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Sample records for samples marine recreational

  1. Luminex detection of fecal indicators in river samples, marine recreational water, and beach sand.

    PubMed

    Baums, Iliana B; Goodwin, Kelly D; Kiesling, Traci; Wanless, David; Diaz, Mara R; Fell, Jack W

    2007-05-01

    Research to understand and remediate coastal pollution is moving toward a multitiered approach in which traditional enumeration of fecal indicators is accompanied by molecular analysis of a variety of targets. Technology that rapidly detects multiple microbial contaminants would benefit from such an approach. The Luminex 100 system is a suspension array that assays multiple analytes rapidly in a single well of a microtiter plate. The ability of the system to simultaneously detect multiple fecal indicating bacteria in environmental samples was tested. Primer/probe sets were designed to simultaneously detect the following fecal indicators: the Bacteroides fragilis group, Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli and Shigella spp., Bacteroides distasonis, and Ent. faecalis. Specificity and sensitivity of the Luminex probes was tested against laboratory cultures. In addition, sequencing, culture plate testing, and specificity testing with environmental isolates were steps taken to validate the function of the assay with environmental samples. Luminex response to cultures and to environmental samples was consistent with sequencing results, suggesting that the technology has the potential to simultaneously detect multiple targets for coastal water quality applications, particularly as progress is made to efficiently extract DNA from water and sediment matrices. PMID:17350051

  2. 75 FR 67948 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine Recreational Information Program (Marine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine Recreational Information Program (Marine Recreational Fisheries Statistics Survey) AGENCY: National Oceanic and... is a renewal of an existing information collection. Marine recreational anglers are surveyed...

  3. 78 FR 20296 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine Recreational Information Program Fishing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine... for revision of a current information collection. The title will be changed from ``Marine Recreational Information Program'' to ``Marine Recreational Information Program Fishing Effort Survey''....

  4. SAMPLING DESIGN FOR ASSESSING RECREATIONAL WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current U.S. EPA guidelines for monitoring recreatoinal water quality refer to the geometric mean density of indicator organisms, enterococci and E. coli in marine and fresh water, respectively, from at least five samples collected over a four-week period. In order to expand thi...

  5. Addressing disease surveillance needs for marine recreational bathers.

    PubMed

    Turbow, David

    2009-03-01

    Contamination of the nearshore marine environment contributes to a high burden of illness among recreational bathers. Disease surveillance activities carried out by local, state, and territorial agencies in the United States are at present voluntary and passive. Several gaps in the existing regulatory framework for beach management and public health protection are highlighted in this paper. The need for disease surveillance of marine bathers is established. A demonstration is made of how surveillance activities can be used to guide risk management and gauge the effectiveness of current water contact standards. Recommendations are offered for agencies to improve surveillance and protect public health. A foundation is presented on which to develop a model marine health code. PMID:18957774

  6. 77 FR 14348 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine Recreational Information Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine... information collection. Marine recreational anglers are surveyed to collect catch and effort data, fish biology data, and angler socioeconomic characteristics. These data are required to carry out provisions...

  7. 78 FR 6070 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine Recreational Information Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine.... Abstract This request is for a new information collection. Marine recreational anglers are surveyed to collect catch and effort data, fish biology data, and angler socioeconomic characteristics. These data...

  8. Authorized Course of Instruction for the Quinmester Program. Science: Introduction to Marine Science; Recreation and the Sea; Oceanography; Marine Ecology of South Florida, and Invertebrate Marine Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    All five units, developed for the Dade County Florida Quinmester Program, included in this collection concern some aspect of marine studies. Except for "Recreation and the Sea," intended to give students basic seamanship skills and experience of other marine recreation, all units are designed for students with a background in biology or chemistry.…

  9. Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue on recreation includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs, computer software, videos, books, magazines, and professional resources that deal with recreation for K-8 language arts, art/architecture, music/dance, science, math, social studies, and health/physical education. Sidebars discuss fun and games, recess recreation,…

  10. THE EMPACT BEACHES: A CASE STUDY IN RECREATIONAL WATER SAMPLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various chapters describe sample and experimental design, use of a geometric mean or an arithmetic mean, modeling and forecasting, and risk assessment in relation to monitoring recreational waters for fecal indicators. All of these aspects of monitoring are dependent on the spat...

  11. 77 FR 14506 - Marine Recreational Fisheries of the United States; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... for the MRFSS and MRIP estimates of marine recreational fisheries harvest. DATES: The workshop will be... estimated recreational catch resulting from the revised estimation process developed through MRIP may have..., develop possible calibration methods, and develop guidance for incorporating revised estimates into...

  12. 75 FR 21231 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine Recreational Fisheries Statistics Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine Recreational Fisheries Statistics Survey AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  13. A Prospective Study of Marine Phytoplankton and Reported Illness Among Recreational Beachgoers in Puerto Rico, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cynthia J.; Wade, Timothy J.; Sams, Elizabeth A.; Dufour, Alfred P.; Chapman, Andrew D.; Hilborn, Elizabeth D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Blooms of marine phytoplankton may adversely affect human health. The potential public health impact of low-level exposures is not well established, and few prospective cohort studies of recreational exposures to marine phytoplankton have been conducted. Objective: We evaluated the association between phytoplankton cell counts and subsequent illness among recreational beachgoers. Methods: We recruited beachgoers at Boquerón Beach, Puerto Rico, during the summer of 2009. We conducted interviews at three time points to assess baseline health, water activities, and subsequent illness. Daily water samples were quantitatively assayed for phytoplankton cell count. Logistic regression models, adjusted for age and sex, were used to assess the association between exposure to three categories of phytoplankton concentration and subsequent illness. Results: During 26 study days, 15,726 individuals successfully completed all three interviews. Daily total phytoplankton cell counts ranged from 346 to 2,012 cells/mL (median, 712 cells/mL). The category with the highest (≥ 75th percentile) total phytoplankton cell count was associated with eye irritation [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.30; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.66], rash (OR = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.57), and earache (OR = 1.25; 95% CI: 0.88, 1.77). In phytoplankton group-specific analyses, the category with the highest Cyanobacteria counts was associated with respiratory illness (OR = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.67), rash (OR = 1.32; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.66), eye irritation (OR = 1.25; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.62), and earache (OR = 1.35; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.93). Conclusions: We found associations between recreational exposure to marine phytoplankton and reports of eye irritation, respiratory illness, and rash. We also found that associations varied by phytoplankton group, with Cyanobacteria having the strongest and most consistent associations. Citation: Lin CJ, Wade TJ, Sams EA, Dufour AP, Chapman AD, Hilborn ED. 2016. A

  14. Human-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from a subtropical recreational marine beach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reports of Staphylococcus aureus detected in marine environments have occurred since the early 1990’s. This investigation sought to isolate and characterize S. aureus from marine waters and sand at a subtropical recreational beach, with and without bathers present, in order to investigate possible s...

  15. A prospective study of marine phytoplankton and reported illness among recreational beachgoers in Puerto Rico, 2009

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Blooms of marine phytoplankton may adversely affect human health. The potential public health impact of low-level exposures is not well established, and few prospective cohort studies of recreational exposures to marine phytoplankton have been conducted.OBJECTIVE: We ...

  16. Unite research with what citizens do for fun: "recreational monitoring" of marine biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Goffredo, Stefano; Pensa, Francesco; Neri, Patrizia; Orlandi, Antonio; Gagliardi, Maria Scola; Velardi, Angela; Piccinetti, Corrado; Zaccanti, Francesco

    2010-12-01

    Institutes often lack funds and manpower to perform large-scale biodiversity monitoring. Citizens can be involved, contributing to the collection of data, thus decreasing costs. Underwater research requires specialist skills and SCUBA certification, and it can be difficult to involve volunteers. The aim of this study was to involve large numbers of recreational divers in marine biodiversity monitoring for increasing the environmental education of the public and collecting data on the status of marine biodiversity. Here we show that thousands of recreational divers can be enrolled in a short time. Using specially formulated questionnaires, nonspecialist volunteers reported the presence of 61 marine taxa encountered during recreational dives, performed as regular sport dives. Validation trials were carried out to assess the accuracy and consistency of volunteer-recorded data, and these were compared to reference data collected by an experienced researcher. In the majority of trials (76%) volunteers performed with an accuracy and consistency of 50-80%, comparable to the performance of conservation volunteer divers on precise transects in other projects. The recruitment of recreational divers involved the main diving and tour operators in Italy, a popular scientific magazine, and mass media. During the four-year study, 3825 divers completed 18757 questionnaires, corresponding to 13539 diving hours. The volunteer-sightings-based index showed that in the monitored area the biodiversity status did not change significantly within the project time scale, but there was a significant negative correlation with latitude, suggesting improved quality in the southernmost areas. This trend could be related to the presence of stressors in the northern areas and has been supported by investigations performed by the Italian Ministry of the Environment. The greatest limitation with using volunteers to collect data was the uneven spatial distribution of samples. The benefits were the

  17. Decadal increase in the number of recreational users is concentrated in no-take marine reserves.

    PubMed

    Gonson, Charles; Pelletier, Dominique; Gamp, Elodie; Preuss, Bastien; Jollit, Isabelle; Ferraris, Jocelyne

    2016-06-15

    In coastal areas, demographic increase is likely to result in greater numbers of recreational users, with potential consequences on marine biodiversity. These effects may also occur within Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), which are popular with recreational users. Our analysis builds on data collected over a ten-year period during three year-round surveys to appraise changes in recreational boating activities in coral ecosystems. Results show that the number of boaters has greatly increased, particularly so within MPAs during weekends and the warm season, when peaks in boat numbers have become more frequent. We also observed that the number of anchored boats has increased over the period. These changes may be resulting in biophysical impacts that could be detrimental to conservation objectives in MPAs. This steady increase over time may cause changes in the spatial and temporal distribution of users and in their practices, thus highlighting the importance of monitoring recreational activities. PMID:27103423

  18. The impact of United States recreational fisheries on marine fish populations.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Felicia C; Figueira, Will F; Ueland, Jeffrey S; Crowder, Larry B

    2004-09-24

    We evaluated the commercial and recreational fishery landings over the past 22 years, first at the national level, then for populations of concern (those that are overfished or experiencing overfishing), and finally by region. Recreational landings in 2002 account for 4% of total marine fish landed in the United States. With large industrial fisheries excluded (e.g., menhaden and pollock), the recreational component rises to 10%. Among populations of concern, recreational landings in 2002 account for 23% of the total nationwide, rising to 38% in the South Atlantic and 64% in the Gulf of Mexico. Moreover, it affects many of the most-valued overfished species-including red drum, bocaccio, and red snapper-all of which are taken primarily in the recreational fishery. PMID:15331771

  19. Microbial sampling variables and recreational water quality standards.

    PubMed Central

    Brenniman, G R; Rosenberg, S H; Northrop, R L

    1981-01-01

    A study was conducted at two beaches on Lake Erie to evaluate the water sampling design for the collection of several microbiological indicator organisms in relation to day, time, and location of collection. The concentrations of these organisms were generally found to vary significantly (P less than 0.05) by the specific time of day and day of weekend that collection took place. However, the concentrations of these organisms did not vary significantly (P greater than 0.05) at various locations in the bathing area. Future studies investigating the health effects of recreational water as related to microbiological variables should be designed to collect water samples at the specific time of day and day of weekend that an individual was exposed. In addition, sampling at various locations in the bathing area should probably be considered for those beaches having poor dispersion of fecal waste sources. PMID:6781366

  20. Marine recreation and public health microbiology: quest for the ideal indicator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, Dale W.; Lipp, Erin K.; McLaughlin, Molly R.; Rose, Joan B.

    2001-01-01

    Four-fifths of the population of the United States live in close proximity to the oceans or Great Lakes, and approximately 100 million Americans use the marine environment for recreation each year (Thurman 1994). Consequently, contamination of lakes, rivers, and coastal waters raises significant public health issues. Among the leading sources of chemical and biological contamination of these waters and associated beaches are sewer systems, septic tanks, stormwater runoff, industrial wastes, wastewater injection wells, cesspits, animal wastes, commercial and private boat wastes, and human recreation. In 1997, 649 beach closings or advisories were caused by sewage spills and overflows (NRDC 1998). In Florida alone, approximately 500 million gallons of sewage were released along the coast each year during the late 1980s (Neshyba 1987). Thus one of the primary concerns in public health is the risk that humans using the marine environment for recreational activities will encounter microbial pathogens.

  1. Detection and phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis A virus and norovirus in marine recreational waters of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Félix, Josefina León; Fernandez, Yuridia Cháidez; Velarde-Félix, Jesús Salvador; Torres, Benigno Valdez; Cháidez, Cristobal

    2010-06-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine hepatitis A virus (HAV) and norovirus (NV) presence in marine recreational waters (MRWs) from two Mexican tourists beaches (Altata and Mazatlan), located at the northwestern state of Sinaloa, Mexico. Also, Binary Logistic Regression (BLR) analyses were conducted between physicochemical parameters (temperature, turbidity and salinity) and viral organisms (HAV and NV). A total of 32 MRWs samples were collected from April to July of 2006. Samples were processed according to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) adsorption-elution method. Overall, 18 MRWs samples (56.3%) were positive for HAV and NV; 4 (22.2%) were obtained from Altata and 14 (77.8%) from Mazatlan. HAV was detected in 3 MRWs samples (9.4%) and NV in 15 samples (46.8%). Phylogenetic analysis showed the presence of genotype I sub genotype B for HAV and NV genogroup II. BLR analysis showed significant correlations between NV and physicochemical parameters (temperature, turbidity and salinity) (p=0.017, p=0.08, p=0.048, respectively). No significant correlation between physicochemical parameters and HAV was observed. The results indicated that MRW quality of Sinaloa beaches is affected by human faecal pollution. Viral surveillance programs should be implemented to minimize health risks to bathers. PMID:20154390

  2. Recreational Boating in Ligurian Marine Protected Areas (Italy): A Quantitative Evaluation for a Sustainable Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturini, S.; Massa, F.; Castellano, M.; Costa, S.; Lavarello, I.; Olivari, E.; Povero, P.

    2016-01-01

    Recreational boating is an important economic activity that can also represent a powerful source of interference for biological communities. The monitoring of the recreational boating in all Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) within the Liguria region was conducted in the 2010 summer season and it allowed to obtain information not provided by any official institution. The collaboration of geographically different MPAs in Liguria has led to the implementation of a monitoring framework of recreational boating, and this has made it possible to develop uniform management strategies for all the Ligurian marine parks. This study identifies the optimal number of boats for each MPAs, the number of boats that can anchor in the various parks without creating any impact on the biocenosis of merit, providing a first characterization of recreational boating in Liguria during the high touristic season and providing management recommendation to each MPAs. Generally, the Ligurian MPAs do not present critical situations, the number of boats in each MPA being below the optimal number, with the exception of Portofino MPA, where in the 12.5 % of monitored days more than 220 boats were counted and the mean density for weekend is 1.19 no boats/ha (4 times higher than weekday). The results confirm the dependence of the boats peaking from the holidays and the months of the summer, but also it highlights other factors that can contribute in the choice of the boaters.

  3. Recreational Boating in Ligurian Marine Protected Areas (Italy): A Quantitative Evaluation for a Sustainable Management.

    PubMed

    Venturini, S; Massa, F; Castellano, M; Costa, S; Lavarello, I; Olivari, E; Povero, P

    2016-01-01

    Recreational boating is an important economic activity that can also represent a powerful source of interference for biological communities. The monitoring of the recreational boating in all Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) within the Liguria region was conducted in the 2010 summer season and it allowed to obtain information not provided by any official institution. The collaboration of geographically different MPAs in Liguria has led to the implementation of a monitoring framework of recreational boating, and this has made it possible to develop uniform management strategies for all the Ligurian marine parks. This study identifies the optimal number of boats for each MPAs, the number of boats that can anchor in the various parks without creating any impact on the biocenosis of merit, providing a first characterization of recreational boating in Liguria during the high touristic season and providing management recommendation to each MPAs. Generally, the Ligurian MPAs do not present critical situations, the number of boats in each MPA being below the optimal number, with the exception of Portofino MPA, where in the 12.5 % of monitored days more than 220 boats were counted and the mean density for weekend is 1.19 no boats/ha (4 times higher than weekday). The results confirm the dependence of the boats peaking from the holidays and the months of the summer, but also it highlights other factors that can contribute in the choice of the boaters. PMID:26289349

  4. Consistent size-independent harvest selection on fish body shape in two recreationally exploited marine species

    PubMed Central

    Alós, Josep; Palmer, Miquel; Linde-Medina, Marta; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Harvesting wild animals may exert size-independent selection pressures on a range of morphological, life history, and behavioral traits. Most work so far has focused on selection pressures on life history traits and body size as morphological trait. We studied here how recreational fishing selects for morphological traits related to body shape, which may correlate with underlying swimming behavior. Using landmark-based geometric morphometrics, we found consistent recreational fishing-induced selection pressures on body shape in two recreationally exploited marine fish species. We show that individuals with larger-sized mouths and more streamlined and elongated bodies were more vulnerable to passively operated hook-and-line fishing independent of the individual's body size or condition. While the greater vulnerability of individuals with larger mouth gapes can be explained by the direct physical interaction with hooks, selection against streamlined and elongated individuals could either involve a specific foraging mode or relate to underlying elevated swimming behavior. Harvesting using passive gear is common around the globe, and thus, size-independent selection on body shape is expected to be widespread potentially leaving behind individuals with smaller oral gapes and more compact bodies. This might have repercussions for food webs by altering foraging and predation. PMID:25360257

  5. Consistent size-independent harvest selection on fish body shape in two recreationally exploited marine species.

    PubMed

    Alós, Josep; Palmer, Miquel; Linde-Medina, Marta; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2014-06-01

    Harvesting wild animals may exert size-independent selection pressures on a range of morphological, life history, and behavioral traits. Most work so far has focused on selection pressures on life history traits and body size as morphological trait. We studied here how recreational fishing selects for morphological traits related to body shape, which may correlate with underlying swimming behavior. Using landmark-based geometric morphometrics, we found consistent recreational fishing-induced selection pressures on body shape in two recreationally exploited marine fish species. We show that individuals with larger-sized mouths and more streamlined and elongated bodies were more vulnerable to passively operated hook-and-line fishing independent of the individual's body size or condition. While the greater vulnerability of individuals with larger mouth gapes can be explained by the direct physical interaction with hooks, selection against streamlined and elongated individuals could either involve a specific foraging mode or relate to underlying elevated swimming behavior. Harvesting using passive gear is common around the globe, and thus, size-independent selection on body shape is expected to be widespread potentially leaving behind individuals with smaller oral gapes and more compact bodies. This might have repercussions for food webs by altering foraging and predation. PMID:25360257

  6. Water quality, weather and environmental factors associated with fecal indicator organism density in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Christopher D; Exum, Natalie G; Dufour, Alfred P; Brenner, Kristen P; Haugland, Richard A; Chern, Eunice; Schwab, Kellogg J; Love, David C; Serre, Marc L; Noble, Rachel; Wade, Timothy J

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies showing an association between fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) in sand and gastrointestinal (GI) illness among beachgoers with sand contact have important public health implications because of the large numbers of people who recreate at beaches and engage in sand contact activities. Yet, factors that influence fecal pollution in beach sand remain unclear. During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR) Water Study, sand samples were collected at three locations (60 m apart) on weekend days (Sat, Sun) and holidays between June and September at two marine beaches - Fairhope Beach, AL and Goddard Beach, RI - with nearby publicly-owned treatment works (POTWs) outfalls. F(+) coliphage, enterococci, Bacteroidales, fecal Bacteroides spp., and Clostridium spp. were measured in sand using culture and qPCR-based calibrator-cell equivalent methods. Water samples were also collected on the same days, times and transects as the 144 sand samples and were assayed using the same FIO measurements. Weather and environmental data were collected at the time of sample collection. Mean FIO concentrations in sand varied over time, but not space. Enterococci CFU and CCE densities in sand were not correlated, although other FIOs in sand were. The strongest correlation between FIO density in sand and water was fecal Bacteroides CCE, followed by enterococci CFU, Clostridium spp. CCE, and Bacteroidales CCE. Overall, the factors associated with FIO concentrations in sand were related to the sand-water interface (i.e., sand-wetting) and included daily average densities of FIOs in water, rainfall, and wave height. Targeted monitoring that focuses on daily trends of sand FIO variability, combined with information about specific water quality, weather, and environmental factors may inform beach monitoring and management decisions to reduce microbial burdens in beach sand. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do

  7. Water quality, weather and environmental factors associated with fecal indicator organism density in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches

    PubMed Central

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Exum, Natalie G.; Dufour, Alfred P.; Brenner, Kristen P.; Haugland, Richard A.; Chern, Eunice; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Love, David C.; Serre, Marc L.; Noble, Rachel; Wade, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies showing an association between fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) in sand and gastrointestinal (GI) illness among beachgoers with sand contact have important public health implications because of the large numbers of people who recreate at beaches and engage in sand contact activities. Yet, factors that influence fecal pollution in beach sand remain unclear. During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR) Water Study, sand samples were collected at three locations (60 m apart) on weekend days (Sat, Sun) and holidays between June and September at two marine beaches — Fairhope Beach, AL and Goddard Beach, RI — with nearby publicly-owned treatment works (POTWs) outfalls. F+ coliphage, enterococci, Bacteroidales, fecal Bacteroides spp., and Clostridium spp. were measured in sand using culture and qPCR-based calibrator-cell equivalent methods. Water samples were also collected on the same days, times and transects as the 144 sand samples and were assayed using the same FIO measurements. Weather and environmental data were collected at the time of sample collection. Mean FIO concentrations in sand varied over time, but not space. Enterococci CFU and CCE densities in sand were not correlated, although other FIOs in sand were. The strongest correlation between FIO density in sand and water was fecal Bacteroides CCE, followed by enterococci CFU, Clostridium spp. CCE, and Bacteroidales CCE. Overall, the factors associated with FIO concentrations in sand were related to the sand–water interface (i.e., sand-wetting) and included daily average densities of FIOs in water, rainfall, and wave height. Targeted monitoring that focuses on daily trends of sand FIO variability, combined with information about specific water quality, weather, and environmental factors may inform beach monitoring and management decisions to reduce microbial burdens in beach sand. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors

  8. Human viruses and viral indicators in marine water at two recreational beaches in Southern California, USA.

    PubMed

    Love, David C; Rodriguez, Roberto A; Gibbons, Christopher D; Griffith, John F; Yu, Qilu; Stewart, Jill R; Sobsey, Mark D

    2014-03-01

    Waterborne enteric viruses may pose disease risks to bather health but occurrence of these viruses has been difficult to characterize at recreational beaches. The aim of this study was to evaluate water for human virus occurrence at two Southern California recreational beaches with a history of beach closures. Human enteric viruses (adenovirus and norovirus) and viral indicators (F+ and somatic coliphages) were measured in water samples over a 4-month period from Avalon Beach, Catalina Island (n = 324) and Doheny Beach, Orange County (n = 112). Human viruses were concentrated from 40 L samples and detected by nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Detection frequencies at Doheny Beach were 25.5% (adenovirus) and 22.3% (norovirus), and at Avalon Beach were 9.3% (adenovirus) and 0.7% (norovirus). Positive associations between adenoviruses and fecal coliforms were observed at Doheny (p = 0.02) and Avalon (p = 0.01) Beaches. Human viruses were present at both beaches at higher frequencies than previously detected in the region, suggesting that the virus detection methods presented here may better measure potential health risks to bathers. These virus recovery, concentration, and molecular detection methods are advancing practices so that analysis of enteric viruses can become more effective and routine for recreational water quality monitoring. PMID:24642440

  9. Recreational SCUBA divers' willingness to pay for marine biodiversity in Barbados.

    PubMed

    Schuhmann, Peter W; Casey, James F; Horrocks, Julia A; Oxenford, Hazel A

    2013-05-30

    The use of natural resources and the services they provide often do not have an explicit price and are therefore undervalued in decision-making, leading to environmental degradation. To 'monetize' the benefits from these services requires the use of non-market valuation techniques. Using a stated preference survey of recreational divers in Barbados conducted between 2007 and 2009, the economic value of marine biodiversity to recreational SCUBA divers in Barbados was estimated. In addition to a variety of demographic variables, divers were asked about their level of experience, expenditures related to travel and diving, and encounters with fish and sea turtles. Divers then completed a choice experiment, selecting between alternative dives with varying characteristics including price, crowding, fish diversity, encounters with sea turtles, and coral cover. Results indicate that divers in Barbados have a clear appreciation of reef quality variables. Willingness to pay for good coral cover, fish diversity and presence of sea turtles is significantly higher than prices paid for dives. In general, divers valued reef attributes similarly, although their appreciation of low density of divers at a site and high coral cover varied with prior diving experience. The results of this study demonstrate the economic value generated in Barbados by the recreational SCUBA diving industry and highlight the potential for substantial additional economic contributions with improvements to the quality of a variety of reef attributes. These results could inform management decisions regarding reef use and sea turtle conservation, and could aid in the development of informed 'win-win' policies aimed at maximizing returns from diving while reducing negative impacts often associated with tourism activities. PMID:23523829

  10. [Land and marine fauna constituting a threat for recreational divers in the tropics].

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2008-09-01

    Due to intensively growing international tourism, increasing numbers of people leave for countries with hot climates, where various threats for human health and life exist. Besides climatic and sanitary conditions, a rich fauna, represented by predators and venomous animals, can be included. Based on available world literature and their own observations, the authors present the threats that a tourist can possibly encounter whilst relaxing on the beach or during recreational diving in tropical waters. When staying in water, a large threat is posed by marine fish of prey (sharks, barracuda, muraena), Cnidaria (jellyfish, corals, anemones) and venomous animals (fish, sea snakes). On land, on the other hand, a threat can be posed by venomous arthropods (scorpions, spiders) and Hymenoptera insects. The study presents the most important representatives of fauna present in coastal areas frequently visited by diving enthusiasts. Also, clinical image and conduct in the case of body injures are discussed. PMID:19112854

  11. The Social and Economic Significance of Recreation Activities in the Marine Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditton, Robert B.

    Although the data obtained by an Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission in 1960 indicated that 44 percent of participants in outdoor recreation prefer water-based activities, the potential demand for recreation within the coastal zone is much greater than that study indicates, because the unfulfilled recreational demands of the urban…

  12. Rapidly measured indicators of recreational water quality and swimming-associated illness at marine beaches: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction In the United States and elsewhere, recreational water quality is monitored for fecal indicator bacteria to help prevent swimming-associated illnesses. Standard methods to measure these bacteria take at least 24 hours to obtain results. Molecular approaches such as quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) can estimate these bacteria faster, in under 3 hours. Previously, we demonstrated that measurements of the fecal indicator bacteria Enterococcus using qPCR were associated with gastrointestinal (GI) illness among swimmers at freshwater beaches. In this paper, we report on results from three marine beach sites. Methods We interviewed beach-goers and collected water samples at marine beaches affected by treated sewage discharges in Mississippi in 2005, and Rhode Island and Alabama in 2007. Ten to twelve days later, we obtained information about gastrointestinal, respiratory, eye, ear and skin symptoms by telephone. We tested water samples for fecal indicator organisms using qPCR and other methods. Results We enrolled 6,350 beach-goers. The occurrence of GI illness among swimmers was associated with a log10-increase in exposure to qPCR-determined estimates of fecal indicator organisms in the genus Enterococcus (AOR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.1) and order Bacteroidales (AOR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.3-2.9). Estimates of organisms related to Clostridium perfringens and a subgroup of organisms in the genus Bacteroides were also determined by qPCR in 2007, as was F+ coliphage, but relationships between these indicators and illness were not statistically significant. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence of a relationship between gastrointestinal illness and estimates of fecal indicator organisms determined by qPCR at marine beaches. PMID:21040526

  13. The Novel Application of Non-Lethal Citizen Science Tissue Sampling in Recreational Fisheries.

    PubMed

    Williams, Samuel M; Holmes, Bonnie J; Pepperell, Julian G

    2015-01-01

    Increasing fishing pressure and uncertainty surrounding recreational fishing catch and effort data promoted the development of alternative methods for conducting fisheries research. A pilot investigation was undertaken to engage the Australian game fishing community and promote the non-lethal collection of tissue samples from the black marlin Istiompax indica, a valuable recreational-only species in Australian waters, for the purpose of future genetic research. Recruitment of recreational anglers was achieved by publicizing the project in magazines, local newspapers, social media, blogs, websites and direct communication workshops at game fishing tournaments. The Game Fishing Association of Australia and the Queensland Game Fishing Association were also engaged to advertise the project and recruit participants with a focus on those anglers already involved in the tag-and-release of marlin. Participants of the program took small tissue samples using non-lethal methods which were stored for future genetic analysis. The program resulted in 165 samples from 49 participants across the known distribution of I. indica within Australian waters which was a sufficient number to facilitate a downstream population genetic analysis. The project demonstrated the potential for the development of citizen science sampling programs to collect tissue samples using non-lethal methods in order to achieve targeted research objects in recreationally caught species. PMID:26376487

  14. The Novel Application of Non-Lethal Citizen Science Tissue Sampling in Recreational Fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Samuel M.; Holmes, Bonnie J.; Pepperell, Julian G.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing fishing pressure and uncertainty surrounding recreational fishing catch and effort data promoted the development of alternative methods for conducting fisheries research. A pilot investigation was undertaken to engage the Australian game fishing community and promote the non-lethal collection of tissue samples from the black marlin Istiompax indica, a valuable recreational-only species in Australian waters, for the purpose of future genetic research. Recruitment of recreational anglers was achieved by publicizing the project in magazines, local newspapers, social media, blogs, websites and direct communication workshops at game fishing tournaments. The Game Fishing Association of Australia and the Queensland Game Fishing Association were also engaged to advertise the project and recruit participants with a focus on those anglers already involved in the tag-and-release of marlin. Participants of the program took small tissue samples using non-lethal methods which were stored for future genetic analysis. The program resulted in 165 samples from 49 participants across the known distribution of I. indica within Australian waters which was a sufficient number to facilitate a downstream population genetic analysis. The project demonstrated the potential for the development of citizen science sampling programs to collect tissue samples using non-lethal methods in order to achieve targeted research objects in recreationally caught species. PMID:26376487

  15. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in tropical recreational marine waters contaminated with domestic sewage: estimation of bathing-associated disease risks.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Walter Q; Duarte, Diana C; Vásquez, Rosa C; Gurian, Patrick L

    2014-08-15

    Sewage is a major contributor to pollution problems involving human pathogens in tropical coastal areas. This study investigated the occurrence of intestinal protozoan parasites (Giardia and Cryptosporidium) in tropical recreational marine waters contaminated with sewage. The potential risks of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infection from recreational water exposure were estimated from the levels of viable (oo) cysts (DIC+, DAPI+, PI-) found in near-shore swimming areas using an exponential dose response model. A Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis was performed in order to determine the probability distribution of risks. Microbial indicators of recreational water quality (enterococci, Clostridium perfringens) and genetic markers of sewage pollution (human-specific Bacteroidales marker [HF183] and Clostridium coccoides) were simultaneously evaluated in order to estimate the extent of water quality deterioration associated with human wastes. The study revealed the potential risk of parasite infections via primary contact with tropical marine waters contaminated with sewage; higher risk estimates for Giardia than for Cryptosporidium were found. Mean risks estimated by Monte Carlo were below the U.S. EPA upper bound on recreational risk of 0.036 for cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis for both children and adults. However, 95th percentile estimates for giardiasis for children exceeded the 0.036 level. Environmental surveillance of microbial pathogens is crucial in order to control and eradicate the effects that increasing anthropogenic impacts have on marine ecosystems and human health. PMID:24975093

  16. Recreational Diver Behavior and Contacts with Benthic Organisms in the Abrolhos National Marine Park, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giglio, Vinicius J.; Luiz, Osmar J.; Schiavetti, Alexandre

    2016-03-01

    In the last two decades, coral reefs have become popular among recreational divers, especially inside marine protected areas. However, the impact caused by divers on benthic organisms may be contributing to the degradation of coral reefs. We analyzed the behavior of 142 scuba divers in the Abrolhos National Marine Park, Brazil. We tested the effect of diver profile, reef type, use of additional equipment, timing, and group size on diver behavior and their contacts with benthic organisms. Eighty-eight percent of divers contacted benthic organism at least once, with an average of eight touches and one damage per dive. No significant differences in contacts were verified among gender, group size, or experience level. Artificial reef received a higher rate of contact than pinnacle and fringe reefs. Specialist photographers and sidemount users had the highest rates, while non-users of additional equipment and mini camera users had the lowest contact rates. The majority of contacts were incidental and the highest rates occurred in the beginning of a dive. Our findings highlight the need of management actions, such as the provision of pre-dive briefing including ecological aspects of corals and beginning dives over sand bottoms or places with low coral abundance. Gathering data on diver behavior provides managers with information that can be used for tourism management.

  17. Recreational Diver Behavior and Contacts with Benthic Organisms in the Abrolhos National Marine Park, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Giglio, Vinicius J; Luiz, Osmar J; Schiavetti, Alexandre

    2016-03-01

    In the last two decades, coral reefs have become popular among recreational divers, especially inside marine protected areas. However, the impact caused by divers on benthic organisms may be contributing to the degradation of coral reefs. We analyzed the behavior of 142 scuba divers in the Abrolhos National Marine Park, Brazil. We tested the effect of diver profile, reef type, use of additional equipment, timing, and group size on diver behavior and their contacts with benthic organisms. Eighty-eight percent of divers contacted benthic organism at least once, with an average of eight touches and one damage per dive. No significant differences in contacts were verified among gender, group size, or experience level. Artificial reef received a higher rate of contact than pinnacle and fringe reefs. Specialist photographers and sidemount users had the highest rates, while non-users of additional equipment and mini camera users had the lowest contact rates. The majority of contacts were incidental and the highest rates occurred in the beginning of a dive. Our findings highlight the need of management actions, such as the provision of pre-dive briefing including ecological aspects of corals and beginning dives over sand bottoms or places with low coral abundance. Gathering data on diver behavior provides managers with information that can be used for tourism management. PMID:26614350

  18. Valuing recreational benefits of coral reefs: the case of Mombasa Marine National Park and Reserve, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ransom, Kevin P; Mangi, Stephen C

    2010-01-01

    A contingent valuation study was conducted with adult Kenyan citizens and foreign tourists to estimate the value of recreational benefits arising from coral reefs at Mombasa Marine National Park and Reserve (MMNPR), and to assess the implications for local reef management. Citizen and foreign visitors to MMNPR were willing to pay an extra $2.2 (median = $1.6) and $8 (median = $6.7) per visit respectively, in addition to current park entrance fees, to support reef quality improvements. By aggregating visitors' willingness to pay bids over the number of visitors to MMNPR in 2006-2007 the value of benefits was estimated at $346,733, which was more than twice the total annual operational expenditure of $152,383 for MMNPR. The findings indicate that annual revenues from citizen and foreign visitors may be increased by 60% to $261,932 through the implementation of proposed higher park fees of $3.10 for citizens and $15 for foreign visitors. However, any fee increase would serve to intensify concerns among citizens that only relatively affluent Kenyans can afford to visit MMNPR. Park managers need to demonstrate that the extra revenue would be used to fund the proposed conservation activities. This valuation study demonstrates that visitors are prepared to pay higher user fees for access to the marine protected area revealing considerable untapped resource to finance reef quality improvements. PMID:19937021

  19. Valuing Recreational Benefits of Coral Reefs: The Case of Mombasa Marine National Park and Reserve, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ransom, Kevin P.; Mangi, Stephen C.

    2010-01-01

    A contingent valuation study was conducted with adult Kenyan citizens and foreign tourists to estimate the value of recreational benefits arising from coral reefs at Mombasa Marine National Park and Reserve (MMNPR), and to assess the implications for local reef management. Citizen and foreign visitors to MMNPR were willing to pay an extra 2.2 (median = 1.6) and 8 (median = 6.7) per visit respectively, in addition to current park entrance fees, to support reef quality improvements. By aggregating visitors’ willingness to pay bids over the number of visitors to MMNPR in 2006-2007 the value of benefits was estimated at 346,733, which was more than twice the total annual operational expenditure of 152,383 for MMNPR. The findings indicate that annual revenues from citizen and foreign visitors may be increased by 60% to 261,932 through the implementation of proposed higher park fees of 3.10 for citizens and 15 for foreign visitors. However, any fee increase would serve to intensify concerns among citizens that only relatively affluent Kenyans can afford to visit MMNPR. Park managers need to demonstrate that the extra revenue would be used to fund the proposed conservation activities. This valuation study demonstrates that visitors are prepared to pay higher user fees for access to the marine protected area revealing considerable untapped resource to finance reef quality improvements.

  20. Reducing plastic contamination of the marine environment under MARPOL Annex V: A model for recreational harbors and ports

    SciTech Connect

    Mudar, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    A case study was conducted during Summer, 1990, at the Nantucket Boat Basin, Massachusetts. The purpose of the study was to (1) determine the types and quantities of wastes generated by recreational boaters, particularly plastics and garbage regulated by MARPOL Annex V, (2) develop a model to assist recreational boating facilities to comply with the law and (3) reduce the impact of plastic contamination on the marine environment. An international law which came to force in December, 1988, MARPOL Annex V prohibits the disposal of plastics into the sea and stipulates ocean zones where garbage and other wastes may be disposed. A per capita rate of waste generation by recreational boaters was determined, which will enable recreational harbors and ports to estimate the waste management capacity necessary to meet the requirements of Annex V. In addition to determining the wastestream from the recreational boaters, boaters were surveyed to collect data about pertinent topics including awareness of MARPOL, waste types generated aboard vessels, waste management methods, and how marinas could assist boaters in meeting their waste management needs. As a result of the Boat Basin study, a planning model was developed to assist other recreational harbors and ports to meet the requirements of MARPOL Annex V. Major elements of the model include (1) information Transfer, (2) Waste Management Methods, and (3) the Role of Related Factors such as marina type, and waste characterization and quantification.

  1. MICROBIAL SAMPLING VARIABLES AND RECREATIONAL WATER QUALITY STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted at two beaches on Lake Erie to evaluate the water sampling design for the collection of several microbiological indicator organisms in relation to day, time, and location of collection. The concentrations of these organisms were generally found to vary signi...

  2. 78 FR 77431 - Appointments to a Recreational Fisheries Working Group by the Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... of the following: The management or business of recreational fishing and/or fisheries science; a well-informed background in recreational fisheries issues; an operational knowledge of federal agencies and... management or business of recreational fishing, and/or fisheries science; 2. Informed background...

  3. 77 FR 73433 - Appointments to a Recreational Fisheries Working Group by the Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... management or business of recreational fishing and/or fisheries science; a well-informed background in recreational fisheries issues; an operational knowledge of federal agencies and interactions with the Fishery... in the following areas: 1. Expertise in the management or business of recreational fishing,...

  4. 76 FR 28421 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine Recreational Fisheries Statistics Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... Recreational Fisheries Statistics Survey AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). ACTION... Service, Fisheries Statistics Division, Phone: (301) 713-2328 or Rob.Andrews@noaa.gov ....

  5. Implementation of a marine reserve has a rapid but short-lived effect on recreational angler use.

    PubMed

    Fujitani, Marie L; Fenichel, Eli P; Torre, Jorge; Gerber, Leah R

    2012-03-01

    Changes in human behavior are a precursor to measurable impacts of no-take marine reserves. We investigated changes in recreational fishing site selection in response to the 2005 announcement of enforcement in a marine reserve in the Gulf of California, Mexico. We used a novel data set of daily self-reported boating destinations from emergency rescue logbooks for a recreational angling community from 2000 to 2008. Because the reserve system has no experimental control, we modeled the data two ways to test for robustness to model specification. We tested for changes in human fishing behavior with regression and fit a fleet-level discrete choice model to project a. counterfactual scenario. The counterfactual is the statistically constructed ex post expectation of the human behavior we would have observed if the reserve never existed. We included month and year fixed effects in our models to account for seasonal and interannual fluctuations in fishing behavior and catch rates. We detected a decrease in reserve use compared to the counterfactual, indicating that the reserve rapidly experienced a decrease in visitation. However, the reserve's effect to reduce trips diminished with time. These results indicate that the reserve is unlikely to meet its ecological goals without institutional changes that enhance compliance. This illustrates the value of human use data to understanding the processes underlying marine reserve function. We suggest that managers should consider human use with the same frequency, rigor, and tools as they do fishery stocks. Marine reserves directly affect people, and understanding human behavioral responses to marine reserves is an important step in marine reserve management. PMID:22611857

  6. Marine Recreational Uses of Green Bay: A Survey of Human Behavior and Attitude Patterns of High School Juniors and Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditton, Robert B.; Johnsen, Per K.

    From a random sample of high school juniors and seniors in northeastern Wisconsin, this study obtained information concerning the subjects' participation in water recreation activities, their perceptions of water quality, and attitudinal data in related areas. The data obtained from the questionnaire were analyzed by chi-square methods to check…

  7. TECHNIQUES FOR SAMPLING AND ANALYZING THE MARINE MACROBENTHOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents guidelines for the quantitative assessment of the effects of marine pollution on benthic community structure and population dynamics. The sampling design addresses the number and location of stations, survey frequency, sampling gear, replication of samples, s...

  8. Monitoring the marine environment using marine mammal tissue samples

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.D.; Hannah, D.J.; Day, P.J.

    1995-12-31

    Marine environments, both inshore and open ocean, receive numerous inputs of anthropogenic chemicals. Cetaceans provide a valuable resource for monitoring the low level contamination of marine environments with persistent organic contaminants. Comparative studies using inshore and offshore southern ocean cetaceans have revealed significant differences in the types of contamination in these two environments. The polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) deposited in the southern oceans are characterized by an abundance of lower chlorinated congeners. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) are not present at significant concentrations in cetaceans from the open southern ocean. In contrast significant concentrations of PCDD/F congeners are detected in the blubber of the inshore living Hector`s dolphin. This species lives close to the shore and has a very small home range (approximately 30 km) for a cetacean. Analysis of tissue PCDD/F and PCB profiles from different populations and their food sources will be presented. The data are being used to determine if there are local variations in the contamination of the New Zealand inshore marine environment.

  9. 78 FR 65971 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine Recreational Fishing Expenditure Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... nationwide. II. Method of Collection The survey will be conducted using two modes: in-person interviews and... Recreational Fishing Expenditure Survey AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... information. The objective of the survey is to collect information on both trip expenditures and...

  10. QPCR Determined Fecal Indicator Bacterial Densities in Marine Waters from Two Recreational Beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of real-time qPCR to determine fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) densities is currently being investigated by the U.S. EPA. The present recreational water quality guidelines, based on culturable FIB, prevent same day determinations of water quality whereas results from the ...

  11. The Evaluation of a Public Document: The Case of FCC's Marine Radio Rules for Recreational Boaters. Document Design Project, Technical Report No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felker, Daniel B.; Rose, Andrew M.

    In a collaborative effort, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and the Document Design Project conducted an evaluation of marine radio rules for recreational boaters that had been rewritten in plain English by FCC personnel. The revised rules were evaluated by 53 experienced boaters and 52 inexperienced boaters, who were given either the…

  12. Sediment Contaminants and Infauna Associated with Recreational Boating Structures in a Multi-Use Marine Park.

    PubMed

    Sim, Vivian X Y; Dafforn, Katherine A; Simpson, Stuart L; Kelaher, Brendan P; Johnston, Emma L

    2015-01-01

    Multi-use marine parks achieve conservation through spatial management of activities. Zoning of marine parks in New South Wales, Australia, includes high conservation areas and special purpose zones (SPZ) where maritime activities are concentrated. Although such measures geographically constrain anthropogenic impacts, we have limited understanding of potential ecological effects. We assessed sediment communities and contaminants adjacent to boating infrastructure (boat ramps, jetties and a marina) in a SPZ from the Clyde Estuary in Batemans Marine Park. Metal concentrations and fines content were elevated at boating structures compared to reference sites. Species richness was higher at sites with boating structures, where capitellid polychaetes and nematodes dominated the communities. Changes associated with boating structures were localised and did not extend beyond breakwalls or to reference sites outside the SPZ. The study highlights the benefits of appropriate zoning in a multi-use marine park and the potential to minimise stress on pristine areas through the application of spatial management. PMID:26086427

  13. Sediment Contaminants and Infauna Associated with Recreational Boating Structures in a Multi-Use Marine Park

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Vivian X. Y.; Dafforn, Katherine A.; Simpson, Stuart L.; Kelaher, Brendan P.; Johnston, Emma L.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-use marine parks achieve conservation through spatial management of activities. Zoning of marine parks in New South Wales, Australia, includes high conservation areas and special purpose zones (SPZ) where maritime activities are concentrated. Although such measures geographically constrain anthropogenic impacts, we have limited understanding of potential ecological effects. We assessed sediment communities and contaminants adjacent to boating infrastructure (boat ramps, jetties and a marina) in a SPZ from the Clyde Estuary in Batemans Marine Park. Metal concentrations and fines content were elevated at boating structures compared to reference sites. Species richness was higher at sites with boating structures, where capitellid polychaetes and nematodes dominated the communities. Changes associated with boating structures were localised and did not extend beyond breakwalls or to reference sites outside the SPZ. The study highlights the benefits of appropriate zoning in a multi-use marine park and the potential to minimise stress on pristine areas through the application of spatial management. PMID:26086427

  14. Associations between marine phytoplankton and symptoms of illness among recreational beachgoers in Puerto Rico, 2009

    EPA Science Inventory

    While phytoplankton generally have crucial roles in marine ecosystems, a small subset can release toxins and produce harmful algal blooms (HABs). HABs can be a threat to human health as symptoms from exposure range from neurological impairment to gastrointestinal (GI), dermal, a...

  15. Washington State Recreational Marijuana Legalization: Parent and Adolescent Perceptions, Knowledge, and Discussions in a Sample of Low-Income Families

    PubMed Central

    Mason, W. Alex; Hanson, Koren; Fleming, Charles B.; Ringle, Jay L.; Haggerty, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    Background In November 20012, Washington State and Colorado became the first states in the United States to legalize recreational marijuana use for adults, and Uruguay became the first country to allow the cultivation, distribution, possession, and use of marijuana. One possible consequence of these changes is increased adolescent marijuana use. Parents may mitigate this adverse consequence; however, whether parents and adolescents have accurate knowledge about the laws and are discussing marijuana use in light of the law changes is unknown. Objective We examine perceptions, knowledge, and parent-child discussions about Washington State’s recreational marijuana law in a sample of low-income families. Methods Participants were a subset of families (n = 115) in an ongoing study that originally recruited parents and adolescents from middle schools in Tacoma, Washington. In summer 2013, when students were entering the 11th grade, students and their parents were asked questions about the recreational marijuana law. Results Participants perceived that their marijuana-related attitudes and behaviors changed little as a result of the law, and displayed uncertainty about what is legal and illegal. Most parents reported discussing the new law with their children but only occasionally, and conversations emphasized household rules, particularly among parent lifetime marijuana users compared to non-users. Conclusions/Importance Results suggest that there should be a public health campaign focused on families that provides clear information about the recreational marijuana laws. PMID:25671633

  16. Recreation of Marine Atmospheric Corrosion Condition on Weathering Steel in Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guchhait, S. K.; Dewan, S.; Saha, J. K.; Mitra, P. K.

    2014-04-01

    Salt spray test, autoclave corrosion test, SO2 salt spray test, and Relative humidity test are generally used to assess atmospheric corrosion in laboratories at accelerated rates. However, no test can absolutely simulate the service condition. One can get only approximate corrosion rates using the aforesaid tests which serve as an indicative of corrosion behavior of the material in a service condition. The present work is aimed at creating specific environmental condition in laboratory to get the corrosion test done in short duration to compare with on field exposure test which would otherwise take years to complete. In this work recreation of atmospheric environment of Digha was tried and it was simulated in such a manner that the results of laboratory test could be compared with long time field exposure at Digha. Weathering steel (WS) was taken for experimentations. Potentiostatic electrochemical tests route was adopted to simulate atmospheric condition of Digha. Laboratory test results compared well with 18 month field exposure data in terms of corrosion rate, SEM and Ramon Spectroscopy matching.

  17. Recreational scuba diving in Caribbean marine protected areas: do the users pay?

    PubMed

    Green, Edmund; Donnelly, Rachel

    2003-03-01

    There are more than 200 marine protected areas (MPAs) in the Caribbean and Central America that contain coral reefs and are therefore theoretically attractive to scuba divers. One fifth of dive operators in 30 countries were surveyed for their use of MPAs: the majority are located within 20 km of at least one MPA and 46% conduct at least 80% of their diving within a MPA. An estimated 15 million dives take place outside of Florida each year, half of these occurring inside MPAs. Only 25% of MPAs containing coral reefs charge divers an entry or user fee, which is most usually USD 2-3 levied per dive or per diver. The revenue generated by these fees is estimated at USD 1-2 million annually, but the potential for generating income has not been fully realized. A significant contribution to the cost of regional conservation could be achieved if higher fees were applied more widely than at present. PMID:12733800

  18. Performance of barbed and barbless hooks in a marine recreational fishery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaeffer, Jeffrey S.; Hoffman, Elizabeth M.

    2002-01-01

    We used an angling study to examine catch per unit effort (CPUE), bait loss, and total landings by anglers fishing with natural bait on barbed and barbless hooks in a nearshore marine sport fishery located in the Gulf of Mexico near St. Petersburg, Florida. Anglers fished half the day with a barbed hook and half the day with a barbless hook. We also recorded anatomical hook placement, severity of injury or bleeding, and hook extraction times for each landed fish. Bait loss, CPUE, and mean length of catch did not differ between gears, but anglers landed 22% more fish with barbed hooks. Loss of hooked fish was significantly higher with barbless hooks, and efficiency appeared to vary among species. Mean unhooking times were significantly shorter with barbless hooks. Anatomical hook placement did not differ between gears and most fish were hooked in the jaws. Bleeding did not differ between gears because bleeding was influenced strongly by hook placement, but barbless hooks reduced unhooking injuries. In this fishery, barbless hooks probably did not reduce hooking mortality and conferred only slight benefits at the expense of reduced catches.

  19. Rapidly measured indicators of recreational water quality andswimming-associated illness at marine beaches: a prospective cohort study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In the United States and elsewhere, recreational water is monitored for fecal indicator bacteria to prevent illness. Standard methods to measure fecal indicator bacteria take at least 24 hours to obtain results. Molecular approaches such as quantitative polymerase cha...

  20. COMPARISON OF ENTEROCCOCUS DENSITIES DETERMINED BY CULTURE AND QPCR ANALYSES IN WATER SAMPLES FROM TWO RECREATION BEACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) have demonstrated that cell densities of the bacterial genus Enterococcus in water samples are directly correlated with gastroenteritis illness rates in swimmers at both marine and fresh water beaches....

  1. Effects of sampling standardization on estimates of Phanerozoic marine diversification

    PubMed Central

    Alroy, J.; Marshall, C. R.; Bambach, R. K.; Bezusko, K.; Foote, M.; Fürsich, F. T.; Hansen, T. A.; Holland, S. M.; Ivany, L. C.; Jablonski, D.; Jacobs, D. K.; Jones, D. C.; Kosnik, M. A.; Lidgard, S.; Low, S.; Miller, A. I.; Novack-Gottshall, P. M.; Olszewski, T. D.; Patzkowsky, M. E.; Raup, D. M.; Roy, K.; Sepkoski, J. J.; Sommers, M. G.; Wagner, P. J.; Webber, A.

    2001-01-01

    Global diversity curves reflect more than just the number of taxa that have existed through time: they also mirror variation in the nature of the fossil record and the way the record is reported. These sampling effects are best quantified by assembling and analyzing large numbers of locality-specific biotic inventories. Here, we introduce a new database of this kind for the Phanerozoic fossil record of marine invertebrates. We apply four substantially distinct analytical methods that estimate taxonomic diversity by quantifying and correcting for variation through time in the number and nature of inventories. Variation introduced by the use of two dramatically different counting protocols also is explored. We present sampling-standardized diversity estimates for two long intervals that sum to 300 Myr (Middle Ordovician-Carboniferous; Late Jurassic-Paleogene). Our new curves differ considerably from traditional, synoptic curves. For example, some of them imply unexpectedly low late Cretaceous and early Tertiary diversity levels. However, such factors as the current emphasis in the database on North America and Europe still obscure our view of the global history of marine biodiversity. These limitations will be addressed as the database and methods are refined. PMID:11353852

  2. Directory of National Recreation Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Thirty national recreation organizations serving individuals with disabilities are listed, along with addresses and telephone numbers. Sample recreational activities covered include Boy Scouts and Girls Scouts, various wheelchair sports, skiing, golfing, and horticultural therapy. (JDD)

  3. Water Quality, Weather and Environmental Factors Associated with Fecal Indicator Organism Density in Beach Sand at Two Recreational Marine Beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies showing an association between fecal indicator organisms (FIOs and gastrointestinal (GI) illness among beachgoers wit sand contact have important public health implicatons because of the large numbers of people who recreate at beaches and engage in sand contact act...

  4. Digital Curation of Marine Physical Samples at Ocean Networks Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkyns, R.; Tomlin, M. C.; Timmerman, R.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) has collected hundreds of geological, biological and fluid samples from the water column and seafloor during its maintenance expeditions. These samples have been collected by Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs), divers, networked and autonomously deployed instruments, and rosettes. Subsequent measurements are used for scientific experiments, calibration of in-situ and remote sensors, monitoring of Marine Protected Areas, and environment characterization. Tracking the life cycles of these samples from collection to dissemination of results with all the pertinent documents (e.g., protocols, imagery, reports), metadata (e.g., location, identifiers, purpose, method) and data (e.g., measurements, taxonomic classification) is a challenge. The initial collection of samples is normally documented in SeaScribe (an ROV dive logging tool within ONC's Oceans 2.0 software) for which ONC has defined semantics and syntax. Next, samples are often sent to individual scientists and institutions (e.g., Royal BC Museum) for processing and storage, making acquisition of results and life cycle metadata difficult. Finally, this information needs to be retrieved and collated such that multiple user scenarios can be addressed. ONC aims to improve and extend its digital infrastructure for physical samples to support this complex array of samples, workflows and applications. However, in order to promote effective data discovery and exchange, interoperability and community standards must be an integral part of the design. Thus, integrating recommendations and outcomes of initiatives like the EarthCube iSamples working groups are essential. Use cases, existing tools, schemas and identifiers are reviewed, while remaining gaps and challenges are identified. The current status, selected approaches and possible future directions to enhance ONC's digital infrastructure for each sample type are presented.

  5. Recreation monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    DiGennaro, B.; Merklein, G.H.

    1995-12-31

    Recreational use and recreational facilities are common features at hydropower projects. In fact, the hydropower industry is a major supplier of recreational opportunities contributing to tourism and rural economic growth in many communities across the country, As demands for public recreation have grown, pressure on the hydropower industry to provide more public access and more facilities has increased. This paper looks at recent developments in the FERC licensing and compliance arenas with regard to planning for and monitoring recreation at hydropower facilities. The paper highlights the increased occurrence of recreation monitoring requirements in license articles and discusses methods for complying with such requirements. The paper also looks at how monitoring data can be used to avoid unnecessary developments and to better plan for future recreation use.

  6. Isolation of microplastics in biota-rich seawater samples and marine organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Matthew; Webb, Hannah; Lindeque, Pennie K.; Fileman, Elaine S.; Halsband, Claudia; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2014-03-01

    Microplastic litter is a pervasive pollutant present in aquatic systems across the globe. A range of marine organisms have the capacity to ingest microplastics, resulting in adverse health effects. Developing methods to accurately quantify microplastics in productive marine waters, and those internalized by marine organisms, is of growing importance. Here we investigate the efficacy of using acid, alkaline and enzymatic digestion techniques in mineralizing biological material from marine surface trawls to reveal any microplastics present. Our optimized enzymatic protocol can digest >97% (by weight) of the material present in plankton-rich seawater samples without destroying any microplastic debris present. In applying the method to replicate marine samples from the western English Channel, we identified 0.27 microplastics m-3. The protocol was further used to extract microplastics ingested by marine zooplankton under laboratory conditions. Our findings illustrate that enzymatic digestion can aid the detection of microplastic debris within seawater samples and marine biota.

  7. Isolation of microplastics in biota-rich seawater samples and marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Cole, Matthew; Webb, Hannah; Lindeque, Pennie K; Fileman, Elaine S; Halsband, Claudia; Galloway, Tamara S

    2014-01-01

    Microplastic litter is a pervasive pollutant present in aquatic systems across the globe. A range of marine organisms have the capacity to ingest microplastics, resulting in adverse health effects. Developing methods to accurately quantify microplastics in productive marine waters, and those internalized by marine organisms, is of growing importance. Here we investigate the efficacy of using acid, alkaline and enzymatic digestion techniques in mineralizing biological material from marine surface trawls to reveal any microplastics present. Our optimized enzymatic protocol can digest >97% (by weight) of the material present in plankton-rich seawater samples without destroying any microplastic debris present. In applying the method to replicate marine samples from the western English Channel, we identified 0.27 microplastics m(-3). The protocol was further used to extract microplastics ingested by marine zooplankton under laboratory conditions. Our findings illustrate that enzymatic digestion can aid the detection of microplastic debris within seawater samples and marine biota. PMID:24681661

  8. Isolation of microplastics in biota-rich seawater samples and marine organisms

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Matthew; Webb, Hannah; Lindeque, Pennie K.; Fileman, Elaine S.; Halsband, Claudia; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2014-01-01

    Microplastic litter is a pervasive pollutant present in aquatic systems across the globe. A range of marine organisms have the capacity to ingest microplastics, resulting in adverse health effects. Developing methods to accurately quantify microplastics in productive marine waters, and those internalized by marine organisms, is of growing importance. Here we investigate the efficacy of using acid, alkaline and enzymatic digestion techniques in mineralizing biological material from marine surface trawls to reveal any microplastics present. Our optimized enzymatic protocol can digest >97% (by weight) of the material present in plankton-rich seawater samples without destroying any microplastic debris present. In applying the method to replicate marine samples from the western English Channel, we identified 0.27 microplastics m−3. The protocol was further used to extract microplastics ingested by marine zooplankton under laboratory conditions. Our findings illustrate that enzymatic digestion can aid the detection of microplastic debris within seawater samples and marine biota. PMID:24681661

  9. Kocuria sediminis sp. nov., isolated from a marine sediment sample.

    PubMed

    Bala, Monu; Kaur, Chandandeep; Kaur, Ishwinder; Khan, Fazlurrahman; Mayilraj, Shanmugam

    2012-03-01

    A Gram-positive, pinkish-orange pigmented, coccoid strain, FCS-11(T) was isolated from a marine sediment sample taken from Kochi fort area, Kerala, India and subjected to polyphasic taxonomic study. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the strain was determined and the results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the strain FCS-11(T) should be assigned to the genus Kocuria. The chemotaxonomic data supported this taxonomic placement i.e. menaquinones MK-7(H(2)), MK-8(H(2)) and MK-9(H(2)); major fatty acids anteiso C15:0 and iso-C15:0 and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG) as major polar lipids. Further phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence confirmed that the strain FCS-11(T) belonged to the genus Kocuria and is closely related to Kocuria turfanensis MTCC 10790(T) (99.4%) followed by Kocuria polaris MTCC 3702(T) (98.2%), Kocuria rosea MTCC 2522(T) (98.2%), Kocuria flava MTCC 10971(T) (98.2%), Kocuria aegyptia MTCC 10791(T) (98.0%), Kocuria himachalensis MTCC 7020(T) (97.5%) and Kocuria atrinae MTCC 10972(T) (97.1%). However, the DNA-DNA hybridisation values obtained between strain FCS-11(T) and other related strains were well below the threshold that is required for the proposal of a novel species. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 60.7 mol%. The phenotypic and genotypic data showed that the strain FCS-11(T) merits the recognition as a representative of a novel species of the genus Kocuria. It is proposed that the isolate should be classified in the genus Kocuria as a novel species, Kocuria sediminis sp. nov. The type strain is FCS-11(T) (= MTCC 10969(T) = JCM 17929(T)). PMID:22012251

  10. Deinococcus enclensis sp. nov., isolated from a marine sediment sample.

    PubMed

    Thorat, Meghana N; Mawlankar, Rahul; Sonalkar, Vidya V; Venkata Ramana, V; Joseph, Neetha; Shouche, Yogesh S; Dastager, Syed G

    2015-01-01

    A novel pale-pink coloured strain, designated NIO-1023(T), was isolated from a marine sediment sample from Chorao Island, Goa, India. The taxonomic position of strain NIO-1023(T) was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. The cells were observed to be Gram-stain positive, coccal shaped and non-spore forming. Phylogenetic analyses using the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate indicated that the organism belongs to the genus Deinococcus. The strain NIO-1023(T) showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with Deinococcus ficus (97.8 %), whereas other Deinococcus species showed less than 95 % sequence similarity. The DNA-DNA relatedness with respect to D. ficus CC-FR2-10(T) was 23.9 %. Chemotaxonomic data revealed that strain NIO-1023(T) contains only menaquinone MK-8 as the respiratory quinone and a complex polar lipid profile consisting of different unidentified glycolipids and polar lipids, two unknown phospholipids and three unknown phosphoglycolipids. As in other deinococci, one of these phosphoglycolipids was predominant in the profile. The predominant fatty acids were identified as C17:1 w8c, C16:1 w6c/w7c, C15:1 w6c and C17:1 w9c. The genomic DNA G + C content of strain NIO-1023(T) was determined to be 67.2 mol%. The biochemical and chemotaxonomic properties demonstrate that strain NIO-1023(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Deinococcus enclensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NIO-1023(T) (=DSM 25127(T) = NCIM 5456(T)). PMID:25344421

  11. Recreational Fish-Finders—An Inexpensive Alternative to Scientific Echo-Sounders for Unravelling the Links between Marine Top Predators and Their Prey

    PubMed Central

    McInnes, Alistair M.; Khoosal, Arjun; Murrell, Ben; Merkle, Dagmar; Lacerda, Miguel; Nyengera, Reason; Coetzee, Janet C.; Edwards, Loyd C.; Ryan, Peter G.; Rademan, Johan; van der Westhuizen, Jan J; Pichegru, Lorien

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating how mobile marine predators respond to their prey are limited due to the challenging nature of the environment. While marine top predators are increasingly easy to study thanks to developments in bio-logging technology, typically there is scant information on the distribution and abundance of their prey, largely due to the specialised nature of acquiring this information. We explore the potential of using single-beam recreational fish-finders (RFF) to quantify relative forage fish abundance and draw inferences of the prey distribution at a fine spatial scale. We compared fish school characteristics as inferred from the RFF with that of a calibrated scientific split-beam echo-sounder (SES) by simultaneously operating both systems from the same vessel in Algoa Bay, South Africa. Customized open-source software was developed to extract fish school information from the echo returns of the RFF. For schools insonified by both systems, there was close correspondence between estimates of mean school depth (R2 = 0.98) and school area (R2 = 0.70). Estimates of relative school density (mean volume backscattering strength; Sv) measured by the RFF were negatively biased through saturation of this system given its smaller dynamic range. A correction factor applied to the RFF-derived density estimates improved the comparability between the two systems. Relative abundance estimates using all schools from both systems were congruent at scales from 0.5 km to 18 km with a strong positive linear trend in model fit estimates with increasing scale. Although absolute estimates of fish abundance cannot be derived from these systems, they are effective at describing prey school characteristics and have good potential for mapping forage fish distribution and relative abundance. Using such relatively inexpensive systems could greatly enhance our understanding of predator-prey interactions. PMID:26600300

  12. Recreational Fish-Finders--An Inexpensive Alternative to Scientific Echo-Sounders for Unravelling the Links between Marine Top Predators and Their Prey.

    PubMed

    McInnes, Alistair M; Khoosal, Arjun; Murrell, Ben; Merkle, Dagmar; Lacerda, Miguel; Nyengera, Reason; Coetzee, Janet C; Edwards, Loyd C; Ryan, Peter G; Rademan, Johan; van der Westhuizen, Jan J; Pichegru, Lorien

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating how mobile marine predators respond to their prey are limited due to the challenging nature of the environment. While marine top predators are increasingly easy to study thanks to developments in bio-logging technology, typically there is scant information on the distribution and abundance of their prey, largely due to the specialised nature of acquiring this information. We explore the potential of using single-beam recreational fish-finders (RFF) to quantify relative forage fish abundance and draw inferences of the prey distribution at a fine spatial scale. We compared fish school characteristics as inferred from the RFF with that of a calibrated scientific split-beam echo-sounder (SES) by simultaneously operating both systems from the same vessel in Algoa Bay, South Africa. Customized open-source software was developed to extract fish school information from the echo returns of the RFF. For schools insonified by both systems, there was close correspondence between estimates of mean school depth (R2 = 0.98) and school area (R2 = 0.70). Estimates of relative school density (mean volume backscattering strength; Sv) measured by the RFF were negatively biased through saturation of this system given its smaller dynamic range. A correction factor applied to the RFF-derived density estimates improved the comparability between the two systems. Relative abundance estimates using all schools from both systems were congruent at scales from 0.5 km to 18 km with a strong positive linear trend in model fit estimates with increasing scale. Although absolute estimates of fish abundance cannot be derived from these systems, they are effective at describing prey school characteristics and have good potential for mapping forage fish distribution and relative abundance. Using such relatively inexpensive systems could greatly enhance our understanding of predator-prey interactions. PMID:26600300

  13. Do recreational activities affect coastal biodiversity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riera, Rodrigo; Menci, Cristiano; Sanabria-Fernández, José Antonio; Becerro, Mikel A.

    2016-09-01

    Human activities are largely affecting coastal communities worldwide. Recreational perturbations have been overlooked in comparison to other perturbations, yet they are potential threats to marine biodiversity. They affect coastal communities in different ways, underpinning consistent shifts in fish and invertebrates assemblages. Several sites were sampled subjected to varying effects by recreational fishermen (low and high pressure) and scuba divers (low and high) in an overpopulated Atlantic island. Non-consistent differences in ecological, trophic and functional diversity were found in coastal communities, considering both factors ("diving" and "fishing"). Multivariate analyses only showed significant differences in benthic invertebrates between intensively-dived and non-dived sites. The lack of clear trends may be explained by the depletion of coastal resources in the study area, an extensively-affected island by overfishing.

  14. The association of sports and physical recreation with life satisfaction in a community sample of people with spinal cord injuries.

    PubMed

    Tasiemski, Tomasz; Kennedy, Paul; Gardner, Brian Patrick; Taylor, Nicola

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess satisfaction with life domains in people with spinal cord injuries (SCI) and investigate whether participation in sports and physical recreation is associated with life satisfaction in SCI. 1,748 randomly selected participants with SCI who fulfilled the criteria: SCI at level C5 or below, wheelchair dependent; aged 18-50 at the time of injury; at least 1 year post-injury, were approached to take part in this study. Completed replies were received from 985 individuals with SCI (198 women, 798 men). The measures used included the Sports Participation Questionnaire, the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The numbers of hours participating in sports decreased significantly after injury. There was a greater decrease in numbers participating in team sports in comparison to the decrease seen in numbers participating in individual sports. The highest level of satisfaction existed within social domains such as: family life and contacts with friends. The lowest level of satisfaction was found in regard to the participant's sexual life and vocational situation. Higher satisfaction with life in general was demonstrated in respondents with SCI involved in sports or physical recreation compared to those not participating in physical activities. PMID:16403994

  15. Recreational Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strot, Melody

    1999-01-01

    Urges teachers of gifted students to allow students unstructured recreational computer time in the classroom to encourage student exploration and discovery, to promote creativity, to develop problem-solving skills, and to allow time to revisit programs and complete their own tasks. Different types of educational computer programs are referenced.…

  16. Recreation for All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Alan G., Ed.; Seekins, Nancy, Ed.

    The manual is intended to provide guidelines for the planning and development of parks and recreation facilities which are accessbile to everyone. Separate chapters present guidelines for the following topics (sample subtopics in parentheses): general information (space relationships and wheelchair functions); general site conditions (soil…

  17. Multiplex biotoxin surface plasmon resonance method for marine biotoxins in algal and seawater samples.

    PubMed

    McNamee, Sara E; Elliott, Christopher T; Delahaut, Philippe; Campbell, Katrina

    2013-10-01

    A multiplex surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor method for the detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins, okadaic acid (and analogues) and domoic acid was developed. This method was compared to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods. Seawater samples (n=256) from around Europe were collected by the consortia of an EU project MIcroarrays for the Detection of Toxic Algae (MIDTAL) and evaluated using each method. A simple sample preparation procedure was developed which involved lysing and releasing the toxins from the algal cells with glass beads followed by centrifugation and filtering the extract before testing for marine biotoxins by both multi-SPR and ELISA. Method detection limits based on IC20 values for PSP, okadaic acid and domoic acid toxins were 0.82, 0.36 and 1.66 ng/ml, respectively, for the prototype multiplex SPR biosensor. Evaluation by SPR for seawater samples has shown that 47, 59 and 61 % of total seawater samples tested positive (result greater than the IC20) for PSP, okadaic acid (and analogues) and domoic acid toxins, respectively. Toxic samples were received mainly from Spain and Ireland. This work has demonstrated the potential of multiplex analysis for marine biotoxins in algal and seawater samples with results available for 24 samples within a 7 h period for three groups of key marine biotoxins. Multiplex immunological methods could therefore be used as early warning monitoring tools for a variety of marine biotoxins in seawater samples. PMID:23250726

  18. 46 CFR 4.03-50 - Recreational vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Recreational vessel. 4.03-50 Section 4.03-50 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-50 Recreational vessel. Recreational vessel means a vessel meeting...

  19. 46 CFR 4.03-50 - Recreational vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Recreational vessel. 4.03-50 Section 4.03-50 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-50 Recreational vessel. Recreational vessel means a vessel meeting...

  20. 46 CFR 4.03-50 - Recreational vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recreational vessel. 4.03-50 Section 4.03-50 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-50 Recreational vessel. Recreational vessel means a vessel meeting...

  1. 46 CFR 4.03-50 - Recreational vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Recreational vessel. 4.03-50 Section 4.03-50 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-50 Recreational vessel. Recreational vessel means a vessel meeting...

  2. 46 CFR 4.03-50 - Recreational vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recreational vessel. 4.03-50 Section 4.03-50 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-50 Recreational vessel. Recreational vessel means a vessel meeting...

  3. Determination of methylmercury in marine biota samples: method validation.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Luis; Vassileva, Emilia

    2014-05-01

    Regulatory authorities are expected to measure concentration of contaminants in foodstuffs, but the simple determination of total amount cannot be sufficient for fully judging its impact on the human health. In particular, the methylation of metals generally increases their toxicity; therefore validated analytical methods producing reliable results for the assessment of methylated species are highly needed. Nowadays, there is no legal limit for methylmercury (MeHg) in food matrices. Hence, no standardized method for the determination of MeHg exists within the international jurisdiction. Contemplating the possibility of a future legislative limit, a method for low level determination of MeHg in marine biota matrixes, based on aqueous-phase ethylation followed by purge and trap and gas chromatography (GC) coupled to pyrolysis-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (Py-AFS) detection, has been developed and validated. Five different extraction procedures, namely acid and alkaline leaching assisted by microwave and conventional oven heating, as well as enzymatic digestion, were evaluated in terms of their efficiency to extract MeHg from Scallop soft tissue IAEA-452 Certified Reference Material. Alkaline extraction with 25% (w/w) KOH in methanol, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) with 5M HCl and enzymatic digestion with protease XIV yielded the highest extraction recoveries. Standard addition or the introduction of a dilution step were successfully applied to overcome the matrix effects observed when microwave-assisted extraction using 25% (w/w) KOH in methanol or 25% (w/v) aqueous TMAH were used. ISO 17025 and Eurachem guidelines were followed to perform the validation of the methodology. Accordingly, blanks, selectivity, calibration curve, linearity (0.9995), working range (1-800pg), recovery (97%), precision, traceability, limit of detection (0.45pg), limit of quantification (0.85pg) and expanded uncertainty (15.86%, k=2) were assessed with Fish protein Dorm-3 Certified

  4. Nowcasting recreational water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boehm, Alexandria B.; Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith; Hou, Deyi; Weisberg, Stephen B.

    2007-01-01

    Advances in molecular techniques may soon provide new opportunities to provide more timely information on whether recreational beaches are free from fecal contamination. However, an alternative approach is the use of predictive models. This chapter presents a summary of these developing efforts. First, we describe documented physical, chemical, and biological factors that have been demonstrated by researchers to affect bacterial concentrations at beaches and thus represent logical parameters for inclusion in a model. Then, we illustrate how various types of models can be applied to predict water quality at freshwater and marine beaches.

  5. Platelet aggregation inhibitors from Philippine marine invertebrate samples screened in a new microplate assay.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Sheila Marie V; Bojo, Zenaida P; Roberto, Amy V D; Lazaro, Jose Enrico H; Mangalindan, Gina C; Florentino, Leila M; Lim-Navarro, Pilar; Tasdemir, Deniz; Ireland, Chris M; Concepcion, Gisela P

    2003-01-01

    A new microplate assay for Ca(2+)-induced platelet aggregation as detected by Giemsa dye was used to screen marine invertebrate samples from the Philippines for inhibitors of human platelet aggregation. Out of 261 crude methanol extracts of marine sponges and tunicates, 25 inhibited aggregation at 2 mg/ml. Inhibition of agonist-induced aggregation in an aggregometer was used to confirm results of the microplate assay and to determine the specific mode of inhibition of 2 samples. The marine sponge Xestospongia sp. yielded a xestospongin/araguspongine-type molecule that inhibited collagen-induced aggregation by 87% at 2 micro g/ml, and epinephrine-induced aggregation by 78% at 20 micro g/ml, while the marine sponge Aplysina sp. yielded 5,6-dibromotryptamine, which inhibited epinephrine-induced aggregation by 51% at 20 micro g/ml. In this study we have found that the microplate assay is a simple, inexpensive, yet useful preliminary tool to qualitatively screen a large number of marine samples for antiplatelet aggregation activity. PMID:14719168

  6. Marine reservoir effect on the Southeastern coast of Brazil: results from the Tarioba shellmound paired samples.

    PubMed

    Macario, K D; Souza, R C C L; Aguilera, O A; Carvalho, C; Oliveira, F M; Alves, E Q; Chanca, I S; Silva, E P; Douka, K; Decco, J; Trindade, D C; Marques, A N; Anjos, R M; Pamplona, F C

    2015-05-01

    On the Southeastern coast of Brazil the presence of many archaeological shellmounds offers a great potential for studying the radiocarbon marine reservoir effect (MRE). However, very few such studies are available for this region. These archaeological settlements, mostly dating from 5 to 2 kyr cal BP, include both terrestrial and marine remains in good stratigraphic context and secure association, enabling the comparison of different carbon reservoirs. In a previous study the chronology of the Sambaqui da Tarioba, located in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, was established based on marine mollusc shells and charcoal samples from hearths, from several layers in two excavated sectors. We now compare the different materials with the aim of studying the MRE in this region. Calibration was performed with Oxford software OxCal v4.2.3 using the marine curve Marine13 with an undetermined offset to account for local corrections for shell samples, and the atmospheric curve SHCal13 for charcoal samples. The distribution of results considering a phase model indicates a ΔR value of -127 ± 67 (14)C yr in the 1 sigma range and the multi-paired approach leads to a mean value of -110 ± 94 (14)C yr. PMID:25703433

  7. Molecular diversity and distribution of marine fungi across 130 European environmental samples

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Thomas A.; Leonard, Guy; Mahé, Frédéric; del Campo, Javier; Romac, Sarah; Jones, Meredith D. M.; Maguire, Finlay; Dunthorn, Micah; De Vargas, Colomban; Massana, Ramon; Chambouvet, Aurélie

    2015-01-01

    Environmental DNA and culture-based analyses have suggested that fungi are present in low diversity and in low abundance in many marine environments, especially in the upper water column. Here, we use a dual approach involving high-throughput diversity tag sequencing from both DNA and RNA templates and fluorescent cell counts to evaluate the diversity and relative abundance of fungi across marine samples taken from six European near-shore sites. We removed very rare fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) selecting only OTUs recovered from multiple samples for a detailed analysis. This approach identified a set of 71 fungal ‘OTU clusters' that account for 66% of all the sequences assigned to the Fungi. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that this diversity includes a significant number of chytrid-like lineages that had not been previously described, indicating that the marine environment encompasses a number of zoosporic fungi that are new to taxonomic inventories. Using the sequence datasets, we identified cases where fungal OTUs were sampled across multiple geographical sites and between different sampling depths. This was especially clear in one relatively abundant and diverse phylogroup tentatively named Novel Chytrid-Like-Clade 1 (NCLC1). For comparison, a subset of the water column samples was also investigated using fluorescent microscopy to examine the abundance of eukaryotes with chitin cell walls. Comparisons of relative abundance of RNA-derived fungal tag sequences and chitin cell-wall counts demonstrate that fungi constitute a low fraction of the eukaryotic community in these water column samples. Taken together, these results demonstrate the phylogenetic position and environmental distribution of 71 lineages, improving our understanding of the diversity and abundance of fungi in marine environments. PMID:26582030

  8. Molecular diversity and distribution of marine fungi across 130 European environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Richards, Thomas A; Leonard, Guy; Mahé, Frédéric; Del Campo, Javier; Romac, Sarah; Jones, Meredith D M; Maguire, Finlay; Dunthorn, Micah; De Vargas, Colomban; Massana, Ramon; Chambouvet, Aurélie

    2015-11-22

    Environmental DNA and culture-based analyses have suggested that fungi are present in low diversity and in low abundance in many marine environments, especially in the upper water column. Here, we use a dual approach involving high-throughput diversity tag sequencing from both DNA and RNA templates and fluorescent cell counts to evaluate the diversity and relative abundance of fungi across marine samples taken from six European near-shore sites. We removed very rare fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) selecting only OTUs recovered from multiple samples for a detailed analysis. This approach identified a set of 71 fungal 'OTU clusters' that account for 66% of all the sequences assigned to the Fungi. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that this diversity includes a significant number of chytrid-like lineages that had not been previously described, indicating that the marine environment encompasses a number of zoosporic fungi that are new to taxonomic inventories. Using the sequence datasets, we identified cases where fungal OTUs were sampled across multiple geographical sites and between different sampling depths. This was especially clear in one relatively abundant and diverse phylogroup tentatively named Novel Chytrid-Like-Clade 1 (NCLC1). For comparison, a subset of the water column samples was also investigated using fluorescent microscopy to examine the abundance of eukaryotes with chitin cell walls. Comparisons of relative abundance of RNA-derived fungal tag sequences and chitin cell-wall counts demonstrate that fungi constitute a low fraction of the eukaryotic community in these water column samples. Taken together, these results demonstrate the phylogenetic position and environmental distribution of 71 lineages, improving our understanding of the diversity and abundance of fungi in marine environments. PMID:26582030

  9. Determination of arsenic species and arsenosugars in marine samples by HPLC-ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Shizuko; Toshimitsu, Hideki

    2005-10-01

    Arsenic-speciation analysis in marine samples was performed by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ICP-MS detection. Separation of eight arsenic species--As(III), MMA, DMA, As(V), AB, TMAO, AC and TeMAs(+)--was achieved on a C(18) column with isocratic elution (pH 3.0), under which conditions As(III) and MMA co-eluted. The entire separation was accomplished in 15 min. The HPLC-ICP-MS detection limits for the eight arsenic species were in the range 0.03-0.23 microg L(-1) based on 3 sigma for the blank response (n=5). The precision was calculated to be 2.4-8.0% (RSD) for the eight species. The method was successfully applied to several marine samples, e.g. oysters, fish, shrimps, and marine algae. Low-power microwave digestion was employed for extraction of arsenic from seafood products; ultrasonic extraction was employed for the extraction of arsenic from seaweeds. Separation of arsenosugars was achieved on an anion-exchange column. Concentrations of arsenosugars 2, 3, and 4 in marine algae were in the range 0.18-9.59 microg g(-1). PMID:16132126

  10. Multi-scale sampling to evaluate assemblage dynamics in an oceanic marine reserve.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Andrew R; Watson, William; McClatchie, Sam; Weber, Edward D

    2012-01-01

    To resolve the capacity of Marine Protected Areas (MPA) to enhance fish productivity it is first necessary to understand how environmental conditions affect the distribution and abundance of fishes independent of potential reserve effects. Baseline fish production was examined from 2002-2004 through ichthyoplankton sampling in a large (10,878 km(2)) Southern Californian oceanic marine reserve, the Cowcod Conservation Area (CCA) that was established in 2001, and the Southern California Bight as a whole (238,000 km(2) CalCOFI sampling domain). The CCA assemblage changed through time as the importance of oceanic-pelagic species decreased between 2002 (La Niña) and 2003 (El Niño) and then increased in 2004 (El Niño), while oceanic species and rockfishes displayed the opposite pattern. By contrast, the CalCOFI assemblage was relatively stable through time. Depth, temperature, and zooplankton explained more of the variability in assemblage structure at the CalCOFI scale than they did at the CCA scale. CalCOFI sampling revealed that oceanic species impinged upon the CCA between 2002 and 2003 in association with warmer offshore waters, thus explaining the increased influence of these species in the CCA during the El Nino years. Multi-scale, spatially explicit sampling and analysis was necessary to interpret assemblage dynamics in the CCA and likely will be needed to evaluate other focal oceanic marine reserves throughout the world. PMID:22448236

  11. Estimates of Marine Debris Accumulation on Beaches Are Strongly Affected by the Temporal Scale of Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stephen D. A.; Markic, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Marine debris is a global issue with impacts on marine organisms, ecological processes, aesthetics and economies. Consequently, there is increasing interest in quantifying the scale of the problem. Accumulation rates of debris on beaches have been advocated as a useful proxy for at-sea debris loads. However, here we show that past studies may have vastly underestimated the quantity of available debris because sampling was too infrequent. Our study of debris on a small beach in eastern Australia indicates that estimated daily accumulation rates decrease rapidly with increasing intervals between surveys, and the quantity of available debris is underestimated by 50% after only 3 days and by an order of magnitude after 1 month. As few past studies report sampling frequencies of less than a month, estimates of the scale of the marine debris problem need to be critically re-examined and scaled-up accordingly. These results reinforce similar, recent work advocating daily sampling as a standard approach for accurate quantification of available debris in coastal habitats. We outline an alternative approach whereby site-specific accumulation models are generated to correct bias when daily sampling is impractical. PMID:24367607

  12. Results of sediment and water sampling and inorganic, organic, and radionuclide analysis at recreation areas and water intakes - Norris, Melton Hill, and Watts Bar Lakes - Data report

    SciTech Connect

    1991-10-01

    Suspected water quality contamination in Watts Bar Reservoir as a result of activities in past decades at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge facility is of public concern. DOE, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the State of Tennessee, and other agencies and officials have received many inquiries from the public in recent years concerning this suspected pollution, especially how this potential contamination may affect the health and safety of those persons who use beaches in the area for swimming or other water-body-contact sports. As a result of these concerns, TVA conducted a study in May and June 1991 to obtain data on potential contaminants of concern in the water and sediment of Watts Bar Reservoir. TVA collected water and sediment samples at a total of 29 sites, including 18 recreation areas and 11 water intake locations, located throughout Norris, Melton Hill, and Watts Bar Reservoirs. The samples were analyzed for radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds which could pose a threat to human health.

  13. Results of sediment and water sampling for inorganic, organic, and radionuclide analysis at recreation areas and water intakes -- Norris, Melton Hill, and Watts Bar Lakes. Data report

    SciTech Connect

    1991-10-01

    Suspected water quality contamination in Watts Bar Reservoir as a result of activities in past decades at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge facility is of public concern. DOE, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the State of Tennessee, and other agencies and officials have received many inquiries from the public in recent years concerning this suspected pollution, especially how this potential contamination may affect the health and safety of those persons who use beaches in the area for swimming or other water-body-contact sports. As a result of these concerns, TVA conducted a study in May and June 1991 to obtain data on potential contaminants of concern in the water and sediment of Watts Bar Reservoir. TVA collected water and sediment samples at a total of 29 sites, including 18 recreation areas and 11 water intake locations, located throughout Norris, Melton Hill, and Watts Bar Reservoirs. The samples were analyzed for radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds which could pose a threat to human health.

  14. Stereochemistry of amino acids in surface samples of a marine sediment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollock, G.E.; Kvenvolden, K.A.

    1978-01-01

    In two surface samples of marine sediment, the percentages of d-alanine and d-aspartic acid are significantly higher than the other d-amino acids and are similar to the range found in soils. The percentage of d-glutamic acid is also higher than the other amino acids but less than d-alanine and d-aspartic acid. These d-amino acids may come mainly from bacteria. ?? 1978.

  15. Toxicity testing of marine, terrestrial, solid, liquid, clear, and turbid samples

    SciTech Connect

    Sabate, R.W.; Stiffey, A.V.; Dewailly, E.L.

    1994-12-31

    A novel, patented toxicity testing procedure that compares the light generated by the naturally bioluminescent marine dinoflagellate alga, Pyrocystis lunula, in the presence of toxins, to light from a non-toxic control, is sensitive in parts per billion to all substances considered toxic to which it has been subjected: chemical warfare agents, metals, detergents, pesticides, herbicides, anticancer drugs, oil-well drilling fluids and produced waters, marine antifouling paints, and others. Preparation and testing time is less than eight hours. Variability is 10% or less. Solids and turbid or darkly colored samples can be tested without correction. Small sample substrates (10 to 50{mu}l) in the buffered 3ml test medium do not significantly affect pH or salinity, which permits testing of marine or terrestrial samples without special preparation. Also, the organism is insensitive to selected solvents for lipophyllic test substances. EC{sub 50} of sodium lauryl (dodecyl) sulphate is 3.7 ppm, and correlation with the Mysid LC{sub 50} EPA 30,000 ppm toxicity limit is 63% light inhibition.

  16. Determination of arsenic species in marine samples by HPLC-ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Shizuko; Toshimitsu, Hideki; Aihara, Masato

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic speciation analysis in marine samples was performed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ICP-MS detection. The separation of eight arsenic species viz. arsenite (As(III)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), arsenate (As(V)), arsenobetaine, trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO), arsenocholine and tetramethylarsonium ion (TeMAs) was achieved on a Shiseido Capcell Pak C18 column by using an isocratic eluent (pH 3.0), in which condition As(III) and MMA were co-eluted. The entire separation was accomplished in 15 min. The detection limits for 8 arsenic species by HPLC/ICP-MS were in the range of 0.02 - 0.10 microg L(-1) based on 3sigma of blank response (n=9). The precision was calculated to be 3.1-7.3% (RSD) for all eight species. The method then successfully applied to several marine samples e.g., oyster, scallop, fish, and shrimps. For the extraction of arsenic species from seafood products, the low power microwave digestion was employed. The extraction efficiency was in the range of 52.9 - 112.3%. Total arsenic concentrations were analyzed by using the microwave acid digestion. The total arsenics in the certified reference materials (DORM-2 and TORT-2) were analyzed and agreed with the certified values. The concentrations of arsenics in marine samples were in the range 6.6 - 35.1 microg g(-1). PMID:16429770

  17. Determination of Iodine-129 in fish samples as new tracer of marine biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusuno, Haruka; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Toshi; Miyairi, Yosuke; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2014-05-01

    Most of Iodine-129 in the surface environment is the anthropogenic origin, i.e., the result of the human nuclear activities. In the marine environment, like Pacific ocean, I-129 is transferred from atmosphere and slowly diffuses into deeper layer so that there is steep gradient of I-129 concentration, i.e., the surface layer has high I-129 concentration and it suddenly decreases going deeper. This peculiar depth profile is thus reflected by the isotopic ratio (I-129/I-127) profile because stable iodine (I-127) concentration is almost uniform in the seawater (ca. 60 ppb). Iodine isotopic ratio (I-129/I-127) of marine lives like fish should be determined by their habitats and the ways exchanging iodine with seawater. This means that the iodine isotopic ratio is potential indicator of marine biology. However there have been only few studies using I-129 for marine biology. This is because I-129 is so rare in the marine lives that ordinary analytical techniques cannot detect. Recently, the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry has been developed and demonstrates excellent sensitivity to detect I-129/I-127 ratio as low as 1E-14. However it requires typically 1 mg AgI sample. To obtain such amount of iodine several hundreds gram should be treated in the case of typical fish. In this study "carrier method" was adopted to overcome this difficulty. Our procedure is following: A fish sample was first dried completely then homogenized well. Iodine was extracted into an alkaline solution by the thermal hydrolysis from 0.1 to 0.5g of dried sample. An aliquot of this solution was taken for ICP-MS analysis to determine the stable iodine concentration. The remaining was, added with carrier iodine (about 1 mg), purified by solvent extraction and collected as AgI precipitation. I-129/I-127 ratio of obtained AgI was determined by AMS. From the AMS result and the stable iodine concentration, the isotopic ratio of the fish samples themselves can be calculated. The result of fish

  18. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart G of... - Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Marine Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Enforcement Auditing of Marine Engines A Appendix A to Subpart G of Part 91 Protection of Environment...-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing Regulations Pt. 91, Subpt. G, App. A Appendix A to Subpart G of Part 91—Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Marine Engines Table...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart G of... - Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Marine Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Enforcement Auditing of Marine Engines A Appendix A to Subpart G of Part 91 Protection of Environment...-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing Regulations Pt. 91, Subpt. G, App. A Appendix A to Subpart G of Part 91—Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Marine Engines Table...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart G of... - Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Marine Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Enforcement Auditing of Marine Engines A Appendix A to Subpart G of Part 91 Protection of Environment...-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing Regulations Pt. 91, Subpt. G, App. A Appendix A to Subpart G of Part 91—Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Marine Engines Table...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart G of... - Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Marine Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Enforcement Auditing of Marine Engines A Appendix A to Subpart G of Part 91 Protection of Environment...-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing Regulations Pt. 91, Subpt. G, App. A Appendix A to Subpart G of Part 91—Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Marine Engines Table...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart G of... - Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Marine Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Enforcement Auditing of Marine Engines A Appendix A to Subpart G of Part 91 Protection of Environment...-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing Regulations Pt. 91, Subpt. G, App. A Appendix A to Subpart G of Part 91—Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Marine Engines Table...

  3. Application of passive (SPATT) and active sampling methods in the profiling and monitoring of marine biotoxins.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Moira; van Pelt, Frank N A M; Bane, Vaishali; O'Halloran, John; Furey, Ambrose

    2014-10-01

    Solid phase adsorbent and toxin tracking (SPATT) enables temporally and spatially integrated monitoring of biotoxins in aquatic environments. Monitoring using two adsorbent resins was performed over a four-month period at Lough Hyne Marine Reserve, Ireland. A range of Diarhettic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) toxins were detected from SPATT extracts throughout the study period. The majority of biotoxins were detected in the top 20-30 m of the water column and a spike in toxin accumulation was measured during August 2010. Phytoplankton analysis confirmed the presence of toxin-producing species Dinophysis acuta and Dinophysis acuminata during the bloom. SPATT has the potential to provide useful information on phycotoxin distribution in the water column; enabling evidence-based decisions regarding appropriate depths for obtaining phytoplankton and shellfish samples in marine biotoxin monitoring programmes. Active sampling was performed continuously over 7-days and high quantities of toxins were successfully accumulated in the HP-20 resin, okadaic acid (∼13 mg), dinophysis toxin-2 (∼29 mg), pectenotoxin-2 (∼20 mg) and pectenotoxin-2-seco acid (∼6 mg) proving this an effective method for accumulating DSP toxins from the marine environment. The method has potential application as a tool for assessing toxin profiles at proposed shellfish harvesting sites. PMID:25064272

  4. Taxonomic assessment and enzymes production by yeasts isolated from marine and terrestrial Antarctic samples.

    PubMed

    Duarte, A W F; Dayo-Owoyemi, I; Nobre, F S; Pagnocca, F C; Chaud, L C S; Pessoa, A; Felipe, M G A; Sette, L D

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the taxonomic identity of yeasts isolated from the Antarctic continent and to evaluate their ability to produce enzymes (lipase, protease and xylanase) at low and moderate temperatures. A total of 97 yeast strains were recovered from marine and terrestrial samples collected in the Antarctica. The highest amount of yeast strains was obtained from marine sediments, followed by lichens, ornithogenic soils, sea stars, Salpa sp., algae, sea urchin, sea squirt, stone with lichens, Nacella concinna, sea sponge, sea isopod and sea snail. Data from polyphasic taxonomy revealed the presence of 21 yeast species, distributed in the phylum Ascomycota (n = 8) and Basidiomycota (n = 13). Representatives of encapsulated yeasts, belonging to genera Rhodotorula and Cryptococcus were recovered from 7 different Antarctic samples. Moreover, Candida glaebosa, Cryptococcus victoriae, Meyerozyma (Pichia) guilliermondii, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and R. laryngis were the most abundant yeast species recovered. This is the first report of the occurrence of some species of yeasts recovered from Antarctic marine invertebrates. Additionally, results from enzymes production at low/moderate temperatures revealed that the Antarctic environment contains metabolically diverse cultivable yeasts, which could be considered as a target for biotechnological applications. Among the evaluated yeasts in the present study 46.39, 37.11 and 14.43 % were able to produce lipase (at 15 °C), xylanase (at 15 °C) and protease (at 25 °C), respectively. The majority of lipolytic, proteolytic and xylanolytic strains were distributed in the phylum Basidiomycota and were mainly recovered from sea stars, lichens, sea urchin and marine sediments. PMID:24114281

  5. Rapid determination of (210)Pb and (210)Po in water and application to marine samples.

    PubMed

    Villa-Alfageme, M; Mas, J L; Hurtado-Bermudez, S; Masqué, P

    2016-11-01

    Measurement of radionuclides in marine samples, specifically radioactive pairs disequilibrium, has gained interest lately due to their ability to trace cutting edge biogeochemical processes. In this context, we developed a fast, direct method for determining (210)Pb and (210)Po water through the use of ultra low-level liquid scintillation counting and alpha-particle spectrometry respectively and through Eichrom Sr resins for the Po-Pb separation. For (210)Pb analysis, the method uses stable lead as a yield tracer measured by a robust ICP-MS technique, and (210)Po is determined through self-deposition using the conventional (209)Po yield tracer. The improvements of the method over other techniques are: a) the analysis can be completed within 6 days, simplifying other methods, b) very low limits of detection have been achieved -0.12 and 0.005mBqL(-1) for (210)Pb and (210)Po, respectively - and c) most of the method could be carried out in on-board analysis. We applied the method to different aqueous samples and specifically to marine samples. We determined (210)Pb and (210)Po in the dissolved fraction of Mediterranean Sea water and an estuary at the South-West of Spain. We found that it can be successfully employed to marine samples but we recommend to i) use a minimum of 20L water to measure the (210)Pb in the dissolved phase by LSC and lower volumes to measure total concentrations; ii) wait for (210)Pb and (210)Bi in secular equilibrium and measure the total spectrum to minimise the limit of detection and improve accuracy. PMID:27591584

  6. The Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples: Improving Sample Accessibility and Enabling Current and Future Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples is a community designed and maintained resource enabling researchers to locate and request sea floor and lakebed geologic samples archived by partner institutions. Conceived in the dawn of the digital age by representatives from U.S. academic and government marine core repositories and the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) at a 1977 meeting convened by the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Index is based on core concepts of community oversight, common vocabularies, consistent metadata and a shared interface. Form and content of underlying vocabularies and metadata continue to evolve according to the needs of the community, as do supporting technologies and access methodologies. The Curators Consortium, now international in scope, meets at partner institutions biennially to share ideas and discuss best practices. NGDC serves the group by providing database access and maintenance, a list server, digitizing support and long-term archival of sample metadata, data and imagery. Over three decades, participating curators have performed the herculean task of creating and contributing metadata for over 195,000 sea floor and lakebed cores, grabs, and dredges archived in their collections. Some partners use the Index for primary web access to their collections while others use it to increase exposure of more in-depth institutional systems. The Index is currently a geospatially-enabled relational database, publicly accessible via Web Feature and Web Map Services, and text- and ArcGIS map-based web interfaces. To provide as much knowledge as possible about each sample, the Index includes curatorial contact information and links to related data, information and images; 1) at participating institutions, 2) in the NGDC archive, and 3) at sites such as the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) and the System for Earth Sample Registration (SESAR). Over 34,000 International GeoSample Numbers (IGSNs) linking to SESAR are

  7. Unexpected biodiversity of ciliates in marine samples from below the photic zone.

    PubMed

    Grattepanche, Jean-David; Santoferrara, Luciana F; McManus, George B; Katz, Laura A

    2016-08-01

    Marine microbial eukaryotes play critical roles in planktonic food webs and have been described as most diverse in the photic zone where productivity is high. We used high-throughput sequencing (HTS) to analyse the spatial distribution of planktonic ciliate diversity from shallow waters (<30 m depth) to beyond the continental shelf (>800 m depth) along a 163 km transect off the coast of New England, USA. We focus on ciliates in the subclasses Oligotrichia and Choreotrichia (class Spirotrichea), as these taxa are major components of marine food webs. We did not observe the decrease of diversity below the photic zone expected based on productivity and previous analyses. Instead, we saw an increase of diversity with depth. We also observed that the ciliate communities assessed by HTS cluster by depth layer and degree of water column stratification, suggesting that community assembly is driven by environmental factors. Across our samples, abundant OTUs tend to match previously characterized morphospecies while rare OTUs are more often undescribed, consistent with the idea that species in the rare biosphere remain to be characterized by microscopy. Finally, samples taken below the photic zone also reveal the prevalence of two uncharacterized (i.e. lacking sequenced morphospecies) clades - clusters X1 and X2 - that are enriched within the nano-sized fraction (2-10 μm) and are defined by deletions within the region of the SSU-rDNA analysed here. Together, these data reinforce that we still have much to learn about microbial diversity in marine ecosystems, especially in deep-waters that may be a reservoir for rare species and uncharacterized taxa. PMID:27374257

  8. Coincident plasmids and antimicrobial resistance in marine bacteria isolated from polluted and unpolluted Atlantic Ocean Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Baya, A.M.; Brayton, P.R.; Brown, V.L.; Grimes, D.J.; Russek-Cohen, E.; Colwell, R.R.

    1986-06-01

    Sewage effluent and outfall confluence samples were collected at the Barceloneta Regional Treatment Plant in Barceloneta, Puerto Rico; outfall confluence samples at Ocean City, Md., were also collected. Samples from uncontaminated open ocean areas served as clean-water controls. Bacteria were enriched in marine broth 2216 amended with 1 ..mu..g of one of a set of chemical selected for study per ml: nitrobenzene, dibutyl phthalate, m-cresol, o-cresol, 4-nitroaniline, bis(tributyltin) oxide, and quinone. MICs of the chemicals were determined individually for all isolates. Bacterial isolates were evaluated for resistance to nine different antibiotics and for the presence of plasmid DNA. Treated sewage was found to contain large numbers of bacteria simultaneously possessing antibiotic resistance, chemical resistance, and multiple bands of plasmic DNA. Bacteria resistant to penicillin, erythromycin, nalidixic acid, ampicillin, m-cresol, quinone, and bis(tributyltin) oxide were detected in nearly all samples, but only sewage outfall confluence samples yielded bacterial isolates that were resistant to streptomycin. Bacteria resistant to a combination of antibiotics, including kanamycin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and tetracycline, were isolated only from sewage effluent samples. It is concluded that bacterial isolates derived from toxic chemical wastes more frequently contain plasmid DNA and demonstrate antimicrobial resistance than do bacterial isolates from domestic sewage-impacted waters or from uncontaminated open ocean sites.

  9. Coincident plasmids and antimicrobial resistance in marine bacteria isolated from polluted and unpolluted Atlantic Ocean samples.

    PubMed Central

    Baya, A M; Brayton, P R; Brown, V L; Grimes, D J; Russek-Cohen, E; Colwell, R R

    1986-01-01

    Sewage effluent and outfall confluence samples were collected at the Barceloneta Regional Treatment Plant in Barceloneta, Puerto Rico; outfall confluence samples at Ocean City, Md., were also collected. Samples from uncontaminated open ocean areas served as clean-water controls. Bacteria were enriched in marine broth 2216 amended with 1 microgram of one of a set of chemicals selected for study per ml: nitrobenzene, dibutyl phthalate, m-cresol, o-cresol, 4-nitroaniline, bis(tributyltin) oxide, and quinone. MICs of the chemicals were determined individually for all isolates. Bacterial isolates were evaluated for resistance to nine different antibiotics and for the presence of plasmid DNA. Treated sewage was found to contain large numbers of bacteria simultaneously possessing antibiotic resistance, chemical resistance, and multiple bands of plasmid DNA. Bacteria resistant to penicillin, erythromycin, nalidixic acid, ampicillin, m-cresol, quinone, and bis(tributyltin) oxide were detected in nearly all samples, but only sewage outfall confluence samples yielded bacterial isolates that were resistant to streptomycin. Bacteria resistant to a combination of antibiotics, including kanamycin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and tetracycline, were isolated only from sewage effluent samples. It is concluded that bacterial isolates derived from toxic chemical wastes more frequently contain plasmid DNA and demonstrate antimicrobial resistance than do bacterial isolates from domestic sewage-impacted waters or from uncontaminated open ocean sites. PMID:3755317

  10. Complementary Curricula: Tourism & Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Richard L.

    1982-01-01

    There is both justification and need for tourism education within recreation curricula. Preparation in aspects of tourism would provide additional career opportunities for recreation graduates and a vast new area for research. (CJ)

  11. Marine anthropogenic radiotracers in the Southern Hemisphere: New sampling and analytical strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, I.; Povinec, P. P.; Aoyama, M.; Hirose, K.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A.; Comanducci, J.-F.; Gastaud, J.; Eriksson, M.; Hamajima, Y.; Kim, C. S.; Komura, K.; Osvath, I.; Roos, P.; Yim, S. A.

    2011-04-01

    The Japan Agency for Marine Earth Science and Technology conducted in 2003-2004 the Blue Earth Global Expedition (BEAGLE2003) around the Southern Hemisphere Oceans, which was a rare opportunity to collect many seawater samples for anthropogenic radionuclide studies. We describe here sampling and analytical methodologies based on radiochemical separations of Cs and Pu from seawater, as well as radiometric and mass spectrometry measurements. Several laboratories took part in radionuclide analyses using different techniques. The intercomparison exercises and analyses of certified reference materials showed a reasonable agreement between the participating laboratories. The obtained data on the distribution of 137Cs and plutonium isotopes in seawater represent the most comprehensive results available for the Southern Hemisphere Oceans.

  12. Sampling design for long-term regional trends in marine rocky intertidal communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irvine, Gail V.; Shelley, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Probability-based designs reduce bias and allow inference of results to the pool of sites from which they were chosen. We developed and tested probability-based designs for monitoring marine rocky intertidal assemblages at Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve (GLBA), Alaska. A multilevel design was used that varied in scale and inference. The levels included aerial surveys, extensive sampling of 25 sites, and more intensive sampling of 6 sites. Aerial surveys of a subset of intertidal habitat indicated that the original target habitat of bedrock-dominated sites with slope ≤30° was rare. This unexpected finding illustrated one value of probability-based surveys and led to a shift in the target habitat type to include steeper, more mixed rocky habitat. Subsequently, we evaluated the statistical power of different sampling methods and sampling strategies to detect changes in the abundances of the predominant sessile intertidal taxa: barnacles Balanomorpha, the mussel Mytilus trossulus, and the rockweed Fucus distichus subsp. evanescens. There was greatest power to detect trends in Mytilus and lesser power for barnacles and Fucus. Because of its greater power, the extensive, coarse-grained sampling scheme was adopted in subsequent years over the intensive, fine-grained scheme. The sampling attributes that had the largest effects on power included sampling of “vertical” line transects (vs. horizontal line transects or quadrats) and increasing the number of sites. We also evaluated the power of several management-set parameters. Given equal sampling effort, sampling more sites fewer times had greater power. The information gained through intertidal monitoring is likely to be useful in assessing changes due to climate, including ocean acidification; invasive species; trampling effects; and oil spills.

  13. Adaptive Recreational Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Mary Lou, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Designed for teachers interested in therapeutic recreation, the document lists sources of adaptive recreational equipment and their homemade counterparts. Brief descriptions for ordering or constructing recreational equipment for the visually impaired, poorly coordinated, physically impaired, and mentally retarded are given. Specific adaptations…

  14. Recreation Resource Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Development Institute, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Recreation is any voluntary activity that is enjoyable and fun. Recreation refreshes, revitalizes and improves a person's quality of life. Consider some recreation activity you may have an interest in. Suppose you are interested in gardening but have never tried it. Let's take a look at how you can learn about it, do it, and in the process get…

  15. Early detection of eukaryotic communities from marine biofilm using high-throughput sequencing: an assessment of different sampling devices.

    PubMed

    Pochon, Xavier; Zaiko, Anastasija; Hopkins, Grant A; Banks, Jonathan C; Wood, Susanna A

    2015-01-01

    Marine biofilms are precursors for colonization by larger fouling organisms, including non-indigenous species (NIS). In this study, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of 18S rRNA metabarcodes was used to investigate four sampling methods (modified syringe, sterilized sponge, underwater tape and sterilized swab) for characterizing eukaryotic communities in marine biofilms. Perspex™ plates were sampled in and out of water. DNA collected with tape did not amplify. Otherwise, there were no statistical differences in communities among the remaining three sampling devices or between the two environments. Sterilized sponges are recommended for ease of use underwater. In-depth HTS analysis identified diverse eukaryotic communities, dominated by Metazoa and Chromoalveolata. Among the latter, diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) were particularly abundant (33% of reads assigned to Chromalveolata). The NIS Ciona savignyi was detected in all samples. The application of HTS in marine biofilm surveillance could facilitate early detection of NIS, improving the probability of successful eradication. PMID:25877857

  16. 75 FR 30775 - Availability of Seats for the Monitor National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... for the following vacant seats: Heritage Tourism seat, Citizen-at-Large seat, Recreational Diving seat..., Maritime Museums, The Mariners' Museum, Recreational/Commercial Fishing, Recreational Diving, the US...

  17. Optimizing sample pretreatment for compound-specific stable carbon isotopic analysis of amino sugars in marine sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, R.; Lin, Y.-S.; Lipp, J. S.; Meador, T. B.; Hinrichs, K.-U.

    2014-01-01

    Amino sugars are quantitatively significant constituents of soil and marine sediment, but their sources and turnover in environmental samples remain poorly understood. The stable carbon isotopic composition of amino sugars can provide information on the lifestyles of their source organisms and can be monitored during incubations with labeled substrates to estimate the turnover rates of microbial populations. However, until now, such investigation has been carried out only with soil samples, partly because of the much lower abundance of amino sugars in marine environments. We therefore optimized a procedure for compound-specific isotopic analysis of amino sugars in marine sediment employing gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The whole procedure consisted of hydrolysis, neutralization, enrichment, and derivatization of amino sugars. Except for the derivatization step, the protocol introduced negligible isotopic fractionation, and the minimum requirement of amino sugar for isotopic analysis was 20 ng, i.e. equivalent to ~ 8 ng of amino sugar carbon. Our results obtained from δ13C analysis of amino sugars in selected marine sediment samples showed that muramic acid had isotopic imprints from indigenous bacterial activities, whereas glucosamine and galactosamine were mainly derived from organic detritus. The analysis of stable carbon isotopic compositions of amino sugars opens a promising window for the investigation of microbial metabolisms in marine sediments and the deep marine biosphere.

  18. Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project: Sample inventory and results of analyses of selected samples for organic compounds and trace elements

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, P.R.; Wise, S.A.; Schantz, M.M.; Koster, B.J.; Zeisler, R.

    1992-02-01

    In 1987, the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project (AMMTAP) was established as part of the National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank (NBSB) program at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).The purpose of the AMMTAP was to establish a representative collection of Alaska marine mammal tissues for future contaminant analyses and documentation of long-term trends in environmental quality. Since 1987, specimens have been collected from 65 animals (seven species) from six different sites. The report contains the current sample inventory and the results of the analysis of selected samples for the measurement of inorganic and organic compounds.

  19. Non-polar halogenated natural products bioaccumulated in marine samples. II. Brominated and mixed halogenated compounds.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Walter; Jun, Wu

    2003-07-01

    Several identified and potential natural brominated bioaccumulative compounds were studied in this work. 4,6-dibromo-2-(2('),4(')-dibromo)phenoxyanisole (BC-2) previously detected in Australian marine mammals and isolated from sponges, was synthesized. Two byproducts (a tetrabromo isomer and a tribromo congener) were investigated as well. The byproducts of the synthesis were not identified in the environmental samples investigated. Previously described natural brominated compounds (BC-1, BC-2, BC-3, BC-10, BC-11, MHC-1) and anthropogenic brominated diphenyl ethers (BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-154) were detected in a sample of human milk. The sample was from a woman from the Faeroe Islands who frequently consumed fish as well as whale blubber and meat. The most abundant compound originated from the natural tetrabromo phenoxyanisole BC-3 which may have a 3:1 distribution of bromine on the two phenyl units. This sample also accumulated a dibromochloroanisole, as well as a previously unknown mixed halogenated compound (MHC-X) and an unknown, most likely aromatic brominated compound. Co-elutions on a DB-5 column were found for BDE-99 and BC-11 as well as BDE-154 and the unknown brominated compound. This suggests that quantification of these two compounds has to be carried out carefully.Two samples of lower trophic level, namely Baltic cod liver and Mexican mussel tissue, were investigated as well. The cod liver samples contained BDE congeners but also abundant signals for the natural 2,3,3('),4,4('),5,5(')-heptachloro-1(')-methyl-1,2(')-bipyrrole Q1 and tribromoanisole (TBA). The mussel sample contained Q1, TBA, another halogenated anisole, BC-1, BC-2, and BC-3, as well as additional, potential natural brominated compounds in the elution range of tribromophenoxyanisoles. PMID:12738265

  20. A sampling-based Bayesian model for gas saturation estimationusing seismic AVA and marine CSEM data

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jinsong; Hoversten, Michael; Vasco, Don; Rubin, Yoram; Hou,Zhangshuan

    2006-04-04

    We develop a sampling-based Bayesian model to jointly invertseismic amplitude versus angles (AVA) and marine controlled-sourceelectromagnetic (CSEM) data for layered reservoir models. The porosityand fluid saturation in each layer of the reservoir, the seismic P- andS-wave velocity and density in the layers below and above the reservoir,and the electrical conductivity of the overburden are considered asrandom variables. Pre-stack seismic AVA data in a selected time windowand real and quadrature components of the recorded electrical field areconsidered as data. We use Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) samplingmethods to obtain a large number of samples from the joint posteriordistribution function. Using those samples, we obtain not only estimatesof each unknown variable, but also its uncertainty information. Thedeveloped method is applied to both synthetic and field data to explorethe combined use of seismic AVA and EM data for gas saturationestimation. Results show that the developed method is effective for jointinversion, and the incorporation of CSEM data reduces uncertainty influid saturation estimation, when compared to results from inversion ofAVA data only.

  1. Marine biodegradation of crude oil in temperate and Arctic water samples.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Mette; Johnsen, Anders R; Christensen, Jan H

    2015-12-30

    Despite increased interest in marine oil exploration in the Arctic, little is known about the fate of Arctic offshore oil pollution. Therefore, in the present study, we examine the oil degradation potential for an Arctic site (Disko Bay, Greenland) and discuss this in relation to a temperate site (North Sea, Denmark). Biodegradation was assessed following exposure to Oseberg Blend crude oil (100 mg L(-1)) in microcosms. Changes in oil hydrocarbon fingerprints of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkyl-substituted PAHs, dibenzothiophenes, n-alkanes and alkyltoluenes were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In the Disko Bay sample, the degradation order was n-alkanes>alkyltoluenes (para->meta->ortho-isomers)>PAHs and dibenzothiophenes, whereas, the degradation order in the North Sea samples was PAHs and dibenzothiophenes>alkyltoluenes>n-alkanes. These differences in degradation patterns significantly affect the environmental risk of oil spills and emphasise the need to consider the specific environmental conditions when conducting risk assessments of Arctic oil pollution. PMID:26159801

  2. Extended evaluation of polymeric and lipophilic sorbents for passive sampling of marine toxins.

    PubMed

    Zendong, Zita; Herrenknecht, Christine; Abadie, Eric; Brissard, Charline; Tixier, Céline; Mondeguer, Florence; Séchet, Véronique; Amzil, Zouher; Hess, Philipp

    2014-12-01

    Marine biotoxins are algal metabolites that can accumulate in fish or shellfish and render these foodstuffs unfit for human consumption. These toxins, released into seawater during algal occurrences, can be monitored through passive sampling. Acetone, methanol and isopropanol were evaluated for their efficiency in extracting toxins from algal biomass. Isopropanol was chosen for further experiments thanks to a slightly higher recovery and no artifact formation. Comparison of Oasis HLB, Strata-X, BondElut C18 and HP-20 sorbent materials in SPE-mode led to the choice of Oasis HLB, HP-20 and Strata-X. These three sorbents were separately exposed as passive samplers for 24 h to seawater spiked with algal extracts containing known amounts of okadaic acid (OA), azaspiracids (AZAs), pinnatoxin-G (PnTX-G), 13-desmethyl spirolide-C (SPX1) and palytoxins (PlTXs). Low density polyethylene (LDPE) and silicone rubber (PDMS) strips were tested in parallel on similar mixtures of spiked natural seawater for 24 h. These strips gave significantly lower recoveries than the polymeric sorbents. Irrespective of the toxin group, the adsorption rate of toxins on HP-20 was slower than on Oasis HLB and Strata-X. However, HP-20 and Strata-X gave somewhat higher recoveries after 24 h exposure. Irrespective of the sorbent tested, recoveries were generally highest for cyclic imines and OA group toxins, slightly lower for AZAs, and the lowest for palytoxins. Trials in re-circulated closed tanks with mussels exposed to Vulcanodinium rugosum or Prorocentrum lima allowed for further evaluation of passive samplers. In these experiments with different sorbent materials competing for toxins in the same container, Strata-X accumulated toxins faster than Oasis HLB, and HP-20, and to higher levels. The deployment of these three sorbents at Ingril French Mediterranean lagoon to detect PnTX-G in the water column showed accumulation of higher levels on HP-20 and Oasis HLB compared to Strata-X. This study

  3. DNA barcoding and metabarcoding of standardized samples reveal patterns of marine benthic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Leray, Matthieu; Knowlton, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Documenting the diversity of marine life is challenging because many species are cryptic, small, and rare, and belong to poorly known groups. New sequencing technologies, especially when combined with standardized sampling, promise to make comprehensive biodiversity assessments and monitoring feasible on a large scale. We used this approach to characterize patterns of diversity on oyster reefs across a range of geographic scales comprising a temperate location [Virginia (VA)] and a subtropical location [Florida (FL)]. Eukaryotic organisms that colonized multilayered settlement surfaces (autonomous reef monitoring structures) over a 6-mo period were identified by cytochrome c oxidase subunit I barcoding (>2-mm mobile organisms) and metabarcoding (sessile and smaller mobile organisms). In a total area of ∼15.64 m2 and volume of ∼0.09 m3, 2,179 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were recorded from 983,056 sequences. However, only 10.9% could be matched to reference barcodes in public databases, with only 8.2% matching barcodes with both genus and species names. Taxonomic coverage was broad, particularly for animals (22 phyla recorded), but 35.6% of OTUs detected via metabarcoding could not be confidently assigned to a taxonomic group. The smallest size fraction (500 to 106 μm) was the most diverse (more than two-thirds of OTUs). There was little taxonomic overlap between VA and FL, and samples separated by ∼2 m were significantly more similar than samples separated by ∼100 m. Ground-truthing with independent assessments of taxonomic composition indicated that both presence–absence information and relative abundance information are captured by metabarcoding data, suggesting considerable potential for ecological studies and environmental monitoring. PMID:25646458

  4. DNA barcoding and metabarcoding of standardized samples reveal patterns of marine benthic diversity.

    PubMed

    Leray, Matthieu; Knowlton, Nancy

    2015-02-17

    Documenting the diversity of marine life is challenging because many species are cryptic, small, and rare, and belong to poorly known groups. New sequencing technologies, especially when combined with standardized sampling, promise to make comprehensive biodiversity assessments and monitoring feasible on a large scale. We used this approach to characterize patterns of diversity on oyster reefs across a range of geographic scales comprising a temperate location [Virginia (VA)] and a subtropical location [Florida (FL)]. Eukaryotic organisms that colonized multilayered settlement surfaces (autonomous reef monitoring structures) over a 6-mo period were identified by cytochrome c oxidase subunit I barcoding (>2-mm mobile organisms) and metabarcoding (sessile and smaller mobile organisms). In a total area of ∼ 15.64 m(2) and volume of ∼ 0.09 m(3), 2,179 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were recorded from 983,056 sequences. However, only 10.9% could be matched to reference barcodes in public databases, with only 8.2% matching barcodes with both genus and species names. Taxonomic coverage was broad, particularly for animals (22 phyla recorded), but 35.6% of OTUs detected via metabarcoding could not be confidently assigned to a taxonomic group. The smallest size fraction (500 to 106 μm) was the most diverse (more than two-thirds of OTUs). There was little taxonomic overlap between VA and FL, and samples separated by ∼ 2 m were significantly more similar than samples separated by ∼ 100 m. Ground-truthing with independent assessments of taxonomic composition indicated that both presence-absence information and relative abundance information are captured by metabarcoding data, suggesting considerable potential for ecological studies and environmental monitoring. PMID:25646458

  5. Optimizing sample pretreatment for compound-specific stable carbon isotopic analysis of amino sugars in marine sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, R.; Lin, Y.-S.; Lipp, J. S.; Meador, T. B.; Hinrichs, K.-U.

    2014-09-01

    Amino sugars are quantitatively significant constituents of soil and marine sediment, but their sources and turnover in environmental samples remain poorly understood. The stable carbon isotopic composition of amino sugars can provide information on the lifestyles of their source organisms and can be monitored during incubations with labeled substrates to estimate the turnover rates of microbial populations. However, until now, such investigation has been carried out only with soil samples, partly because of the much lower abundance of amino sugars in marine environments. We therefore optimized a procedure for compound-specific isotopic analysis of amino sugars in marine sediment, employing gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The whole procedure consisted of hydrolysis, neutralization, enrichment, and derivatization of amino sugars. Except for the derivatization step, the protocol introduced negligible isotopic fractionation, and the minimum requirement of amino sugar for isotopic analysis was 20 ng, i.e., equivalent to ~8 ng of amino sugar carbon. Compound-specific stable carbon isotopic analysis of amino sugars obtained from marine sediment extracts indicated that glucosamine and galactosamine were mainly derived from organic detritus, whereas muramic acid showed isotopic imprints from indigenous bacterial activities. The δ13C analysis of amino sugars provides a valuable addition to the biomarker-based characterization of microbial metabolism in the deep marine biosphere, which so far has been lipid oriented and biased towards the detection of archaeal signals.

  6. Past-year recreational gambling in a nationally representative sample: Correlates of casino, non-casino, and both casino/non-casino gambling

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Christine A.; Maciejewski, Paul K.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Data from the Gambling Impact and Behavior Study (GIBS), a national survey of 2,417 U.S. adults, were examined by multivariate analysis to investigate characteristics of past-year recreational gamblers who participated in casino-only, non-casino-only, and both casino and non-casino gambling. Compared to non-casino-only gamblers, individuals who gambled in both locations had higher rates of alcohol use and abuse/dependence, lower rates of drug use, more frequent gambling, and larger wins and losses. Compared to casino-only gamblers, individuals who gambled in both locations reported less drug use, poorer subjective health, earlier age of gambling onset, greater frequency of gambling, and larger wins and losses. Compared to casino-only or non-casino-only gambling, gambling in both locations was associated with more frequent and heavier gambling. Findings suggest aspects of recreational gambling, such as gambling venue, may have important public health implications and should be considered in guidelines for responsible gambling. PMID:21550124

  7. Neutron activation analysis of stoney spherules from a marine sediment sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millar, H. T., Jr.; Englert, P.

    1984-01-01

    The identification of extraterrestrial material in samples collected at the surface of the Earth is discussed. Criteria were established for black magnetic spherules which involve the presence of: Fe, Ni, and Co in iron meteoritic ratios, wustite, and Fe-Ni metal while reliable criteria for stoney spherules are not well established. Neutron activation analysis was performed on eight stony spherules separated from the same marine sediment used by Millard and Finkelman. The 22 elements were determined by Compton suppression and triple coincidence gamma counting. It is found that Fe, Mg, Al, Ni, Cr, Co, Ir, and Sc are the best discriminators between chondritic and terrestrial compositions. Three of the spherules have compositions very close to chondrites and of these, two contain 0.5 and 0.25 ppm Ir. The other five spherules contain much less than chondritic concentrations of Ni but this element may be segregated and lost during ablation of the parent meteorite. One of these five low Ni spherules contains 2.9 ppm Ir while the other four contain less than 0.05 ppm Ir.

  8. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine samples by high-performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Obana, H.; Hori, S.; Kashimoto, T.

    1981-05-01

    It has been reported that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widely distributed in the environment, although their concentrations are quite low. Some PAHs, benzo(a)pyrene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene and 3-methycholanthrene, are carcinogenic to mammals after in vivo hydroxylation by mixed function oxidases. PAHs originate largely from smoke, soot, and exhaust gas produced by combustion and from petroleum oil spilled into the sea, so that the quantity of PAHs in the environment is broadly related to the level of contamination in a given region. Although PAHs have been determined by a TLC-fluorescence method, these methods suffer from complex pretreatment. On the other hand, the development of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has made it possible to analyze PAHs with good separation and high sensitivity and to simplify the pretreatment processes. In this study, ten PAHs in sediments, oyster, and wakame seaweed were determined by HPLC with a fluorescence detector (HPLC-FD). The contents and the patterns of PAHs found in sediments and marine samples may be used as an indicator of petroleum contamination in the sea.

  9. Outdoor Recreation Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jubenville, Alan

    The complex problems facing the manager of an outdoor recreation area are outlined and discussed. Eighteen chapters cover the following primary concerns of the manager of such a facility: (1) an overview of the management process; (2) the basic outdoor recreation management model; (3) the problem-solving process; (4) involvement of the public in…

  10. Financing recreational mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Hennagir, T.

    1995-07-01

    Recreational resource area mitigation remains an important operational requirement for hydropower project owners, especially in the western United States. Increasingly, producers of electric capacity must accommodate a rapidly growing demand for public recreation, providing opportunities in accordance with Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) relicensing requirements.

  11. Recreation Leadership. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannier, Maryhelen

    This text is intended for use in college recreation courses. It presents leadership techniques and teaching methods for conducting successful recreation programs in community centers, schools, churches, industry, hospitals, prisons, and on playgrounds. Over 1,000 program ideas and ways to teach are suggested that cover a wide range of activities…

  12. Recreation for Me Too.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Social Services and Community Health, Edmonton.

    This five-part manual is concerned with recreational activities for disabled persons. The first part defines four terms commonly used in reference to the disabled--impairment, disability, handicap, and inconvenience. Reasons for including the disabled in recreational activities and for developing activities for the disabled, discussed in the…

  13. Therapeutic Recreation Practicum Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneegas, Kay

    This manual provides information on the practicum program offered by Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC) for students in its therapeutic recreation program. Sections I and II outline the rationale and goals for providing practical, on-the-job work experiences for therapeutic recreation students. Section III specifies MVCC's responsibilities…

  14. Integrated Leisure and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleien, Stuart, Ed.; Rynders, John, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This "feature issue" focuses on integrated leisure and recreation for developmentally disabled persons and includes descriptions of innovative leisure/recreation programs which allow the realization of the concepts of normalization and least restrictive environment. Brief articles include the following titles and authors: "Challenging the…

  15. Partners: Promoting Accessible Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Janet; Gravink, Jill

    1995-01-01

    The Promoting Accessible Recreation through Networking, Education, Resources and Services (PARTNERS) Project, a partnership between Northeast Passage, the University of New Hampshire, and Granite State Independent Living Foundation, helps create barrier-free recreation for individuals with physical disabilities. The paper describes PARTNERS and…

  16. Wider sampling reveals a non-sister relationship for geographically contiguous lineages of a marine mussel

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Regina L; Nicastro, Katy R; Costa, Joana; McQuaid, Christopher D; Serrão, Ester A; Zardi, Gerardo I

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy of phylogenetic inference can be significantly improved by the addition of more taxa and by increasing the spatial coverage of sampling. In previous studies, the brown mussel Perna perna showed a sister–lineage relationship between eastern and western individuals contiguously distributed along the South African coastline. We used mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (ITS) sequence data to further analyze phylogeographic patterns within P. perna. Significant expansion of the geographical coverage revealed an unexpected pattern. The western South African lineage shared the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) with specimens from Angola, Venezuela, and Namibia, whereas eastern South African specimens and Mozambique grouped together, indicating a non-sister relationship for the two South African lineages. Two plausible biogeographic scenarios to explain their origin were both supported by the hypotheses-testing analysis. One includes an Indo-Pacific origin for P. perna, dispersal into the Mediterranean and Atlantic through the Tethys seaway, followed by recent secondary contact after southward expansion of the western and eastern South African lineages. The other scenario (Out of South Africa) suggests an ancient vicariant divergence of the two lineages followed by their northward expansion. Nevertheless, the “Out of South Africa” hypothesis would require a more ancient divergence between the two lineages. Instead, our estimates indicated that they diverged very recently (310 kyr), providing a better support for an Indo-Pacific origin of the two South African lineages. The arrival of the MRCA of P. perna in Brazil was estimated at 10 [0–40] kyr. Thus, the hypothesis of a recent introduction in Brazil through hull fouling in wooden vessels involved in the transatlantic itineraries of the slave trade did not receive strong support, but given the range for this estimate, it could not be discarded. Wider geographic sampling of marine organisms shows that

  17. Wider sampling reveals a non-sister relationship for geographically contiguous lineages of a marine mussel.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Regina L; Nicastro, Katy R; Costa, Joana; McQuaid, Christopher D; Serrão, Ester A; Zardi, Gerardo I

    2014-06-01

    The accuracy of phylogenetic inference can be significantly improved by the addition of more taxa and by increasing the spatial coverage of sampling. In previous studies, the brown mussel Perna perna showed a sister-lineage relationship between eastern and western individuals contiguously distributed along the South African coastline. We used mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (ITS) sequence data to further analyze phylogeographic patterns within P. perna. Significant expansion of the geographical coverage revealed an unexpected pattern. The western South African lineage shared the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) with specimens from Angola, Venezuela, and Namibia, whereas eastern South African specimens and Mozambique grouped together, indicating a non-sister relationship for the two South African lineages. Two plausible biogeographic scenarios to explain their origin were both supported by the hypotheses-testing analysis. One includes an Indo-Pacific origin for P. perna, dispersal into the Mediterranean and Atlantic through the Tethys seaway, followed by recent secondary contact after southward expansion of the western and eastern South African lineages. The other scenario (Out of South Africa) suggests an ancient vicariant divergence of the two lineages followed by their northward expansion. Nevertheless, the "Out of South Africa" hypothesis would require a more ancient divergence between the two lineages. Instead, our estimates indicated that they diverged very recently (310 kyr), providing a better support for an Indo-Pacific origin of the two South African lineages. The arrival of the MRCA of P. perna in Brazil was estimated at 10 [0-40] kyr. Thus, the hypothesis of a recent introduction in Brazil through hull fouling in wooden vessels involved in the transatlantic itineraries of the slave trade did not receive strong support, but given the range for this estimate, it could not be discarded. Wider geographic sampling of marine organisms shows that lineages

  18. Determination of total mercury for marine environmental monitoring studies by solid sampling continuum source high resolution atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandjukov, Petko; Orani, Anna Maria; Han, Eunmi; Vassileva, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    The most critical step in almost all commonly used analytical procedures for Hg determination is the sample preparation due to its extreme volatility. One of the possible solutions of this problem is the application of methods for direct analysis of solid samples. The possibilities for solid sampling high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry (HR CS AAS) determination of total mercury in various marine environmental samples e.g. sediments and biota are object of the present study. The instrumental parameters were optimized in order to obtain reproducible and interference free analytical signal. A calibration technique based on the use of solid standard certified reference materials similar to the nature of the analyzed sample was developed and applied to various CRMs and real samples. This technique allows simple and reliable evaluation of the uncertainty of the result and the metrological characteristics of the method. A validation approach in line with the requirements of ISO 17025 standard and Eurachem guidelines was followed. With this in mind, selectivity, working range (0.06 to 25 ng for biota and 0.025 to 4 ng for sediment samples, expressed as total Hg) linearity (confirmed by Student's t-test), bias (1.6-4.3%), repeatability (4-9%), reproducibility (9-11%), and absolute limit of detection (0.025 ng for sediment, 0.096 ng for marine biota) were systematically assessed using solid CRMs. The relative expanded uncertainty was estimated at 15% for sediment sample and 8.5% for marine biota sample (k = 2). Demonstration of traceability of measurement results is also presented. The potential of the proposed analytical procedure, based on solid sampling HR CS AAS technique was demonstrated by direct analysis of sea sediments form the Caribbean region and various CRMs. Overall, the use of solid sampling HR CS AAS permits obtaining significant advantages for the determination of this complex analyte in marine samples, such as straightforward

  19. 78 FR 73820 - Publicly Managed Recreation Opportunities, Recreation Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... Forest Service RIN 0596-AD09 Publicly Managed Recreation Opportunities, Recreation Fees AGENCY: Forest... final directive providing direction on recreation fees in chapter 30 of new Forest Service Handbook (FSH) 2309.13. This chapter enumerates the requirements for recreation fees charged by the Forest...

  20. Commercial Recreation Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Richard L.

    1983-01-01

    The tourist industry is one of the healthiest and most promising career markets for graduates of recreation education programs. Considerations that should be weighed in selecting tourism education curricula are discussed. (PP)

  1. Changes of the elemental distributions in marine diatoms as a reporter of sample preparation artefacts. A nuclear microscopy application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godinho, R. M.; Cabrita, M. T.; Alves, L. C.; Pinheiro, T.

    2015-04-01

    Studies of the elemental composition of whole marine diatoms cells have high interest as they constitute a direct measurement of environmental changes, and allow anticipating consequences of anthropogenic alterations to organisms, ecosystems and global marine geochemical cycles. Nuclear microscopy is a powerful tool allowing direct measurement of whole cells giving qualitative imaging of distribution, and quantitative determination of intracellular concentration. Major obstacles to the analysis of marine microalgae are high medium salinity and the recurrent presence of extracellular exudates produced by algae to maintain colonies in natural media and in vitro. The objective of this paper was to optimize the methodology of sample preparation of marine unicellular algae for elemental analysis with nuclear microscopy, allowing further studies on cellular response to metals. Primary cultures of Coscinodiscus wailesii maintained in vitro were used to optimize protocols for elemental analysis with nuclear microscopy techniques. Adequate cell preparation procedures to isolate the cells from media components and exudates were established. The use of chemical agents proved to be inappropriate for elemental determination and for intracellular morphological analysis. The assessment of morphology and elemental partitioning in cell compartments obtained with nuclear microscopy techniques enabled to infer their function in natural environment and imbalances in exposure condition. Exposure to metal affected C. wailesii morphology and internal elemental distribution.

  2. Recreational stream assessment using Malaysia water quality index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Hanisah; Kutty, Ahmad Abas

    2013-11-01

    River water quality assessment is crucial in order to quantify and monitor spatial and temporally. Malaysia is producing WQI and NWQS indices to evaluate river water quality. However, the study on recreational river water quality is still scarce. A study was conducted to determine selected recreational river water quality area and to determine impact of recreation on recreational stream. Three recreational streams namely Sungai Benus, Sungai Cemperuh and Sungai Luruh in Janda Baik, Pahang were selected. Five sampling stations were chosen from each river with a 200-400 m interval. Six water quality parameters which are BOD5, COD, TSS, pH, ammoniacal-nitrogen and dissolved oxygen were measured. Sampling and analysis was conducted following standard method prepared by USEPA. These parameters were used to calculate the water quality subindex and finally an indicative WQI value using Malaysia water quality index formula. Results indicate that all recreational streams have excellent water quality with WQI values ranging from 89 to 94. Most of water quality parameter was homogenous between sampling sites and between streams. An one-way ANOVA test indicates that no significant difference was observed between each sub index values (p> 0.05, α=0.05). Only BOD and COD exhibit slightly variation between stations that would be due to organic domestic wastes done by visitors. The study demonstrated that visitors impact on recreational is minimum and recreation streams are applicable for direct contact recreational.

  3. Arsenic species extraction of biological marine samples (Periwinkles, Littorina littorea) from a highly contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Whaley-Martin, K J; Koch, I; Reimer, K J

    2012-01-15

    Arsenic is ubiquitous in the tissues of marine organisms and in uncontaminated environments it is dominantly present as the highly soluble and easily extractable non-toxic arsenical, arsenobetaine. However in contaminated environments, higher proportions of inorganic arsenic, which is much less soluble, are accumulated into the tissues of marine organisms, resulting in lower extraction efficiencies (defined as the percent extracted arsenic of the total arsenic). This study carried out a comparative analysis between three different two-step arsenic extraction methods based on Foster et al. [27] from highly contaminated tissue of the marine periwinkle, Littorina littorea. The first extraction step used 100% water, 1:1 methanol-water, or a 9:1 methanol-water as the extraction solvent and the second step consisted of a gently heated dilute nitric acid extraction. The optimized two step extraction method was 1:1 methanol-water extraction followed by a 2% HNO(3) extraction, based on maximum amounts of extracted species, including organoarsenic species. PMID:22265486

  4. 77 FR 65136 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; Recreational Quota Harvested

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... the 2012 fishing year is 1.86 million lb (844 mt) (76 FR 82189, December 30, 2011). The 2012 RHL was... Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; Recreational Quota Harvested AGENCY: National Marine...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2012 black sea bass recreational harvest limit...

  5. The Value of a Master's Degree to Recreation Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Camilla J.; Hill, Brian J.; Brinton, Christian

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the nature of the relationship between earning advanced degrees and career outcomes such as salary, job satisfaction, social capital, and human capital among professionals in the parks and recreation field. The sample (n = 196) was drawn from parks and recreation agencies located in the United States. Agencies, excluding…

  6. Recreation Handbook for State and Local Unit Recreation Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Retarded Citizens, Arlington, TX.

    The recreation handbook provides broad guidelines and lists sources of information for state and local units of the National Association for Retarded Citizens (NARC) to develop recreational programs throughout the nation. Described are the importance of recreation for reasons such as developing good habits of physical fitness, survey results…

  7. 77 FR 36250 - Recreation Resource Advisory Committees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... Forest Service Recreation Resource Advisory Committees AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Call for nominations for the Pacific Northwest Recreation Resource Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture has established the Pacific Northwest Recreation Resource Advisory Committee (Recreation...

  8. Recreational Vehicle Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felice, Michael

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in recreational vehicle trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and…

  9. Wilderness Recreation Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Jack K.

    1977-01-01

    A Wilderness Recreation Education program aims to: offer students an opportunity to be involved with direct learning in the outdoors; instill an understanding of ways to exist within and enjoy the wilderness environment; and develop an awareness of an appreciation for the need to conserve and maintain the wilderness environment for generations to…

  10. The Computer and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Paul

    The paper examines the applications of microcomputers to recreation programing for blind persons. The accessibility of microcomputers to this population is discussed, and the advantages as well as disadvantages of speech synthesis equipment are noted. Information is presented on the modification of hardware for Radio Shack and Apple computers.…

  11. The Consumer and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    This publication deals with recreation and leisure in American society. It is stated that the greater mobility of Americans, the increased time and money available for leisure time pursuits, the higher degree of educational level with accompanying wider interests, and the changing attitudes toward the balance between work and play are having…

  12. Recreational Prescription Drug Use among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolek, Ethan A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore recreational prescription drug use among undergraduate students. Although anecdotal accounts on this subject abound, empirical research is extremely limited. Data from a survey of a random sample of 734 students at a large public research university in the Northeast were examined. Results indicate that a…

  13. 75 FR 57441 - Availability of Seats for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS... the following vacant seats on the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Commercial Shipping, Whale Watching, Ocean Recreation, Business/Commerce,...

  14. 78 FR 5779 - Extension of Application Period for Seats for the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Business Alternate, Non-consumptive Recreation... sent to Danielle.lipski@noaa.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Michael Murray, Channel Islands... Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries...

  15. Monitoring toxic Ostreopsis cf. ovata in recreational waters using a qPCR based assay.

    PubMed

    Casabianca, Silvia; Perini, Federico; Casabianca, Anna; Battocchi, Cecilia; Giussani, Valentina; Chiantore, Mariachiara; Penna, Antonella

    2014-11-15

    Ostreopsis sp. is a toxic marine benthic dinoflagellate that causes high biomass blooms, posing a threat to human health, marine biota and aquaculture activities, and negatively impacting coastal seawater quality. Species-specific identification and enumeration is fundamental because it can allow the implementation of all the necessary preventive measures to properly manage Ostreopsis spp. bloom events in recreational waters and aquaculture farms. The aim of this study was to apply a rapid and sensitive qPCR method to quantify Ostreopsis cf. ovata abundance in environmental samples collected from Mediterranean coastal sites and to develop site-specific environmental standard curves. Similar PCR efficiencies of plasmid and environmental standard curves allowed us to estimate the LSU rDNA copy number per cell. Moreover, we assessed the effectiveness of mitochondrial COI and cob genes as alternative molecular markers to ribosomal genes in qPCR assays for Ostreopsis spp. quantification. PMID:25282181

  16. Mercury and Other Chemical Constituents in Pacific Marine Fog Water: Results from Two Summers of Sampling in FogNet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahba, O.; Conrad, W. S.; Moranville, R.; Weiss-Penzias, P. S.; Coale, K. H.; Heim, W. A.; Olson, A.; Chiswell, H.; Fernandez, D.; Oliphant, A. J.; Dodge, C.; Hoskins, D.; Farlin, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The principle goal of FogNet is to make measurements of monomethylmercury (MMHg), total mercury (HgT) and major ions in Pacific Coast marine fog water samples taken from eight land stations from Big Sur to Trinidad, California in order to calculate the flux of MMHg and HgT to the terrestrial ecosystem, and observe their spatial and temporal patterns and relationships to major ion concentrations in fog water. During the summers of 2014 and 2015, fog water samples were analyzed and mean concentrations and standard deviations were found (number of samples shown in parentheses): MMHg = 1.9 +/- 2.4 ng L-1 (119), HgT = 28.7 +/- 26.8 ng L-1 (86), NH4+ = 2.5 +/- 2.0 mg L-1 (49), Cl- = 7.1 +/- 13.7 mg L-1 (52), SO42- = 15.3 +/- 26.0 mg L-1 (52), NO3- = 5.9 +/- 7.7 mg L-1 (48), and pH = 5.4 +/- 0.8 (38). For comparison, MMHg in rain is ~0.1 ng L-1 from previous studies. A temporal pattern in MMHg concentrations in fog was observed with monthly means of all samples for June, July, August and September 2014 (in ng L-1) of 4.2, 2.4, 1.4, and 0.8, respectively (see figure). No such temporal pattern was observed for HgT concentrations. The coastal site at Humboldt State University Marine Labs had fog water samples with the highest concentrations of MMHg (4.0 +/-4.3), whereas the inland site of Pepperwood had the lowest mean concentration of 0.7 +/- 0.5 ng L-1 among all sites. The temporal and spatial patterns observed in MMHg concentrations in fog water are consistent with a marine source. By combining the measured concentrations of analytes in fog water with an estimate of deposition from collocated 1 m2 passive fog collectors, the fluxes of MMHg and HgT for the summer of 2014 were 0.003-0.14 and 0.04-0.55 mg m-2 y-1, respectively. For MMHg, the mean fog water flux is about 4 times larger than that calculated for rain, and for HgT, the mean fog water flux is about 10% that calculated for rain.

  17. Screening for unicellular algae as possible bioassay organisms for monitoring marine water samples.

    PubMed

    Millán de Kuhn, Rosmary; Streb, Christine; Breiter, Roman; Richter, Peter; Neesse, Thomas; Häder, Donat-Peter

    2006-08-01

    ECOTOX is an automatic early warning system to monitor potential pollution of freshwater, municipal or industrial waste waters or aquatic ecosystems. It is based on a real time image analysis of the motility and orientation parameters of the unicellular, photosynthetic flagellate Euglena gracilis. In order to widen the use of the device to marine habitats and saline waters nine marine flagellates were evaluated as putative bioassay organisms, viz. Dunaliella salina, Dunaliella viridis, Dunaliella bardawil, Prorocentrum minimum Kattegat, P. minimum Lissabon, Tetraselmis suecica, Heterocapsa triquetra, Gyrodinium dorsum and Cryptomonas maculata. Because of their slow growth the last three strains were excluded from further evaluation. Selection criteria were ease of culture, density of cell suspension, stability of motility and gravitactic orientation. The sensitivity toward toxins was tested using copper(II) ions. The instrument allows the user to automatically determine effect-concentration (EC) curves from which the EC(50) values can be calculated. For the interpretation of the EC curves a sigmoid logistic model was proposed which proved to be satisfactory for all tested strains. The inhibition of the motility was considered as the most appropriate movement parameter as an endpoint. The Dunaliella species had the lowest sensitivity to copper with EC(50) values of 220, 198 and 176 mg/L for D. salina, D. bardawil and D. viridis, respectively, followed by T. suecica with an EC(50) value of 40 mg/L. The Prorocentrum species were found to be the most sensitive with an EC(50) value of 13.5 mg/L for P. minimum Lissabon and 7.5 mg/L for P. minimum Kattegat. PMID:16806394

  18. Validation of Ocean Color Satellite Data Products in Under Sampled Marine Areas. Chapter 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramaniam, Ajit; Hood, Raleigh R.; Brown, Christopher W.; Carpenter, Edward J.; Capone, Douglas G.

    2001-01-01

    The planktonic marine cyanobacterium, Trichodesmium sp., is broadly distributed throughout the oligotrophic marine tropical and sub-tropical oceans. Trichodesmium, which typically occurs in macroscopic bundles or colonies, is noteworthy for its ability to form large surface aggregations and to fix dinitrogen gas. The latter is important because primary production supported by N2 fixation can result in a net export of carbon from the surface waters to deep ocean and may therefore play a significant role in the global carbon cycle. However, information on the distribution and density of Trichodesmium from shipboard measurements through the oligotrophic oceans is very sparse. Such estimates are required to quantitatively estimate total global rates of N2 fixation. As a result current global rate estimates are highly uncertain. Thus in order to understand the broader biogeochemical importance of Trichodesmium and N2 fixation in the oceans, we need better methods to estimate the global temporal and spatial variability of this organism. One approach that holds great promise is satellite remote sensing. Satellite ocean color sensors are ideal instruments for estimating global phytoplankton biomass, especially that due to episodic blooms, because they provide relatively high frequency synoptic information over large areas. Trichodesmium has a combination of specific ultrastructural and biochemical features that lend themselves to identification of this organism by remote sensing. Specifically, these features are high backscatter due to the presence of gas vesicles, and absorption and fluorescence of phycoerythrin. The resulting optical signature is relatively unique and should be detectable with satellite ocean color sensors such as the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS).

  19. Marine Technician's Handbook, Instructions for Taking Air Samples on Board Ship: Carbon Dioxide Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Charles D.

    This booklet is one of a series intended to provide explicit instructions for the collection of oceanographic data and samples at sea. The methods and procedures described have been used by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and found reliable and up-to-date. Instructions are given for taking air samples on board ship to determine the…

  20. Sampling of Riverine or Marine Bacterial Communities in Remote Locations: From Field to Publication.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Katja

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes how to sample and preserve microbial water column samples from rivers that can be used for 16S or 18S metabarcoding studies or shotgun sequencing. It further describes how to extract the DNA for sequencing and how to prepare raw Illumina MiSeq amplicon data and analyze it in the R environment. PMID:27460367

  1. Archival policies and collections database for the Woods Hole Science Center's marine sediment samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buczkowski, Brian J.; Kelsey, Sarah A.

    2007-01-01

    The Woods Hole Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been an active member of the Woods Hole research community, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, for over 40 years. In that time there have been many projects that involved the collection of sediment samples conducted by USGS scientists and technicians for the research and study of seabed environments and processes. These samples were collected at sea or near shore and then brought back to the Woods Hole Science Center (WHSC) for analysis. While at the center, samples are stored in ambient temperature, refrigerated and freezing conditions ranging from +2º Celsius to -18º Celsius, depending on the best mode of preparation for the study being conducted or the duration of storage planned for the samples. Recently, storage methods and available storage space have become a major concern at the WHSC. The core and sediment archive program described herein has been initiated to set standards for the management, methods, and duration of sample storage. A need has arisen to maintain organizational consistency and define storage protocol. This handbook serves as a reference and guide to all parties interested in using and accessing the WHSC's sample archive and also defines all the steps necessary to construct and maintain an organized collection of geological samples. It answers many questions as to the way in which the archive functions.

  2. The Spatial Dimension: A New Reservoir and Recreational Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecock, Richard D.

    1974-01-01

    An initial effort to estimate the nature and extent of a new reservoir's impact upon the recreational behavior of a sample population living in the surrounding area (Keystone Reservoir, Oklahoma) is described. (NQ)

  3. Wipe sampling of amphetamine-type stimulants and recreational drugs on selected household surfaces with analysis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Madireddy, Sri Bharat; Bodeddula, Vanaja Reddy; Mansani, Sravan Kumar; Wells, Martha J M; Boles, Jeffrey O

    2013-06-15

    Sorption characteristics of eight drugs related to recreational and clandestine activity-amphetamine, cocaine, heroin, N-formyl amphetamine, N-formyl methamphetamine, methamphetamine, 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and pseudoephedrine-were evaluated on selected kitchen countertop surfaces. Methanol-dampened Whatman 40 filter paper wipes were used to collect samples from eleven surfaces including alkyd resin, ceramic tiles, glass, granite, laminate, limestone, marble, quartz compac, quartz real, soap stone, and stainless steel. The filter paper wipes were analyzed by a rapid three-minute UPLC-QTOF method, following ammonium acetate buffer (pH 5.8-6.2) extraction. The average percentage recoveries after 15 h of exposure to the surface materials tested, was found to be highest for cocaine and MDMA and lowest for amphetamine and methamphetamine. Among the eleven countertop surfaces, overall recoveries for marble were observed to be the least, whereas soapstone, quartz compac and stainless steel were among the highest. Scanning electron microscopic images of the surfaces provided a unique view of surface irregularities that potentially influenced drug recovery. Aging, migration, solvent composition, and volatility were examined. The variation in recovery of drugs was attributed to four key factors: compound volatility, surface composition, surface-compound interaction, and solvent composition. PMID:23583948

  4. Detection and risk assessment of diarrheagenic E. coli in recreational beaches of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Vanessa F V; Rivera, Irma N G; Lim, Keah-Ying; Jiang, Sunny C

    2016-08-15

    Marine beaches are important recreational and economic resources in Brazil, but the beaches' water quality is negatively impacted by the discharge of domestic sewage effluent. The occurrence of diarrheagenic Escherichiacoli among the E. coli isolated from three Brazilian marine beaches was investigated. Multiplex and single step PCR were used to screen 99 E. coli isolates for ten target toxin genes. Six toxin genes, stx1, eae, estp, esth, astA, and bfpA, were identified in 1% to 35% of the isolates. A quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) of human exposure to diarrheagenic E. coli during marine recreation was carried out. The results indicated that the diarrheagenic E. coli risk is well below the U.S. EPA's recommended daily recreational risk benchmark. However, the overall recreational health risk due to all pathogens in the water could be much higher and exceeded the U.S. EPA's benchmark. PMID:27301685

  5. Selected analytical challenges in the determination of pharmaceuticals in drinking/marine waters and soil/sediment samples.

    PubMed

    Białk-Bielińska, Anna; Kumirska, Jolanta; Borecka, Marta; Caban, Magda; Paszkiewicz, Monika; Pazdro, Ksenia; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2016-03-20

    Recent developments and improvements in advanced instruments and analytical methodologies have made the detection of pharmaceuticals at low concentration levels in different environmental matrices possible. As a result of these advances, over the last 15 years residues of these compounds and their metabolites have been detected in different environmental compartments and pharmaceuticals have now become recognized as so-called 'emerging' contaminants. To date, a lot of papers have been published presenting the development of analytical methodologies for the determination of pharmaceuticals in aqueous and solid environmental samples. Many papers have also been published on the application of the new methodologies, mainly to the assessment of the environmental fate of pharmaceuticals. Although impressive improvements have undoubtedly been made, in order to fully understand the behavior of these chemicals in the environment, there are still numerous methodological challenges to be overcome. The aim of this paper therefore, is to present a review of selected recent improvements and challenges in the determination of pharmaceuticals in environmental samples. Special attention has been paid to the strategies used and the current challenges (also in terms of Green Analytical Chemistry) that exist in the analysis of these chemicals in soils, marine environments and drinking waters. There is a particular focus on the applicability of modern sorbents such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in sample preparation techniques, to overcome some of the problems that exist in the analysis of pharmaceuticals in different environmental samples. PMID:26818066

  6. New procedure for recovering extra- and intracellular DNA from marine sediment samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alawi, M.; Kallmeyer, J.

    2012-12-01

    Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is a ubiquitous biological compound in aquatic sediment and soil. Despite major methodological advances, analysis of DNA from sediment is still technically challenging, not just because of the co-elution of inhibitory substances, but also due to co-elution of extracellular DNA, which potentially leads to an overestimate of the actual diversity. Previous studies suggested that eDNA might play an important role in biogeochemical element cycling, horizontal gene transfer and stabilization of biofilm structures. Several protocols based on the precipitation of eDNA e.g. with CTAB and ethanol have already been published. However, using these methods we did not succeed in quantifying very low amounts of eDNA (e.g. <1μg eDNA/g dry wt) in marine sediment even when using DNA carriers like glycogen. Since the recovery of eDNA by precipitation strongly depends on its concentration, these previously published procedures are not adequate for deep biosphere sediment due to the low eDNA content. We have focused on the question whether eDNA could be a source of nitrogen and phosphorus for microbes in the subseafloor biosphere. Therefore we developed a new method for the (semi)-quantitative extraction of eDNA from sediment. The new extraction procedure is based on sequential washing of the sediment to remove simultaneously eDNA and microbial cells without lysing them. After separation of the cells by centrifugation, the eDNA was extracted from the supernatant and purified by adsorption onto a solid phase, followed by removal of the solids and subsequent elution of the pure eDNA. Intracellular DNA (iDNA) was extracted and purified from the cell pellet using a commercial DNA extraction kit. Additional to a very low detection limit and reproducible quantification, this new method allows separation and purification of both extracellular and intracellular DNA to an extent that inhibitors are removed and downstream applications like PCR can be performed. To

  7. Bacteria and Nutrients in the Obhur Recreational Sharm, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turki, Adnan; Mudarris, Mohammed

    2013-04-01

    Environmental pollution that render waters along the recreational shore unsatisfactory for use by the general public has become a global health problem. This study was carried out to examine the marine waters in sampling stations located at Sharm Obhur (North of Jeddah). These parameters included: total coliform (TC), l fecal coliform (FC) and nutrients (NO2-N, NO3-N, NH4-N and PO4-P). A comparison of the mean values of nutrients in Sharm Obhur with those of other locations in the Red Sea suggests that the mean levels of nutrients were similar to those of unpolluted areas. TC and FC counts were higher at the north sampling stations than the south ones, and with little variations between their numbers. FC was not recovered at stations to the south. The study shows that TC and FC counts at all sampling stations similar to the levels reported for normal unpolluted sea water. Keywords: Pollution, Nutrients, Coliforms, Sharm Obhur, Red Sea.

  8. Sample Limited Characterization of a Novel Disulfide-Rich Venom Peptide Toxin from Terebrid Marine Snail Terebra variegata

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Prachi; Grigoryan, Alexandre; Bhuiyan, Mohammed H.; Ueberheide, Beatrix; Russell, Victoria; Quinoñez, Jose; Moy, Patrick; Chait, Brian T.; Poget, Sébastien F.; Holford, Mandë

    2014-01-01

    Disulfide-rich peptide toxins found in the secretions of venomous organisms such as snakes, spiders, scorpions, leeches, and marine snails are highly efficient and effective tools for novel therapeutic drug development. Venom peptide toxins have been used extensively to characterize ion channels in the nervous system and platelet aggregation in haemostatic systems. A significant hurdle in characterizing disulfide-rich peptide toxins from venomous animals is obtaining significant quantities needed for sequence and structural analyses. Presented here is a strategy for the structural characterization of venom peptide toxins from sample limited (4 ng) specimens via direct mass spectrometry sequencing, chemical synthesis and NMR structure elucidation. Using this integrated approach, venom peptide Tv1 from Terebra variegata was discovered. Tv1 displays a unique fold not witnessed in prior snail neuropeptides. The novel structural features found for Tv1 suggest that the terebrid pool of peptide toxins may target different neuronal agents with varying specificities compared to previously characterized snail neuropeptides. PMID:24713808

  9. As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb pressurized liquid extraction with acetic acid from marine sediment and soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreda-Piñeiro, Jorge; Alonso-Rodríguez, Elia; López-Mahía, Purificación; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; Prada-Rodríguez, Darío; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio; Bermejo-Barrera, Adela; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

    2006-12-01

    Rapid leaching procedures by Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE) have been developed for As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb leaching from environmental matrices (marine sediment and soil samples). The Pressurized Liquid Extraction is completed after 16 min. The released elements by acetic acid Pressurized Liquid Extraction have been evaluated by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The optimum multi-element leaching conditions when using 5.0 ml stainless steel extraction cells, were: acetic acid concentration 8.0 M, extraction temperature 100 °C, pressure 1500 psi, static time 5 min, flush solvent 60%, two extraction steps and 0.50 g of diatomaceous earth as dispersing agent (diatomaceous earth mass/sample mass ratio of 2). Results have showed that high acetic acid concentrations and high extraction temperatures increase the metal leaching efficiency. Limits of detection (between 0.12 and 0.5 μg g - 1 ) and repeatability of the over-all procedure (around 6.0%) were assessed. Finally, accuracy was studied by analyzing PACS-2 (marine sediment), GBW-07409 (soil), IRANT-12-1-07 (cambisol soil) and IRANT-12-1-08 (luvisol soil) certified reference materials (CRMs). These certified reference materials offer certified concentrations ranges between 2.9 and 26.2 μg g - 1 for As, from 0.068 to 2.85 μg g - 1 for Cd, between 26.4 and 90.7 μg g - 1 for Cr, from 9.3 to 40.0 μg g - 1 for Ni and between 16.3 and 183.0 μg g - 1 for Pb. Recoveries after analysis were between 95.7 and 105.1% for As, 96.2% for Cd, 95.2 and 100.6% for Cr, 95.7 and 103% for Ni and 94.2 and 105.5% for Pb.

  10. Sample preparation methods for quantitative detection of DNA by molecular assays and marine biosensors.

    PubMed

    Cox, Annie M; Goodwin, Kelly D

    2013-08-15

    The need for quantitative molecular methods is growing in environmental, food, and medical fields but is hindered by low and variable DNA extraction and by co-extraction of PCR inhibitors. DNA extracts from Enterococcus faecium, seawater, and seawater spiked with E. faecium and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were tested by qPCR for target recovery and inhibition. Conventional and novel methods were tested, including Synchronous Coefficient of Drag Alteration (SCODA) and lysis and purification systems used on an automated genetic sensor (the Environmental Sample Processor, ESP). Variable qPCR target recovery and inhibition were measured, significantly affecting target quantification. An aggressive lysis method that utilized chemical, enzymatic, and mechanical disruption enhanced target recovery compared to commercial kit protocols. SCODA purification did not show marked improvement over commercial spin columns. Overall, data suggested a general need to improve sample preparation and to accurately assess and account for DNA recovery and inhibition in qPCR applications. PMID:23790450

  11. 36 CFR 1002.23 - Recreation fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Recreation Area in accordance with 36 CFR part 71. (b) Entering designated entrance fee areas or using... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recreation fees. 1002.23... RECREATION § 1002.23 Recreation fees. (a) Recreation fees shall be charged in the area administered by...

  12. 36 CFR 2.23 - Recreation fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recreation fees. 2.23 Section... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.23 Recreation fees. (a) Recreation fees shall be established as... sites, facilities, equipment or services, or participating in group activities, recreation events,...

  13. From Recreational Mathematics to Recreational Programming, and Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz Jimenez, B. C.; Ruiz Munoz, M.

    2011-01-01

    Recreational Programming (RecPro) is the discipline that encourages the study of computer programming through ludic problems. Problems that are typically studied within this discipline are similar to those of Recreational Mathematics (RecMat), which sometimes leads to the confusion of these two disciplines. The objective for RecPro is to write…

  14. Development of a subcritical fluid extraction and GC-MS validation method for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in marine samples.

    PubMed

    Jia, Kai; Feng, Xiaomei; Liu, Kun; Han, Yuqian; Xue, Yong; Xue, Changhu

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes a new procedure for extracting polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from marine samples using subcritical 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a). The extraction procedure was optimized at temperatures varying from 20 to 70°C and pressures ranging from 3 to 15 MPa. The volume of the co-solvent was then optimized using 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a) as the subcritical phase. PCBs were characterized by GC-MS using the optimized conditions of 3 MPa, 30°C, and a co-solvent volume of 6 mL. The average yields of PCBs from subcritical fluid extraction of spiked oyster samples were measured and found to be greater than 90%, with relative standard deviations (RSD) of less than 10%. Detection limits of this method were in the range of 0.045-0.108 ng/g of dry mass. The method was compared to Soxhlet extraction and then applied for monitoring PCBs in oysters from Qingdao, Shandong, China. PMID:23455072

  15. Determination of methylmercury in marine sediment samples: method validation and occurrence data.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Luis; Vassileva, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    The determination of methylmercury (MeHg) in sediment samples is a difficult task due to the extremely low MeHg/THg (total mercury) ratio and species interconversion. Here, we present the method validation of a cost-effective fit-for-purpose analytical procedure for the measurement of MeHg in sediments, which is based on aqueous phase ethylation, followed by purge and trap and hyphenated gas chromatography-pyrolysis-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (GC-Py-AFS) separation and detection. Four different extraction techniques, namely acid and alkaline leaching followed by solvent extraction and evaporation, microwave-assisted extraction with 2-mercaptoethanol, and acid leaching, solvent extraction and back extraction into sodium thiosulfate, were examined regarding their potential to selectively extract MeHg from estuarine sediment IAEA-405 certified reference material (CRM). The procedure based on acid leaching with HNO3/CuSO4, solvent extraction and back extraction into Na2S2O3 yielded the highest extraction recovery, i.e., 94±3% and offered the possibility to perform the extraction of a large number of samples in a short time, by eliminating the evaporation step. The artifact formation of MeHg was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS), using isotopically enriched Me(201)Hg and (202)Hg and it was found to be nonexistent. A full validation approach in line with ISO 17025 and Eurachem guidelines was followed. With this in mind, blanks, selectivity, working range (1-800 pg), linearity (0.9995), recovery (94-96%), repeatability (3%), intermediate precision (4%), limit of detection (0.45 pg) and limit of quantification (0.85 pg) were systematically assessed with CRM IAEA-405. The uncertainty budget was calculated and the major contribution to the combined uncertainty (16.24%, k=2) was found to arise from the uncertainty associated with recovery (74.1%). Demonstration of traceability of

  16. A procedure for separate recovery of extra- and intracellular DNA from a single marine sediment sample.

    PubMed

    Alawi, Mashal; Schneider, Beate; Kallmeyer, Jens

    2014-09-01

    Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is a ubiquitous biological compound in aquatic sediment and soil. Previous studies suggested that eDNA plays an important role in biogeochemical element cycling, horizontal gene transfer and stabilization of biofilm structures. Previous methods for eDNA extraction were either not suitable for oligotrophic sediments or only allowed quantification but no genetic analyses. Our procedure is based on cell detachment and eDNA liberation from sediment particles by sequential washing with an alkaline sodium phosphate buffer followed by a separation of cells and eDNA. The separated eDNA is then bound onto silica particles and purified, whereas the intracellular DNA from the separated cells is extracted using a commercial kit. The method provides extra- and intracellular DNA of high purity that is suitable for downstream applications like PCR. Extracellular DNA was extracted from organic-rich shallow sediment of the Baltic Sea, glacially influenced sediment of the Barents Sea and from the oligotrophic South Pacific Gyre. The eDNA concentration in these samples varied from 23 to 626ngg(-1) wet weight sediment. A number of experiments were performed to verify each processing step. Although extraction efficiency is higher than other published methods, it is not fully quantitative. PMID:24955890

  17. Pioneers in Leisure and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Hilmi; And Others

    This book consists of brief biographies of people who have contributed to the field of leisure and recreation. The 26 pioneers chronicled span over two thousand years and cross many cultures. Some are theorists, others are practitioners, but all of them left their imprint on the leisure and recreation field. Arranged sequentially by dates, the…

  18. Financing of Private Outdoor Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    A survey of financial institutions was undertaken by the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation to evaluate the demand and availability of private credit for enterprises that provide outdoor recreation. The survey provided basic information for (1) evaluating legislative proposals for loan guarantee programs, (2) nationwide planning, and (3) assessing the…

  19. Resistance to antimicrobial agents among enterococci isolated from fecal samples of wild marine species in the southern coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Prichula, Janira; Pereira, Rebeca Inhoque; Wachholz, Guilherme Raffo; Cardoso, Leonardo Almansa; Tolfo, Neidimar Cezar Correa; Santestevan, Naiara Aguiar; Medeiros, Aline Weber; Tavares, Maurício; Frazzon, Jeverson; d'Azevedo, Pedro Alves; Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes

    2016-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate species distribution, antimicrobial resistance profiles, and presence of resistance genes in enterococci isolated from fecal samples of wild marine species, including seabirds (n=12), sea turtles (n=8), and mammals (n=3) found alive or dead in southern coast of Brazil. Enterococci were classified based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, tested for antibiotic susceptibility, and the presence of tet(S), tet(M), tet(L), mrsC, and erm(B) genes by PCR. Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were the most common species. Single (37.09%), double (25.80%), and multiple (16.12%) antibiotic resistance patterns were observed. Resistance to rifampicin occurred most frequently. The msrC, tet(M), and/or tet(L) genes were detected in 60.15%, 73.07%, and 23.07% of the resistant strains, respectively. In conclusion, the presence of antibiotic resistant strains in these species could be related to food web interactions and aquatic pollutants or linked to environmental resistome. PMID:26952995

  20. Quantifying Marine Emissions of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds Using Laboratory Measurements of Plankton Monocultures and Field Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabolis, A. W.; Meskhidze, N.; Kamykowski, D.; Reed, R. E.

    2010-12-01

    Marine biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) have been suggested to contribute significant portion of the organic carbon present in ocean atmosphere. In this study emission rates of 40 different hydrocarbons are quantified for lab-grown non-axenic phytoplankton monocultures and ambient samples from the Pamlico-Neuse Estuary, NC. The outcome of environmental conditions on production of BVOCs was examined for different light and temperature conditions. These different regimes are considered proxies for physiological stress-induced effects observed in natural ecosystems. The samples were incubated in a climate controlled room; they were then transferred to smaller volumes (200 ml) for analysis. BVOCs accumulated in the water and headspace above the water were measured by bubbling hydrocarbon-free gas mixture through the sample and passing the gas stream through a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry system equipped with a sample pre-concentrator. Inside the pre-concentrator, the compounds were trapped on a sorbent material, heated, and flushed into the GC-MS column. The pre-concentrator/GC-MS system gave at least 1000 times magnification of the sample concentrations, allowing detection of low ppt levels of hydrocarbons. Here we report results for lab-grown diatoms Thalassiosira weissflogii and Thalassiosira pseudonana, prymnesiophyte Pleurochrysis carterae, and dinoflagellates Karina brevis and Procentrum minimum, as well as field samples. To make results widely usable, all the emissions are normalized to Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration and cell counts. Our results show that diatoms had the highest isoprene production rate of 2.8 μmol (g Chl-a)-1 h-1 with ranges between 1.4 and 3.6 μmol (g Chl-a)-1 h-1 at light levels between 90 and 900 μE m-2 s-1, respectively. The prymnesiophyte and dinoflagellate species had isoprene production rates of 1.3±0.4 μmol (g Chl-a)-1 h-1 with a similar light dependency as diatoms. Field samples had comparable isoprene

  1. Impaired Inhibitory Control in Recreational Cocaine Users

    PubMed Central

    Colzato, Lorenza S.; van den Wildenberg, Wery P. M.; Hommel, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    Chronic use of cocaine is associated with impairment in response inhibition but it is an open question whether and to which degree findings from chronic users generalize to the upcoming type of recreational users. This study compared the ability to inhibit and execute behavioral responses in adult recreational users and in a cocaine-free-matched sample controlled for age, race, gender distribution, level of intelligence, and alcohol consumption. Response inhibition and response execution were measured by a stop-signal paradigm. Results show that users and non users are comparable in terms of response execution but users need significantly more time to inhibit responses to stop-signals than non users. Interestingly, the magnitude of the inhibitory deficit was positively correlated with the individuals lifetime cocaine exposure suggesting that the magnitude of the impairment is proportional to the degree of cocaine consumed. PMID:17989775

  2. Determination of MTBE in a recreational harbor using solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Zuccarello, Joseph L; Ganske, Jane A; Green, David B

    2003-06-01

    Discovery of the fuel additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in groundwater, surface water, and stormwater has prompted studies of its sources, transport and fate. More limited data, however, is available on the extent of contamination of coastal waters, as well as the persistence of MTBE in the marine environment. We apply here the combination of solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to the detection of sub-to-low microgram/l concentrations of MTBE in seawater samples. Analysis of samples collected at the Marina del Rey harbor, a shallow recreational harbor near Los Angeles, CA, show MTBE contamination in the low microgram/l level. MTBE measurements were made at different depths, from the surface to the bottom, at five sites within the harbor during months showing no measurable precipitation. The highest concentration of MTBE (18 microgram/l) was found at the boat launching ramp, and the lowest (0.2 microgram/l) near the harbor entrance, approximately 2.3 km from the ramp. The levels of MTBE measured, as well as their variation over the study period, are fully consistent with recreational boating as the primary source of contamination. No evidence for MTBE contamination from the adjacent stormwater control channel was noted. PMID:12668039

  3. IN-SITU SAMPLING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NATURALLY OCCURRING MARINE METHANE HYDRATE USING THE D/V JOIDES RESOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Frank R. Rack; Tim Francis; Peter Schultheiss; Philip E. Long; Barry M. Freifeld

    2005-04-01

    The primary activities accomplished during this quarter were continued efforts to develop plans for Phase 2 of this cooperative agreement based on the evolving operational planning for IODP Expedition 311, which will use the JOIDES Resolution to study marine methane hydrates along the Cascadia margin, offshore Vancouver Island. IODP Expedition 311 has been designed to further constrain the models for the formation of marine gas hydrate in subduction zone accretionary prisms. The objectives include characterizing the deep origin of the methane, its upward transport, its incorporation in gas hydrate, and its subsequent loss to the seafloor. The main attention of this expedition is on the widespread seafloor-parallel layer of dispersed gas hydrate located just above the base of the predicted stability field. In a gas hydrate formation model, methane is carried upward through regional sediment or small-scale fracture permeability, driven by the tectonic consolidation of the accretionary prism. The upward moving methane is incorporated into the gas hydrate clathrate as it enters the methane hydrate stability zone. Also important is the focusing of a portion of the upward methane flux into localized plumes or channels to form concentrations of near-seafloor gas hydrate. The amount of gas hydrate in local concentrations near the seafloor is especially important for understanding the response of marine gas hydrate to climate change. The expedition includes coring and downhole measurements at five sites across the Northern Cascadia accretionary prism. The sites will track the history of methane in an accretionary prism from (1) its production by mainly microbiological processes over a thick sediment vertical extent, (2) its upward transport through regional or locally focused fluid flow, (3) its incorporation in the regional hydrate layer above the BSR or in local concentrations at or near the seafloor, (4) methane loss from the hydrate by upward diffusion, and (5) methane

  4. Beyond Screen Time: Assessing Recreational Sedentary Behavior among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Katherine W.; Friend, Sarah; Graham, Daniel J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Most studies of sedentary behavior have focused on television use or screen time. This study aims to examine adolescent girls' participation in a variety of recreational sedentary behaviors (e.g., talking on the phone and hanging around), and their association with physical activity (PA), dietary behaviors, and body mass index. Data were from a sample of 283 adolescent girls. Recreational sedentary behavior, PA, and dietary behaviors were self-reported, and girls' height and weight were measured. Over 95% of girls engaged in at least one recreational sedentary behavior during the recall period. Watching television and hanging around were the most common behaviors. Watching television, using the Internet, and hanging around were associated with less PA; watching television, hanging around, and talking on the phone were associated with less healthful dietary behaviors. No associations were found with body mass index. Interventions may benefit from capitalizing on and intervening upon girls' common recreational sedentary behaviors. PMID:22013514

  5. 78 FR 4120 - Recreation Resource Advisory Committees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary Recreation Resource Advisory Committees AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to re-establish the Recreation Resource Advisory Committees... Recreation Resource Advisory Committees (Recreation RACs) pursuant to Section 4 of the Federal...

  6. 50 CFR 26.32 - Recreational uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recreational uses. 26.32 Section 26.32 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PUBLIC ENTRY AND USE Public Use and Recreation § 26.32 Recreational uses. Recreational uses such as, but...

  7. 50 CFR 26.32 - Recreational uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recreational uses. 26.32 Section 26.32 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PUBLIC ENTRY AND USE Public Use and Recreation § 26.32 Recreational uses. Recreational uses such as, but...

  8. How Effective Is Military Recreation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson, Lynn

    1980-01-01

    Efforts to qualitatively measure the effectiveness of military recreational programs have met only negligible success. This is due in part to a lack of definitive data and a lack of scientific assessment tools for adequately measuring performance objectives. (JN)

  9. Recreational Reading for Gifted Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangieri, John N.; Isaacs, Carolyn W.

    1983-01-01

    A bibliography lists approximately 100 works (1974-82) of fiction, biography, poetry, fantasy/science fiction, picture books, and mystery/adventure for gifted elementary children's recreational reading. Citations include information on author, approximate grade level, and publisher. (CL)

  10. 75 FR 77615 - Availability of Seats for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council and Extension of Application Deadline AGENCY: Office of... Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Honolulu County (primary only), Research (alternate only), Commercial Shipping, Whale Watching, Ocean Recreation, Business/ Commerce,...

  11. Deep Water, Shallow Water: Marine Animal Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Examines the diversity of life in the oceans and ways in which teachers can explore ocean habitats with their students without leaving the classroom. Topic areas considered include: restricted habitats, people and marine habitats, pollution, incidental kills, and the commercial and recreational uses of marine waters. (JN)

  12. Marine sediments monitoring studies for trace elements with the application of fast temperature programs and solid sampling high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orani, Anna Maria; Han, Eunmi; Mandjukov, Petko; Vassileva, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    Analytical procedure for the determination of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Co and Cr in marine sediment samples using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR CS AAS) and direct solid sample analysis has been developed. The application of fast programs in combination with direct solid sampling allows to eliminate the drying and pretreatment steps, however makes impossible the use of liquid standards for calibration. Iridium treated platforms were applied throughout the present study. Calibration technique based on the use of solid certified reference materials (marine sediments) similar to the nature of the analyzed sample and statistics of regression analysis were applied to the real sediment samples. The instrumental parameters were optimized in order to obtain reproducible and interference free analytical signals. The ISO-17025 requirements and Eurachem guidelines were followed in the validation of the proposed analytical procedure. Accordingly, blanks, selectivity, calibration, linearity, working range, trueness, repeatability reproducibility, limits of detection and quantification and expanded uncertainty (k = 2) for all investigated elements were assessed. Two different approaches for the estimation of measurement uncertainty were applied and obtained results compared. The major contributors to the combined uncertainty of the analyte mass fraction were found to be the homogeneity of the samples and the microbalance precision. The influence of sample particle sizes on the total combined uncertainty was also evaluated. Traceability to SI system of units of the obtained by the proposed analytical procedure results was demonstrated. Additionally, validation of the methodology developed was effectuated by the comparison of the obtained results with independent method e.g. ICP-MS with external calibration. The use of solid sampling HR CS AAS for the determination of trace elements in marine sediment matrix gives significant advantages

  13. A survey of dioxin-like contaminants in fish from recreational fishing.

    PubMed

    Heimstad, Eldbjørg Sofie; Grønstøl, Gaute; Hetland, Karl Torstein; Alarcon, Javier Martinez; Rylander, Charlotta; Mariussen, Espen

    2015-08-01

    The dioxin and dioxin-like compounds are regarded as one of the most toxic group of environmental contaminants. Food for the commercial market is regularly monitored for their dioxin levels and the concentration allowed in food is strictly regulated. Less is known about locally caught fish from recreational fishing, which is often brought home for consumption. This can be fish caught from nearby lakes or streams or fish with marine origin close to industrial areas or harbours that are not regularly monitored for their dioxin levels. In this study, we established collaboration with schools in 13 countries. We received 203 samples of 29 different fish species of which Atlantic cod was the most abundant followed by brown trout and pollock. In general, the majority of samples from the participating countries had low concentrations (between 0.1 and 0.2 pg/g chemical-activated luciferase gene expression toxic equivalency wet weight (CALUX TEQ w.w.)) of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs. Only 18 samples had concentrations above 1 pg/g CALUX TEQ w.w., and only 2 dab samples had concentration above maximum levels set by the European Commission. The Atlantic cod samples showed a significant reduction in the concentrations of dioxins with increasing latitude indicating less contamination of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in the north of Norway. The results indicate that a moderate consumption of self-caught fish at presumed non-contaminated sites does not represent a major risk for exposure to dioxins or dioxin-like compounds at concentrations associated with adverse health effects. Recreational fishermen should, however, obtain knowledge about local fish consumption advice. PMID:26187791

  14. 40 CFR 1042.601 - General compliance provisions for marine engines and vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the provisions of this part, the requirements and prohibitions in 40 CFR part 1068, and the provisions of the Clean Air Act. The provisions of 40 CFR part 1068 apply for compression-ignition marine... recreational marine engine in a vessel that is not a recreational vessel is a violation of 40 CFR...

  15. 40 CFR 1042.601 - General compliance provisions for marine engines and vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the provisions of this part, the requirements and prohibitions in 40 CFR part 1068, and the provisions of the Clean Air Act. The provisions of 40 CFR part 1068 apply for compression-ignition marine... recreational marine engine in a vessel that is not a recreational vessel is a violation of 40 CFR...

  16. 40 CFR 1042.601 - General compliance provisions for marine engines and vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the provisions of this part, the requirements and prohibitions in 40 CFR part 1068, and the provisions of the Clean Air Act. The provisions of 40 CFR part 1068 apply for compression-ignition marine... recreational marine engine in a vessel that is not a recreational vessel is a violation of 40 CFR...

  17. 40 CFR 1042.601 - General compliance provisions for marine engines and vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the provisions of this part, the requirements and prohibitions in 40 CFR part 1068, and the provisions of the Clean Air Act. The provisions of 40 CFR part 1068 apply for compression-ignition marine... recreational marine engine in a vessel that is not a recreational vessel is a violation of 40 CFR...

  18. In-Situ Sampling and Characterization of Naturally Occurring Marine Methane Hydrate Using the D/V JOIDES Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Rack, Frank; Schultheiss, Peter

    2005-12-31

    The primary accomplishments of the JOI Cooperative Agreement with DOE/NETL in this quarter were the implementation of a scientific ocean drilling expedition to study marine methane hydrates along the Cascadia margin, in the NE Pacific as part of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 311 using the R/V JOIDES Resolution and the deployment of all required equipment and personnel to provide the required services during this expedition. IODP Expedition 311 shipboard activities on the JOIDES Resolution began on August 28 and were concluded on October 28, 2005. New ODP Pressure Coring System (PCS) aluminum autoclave chambers were fabricated prior to the expedition. During the expedition, 16 PCS autoclaves containing pressure cores were X-rayed before and after depressurization using a modified Geotek MSCL-P (multi-sensor core logger-pressure) system. These PCS cores were density scanned using the MSCL-V (multi-sensor core logger-vertical) during depressurization to monitor gas evolution. The MSCL-V was set up in a 20-foot-long refrigerated container provided by Texas A&M University through the JOI contract with TAMRF. IODP Expedition 311 was the first time that PCS cores were examined before (using X-ray), during (using MSCL-V gamma density) and after (using X-ray) degassing to determine the actual volume and distribution of sediment and gas hydrate in the pressurized core, which will be important for more accurate determination of mass balances between sediment, gas, gas hydrate, and fluids in the samples collected. Geotek, Ltd was awarded a contract by JOI to provide equipment and personnel to perform pressure coring and related work on IODP Expedition 311 (Cascadia Margin Gas Hydrates). Geotek, Ltd. provided an automated track for use with JOI's infrared camera systems. Four auxiliary monitors showed infrared core images in real time to aid hydrate identification and sampling. Images were collected from 185 cores during the expedition and processed to

  19. Automated microextraction sample preparation coupled on-line to FT-ICR-MS: application to desalting and concentration of river and marine dissolved organic matter.

    PubMed

    Morales-Cid, Gabriel; Gebefugi, Istvan; Kanawati, Basem; Harir, Mourad; Hertkorn, Norbert; Rosselló-Mora, Ramón; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2009-10-01

    Sample preparation procedures are in most cases sample- and time-consuming and commonly require the use of a large amount of solvents. Automation in this regard can optimize the minimal-needed injection volume and the solvent consumption will be efficiently reduced. A new fully automated sample desalting and pre-concentration technique employing microextraction by packed sorbents (MEPS) cartridges is implemented and coupled to an ion cyclotron resonance Fourier-transform mass spectrometer (ICR-FT/MS). The performance of non-target mass spectrometric analysis is compared for the automated versus off-line sample preparation for several samples of aqueous natural organic matter. This approach can be generalized for any metabolite profiling or metabolome analysis of biological materials but was optimized herein using a well characterized but highly complex organic mixture: a surface water and its well-characterized natural organic matter and a marine sample having a highly salt charge and enabling to validate the presented automatic system for salty samples. The analysis of Suwannee River water showed selective C18-MEPS enrichment of chemical signatures with average H/C and O/C elemental ratios and loss of both highly polar and highly aromatic structures from the original sample. Automated on-line application to marine samples showed desalting and different chemical signatures from surface to bottom water. Relative comparison of structural footprints with the C18-concentration/desalting procedure however enabled to demonstrate that the surface water film was more concentrated in surface-active components of natural (fatty acids) and anthropogenic origin (sulfur-containing surfactants). Overall, the relative standard deviation distribution in terms of peak intensity was improved by automating the proposed on-line method. PMID:19685041

  20. Are fecal indicator bacteria appropriate measures of recreational water risks in the tropics: A cohort study of beach goers in Brazil?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulating recreational water exposure to pathogens within the tropics is a major public health and economic concern. Although numerous epidemiological studies estimating the risk to recreational marine water exposure have been oonducted since the 1950s, few studies have been don...

  1. 78 FR 38297 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; California Recreational Groundfish Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ...; California Recreational Groundfish Survey AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... regulatory changes. II. Method of Collection A random sample of recreational anglers who target groundfish in California will be asked to complete a voluntary mail-based survey questionnaire. III. Data OMB...

  2. Iron mineralogy and bioaccessibility of dust generated from soils as determined by reflectance spectroscopy and magnetic and chemical properties--Nellis Dunes recreational area, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, Harland L.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Morman, Suzette A.; Moskowitz, Bruce; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Goossens, Dirk; Buck, Brenda J.; Flagg, Cody; Till, Jessica; Yauk, Kimberly; Berquó, Thelma S.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric mineral dust exerts many important effects on the Earth system, such as atmospheric temperatures, marine productivity, and melting of snow and ice. Mineral dust also can have detrimental effects on human health through respiration of very small particles and the leaching of metals in various organs. These effects can be better understood through characterization of the physical and chemical properties of dust, including certain iron oxide minerals, for their extraordinary radiative properties and possible effects on lung inflammation. Studies of dust from the Nellis Dunes recreation area near Las Vegas, Nevada, focus on characteristics of radiative properties (capacity of dust to absorb solar radiation), iron oxide mineral type and size, chemistry, and bioaccessibility of metals in fluids that simulate human gastric, lung, and phagolysosomal fluids. In samples of dust from the Nellis Dunes recreation area with median grain sizes of 2.4, 3.1, and 4.3 micrometers, the ferric oxide minerals goethite and hematite, at least some of it nanosized, were identified. In one sample, in vitro bioaccessibility experiments revealed high bioaccessibility of arsenic in all three biofluids and higher leachate concentration and bioaccessibility for copper, uranium, and vanadium in the simulated lung fluid than in the phagolysosomal fluid. The combination of methods used here to characterize mineral dust at the Nellis Dunes recreation area can be applied to global dust and broad issues of public health.

  3. Recreation Services for Students with Handicapping Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbitt, John A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Several collegiate recreational programs reflect the rights that handicapped students have for recreational activities suitable for their needs and abilities. Substantial efforts are being made to provide these disabled students with full access and equal opportunity on the campus. (CJ)

  4. Parks, Recreation and Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Ching-Hua; Payne, Laura; Orsega-Smith, Elizabeth; Godbey, Geoffrey

    2003-01-01

    Reviews what current research says about the holistic health benefits of park and recreation services, focusing on: health benefits according to park users; physical activities in parks; stress reduction benefits of park use; social support, self-determination, and stress reduction; observing nature in parks and associated benefits; and the…

  5. Heel Pain in Recreational Runners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzoli, Allan S.; Pollina, Frank S.

    1989-01-01

    Provides physicians with the signs, symptoms, and management of heel/sole pain in recreational runners (usually due to plantar fasciitis, Achilles tendinitis, and calcaneal stress fractures). Remedies involve palliative treatment of symptoms, correction of underlying biomechanical problems, and flexibility exercises. (SM)

  6. Teratogenic Effects of `Recreational' Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Polifka, Janine E.; Friedman, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Published data from clinical studies for commonly abused substances were identified through a TOXLINE bibliographic search. References in teratology monographs and review articles were also used. Emphasis was placed on controlled epidemiological studies. Available evidence suggests that maternal alcohol or cocaine abuse substantially increases the risk of congenital anomalies among infants. Many recreational drugs cause neurobehavioral dysfunction in neonates exposed before birth. PMID:21229112

  7. Haptic Recreation of Elbow Spasticity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jonghyun; Damiano, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a haptic device capable of presenting standardized recreation of elbow spasticity. Using the haptic device, clinicians will be able to repeatedly practice the assessment of spasticity without requiring patient involvement, and these practice opportunities will help improve accuracy and reliability of the assessment itself. Haptic elbow spasticity simulator (HESS) was designed and prototyped according to mechanical requirements to recreate the feel of elbow spasticity. Based on the data collected from subjects with elbow spasticity, a mathematical model representing elbow spasticity is proposed. As an attempt to differentiate the feel of each score in Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), parameters of the model were obtained respectively for three different MAS scores 1, 1+, and 2. The implemented haptic recreation was evaluated by experienced clinicians who were asked to give MAS scores by manipulating the haptic device. The clinicians who participated in the study were blinded to each other’s scores and to the given models. They distinguished the three models and the MAS scores given to the recreated models matched 100% with the original MAS scores from the patients. PMID:22275660

  8. RECREATIONAL WATER QUALITY AND HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of this pilot study was to develop and evaluate methods to determine the effect of quality of recreational waters on the health of persons bathing in those waters. There is little scientific evidence upon which to base water quality standards for the safety ...

  9. Aquatic Recreation for the Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordellos, Harry C.

    The sixth in a series of booklets on physical education and recreation for the handicapped describes aquatic activities for blind persons. Written by a partially sighted athlete, the document discusses swimming pool characteristics and special pools for the visually impaired. Qualities of swimming instructors are reviewed, and suggestions for…

  10. Concentration of Beryllium (Be) and Depleted Uranium (DU) in Marine Fauna and Sediment Samples from Illeginni and Boggerik Islands at Kwajalein Atoll

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W L; Hamilton, T F; Martinelli, R E; Kehl, S R; Lindman, T R

    2005-02-24

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) personnel have supported US Air Force (USAF) ballistic missile flight tests for about 15 years for Peacekeeper and Minuteman missiles launched at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB). Associated re-entry vehicles (RV's) re-enter at Regan Test Site (RTS) at the US Army base at Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) where LLNL has supported scoring, recovery operations for RV materials, and environmental assessments. As part of ongoing USAF ballistic missile flight test programs, LLNL is participating in an updated EA being written for flights originating at VFAB. Marine fauna and sediments (beach-sand samples) were collected by US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and LLNL at Illeginni Island and Boggerik Island (serving as a control site) at Kwajalein Atoll. Data on the concentration of DU (hereafter, U) and Be in collected samples was requested by USFWS and NMFS to determine whether or not U and Be in RV's entering the Illeginni area are increasing U and Be concentrations in marine fauna and sediments. LLNL agreed to do the analyses for U and Be in support of the EA process and provide a report of the results. There is no statistically significant difference in the concentration of U and Be in six species of marine fauna from Illeginni and Boggerik Islands (p - 0.14 for U and p = 0.34 for Be). Thus, there is no evidence that there has been any increase in U and Be concentrations in marine fauna as a result of the missile flight test program. Concentration of U in beach sand at Illeginni is the same as soil and beach sand in the rest of the Marshall Islands and again reflects an insignificant impact from the flight test program. Beach sand from Illeginni has a mean concentration of Be higher than that from the control site, Boggeik Island. Seven of 21 samples from Ileginni had detectable Be. Four samples had a concentration of Be ranging from 4 to 7 ng g {sup -1} (4 to 7 parts per billion (ppb

  11. The History of Commercial Recreation and Its Role in the Provision of Family Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, E. Taylor

    Commercial recreation is the provision of facilities, equipment, and programs that satisfy public demand for activities during unobligated time and are profitable to the supplier. The term "commercial recreation" has been given a negative connotation in the field of recreation and leisure. This negative concept of commercial recreation continues…

  12. 77 FR 23633 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The final rule implementing Amendment 16 to the NE Multispecies FMP (75 FR 18262... (April 9, 2010, 75 FR 18356). Based on Marine Recreational Fishing Statistical Survey (MRFSS) data, the... Panel, NMFS published an interim final rule (76 FR 82197, December 30, 2011) that implemented a...

  13. Acute Gastroenteritis and Recreational Water: Highest Burden Among Young US Children

    EPA Science Inventory

    OBJECT I VES : To provide summary estimates of gastroenteritis risks and illness burden associated with recreational water exposure and determine whether children have higher risks and burden.METHODS: We combined individual participant data from 13 prospective cohorts at marine a...

  14. The Role of Sports in Kindergarten Teachers' Recreational Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the role of the sports in the recreational habits of kindergarten teachers. The survey population comprises kindergarten teachers who are employed in the province of Gaziantep. The sample constitutes a total of 378 kindergarten teachers determined by circumstantial method. The survey developed by Tunçel was…

  15. Examining Participation of University Students in Recreational Entertainment Marketing Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pala, Adem

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine participation of university students in recreational entertainment marketing activities. The survey population consisted of university student in Marmara University Province of Istanbul. The sample constituted a total of 272 students (150 male and 122 female), determined by circumstantial method. The survey…

  16. 43 CFR 17.270 - Recreation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recreation. 17.270 Section 17.270 Public... OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap § 17.270 Recreation... operation of programs or activities involving recreation. (a) Accessibility in existing...

  17. 36 CFR 261.17 - Recreation fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recreation fees. 261.17 Section 261.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.17 Recreation fees. Failure to pay any recreation fee is...

  18. 50 CFR 600.513 - Recreational fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Recreational fishing. 600.513 Section 600... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.513 Recreational fishing. (a) Foreign vessels conducting recreational fishing must comply only with this section,...

  19. 50 CFR 600.513 - Recreational fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Recreational fishing. 600.513 Section 600... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.513 Recreational fishing. (a) Foreign vessels conducting recreational fishing must comply only with this section,...

  20. 50 CFR 600.513 - Recreational fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Recreational fishing. 600.513 Section 600... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.513 Recreational fishing. (a) Foreign vessels conducting recreational fishing must comply only with this section,...

  1. 50 CFR 600.513 - Recreational fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recreational fishing. 600.513 Section 600... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.513 Recreational fishing. (a) Foreign vessels conducting recreational fishing must comply only with this section,...

  2. 18 CFR 801.10 - Recreation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Recreation. 801.10 Section 801.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.10 Recreation. (a) The use of surface water resources of the basin for recreation...

  3. 18 CFR 801.10 - Recreation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Recreation. 801.10 Section 801.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.10 Recreation. (a) The use of surface water resources of the basin for recreation...

  4. 18 CFR 801.10 - Recreation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recreation. 801.10 Section 801.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.10 Recreation. (a) The use of surface water resources of the basin for recreation...

  5. 18 CFR 801.10 - Recreation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Recreation. 801.10 Section 801.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.10 Recreation. (a) The use of surface water resources of the basin for recreation...

  6. 18 CFR 801.10 - Recreation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Recreation. 801.10 Section 801.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.10 Recreation. (a) The use of surface water resources of the basin for recreation...

  7. 46 CFR 67.23 - Recreational endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Forms of Documentation; Endorsements; Eligibility of Vessel § 67.23 Recreational endorsement. (a) A recreational endorsement entitles a vessel to pleasure use only. (b) Any vessel eligible for documentation under § 67.5 is eligible for a recreational endorsement. Note: A vessel having...

  8. 46 CFR 67.23 - Recreational endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Forms of Documentation; Endorsements; Eligibility of Vessel § 67.23 Recreational endorsement. (a) A recreational endorsement entitles a vessel to pleasure use only. (b) Any vessel eligible for documentation under § 67.5 is eligible for a recreational endorsement. Note: A vessel having...

  9. 46 CFR 67.23 - Recreational endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Forms of Documentation; Endorsements; Eligibility of Vessel § 67.23 Recreational endorsement. (a) A recreational endorsement entitles a vessel to pleasure use only. (b) Any vessel eligible for documentation under § 67.5 is eligible for a recreational endorsement. Note: A vessel having...

  10. 46 CFR 67.23 - Recreational endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Forms of Documentation; Endorsements; Eligibility of Vessel § 67.23 Recreational endorsement. (a) A recreational endorsement entitles a vessel to pleasure use only. (b) Any vessel eligible for documentation under § 67.5 is eligible for a recreational endorsement. Note: A vessel having...

  11. 46 CFR 67.23 - Recreational endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Forms of Documentation; Endorsements; Eligibility of Vessel § 67.23 Recreational endorsement. (a) A recreational endorsement entitles a vessel to pleasure use only. (b) Any vessel eligible for documentation under § 67.5 is eligible for a recreational endorsement. Note: A vessel having...

  12. REGIONAL RECREATION DEMAND AND BENEFITS MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a regional recreation demand and benefits model that is used to estimate recreation demand and value (consumers' surplus) of four activities at each of 195 sites in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and western Montana. The recreation activities considered are camp...

  13. Large Indoor Sports and Recreation Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidler, Todd

    This paper presents an overview and analysis of field houses, stadiums, arenas, and campus recreation centers. All are large indoor sports or recreation facilities. In general, stadiums and arenas are spectator facilities while field houses and campus recreation centers are primarily designed for activity. A college field house is a structure that…

  14. Recreation Vehicle Mechanic. Occupational Analyses Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Ann; Embree, Rick

    This analysis covers tasks performed by a recreation vehicle mechanic, an occupational title some provinces and territories of Canada have also identified as recreation vehicle technician and recreation vehicle service technician. A guide to analysis discusses development, structure, and validation method; scope of the occupation; trends; and…

  15. [Recreation for Youth with Deaf Blindness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Theresa, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This newsletter special issue focuses on recreational programming for people with deaf blindness. The following individual articles are presented: "Strategies To Promote Community Integrated Recreation: Guidelines for Leisure Coaches" by Joann Enos (which lists seven such strategies); "Assessing Recreation and Leisure Preferences" by Laura Rocchio…

  16. 50 CFR 26.32 - Recreational uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., water skiing, and other similar activities may be permitted on national wildlife refuges. When such uses... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PUBLIC ENTRY AND USE Public Use and Recreation § 26.32 Recreational uses... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Recreational uses. 26.32 Section...

  17. 50 CFR 26.32 - Recreational uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., water skiing, and other similar activities may be permitted on national wildlife refuges. When such uses... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PUBLIC ENTRY AND USE Public Use and Recreation § 26.32 Recreational uses... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Recreational uses. 26.32 Section...

  18. 50 CFR 26.32 - Recreational uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., water skiing, and other similar activities may be permitted on national wildlife refuges. When such uses... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PUBLIC ENTRY AND USE Public Use and Recreation § 26.32 Recreational uses... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Recreational uses. 26.32 Section...

  19. Keep Mental Health by Art Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Gongbin

    A distinct characteristic of the technology age is that people have more leisure time while the ways of recreation are getting more material and unified. Each step-up of technology has been fully used to produce more sensory attractive and lower unit-cost recreation products. In contrast, art recreation always means being highly devoted, creative,…

  20. Empirical Evidence for Species-Specific Export of Fish Naïveté from a No-Take Marine Protected Area in a Coastal Recreational Hook and Line Fishery

    PubMed Central

    Alós, Josep; Puiggrós, Antoni; Díaz-Gil, Carlos; Palmer, Miquel; Rosselló, Rosario; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2015-01-01

    No-take marine protected areas (MPAs) are assumed to enhance fisheries catch via the “spillover” effect, where biomass is exported to adjacent exploited areas. Recent studies in spearfishing fisheries suggest that the spillover of gear-naïve individuals from protected to unprotected sites increases catch rates outside the boundaries of MPAs. Whether this is a widespread phenomenon that also holds for other gear types and species is unknown. In this study, we tested if the distance to a Mediterranean MPA predicted the degree of vulnerability to hook and line in four small-bodied coastal fish species. With the assistance of underwater video recording, we investigated the interaction effect of the distance to the boundary of an MPA and species type relative to the latency time to ingest a natural bait, which was considered as a surrogate of fish naïveté or vulnerability to fishing. Vulnerability to angling increased (i.e., latency time decreased) within and near the boundary of an MPA for an intrinsically highly catchable species (Serranus scriba), while it remained constant for an intrinsically uncatchable control species (Chromis chromis). While all of the individuals of S. scriba observed within the MPA and surrounding areas were in essence captured by angling gear, only one fifth of individuals in the far locations were captured. This supports the potential for the spillover of gear-naïve and consequently more vulnerable fish from no-take MPAs. Two other species initially characterized as intermediately catchable (Coris julis and Diplodus annularis) also had a shorter latency time in the vicinity of an MPA, but for these two cases the trend was not statistically significant. Overall, our results suggest that an MPA-induced naïveté effect may not be universal and may be confined to only intrinsically highly catchable fish species. This fact emphasizes the importance of considering the behavioural dimension when predicting the outcomes of MPAs, otherwise

  1. Empirical Evidence for Species-Specific Export of Fish Naïveté from a No-Take Marine Protected Area in a Coastal Recreational Hook and Line Fishery.

    PubMed

    Alós, Josep; Puiggrós, Antoni; Díaz-Gil, Carlos; Palmer, Miquel; Rosselló, Rosario; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2015-01-01

    No-take marine protected areas (MPAs) are assumed to enhance fisheries catch via the "spillover" effect, where biomass is exported to adjacent exploited areas. Recent studies in spearfishing fisheries suggest that the spillover of gear-naïve individuals from protected to unprotected sites increases catch rates outside the boundaries of MPAs. Whether this is a widespread phenomenon that also holds for other gear types and species is unknown. In this study, we tested if the distance to a Mediterranean MPA predicted the degree of vulnerability to hook and line in four small-bodied coastal fish species. With the assistance of underwater video recording, we investigated the interaction effect of the distance to the boundary of an MPA and species type relative to the latency time to ingest a natural bait, which was considered as a surrogate of fish naïveté or vulnerability to fishing. Vulnerability to angling increased (i.e., latency time decreased) within and near the boundary of an MPA for an intrinsically highly catchable species (Serranus scriba), while it remained constant for an intrinsically uncatchable control species (Chromis chromis). While all of the individuals of S. scriba observed within the MPA and surrounding areas were in essence captured by angling gear, only one fifth of individuals in the far locations were captured. This supports the potential for the spillover of gear-naïve and consequently more vulnerable fish from no-take MPAs. Two other species initially characterized as intermediately catchable (Coris julis and Diplodus annularis) also had a shorter latency time in the vicinity of an MPA, but for these two cases the trend was not statistically significant. Overall, our results suggest that an MPA-induced naïveté effect may not be universal and may be confined to only intrinsically highly catchable fish species. This fact emphasizes the importance of considering the behavioural dimension when predicting the outcomes of MPAs, otherwise the

  2. Improvement in the Iatroscan thin-layer chromatographic-flame ionisation detection analysis of marine lipids. Separation and quantitation of monoacylglycerols and diacylglycerols in standards and natural samples.

    PubMed

    Striby, L; Lafont, R; Goutx, M

    1999-07-23

    Mono- and diacylglycerols are important intermediates in glycerolipid biodegradation and intracellular signalling pathways. A method for mass determination of these lipid classes in marine particles was developed using the Iatroscan, which combines thin layer chromatography (TLC) and flame ionisation detection (FID) techniques. We improved existing protocols by adding two elution steps: hexane-diethyl-ether-formic acid (70:30:0.2, v/v/v) after triacylglycerol and free fatty acid scan, and acetone 100% followed by chloroform-acetone-formic acid (99:1:0.2, v/v/v) after 1,2 diacylglycerols. Diacylglycerol isomers 1,2 and 1,3 were separated from each other, as well as from free sterols in standards and marine lipids from sediment trap particles. Monoacylglycerols were separated from pigments and galactosyl-lipids in the same trap samples and in a rich pigment phytoplankton extract of Dunaliella viridis. Quantitation of each class in samples was performed after calibration with 0.5 to 2 micrograms of standards. As many as 17 lipid classes can be identified and quantified in samples using this proposed six-step development. PMID:10457435

  3. Passive Sampling and High Resolution Mass Spectrometry for Chemical Profiling of French Coastal Areas with a Focus on Marine Biotoxins.

    PubMed

    Zendong, Zita; Bertrand, Samuel; Herrenknecht, Christine; Abadie, Eric; Jauzein, Cécile; Lemée, Rodolphe; Gouriou, Jérémie; Amzil, Zouher; Hess, Philipp

    2016-08-16

    Passive samplers (solid phase adsorption toxin tracking: SPATT) are able to accumulate biotoxins produced by microalgae directly from seawater, thus providing useful information for monitoring of the marine environment. SPATTs containing 0.3, 3, and 10 g of resin were deployed at four different coastal areas in France and analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. Quantitative targeted screening provided insights into toxin profiles and showed that toxin concentrations and profiles in SPATTs were dependent on the amount of resin used. Between the three amounts of resin tested, SPATTs containing 3 g of resin appeared to be the best compromise, which is consistent with the use of 3 g of resin in SPATTs by previous studies. MassHunter and Mass Profiler Professional softwares were used for data reprocessing and statistical analyses. A differential profiling approach was developed to investigate and compare the overall chemical diversity of dissolved substances in different coastal water bodies. Principal component analysis (PCA) allowed for spatial differentiation between areas. Similarly, SPATTs retrieved from the same location at early, medium, and late deployment periods were also differentiated by PCA, reflecting seasonal variations in chemical profiles and in the microalgal community. This study used an untargeted metabolomic approach for spatial and temporal differentiation of marine environmental chemical profiles using SPATTs, and we propose this approach as a step forward in the discovery of chemical markers of short- or long-term changes in the microbial community structure. PMID:27463836

  4. Pilot Inventory of Mammals, Reptiles, and Amphibians, Golden Gate National Recreation Area, California, 1990-1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Semenoff-Irving, Marcia; Howell, Judd A.

    2005-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey Golden Gate Field Station conducted a baseline inventory of terrestrial vertebrates within the Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA), Marin, San Francisco, and San Mateo Counties, California between 1990 and 1997. We established 456 permanent study plots in 6 major park habitats, including grassland, coastal scrub, riparian woodland, coastal wetland, broad-leaved evergreen forest, and needle-leaved evergreen forest. We tested multiple inventory methods, including live traps, track plate stations, and artificial cover boards, across all years and habitats. In most years, sampling occurred in 3-4 primary sampling sessions between July and September. In 1994, additional sampling occurred in February and May in conjunction with an assessment of Hantavirus exposure in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). Overall, we detected 32 mammal, 14 reptile, and 6 amphibian species during 25,222 trap-nights of effort. The deer mouse-the most abundant species detected--accounted for 67% of total captures. We detected the Federal Endangered salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris) at one coastal wetland plot in 1992. This project represents the first phase in the development of a comprehensive terrestrial vertebrate inventory and monitoring program for GGNRA. This report summarizes data on relative abundance, frequency of occurrence, distribution across habitat types, and trap success for terrestrial vertebrates detected during this 7-year effort. It includes comprehensive descriptions of the inventory methods and sampling strategies employed during this survey and is intended to help guide the park in the implementation of future longterm ecological monitoring programs.

  5. Pilot Inventory of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians, Golden Gate National Recreation Area, California, 1990-1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Semenoff-Irving, M.; Howell, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey Golden Gate Field Station conducted a baseline inventory of terrestrial vertebrates within the Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA), Marin, San Francisco, and San Mateo Counties, California between 1990 and 1997. We established 456 permanent study plots in 6 major park habitats, including grassland, coastal scrub, riparian woodland, coastal wetland, broad-leaved evergreen forest, and needle-leaved evergreen forest. We tested multiple inventory methods, including live traps, track plate stations, and artificial cover boards, across all years and habitats. In most years, sampling occurred in 3?4 primary sampling sessions between July and September. In 1994, additional sampling occurred in February and May in conjunction with an assessment of Hantavirus exposure in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). Overall, we detected 32 mammal, 14 reptile, and 6 amphibian species during 25,222 trap-nights of effort. The deer mouse?the most abundant species detected--accounted for 67% of total captures. We detected the Federal Endangered salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris) at one coastal wetland plot in 1992. This project represents the first phase in the development of a comprehensive terrestrial vertebrate inventory and monitoring program for GGNRA. This report summarizes data on relative abundance, frequency of occurrence, distribution across habitat types, and trap success for terrestrial vertebrates detected during this 7-year effort. It includes comprehensive descriptions of the inventory methods and sampling strategies employed during this survey and is intended to help guide the park in the implementation of future longterm ecological monitoring programs.

  6. Molecular detection of native and invasive marine invertebrate larvae present in ballast and open water environmental samples collected in Puget Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, J.B.J.; Hoy, M.S.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Non-native marine species have been and continue to be introduced into Puget Sound via several vectors including ship's ballast water. Some non-native species become invasive and negatively impact native species or near shore habitats. We present a new methodology for the development and testing of taxon specific PCR primers designed to assess environmental samples of ocean water for the presence of native and non-native bivalves, crustaceans and algae. The intergenic spacer regions (IGS; ITS1, ITS2 and 5.8S) of the ribosomal DNA were sequenced for adult samples of each taxon studied. We used these data along with those available in Genbank to design taxon and group specific primers and tested their stringency against artificial populations of plasmid constructs containing the entire IGS region for each of the 25 taxa in our study, respectively. Taxon and group specific primer sets were then used to detect the presence or absence of native and non-native planktonic life-history stages (propagules) from environmental samples of ballast water and plankton tow net samples collected in Puget Sound. This methodology provides an inexpensive and efficient way to test the discriminatory ability of taxon specific oligonucleotides (PCR primers) before creating molecular probes or beacons for use in molecular ecological applications such as probe hybridizations or microarray analyses. This work addresses the current need to develop molecular tools capable of diagnosing the presence of planktonic life-history stages from non-native marine species (potential invaders) in ballast water and other environmental samples. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Reframing recreation as a public policy priority.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Recreation has the potential to be an important public policy priority; however, it must be reframed to address critical policy priorities. Few policymakers understand the value and benefits of recreation, requiring practitioners and advocates to closely connect recreation to issues of concern to policymakers. A significant policy opportunity to expand recreational opportunities for children and youth lies in the area of education, including the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. By educating policymakers on the myriad outcomes that can result from quality recreational experiences, including the ways in which recreation can support the education of children and youth, solid,incremental progress can be made in positioning recreation as a public policy priority. PMID:21786415

  8. Artificial reefs and marine protected areas: a study in willingness to pay to access Folkestone Marine Reserve, Barbados, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Kirkbride-Smith, Anne E; Wheeler, Philip M; Johnson, Magnus L

    2016-01-01

    Artificial reefs in marine protected areas provide additional habitat for biodiversity viewing, and therefore may offer an innovative management solution for managing for coral reef recovery and resilience. Marine park user fees can generate revenue to help manage and maintain natural and artificial reefs. Using a stated preference survey, this study investigates the present consumer surplus associated with visitor use of a marine protected area in Barbados. Two hypothetical markets were presented to differentiate between respondents use values of either: (a) natural reefs within the marine reserve or (b) artificial reef habitat for recreational enhancement. Information was also collected on visitors' perceptions of artificial reefs, reef material preferences and reef conservation awareness. From a sample of 250 visitors on snorkel trips, we estimate a mean willingness to pay of US$18.33 (median-US$15) for natural reef use and a mean value of US$17.58 (median-US$12.50) for artificial reef use. The number of marine species viewed, age of respondent, familiarity with the Folkestone Marine Reserve and level of environmental concern were statistically significant in influencing willingness to pay. Regression analyses indicate visitors are willing to pay a significant amount to view marine life, especially turtles. Our results suggest that user fees could provide a considerable source of income to aid reef conservation in Barbados. In addition, the substantial use value reported for artificial reefs indicates a reef substitution policy may be supported by visitors to the Folkestone Marine Reserve. We discuss our findings and highlight directions for future research that include the need to collect data to establish visitors' non-use values to fund reef management. PMID:27547521

  9. Artificial reefs and marine protected areas: a study in willingness to pay to access Folkestone Marine Reserve, Barbados, West Indies

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Philip M.; Johnson, Magnus L.

    2016-01-01

    Artificial reefs in marine protected areas provide additional habitat for biodiversity viewing, and therefore may offer an innovative management solution for managing for coral reef recovery and resilience. Marine park user fees can generate revenue to help manage and maintain natural and artificial reefs. Using a stated preference survey, this study investigates the present consumer surplus associated with visitor use of a marine protected area in Barbados. Two hypothetical markets were presented to differentiate between respondents use values of either: (a) natural reefs within the marine reserve or (b) artificial reef habitat for recreational enhancement. Information was also collected on visitors’ perceptions of artificial reefs, reef material preferences and reef conservation awareness. From a sample of 250 visitors on snorkel trips, we estimate a mean willingness to pay of US$18.33 (median—US$15) for natural reef use and a mean value of US$17.58 (median—US$12.50) for artificial reef use. The number of marine species viewed, age of respondent, familiarity with the Folkestone Marine Reserve and level of environmental concern were statistically significant in influencing willingness to pay. Regression analyses indicate visitors are willing to pay a significant amount to view marine life, especially turtles. Our results suggest that user fees could provide a considerable source of income to aid reef conservation in Barbados. In addition, the substantial use value reported for artificial reefs indicates a reef substitution policy may be supported by visitors to the Folkestone Marine Reserve. We discuss our findings and highlight directions for future research that include the need to collect data to establish visitors’ non-use values to fund reef management. PMID:27547521

  10. IN-SITU SAMPLING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NATURALLY OCCURRING MARINE METHANE HYDRATE USING THE D/V JOIDES RESOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Frank R. Rack; Peter Schultheiss; Melanie Holland

    2005-01-01

    The primary accomplishments of the JOI Cooperative Agreement with DOE/NETL in this quarter were that: (1) follow-up logging of pressure cores containing hydrate-bearing sediment; and (2) opening of some of these cores to establish ground-truth understanding. The follow-up measurements made on pressure cores in storage are part of a hydrate geriatric study related to ODP Leg 204. These activities are described in detail in Appendices A and B of this report. Work also continued on developing plans for Phase 2 of this cooperative agreement based on evolving plans to schedule a scientific ocean drilling expedition to study marine methane hydrates along the Cascadia margin, in the NE Pacific as part of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) using the R/V JOIDES Resolution.