groups are present in the feces of different animals. As one of the main objectives is to determine if these phages can be used as indicators of the presence of enteric viruses, the survival rate under different conditions was also determined as was their prevalence in sewage and a large watershed. Coliphages were used as a means of comparison in the prevalence and survival studies. Results indicated that the isolates are mainly DNA viruses. Their morphology as well as their ability to form viral plaques at different temperatures indicates that several groups of enterophages are present in the environment. Coliphage and enterophage concentrations throughout the watershed were lower than those of thermotolerant coliforms and enterococci. Enterophage concentrations were lower than coliphages at all sampling points. Enterophages showed diverse inactivation rates and T(90) values across different incubation temperatures in both fresh and marine waters and sand. Further molecular characterization of enterophages may allow us to develop probes for the real-time detection of these alternative indicators of human fecal pollution. PMID:20723963

Santiago-Rodríguez, Tasha M; Dávila, Catalina; González, Joel; Bonilla, Natasha; Marcos, Patricia; Urdaneta, Miguel; Cadete, Manuela; Monteiro, Sílvia; Santos, Ricardo; Domingo, Jorge Santo; Toranzos, Gary A

2010-09-01

342

Residential and recreational acquisition of possible estuary-associated syndrome: a new approach to successful diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed Central

Evidence suggests that the estuarine dinoflagellates, Pfiesteria piscicida Steidinger & Burkholder and P. shumwayae Glasgow & Burkholder, members of the toxic Pfiesteria complex (TPC), may release one or more toxins that kill fish and adversely affect human health. In the current study we investigated the potential for undiagnosed cases of possible estuary-associated syndrome (PEAS), as termed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in a population that had residential and/or recreational exposure to TPC-affected estuaries, but that did not have direct contact with fish kills or lesioned fish. Age-adjusted visual contrast sensitivity (VCS) was significantly lower and the presence of PEAS-associated symptoms was much higher in the estuary cohort (n = 77) than in combined-control cohorts (n = 87), one without exposure to bodies of water (n = 53) and one with exposure to marine waters (n = 34). In the estuary cohort, 37 individuals met the CDC case definition for PEAS and had significantly lower VCS than non-PEAS cases. The VCS improved and symptoms abated after 2 weeks of treatment with cholestyramine. Cholestyramine, the original drug approved for treatment of hypercholesterolemia, has previously been reported to enhance the elimination rates of a variety of toxins, presumably by interruption of enterohepatic recirculation through toxin entrapment in its polymeric structure and/or anion-exchange process. Control studies showed that repeated VCS testing alone did not improve VCS scores and that cholestyramine treatment did not affect VCS in patients with elevated cholesterol levels. These results suggested that a) susceptible individuals may acquire PEAS through residential and/or recreational contact with TPC-affected estuaries in the absence of an active fish kill; b) VCS is a useful indicator in PEAS diagnosis and treatment monitoring; and c) PEAS can be effectively treated with cholestyramine. Because the study did not use population sampling techniques, the results do not indicate PEAS prevalence. Furthermore, definitive diagnosis of PEAS and association with TPC toxin(s) must await identification of, and a serologic test for, the putative TPC toxin(s).

Shoemaker, R C

2001-01-01

343

Managing urban wetlands for multiple use: research, restoration, and recreation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation of urban wetland habitat is challenging, because multiple uses must coexist. We use examples from California and Wisconsin to describe potential synergies among recreation, restoration and research activities (the 3 R's). Allowing passive recreation is often essential to garner public support for habitat protection, restoration, and research. In turn, restoration activities can improve the appearance of degraded sites, and

Joy B. Zedler; Mark K. Leach

1998-01-01

344

Private and Commercial Recreation: A Text and Reference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this book is to help to draw together and cement the relationship between the public and private sectors in the field of recreation and to remove the observable lines of difference between the two. It is also intended to introduce prospective students to private and commercial recreation, particularly those who may be considering…

Epperson, Arlin F.

345

Computer Technology and Its Impact on Recreation and Sport Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes several types of computer programs that can be useful to sports and recreation programs. Computerized tournament scheduling software is helpful to recreation and parks staff working with tournaments of 50 teams/individuals or more. Important features include team capacity, league formation, scheduling conflicts, scheduling…

Ross, Craig M.

346

Outdoor Recreation, a Comprehensive Plan for New Mexico, 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1976 State Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan--New Mexico (SCORP) is directed toward identifying the outdoor recreation needs of New Mexicans and presenting an action plan to be used by public officials and the private sector to satisfy present and...

1976-01-01

347

Assessing the Impact of New Student Campus Recreation Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The student recreation center (SRC) at many colleges and universities has evolved from being a place to lift weights and take aerobics classes to becoming a high-powered recruitment tool (Colleges use recreation, 2002). The present study included the development of an instrument to assess the use and impact of SRCs. Students (N = 655; users = 537,…

Zizzi, Samuel; Ayers, Suzan F.; Watson II, Jack C.; Keeler, Linda A.

2004-01-01

348

A Lifespan Perspective on Women and Physical Recreation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When applying a lifespan perspective to the study of recreation and leisure behavior, a woman's interest and involvement in physical recreation must be viewed not only in terms of her current psychological and biological status, but also within the context of her sociocultural environment and her personal and "group" history. (IAH)

Freysinger, Valeria J.

1990-01-01

349

RECREATION FOR THE HANDICAPPED, A BIBLIOGRAPHY. SUPPLEMENT I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

LISTING 442 REFERENCES FROM JANUARY 1, 1965 TO JANUARY 1, 1967, THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY ON RECREATION FOR THE HANDICAPPED SUPPLEMENTS THE ORIGINAL BIBLIOGRAPHY OF REFERENCES FROM THE 1950-65 PERIOD. ENTRIES ARE ARRANGED IN 13 CATEGORIES SUGGESTED BY AN ADVISORY COMMITTEE--(1) GENERAL PHILOSOPHY, (2) ADMINISTRATION OF RECREATION FACILITIES, (3)…

FREEBERG, WILLIAM H.; LUNAN, BERT

350

Collegiate Recreational Sports: Pivotal Players in Student Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an overview of the rise of modern-day collegiate recreational sports and their relevance to student learning and quality of life. The author discusses planning considerations for collegiate recreational sports facilities and the importance of these facilities as a recruitment and retention tool. (Contains 4 figures.)

Blumenthal, Kent J.

2009-01-01

351

Environmental Protection in Coastal Recreation Sites in Antalya, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to evaluate different approaches to the protection of the environments of coastal recreation sites in and around Antalya, Turkey. Data was collected by means of a survey of coastal recreation sites and six categories were evaluated: environmental protection, infrastructure facilities, water conservation, energy conservation, waste management, and protection of the natural environment. The results indicated that

Meryem Atik

2010-01-01

352

Motives for recreational river floating: Relative consistency across settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motive profiles for recreational travel on rivers by canoe, kayak, raft, and inner tube are analyzed for 11 diverse rivers nationwide. Differences among the rivers exist and are described, but the profiles are noted more for their striking consistency across the wide range of environmental settings represented. River recreation motives were also compared with those for 17 other forms of

Richard C. Knopf; George L. Peterson; Earl C. Leatherberry

1983-01-01

353

Chapter 4: Case Studies of Simulation Models of Recreation Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer simulation models can be usefully ap- plied to many different outdoor recreation situations. Model outputs can also be used for a wide variety of planning and management purposes. The intent of this chapter is to use a collection of 12 case studies to illustrate how simulation models have been used in a wide range of recreation situations and for

David N. Cole

354

36 CFR 7.48 - Lake Mead National Recreation Area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Mead National Recreation Area. 7.48...OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.48 Lake Mead National Recreation Area. (a...1)(i) The entire water surface of Lakes Mead and Mohave are designated...

2013-07-01

355

36 CFR 7.55 - Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area. ...OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.55 Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area. ...Aircraft. Float planes may be operated on Lake Roosevelt on those waters not...

2013-07-01

356

The 1983 National Survey of Computers in Parks and Recreation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than a third of park and recreation agencies in a 1983 survey reported use of microcomputers. This article explores types of software and hardware favored in the recreation profession. Work processing, budgeting, registration, and inventory are some of the applications used by this profession. (DF)

Stuyt, Jeff; Siderelis, Chrystos

1984-01-01

357

Out, out, and Away! Collection Development: Outdoor Recreation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summer is fast approaching, and it will soon be time to climb the mountains to get their good tidings, as naturalist John Muir put it. In other words, librarians must now prepare for the influx of patrons making weekend recreational and summer vacation plans by stocking up on books and other resources on the great outdoors. Outdoor recreational

Helling, John

2009-01-01

358

Oblique of recreation center portion, showing onestory exercise room with ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Oblique of recreation center portion, showing one-story exercise room with louvered windows and two-story section as left. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Bloch Recreation Center & Arena, Between Center Drive & North Road near Nimitz Gate, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

359

78 FR 48136 - Notice of New Recreation Fee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Campground has two sites with the following proposed fees: (1) Osprey recreation fee is proposed at $75/night for up to 50 persons...type of recreation opportunity. Forest visitors can reserve Osprey or Peregrine Sites at Eagle Ridge Group Campground by...

2013-08-07

360

Leadership for Recreation, Parks, and Leisure Services. Fourth Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Leadership for Recreation, Parks and Leisure Services" presents new perspectives on the importance of leadership in the profession. Integrating theory with practice, the book provides foundational perspectives in the study of leadership at all levels--direct service, supervisory, managerial and community/civic--in recreation, parks and leisure…

Edginton, Christopher R.; Hudson, Susan D.; Scholl, Kathleen G.; Lauzon, Lara

2011-01-01

361

Powerful Partnerships: Parents & Professionals Building Inclusive Recreation Programs Together.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of readings is intended to help parents of children with disabilities join together or with professionals to advocate for inclusive recreational programs for their children. The following 15 readings are included: "To Play or Not To Play? A History of Recreation in America" (Carla E. S. Tabourne et al.); "Why Is Inclusive…

Schleien, Stuart J., Ed.; And Others

362

Operation Sports, Health and Recreation Program. Reprint 1972.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication provides a variety of activities that have been useful in developing and conducting physical education and recreation programs at residential centers for mentally retarded persons throughout Texas. Easy-to-learn activities of this sports, health and recreation program (Operation SHARP) are presented in ways that minimize necessity…

Texas State Dept. of Mental Health and Mental Retardation, Austin.

363

Definitions of Outdoor Recreation and Other Associated Terminology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document defines terms related to outdoor recreation: (1) outdoor recreation includes activities that occur outdoors in an urban and man-made environment as well as those activities traditionally associated with the natural environment; (2) outdoor education is education in, about, and for the outdoors; (3) environmental education is an…

Phipps, Maurice L.

364

Assessment of exposures to fecally-contaminated recreational water  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to fecally-contaminated recreational waters can pose a health risk to swimmers and other recreators. Since 2003, we have interviewed nearly 27,000 respondents at seven beaches impacted by treated sewage discharge. Information was collected about the duration and exposure...

365

Preparing Students to Write a Professional Philosophy of Recreation Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a process for guiding students through the writing of a Professional Philosophy of Recreation Paper and a one-page philosophy statement suitable for use in students' professional portfolios. The authors describe how the review of recreation education literature, scholarship on teaching and learning, and assessment of student…

Stevens, Cheryl; Schneider, Paige P.; Johnson, Corey W.

2012-01-01

366

Recreation Therapy: Implications for the Ventilator Assisted Child.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines the role of the recreation therapist in the new trend towards home care for the ventilator assisted individual. The focus on home care necessitates that the recreation therapist familiarize parents with the rationale for activities as well as providing them with information about a variety of future leisure pursuits. In…

Keeker, Susan M.

367

Hospitality, Recreation, and Personal Service Occupations: Grade 8. Cluster V.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A curriculum guide for grade 8, the document is devoted to the occupational cluster "Hospitality, Recreation, and Personal Service Occupations." It is divided into four units: recreational resources for education, employment, and professional opportunities; barbering and cosmetology; mortuary science; hotel-motel management. Each unit is…

Calhoun, Olivia H.

368

Report of the Technical Committee for Hospitality, Tourism, Recreation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This color-coded committee report identifies the skills and knowledge required by employees in the hospitality/tourism/recreation occupational area. The reports of four subcommittees focused on food/beverage, hotel/motel, recreation/leisure, and travel/tourism skills are also included. Introductory materials include a general statement of the…

Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Div. of Vocational Education.

369

Addressing Challenges to the Shared Use of School Recreational Facilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The shared use of school recreational facilities holds the potential to offer activity opportunities for many people, especially those in low-income, minority, and under-resourced communities. School facilities are usually easily accessible and offer safe, free or low cost, and convenient recreation and sport opportunities. However, a number of…

Spengler, John O.; Connaughton, Daniel P.; Carroll, Michael S.

2011-01-01

370

DETAIL OF THE EXTERIOR WALL OF THE RECREATION CENTER. NOTE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL OF THE EXTERIOR WALL OF THE RECREATION CENTER. NOTE THE CONCRETE SLAB WITH ORIGINAL GREEN-STAINED FINISH, OCTAGONAL CAST CONCRETE COLUMN SUPPORTING 6" X 12" BEAM AND TAPERED RAFTERS. VIEW FACING NORTH - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Bloch Recreation Center & Arena, Between Center Drive & North Road near Nimitz Gate, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

371

Children of a Lesser God. "Core Values in Therapeutic Recreation"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in recreation programs are often introduced to laws that apply to therapeutic or community recreation services. Several of these laws have to do with policy regarding people who experience a disability. One important law is the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). In order for students to better understand the law and its…

Barney, Keith W.

2013-01-01

372

Assessing and monitoring agroenvironmental determinants of recreational freshwater quality using remote sensing.  

PubMed

Diverse fecal and nonfecal bacterial contamination and nutrient sources (e.g. agriculture, human activities and wildlife) represent a considerable non-point source load entering natural recreational waters which may adversely affect water quality. Monitoring of natural recreational water microbial quality is most often based mainly on testing a set of microbiological indicators. The cost and labour involved in testing numerous water samples may be significant when a large number of sites must be monitored repetitively over time. In addition to water testing, ongoing monitoring of key environmental factors known to influence microbial contamination may be carried out as an additional component. Monitoring of environmental factors can now be performed using remote sensing technology which represents an increasingly recognized source of rigorous and recurrent data, especially when monitoring over a large or difficult to access territory is needed. To determine whether this technology could be useful in the context of recreational water monitoring, we evaluated a set of agroenvironmental determinants associated with fecal contamination of recreational waters through a multivariable logistic regression model built with data extracted from satellite imagery. We found that variables describing the proportions of land with agricultural and impervious surfaces, as derived from remote sensing observations, were statistically associated (odds ratio, OR = 11 and 5.2, respectively) with a higher level of fecal coliforms in lake waters in the southwestern region of Quebec, Canada. From a technical perspective, remote sensing may provide important added-value in the monitoring of microbial risk from recreational waters and further applications of this technology should be investigated to support public health risk assessments and environmental monitoring programs relating to water quality. PMID:23552238

Turgeon, Patricia; Michel, Pascal; Levallois, Patrick; Ravel, André; Archambault, Marie; Lavigne, Martin-Pierre; Kotchi, Serge Olivier; Brazeau, Stéphanie

2013-01-01

373

Health Risks of Limited-Contact Water Recreation  

PubMed Central

Background: Wastewater-impacted waters that do not support swimming are often used for boating, canoeing, fishing, kayaking, and rowing. Little is known about the health risks of these limited-contact water recreation activities. Objectives: We evaluated the incidence of illness, severity of illness, associations between water exposure and illness, and risk of illness attributable to limited-contact water recreation on waters dominated by wastewater effluent and on waters approved for general use recreation (such as swimming). Methods: The Chicago Health, Environmental Exposure, and Recreation Study was a prospective cohort study that evaluated five health outcomes among three groups of people: those who engaged in limited-contact water recreation on effluent-dominated waters, those who engaged in limited-contact recreation on general-use waters, and those who engaged in non–water recreation. Data analysis included survival analysis, logistic regression, and estimates of risk for counterfactual exposure scenarios using G-computation. Results: Telephone follow-up data were available for 11,297 participants. With non–water recreation as the reference group, we found that limited-contact water recreation was associated with the development of acute gastrointestinal illness in the first 3 days after water recreation at both effluent-dominated waters [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.46; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08, 1.96] and general-use waters (1.50; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.07). For every 1,000 recreators, 13.7 (95% CI: 3.1, 24.9) and 15.1 (95% CI: 2.6, 25.7) cases of gastrointestinal illness were attributable to limited-contact recreation at effluent-dominated waters and general-use waters, respectively. Eye symptoms were associated with use of effluent-dominated waters only (AOR 1.50; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.06). Among water recreators, our results indicate that illness was associated with the amount of water exposure. Conclusions: Limited-contact recreation, both on effluent-dominated waters and on waters designated for general use, was associated with an elevated risk of gastrointestinal illness.

Pratap, Preethi; Wroblewski, Meredith; Hryhorczuk, Daniel O.; Li, Hong; Liu, Li C.; Scheff, Peter A.

2011-01-01

374

Gas phase acid, ammonia and aerosol ionic and trace element concentrations at Cape Verde during the Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer (RHaMBLe) 2007 intensive sampling period  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report mixing ratios of soluble reactive trace gases sampled with mist chambers and the chemical composition of bulk aerosol and volatile inorganic bromine (Brg) sampled with filter packs during the Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer (RHaMBLe) field campaign at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO) on São Vicente island in the tropical North Atlantic in May and June 2007. The gas-phase data include HCl, HNO3, HONO, HCOOH, CH3COOH, NH3, and volatile reactive chlorine other than HCl (Cl*). Aerosol samples were analyzed by neutron activation (Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, and Br) and ion chromatography (SO42-, Cl-, Br-, NH4+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+). Content and quality of the data, which are available under doi:10.5281/zenodo.6956, are presented and discussed.

Sander, R.; Pszenny, A. A. P.; Keene, W. C.; Crete, E.; Deegan, B.; Long, M. S.; Maben, J. R.; Young, A. H.

2013-07-01

375

Gas phase acid, ammonia and aerosol ionic and trace element concentrations at Cape Verde during the Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer (RHaMBLe) 2007 intensive sampling period  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report mixing ratios of soluble reactive trace gases sampled with mist chambers and the chemical composition of bulk aerosol and volatile inorganic bromine (Brg) sampled with filter packs during the Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer (RHaMBLe) field campaign at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO) on São Vicente island in the tropical North Atlantic in May and June 2007. The gas-phase data include HCl, HNO3, HONO, HCOOH, CH3COOH, NH3, and volatile reactive chlorine other than HCl (Cl*). Aerosol samples were analyzed by neutron activation (Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, and Br) and ion chromatography (SO42-, Cl-, Br-, NH4+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+). Content and quality of the data, which are available under doi:10.5281/zenodo.6956, are presented and discussed.

Sander, R.; Pszenny, A. A. P.; Keene, W. C.; Crete, E.; Deegan, B.; Long, M. S.; Maben, J. R.; Young, A. H.

2013-12-01

376

Proceedings of the Symposium: 1989 Northeastern Recreation Research. Held in Saratoga Springs, New York, on April 3-5, 1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proceedings contains 23 papers covering the following topics: recreation priorities in the Northeast, outdoor recreation and recreation management, socio-economic aspects of recreation, travel and tourism, and the psychological aspects of leisure.

1989-01-01

377

Proceedings of the 1994 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium. Held in Saratoga Springs, New York on April 10-12, 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proceedings contains 54 research and management papers on the following subjects: partnerships in recreation management and programming; outdoor recreation planning; wildlife and fisheries management; outdoor recreation management; outdoor recreation:...

G. A. Vender Stoep

1994-01-01

378

Over Stedelijke Recreatie en Ruimtelijk Ontwerpen (Changing Lifestyles and Urban Recreation of the Adult Generation in the Netherlands),  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report develops the concepts of recreation, open-air recreation, and urban or town recreation. It discusses the commercialization of outdoor recreation and project development by government authorities. It examines the kinds of leisure time use in cit...

M. Mentzel A. F. Mulder

1987-01-01

379

Proceedings of the 1990 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium. Held in Saratoga Springs, New York, February 25-28, 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proceedings of the 1990 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium contains 33 papers on the following subjects: recreation in the 1990's; outdoor recreation; travel, tourism, and community development; monitoring recreation systems; fisheries and wil...

T. A. More M. P. Donnelly A. R. Graefe J. J. Vaske A. M. Rogers

1990-01-01

380

Marine Microbial Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image-rich website from the Australian Antarctic Division's Biology program describes its research in marine microbial ecology. It includes an introduction of microbial ecology and microbial processes, followed by information about the research project. Field sampling, microscopy, flow cytometry, pigment analysis, flourometry, HPLC, culturing, feeding experiments, and the research staff are each discussed using vivid imagery. Links are provided to related websites.

Division, Australian A.

381

Prevalence and characteristics of ESBL-producing E. coli in Dutch recreational waters influenced by wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

Outside health care settings, people may acquire ESBL-producing bacteria through different exposure routes, including contact with human or animal carriers or consumption of contaminated food. However, contact with faecally contaminated surface water may also represent a possible exposure route. The current study investigated the prevalence and characteristics of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in four Dutch recreational waters and the possible role of nearby waste water treatment plants (WWTP) as contamination source. Isolates from recreational waters were compared with isolates from WWTP effluents, from surface water upstream of the WWTPs, at WWTP discharge points, and in connecting water bodies not influenced by the studied WWTPs. ESBL-producing E. coli were detected in all four recreational waters, with an average concentration of 1.3 colony forming units/100ml, and in 62% of all samples. In surface waters not influenced by the studied WWTPs, ESBL-producing E. coli were detected in similar concentrations, indicating the existence of additional ESBL-E. coli contamination sources. Isolates with identical ESBL-genes, phylogenetic background, antibiotic resistance profiles, and sequence type, were obtained from effluent and different surface water sites in the same watershed, on the same day; occasionally this included isolates from recreational waters. Recreational waters were identified as a potential exposure source of ESBL-producing E. coli. WWTPs were shown to contribute to the presence of these bacteria in surface waters, but other (yet unidentified) sources likely co-contribute. PMID:24690376

Blaak, Hetty; de Kruijf, Patrick; Hamidjaja, Raditijo A; van Hoek, Angela H A M; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Schets, Franciska M

2014-07-16

382

THE LOGNORMAL DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF THE GEOMETRIC MEAN AND THE ARITHMETIC MEAN IN RECREATIONAL WATER QUALITY MEASUREMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Since 1968 United States recreational water quality criteria have set a limit on the geometric mean for fecal indicator bacteria from a number water samples taken over a period of time (National Technical Advisory Committee, 1968; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1976 and 19...

383

Quantitative Evaluation of the Impact of Bather Density on Levels of Human-Virulent Microsporidian Spores in Recreational Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 14 February 2007\\/Accepted 24 April 2007 Microsporidial gastroenteritis, a serious disease of immunocompromised people, can have a waterborne etiology. During summer months, samples of recreational bathing waters were tested weekly for human- virulent microsporidian spores and water quality parameters in association with high and low bather numbers during weekends and weekdays, respectively. Enterocytozoon bieneusi spores were detected in 59%

Thaddeus K. Graczyk; Deirdre Sunderland; Leena Tamang; Timothy M. Shields; Frances E. Lucy; Patrick N. Breysse

2007-01-01

384

Measurement of trihalomethanes in potable and recreational waters using solid phase micro extraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid phase micro extraction (SPME) was applied to the determination of selected trihalomethanes (THMs), chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, bromoform, in potable and recreational waters. The selected samples were environmentally significant due to mandatory limits imposed by regulatory agencies. Extraction of the analytes was performed using headspace SPME (fused silica fibre with a 100 ?m poly(dimethylsiloxane coating) followed by thermal desorption at

Mary A. Stack; Gillian Fitzgerald; Sharon O'Connell; Kevin J. James

2000-01-01

385

Comparison of Enterococcus measurements in freshwater at two recreational beaches by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and membrane filter culture analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell densities of the fecal pollution indicator genus, Enterococcus, were determined by a rapid (3h or less) quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) analysis method in 100ml water samples collected from recreational beaches on Lake Michigan and Lake Erie during the summer of 2003. Measurements by this method were compared with counts of Enterococcus colony-forming units (CFU) determined by Method 1600

Richard A. Haugland; Shawn C. Siefring; Larry J. Wymer; Kristen P. Brenner; Alfred P. Dufour

2005-01-01

386

Remote sensing in the coastal and marine environment. Proceedings of the US North Atlantic Regional Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presentations were grouped in the following categories: (1) a technical orientation of Earth resources remote sensing including data sources and processing; (2) a review of the present status of remote sensing technology applicable to the coastal and marine environment; (3) a description of data and information needs of selected coastal and marine activities; and (4) an outline of plans for marine monitoring systems for the east coast and a concept for an east coast remote sensing facility. Also discussed were user needs and remote sensing potentials in the areas of coastal processes and management, commercial and recreational fisheries, and marine physical processes.

Zaitzeff, J. B. (editor); Cornillon, P. (editor); Aubrey, D. A. (editor)

1980-01-01

387

Marine Climatology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The marine climatology of New York Bight is presented both as summaries of available data on those meteorological variables that make up the climate and as interactive processes among land, sea, and air that influence the meteorological variables and prod...

B. Lettau W. A. Brower R. G. Quayle

1976-01-01

388

Marine structure  

SciTech Connect

A marine structure is described having a base and a foundation means projecting downwardly from the base for pressing into the sea bed. The foundation comprises a wall system with pile means on both sides of the wall(s).

Olsen, O.

1981-12-08

389

A proposal for source tracking of fecal pollution in recreational waters by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.  

PubMed

This study aimed to identify specific river sources of fecal contamination by applying pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to environmental water samples from a recreational beach in Japan. The genotypes of all Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis strains used as indicators of fecal pollution on the recreational beach and rivers were analyzed by PFGE, and the PFGE profiles of the strains were classified at a 0.9 similarity level using dendrogram analysis. PFGE types of E. faecium isolated from Sakai River or urban drainage were classified in the same cluster. Therefore, the probable sources of fecal pollution on the recreational beach were Sakai River and urban drainage. The approaches for microbial source tracking employed in this study used PFGE with Enterococcus species as an indicator can be a potential tool to specify the source(s) of fecal pollution and contribute to improved public health in coastal environments. PMID:24256972

Furukawa, Takashi; Suzuki, Yoshihiro

2013-01-01

390

A Proposal for Source Tracking of Fecal Pollution in Recreational Waters by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to identify specific river sources of fecal contamination by applying pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to environmental water samples from a recreational beach in Japan. The genotypes of all Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis strains used as indicators of fecal pollution on the recreational beach and rivers were analyzed by PFGE, and the PFGE profiles of the strains were classified at a 0.9 similarity level using dendrogram analysis. PFGE types of E. faecium isolated from Sakai River or urban drainage were classified in the same cluster. Therefore, the probable sources of fecal pollution on the recreational beach were Sakai River and urban drainage. The approaches for microbial source tracking employed in this study used PFGE with Enterococcus species as an indicator can be a potential tool to specify the source(s) of fecal pollution and contribute to improved public health in coastal environments.

Furukawa, Takashi; Suzuki, Yoshihiro

2013-01-01

391

Animal behaviour and marine protected areas: incorporating behavioural data into the selection of marine protected areas for an endangered killer whale population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like many endangered wildlife populations, the viability and conservation status of 'southern resident' killer whales Orcinus orca in the north-east Pacific may be affected by prey limitation and repeated disturbance by human activities. Marine protected areas (MPAs) present an attractive option to mitigate impacts of anthropogenic activities, but they run the risk of tokenism if placed arbitrarily. Notwithstanding recreational and

E. Ashe; D. P. Noren; R. Williams

2010-01-01

392

Marine Collagens  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As a family of proteins with unique structural features, marine invertebrate collagens have been a focus of structure–function\\u000a correlation studies as well as studies interrelating successive levels of structural organization, from the amino acid sequence\\u000a to the anatomically defined fibril. Structural and biochemical peculiarities of marine invertebrates collagens isolated from\\u000a sponges, jellyfishes, molluscs, and echinoderms as well as perspectives of

Hermann Ehrlich

393

Marine Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the wild, small crustaceans known as brine shrimp live in marine habitats such as saltwater lakes. In this activity, learners create a saltwater or marine ecosystem that becomes an experimental brine shrimp hatchery. Learners observe the brine shrimp life cycle and test the effect of salinity (salt content) on brine shrimp eggs and larvae, as well as consider the potential impact of other variables such as water temperature and pollution.

Jersey, New; Center, Liberty S.; Coalition, New J.

2006-01-01

394

Laboratory validation of an ozone device for recreational water treatment.  

PubMed

Obtaining an accurate assessment of a treatment system's antimicrobial efficacy in recreational water is difficult given the large scale and high flow rates of the water systems. A laboratory test system was designed to mimic the water conditions and potential microbial contaminants found in swimming pools. This system was utilized to evaluate the performance of an in situ ozone disinfection device against four microorganisms: Cryptosporidium parvum, bacteriophage MS2, Enterococcus faecium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The sampling regimen evaluated the antimicrobial effectiveness in a single pass fashion, with samples being evaluated initially after exposure to the ozone unit, as well as at points downstream from the device. Based on the flow dynamics and log reductions, cycle threshold (Ct) values were calculated. The observed organism log reductions were as follows: >6.7 log for E. faecium and P. aeruginosa; >5.9 log for bacteriophage MS2; and between 2.7 and 4.1 log for C. parvum. The efficacy results indicate that the test system effectively functions as a secondary disinfection system as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Model Aquatic Health Code. PMID:23708574

Donofrio, Robert S; Aridi, Sal; Saha, Ratul; Bechanko, Robin; Schaefer, Kevin; Bestervelt, Lorelle L; Hamil, Beth

2013-06-01

395

Relationship between Enterococcal Levels and Sediment Biofilms at Recreational Beaches in South Florida  

PubMed Central

Enterococci, recommended at the U.S. federal level for monitoring water quality at marine recreational beaches, have been found to reside and grow within beach sands. However, the environmental and ecological factors affecting enterococcal persistence remain poorly understood, making it difficult to determine levels of fecal pollution and assess human health risks. Here we document the presence of enterococci associated with beach sediment biofilms at eight south Florida recreational beaches. Enterococcal levels were highest in supratidal sands, where they displayed a nonlinear, unimodal relationship with extracellular polymeric secretions (EPS), the primary component of biofilms. Enterococcal levels peaked at intermediate levels of EPS, suggesting that biofilms may promote the survival of enterococci but also inhibit enterococci as the biofilm develops within beach sands. Analysis of bacterial community profiles determined by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms showed the bacterial communities of supratidal sediments to be significantly different from intertidal and subtidal communities; however, no differences were observed in bacterial community compositions associated with different EPS concentrations. Our results suggest that supratidal sands are a microbiologically unique environment favorable for the incorporation and persistence of enterococci within beach sediment biofilms.

Piggot, Alan M.; Johnson, Sara; Phillips, Matthew C.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.

2012-01-01

396

Gulf of Maine Marine Habitat Primer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This book provides an overview of the Gulf of Maine's coastal and offshore habitats for resource managers and other coastal decision-makers in government, Non-Government Organizations (NGOs), and the private sector. Illustrated with color photographs and drawings, the primer describes habitat characteristics, ecological functions, economic and recreational values, human impacts, and management considerations. It is intended as a tool for resource managers, planners, legislators, conservation commissioners, NGO staff members, and other people seeking a better understanding of marine habitats from Massachusetts to Nova Scotia. The book is available in six downloadable sections, or it can be ordered as a hard copy.

397

Estimation of Enterococci Input from Bathers and Animals on A Recreational Beach Using Camera Images  

PubMed Central

Enterococci, are used nationwide as a water quality indicator of marine recreational beaches. Prior research has demonstrated that enterococci inputs to the study beach site (located in Miami, FL) are dominated by non-point sources (including humans and animals). We have estimated their respective source functions by developing a counting methodology for individuals to better understand their non-point source load impacts. The method utilizes camera images of the beach taken at regular time intervals to determine the number of people and animal visitors. The developed method translates raw image counts for weekdays and weekend days into daily and monthly visitation rates. Enterococci source functions were computed from the observed number of unique individuals for average days of each month of the year, and from average load contributions for humans and for animals. Results indicate that dogs represent the larger source of enterococci relative to humans and birds.

D, Wang John; M, Solo-Gabriele Helena; M, Abdelzaher Amir; E, Fleming Lora

2010-01-01

398

A Six-Decade Portrait of Florida Marine Fisheries via Landings-Based Trophodynamic Indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four trophic-level (TL)-based metrics—landings trophic spectra (LTS), landings proportions of TL categories (LP), landings mean TL (MTL), and fishing-in-balance index (FiB)—are used to describe Florida's coast-specific and statewide commercial, recreational, and combined marine fisheries and to examine whether “fishing down the marine food web” (FDMFW) occurred during 1950–2007. Effects of environment-dependent species, large pelagic species, market and exploitation pressures, and

Joseph Munyandorero; Cameron B. Guenther

2010-01-01

399

RBSim 2: simulating the complex interactions between human movement and the outdoor recreation environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes advancements in recreation management using new technology that couples Geographic Information Systems (GIS) with Intelligent Agents to simulate recreation behaviour in real world settings. RBSim 2 (Recreation Behaviour Simulator) is a computer simulation program that enables recreation managers to explore the consequences of change to any one or more variables so that the goal of accommodating increasing

Robert Itami; Rob Raulings; Glen MacLaren; Kathleen Hirst; Randy Gimblett; Dino Zanon; Peter Chladek

2003-01-01

400

RBSim 2: Simulating the complex interactions between human movement and the outdoor recreation environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes advancements in recreation management using new technology that couples Geographic Information Systems (GIS) with Intelligent Agents to simulate recreation behaviour in real world settings. RBSim 2 (Recreation Behaviour Simulator) is a computer simulation program that enables recreation managers to explore the consequences of change to any one or more variables so that the goal of accommodating increasing

Robert Itami; Rob Raulings; Glen MacLaren; Kathleen Hirst; Randy Gimblett; Dino Zanon; Peter Chladek

2004-01-01

401

Problem Solving: Tools and Techniques for the Park and Recreation Administrator. Fourth Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a useful tool for recreation educators in carrying out their responsibilities for preparing the next generation for effective service in recreation and parks. The need for this book is apparent, because few recreation curricula include courses in problem solving. It is true that many texts dealing with recreation describe policies and…

Arnold, Margaret L.; Heyne, Linda A.; Busser, James A.

2005-01-01

402

The Rural Recreation Integration Project: Reaching Out with Interactive Video Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

North Dakota's Rural Recreation Integration Project disseminates innovative training and technical assistance from therapeutic recreation specialists to recreation and human service providers. The information helps facilitate the inclusion of people with disabilities into recreation/leisure activities. To make the training accessible, they use the…

Anderson, Lynn; And Others

1996-01-01

403

Getting All Girls into the Game: Physically Active Recreation for Girls with Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: Local public parks and recreation programs are beginning to address the problems associated with inactivity among America's youth. With a mission that focuses on serving all populations through recreation programming, community recreation seems an ideal conduit for increasing social justice. However, research as recent as 2003 (Jones, 2003) found that girls with disabilities are still overlooked in recreation

Denise M. Anderson; Leandra A. Bedini; Leslie Moreland

404

Some Organizational and Income-Determining Features of the Wisconsin Outdoor Recreation Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A report on the economics of Wisconsin outdoor recreation industry, including characteristics of private recreation enterprises, financial components such as investment, gross recreation income, costs, net recreation income, and return to family labor and management. Other management aspects, such as rate determination, outside employment,…

Cooper, R. B.; And Others

405

A Regional Recreation Feasibility Study (Okefenokee Theme Park).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document analyzes the Okefenokee region in terms of potential and feasibility for development of a commercial recreation facility in the form of a theme park related to the environment. Finding such a facility feasible, the study further analyzes and ...

1971-01-01

406

Regional Demand and Supply Projections for Outdoor Recreation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974 (RPA), requires the USDA Forest Service to conduct an assessment of national level economic trends in renewable resources, including outdoor recreation, every 10 years. The study, an issue ...

C. J. Betz D. B. K. English H. K. Cordell J. C. Bergstrom J. M. Young

1993-01-01

407

1965 Summer Outdoor Recreation Demand and Travel Inventories.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The inventories were designed to collect data necessary for establishing the use of existing recreational facilities and the highways serving these areas. These data will also serve as the basis for developing procedures suitable for projecting future rec...

C. C. Crevo B. E. Southworth

1966-01-01

408

3. EAST SIDE SHOWING RECREATION PATIO ADDITION AT SOUTHERN END. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. EAST SIDE SHOWING RECREATION PATIO ADDITION AT SOUTHERN END. TWO-STORY PORTION AT SOUTHERN END CONTAINS 'RIGGING LOFT.' - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Public Works Shop, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

409

Steps of Healthy Swimming: Protection against Recreational Water Illnesses (RWIs)  

MedlinePLUS

... Compartir Steps of Healthy Swimming: Protection Against Recreational Water Illnesses (RWIs) You can choose to swim healthy! ... the power to help keep germs out the water in places we swim in the first place. ...

410

Water Resource Standards for Second Home and Recreational Land Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In recent years the North Carolina mountains have faced a rapid influx of second home and recreational land development. Unfortunately, increased land development in this region is resulting in the gradual degradation of once pristine waters. Numerous sta...

L. F. West

1977-01-01

411

Improving the Compatibility of Highways and Cultural-Recreational Centers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purposes of the study were to learn how highways influence the location and operation of cultural and recreational centers and how compatibility between centers and highways could be improved. Planning and design factors to be considered when selectin...

S. R. Sachs T. R. Cagley R. L. Morris G. D. Thomas

1978-01-01

412

Role of Recreation in Facilitating Gender Integration in the Navy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project was initiated in response to requests from the fleet to provide Navy leadership with tools to facilitate the integration of women throughout the active duty force. This study explored how Navy Morale, Welfare, and Recreation (MWR) programs co...

A. L. Culbertson P. J. Johnson J. P. Harden

1998-01-01

413

40 CFR 247.14 - Park and recreation products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Designations § 247.14 Park and recreation products. (a) Playground surfaces and running tracks containing recovered rubber or...recovered steel, aluminum, plastic, or concrete. (d) Playground equipment containing recovered plastic, steel, or...

2013-07-01

414

40 CFR 230.52 - Water-related recreation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

(a) Water-related recreation encompasses activities undertaken for amusement and relaxation. Activities encompass two broad categories of use: consumptive, e.g., harvesting resources by hunting and fishing; and non-comsumptive, e.g. canoeing and...

2013-07-01

415

151. Linville Falls Recreation Area. Detail of the diamond shaped ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

151. Linville Falls Recreation Area. Detail of the diamond shaped cutwaters of the Linville River Bridge. Looking south. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

416

Economic and Social Impact of Recreation at Reclamation Reservoirs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three reclamation reservoirs in Colorado were studied, twenty years after construction, to determine the economic and social impact of recreation. Two were remote scenic mountain reservoirs (studied as a single area); the third was a foothills reservoir n...

J. G. Milliken H. E. Mew

1969-01-01

417

27. VIEW SHOWING SOUTH SIDE OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER RECREATION OFFICE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. VIEW SHOWING SOUTH SIDE OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER RECREATION OFFICE BUILDING, LE CLAIRE BASE COMPOUND - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 14, Upper Mississippi River, Le Claire, Scott County, IA

418

30. INTERIOR VIEW OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER RECREATION OFFICE, LE CLAIRE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. INTERIOR VIEW OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER RECREATION OFFICE, LE CLAIRE BASE COMPOUND, LOOKING EAST - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 14, Upper Mississippi River, Le Claire, Scott County, IA

419

28. VIEW SHOWING NORTH SIDE OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER RECREATION OFFICE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. VIEW SHOWING NORTH SIDE OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER RECREATION OFFICE BUILDING, LE CLAIRE BASE COMPOUND - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 14, Upper Mississippi River, Le Claire, Scott County, IA

420

29. INTERIOR VIEW OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER RECREATION OFFICE BUILDING, LE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. INTERIOR VIEW OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER RECREATION OFFICE BUILDING, LE CLAIRE BASE COMPOUND, LOOKING WEST - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 14, Upper Mississippi River, Le Claire, Scott County, IA

421

Southwest Energy Study. Appendix I. Recreation and Aesthetics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work group report discusses the impact of incremental increases in electrical power generation on natural, historic and cultural components of the recreational environment. Because of a deficiency in data with which to make objective analyses, the re...

1972-01-01

422

PRELIMINARY HEALTH BURDEN ANALYSIS FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC RECREATIONAL WATER STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Introduction: The National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water Study (NEEAR) offers a rare opportunity for researchers. The study's design involves the collection of health data before and after visiting the beach in conjunction with water quality...

423

RISK AND RISK ASSESSMENT IN WATER-BASED RECREATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The great number of individuals using recreational water resources presents a challenge with regard to protecting the health of these recreationists. Risk assessment provides a framework for characterizing the risk associated with exposure to microbial hazards and for managing r...

424

Human brain disease recreated in mice  

SciTech Connect

In the early 1980s, neurologist Stanley Prusiner suggested that scrapie, an apparently infectious degenerative brain disease of sheep, could be transmitted by prions, infectious particles made just of protein - and containing no nucleic acids. But prion research has come a long way since then. In 1985, the cloning of the gene encoding the prion protein proved that it does in fact exist. And the gene turned out to be widely expressed in the brains of higher organisms, a result suggesting that the prion protein has a normal brain function that can somehow be subverted, leading to brain degeneration. Then studies done during the past 2 years suggested that specific mutations in the prion gene might cause two similar human brain diseases, Gerstmann-Straeussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS) and Creutzfelt-Jakob disease. Now, Prusiner's group at the University of California, San Francisco, has used genetic engineering techniques to recreate GSS by transplanting the mutated prion gene into mice. Not only will the animal model help neurobiologists answer the many remaining questions about prions and how they work, but it may also shed some light on other neurodegenerative diseases as well.

Marx, J.

1990-12-14

425

Repeated snake bite for recreation: Mechanisms and implications  

PubMed Central

Snake venom use for recreational purposes has been documented earlier. Willfully subjecting oneself to repeated lethal snake bite as a source of getting relieved of stress and recreation observed in two healthy software engineers, without any underlying psychiatric ailments or comorbidities along with probable mechanisms, are reported. Emergency physicians and practitioners have to be aware of novel methods of exposure to snake venom so as to recognize such cases and treat them accordingly.

Senthilkumaran, Subramanian; Shah, Sweni; Balamurugan, Namasivayam; Menezes, Ritesh G; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah

2013-01-01

426

Marine Antimalarials  

PubMed Central

Malaria is an infectious disease causing at least 1 million deaths per year, and, unfortunately, the chemical entities available to treat malaria are still too limited. In this review we highlight the contribution of marine chemistry in the field of antimalarial research by reporting the most important results obtained until the beginning of 2009, with particular emphasis on recent discoveries. About 60 secondary metabolites produced by marine organisms have been grouped into three structural types and discussed in terms of their reported antimalarial activities. The major groups of metabolites include isonitrile derivatives, alkaloids and endoperoxide derivatives. The following discussion evidences that antimalarial marine molecules can efficiently integrate the panel of lead compounds isolated from terrestrial sources with new chemical backbones and, sometimes, with unique functional groups.

Fattorusso, Ernesto; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio

2009-01-01

427

Opinions of fisheries researchers, managers, and anglers towards recreational fishing issues: an exploratory analysis for North America  

SciTech Connect

There is a need to better understand the perspectives of various recreational fishing stakeholder groups regarding key issues related to fisheries sustainability. To provide a first snapshot and to inform future human dimension studies in this area, we distributed a Web-based open-access survey to fisheries researchers, fisheries managers, and anglers in North America. Attitudes of these respondents towards issues such as overharvest, impacts of catch and release, recreational fisheries management, and research priorities for the future were assessed. We found similar opinions and perspectives by the responding recreational anglers, managers,and researchers on a number of issues, such as the perceived impact of commercial fishing contributing to fish stock declines, the perceived importance of using and promoting gear that minimizes stress and injury to individual fish when fish are to be released, and the belief that conflicts among stakeholders is growing as is the global anti-fishing movement based on animal rights thinking. Differences among responding groups included that researchers tended to be more concerned than anglers and managers with the potential of recreational angling contributing to fish stock declines. Responding anglers were also less content with their involvement in the fisheries management process than were responding managers and researchers, and these anglers also indicated a greater desire for more human dimensions research on understanding angler attitudes and behavior than was evident for responding managers and researchers. This preliminary survey revealed some variation in attitudes among recreational fisheries stakeholders. However, due to lack of random sampling, the study results cannot be extrapolated to the population level. We nevertheless conclude that improved communication and better understanding about the different perspectives among fisheries researchers, managers, and anglers and intrasectorally among different angling groups are needed, particularly when addressing contentious issues of relevance for the entire recreational fishing sector.

Hasler, Caleb T.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Rapp, Tobias; Jamieson, Elizabeth; Bellehumeur, Karyne; Arlinghaus, Robert; Cooke, Steven J.

2011-05-02

428

Small Mammal Survey at Big Lagoon, Muir Beach, Marin County, CA.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Big Lagoon at Muir Beach, in Marin County, California is part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA) and is a popular destination for park visitors, receiving approximately 440,000 visitors annually. Today, Big Lagoon consists of fragmented h...

J. Y. Takekawa M. A. Bias I. Woo S. A. Demers E. E. Boydston

2003-01-01

429

Turning the Tide on Trash: A Learning Guide on Marine Debris.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The oceans covering two-thirds of the earth's surface constitute a resource for animal life, fishing industries, coastal economies, and recreation. This learning guide is a collection of 14 activities integrating art, language arts, mathematics, music, science, and social studies with the study of marine debris. A student survey is used to…

Eastern Research Group, Inc., Lexington, MA.

430

Conflict and Impacts of Divers and Anglers in a Marine Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

The New South Wales State Government (Australia) gazetted the Jervis Bay Marine Park (JBMP) in 1998. During the preparation of the draft zoning plan in 2000, societal data on two conflicting park user groups—recreational scuba divers and fishers (anglers)—was collected. While conflict resolution was a plan priority, other factors, such as cumulative environmental impacts of users and protection for the

Tim P. Lynch; Elizabeth Wilkinson; Louise Melling; Rebecca Hamilton; Anne Macready; Sue Feary

2004-01-01

431

Comparing the lactate and EMG thresholds of recreational cyclists during incremental pedaling exercise.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of using the electromyography (EMG) signal as a noninvasive method of estimating the lactate threshold (LT) power output in recreational cyclists. Using an electromagnetic bicycle ergometer and constant pedaling cadence of 80 rpm, 24 recreational cyclists performed an incremental exercise protocol that consisted of stepwise increases in power output of 25 W every 3 min until exhaustion. The EMG signal was recorded from the right vastus lateralis (VL) and right rectus femoris (RF) throughout the test. Blood samples were taken from the fingertip every 3 min. The LT was determined by examining the relation between the lactate concentration and the power output using a log-log transformation model. The root mean square (RMS) value from the EMG signal was calculated for every 1-second non-superimposing window. Sets of pairs of straight regression lines were plotted and the corresponding determination coefficients (R(2)) were calculated. The intersection point of the pair of lines with the highest R(2) product was chosen to represent the EMG threshold (EMGT). The results showed that the correlation coefficients (r) between EMGT and LT were significant (p < 0.01) and high for the VL (r = 0.826) and RF (r = 0.872). The RF and VL muscles showed similar behavior during the maximal incremental test and the EMGT and LT power output were equivalent for both muscles. The validity of using EMG to estimate the LT power output in recreational cyclists was confirmed. PMID:18432288

Candotti, Cláudia Tarragô; Loss, Jefferson Fagundes; Melo, Mônica de Oliveira; La Torre, Marcelo; Pasini, Maicon; Dutra, Lucas Araújo; de Oliveira, José Leandro Nunes; de Oliveira, Lino Pinto

2008-05-01

432

Economic Impacts of Recreation on the Upper Mississippi River System. Recreation Use and activities Report. Final Version.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to measure the amount and type of recreation used in the Upper Mississippi River system. Geographically, the study includes the commercially navigable portions of five rivers: the Mississippi (North of Cairo, IL), Illinois Ri...

1993-01-01

433

Impaired cognitive performance in drug free users of recreational ecstasy (MDMA)  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and related congerers: MDA, MDEA) is the name given to a group of popular recreational drugs. Animal data raise concern about neurotoxic effects of high doses of ecstasy on central serotonergic systems. The threshold dose for neurotoxicity in humans is not clear and serotonin is involved in several functions including cognition. The purpose of this study was to investigate cognitive performance in a group of typical recreational ecstasy users.?METHODS—A comprehensive cognitive test battery was administered to 28 abstinent ecstasy users with concomitant use of cannabis only and to two equally sized matched groups of cannabis users and non-users. The sample consisted of ecstasy users with a typical recreational use pattern and did not include very heavy users.?RESULTS—Ecstasy users were unimpaired in simple tests of attention (alertness). However, they performed worse than one or both control groups in the more complex tests of attention, in memory and learning tasks, and in tasks reflecting aspects of general intelligence. Heavier ecstasy and heavier cannabis use were associated with poorer performance in the group of ecstasy users. By contrast, the cannabis users did not differ significantly in their performance from the non-users.?CONCLUSIONS—The present data raise concern that use of ecstasy possibly in conjunction with cannabis may lead to cognitive decline in otherwise healthy young people. Although the nature of the emerging cognitive disturbance is not yet clear, an impairment of working memory might be the common denominator underlying or contributing to declines of performance in various tasks. The cognitive disturbance is likely to be related to the well recognised neurotoxic potential of ecstasy. The data suggest that even typical recreational doses of ecstasy are sufficient to cause neurotoxicity in humans.??

Gouzoulis-Mayfran..., E.; Daumann, J.; Tuchtenhagen, F.; Pelz, S.; Becker, S.; Kunert, H.; Fimm, B.; Sass, H.

2000-01-01

434

Using Vulcan to Recreate Planetary Cores  

SciTech Connect

An accurate equation of state (EOS) for planetary constituents at extreme conditions is the key to any credible model of planets or low mass stars. However, experimental validation has been carried out on at high pressure (>few Mbar), and then only on the principal Hugoniot. For planetary and stellar interiors, compression occurs from gravitational force so that material states follow a line of isentropic compression (ignoring phase separation) to ultra-high densities. An example of the predicted states for water along the isentrope for Neptune is shown in a figure. The cutaway figure on the left is from Hubbard, and the phase diagram on the right is from Cavazzoni et al. Clearly these states lie at quite a bit lower temperature and higher density than single shock Hugoniot states but they are at higher temperature than can be achieved with accurate diamond anvil experiments. At extreme densities, material states are predicted to have quite unearthly properties such as high temperature superconductivity and low temperature fusion. High density experiments on Earth are achieved with either static compression techniques (i.e.diamond anvil cells) or dynamic compression techniques using large laser facilities, gas guns, or explosives. A major thrust of this work is to develop techniques to create and characterize material states that exists primarily at the core of giant planets and brown dwarf stars. Typically, models used to construct planetary isentropes are constrained by only the planet radius, outer atmospheric spectroscopy, and space probe gravitational moment and magnetic field data. Thus any data, which provide rigid constraints for these models will have a significant impact on a broad community of planetary and condensed matter scientists. Recent laser shock wave experiments have made great strides in recreating material states that exist in the outer 25% (in radius) of the Jovian planets and at the exterior of low-mass stars. Large laser facilities have been used to compressed materials to ultra-high pressures and characterize their thermodynamic and transport properties (plastic Hugoniot to 40 Mbar, deuterium Hugoniot to 3 Mbar, metallization of ''atomic'' deuterium on the Hugoniot). To probe materials properties at these high pressures, several experimental techniques were developed high resolution radiography, optical reflectance, pyrometry, and velocity/displacement sensitive interferometry are some of the diagnostics currently used in laser-generated shock EOS experiments. During our experiments at Vulcan we developed and tested precompressed and multiple shock experimental techniques which allowed us to recreate the extreme core states of giant plants. These experiments compressed water to densities higher than accessible by single shock Hugoniot techniques and showed that the metal-insulator transition of shocked precompressed water is suppressed significantly as compared to uncompressed water. Further, as predicted the temperature of shocked precompressed water is lower than the temperature of uncompressed water enabling us to determine the metallization mechanism for water near the Hugoniot.

Collins, G.W.; Celliers, P.M.; Hicks, D.G.; Mackinnon, A.J.; Moon, S.J.; Cauble, R.; DaSilva, L.B.; Koening, M.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Huser, G.; Jeanloz, R.; Lee, K.M.; Benedetti, L.R.; Henry, E.; Batani, D.; Willi, O.; Pasley, J.; Gessner, H.; Neely, D.; Notley, M.; Danson, C.

2001-08-15

435

Wearable electrochemical sensors for in situ analysis in marine environments.  

PubMed

The development of wearable screen-printed electrochemical sensors on underwater garments comprised of the synthetic rubber neoprene is reported. These wearable sensors are able to determine the presence of environmental pollutants and security threats in marine environments. Owing to its unique elastic and superhydrophobic morphology, neoprene is an attractive substrate for thick-film electrochemical sensors for aquatic environments and offers high-resolution printing with no apparent defects. The neoprene-based sensor was evaluated for the voltammetric detection of trace heavy metal contaminants and nitroaromatic explosives in seawater samples. We also describe the first example of enzyme (tyrosinase) immobilization on a wearable substrate towards the amperometric biosensing of phenolic contaminants in seawater. Furthermore, the integration of a miniaturized potentiostat directly on the underwater garment is demonstrated. The wearable sensor-potentiostat microsystem provides a visual indication and alert if the levels of harmful contaminants have exceeded a pre-defined threshold. The concept discussed here is well-suited for integration into dry- and wetsuits worn by divers and recreational surfers/swimmers, thereby providing them with the ability to continuously assess their surroundings for environmental contaminants and security hazards. PMID:21637863

Malzahn, Kerstin; Windmiller, Joshua Ray; Valdés-Ramírez, Gabriela; Schöning, Michael J; Wang, Joseph

2011-07-21

436

Marine Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With some knowledge of MatLab, Mathcad, Maple, or Mathmatica, one should be able to carry out a short study of the relationship between concentration of a marine pollutant and shell thickness of mussels and practice writing about the results of a mathematical study.

Smith, David

2001-01-22

437

Marine Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by William Barker and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, this module enables the user to carry out a short study of the relationship between concentration of a marine pollutant and shell thickness of mussels; to practice writing about the results of a mathematical study. This is one within a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Barker, William; Smith, David

2010-06-04

438

Mariner Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mariner was the name given to the earliest set of American space missions to explore the planets and to the spacecraft developed to carry them out. The missions were planned and executed by the JET PROPULSION LABORATORY (JPL) of the California Institute of Technology, which had been designated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as its lead center

C. Snyder

2000-01-01

439

Marine epibiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polysyncraton lacazei is a colonial tunicate (family didemnidae) living in the NW-mediterranean rocky sublitoral. A thorough scanning of numerous colonies revealed that in spite of an apparently heavy local fouling pressure only one fouling species — a kamptozoan — is encountered with some regularity on Polysyncraton. We try to define the epibiotic situation of sessile marine organisms as composed of

Martin Wahl; Francoise Lafargue

1990-01-01

440

Marine Trades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in marine trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

Abbott, Alan

441

Re-Creation of Historical Chrysotile-Containing Joint Compounds  

PubMed Central

Chrysotile-containing joint compound was commonly used in construction of residential and commercial buildings through the mid 1970s; however, these products have not been manufactured in the United States for more than 30 years. Little is known about actual human exposures to chrysotile fibers that may have resulted from use of chrysotile-containing joint compounds, because few exposure and no health-effects studies have been conducted specifically with these products. Because limited amounts of historical joint compounds are available (and the stability or representativeness of aged products is suspect), it is currently impossible to conduct meaningful studies to better understand the nature and magnitude of potential exposures to chrysotile that may have been associated with historical use of these products. Therefore, to support specific exposure and toxicology research activities, two types of chrysotile-containing joint compounds were produced according to original formulations from the late 1960s. To the extent possible, ingredients were the same as those used originally, with many obtained from the original suppliers. The chrysotile used historically in these products was primarily Grade 7RF9 from the Philip Carey mine. Because this mine is closed, a suitable alternate was identified by comparing the sizes and mineral composition of asbestos structures in a sample of what has been represented to be historical joint compound (all of which were chrysotile) to those in samples of three currently commercially available Grade 7 chrysotile products. The re-created materials generally conformed to original product specifications (e.g. viscosity, workability, crack resistance), indicating that these materials are sufficiently representative of the original products to support research activities.

Brorby, G. P.; Sheehan, P. J.; Berman, D. W.; Greene, J. F.; Holm, S. E.

2008-01-01

442

Microbiological Water Quality in Relation to Water-Contact Recreation, Cuyahoga River, Cuyahoga Valley National Park, Ohio, 2000 and 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The microbiological water quality of a 23-mile segment of the Cuyahoga River within the Cuyahoga Valley National Park was examined in this study. This segment of the river receives discharges of contaminated water from stormwater, combined-sewer overflows, and incompletely disinfected wastewater. Frequent exceedances of Ohio microbiological water-quality standards result in a health risk to the public who use the river for water-contact recreation. Water samples were collected during the recreational season of May through October at four sites on the Cuyahoga River in 2000, at three sites on the river in 2002, and from the effluent of the Akron Water Pollution Control Station (WPCS) both years. The samples were collected over a similar range in streamflow in 2000 and 2002. Samples were analyzed for physical and chemical constituents, as well as the following microbiological indicators and pathogenic organisms: Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella, F-specific and somatic coliphage, enterovirus, infectious enterovirus, hepatitis A virus, Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens), Cryptosporidium, and Giardia. The relations of the microorganisms to each other and to selected water-quality measures were examined. All microorganisms analyzed for, except Cryptosporidium, were detected at least once at each sampling site. Concentrations of E. coli exceeded the Ohio primary-contact recreational standard (298 colonies per 100 milliliters) in approximately 87 percent of the river samples and generally were higher in the river samples than in the effluent samples. C. perfringens concentrations were positively and significantly correlated with E. coli concentrations in the river samples and generally were higher in the effluent samples than in the river samples. Several of the river samples that met the Ohio E. coli secondary-contact recreational standard (576 colonies per 100 milliliters) had detections of enterovirus, infectious enterovirus, hepatitis A virus, and Salmonella, indicating that there are still risks even when the E. coli standard is not exceeded. River samples in which the secondary-contact recreational standard for E. coli was exceeded showed a higher percentage of the co-occurrence of pathogenic organisms than samples that met the standard. This indicates that in this study area, E. coli is a useful indicator of human health risk. Detections of hepatitis A virus tended to be associated with higher median concentrations of somatic coliphage, F-specific coliphage, and infectious enterovirus. In addition, geometric mean C. perfringens concentrations tended to be higher in samples where hepatitis A virus was present than in samples where hepatitis A virus was absent. Hepatitis A virus was not detected in samples collected upstream from the Akron WPCS; all downstream detections had coincident detections in the Akron WPCS effluent, suggesting that Akron WPCS was a principal source of hepatitis A virus at the downstream sites. Geometric mean concentrations of E. coli were calculated on the basis of analytical results from at least five samples collected at each river site during May, July, and September of 2000. In each case, the Ohio geometric-mean primary-contact recreational standard of 126 col/100 mL was exceeded. E. coli concentrations were significantly correlated with streamflow and increased with streamflow at sites upstream and downstream from the Akron WPCS. This indicates that E. coli loads from sources upstream from the Akron WPCS have the potential to appreciably influence the frequency of attainment of recreational water-quality standards at downstream locations.

Bushon, Rebecca N.; Koltun, G. F.

2004-01-01

443

A comprehensive framework for tourism and recreation drought vulnerability reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of drought are vast, but loss statistics often do not reflect the impacts on the tourism and recreation sector, which for many places is one of the most critical economic drivers. This is concerning because drought events are common across the globe, with varying frequency, duration, and intensity, and are therefore unavoidable. Over the years, drought conditions have been at record levels in many regions, causing deep societal and economic impacts. However, little research has been conducted on connections between tourism/recreation and drought, revealing a distinct disconnect between the tourism/recreation sector and drought management. To bridge this gap in the current understanding of, and approaches to, managing drought in the tourism/recreation sector, we present an interdisciplinary conceptual framework that integrates tourism/recreation into the drought management process to ensure sustainable economic development and community vitality. The model presented here promotes understanding of critical interactions through a bottom-up stakeholder engagement process balanced with formal top-down management approaches.

Thomas, Deborah S. K.; Wilhelmi, Olga V.; Finnessey, Taryn N.; Deheza, Veva

2013-12-01

444

Marine Jet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The marine turbine pump pictured is the Jacuzzi 12YJ, a jet propulsion system for pleasure or commercial boating. Its development was aided by a NASA computer program made available by the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) at the University of Georgia. The manufacturer, Jacuzzi Brothers, Incorporated, Little Rock, Arkansas, used COSMIC'S Computer Program for Predicting Turbopump Inducer Loading, which enabled substantial savings in development time and money through reduction of repetitive testing.

1978-01-01

445

Mariners' Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located in Newport News, Virginia, the Mariner's Museum is one of the largest international maritime history museums filled to the crow's nest with prized artifacts that celebrate the spirit of seafaring adventure. Site features eight online exhibitions including: The Age of Exploration, the USS Monitor, Chesapeake Bay, the Transatlantic Slave Trade, and more. Also includes visitor information, permanent and temporary museum exhibit information, and an image collection.

446

Biodegradative potential and characterization of bioemulsifiers of marine bacteria isolated from samples of seawater, sediment and fuel extracted at 4000 m of depth (Prestige wreck)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seawater, sediments and fuel samples extracted from a small area of the Prestige wreck (4000 m deep) were studied to check the microbial activity of the area, the occurrence of indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and the presence of bacteria able to produce bioemulsifiers. Twenty-one strains with the capacity to degrade hydrocarbons and\\/or produce useful bioemulsifiers were selected. Phylogenetic affiliation of these isolates

I. Uad; G. A. Silva-Castro; C. Pozo; J. González-López; C. Calvo

2010-01-01

447

Elevated nitrogen-containing particles observed in Asian dust aerosol samples collected at the marine boundary layer of the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis (low-Z particle EPMA) shows powerful advantages for the characterization of ambient particulate matter in environmental and geological applications. By the application of the low-Z particle EPMA single particle analysis, an overall examination of 1800 coarse and fine particles (aerodynamic diameters: 2.5-10 mum and 1.0-2.5 mum, respectively) in six samples collected on 28 April-1 May

H. Geng; Y.-M. Park; H.-J. Hwang; S. Kang; C.-U. Ro

2009-01-01

448

Ghent University: Marine Biology Section  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website features Ghent University's Marine Biology Section. The Section's homepage links to information on research, publications, section staff, and more. Involved in marine ecosystem research since the 1970s, some of the Marine Biology Section's current interests include: Atlantic Ocean Deep-sea Areas, Biology of the Antartic Meiobenthos, Ecology of Tropical Estuaries and Lagoons, Ecophysiology of Meiobenthos, and more. The site links to basic information about recent research projects as well as information on environmental management research for coastal zones, sampling and analyses equipment, and one available database focusing on marine Nematoda and Mysida. The site provides research interests and contact information for faculty, and a list of publications and Ph.D. Theses from 1969-2003 (with PDF files for publication abstracts from 1994 on). The site also offers a list of relevant links.

449

Marine Corps Child Care: User Fee Increases at Parris Island and Beaufort Installations. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Military Personnel and Compensation, Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes ways in which appropriated and nonappropriated funds were used to support morale, welfare, and recreation (MWR) activities, which include child care, at the Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, South Carolina, and the Marine Corps Air Station, Beaufort, South Carolina. In addition, the report provides information on…

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

450

The geography of recreational physical activity in England  

PubMed Central

Levels of physical activity have declined considerably over recent decades in England, and there is evidence that activity patterns vary across areas. Previous studies of the geography of physical activity have frequently relied on model based synthetic estimates. Using data from a large population survey this study develops a direct measure of recreational physical activity and investigates variations in activity patterns across English Local Authorities. For both sexes the results show a distinct geography of recreational physical activity associated with north/south variations and urban/rural status. The environmental and behavioural factors driving those patterns are still poorly understood. We conclude that the variations observed might reflect recreational opportunities and the socio-cultural context of areas.

Rind, Esther; Jones, Andy

2013-01-01

451

Physicochemical and microbiological assessment of recreational and drinking waters.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed to make an assessment of health risk due to pollution and human pathogenic bacteria associated with the recreational and drinking water sources in twin densely populated holy Indian cities Ayodhya and Faizabad. Though physicochemical studies revealed that the water available in the area is under recommended limits for human use, it is unsafe on account of poor microbiological quality of surface and ground water in the region. The most probable number (MPN) test results revealed the preponderance of ?2,400 total coliforms (TC) (100 ml)(-1) in river, pond, dug well and kund waters. Contrary to that, 94% tube wells, 32% hand pumps and 25% piped supply water were under safe limits having <3 TC (100 ml)(-1). The shallow depth (~40 ft), water logging and presence of septic tanks in the near vicinity are the possible reasons of poor microbial quality of hand pump drinking water. The municipal supply water passes along sewage line where loose connections and/or cracks in pipe lead to mixing and contamination. The significant best quality of tube well water evident from the absence of TC could be attributed to the depth of well ?150 ft and usually their location away from the habitation. A total of 263 bacteria from 186 water samples were isolated, and at least five genera of enteric bacteria from various water sources were identified morphologically and biochemically as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., Enterobacter sp., Shigella sp. and Salmonella sp. The serotyping of 72 E. coli and 36 Salmonella sp. revealed 51 as E. coli O157 and 20 as Salmonella sp. The presence of enteric pathogens in water sources pose threat to human health and therefore call for immediate remedial measures. PMID:21713494

Kumar, Shailendra; Tripathi, Vinayak R; Garg, Satyendra K

2012-05-01

452

Gamma hydroxybutyrate--a coma inducing recreational drug.  

PubMed Central

The effects of gamma hydroxybutyrate, a coma inducing recreational drug, are described and illustrated by case reports of five patients presenting to accident and emergency (A&E). All had depressed levels of consciousness. There was strong circumstantial evidence of gamma hydroxybutyrate ingestion in all cases, and laboratory evidence in two. All recovered and supportive treatment. gamma Hydroxybutyrate has become a fashionable recreational drug. The majority of people who have ingested it will recover spontaneously without long term sequelae but its toxic effects may be dramatic while they last, particularly when it is taken with other drugs or alcohol. Images Figure 3 Figure 1

Ryan, J M; Stell, I

1997-01-01

453

Swedish recommendations on recreational diving and diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Divers from many countries travel to explore various diving sites worldwide. In 2005, the Divers Alert Network (DAN) wrote guidelines for recreational diving and diabetes mellitus, but there is no up-to-date consensus or adoption of international guidelines on diabetes and diving. There are also large differences between the regulations in different countries. This is potentially both a medical and an insurance problem for a diver with diabetes. We present the current Swedish recommendations for recreational divers with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. PMID:23258460

Jendle, Johan; Adolfsson, Peter; Ornhagen, Hans

2012-12-01

454

Environmental Management of Human Waste Disposal for Recreational Boating Activities  

PubMed

/ A methodology to estimate the number of pump-out facilities and dump stations required to service human waste disposal for recreational power boating activities in Pennsylvania during the 1994 boating season is described. Study results suggest that a total of 39 additional pump-out stations and 13 dump stations may be required on seven major waterbodies: The Three Rivers Area, Lake Erie/Presque Isle Bay, Raystown Lake, the Susquehanna River, the Delaware River, Lake Wallenpaupack, and the Kinzua Reservoir. Suggestions for improving the methodology are provided. KEY WORDS: Human waste; Recreation; Power boating; Waste facilities; Waste disposal; Pennsylvania PMID:9419288

Shafer; Yoon

1998-01-01

455

Coliform and Metal Contamination in Lago de Colina, a Recreational Water Body in Chihuahua State, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Lago de Colina (Colina Lake) is located about 180 km south of the city of Chihuahua (Mexico), and during the Semana Santa (Holy Week) vacation period its recreational use is high. The objective of this study was to quantify coliform and heavy metal levels in this water body before and after the Holy Week vacation period in 2010. Twenty sampling points were randomly selected and two water samples were collected at each point near the surface (0.30 m) and at 1 m depth. After the Holy Week vacation the same twenty points were sampled at the same depths. Therefore, a total 80 water samples were analyzed for fecal and total coliforms and levels of the following metals: Al, As, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si and Zn. It was hypothesized that domestic tourism contaminated this water body, and as a consequence, could have a negative impact on visitor health. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) study was performed for each element and its interactions considering a factorial design where factor A was sample date and factor B was sample depth. Fecal coliforms were only detected at eight sampling points in the first week, but after Holy Week, both fecal and total coliforms were detected at most sampling points. The concentrations of Al, B, Na, Ni and Se were only statistically different for factor A. The levels of Cr, Cu, K and Mg was different for both date and depth, but the dual factor interaction was not significant. The amount of Ca and Zn was statistically different due to date, depth and their interaction. No significant differences were found for any factor or the interaction for the elements As, Fe and Mn. Because of the consistent results, it is concluded that local tourism is contaminating the recreational area of Colina Lake, Chihuahua, Mexico.

Rubio-Arias, Hector; Rey, Nora I.; Quintana, Rey M.; Nevarez, G. Virginia; Palacios, Oskar

2011-01-01

456

40 CFR 63.5743 - What standards must I meet for aluminum recreational boat surface coating operations?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true What standards must I meet for aluminum recreational boat surface coating operations...for Boat Manufacturing Standards for Aluminum Recreational Boat Surface Coating Operations...5743 What standards must I meet for aluminum recreational boat surface coating...

2010-07-01

457

40 CFR 63.5743 - What standards must I meet for aluminum recreational boat surface coating operations?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false What standards must I meet for aluminum recreational boat surface coating operations...for Boat Manufacturing Standards for Aluminum Recreational Boat Surface Coating Operations...5743 What standards must I meet for aluminum recreational boat surface coating...

2009-07-01

458

40 CFR 63.5752 - How do I calculate the organic HAP content of aluminum recreational boat surface coatings?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...I calculate the organic HAP content of aluminum recreational boat surface coatings...for Boat Manufacturing Standards for Aluminum Recreational Boat Surface Coating Operations...I calculate the organic HAP content of aluminum recreational boat surface...

2009-07-01

459

40 CFR 63.5752 - How do I calculate the organic HAP content of aluminum recreational boat surface coatings?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...I calculate the organic HAP content of aluminum recreational boat surface coatings...for Boat Manufacturing Standards for Aluminum Recreational Boat Surface Coating Operations...I calculate the organic HAP content of aluminum recreational boat surface...

2010-07-01

460

25 CFR 170.135 - Can a tribe use Federal funds for its recreation, tourism, and trails program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Federal funds for its recreation, tourism, and trails program? 170...OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS...Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.135 ...Federal funds for its recreation, tourism, and trails program?...

2013-04-01

461

Modeling MTBE and BTEX in lakes and reservoirs used for recreational boating.  

PubMed

It is generally recognized that the bulk of fuel-related volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in lakes and reservoirs come from motorized recreational boating, but a quantitative connection between the two has been difficult to establish. A detailed boating use survey was conducted at a Northern California multiple-use lake, and the results were used to quantify daily methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) loading from recreational boating. A one-dimensional, process-based numerical model was used to predict VOC levels as a function of the number, type, and activity of marine engines using the lake, the vertical mixing dynamics of the lake, and the volatilization rates of the individual VOCs. The model was validated on two other reservoirs to establish its applicability under a range of climatic and boating conditions. The study further confirmed the link between motorized boating and surface-water VOC contamination. In addition, the results of this study suggest that volatilization alone is inadequate to describe the loss of volatile hydrocarbons from surface waters and that some combination of additional degradation processes is involved. Under low wind conditions, these degradation processes dominate the removal of MTBE. For toluene, these processes are always more dominant than volatilization. The mean relative percent difference (RPD) between measured and simulated VOC concentrations at the study site, accounting only for volatilization losses, was 50.6% for MTBE and 113% for toluene. A first-order submodel was implemented to account for losses other than volatilization, using decay coefficients estimated from the literature. The resulting mean RPDs between measured and modeled concentrations were 14.2% for MTBE and 4.5% for toluene. PMID:15773484

Heald, Prescott C; Schladow, S Geoffrey; Reuter, John E; Allen, Brant C

2005-02-15

462

78 FR 70509 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 12...announces 23 inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified the commercial and recreational salmon fisheries in the area from the...

2013-11-26

463

77 FR 50470 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...needed to monitor the recreational catch of Atlantic blue and white marlin, which is applied to the recreational limit established...telephone system. Respondents reporting Atlantic marlin, West Atlantic sailfish, or North Atlantic...

2012-08-21

464

Recreation Plan - Stage I. Development Plan for Mauch Chunk Creek Watershed Area Carbon County, Pennsylvania.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report represents the first stage in the development program for the Mauch Chunk Creek Watershed recreation facilities. It consists of site plans for the various elements recommended for the recreation complex. These plans include the delineation of ...

R. Zunde

1965-01-01

465

Factors Influencing Participation in Recreation Activities in Southeast Iowa, and Camper Attendance at Macbride State Park.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Factors influencing individuals' involvement in recreation were evaluated through a mail survey conducted in two southeastern Iowa counties. The questionnaire consisted of a list of 72 recreational activities and questions which covered socio-economic and...

M. Glascock

1973-01-01

466

50 CFR 648.146 - Black sea bass recreational fishing season.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Black sea bass recreational fishing season. 648.146...NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.146 Black sea bass recreational fishing season....

2013-10-01

467

77 FR 65136 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; Recreational Quota Harvested  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; Recreational Quota...SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2012 black sea bass recreational harvest limit has...No one may fish for or possess black sea bass in Federal waters for the...

2012-10-25

468

77 FR 37387 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Understanding Recreational Angler Attitudes and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Understanding Recreational Angler Attitudes and Preferences for Saltwater...burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies...to understand the range of attitudes, preferences, and concerns...information collection). Affected Public: Individual recreational...

2012-06-21

469

78 FR 32995 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; 2013 Recreational Accountability Measure and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...exceeded the recreational annual catch limit (ACL) for golden tilefish. Furthermore, information...landings are projected to reach the recreational ACL on June 3, 2013. To account for the 2012 ACL overage and to prevent an ACL overage in...

2013-06-03

470

Comprehensive Bibliography of Vacation Homes and Recreational Lands in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bibliography lists all the known literature relating to vacation homes and recreational lands. Vacation homes and recreational lands are sometimes difficult to define, but they share two characteristics: they are privately owned and they are utilized...

H. K. Cordell R. L. Ragatz

1980-01-01

471

76 FR 81962 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for General Management Plan, Ross Lake National Recreation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Impact Statement for General Management Plan, Ross Lake National Recreation Area, North Cascades National...for the proposed General Management Plan for Ross Lake National Recreation Area (Ross Lake NRA) in Washington State. This Final EIS...

2011-12-29

472

Exercise Motivation and Exercise Attribution of Recreational Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This descriptive study determined the exercise motivation and exercise attribution of recreational athletes in one of the major cities in Panay Island. A total of 75 purposively selected respondents who are regular members in a particular club for at least a year and have finished at least a college degree participated in the study. To gather data…

Jaurigue, Jerson Jalandoni

2011-01-01

473

Geology Fieldnotes: Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area, Montana/Wyoming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area information, including geology, maps, photographs, visitor information, and links for additional facts about this area of Wyoming and Montana. Included are details about the geologic history of the area, formations, the Pryar and Bighorn Mountains, and the exploration history of the land.

474

Chlorine disinfection of recreational water for Cryptosporidium parvum.  

PubMed Central

We examined the effects of chlorine on oocyst viability, under the conditions of controlled pH and elevated calcium concentrations required for most community swimming pools. We found that fecal material may alter the Ct values (chlorine concentration in mg/L, multiplied by time in minutes) needed to disinfect swimming pools or other recreational water for Cryptosporidium parvum.

Carpenter, C.; Fayer, R.; Trout, J.; Beach, M. J.

1999-01-01

475

Structure and Agency in University-Level Recreational Music Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were to investigate the musical backgrounds, self-expressed reasons for participation and possible implications for music education of collegiate recreational music makers ("N"=19) and their practices as they exist in two contrasting modes of musical engagement on the campus of a large urban research…

Mantie, Roger Allan

2013-01-01

476

Geology Fieldnotes: Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada/Arizona  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Lake Mead National Recreation Area site contains park geology information, maps, photographs, visitor information, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology using national park examples). Park Geology is a guided tutorial, covering two billion years of geologic time from the Precambrian through the Cenozoic.

477

Sexual trauma associated with fisting and recreational drugs  

PubMed Central

There is a rising trend in high risk sexual behaviour among men who have sex with men (MSM), with concomitant use of recreational drugs. Activities include fisting and unprotected anal intercourse with a partner who is HIV serodiscordant or of unknown status. We describe three cases of HIV positive MSM who have recently attended our unit as a result of complications secondary to fisting.

Cohen, C; Giles, A; Nelson, M

2004-01-01

478

Understanding the Recreational Reading Patterns of Secondary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an age where multi-media, such as video games and computer generated games, are consuming the lives of young adults, students are reading fewer novels and engaging less in recreational reading activities. Because of the ever-changing diverse student population teachers are searching for ways to be competitive motivators. Today, teachers need to…

Wilson, Janell D.; Casey, Linda H.

2007-01-01

479

Outdoor Recreation Behavior as Viewed from a Symbolic Interactionism Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyzes past studies of outdoor recreational behavior from the point of view of symbolic interactionism. This perspective focuses directly on the manner in which individuals interpret the words and behavior of others, as well as their own physical environment. The first part of the analysis examines some recent definitions of…

Colton, Craig W.; Morrione, Thomas J.

480

Adapting a Tourism Crime Typology: Classifying Outdoor Recreation Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a qualitative approach, the authors tested a crime typology developed for tourism destinations in a U.S. Na- tional Forest recreation setting. Specific objectives were to classify the attributes of crime and violence, examine the ef- fects of crime and violence on visitor demand, and suggest methods of prevention and recovery. A key modification to the crime typology prior to