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Sample records for sands advanced logging

  1. Western tight gas sands advanced logging workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, J B; Carroll, Jr, H B

    1982-04-01

    An advanced logging research program is one major aspect of the Western Tight Sands Program. Purpose of this workshop is to help BETC define critical logging needs for tight gas sands and to allow free interchange of ideas on all aspects of the current logging research program. Sixteen papers and abstracts are included together with discussions. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 12 papers. (DLC)

  2. Treatment of log yard runoff using a r-circulating sand filtration process.

    PubMed

    Doig, P; Van Poppelen, P; Baldwin, S A

    2007-07-01

    A re-circulating filtration process using oxide-coated sand successfully removed COD and turbidity from log yard runoff. After passing only one pore volume of the runoff through the sand column, 72% COD was removed. The 2.4% Fe and Al oxide coating on the sand contributed to better COD removal than was obtained when the sand was stripped of oxide coating (86% versus 52%, respectively), at least initially before saturation of adsorption sites on the oxide coating occurred. The best COD removal performance came from conditioned sand. This sand, from the same original source and identical to the oxide-coated sand used in all experiments, came from an existing experimental sand column that had been treating log yard runoff for 1 year. The "conditioning" resulted in the sand having a higher TOC content (0.26% wt) and smaller particle sizes. This sand was able to consistently remove 80% COD from repeated batches of log yard runoff with strengths up to 3690 mg l(-1). PMID:17674655

  3. Utilizing magnetic resonance imaging logs, open hole logs and sidewall core analyses to evaluate shaly sands for water-free production

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, D.; Morganti, J.; White, H.

    1995-06-01

    NMR logging using the new C series Magnetic Resonance Imaging Logging (MRIL){trademark} is rapidly enhancing formation evaluation throughout the industry. By measuring irreducible water saturations, permeability and effective porosities, MRIL data can help petrophysicists evaluate low resistivity pays. In these instances, conventional open hole logs may not define all of the pay intervals. MRIL can also minimize unnecessary completions in zones of potentially high water-cut. This case study will briefly discuss MRIL tool theory and log presentations used with the conventional logs and sidewall cores. SEM analysis will show a good correlation of varying grain size sands with the T{sub 2} distribution and bulk volume irreducible from MRIL. Discussions of each well in the study area will show how water-free production zones were defined. Because the MRIL data was not recorded on one of the wells, the advanced petrophysical program HORIZON was used to predict the MRIL bulk volume irreducible and effective porosity to estimate productive zones. Discussion of additional formation characteristics, completion procedures, actual production and predicted producibility of the shaly sands will be presented.

  4. Utilizing magnetic resonance imaging logs, openhole logs, and sidewall core analyses to evaluate shaly sands for water-free production

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, D.A.; Morganti, J.K.; White, H.J. ); Noblett, B.R. )

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging using the new C Series Magnetic Resonance Imaging Log (MRIL) system is rapidly enhancing formation evaluation throughout the industry. By measuring irreducible water saturations, permeabilities, and effective porosities, MRIL data can help petrophysicists evaluate low-resistivity pays. In these environments, conventional openhole logs may not define all of the pay intervals. The MRIL system can also reduce the number of unnecessary completions in zones of potentially high water cut. MRIL tool theory and log presentations used with conventional logs and sidewall cores are presented along with field examples. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis shows good correlation of varying grain size in sandstones with the T2 distribution and bulk volume irreducible water determined from the MRIL measurements. Analysis of each new well drilled in the study area shows how water-free production zones were defined. Because the MRIL data were not recorded on one of the wells, predictions from the conventional logs and the MRIL data collected on the other two wells were used to estimate productive zones in the first well. Discussion of additional formation characteristics, completion procedures, actual production, and predicted producibility of the shaly sands is presented. Integrated methodologies resulted in the perforation of 3 new wells for a gross initial potential of 690 BOPD and 0 BWPD.

  5. Utilizing magnetic resonance imaging logs, openhole logs, and sidewall core analyses to evaluate shaly sands for water-free production

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, D.A.; Morganti, J.K.; White, H.J.; Noblett, B.R.

    1996-12-31

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging using the new C Series Magnetic Resonance Imaging Log (MRIL) system is rapidly enhancing formation evaluation throughout the industry. By measuring irreducible water saturations, permeabilities, and effective porosities, MRIL data can help petrophysicists evaluate low-resistivity pays. In these environments, conventional openhole logs may not define all of the pay intervals. The MRIL system can also reduce the number of unnecessary completions in zones of potentially high water cut. MRIL tool theory and log presentations used with conventional logs and sidewall cores are presented along with field examples. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis shows good correlation of varying grain size in sandstones with the T2 distribution and bulk volume irreducible water determined from the MRIL measurements. Analysis of each new well drilled in the study area shows how water-free production zones were defined. Because the MRIL data were not recorded on one of the wells, predictions from the conventional logs and the MRIL data collected on the other two wells were used to estimate productive zones in the first well. Discussion of additional formation characteristics, completion procedures, actual production, and predicted producibility of the shaly sands is presented. Integrated methodologies resulted in the perforation of 3 new wells for a gross initial potential of 690 BOPD and 0 BWPD.

  6. A new method of evaluating tight gas sands pore structure from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Liang; Mao, Zhi-qiang; Xie, Xiu-hong

    2016-04-01

    Tight gas sands always display such characteristics of ultra-low porosity, permeability, high irreducible water, low resistivity contrast, complicated pore structure and strong heterogeneity, these make that the conventional methods are invalid. Many effective gas bearing formations are considered as dry zones or water saturated layers, and cannot be identified and exploited. To improve tight gas sands evaluation, the best method is quantitative characterizing rock pore structure. The mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP) curves are advantageous in predicting formation pore structure. However, the MICP experimental measurements are limited due to the environment and economy factors, this leads formation pore structure cannot be consecutively evaluated. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logs are considered to be promising in evaluating rock pore structure. Generally, to consecutively quantitatively evaluate tight gas sands pore structure, the best method is constructing pseudo Pc curves from NMR logs. In this paper, based on the analysis of lab experimental results for 20 core samples, which were drilled from tight gas sandstone reservoirs of Sichuan basin, and simultaneously applied for lab MICP and NMR measurements, the relationships of piecewise power function between nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) transverse relaxation T2 time and pore-throat radius Rc are established. A novel method, which is used to transform NMR reverse cumulative curve as pseudo capillary pressure (Pc) curve is proposed, and the corresponding model is established based on formation classification. By using this model, formation pseudo Pc curves can be consecutively synthesized. The pore throat radius distribution, and pore structure evaluation parameters, such as the average pore throat radius (Rm), the threshold pressure (Pd), the maximum pore throat radius (Rmax) and so on, can also be precisely extracted. After this method is extended into field applications, several tight gas

  7. Estimation of Permeability from NMR Logs Based on Formation Classification Method in Tight Gas Sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Deng-Feng; Liu, Xiao-Peng; Hu, Xiao-Xin; Xu, Rui; Zhu, Ling-Ling

    2015-10-01

    The Schlumberger Doll Research (SDR) model and cross plot of porosity versus permeability cannot be directly used in tight gas sands. In this study, the HFU approach is introduced to classify rocks, and determine the involved parameters in the SDR model. Based on the difference of FZI, 87 core samples, drilled from tight gas sandstones reservoirs of E basin in northwest China and applied for laboratory NMR measurements, were classified into three types, and the involved parameters in the SDR model are calibrated separately. Meanwhile, relationships of porosity versus permeability are also established. The statistical model is used to calculate consecutive FZI from conventional logs. Field examples illustrate that the calibrated SDR models are applicable in permeability estimation; models established from routine core analyzed results are effective in reservoirs with permeability lower than 0.3 mD, while the unified SDR model is only valid in reservoirs with permeability ranges from 0.1 to 0.3 mD.

  8. Log-derived cation exchange capacity of shaly sands: Application to hydrocarbon detection and drilling optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ipek, Gamze

    Researchers at Louisiana State University, LSU, have introduced several petrophysical models expressing the electric properties of shaly sands. These models, to be used for hydrocarbon detection, are based on the Waxman and Smits concept of supplementing the water conductivity with a clay counterions conductivity. The LSU models also utilize the Dual Water theory, which relates each conductivity term to a particular type of water, free and bound, each occupying a specific volume of the total pore space. The main difference between these models and the other shaly sand models is that the counterion conductivity is represented by a hypothetical sodium chloride electrolyte. This study introduces a modified version of early LSU models. This modified model eliminates a questionable assumption incorporated in all previous shaly sand models. Previous models use same formation resistivity factor for all terms in the model. The proposed model considers that the electric current follows the effective porosity path in the term representing the free electrolyte and follows the clay porosity path in the term representing bound water. The differentiation between the two paths is accomplished by using two different formation factors one in the free water and another in the bound water term of the model. It also used two different cementation exponents to express formation factors in terms of porosity. The validity of the new model was checked using cation exchange capacities measured on core samples and drill cuttings. Calculated cation exchange capacities display good agreement with the measured cation exchange capacities. The water saturation calculated using the new model are more representative of hydrocarbon potential of the zones of interest. In addition, cation exchange capacity calculated using this modified model and log data acquired during drilling has shown potential for diagnosis of pending bit balling of PDC bits drilled with water based mud in overpressured shale.

  9. Effects of advanced oxidation on green sand properties via iron casting into green sand molds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yujue; Cannon, Fred S; Voigt, Robert C; Komarneni, Sridhar; Furness, J C

    2006-05-01

    The effects of advanced oxidation (AO) processing on the properties of green sand were studied via pouring cast iron into green sand molds. Upon cooling, the green sand molds were autopsied at various distances from the metal-sand interface. Autopsy green sand samples collected from a mold that incorporated AO water were characterized and compared to controlled samples collected from a similar autopsied mold made with conventional tap water (TAP). It was found that the AO processing removed a coating of coal pyrolysis products from the clay surface that typically accumulated on the clay surface. As a result, the AO-conditioned green sand retained 10-15% more active clay as measured bythe standard ultrasonic methylene blue titration than did the TAP-conditioned green sand. The AO processing also nearly doubled the generation of activated carbon from the normalized amount of coal composition of the green sand during the casting process. The AO-enhanced activated carbon generation and the AO-incurred clay surface cleaning provided the AO-conditioned green sand with higher normalized pore volume, and thus higher normalized m-xylene adsorption capacity, i.e., relative to before-metal-pouring conditions. Furthermore, mathematical analysis indicated that the AO-conditioned green sand better retained its important properties after pouring than did the TAP-conditioned green sand. Effectively, this meant after metal pouring, the AO-conditioned sample offered about the same net properties as the TAP-conditioned sample, even though the AO-conditioned sample contained less clay and coal before metal pouring. These results conformed to the full-scale foundry empirical finding that when AO is used, foundries need less makeup clay and coal addition through each casting cycle, and they release less air emissions. PMID:16719117

  10. Petrophysical log interpretation of tight gas sands: Final report, 1985-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Tsay, F.S.; Fang, J.H.

    1987-06-01

    In tight-gas sands, clay minerals are detrimental to the accurate evaluation of porosity, permeability, and water saturation derived from well logs. In this study, the effects of individual clay minerals on these petrophysical properties are examined. Sixty-five samples were randomly chosen from the cored interval, 9374 to 9811 feet in depth in Amoco's Joe S. Kinsey No. 1 well of the dirgin Field in Rusk County, Texas. Samples include both shaly and sandy units of tight, delta-front sandstones of the Cotton Valley Group. Mineralogy of these samples was determined by x-ray analysis. Petrophysical properties were determined for each sample depth. The relationships between clay-mineral weight percentages and petrophysical properties were determined by analysis of simple correlation coefficients and canonical variable weights. Results show that water-sensitive clay minerals (illite and mixed-layer illite/smectite) are more effective in altering petrophysical properties derived from well-log responses than non-water-sensitive clay minerals (kaolinite and chlorite). This occurs because water-sensitive clay minerals have more bound water, larger surface areas, and higher cation exchange capacities. Porosity is affected by clay mineralogy. Log-derived porosities are increased by the presence of water associated with water-sensitive clay minerals. Bound water and water in micropores of water sensitive clay minerals increase the concentration of hydrogen ions, decrease bulk density, and increase acoustic transit time. Permeability is probably reduced preferentially by some clay minerals. However, the inaccuracy of laboratory measurements of permeability prevents these relationships from being revealed. Water saturation calculations are affected by clay minerals. Archie's water saturation is high because it does not account for the resistivity-reducing effects of water-sensitive clay minerals. 21 refs., 11 figs., 24 tabs.

  11. Estimation of productivity of Lobo 6 sand, Lower Wilcox, Texas, by identifying diagenetic clays with well log data

    SciTech Connect

    Berilgen, B.H.; Sinha, A.K.; Fertl, W.H.

    1988-06-01

    The laminated, structural, and grain-coating primary clays in the Lower Wilcox Sand, Lobo 6, tend to be potassium-bearing illite and some smectite, whereas diagenetic clays, the cause of pore-throat plugging, are largely potassium-deficient kaolinite and chlorite. These diagenetic clays largely control reservoir permeability, depending on the degree of pore-throat plugging. This paper presents different methods for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of these diagenetic clays, which are related to productivity of the Lobo 6 sand. Qualitative evaluation consists of crossplot techniques using natural spectral gamma ray and other log data plus selected computed reservoir parameters. For quantitative evaluation, a sophisticated clay-analysis program that uses log-derived cation exchange capacity (CEC) and hydrogen index (HI) values is used. The average volume of different clay types in the zones of interest is calculated, presented, and correlated with production and core data. This approach was used on eight wells on which production data are available to evaluate the presence of diagenetic clays and to estimate productivity of the Lobo 6 sand. The reliability of the log-derived method applied is verified by the excellent correlation with actual production data.

  12. A method of Shaly sand correction for estimating gas hydrate saturations using downhole electrical resistivity log data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Myung W.; Collett, Timothy S.

    2006-01-01

    Estimation of the amount of nonconductive and conductive constituents in the pore space of sediments, using electrical resistivity logs, generally loses accuracy when clays are present in the reservoir. Many different methods and clay models have been proposed to account for the conductivity of clay (for example, the shaly sand correction). In this study, the Simandoux model is employed to correct for the clay effect in order to more accurately estimate gas hydrate saturations. This study utilizes the fact that the effect of clay on the resistivity of a sediment is manifested in the Archie constants a and m, values of which are generally a = 1 and m = 2 for clean-sand reservoirs. Results of the study indicate that as the clay content increases, a also increases whereas m decreases. On the basis of the relationship between the Archie constants a and m with respect to the clay amount, a method of correcting for the clay effect on the estimation of water saturation is proposed. This method works well if the relationship between porosity and resistivity on a log-log plot is approximately linear and if accurate Archie constants a and m for clean sand are known. However, because of the linearity condition, it is difficult to apply the method to low-porosity reservoirs. Gas-hydrate-bearing sediments generally have high porosities because of their shallow depth of occurrence, so the method can be effectively applied in estimating gas hydrate saturations.

  13. Description of borehole geophysical and geologist logs, Berks Sand Pit Superfund Site, Longswamp Township, Berks County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Low, Dennis J.; Conger, Randall W.

    2003-01-01

    Between October 2002 and January 2003, geophysical logging was conducted in six boreholes at the Berks Sand Pit Superfund Site, Longswamp Township, Berks County, Pa., to determine (1) the waterproducing zones, water-receiving zones, zones of vertical borehole flow, orientation of fractures, and borehole and casing depth; and (2) the hydraulic interconnection between the six boreholes and the site extraction well. The boreholes range in depth from 61 to 270 feet. Geophysical logging included collection of caliper, natural-gamma, single-point-resistance, fluid-temperature, fluid-flow, and acoustic-televiewer logs. Caliper and acoustic-televiewer logs were used to locate fractures, joints, and weathered zones. Inflections on fluid-temperature and single-point-resistance logs indicated possible water-bearing fractures, and flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Single-point-resistance, natural-gamma, and geologist logs provided information on stratigraphy. Flowmeter measurements were conducted while the site extraction well was pumping and when it was inactive to determine the hydraulic connections between the extraction well and the boreholes. Borehole geophysical logging and heatpulse flowmetering indicate active flow in the boreholes. Two of the boreholes are in ground-water discharge areas, two boreholes are in ground-water recharge areas, and one borehole is in an intermediate regime. Flow was not determined in one borehole. Heatpulse flowmetering, in conjunction with the geologist logs, indicates highly weathered zones in the granitic gneiss can be permeable and effective transmitters of water, confirming the presence of a two-tiered ground-water-flow system. The effort to determine a hydraulic connection between the site extraction well and six logged boreholes was not conclusive. Three boreholes showed decreases in depth to water after pumping of the site extraction well; in two boreholes, the depth to water increased. One borehole was cased its

  14. Neural network prediction of carbonate lithofacies from well logs, Big Bow and Sand Arroyo Creek fields, Southwest Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, L.; Carr, T.R.

    2006-01-01

    In the Hugoton Embayment of southwestern Kansas, St. Louis Limestone reservoirs have relatively low recovery efficiencies, attributed to the heterogeneous nature of the oolitic deposits. This study establishes quantitative relationships between digital well logs and core description data, and applies these relationships in a probabilistic sense to predict lithofacies in 90 uncored wells across the Big Bow and Sand Arroyo Creek fields. In 10 wells, a single hidden-layer neural network based on digital well logs and core described lithofacies of the limestone depositional texture was used to train and establish a non-linear relationship between lithofacies assignments from detailed core descriptions and selected log curves. Neural network models were optimized by selecting six predictor variables and automated cross-validation with neural network parameters and then used to predict lithofacies on the whole data set of the 2023 half-foot intervals from the 10 cored wells with the selected network size of 35 and a damping parameter of 0.01. Predicted lithofacies results compared to actual lithofacies displays absolute accuracies of 70.37-90.82%. Incorporating adjoining lithofacies, within-one lithofacies improves accuracy slightly (93.72%). Digital logs from uncored wells were batch processed to predict lithofacies and probabilities related to each lithofacies at half-foot resolution corresponding to log units. The results were used to construct interpolated cross-sections and useful depositional patterns of St. Louis lithofacies were illustrated, e.g., the concentration of oolitic deposits (including lithofacies 5 and 6) along local highs and the relative dominance of quartz-rich carbonate grainstone (lithofacies 1) in the zones A and B of the St. Louis Limestone. Neural network techniques are applicable to other complex reservoirs, in which facies geometry and distribution are the key factors controlling heterogeneity and distribution of rock properties. Future work

  15. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for NASA White Sands Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-10-01

    This report focuses on the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  16. Reservoir characteristics of two minter oil sands based on continuous core, E-logs, and geochemical data: Bee Brake field, East-Central Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Echols, J.B.; Goddard, D.A.; Bouma, A. )

    1993-09-01

    The Bee Brake field area, located in township 4N/6E and 4N/7E in Concordia Parish, has been one of the more prolific oil-producing areas in east-central Louisiana. Production decline in various fields, however, has sparked interest in the economic feasibility of locating and producing the remaining bypassed oil in the lower Wilcox. For this purpose, the Angelina BBF No. 1 well was drilled, and a 500-ft conventional core and a complete suite of state-of-the-are wireline logs were recovered. Production tests were run on the Minter interval of interest. The 16-ft Minter interval (6742-6758 ft depth), bounded at its top and base by lignite seams, consists of an upper 4-ft oil sand (Bee Brake) and a lower 3-ft oil sand (Angelina). The oil sands are separated by approximately 5 ft of thinly laminated silty shale and 4 ft of very fine-grained silty sandstone. Detailed sedimentologic and petrographic descriptions of the Minter interval provide accurate facies determinations of this lower delta-plain sequence. Petrophysical evaluation, combining core plug and modern electric-log data show differences between reservoir quality of the Bee Brake and Angelina sands. This data will also be useful for correlating and interpolating old electric logs. Organic geochemistry of the oil, lignites, and shales provides insight as to the source of the Minter oils and the sourcing potential of the lignites.

  17. Gas hydrate identified in sand-rich inferred sedimentary section using downhole logging and seismic data in Shenhu area, South China Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Xiujuan; Lee, Myung W.; Collett, Timothy S.; Yang, Shengxiong; Guo, Yiqun; Wu, Shiguo

    2014-01-01

    Downhole wireline log (DWL) data was acquired from eight drill sites during China's first gas hydrate drilling expedition (GMGS-1) in 2007. Initial analyses of the acquired well log data suggested that there were no significant gas hydrate occurrences at Site SH4. However, the re-examination of the DWL data from Site SH4 indicated that there are two intervals of high resistivity, which could be indicative of gas hydrate. One interval of high resistivity at depth of 171–175 m below seafloor (mbsf) is associated with a high compressional- wave (P-wave) velocities and low gamma ray log values, which suggests the presence of gas hydrate in a potentially sand-rich (low clay content) sedimentary section. The second high resistivity interval at depth of 175–180 mbsf is associated with low P-wave velocities and low gamma values, which suggests the presence of free gas in a potentially sand-rich (low clay content) sedimentary section. Because the occurrence of free gas is much shallower than the expected from the regional depth of the bottom simulating reflector (BSR), the free gas could be from the dissociation of gas hydrate during drilling or there may be a local anomaly in the depth to the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. In order to determine whether the low P-wave velocity with high resistivity is caused by in-situ free gas or dissociated free gas from the gas hydrate, the surface seismic data were also used in this analysis. The log analysis incorporating the surface seismic data through the construction of synthetic seismograms using various models indicated the presence of free gas directly in contact with an overlying gas hydrate-bearing section. The occurrence of the anomalous base of gas hydrate stability at Site SH4 could be caused by a local heat flow conditions. This paper documents the first observation of gas hydrate in what is believed to be a sand-rich sediment in Shenhu area of the South China Sea.

  18. Digital signal processing and interpretation of full waveform sonic log for well BP-3-USGS, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Alamosa County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burke, Lauri

    2011-01-01

    Along the Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve boundary (fig. 1), 10 monitoring wells were drilled by the National Park Service in order to monitor water flow in an unconfined aquifer spanning the park boundary. Adjacent to the National Park Service monitoring well named Boundary Piezometer Well No. 3, or BP-3, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) drilled the BP-3-USGS well. This well was drilled from September 14 through 17, 2009, to a total depth of 99.4 meters (m) in order to acquire additional subsurface information. The BP-3-USGS well is located at lat 37 degrees 43'18.06' and long -105 degrees 43'39.30' at a surface elevation of 2,301 m. Approximately 23 m of core was recovered beginning at a depth of 18 m. Drill cuttings were also recovered. The wireline geophysical logs acquired in the well include natural gamma ray, borehole caliper, temperature, full waveform sonic, density, neutron, resistivity, and induction logs. The BP-3-USGS well is now plugged and abandoned. This report details the full waveform digital signal processing methodology and the formation compressional-wave velocities determined for the BP-3-USGS well. These velocity results are compared to several velocities that are commonly encountered in the subsurface. The density log is also discussed in context of these formation velocities.

  19. Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot (RASSOR) Phase 2 and Smart Autonomous Sand-Swimming Excavator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandy, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot (RASSOR) Phase 2 is an excavation robot for mining regolith on a planet like Mars. The robot is programmed using the Robotic Operating System (ROS) and it also uses a physical simulation program called Gazebo. This internship focused on various functions of the program in order to make it a more professional and efficient robot. During the internship another project called the Smart Autonomous Sand-Swimming Excavator was worked on. This is a robot that is designed to dig through sand and extract sample material. The intern worked on programming the Sand-Swimming robot, and designing the electrical system to power and control the robot.

  20. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments for the quarter are presented for the following areas of research: oil shale, tar sand, coal, advanced exploratory process technology, and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research includes; oil shale process studies, environmental base studies for oil shale, and miscellaneous basic concept studies. Tar sand research covers process development. Coal research includes; underground coal gasification, coal combustion, integrated coal processing concepts, and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes; advanced process concepts, advanced mitigation concepts, and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesa Verde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced recovery techniques; and menu driven access to the WDEQ Hydrologic Data Management Systems.

  1. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect

    Speight, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

  2. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Progress made in five research programs is described. The subtasks in oil shale study include oil shale process studies and unconventional applications and markets for western oil shale.The tar sand study is on recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE) process. Four tasks are described in coal research: underground coal gasification; coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and sold waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research covers: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; NMR analysis of sample from the ocean drilling program; and menu driven access to the WDEQ hydrologic data management system.

  3. Recent advances in bio-logging science: Technologies and methods for understanding animal behaviour and physiology and their environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, K.; Lea, M.-A.; Patterson, T. A.

    2013-04-01

    The deployment of an ever-evolving array of animal-borne telemetry and data logging devices is rapidly increasing our understanding of the movement, behaviour and physiology of a variety species and the complex, and often highly dynamic, environments they use and respond to. The rapid rate at which new technologies, improvements to current technologies and new analytical techniques are being developed has meant that movements, behaviour and physiological processes are being quantified at finer spatial and temporal scales than ever before. The Fourth International Symposium on Bio-logging Science, held on 14-18 March in Hobart, Australia, brought together scientists across multiple disciplines to discuss the latest innovations in technology, applications and analytical techniques in bio-logging science, building on research presented at three previous conferences. Here we present an update on the state of bio-logging research and provide some views on the future of this field of research. Papers were grouped into five theme areas: (i) Southern Ocean ecosystems; (ii) fishery and biodiversity management applications; (iii) from individuals to populations—inferences of population dynamics from individuals; (iv) conservation biology and (v) habitat modelling. Papers reflected wider uptake of newer technologies, with a greater proportion of studies utilising accelerometry and incorporating advances in statistical modelling of behaviour and habitats, especially via state space modelling methods. Environmental data collected by tags at increasing accuracies are now having wider application beyond the bio-logging community, providing important oceanographic data from regions difficult to sample using traditional methodologies. Partnerships between multiple organisations are also now enabling regional assessments of species movements, behaviour and physiology at population scales and will continue to be important for applying bio-logging technologies to species

  4. Application of advanced geophysical logging methods in the characterization of a fractured-sedimentary bedrock aquifer, Ventura County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John H.; Lane, Jr., John W.; Singha, Kamini; Haeni, F. Peter

    2002-01-01

    An integrated suite of advanced geophysical logging methods was used to characterize the geology and hydrology of three boreholes completed in fractured-sedimentary bedrock in Ventura County, California. The geophysical methods included caliper, gamma, electromagnetic induction, borehole deviation, optical and acoustic televiewer, borehole radar, fluid resistivity, temperature, and electromagnetic flowmeter. The geophysical logging 1) provided insights useful for the overall geohydrologic characterization of the bedrock and 2) enhanced the value of information collected by other methods from the boreholes including core-sample analysis, multiple-level monitoring, and packer testing. The logged boreholes, which have open intervals of 100 to 200 feet, penetrate a sequence of interbedded sandstone and mudstone with bedding striking 220 to 250 degrees and dipping 15 to 40 degrees to the northwest. Fractures intersected by the boreholes include fractures parallel to bedding and fractures with variable strike that dip moderately to steeply. Two to three flow zones were detected in each borehole. The flow zones consist of bedding-parallel or steeply dipping fractures or a combination of bedding-parallel fractures and moderately to steeply dipping fractures. About 75 to more than 90 percent of the measured flow under pumped conditions was produced by only one of the flow zones in each borehole.

  5. Advanced Logging Investigations of Aquifers In Coastal Environments: The Aliance Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezard, P. A.; Gouze, P.; Pinettes, P.; Riley, M.; Löw, S.; Montoto, M.; Sessarego, J.-P.; Deltombe, J.-P.; Broun, P.

    The goal of ALIANCE is to improve the investigation, characterisation and monitor- ing of coastal aquifers for vulnerability assessment. For this, ALIANCE proposes to develop a set of geophysical approaches for the quantitative evaluation of brine intru- sion and test them in two end-member sites in terms of hydrogeological behaviour. This includes state-of-the-art geological, geochemical, petrophysical, logging and hy- drological methods, and the design of 5 new geophysical and hydrodynamical log- ging/testing sensors yielding new data for model validation. The new measurement methods include 2 new sources for hydrological testing experi- ments: 1) Harmonic Hydraulic Endoscopy tool (H2E) for scanning the hydraulic con- ductivity and fracture network connectivity of low permeability aquifers such as frac- tured granite, using the harmonic pressure perturbation method, 2) Controlled Fluid Injection System (CoFIS) for controlled fluid injection in terms of pressure and salin- ity for the more permeable aquifers, and 3 new receivers with geophysical logging sen- sors: 3) Doppler TeleViewer (DopTV) for the identification of flowing fractures from Doppler analysis during testing experiments, and for the determination of the fluid flow velocity in the direction orthogonal to the borehole surface., 4) Slim Hydraulic Formation Tester (SHyFT) for the measurement of the in situ fluid pressure between packers or from a sealed path, fluid sampling from discrete horizons in the aquifer, and evaluation of dm-scale permeability during testing and sampling. 5) MUlti Sensor Electrical Tool " (MuSET) for the measurement of the downhole electrical sponta- neous potential (SP) in conjunction with fluid pressure, temperature and electrical conductivity. The two end-member sites will be set up with 50 to 100 meters deep boreholes for long-term experimentation, testing of the new tools, and validation of site-specific ex- 1 perimental and modelling protocols from µm- to 100 m-scale. The

  6. Recent advances in phlebotomine sand fly research related to leishmaniasis control.

    PubMed

    Bates, Paul A; Depaquit, Jerôme; Galati, Eunice A B; Kamhawi, Shaden; Maroli, Michele; McDowell, Mary Ann; Picado, Albert; Ready, Paul D; Salomón, O Daniel; Shaw, Jeffrey J; Traub-Csekö, Yara M; Warburg, Alon

    2015-01-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies are the subject of much research because of the role of their females as the only proven natural vectors of Leishmania species, the parasitic protozoans that are the causative agents of the neglected tropical disease leishmaniasis. Activity in this field was highlighted by the eighth International Symposium on Phlebotomine Sand flies (ISOPS) held in September 2014, which prompted this review focusing on vector control. Topics reviewed include: Taxonomy and phylogenetics, Vector competence, Genetics, genomics and transcriptomics, Eco-epidemiology, and Vector control. Research on sand flies as leishmaniasis vectors has revealed a diverse array of zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission cycles, mostly in subtropical and tropical regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America, but also in Mediterranean Europe. The challenge is to progress beyond descriptive eco-epidemiology, in order to separate vectors of biomedical importance from the sand fly species that are competent vectors but lack the vectorial capacity to cause much human disease. Transmission modelling is required to identify the vectors that are a public health priority, the ones that must be controlled as part of the integrated control of leishmaniasis. Effective modelling of transmission will require the use of entomological indices more precise than those usually reported in the leishmaniasis literature. PMID:25885217

  7. Advanced secondary recovery project for the Sooner D Sand Unit, Weld County, Colorado: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sippel, M.A.; Cammon, T.J.

    1986-06-01

    The objective of this project was to increase production at the Sooner D Sand Unit through geologically targeted infill drilling and improved reservoir management of waterflood operations. The Sooner D Sand Unit demonstration project should be an example for other operators to follow for reservoir characterization and exploitation methodologies to increase production by waterflood from the Cretaceous D Sandstone in the Denver-Julesburg (D-J) Basin. This project involved multi-disciplinary reservoir characterization using high-density 3D seismic, detailed stratigraphy and reservoir simulation studies. Infill drilling, water-injection conversion and re-completing some wells to add short-radius laterals were based on the results of the reservoir characterization studies. Production response were evaluated using reservoir simulation and production tests. Technology transfer utilized workshops, presentations and technical papers which emphasized the economic advantages of implementing the demonstrated technologies.

  8. Recent Advances in Study of the Detrital Mineralogy of Sand and Sandstone: Implications for Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suttner, Lee J.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed are methods which can be used to stimulate creative thinking in geology students by focusing on what is not known about sandstone petrology. The impact of recent advances on graduate geology teaching are highlighted. (CW)

  9. Transaction Logging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, S.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the use of transaction logging in Okapi-related projects to allow search algorithms and user interfaces to be investigated, evaluated, and compared. A series of examples is presented, illustrating logging software for character-based and graphical user interface systems, and demonstrating the usefulness of relational database management…

  10. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 1 -- Base program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-05-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  11. Application of a solar UV/chlorine advanced oxidation process to oil sands process-affected water remediation.

    PubMed

    Shu, Zengquan; Li, Chao; Belosevic, Miodrag; Bolton, James R; El-Din, Mohamed Gamal

    2014-08-19

    The solar UV/chlorine process has emerged as a novel advanced oxidation process for industrial and municipal wastewaters. Currently, its practical application to oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) remediation has been studied to treat fresh OSPW retained in large tailings ponds, which can cause significant adverse environmental impacts on ground and surface waters in Northern Alberta, Canada. Degradation of naphthenic acids (NAs) and fluorophore organic compounds in OSPW was investigated. In a laboratory-scale UV/chlorine treatment, the NAs degradation was clearly structure-dependent and hydroxyl radical-based. In terms of the NAs degradation rate, the raw OSPW (pH ∼ 8.3) rates were higher than those at an alkaline condition (pH = 10). Under actual sunlight, direct solar photolysis partially degraded fluorophore organic compounds, as indicated by the qualitative synchronous fluorescence spectra (SFS) of the OSPW, but did not impact NAs degradation. The solar/chlorine process effectively removed NAs (75-84% removal) and fluorophore organic compounds in OSPW in the presence of 200 or 300 mg L(-1) OCl(-). The acute toxicity of OSPW toward Vibrio fischeri was reduced after the solar/chlorine treatment. However, the OSPW toxicity toward goldfish primary kidney macrophages after solar/chlorine treatment showed no obvious toxicity reduction versus that of untreated OSPW, which warrants further study for process optimization. PMID:25051215

  12. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Accomplishments for the quarter are presented for the following areas of research: oil shale, tar sand, coal, advanced exploratory process technology, and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research includes; oil shale process studies, environmental base studies for oil shale, and miscellaneous basic concept studies. Tar sand research covers process development. Coal research includes; underground coal gasification, coal combustion, integrated coal processing concepts, and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes; advanced process concepts, advanced mitigation concepts, and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesa Verde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced recovery techniques; and menu driven access to the WDEQ Hydrologic Data Management Systems.

  13. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Speight, J.G.

    1992-12-31

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

  14. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are briefly described for the following areas of research: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale and tar sand researches cover processing studies. Coal research includes: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology covers: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW{sup TM} field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid-state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin tight gas sands; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; oil field waste cleanup using tank bottom recovery process; remote chemical sensor development; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; solid-state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens; and development of an effective method for the clean-up of natural gas.

  15. Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II logging-while-drilling data acquisition and analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Wyung W.; Zyrianova, Margarita V.; Mrozewski, Stefan A.; Guerin, Gilles; Cook, Ann E.; Goldberg, Dave S.

    2012-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II (GOM JIP Leg II) was the collection of a comprehensive suite of logging-while-drilling (LWD) data within gas-hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs in order to make accurate estimates of the concentration of gas hydrates under various geologic conditions and to understand the geologic controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate at each of the sites drilled during this expedition. The LWD sensors just above the drill bit provided important information on the nature of the sediments and the occurrence of gas hydrate. There has been significant advancements in the use of downhole well-logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gas hydrate in nature: From using electrical resistivity and acoustic logs to identify gas hydrate occurrences in wells to where wireline and advanced logging-while-drilling tools are routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gas hydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gas hydrates within various complex reservoir systems. Recent integrated sediment coring and well-log studies have confirmed that electrical resistivity and acoustic velocity data can yield accurate gas hydrate saturations in sediment grain supported (isotropic) systems such as sand reservoirs, but more advanced log analysis models are required to characterize gas hydrate in fractured (anisotropic) reservoir systems. In support of the GOM JIP Leg II effort, well-log data montages have been compiled and presented in this report which includes downhole logs obtained from all seven wells drilled during this expedition with a focus on identifying and characterizing the potential gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary section in each of the wells. Also presented and reviewed in this report are the gas-hydrate saturation and sediment porosity logs for each of the wells as calculated from available downhole well logs.

  16. Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II logging-while-drilling data acquisition and anaylsis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Myung W.; Zyrianova, Margarita V.; Mrozewski, Stefan A.; Guerin, Gilles; Cook, Ann E.; Goldberg, Dave S.

    2012-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Gulf of MexicoGasHydrateJointIndustryProjectLegII (GOM JIP LegII) was the collection of a comprehensive suite of logging-while-drilling (LWD) data within gas-hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs in order to make accurate estimates of the concentration of gashydrates under various geologic conditions and to understand the geologic controls on the occurrence of gashydrate at each of the sites drilled during this expedition. The LWD sensors just above the drill bit provided important information on the nature of the sediments and the occurrence of gashydrate. There has been significant advancements in the use of downhole well-logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gashydrate in nature: From using electrical resistivity and acoustic logs to identify gashydrate occurrences in wells to where wireline and advanced logging-while-drilling tools are routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gashydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gashydrates within various complex reservoir systems. Recent integrated sediment coring and well-log studies have confirmed that electrical resistivity and acoustic velocity data can yield accurate gashydrate saturations in sediment grain supported (isotropic) systems such as sand reservoirs, but more advanced log analysis models are required to characterize gashydrate in fractured (anisotropic) reservoir systems. In support of the GOM JIP LegII effort, well-log data montages have been compiled and presented in this report which includes downhole logs obtained from all seven wells drilled during this expedition with a focus on identifying and characterizing the potential gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary section in each of the wells. Also presented and reviewed in this report are the gas-hydrate saturation and sediment porosity logs for each of the wells as calculated from available downhole well logs.

  17. Gravimetry logging

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle, W.D.

    1989-03-07

    This patent describes a method for conducting a gravimetry survey of an earth formation, comprising the steps of: continuously traversing the formation with a gravity logging tool having at least two piezoelectric force transducers mounted at spaced-apart positions within the tool, exciting the piezoelectric transducers to vibrate at a characteristic resonant frequency, measuring the periods of vibration of the piezoelectric transducers as the logging tool continuously traverses the formation, the periods of vibration changing in response to the force exerted on the piezoelectric transducer by the acceleration of gravity and acceleration due to tool motion along the formation, and determining the difference in the measured periods of vibration of the piezoelectric transducers compensated for temperature relating force to the periods of vibration within the formation.

  18. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Progress made in five research programs is described. The subtasks in oil shale study include oil shale process studies and unconventional applications and markets for western oil shale.The tar sand study is on recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE) process. Four tasks are described in coal research: underground coal gasification; coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and sold waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research covers: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; NMR analysis of sample from the ocean drilling program; and menu driven access to the WDEQ hydrologic data management system.

  19. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Progress made in five areas of research is described briefly. The subtask in oil shale research is on oil shale process studies. For tar sand the subtask reported is on process development. Coal research includes the following subtasks: Coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes the following: Advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: Organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW{sup TM} field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sup 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid-state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; characterization of petroleum residua; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process;NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; oil field waste cleanup using tank bottom recovery process; remote chemical sensor development; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; solid-state NMR analysis of Mowry formation shale from different sedimentary basins; solid-state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens; and development of effective method for the clean-up of natural gas.

  20. The golden age of bio-logging: how animal-borne sensors are advancing the frontiers of ecology.

    PubMed

    Wilmers, Christopher C; Nickel, Barry; Bryce, Caleb M; Smith, Justine A; Wheat, Rachel E; Yovovich, Veronica

    2015-07-01

    Great leaps forward in scientific understanding are often spurred by innovations in technology. The explosion of miniature sensors that are driving the boom in consumer electronics, such as smart phones, gaming platforms, and wearable fitness devices, are now becoming available to ecologists for remotely monitoring the activities of wild animals. While half a century ago researchers were attaching balloons to the backs of seals to measure their movement, today ecologists have access to an arsenal of sensors that can continuously measure most aspects of an animal's state (e.g., location, behavior, caloric expenditure, interactions with other animals) and external environment (e.g., temperature, salinity, depth). This technology is advancing our ability to study animal ecology by allowing researchers to (1) answer questions about the physiology, behavior, and ecology of wild animals in situ that would have previously been limited to tests on model organisms in highly controlled settings, (2) study cryptic or wide-ranging animals that have previously evaded investigation, and (3) develop and test entirely new theories. Here we explore how ecologists are using these tools to answer new questions about the physiological performance, energetics, foraging, migration, habitat selection, and sociality of wild animals, as well as collect data on the environments in which they live. PMID:26378296

  1. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    SciTech Connect

    George J. Hirasaki; Kishore K. Mohanty

    2005-09-05

    The objective of this report is to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation between relaxation time and diffusivity. Oil based drilling fluids can have an adverse effect on NMR well logging if it alters the wettability of the formation. The effect of various surfactants on wettability and surface relaxivity are evaluated for silica sand. The relation between the relaxation time and diffusivity distinguishes the response of brine, oil, and gas in a NMR well log. A new NMR pulse sequence in the presence of a field gradient and a new inversion technique enables the T{sub 2} and diffusivity distributions to be displayed as a two-dimensional map. The objectives of pore morphology and rock characterization are to identify vug connectivity by using X-ray CT scan, and to improve NMR permeability correlation. Improved estimation of permeability from NMR response is possible by using estimated tortuosity as a parameter to interpolate between two existing permeability models.

  2. Advanced analytical mass spectrometric techniques and bioassays to characterize untreated and ozonated oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Sun, Nian; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Klamerth, Nikolaus; McPhedran, Kerry N; Islam, Md Shahinoor; Perez-Estrada, Leonidas; Drzewicz, Przemysław; Blunt, Brian J; Reichert, Megan; Hagen, Mariel; Tierney, Keith B; Belosevic, Miodrag; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2014-10-01

    Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) is a toxic and poorly biodegradable mixture of sand, silt, heavy metals, and organics. In this study, qualitative and quantitative comparisons of naphthenic acids (NAs) were done using ultraperformance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC TOF-MS), Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) MS, and ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). The unique combination of these analyses allowed for the determination and correlation of NAs, oxidized NAs, and heteroatom (sulfur or nitrogen) NAs. Despite its lower resolution, UPLC-TOF MS was shown to offer a comparable level of reliability and precision as the high resolution FT-ICR MS. Additionally, the impacts of ozonation (35 mg/L utilized ozone dose) and subsequent NAs degradation on OSPW toxicity were assessed via a collection of organisms and toxicity end points using Vibrio fischeri (nonspecific), specific fish macrophage antimicrobial responses, and fish olfactory responses. Fish macrophages exposed to ozonated OSPW for 1 week showed higher production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates; however, after 12 weeks the responses were reduced significantly. Fish olfactory tests suggested that OSPW interfered with their perception of odorants. Current results indicate that the quantification of NAs species, using novel analytical methods, can be combined with various toxicity methods to assess the efficiency of OSPW treatment processes. PMID:25211339

  3. Sands-on Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandervoort, Frances S.

    1989-01-01

    Provides information for the development of a lesson which teaches students about sand, discusses facts about sands, sand studies, life in the sands, and sand activities. Includes diagrams showing the range in sand grain shape, formation of sand ripples, and sand samples from around the world. (RT)

  4. Tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Wennekers, J.H.N.

    1981-10-01

    The four largest oil sand deposits contain over 90% of the world's known heavy oil. The total heavy oil and bitumen in place, estimated at nearly 6 trillion barrels is almost entirely concentrated in western Canada, principally Alberta, and eastern Venezuela. The known tar sand resource in the United States consists of about 550 occurrences located in 22 states. The total oil in place in 39 of these occurrences is estimated to be between 23.7 billion and 32.7 billion barrels. At least 90% of this resource is located in Utah. Other significant deposits are in Texas, New Mexico, California, and Kentucky. Bituminous sand deposits and petroleum-impregnated rocks are found in Malagasy, Albania, Rumania, the USSR, and Trinidad. 4 figures, 2 tables. (DP)

  5. Advanced characterisation of organic matter in oil sands and tailings sands used for land reclamation by Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noah, M.; Vieth-Hillebrand, A.; Wilkes, H.

    2012-04-01

    The Athabasca region of northern Alberta, Canada, is home to deposits of oil sands containing vast amounts (~ 173 billion barrels) of heavily biodegraded petroleum. Oil sands are recovered by surface mining or by in situ steam injection. The extraction of bitumen from oil sands by caustic hot water processing results in large volumes of fluid tailings, which are stored in on-site settling basins. There the tailings undergo a compaction and dewatering process, producing a slowly densifying suspension. The released water is recycled for extraction. The fine tailings will be reclaimed as either dry or wet landscapes. [1] To produce 1 barrel of crude oil, 2 tons of oil sand and 2 - 3 tons of water (including recycled water) are required. [2] Open pit mining and the extraction of the bitumen from the oil sands create large and intense disturbances of different landscapes. The area currently disturbed by mining operations covers about 530 km2 and the area of tailing ponds surpasses 130 km2. An issue of increasing importance is the land remediation and reclamation of oil sand areas in Canada and the reconstruction of these disturbed landscapes back to working ecosystems similar to those existing prior to mining operations. An important issue in this context is the identification of oil sand-derived organic compounds in the tailings, their environmental behaviour and the resulting chances and limitations with respect to land reclamation. Furthermore the biodegradation processes that occur in the tailings and that could lead to a decrease in hazardous organic compounds are important challenges, which need to be investigated. This presentation will give a detailed overview of our compositional and quantitative characterisation of the organic matter in oil sand, unprocessed and processed mature fine tailings samples as well as in tailings sands used as part of land reclamation. The analytical characterisation is based on the extraction of the soluble organic matter, its

  6. Petrophysical Analysis of Oil Sand in Athabasca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    cheong, S.; Lee, H.

    2013-12-01

    Oil sands are the major unconventional energy sources which have great reserves in Alberta, Canada. Recovery techniques such as CSS (Cyclic Steam Stimulation) and SAGD (Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage) enabled to develop deeper bitumen about several hundred meter depth. Before applying CSS and SAGD, reservoir heterogeneity of mud barriers or shale breccias should be clarified to establish injection and production wells successfully. We conducted the integrated petro-physical analysis for oil sands deposits in Athabasca by correlating well logs with seismic data. From 33 well logs and 3D seismic, we have made P-wave impedance by recursive inversion. Target formations of our analysis were the top of Wabiskaw member. Using inverted impedance and multi-attributes, porosity volume was derived at a target depth. Porosity of time slice 375 ms ranged 20 ~ 40 % stretching porous sand body from NE to SW direction. Characteristics of porosity distribution may be useful to design optimum oil sands recovery in Athabasca.

  7. Defrosting Sand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    19 June 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark spots formed in carbon dioxide frost that covers the surfaces of patches of sand in the south polar region. As spring arrived this year in the martian southern hemisphere, so began the annual defrosting process. The fact that sand dunes begin to defrost earlier than other surfaces, and that the defrosting process involves the formation of spots like these, has been known since the earliest days of the MGS mission.

    Location near: 66.8oS, 15.7oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  8. Log-Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Goodall, John

    2012-05-21

    Log files are typically semi- or un-structured. To be useable for visualization and machine learning, they need to be parsed into a standard, structured format. Log-tool is a tool for facilitating the parsing, structuring, and routing of log files (e.g. intrusion detection long, web server logs, system logs). It consists of three main components: (1) Input – it will input data from files, standard input, and syslog, (2) Parser – it will parse the log file based on regular expressions into structured data (JSNO format), (3) Output – it will output structured data into commonly used formats, including Redis (a database), standard output, and syslog.

  9. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 2 -- Jointly sponsored research program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-09-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  10. LogScope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus; Smith, Margaret H.; Barringer, Howard; Groce, Alex

    2012-01-01

    LogScope is a software package for analyzing log files. The intended use is for offline post-processing of such logs, after the execution of the system under test. LogScope can, however, in principle, also be used to monitor systems online during their execution. Logs are checked against requirements formulated as monitors expressed in a rule-based specification language. This language has similarities to a state machine language, but is more expressive, for example, in its handling of data parameters. The specification language is user friendly, simple, and yet expressive enough for many practical scenarios. The LogScope software was initially developed to specifically assist in testing JPL s Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) flight software, but it is very generic in nature and can be applied to any application that produces some form of logging information (which almost any software does).

  11. Industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2011-01-01

    Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2010 was about 26.5 Mt (29.2 million st), a 6-percent increased from 2009. Certain end uses of industrial sand and gravel, such as sand for container glass, golf course sand, recreational sand, specialty glass and water filtration, showed increased demand in 2010.

  12. Sand Diver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Alan J.

    2005-01-01

    A few years ago, I was preparing to teach a summer enrichment program for middle school students at the University of Wisconsin-Stout. With swimming on the minds of most kids during the summer, I thought buoyancy would be a fun topic to discuss. An interesting way to introduce this concept is by discussing the beer-drinking balloonist who, in a lawn chair, floated to 11,000 feet above Los Angeles in 1997. However, I needed a hands-on project and was not about to go purchase some lawn chairs to duplicate this experiment. A simple submersible called the "Sand Diver" was designed and is now used as a hands-on activity for my introductory physics course.

  13. Western gas sands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to demonstrate the feasibility of economically producing natural gas from low-permeability reservoirs. Two broad research goals have been defined: (1) reducing the uncertainty of the reservoir production potential, and (2) improving the extraction technology. These goals are being pursued by conducting research and encouraging industrial efforts in developing the necessary technology, including: (1) providing fundamental research into the nature of tight, lenticular gas sands and the technologies for diagnosing and developing them: (2) developing and verifying the technology for effective gas production; and (3) promoting the transfer of research products and technology advances to the gas industry in usable forms. The focus of the research for the last several years has been improving diagnostic instrumentation for reservoir and stimulation performance evaluation, geophysical and engineering interpretation, and stimulation techniques. Integrated geologic studies of three basins containing tight lenticular sands, which were selected by DOE as priority research targets, have also been pursued as part of this new effort. To date, the following tentative conclusions have been formed: Permeability of the tight gas sands can be as much as three to four orders of magnitude lower than that of conventional gas deposits. Nineteen western geologic basins and trends containing significant volumes of tight gas have been identified. Gas resources in the priority geologic basins have been estimated - Piceance Basin 49 Tcf.; Greater Green River Basin, 136 Tcf.; Uinta Basin, 20 Tcf. Presence of natural micro-fractures within a reservoir and the effective propped length of hydraulically induced fratures are the critical parameters for successful development of tight sand resources. Stimulation technology at the present time is insufficient to efficiently recover gas from lenticular tight reservoirs. 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Oracle Log Buffer Queueing

    SciTech Connect

    Rivenes, A S

    2004-12-08

    The purpose of this document is to investigate Oracle database log buffer queuing and its affect on the ability to load data using a specialized data loading system. Experiments were carried out on a Linux system using an Oracle 9.2 database. Previous experiments on a Sun 4800 running Solaris had shown that 100,000 entities per minute was an achievable rate. The question was then asked, can we do this on Linux, and where are the bottlenecks? A secondary question was also lurking, how can the loading be further scaled to handle even higher throughput requirements? Testing was conducted using a Dell PowerEdge 6650 server with four CPUs and a Dell PowerVault 220s RAID array with 14 36GB drives and 128 MB of cache. Oracle Enterprise Edition 9.2.0.4 was used for the database and Red Hat Linux Advanced Server 2.1 was used for the operating system. This document will detail the maximum observed throughputs using the same test suite that was used for the Sun tests. A detailed description of the testing performed along with an analysis of bottlenecks encountered will be made. Issues related to Oracle and Linux will also be detailed and some recommendations based on the findings.

  15. Well Log ETL tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-08-01

    This is an executable python script which offers two different conversions for well log data: 1) Conversion from a BoreholeLASLogData.xls model to a LAS version 2.0 formatted XML file. 2) Conversion from a LAS 2.0 formatted XML file to an entry in the WellLog Content Model. Example templates for BoreholeLASLogData.xls and WellLogsTemplate.xls can be found in the package after download.

  16. Sand resistance of sunscreens.

    PubMed

    Caswell, Michael; Wood, Caryl; Martinez, Alexa

    2012-01-01

    Like water resistance in sunscreens, sand resistance in sunscreens is the ability of the sunscreen to retain its effectiveness while undergoing sand treatment. The influence of the type of sand on the sand resistance of sunscreens has not been described. The sand resistance of a control standard sunscreen, P2, and data on three grades of Quickrete commercial grade sand, #1961, #1962, and #1152, are described. These sands represent a fine sand, a medium sand, and an all-purpose sand. Using the methodology described in the 2007 proposed amendment of the Final Monograph (1) with one exception, we obtained an SPF of 16.5 (1.6) for the control standard, compared to the expected SPF of 16.3 (3.4). After a five-minute treatment of sand #1961, #1962, or #1151, the SPF of the control standard was 18.3 (1.6), 18.4 (2.0), and 17.5 (2.2), respectively. Thus, all three sands exhibited a similar sand-resistance response. Thus, there was no significant difference in the average SPF with and without sand. The medium grade sand, Quickrete commercial grade #1962, was preferred for sand-resistance testing because the fine sand was difficult to remove from the subject's backs and the coarse sand was unpleasant to the subjects. PMID:23193889

  17. Log-Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-05-21

    Log files are typically semi- or un-structured. To be useable for visualization and machine learning, they need to be parsed into a standard, structured format. Log-tool is a tool for facilitating the parsing, structuring, and routing of log files (e.g. intrusion detection long, web server logs, system logs). It consists of three main components: (1) Input – it will input data from files, standard input, and syslog, (2) Parser – it will parse the logmore » file based on regular expressions into structured data (JSNO format), (3) Output – it will output structured data into commonly used formats, including Redis (a database), standard output, and syslog.« less

  18. Industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2011 was about 30 Mt (33 million st), increasing slightly compared with 2010. Some important end uses for industrial sand and gravel include abrasives, filtration, foundry, glassmaking, hydraulic fracturing sand (frac sand) and silicon metal applications.

  19. Industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2013-01-01

    Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2012 was about 49.5 Mt (55 million st), increasing 13 percent compared with that of 2011. Some important end uses for industrial sand and gravel include abrasives, filtration, foundry, glassmaking, hydraulic fracturing sand (frac sand) and silicon metal applications.

  20. Wet sand flows better than dry sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Wet sand that does not contain too much water is known to be stiff enough to build sand castles or in physical words has a significant yield stress. However, we could recently show that there are quite a few conditions under which such wet sand opposes less resistant to flow than its dry counterpart. This effect might have been already known to the old Egyptians: The Ancient painting of El Bersheh at the tomb of Tehutihetep shows that there was liquid poured in front of the sledge that was used to transport heavy weight stones and statues. While archeologist have attributed this to a sacral ceremony, our data clearly show that wetting the sand ground drastically decreases the effective sliding friction coefficient. We first study the stress-strain behavior of sand with and without small amounts of liquid under steady and oscillatory shear. Using a technique to quasistatically push the sand through a tube with an enforced parabolic (Poiseuille-like) profile, we minimize the effect of avalanches and shear localization. We observe that the resistance against deformation of the wet (partially saturated) sand is much smaller than that of the dry sand, and that the latter dissipates more energy under flow. Second we show experimentally that the sliding friction on sand is greatly reduced by the addition of some--but not too much--water. The formation of capillary water bridges increases the shear modulus of the sand, which facilitates the sliding.

  1. EE-3A Logging Report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, David W.

    1993-12-15

    Two logs of EE-3A were performed during the last couple of weeks. The first of which, was a Temperature/Casing-Collar Locator (CCL) log, which took place on Friday, December 10th., 1993. The second log was a Caliper log which was done in cooperation with the Dia-Log Company, of Odessa, TX. on Monday, December, 13th., 1993.

  2. 6. Log calving barn. Interior view showing log postandbeam support ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Log calving barn. Interior view showing log post-and-beam support system and animal stalls. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, Log Calving Barn, 230 feet south-southwest of House, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  3. Application of fullbore formation microimager logging in the evaluation of anisotropic resistivity in a thin interbed reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei; Bian, Hui-yuan; Gao, Xu-hua; Pan, Bao-zhi

    2016-08-01

    Oil and gas reserves in sand-shale thin interbeds are extensive, but it is a challenge to achieve satisfactory precision in the identification of these interbeds using traditional logging data. Phasor induction and three-component induction logging are appropriate tools for the identification of sand-shale interbeds. Unfortunately, phasor induction data are expensive and three-component induction logging is rarely used in major domestic oil fields. As a result, evaluation of sand-shale thin interbeds heavily depends on a traditional logging suite, general image logging, array lateral logging and array induction logging, and so on. In this paper, we investigate the sand-shale thin interbed region in the northern part of the Sulige field. We propose a comprehensive method of anisotropic evaluation which is based on the combination of wellbore microresistivity image logging (fullbore formation microimage (FMI)) and high-resolution array induction logging (HRLA), where HRLA can be used instead of a traditional logging suite or high-resolution array lateral logging. The proposed method works well in the evaluation of thin interbeds in the northern part of the Sulige field. In this paper, the combination of FMI and deep resistivity of HRLA is used. It should be noted that it is possible to use deep resistivity of conventional laterolog or array induction log instead of HRLA.

  4. MONITOIRNG OF A CONTROLLED DNAPL SPILL USING A PROTOTYPE DIELECTRIC LOGGING TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) utilized their prototype dielectric logging tool to monitor a controlled Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL) spill into a large tank located at the University of California Richmond Field Station (RFS) containing multiple sand and clayey sand...

  5. NMR logging apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Walsh, David O; Turner, Peter

    2014-05-27

    Technologies including NMR logging apparatus and methods are disclosed. Example NMR logging apparatus may include surface instrumentation and one or more downhole probes configured to fit within an earth borehole. The surface instrumentation may comprise a power amplifier, which may be coupled to the downhole probes via one or more transmission lines, and a controller configured to cause the power amplifier to generate a NMR activating pulse or sequence of pulses. Impedance matching means may be configured to match an output impedance of the power amplifier through a transmission line to a load impedance of a downhole probe. Methods may include deploying the various elements of disclosed NMR logging apparatus and using the apparatus to perform NMR measurements.

  6. Impact of logging on a mangrove swamp in south Mexico: cost/benefit analysis.

    PubMed

    Tovilla-Hernández, C; Espino de la Lanza, G; Orihuela-Belmonte, D E

    2001-06-01

    Environmental changes caused by logging in a mangrove swamp were studied in Barra de Tecoanapa, Guerrero, Mexico. Original forest included Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa, Avicennia germinans and halophytic vegetation, and produced wood (164.03 m3/ha) and organic matter (3.9 g/m2/day). A total of 3.5 tons of wood per year were harvested from this area. Later, an average of 2,555 kg of maize per planting cycle were obtained (market value of 88 USD). Succession when the area was abandoned included strictly facultative and glycophyte halophytes (16 families, Cyperaceae and Poaceae were the best represented). After logging, temperatures increased 13 degrees C in the soil and 11 degrees C in the air, whereas salinity reached 52 psu in the dry season. These modified soil color and sand content increased from 42.6 to 63.4%. Logging was deleterious to species, habitat, biogeochemical and biological cycles, organic matter production, seeds, young plants, genetic exchange conservation of soil and its fertility, coastal protection, and aesthetic value; 3,000 m2 had eroded as the river advanced towards the deforested area (the cost/benefit analysis showed a ratio of 246:1). There was long-term economic loss for the community and only 30% of the site has recovered after five years. PMID:11935907

  7. Advances in mass spectrometric characterization of naphthenic acids fraction compounds in oil sands environmental samples and crude oil--A review.

    PubMed

    Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Barrow, Mark P

    2016-01-01

    There has been a recent surge in the development of mass spectrometric methods for detailed characterization of naphthenic acid fraction compounds (all C(c)H(h)N(n)O(o)S(s), species, including heteroatomic and aromatic components in the acid-extractable fraction) in environmental samples. This surge is driven by the increased activity in oil sands environmental monitoring programs in Canada, the exponential increase in research studies on the isolation and toxicity identification of components in oil sands process water (OSPW), and the analytical requirements for development of technologies for treatment of OSPW. There has been additional impetus due to the parallel studies to control corrosion from naphthenic acids during the mining and refining of heavy bitumen and crude oils. As a result, a range of new mass spectrometry tools have been introduced since our last major review of this topic in 2009. Of particular significance are the developments of combined mass spectrometric methods that incorporate technologies such as gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, and ion mobility. There has been additional progress with respect to improved visualization methods for petroleomics and oil sands environmental forensics. For comprehensive coverage and more reliable characterization of samples, an approach based on multiple-methods that employ two or more ionization modes is recommended. On-line or off-line fractionation of isolated extracts, with or without derivatization, might also be used prior to mass spectrometric analyses. Individual ionization methods have their associated strengths and weaknesses, including biases, and thus dependence upon a single ionization method is potentially misleading. There is also a growing trend to not rely solely on low-resolution mass spectrometric methods (<20,000 resolving power at m/z 200) for characterization of complex samples. Future research is anticipated to focus upon (i) structural elucidation of components to determine

  8. 4. Log chicken house (far left foreground), log bunkhouse (far ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Log chicken house (far left foreground), log bunkhouse (far left background), one-room log cabin (left of center background), log root cellar (center), post-and-beam center in foreground, and blacksmith shop (far right foreground). View to southeast. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  9. Nuclear Well Log Properties of Natural Gas Hydrate Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchwell, A.; Cook, A.

    2015-12-01

    Characterizing gas hydrate in a reservoir typically involves a full suite of geophysical well logs. The most common method involves using resistivity measurements to quantify the decrease in electrically conductive water when replaced with gas hydrate. Compressional velocity measurements are also used because the gas hydrate significantly strengthens the moduli of the sediment. At many gas hydrate sites, nuclear well logs, which include the photoelectric effect, formation sigma, carbon/oxygen ratio and neutron porosity, are also collected but often not used. In fact, the nuclear response of a gas hydrate reservoir is not known. In this research we will focus on the nuclear log response in gas hydrate reservoirs at the Mallik Field at the Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada, and the Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg 2 sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Nuclear logs may add increased robustness to the investigation into the properties of gas hydrates and some types of logs may offer an opportunity to distinguish between gas hydrate and permafrost. For example, a true formation sigma log measures the thermal neutron capture cross section of a formation and pore constituents; it is especially sensitive to hydrogen and chlorine in the pore space. Chlorine has a high absorption potential, and is used to determine the amount of saline water within pore spaces. Gas hydrate offers a difference in elemental composition compared to water-saturated intervals. Thus, in permafrost areas, the carbon/oxygen ratio may vary between gas hydrate and permafrost, due to the increase of carbon in gas hydrate accumulations. At the Mallik site, we observe a hydrate-bearing sand (1085-1107 m) above a water-bearing sand (1107-1140 m), which was confirmed through core samples and mud gas analysis. We observe a decrease in the photoelectric absorption of ~0.5 barnes/e-, as well as an increase in the formation sigma readings of ~5 capture units in the water-bearing sand as

  10. Thermal Properties of oil sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LEE, Y.; Lee, H.; Kwon, Y.; Kim, J.

    2013-12-01

    Thermal recovery methods such as Cyclic Steam Injection or Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) are the effective methods for producing heavy oil or bitumen. In any thermal recovery methods, thermal properties (e.g., thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric heat capacity) are closely related to the formation and expansion of steam chamber within a reservoir, which is key factors to control efficiency of thermal recovery. However, thermal properties of heavy oil or bitumen have not been well-studied despite their importance in thermal recovery methods. We measured thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric heat capacity of 43 oil sand samples from Athabasca, Canada, using a transient thermal property measurement instrument. Thermal conductivity of 43 oil sand samples varies from 0.74 W/mK to 1.57 W/mK with the mean thermal conductivity of 1.09 W/mK. The mean thermal diffusivity is 5.7×10-7 m2/s with the minimum value of 4.2×10-7 m2/s and the maximum value of 8.0×10-7 m2/s. Volumetric heat capacity varies from 1.5×106 J/m3K to 2.11×106 J/m3K with the mean volumetric heat capacity of 1.91×106 J/m3K. In addition, physical and chemical properties (e.g., bitumen content, electric resistivity, porosity, gamma ray and so on) of oil sand samples have been measured by geophysical logging and in the laboratory. We are now proceeding to investigate the relationship between thermal properties and physical/chemical properties of oil sand.

  11. Keystroke Logging in Writing Research: Using Inputlog to Analyze and Visualize Writing Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leijten, Marielle; Van Waes, Luuk

    2013-01-01

    Keystroke logging has become instrumental in identifying writing strategies and understanding cognitive processes. Recent technological advances have refined logging efficiency and analytical outputs. While keystroke logging allows for ecological data collection, it is often difficult to connect the fine grain of logging data to the underlying…

  12. Petrophysical approach of tight gas reservoir including shaly sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taeyoun; Hwang, Seho; Jang, Seonghyung

    2016-04-01

    Since porosity of tight gas reservoir is very small, it is very important to estimate porosity from well logs precisely. If well logging porosity is not appropriate or does not match with core-tested porosity, other rock properties related to porosity cannot be estimated correctly. In case of shaly sand, we have to consider clay volume for estimating water saturation and effective porosity. The purpose of this study is to address a process issue for estimating total porosity, water saturation of tight gas reservoir including shaly sand from well logs. The methods for estimating total porosity with difference well logging responses include neutron-density method, neutron-sonic method, density method, sonic method and compared with core-tested porosity. After calculating correlation coefficient between well logging total porosity and core-tested porosity, we select a best matched result. Using this result, we try to estimate water saturation from well logs. Normally, Archie's method is very famous for calculating water saturation. Since it assumes clean sand condition, we tried to apply other methods considering clay volume. In this study, we applied Archie's method, dual water method, and Indonesian method for estimating water saturation from well logs and compared with core-tested water saturation.

  13. Logs Perl Module

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-04-04

    A perl module designed to read and parse the voluminous set of event or accounting log files produced by a Portable Batch System (PBS) server. This module can filter on date-time and/or record type. The data can be returned in a variety of formats.

  14. Log of Apollo 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The major events of the first manned moon landing mission, Apollo 11, are presented in chronological order from launch time until arrival of the astronauts aboard the U.S.S. Hornet. The log is descriptive, non-technical, and includes numerous color photographs of the astronauts on the moon. (PR)

  15. Logging on to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    A classroom lecture at Capistrano Connections Academy in Southern California involves booting up the home computer, logging on to a Web site, and observing a teacher conducting a PowerPoint presentation of that day's lesson entirely online. Through microphone headsets, students can watch on their home computers, respond to the teacher's questions,…

  16. Neutron logging tool

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.A.; Taylor, K.G.

    1987-02-03

    A method is described of logging earth formations traversed by a well bore and utilizing a logging tool having a neutron source and a short spaced and a long spaced thermal neutron detector which produce an independent response as a function of depth of the logging tool in a well bore. The method comprises: moving the logging tool through a well bore to locate a section of the earth formations which has minimum porosity and obtaining measurement responses from each of the long and short spaced detectors; normalizing the responses of the long and short spaced detectors by matching the sensitivity of response of the long spaced detector to the sensitivity of response of the short spaced detector for an earth formation which has minimum porosity so that the normalized responses track one another in an earth formation which has minimum porosity; and moving the tool over the length of the well bore to be surveyed while recording the normalized responses of the long and short spaced neutron detectors as a function of depth.

  17. Interactive Reflective Logs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Cynthia Minchew; Deaton, Benjamin E.; Leland, Katina

    2010-01-01

    The authors created an interactive reflective log (IRL) to provide teachers with an opportunity to use a journal approach to record, evaluate, and communicate student understanding of science concepts. Unlike a traditional journal, the IRL incorporates prompts to encourage students to discuss their understanding of science content and science…

  18. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Development through High-Resolution 3C3D Seismic and Horizontal Drilling: Eva South Marrow Sand Unit, Texas County, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler,David M.; Miller, William A.; Wilson, Travis C.

    2002-03-11

    The Eva South Morrow Sand Unit is located in western Texas County, Oklahoma. The field produces from an upper Morrow sandstone, termed the Eva sandstone, deposited in a transgressive valley-fill sequence. The field is defined as a combination structural stratigraphic trap; the reservoir lies in a convex up -dip bend in the valley and is truncated on the west side by the Teepee Creek fault. Although the field has been a successful waterflood since 1993, reservoir heterogeneity and compartmentalization has impeded overall sweep efficiency. A 4.25 square mile high-resolution, three component three-dimensional (3C3D) seismic survey was acquired in order to improve reservoir characterization and pinpoint the optimal location of a new horizontal producing well, the ESU 13-H.

  19. Forensic identification of blood in the presence of contaminations using Raman microspectroscopy coupled with advanced statistics: effect of sand, dust, and soil.

    PubMed

    Sikirzhytskaya, Aliaksandra; Sikirzhytski, Vitali; McLaughlin, Gregory; Lednev, Igor K

    2013-09-01

    Body fluid traces recovered at crime scenes are among the most common and important types of forensic evidence. However, the ability to characterize a biological stain at a crime scene nondestructively has not yet been demonstrated. Here, we expand the Raman spectroscopic approach for the identification of dry traces of pure body fluids to address the problem of heterogeneous contamination, which can impair the performance of conventional methods. The concept of multidimensional Raman signatures was utilized for the identification of blood in dry traces contaminated with sand, dust, and soil. Multiple Raman spectra were acquired from the samples via automatic scanning, and the contribution of blood was evaluated through the fitting quality using spectroscopic signature components. The spatial mapping technique allowed for detection of "hot spots" dominated by blood contribution. The proposed method has great potential for blood identification in highly contaminated samples. PMID:23898809

  20. Log-Concavity and Strong Log-Concavity: a review

    PubMed Central

    Saumard, Adrien; Wellner, Jon A.

    2016-01-01

    We review and formulate results concerning log-concavity and strong-log-concavity in both discrete and continuous settings. We show how preservation of log-concavity and strongly log-concavity on ℝ under convolution follows from a fundamental monotonicity result of Efron (1969). We provide a new proof of Efron's theorem using the recent asymmetric Brascamp-Lieb inequality due to Otto and Menz (2013). Along the way we review connections between log-concavity and other areas of mathematics and statistics, including concentration of measure, log-Sobolev inequalities, convex geometry, MCMC algorithms, Laplace approximations, and machine learning. PMID:27134693

  1. Energy saving and endurance log for a log building

    SciTech Connect

    Dolata, G.

    1987-03-17

    A log is described for construction of a log building which comprises: an elongated peeled log of substantially uniform diameter along its length with parallel end faces, a bottom surface of the log having a concave surface configuration centered on a diametrical line of the log, a rounded top surface directly opposite from the concave bottom surface which mates with a concave surface of another log when placed upon the rounded top surface, a vertically extending longitudinal slot in the top surface of the log that extends the length of the log, a vertically extending longitudinal slot along at least one side of the log with the slot extending vertically substantially parallel with the diametrical line with the slot being formed outwardly of the concave surface, the log including at least one butt end, the butt end including an end slot along the diametrical line which extends from a top of the log down through the butt end to the concave surface; and the butt includes at least one short, longitudinally extending arcuate groove near an outer surface of the log which extends from a line juxtaposed the end slot down to at least one longitudinal slot in the log.

  2. Well logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, R.W.

    1980-02-19

    A well logging system includes a logging tool adapted to be passed through a borehole traversing an earth formation. The logging tool contains a sensor sensing a condition of the earth formation and providing electrical pulses corresponding in number and peak amplitude to the sensed condition. A first electrical pulse from the sensor occurring during each predetermined time period of a plurality of predetermined time periods, is stretched and then converted to parallel digital signals. A register receives the parallel digital signals and provides a serial digital signal in response to the shift pulses. A network provides an electrical synchronization pulse each time period prior to the occurrence of the shift pulses. A light emitting diode converts the synchronization pulses and the serial digital signals to corresponding light pulses. A cable including a fiber optic conductor transmits the light pulses uphole to the surface. Surface electronics includes a light-to-electrical converter for providing corresponding electrical pulses in accordance with the light pulses, so that the light-to-electrical converter provides a synchronization pulse followed by a serial digital signal each time period. Another circuit provides a set of shift pulses in response to the synchronizing pulse from the light-to-electrical converter, and an output circuit provides parallel output digital signals corresponding to the sensed condition in accordance with the shift pulses and the serial digital signals from the light-to -electrical converter.

  3. Trajectories of saltating sand particles behind a porous fence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ning; Lee, Sang Joon; Chen, Ting-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Trajectories of aeolian sand particles behind a porous wind fence embedded in a simulated atmospheric boundary layer were visualized experimentally, to investigate the shelter effect of the fence on sand saltation. Two sand samples, one collected from a beach (d = 250 μm) and the other from a desert (d = 100 μm), were tested in comparison with the previous studies of a 'no-fence' case. A wind fence (ε = 38.5%) was installed on a flat sand bed filled with each sand sample. A high-speed photography technique and the particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) method were employed to reconstruct the trajectories of particles saltating behind the fence. The collision processes of these sand particles were analyzed, momentum and kinetic energy transfer between saltating particles and ground surface were also investigated. In the wake region, probability density distributions of the impact velocities agree well with the pattern of no-fence case, and can be explained by a log-normal law. The horizontal component of impact velocity for the beach sand is decreased by about 54%, and about 76% for the desert sand. Vertical restitution coefficients of bouncing particles are smaller than 1.0 due to the presence of the wind fence. The saltating particles lose a large proportion of their energy during the collision process. These results illustrate that the porous wind fence effectively abates the further evolution of saltating sand particles.

  4. 2. Onroom log cabin (right), log root cellar (center), tworoom ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. On-room log cabin (right), log root cellar (center), two-room log cabin (left), and post-and-beam garage (background). View to southwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  5. 12. Upstream view showing thelower log pond log chute in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Upstream view showing thelower log pond log chute in the main channel of the Hudson River. The log chute in the dam can be seen in the background. Facing southwest. - Glens Falls Dam, 100' to 450' West of U.S. Route 9 Bridge Spanning Hudson River, Glens Falls, Warren County, NY

  6. Industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, domestic production of industrial sand and gravel was about 31 Mt, a 5% increase from 2004. This increase was bouyed by robust construction and petroleum sectors of the US economy. Based on estimated world production figures, the United States was the world's leading producer and consumer of industrial sand and gravel. In the short term, local shortages of industrial sand and gravel will continue to increase.

  7. SedLog: A shareware program for drawing graphic logs and log data manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zervas, Dimitrios; Nichols, Gary J.; Hall, Robert; Smyth, Helen R.; Lüthje, Charlotta; Murtagh, Fionn

    2009-10-01

    SedLog is a free multi-platform software package for creating graphic sediment logs providing an intuitive graphical user interface. The graphic sediment logs generated by SedLog can be exported as PDF, Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), or JPEG for use by other drawing applications or for publications. Log data can be imported and exported in Comma Separated Values (CSV) format. The logs can also be printed to any paper size the user wants. Zoom In, Zoom Out, Fit page, Fit Height and Fit Width facilities are also provided to enable the user to customise the workspace size.

  8. Continuous gravity gradient logging

    SciTech Connect

    Fitch, J.L.; Lyle, W.D. Jr.

    1986-07-29

    A method is described for conducting a gravimetry survey of an earth formation, comprising the steps of: (a) continuously traversing the earth formation with a gravity logging tool having a column of fluid within the tool, (b) measuring a first pressure difference along a first interval within the column of fluid, (c) measuring a second pressure difference along a second interval within the column of fluid, (d) differencing the first and second pressure differences to determine the gravity gradient along the earth formation between the first and second intervals.

  9. Grid Logging: Best Practices Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, Brian L; Tierney, Brian L; Gunter, Dan

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to help developers of Grid middleware and application software generate log files that will be useful to Grid administrators, users, developers and Grid middleware itself. Currently, most of the currently generated log files are only useful to the author of the program. Good logging practices are instrumental to performance analysis, problem diagnosis, and security auditing tasks such as incident tracing and damage assessment. This document does not discuss the issue of a logging API. It is assumed that a standard log API such as syslog (C), log4j (Java), or logger (Python) is being used. Other custom logging API or even printf could be used. The key point is that the logs must contain the required information in the required format. At a high level of abstraction, the best practices for Grid logging are: (1) Consistently structured, typed, log events; (2) A standard high-resolution timestamp; (3) Use of logging levels and categories to separate logs by detail and purpose; (4) Consistent use of global and local identifiers; and (5) Use of some regular, newline-delimited ASCII text format. The rest of this document describes each of these recommendations in detail.

  10. Weekly Log Record Sort (WLSORT).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Thomas

    Computer routines to sort the weekly log records submitted by teachers participating in the Southwest Regional Laboratory's communications skills monitoring program are described. Written in Univac FORTRAN V, Weekly Log Record Sort (WLSORT) sorts log records on magnetic tape to enable subsequent computer programs to interpret the input data by…

  11. Steam sand dryer in northeast part of sand tower. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Steam sand dryer in northeast part of sand tower. View to northeast - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Sand Tower, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  12. China Dust and Sand

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Dust and Sand Sweep Over Northeast China     View Larger Image ... these views of the dust and sand that swept over northeast China on March 10, 2004. Information on the height of the dust and an ...

  13. An Affair with Sand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroud, Sharon

    1980-01-01

    Described is a resource idea developed for the teaching of oceanography to junior high students. Sand is studied to help make the study of beaches more relevant to students who may have never seen an ocean. Sand samples are brought into the classroom from various coastal cities, then analyzed and compared. (Author/DS)

  14. Estimating pore-space gas hydrate saturations from well log acoustic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Myung W.; Waite, William F.

    2008-01-01

    Relating pore-space gas hydrate saturation to sonic velocity data is important for remotely estimating gas hydrate concentration in sediment. In the present study, sonic velocities of gas hydrate–bearing sands are modeled using a three-phase Biot-type theory in which sand, gas hydrate, and pore fluid form three homogeneous, interwoven frameworks. This theory is developed using well log compressional and shear wave velocity data from the Mallik 5L-38 permafrost gas hydrate research well in Canada and applied to well log data from hydrate-bearing sands in the Alaskan permafrost, Gulf of Mexico, and northern Cascadia margin. Velocity-based gas hydrate saturation estimates are in good agreement with Nuclear Magneto Resonance and resistivity log estimates over the complete range of observed gas hydrate saturations.

  15. Basaltic island sand provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Marsaglia, K.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

  16. Log-Log Convexity of Type-Token Growth in Zipf's Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font-Clos, Francesc; Corral, Álvaro

    2015-06-01

    It is traditionally assumed that Zipf's law implies the power-law growth of the number of different elements with the total number of elements in a system—the so-called Heaps' law. We show that a careful definition of Zipf's law leads to the violation of Heaps' law in random systems, with growth curves that have a convex shape in log-log scale. These curves fulfill universal data collapse that only depends on the value of Zipf's exponent. We observe that real books behave very much in the same way as random systems, despite the presence of burstiness in word occurrence. We advance an explanation for this unexpected correspondence.

  17. Test wells T27 and T28, White Sands Missile Range, Dona Ana County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, R.G.; Pinckley, K.M.

    1985-01-01

    Two test wells, T27 and T28, were drilled at White Sands Missile Range in south-central New Mexico as part of a joint military training program sponsored by the U.S. Army in February and March 1983. Test wells T27 and T28 were drilled as observation wells in the vicinity of the Liquid Propellant Storage Area. Information obtained from these wells includes lithologic logs, driller 's logs, and borehole-geophysical logs from the cased wells. (USGS)

  18. Industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2010-01-01

    Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2009 was about 27 Mt (30 million st), declining by 10 percent compared with 2008. Certain end uses of industrial sand and gravel, such as foundry and glassmaking sand, may have declined by a factor greater than 10 percent in 2009. U.S. apparent consumption was 24.7 Mt (27.2 million st) in 2009, down by 10 percent from the previous year, and imports declined to 83 kt (91,000 st).

  19. Rock Mechanical Properties from Logs Petrophysics : Concepts and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillot, Philippe; Crawford, Brian; Alramahi, Bashar; Karner, Steve

    2010-05-01

    The objective of the "geomechanics from logs" (GML) research project is to develop model-driven predictive software for determining rock mechanical properties (specifically rock strength, compressibility and fracability) from other, more easily measured, rock properties (e.g. lithology, porosity, clay volume, velocity) routinely derived from nuclear, resistivity and acoustic logging tools. To this end, geomechanics from logs seeks to increase fundamental understanding of the primary geologic controls on rock mechanical properties and to translate this new insight into novel predictive tools. In detail, GML predictors rely on (i) the generation of relational rock mechanical properties databases incorporating QC'd core-based laboratory measurements (both in-house and high-precision published data); (ii) the use of established rock physics models (e.g. friable sand, contact cement models) to investigate theoretical relationships between geologic processes, reservoir environment, rock microstructure and elastic, bulk and transport petrophysical attributes/properties; (iii) the subdivision of database rocks into generic lithotypes (e.g. sand, shaly sand, sandy shale, shale) with common petrophysical attributes/properties; (iv) the use of multivariate statistics to generate lithotype-dependent empirical predictive relationships between mechanical properties and log-derived petrophysical attributes/properties; (v) the estimation of uncertainties associated with predictive function parameters; (vi) the application and validation of mechanical properties predictive tools to well-documented case studies (e.g. sand strength for perforation stability, rock compressibility for reservoir simulation) to test overall performance and quantify uncertainty in predictions. This paper presents the results of various rock strength, rock compressibility and rock fracability case studies conducted in wells of different stratigraphic age and depositional environment. Overall, GML (i

  20. Foundry sand reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Filipovitch, A.J.; Bleuenstein, J.M.

    1984-05-22

    A dry method of conditioning spent foundry sand is disclosed. After having sized the sand and removal of tramp metallic elements, the sand is subjected to a sequence of squeezing under a high-stress low kinetic energy system for a period of 5-30 minutes, and then propelled against a target with high-kinetic energy in the presence of a suction for several minutes. This sequence can be preferably repeated to increase the quality of the resulting product which should have 0.1% or less of fine particles, a pH of 6-9, a clay content and organic combustible content of substantially zero. The reclaimed sand will exhibit a density of at least 100 grams/biscuit when compacted for core making or molding.

  1. Acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOEpatents

    Vail, III, William B.

    1988-01-01

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in geological formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth3 s magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation . The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores.

  2. Neutron well logging

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H. D. Jr.; Schultz, W. E.

    1985-01-08

    This invention relates to an improved method for determining the oil saturation of subsurface earth formations in the vicinity of a well borehole. High energy neutrons irradiate the subsurface earth formations and gamma rays caused by inelastic scatter with the subsurface earth formation constituent materials are measured. For a chosen borehole depth, gamma ray logs are taken in different situations: first, with the formation fluid water and oil mixture in an undisturbed state; second, after flushing the formation with alcohol to displace the formation water and oil mixture; and, finally, after flushing the alcohol from the formation with water to obtain a measurement with no oil in the formation. The gamma ray measurements obtained are then used to determine the oil saturation without requiring knowledge of the porosity of the earth formation, borehole conditions or formation type. When the original oil content of the formation is at a naturally flushed, or residual, oil saturation, the present invention may be used to determine the residual oil saturation.

  3. 3. Log bunkhouse (far left), log chicken house (left of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Log bunkhouse (far left), log chicken house (left of center), equipment shed (center), and workshop (far right). View to northwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  4. Sand Volcano Following Earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Sand boil or sand volcano measuring 2 m (6.6 ft.) in length erupted in median of Interstate Highway 80 west of the Bay Bridge toll plaza when ground shaking transformed loose water-saturated deposit of subsurface sand into a sand-water slurry (liquefaction) in the October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake. Vented sand contains marine-shell fragments. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: J.C. Tinsley, U.S. Geological Survey)

  5. Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-04-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms.

  6. Logging concessions enable illegal logging crisis in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N; Sky, Melissa A Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms. PMID:24743552

  7. Well Logging with Californium-252

    SciTech Connect

    Boulogne, A.R.

    2003-01-06

    Californium-252 is an intense neutron emitter that has only recently become available for experimental well logging. The purpose of this research is to investigate the application of well logging to groundwater hydrology; however, most of the techniques and purposes are quite similar to applications in the petroleum industry.

  8. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    SciTech Connect

    Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore K.

    2003-02-10

    The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation between relaxation time and diffusivity.

  9. A new approach for deriving pseudovelocity logs from resistivity logs

    SciTech Connect

    Dos Santos, W.L.B.; Ulrych, T.J.; De Lima, O.A.L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a method of generating pseudovelocity logs using measurements of electrical resistivity. A theoretical relation between electrical resistivity and transit time, which is applicable to a wide range of lithologies, has been developed. The application of this relation using a method which defines lithoresistivity zones as lithological intervals related to the same formation and showing small resistivity variations, has been tested in the Reconcavo sedimentary basin in Bahia, Brazil. A comparison of derived pseudovelocity logs with actual sonic logs for five wells shows the validity of the present approach.

  10. Enhanced carbon-oxygen log interpretations using supplemental log curves

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.F. Jr.; Jacobson, L.A.; Fox, P.

    1994-12-31

    Supplemental measurements from induced nuclear spectrometry tools are examined to demonstrate what additional information they provide about the well and reservoir conditions. Logs in shut-in wells from Indonesia provide examples of oxygen activation measurements showing cross-flow from one reservoir to another via open perforations. Leaking squeezed perforations were also observed. An example from Alaska shows radioactive scale build-up in the casing which spectral analysis identifies as a mixture of uranium and thorium salts. Another log, where the casing fluid was replaced with crude oil, demonstrates a technique for identifying cement channels. Logs from Nigeria comparing oil saturation estimates before and after a squeeze operation illustrate the effect of casing fluid flushing of the formation through open perforations. Understanding the diagnostic character of these curves leads to higher confidence in the overall log interpretation process.

  11. Sidewinding snakes on sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvi, Hamidreza; Dimenichi, Dante; Chrystal, Robert; Mendelson, Joseph; Goldman, Daniel; Hu, David; Georgia Tech and Zoo Atlanta Collaboration

    2012-11-01

    Desert snakes such as the rattlesnake Crotalus cerastes propel themselves over sand using sidewinding, a mode of locomotion relying upon helical traveling waves. While sidewinding on hard ground has been described, the mechanics of movement on more natural substrates such as granular media remain poorly understood. In this experimental study, we use 3-D high speed video to characterize the motion of a sidewinder rattlesnake as it moves on a granular bed. We study the movement both on natural desert sand and in an air-fluidized bed trackway which we use to challenge the animal on different compactions of granular media. Particular attention is paid to rationalizing the snake's thrust on this media using friction and normal forces on the piles of sand created by the snake's body. The authors thank the NSF (PHY-0848894), Georgia Tech, and the Elizabeth Smithgall Watts endowment for support. We would also like to thank Zoo Atlanta staff for their generous help with this project.

  12. Geologic logs of geotechnical cores from the subsurface Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maier, Katherine L.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Tinsley, John C., III; Gatti, Emma; Pagenkopp, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This report presents and summarizes descriptive geologic logs of geotechnical cores collected from 2009–12 in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, California, by the California Department of Water Resources. Graphic logs are presented for 1,785.7 ft of retained cores from 56 borehole sites throughout the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Most core sections are from a depth of ~100–200 feet. Cores primarily contain mud, silt, and sand lithologies. Tephra (volcanic ash and pumice), paleosols, and gravels are also documented in some core sections. Geologic observations contained in the core logs in this report provide stratigraphic context for subsequent sampling and data for future chronostratigraphic subsurface correlations.

  13. Ganges Chasma Sand Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    Today's sand sheet is located in the Ganges Chasma portion of Valles Marineris. As with yesterday's image, note that the dune forms are seen only at the margin and that the interior of the sand sheet at this resolution appears to completely lack dune forms.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6.4, Longitude 310.7 East (49.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  14. Sand Dunes with Frost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    9 May 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a suite of frost-covered sand dunes in the north polar region of Mars in early spring, 2004. The dunes indicate wind transport of sand from left to right (west to east). These landforms are located near 78.1oN, 220.8oW. This picture is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

  15. K - log P is that all?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lub, J.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the derivation of the K - log P relation for RR Lyrae stars based upon the simplest possible theoretical pulsation equation. Making use of recent theoretical advances due to Marconi et al. (2015) this leads to a direct determination of MV for individual stars, but at the same time we re- discover a simple method using the reddening free and metallicity independent combination W(B,V) = V -3.06(B-V) to do the same. We discuss the relation between the two approaches and compare with other determinations in the liter- ature. A consistent distance of the LMC is derived directly from measurements of its RR Lyrae stars.

  16. Well Logging and Logging Analysis of UHP metamorphic Rocks in CCSD Main Hole (0-2000m)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, H.; Niu, Y.; Wang, W.; Zhu, L.; Xu, D.; Wu, H.; Li, S.; Luo, M.

    2004-12-01

    CCSD logging engineering gather many modern high technologies and employs various advanced logging tools to survey the sidewall continuously. This can obtain various physical, chemical, geometrical, etc in-situ information of the borehole's profile. So well logging is one of the most important parts and pivotal technologies in the project of CCSD. The main logging methods in CCSD-MH(0-2000m) are laterolog (Rd,Rs), gamma ray(GR), nature gamma spectrometry(U, TH, K), density(DEN), photo electric section exponent (Pe), compensated neutron(CNL), multipole array acoustic (Vp, Vs, Vst), Simultaneous Acoustic-Resistivity-image(Star-II), temperature(T),magnetic susceptibility(MS), three component borehole magnetic and redox potential log,etc. The various metamorphic rocks can be classified by logging curves,and their physical parameters can be acquired by analyzing the response characters of various metamorphic rocks and by statistics. According to the logging cross plot, We can research the clustering of metamorphite's physical property. Five lithologic segments can be obtainend by logging curves. The GR, Th, U, K logging values of segment 1 is lower than the third, fourth and fiveth segment, higher than segment 2; The DEN, Pe values of segment 1 higher than the third, fourth and fiveth segments. The main rocks in segment 1,2,3,4,5 are eclogites, serpentinites, paragneiss, orthogneiss, and eclogites(containing silicon and muscovite ) respectively. Generally, eclogite contain rutile, silicon, muscovite, etc. minerals. These minerals have response obviously on log curves.There are rutile,ilmenite, pyrite mineralized, etc. Making use of DEN, Pe, susceptibility log values, these mineralized layers can be goodly demarcation. For example, on the rutile mineralzed layer, the logging curve response characters are of high density and Pe obviously. The key data of the synthetical seismic record is wave impedance. In this paper, Utilize the data of AC, DEN curves to calculate the

  17. New materials for fireplace logs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieselback, D. J.; Smock, A. W.

    1971-01-01

    Fibrous insulation and refractory concrete are used for logs as well as fireproof walls, incinerator bricks, planters, and roof shingles. Insulation is lighter and more shock resistant than fireclay. Lightweight slag bonded with refractory concrete serves as aggregrate.

  18. Building with Sand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    Children playing in damp sand invariably try to make a tower or a tunnel. By providing experiences with a variety of materials, alone and together, teachers set up the conditions for children to learn through their senses and ensure that a class approaches a topic with a common set of experiences to build on. Learning about the properties of…

  19. Ganges Chasma Sands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    8 July 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark, windblown sand in the form of dunes and a broad, relatively flat, sand sheet in Ganges Chasma, part of the eastern Valles Marineris trough complex. The winds responsible for these dunes blew largely from the north. Sand dunes on Mars, unlike their Earthly counterparts, are usually dark in tone. This is a reflection of their composition, which includes minerals that are more rich in iron and magnesium than the common silica-rich dunes of Earth. Similar dark sands on Earth are found in volcanic regions such as Iceland and Hawaii. A large dune field of iron/magnesium-rich grains, in the form fragments of the volcanic rock, basalt, occurs south of Moses Lake, Washington, in the U.S.

    Location near: 7.7oS, 45.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Spring

  20. Extracting Oil From Tar Sands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, L. B.; Daly, D.

    1984-01-01

    Recovery of oil from tar sands possible by batch process, using steam produced by solar heater. In extraction process, solar heater provides steam for heating solvent boiler. Boiling solvent removes oil from tar sands in Soxhlet extractor.

  1. Western Gas Sands Subprogram

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-12-01

    The Western Gas Sands Subprogram (WGSS) is a multidisciplinary research effort within the US Department of Energy program on Unconventional Gas Recovery. The subprogram, managed by DOE's Morgantown Energy Technology Center, is directed towards the development of tight (very low permeability) lenticular gas sands in the western United States. The purpose of the subprogram is to demonstrate the feasibility of economically producing natural gas from low-permeability reservoirs. The subprogram has two broad goals: (1) to reduce the uncertainty of the reservoir production potential and (2) to improve the extraction technology. With input from the gas industry, universities, and geologic and engineering consulting firms, the WGSS was broadened to include more fundamental research and development. Consequently, for the last five years it has focused on improving diagnostic instrumentation, geophysical and engineering interpretation, and stimulation techniques. Integrated geologic studies of the three priority basins containing tight sands and selected by DOE as research targets have also been pursued as part of this new effort. To date, the following tentative conclusions have evolved: Permeability of the tight gas sands can be as much as three to four orders of magnitude lower than conventional gas deposits. Nineteen western geologic basins and trends containing significant amounts of tight gas have been identified. Gas resources in the priority geologic basins are Piceance Basin, 49 tcf., Uinta Basin, 20 tcf., and Greater Green River Basin, 136 tcf. The presence of natural micro-fractures within the production zone of a reservoir and the effective propped length of hydraulically-induced fractures are the critical parameters for successful development of tight sand resources. 8 figures.

  2. Northern Sand Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    This VIS image was taken at 82 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. The image is completely dominated by dunes. In sand seas, it is very common for a single type of dune to occur, and for a single predominate wind to control the alignment of the dunes.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.2, Longitude 152.5 East (207.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  3. Armored instrumentation cable for geothermal well logging

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.R.; Johnson, J.; Todd, B.

    1981-01-01

    Multiconductor armored well-logging cable is used extensively by the oil and natural gas industry to lower various instruments used to measure the geological and geophysical parameters into deep wellbores. Advanced technology in oil-well drilling makes it possible to achieve borehole depths of 9 km (30,000 ft). The higher temperatures in these deeper boreholes demand advancements in the design and manufacturing of wireline cable and in the electrical insulating and armoring materials used as integral components. If geothermal energy is proved an abundant economic resource, drilling temperatures approaching and exceeding 300/sup 0/C will become commonplace. The adaptation of teflons as electrical insulating material permitted use of armored cable in geothermal wellbores where temperatures are slightly in excess of 200/sup 0/C, and where the concentrations of corrosive minerals and gases are high. Teflon materials presently used in wireline cables, however, are not capable of continuous operation at the anticipated higher temperatures.

  4. Tight gas sands study breaks down drilling and completion costs

    SciTech Connect

    Brunsman, B. ); Saunders, B. )

    1994-06-06

    Given the high cost to drill and complete tight gas sand wells, advances in drilling and completion technology that result in even modest cost savings to the producer have the potential to generate tremendous savings for the natural gas industry. The Gas Research Institute sponsored a study to evaluate drilling and completion costs in selected tight gas sands. The objective of the study was to identify major expenditures associated with tight gas sand development and determine their relative significance. A substantial sample of well cost data was collected for the study. Individual well cost data were collected from nearly 300 wells in three major tight gas sand formations: the Cotton Valley sand in East Texas, the Frontier sand in Wyoming, and the Wilcox sand in South Texas. The data were collected and organized by cost category for each formation. After the information was input into a data base, a simple statistical analysis was performed. The statistical analysis identified data discrepancies that were then resolved, and it helped allow conclusions to be drawn regarding drilling and completion costs in these tight sand formations. Results are presented.

  5. Geophysical Signatures for Low Porosity Sand Can Mimic Natural Gas Hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, A.; Tost, B. C.

    2014-12-01

    Natural gas hydrate is identified in sand reservoirs by an increase both the measured compressional velocity and resistivity. The same geophysical signatures can occur, however, in low porosity sand. We investigate the possible occurrence of natural gas hydrate in a sand interval in Alaminos Canyon Block 21 (AC 21) in the Gulf of Mexico, drilled in 2009 by the US Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project. The sand interval in AC21 has an increase in measured resistivity (~2.2 Ω-m) on geophysical well logs and a strong peak and trough at the top and bottom of the sand on exploration seismic, which has been interpreted as a natural gas hydrate reservoir with saturations up to 20%. We reexamine the geophysical data and construct a new reservoir model that matches the measured resistivity, the high-density sub layers in the sand, and the surface seismic trace. Our modeling shows the sand interval in AC 21 is most likely water-saturated and the slight increase in resistivity, higher measured density, and the seismic amplitudes are caused by a reduction in porosity to ~30% in the sand interval relatively to a porosity of ~42% in the surrounding marine muds. More broadly, we show that the mean depth where the porosity of marine muds becomes lower than sand sediment is ~900 mbsf, meaning that the similar geophysical signatures for water-saturated sand and low saturations of natural gas hydrate probably occur at most gas hydrate sites worldwide.

  6. Windblown Sand Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-557, 27 November 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows sand dunes and large ripples in a crater in the Hellespontus region of Mars. The winds that formed these dunes generally blew from the left/lower-left (west/southwest). Unlike the majority of dunes on Earth, sand dunes on Mars are mostly made up of dark, rather than light, grains. This scene is located near 50.3oS, 327.5oW. The image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide, and is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  7. PROCESSING OF MONAZITE SAND

    DOEpatents

    Calkins, G.D.; Bohlmann, E.G.

    1957-12-01

    A process for the recovery of thorium, uranium, and rare earths from monazite sands is presented. The sands are first digested and dissolved in concentrated NaOH, and the solution is then diluted causing precipitation of uranium, thorium and rare earth hydroxides. The precipitate is collected and dissolved in HCl, and the pH of this solution is adjusted to about 6, precipitating the hydroxides of thorium and uranium but leaving the rare earths in solution. The rare earths are then separated from the solution by precipitation at a still higher pH. The thorium and uranium containing precipitate is redissolved in HNO/sub 3/ and the two elements are separated by extraction into tributyl phosphate and back extraction with a weakly acidic solution to remove the thorium.

  8. Dynamic sand dunes.

    PubMed

    Amarouchene, Y; Boudet, J F; Kellay, H

    2001-05-01

    When sand falling in the spacing between two plates goes past an obstacle, a dynamic dune with a parabolic shape and an inner triangular region of nonflowing or slowly creeping sand forms. The angle of the triangular zone increases with the height of the dune and saturates at a value determined by the geometry of the cell. The width of the dune, related to the radius of curvature at the tip, shows universal features versus its height rescaled by geometrical parameters. The velocity profile in the flowing part is determined and found to be nonlinear. The parabolic shape can be accounted for using a simple driven convection-diffusion equation for the interface. PMID:11328156

  9. Mail LOG: Program operating instructions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    The operating instructions for the software package, MAIL LOG, developed for the Scout Project Automatic Data System, SPADS, are provided. The program is written in FORTRAN for the PRIME 300 computer system. The MAIL LOG program has the following four modes of operation: (1) INPUT - putting new records into the data base (2) REVISE - changing or modifying existing records in the data base (3) SEARCH - finding special records existing in the data base (4) ARCHIVE - store or put away existing records in the data base. The output includes special printouts of records in the data base and results from the INPUT and SEARCH modes. The MAIL LOG data base consists of three main subfiles: Incoming and outgoing mail correspondence; Design Information Releases and Releases and Reports; and Drawings and Engineering orders.

  10. Dark Sand Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    13 January 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark sand dunes in the north polar region of Mars. The dominant winds responsible for these dunes blew from the lower left (southwest). They are located near 76.6oN, 257.2oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) across; sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper right.

  11. Postfire logging in riparian areas.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Gordon H; Bisson, Peter A; Rieman, Bruce E; Benda, Lee E

    2006-08-01

    We reviewed the behavior of wildfire in riparian zones, primarily in the western United States, and the potential ecological consequences of postfire logging. Fire behavior in riparian zones is complex, but many aquatic and riparian organisms exhibit a suite of adaptations that allow relatively rapid recovery after fire. Unless constrained by other factors, fish tend to rebound relatively quickly, usually within a decade after a wildfire. Additionally, fire and subsequent erosion events contribute wood and coarse sediment that can create and maintain productive aquatic habitats over time. The potential effects of postfire logging in riparian areas depend on the landscape context and disturbance history of a site; however available evidence suggests two key management implications: (1) fire in riparian areas creates conditions that may not require intervention to sustain the long-term productivity of the aquatic network and (2) protection of burned riparian areas gives priority to what is left rather than what is removed. Research is needed to determine how postfire logging in riparian areas has affected the spread of invasive species and the vulnerability of upland forests to insect and disease outbreaks and how postfire logging will affect the frequency and behavior of future fires. The effectiveness of using postfire logging to restore desired riparian structure and function is therefore unproven, but such projects are gaining interest with the departure of forest conditions from those that existed prior to timber harvest, fire suppression, and climate change. In the absence of reliable information about the potential consequence of postfire timber harvest, we conclude that providing postfire riparian zones with the same environmental protections they received before they burned isjustified ecologically Without a commitment to monitor management experiments, the effects of postfire riparian logging will remain unknown and highly contentious. PMID:16922216

  12. Intricately Rippled Sand Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Intricately Rippled Sand Deposits (QTVR)

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit welcomed the beginning of 2006 on Earth by taking this striking panorama of intricately rippled sand deposits in Gusev Crater on Mars. This is an approximate true-color rendering of the 'El Dorado' ripple field provided by Spirit over the New Year's holiday weekend. The view spans about 160 degrees in azimuth from left to right and consists of images acquired by Spirit's panoramic camera on Spirit's 708th and 710th Martian days, or sols, (Dec. 30, 2005 and Jan. 1, 2006). Spirit used the Pancam's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters to capture the colors on Mars. Scientists have eliminated seams between individual frames in the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see. Spirit spent several days acquiring images, spectral data, and compositional and mineralogical information about these large sand deposits before continuing downhill toward 'Home Plate.'

  13. Method for induced polarization logging

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, H.J.; Waxman, M.H.

    1987-04-14

    A method is described for generating a log of the formation phase shift, resistivity and spontaneous potential of an earth formation from data obtained from the earth formation with a multi-electrode induced polarization logging tool. The method comprises obtaining data samples from the formation at measurement points equally spaced in time of the magnitude and phase of the induced voltage and the magnitude and phase of the current supplied by a circuit through a reference resistance R/sub 0/ to a survey current electrode associated with the tool.

  14. Physical-scale models of engineered log jams in rivers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stream restoration and river engineering projects are employing engineered log jams increasingly for stabilization and in-stream improvements. To further advance the design of these structures and their morphodynamic effects on corridors, the basis for physical-scale models of rivers with engineere...

  15. Booming Sand Dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vriend, Nathalie

    "Booming" sand dunes are able to produce low-frequency sound that resembles a pure note from a music instrument. The sound has a dominant audible frequency (70-105 Hz) and several higher harmonics and may be heard from far distances away. A natural or induced avalanche from a slip face of the booming dune triggers the emission that may last for several minutes. There are various references in travel literature to the phenomenon, but to date no scientific explanation covered all field observations. This thesis introduces a new physical model that describes the phenomenon of booming dunes. The waveguide model explains the selection of the booming frequency and the amplification of the sound in terms of constructive interference in a confined geometry. The frequency of the booming is a direct function of the dimensions and velocities in the waveguide. The higher harmonics are related to the higher modes of propagation in the waveguide. The experimental validation includes quantitative field research at the booming dunes of the Mojave Desert and Death Valley National Park. Microphone and geophone recordings of the acoustic and seismic emission show a variation of booming frequency in space and time. The analysis of the sensor data quantifies wave propagation characteristics such as speed, dispersion, and nonlinear effects and allows the distinction between the source mechanism of the booming and the booming itself. The migration of sand dunes results from a complicated interplay between dune building, wind regime, and precipitation. The morphological and morphodynamical characteristics of two field locations are analyzed with various geophysical techniques. Ground-penetrating radar images the subsurface structure of the dunes and reveal a natural, internal layering that is directly related to the history of dune migration. The seismic velocity increases abruptly with depth and gradually increases with downhill position due to compaction. Sand sampling shows local

  16. Outdoor Education Student Log Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbutt, Barbara; And Others.

    A student log book for outdoor education was developed to aid Oakland County (Michigan) teachers and supervisors of outdoor education in preparing student campers for their role and responsibilities in the total program. A sample letter to sixth graders explains the purpose of the booklet. General camp rules (10) are presented, followed by 6 woods…

  17. A New Approach to Logging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Donna

    2001-01-01

    In response to high numbers of preventable fatal accidents in the logging industry, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) developed a week-long logger safety training program that includes hands-on learning of safety techniques in the woods. Reaching small operators has been challenging; outreach initiatives in Maine, North…

  18. Dual spectra well logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Nussbaum, T.W.

    1982-09-07

    A dual spectra well logging system includes a well logging tool which is adapted to pass through a bore hole in an earth formation. The well logging tool includes at least two sensors which sense at least one condition of the earth formation and provides corresponding pulse signals. A circuit connected to the sensors provides a combined pulse signal wherein the pulses of the pulse signal from one sensor has one polarity and the pulses of the pulse signal from the other sensor has pulses of an opposite polarity. A circuit applies the combined pulse signal to a well logging cable which conducts the combined pulse signal to the surface of the earth formation. Surface apparatus includes a network connected to the cable which provides control signals in accordance with the polarity of the pulses in the combined pulse signal. A network connected to the cable inverts the combined pulse signal and provides a combined pulse signal and an inverted combined pulse signal. A first switching network receiving the combined pulse signal passes the pulses derived from the pulses of the one polarity in acccordance with the control signals to provide a first pulse signal while a second switching network receiving the inverted combined pulse signal passes the pulses derived from the pulses of the opposite polarity in accordance with the control signals to provide a second pulse signal. An output network processes the two pulse signals to provide an indication of the earth's condition in accordance with the processed pulse signals.

  19. Statistical log analysis made practical

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, W.K.; Nelson, R.J. )

    1991-06-01

    This paper discusses the advantages of a statistical approach to log analysis. Statistical techniques use inverse methods to calculate formation parameters. The use of statistical techniques has been limited, however, by the complexity of the mathematics and lengthy computer time required to minimize traditionally used nonlinear equations.

  20. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM LOG INACTIVATION CALCULATION METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Appendix O of the Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) Guidance Manual introduces the CeffT10 (i.e., reaction zone outlet C value and T10 time) method for calculating ozone CT value and Giardia and virus log inactivation. The LT2ESWTR Pre-proposal Draft Regulatory Language for St...

  1. Effects of beach sand properties, temperature and rainfall on the degradation rates of oil in buried oil/beach sand mixtures.

    PubMed

    Rowland, A P; Lindley, D K; Hall, G H; Rossall, M J; Wilson, D R; Benham, D G; Harrison, A F; Daniels, R E

    2000-07-01

    Lysimeters located outdoors have been used to evaluate the decomposition of buried oily beach sand waste (OBS) prepared using Forties light crude oil and sand from different locations around the British coast. The OBS (5% oil by weight) was buried as a 12-cm layer over dune pasture sub-sand and overlain by 20 cm of dune pasture topsoil. Decomposition rates of oil residues averaged 2300 kg ha(-1) in the first year and the pattern of oil decomposition may be represented by a power curve. Oil decomposition was strongly related to the temperature in the OBS layer, but was also significantly affected by rainfall in the previous 12 h. The CO(2) flux at the surface of the treatment lysimeters followed the relationship [log(10) CO(2) (mg C m(-2) h(-1))=0.93+0.058x OBS temp. (degrees C)-0.042x12 h rain (mm)]. There was considerable variation in the rate of oil decomposition in sands collected from different sites. Sand from Askernish supported most microbial activity whilst sand from Tain was relatively inactive. The decomposition process appeared to cease when the sand became saturated with water, i.e. temporarily anaerobic. However, decomposition recommenced when the soil dried out. The fastest rate of decomposition occurred in sand from one of the two sites predicted to have high populations of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. Larger particle size and higher Ca content may also be significant factors governing the rate of decomposition. PMID:15092918

  2. Probability distribution functions for the initial liftoff velocities of saltating sand grains in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hong; Zou, Xue-Yong; Zhang, Chun-Lai

    2006-11-01

    Saltating sand grains are the primary component of airborne sand and account for 75% of all transport flux of sand grains. Although they have been widely studied, the microscopic and macroscopic aspects of blown sand physics have not been united, and this has slowed development of this field. The main reason for this is that the bridge (probability distribution functions for initial liftoff velocities of saltating sand grains) between the macroscopic and microscopic research has not been satisfactorily solved because it is difficult to measure the initial liftoff parameters of saltating sand grains and because the underlying theory is lacking. In this paper, we combined theoretical analyses with wind tunnel experiment data to describe the liftoff parameters of saltating sand grains (the horizontal, vertical, and resultant liftoff velocities and angles). On the basis of these data, the liftoff angles follow a LogNorm4 distribution function, whereas the horizontal, vertical, and resultant liftoff velocities follow a Gamma distribution function. We also demonstrated that it is feasible to colligate initial liftoff velocities of saltating sand grains obtained under different frictional wind velocities by different scholars in wind tunnel experiments and comprehensively analyze their distributions. Therefore the distribution functions of initial liftoff velocities of saltating sand grains presented in this paper do a good job of reflecting the underlying physics.

  3. Sand dollar sites orogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amos, Dee

    2013-04-01

    The determinology of the humble sand dollars habitat changing from inception to the drastic evolution of the zone to that of present day. Into the cauldron along the southern Californian 'ring of fire' lithosphere are evidence of geosynclinals areas, metasedimentary rock formations and hydrothermal activity. The explanation begins with 'Theia' and the Moon's formation, battles with cometary impacts, glacial ages, epochs with evolutionary bottlenecks and plate tectonics. Fully illustrated the lecture includes localised diagrams and figures with actual subject photographic examples of plutonic, granitic, jade and peridodite. Finally, the origins of the materials used in the lecture are revealed for prosecution by future students and the enjoyment of interested parties in general.

  4. Sand Dunes in Hellas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-537, 7 November 2003

    The smooth, rounded mounds in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture are sand dunes. The scene is located in southern Hellas Planitia and was acquired in mid-southern autumn, the ideal time of year for Hellas imaging. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left. These dunes are located near 49.1oS, 292.6oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  5. Sand Dunes, Afghanistan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER image covers an area of 10.5 x 15 km in southern Afghanistan and was acquired on August 20, 2000. The band 3-2-1 composite shows part of an extensive field of barchan sand dunes south of Kandahar. The shape of the dunes indicates that the prevailing wind direction is from the west. The image is located at 30.7 degrees north latitude and 65.7 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  6. Ganges Rocks and Sand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    17 January 2004 The top half of this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows wind-eroded remnants of sedimentary rock outcrops in Ganges Chasma, one of the troughs of the Valles Marineris system. The lower half shows a thick accumulation of dark, windblown sand. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left. These features are located near 7.6oS, 49.4oW.

  7. Fortune Cookie Sand Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-432, 25 July 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a field of small barchan sand dunes in the north polar region near 71.7oN, 51.3oW. Some of them are shaped like fortune cookies. The message these dunes provide: winds blow through this region from the lower right toward the upper left. The steep slip face slopes of these dunes, which point toward the upper left, indicate the wind direction. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the upper right. The image is 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  8. Defrosting Sand Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-434, 27 July 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows retreating patches of frost on a field of large, dark sand dunes in the Noachis region of Mars. Large, windblown ripples of coarse sediment are also seen on some of the dunes. This dune field is located in a crater at 47.5oS, 326.3oW. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  9. Compressive behavior of fine sand.

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Bradley E.; Kabir, Md. E.; Song, Bo; Chen, Wayne

    2010-04-01

    The compressive mechanical response of fine sand is experimentally investigated. The strain rate, initial density, stress state, and moisture level are systematically varied. A Kolsky bar was modified to obtain uniaxial and triaxial compressive response at high strain rates. A controlled loading pulse allows the specimen to acquire stress equilibrium and constant strain-rates. The results show that the compressive response of the fine sand is not sensitive to strain rate under the loading conditions in this study, but significantly dependent on the moisture content, initial density and lateral confinement. Partially saturated sand is more compliant than dry sand. Similar trends were reported in the quasi-static regime for experiments conducted at comparable specimen conditions. The sand becomes stiffer as initial density and/or confinement pressure increases. The sand particle size become smaller after hydrostatic pressure and further smaller after dynamic axial loading.

  10. Lithology and hydrothermal alteration determination from well logs for the Cerro Prieto Wells, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ershaghi, I.; Ghaemian, S.; Abdassah, D.

    1981-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the characteristics of geophysical well logs against the sand-shale series of the sedimentary column of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, Mexico. The study shows that the changes in mineralogy of the rocks because of hydrothermal alteration are not easily detectable on the existing logs. However, if the behavior of clay minerals alone is monitored, the onset of the hydrothermally altered zones may be estimated from the well logs. The effective concentration of clay-exchange cations, Q/sub v/, is computed using the data available from conventional well logs. Zones indicating the disappearance of low-temperature clays are considered hydrothermally altered formations with moderate to high-permeability and temperature, and suitable for completion purposes.

  11. Application of multipole array sonic logging to acid hydralic fracturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Guo; Gao, Kun; Wang, Bing; Ma, Yong

    2007-06-01

    Multipole array sonic logging tools have widely been employed in Chinese oilfields in recent years. We have developed a software package for rock mechanical analysis with multipole array sonic logs. This advanced data processing method and software have been applied to the Tahe oilfield in Northern West China to provide guidance to acid hydraulic fracturing design and evaluation. In this paper, we present the field examples of such data processing and applications to demonstrate the validity and advantages of our method and software package.

  12. Characterization of gas hydrate reservoirs by integration of core and log data in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bahk, J.-J.; Kim, G.-Y.; Chun, J.-H.; Kim, J.-H.; Lee, J.Y.; Ryu, B.-J.; Lee, J.-H.; Son, B.-K.; Collett, Timothy S.

    2013-01-01

    Examinations of core and well-log data from the Second Ulleung Basin Gas Hydrate Drilling Expedition (UBGH2) drill sites suggest that Sites UBGH2-2_2 and UBGH2-6 have relatively good gas hydrate reservoir quality in terms of individual and total cumulative thicknesses of gas-hydrate-bearing sand (HYBS) beds. In both of the sites, core sediments are generally dominated by hemipelagic muds which are intercalated with turbidite sands. The turbidite sands are usually thin-to-medium bedded and mainly consist of well sorted coarse silt to fine sand. Anomalies in infrared core temperatures and porewater chlorinity data and pressure core measurements indicate that “gas hydrate occurrence zones” (GHOZ) are present about 68–155 mbsf at Site UBGH2-2_2 and 110–155 mbsf at Site UBGH2-6. In both the GHOZ, gas hydrates are preferentially associated with many of the turbidite sands as “pore-filling” type hydrates. The HYBS identified in the cores from Site UBGH2-6 are medium-to-thick bedded particularly in the lower part of the GHOZ and well coincident with significant high excursions in all of the resistivity, density, and velocity logs. Gas-hydrate saturations in the HYBS range from 12% to 79% with an average of 52% based on pore-water chlorinity. In contrast, the HYBS from Site UBGH2-2_2 are usually thin-bedded and show poor correlations with both of the resistivity and velocity logs owing to volume averaging effects of the logging tools on the thin HYBS beds. Gas-hydrate saturations in the HYBS range from 15% to 65% with an average of 37% based on pore-water chlorinity. In both of the sites, large fluctuations in biogenic opal contents have significant effects on the sediment physical properties, resulting in limited usage of gamma ray and density logs in discriminating sand reservoirs.

  13. Temperature compensated well logging tool

    SciTech Connect

    Riedesel, R.G.; Nussbaum, T.W.; Warren, W.F.

    1984-01-24

    A well logging tool adapted for use in a borehole traversing an earth formation includes at least one sensor sensing at least one characteristic of the earth formation. Another sensor senses the ambient temperature and provides a corresponding temperature signal. An output circuit provides a temperature compensated output signal corresponding to the sensed characteristic of the earth formation in accordance with the temperature signal and the characteristic signal.

  14. Audit Log for Forensic Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neville, Timothy; Sorell, Matthew

    We propose an architecture for an audit log system for forensic photography, which ensures that the chain of evidence of a photograph taken by a photographer at a crime scene is maintained from the point of image capture to its end application at trial. The requirements for such a system are specified and the results of experiments are presented which demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  15. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    DOEpatents

    Allen, C.A.; McAtee, R.E.

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  16. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Charles A.; McAtee, Richard E.

    1981-01-01

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  17. Sudan challenges the sand dragon.

    PubMed

    Tinker, J

    1978-01-01

    Formerly productive areas have become wasteland as the desert advances in the Sudan. To understand how desertification is undermining the very survival of the Sahel, one ecosystem is reviewed in detail here: the gum arabic zone of Kordofan. After cotton, gum arabic is Sudan's largest export, worth from $14-26 million in recent years. In this zone the ecologically balanced cycle of gum gardens, fire, grain crops, and fallow is now breaking down; the 1968-1973 drought having in many areas delivered the final blow. Because of a growing population, the cultivation period is extended, and the soil becomes impoverished. Overgrazing in the fallow period, and the lopping of gum trees for firewood is producing a low return on the gum trees. Without this gum to harvest for cash, farmers must repeatedly replant their subsistence crops until the land becomes useless sand. The Sudanese have recognized the problem earlier than most, and a number of imaginative and practicable pilot projects are already in use: 1) waterpoint management; 2) construction of firebreaks; 3) land threatened by shifting dunes has been enclosed by stockproof fence and afforested with local trees; and 4) shelter belts have been planted around town perimeters where old gum tree stumps have started to sprout and the grass is reseeding itself. Out of these pilot projects, and with the advice of the U.N. Environment Program, the U.N. Development Program, and FAO, the Sudanese have developed a modest $26 million desert encroachment control and rehabilitation program (DECARP). PMID:12278008

  18. Lithology identification of aquifers from geophysical well logs and fuzzy logic analysis: Shui-Lin Area, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Bieng-Zih; Lewis, Charles; Lin, Zsay-Shing

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to construct a fuzzy lithology system from well logs to identify formation lithology of a groundwater aquifer system in order to better apply conventional well logging interpretation in hydro-geologic studies because well log responses of aquifers are sometimes different from those of conventional oil and gas reservoirs. The input variables for this system are the gamma-ray log reading, the separation between the spherically focused resistivity and the deep very-enhanced resistivity curves, and the borehole compensated sonic log reading. The output variable is groundwater formation lithology. All linguistic variables are based on five linguistic terms with a trapezoidal membership function. In this study, 50 data sets are clustered into 40 training sets and 10 testing sets for constructing the fuzzy lithology system and validating the ability of system prediction, respectively. The rule-based database containing 12 fuzzy lithology rules is developed from the training data sets, and the rule strength is weighted. A Madani inference system and the bisector of area defuzzification method are used for fuzzy inference and defuzzification. The success of training performance and the prediction ability were both 90%, with the calculated correlation of training and testing equal to 0.925 and 0.928, respectively. Well logs and core data from a clastic aquifer (depths 100-198 m) in the Shui-Lin area of west-central Taiwan are used for testing the system's construction. Comparison of results from core analysis, well logging and the fuzzy lithology system indicates that even though the well logging method can easily define a permeable sand formation, distinguishing between silts and sands and determining grain size variation in sands is more subjective. These shortcomings can be improved by a fuzzy lithology system that is able to yield more objective decisions than some conventional methods of log interpretation.

  19. Borehole induction logging for the Dynamic Underground Stripping Project LLNL gasoline spill site

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, S.; Newmark, R.; Wilt, M.

    1994-01-21

    Borehole induction logs were acquired for the purpose of characterizing subsurface physical properties and monitoring steam clean up activities at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This work was part of the Dynamic Underground Stripping Project`s demonstrated clean up of a gasoline spin. The site is composed of unconsolidated days, sands and gravels which contain gasoline both above and below the water table. Induction logs were used to characterize lithology, to provide ``ground truth`` resistivity values for electrical resistance tomography (ERT), and to monitor the movement of an underground steam plume used to heat the soil and drive volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the extraction wells.

  20. Science Learning in the Sand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexton, Ursula

    1997-01-01

    Presents activities that allow students to think about the Earth in a contextual manner and become familiar with constructive and destructive processes as they relate to sand - its origins, cyclical processes, and yielding of new products. Explores the bigger idea with a developmentally appropriate study of water, rocks, sand, physical phenomena,…

  1. Vacuum Head Removes Sanding Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bengle, C. G.; Holt, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    Vacuum sander prevents sanding dust from entering a work area, since dust particles are drawn off as quickly as they are produced. Tool is useful where dust presents health hazards, interferes with such processes as semiconductor manufacture, or could destroy wet paint or varnish finishes. Could be used to sand such materials as lead paint.

  2. Sand and Dust on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Haberle, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    Mars is a planet of high scientific interest. Various studies are currently being made that involve vehicles that have landed on Mars. Because Mars is known to experience frequent wind storms, mission planners and engineers require knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of Martian windblown sand and dust, and the processes involved in the origin and evolution of sand and dust storms.

  3. Atlas of Dutch drift sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riksen, Michel; Jungerius, Pieter

    2013-04-01

    The Netherlands is well known for its aeolian landscapes. Frequent storms during the High Middle Ages (1000-1300 AD) reactivated Pleistocene coversands and river dunes and are responsible for the formation of the Holocene drift sands at a scale which is unique for Europe. A hypothesized relationship with farmer practices for making plaggensoils has recently been refuted, because drift sand formation began centuries earlier. The coastal dune belt with their parabolic dunes dates from the same period as the drift sand. An estimate of the extent of drift sands can be made from soil maps: drift sands are too young to show much profile development (Regosols). With this method Koster estimated the maximum extent of Holocene drift sands in the Netherlands to be about 800 km2 (Koster 2005). Laser altimetry allows a more precise estimate of the total surface affected by wind from the characteristic relief patterns produced by the Holocene wind, which is different from the smooth surface of cover sand deposits. Laser altimetry has been used before to investigate the mechanism of drift sand formation (Jungerius & Riksen 2010). Most of the surface affected by wind is not active anymore, but the tell-tale rough surface survived ages of different landuse. The total affected surface amounts to 825 km2. It is noteworthy that both methods give comparable results. We recorded a total number of 367 of affected areas of varying shapes, ranging in size from 1.6 ha to a large complex of drif sands of 7,119.5 ha. As is to be expected from their mode of origin, most occurrences are associated with cover sands, and with river dunes along the river Meuse and smaller rivers in other parts of the country. Particularly the final phases of cover sand and river dunes that show more relief as parabolic dunes were affected. There are also small aeolian deposits at the lee side blown from fallow agricultural fields but they are (sub)recent. Most of the relief is irregular, but the larger

  4. Sand and Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 7 November 2003

    This image shows a relatively small crater (35 km across) in the heavily cratered terrain of the southern highlands. At the midlatitudes, this area is known both for its water-formed gullies and its sand dunes. This crater shows spectacular examples of both. In fact, the gullies running down the northern edge of the crater made it to the cover of Science magazine on June 30, 2000. The large dark spot in the floor of the crater is sand that has accumulated into one large dune with a single curvilinear crest.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -54.9, Longitude 17.5 East (342.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. Unchanging Desert Sand Dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadhiraju, S.; Banerjee, B.; Buddhiraju, K.; Shah, V.

    2013-12-01

    Deserts are one of the major landforms on earth. They occupy nearly 20% of the total land area but are relatively less studied. With the rise in human population, desert regions are being gradually occupied for settlement posing a management challenge to the concerned authorities. Unrestrained erosion is generally a feature of bare dunes. Stabilized dunes, on the other hand, do not undergo major changes in textures, and can thus facilitate the growth of vegetation. Keeping in view of the above factors, better mapping and monitoring of deserts and particularly of sand dunes is needed. Mapping dunes using field instruments is very arduous and they generate relatively sparse data. In this communication, we present a method of clustering and monitoring sand dunes through imagery captured by remote sensing sensors. Initially Radon spectrum of an area is obtained by decomposition of the image into various projections sampled at finer angular directions. Statistical features such as mode, entropy and standard deviation of Radon spectrum are used in delineation and clustering of regions with different dune orientations. These clustered boundaries are used to detect if there are any changes occurring in the dune regions. In the experiment's, remote sensing data covering various dune regions of the world are observed for possible changes in dune orientations. In all the cases, it is seen that there are no major changes in desert dune orientations. While these findings have implications for understanding of dune geomorphology and changes occurring in dune directions, they also highlight the importance of a wider study of dunes and their evolution both at regional and global scales. Results for Dataset 1 & Dataset 2 Results for Dataset 3

  6. Avian responses to selective logging shaped by species traits and logging practices.

    PubMed

    Burivalova, Zuzana; Lee, Tien Ming; Giam, Xingli; Şekercioğlu, Çağan Hakkı; Wilcove, David S; Koh, Lian Pin

    2015-06-01

    Selective logging is one of the most common forms of forest use in the tropics. Although the effects of selective logging on biodiversity have been widely studied, there is little agreement on the relationship between life-history traits and tolerance to logging. In this study, we assessed how species traits and logging practices combine to determine species responses to selective logging, based on over 4000 observations of the responses of nearly 1000 bird species to selective logging across the tropics. Our analysis shows that species traits, such as feeding group and body mass, and logging practices, such as time since logging and logging intensity, interact to influence a species' response to logging. Frugivores and insectivores were most adversely affected by logging and declined further with increasing logging intensity. Nectarivores and granivores responded positively to selective logging for the first two decades, after which their abundances decrease below pre-logging levels. Larger species of omnivores and granivores responded more positively to selective logging than smaller species from either feeding group, whereas this effect of body size was reversed for carnivores, herbivores, frugivores and insectivores. Most importantly, species most negatively impacted by selective logging had not recovered approximately 40 years after logging cessation. We conclude that selective timber harvest has the potential to cause large and long-lasting changes in avian biodiversity. However, our results suggest that the impacts can be mitigated to a certain extent through specific forest management strategies such as lengthening the rotation cycle and implementing reduced impact logging. PMID:25994673

  7. Tucker Wireline Open Hole Wireline Logging

    SciTech Connect

    Milliken, M.

    2002-05-23

    The Tucker Wireline unit ran a suite of open hole logs right behind the RMOTC logging contractor for comparison purposes. The tools included Dual Laterolog, Phased Induction, BHC Sonic, and Density-Porosity.

  8. Data Mining of Network Logs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collazo, Carlimar

    2011-01-01

    The statement of purpose is to analyze network monitoring logs to support the computer incident response team. Specifically, gain a clear understanding of the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) and its structure, and provide a way to breakdown a URL based on protocol, host name domain name, path, and other attributes. Finally, provide a method to perform data reduction by identifying the different types of advertisements shown on a webpage for incident data analysis. The procedures used for analysis and data reduction will be a computer program which would analyze the URL and identify and advertisement links from the actual content links.

  9. Balloon logging with the inverted skyline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosher, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    There is a gap in aerial logging techniques that has to be filled. The need for a simple, safe, sizeable system has to be developed before aerial logging will become effective and accepted in the logging industry. This paper presents such a system designed on simple principles with realistic cost and ecological benefits.

  10. 47 CFR 80.409 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station logs. 80.409 Section 80.409 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Station Documents § 80.409 Station logs. (a) General requirements. Logs must be established and properly maintained as follows:...

  11. 47 CFR 80.409 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station logs. 80.409 Section 80.409 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Station Documents § 80.409 Station logs. (a) General requirements. Logs must be established and properly maintained as follows:...

  12. Sand, Syrup and Supervolcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, B.; Jellinek, M.; Stix, J.

    2006-12-01

    Supervolcanic eruptions are amongst the most awesome events in the history of the Earth. A supervolcano can erupt thousands of cubic kilometers of ash devastating entire countries and changing the climate for decades. During the eruption, the magma chamber partially empties and collapses. As the chamber collapses at depth, a massive subsidence pit develops at the surface, called a caldera, some calderas can be the size of the entire San Francisco Bay Area. Fortunately, a supervolcano of this size has not erupted since the development of modern man. Due to the infrequency and massive scale of these eruptions, volcanologists do not yet fully understand how calderas form and how the eruption is affected by the roof collapse and vice versa. Therefore, simple analogue experiments are amongst the best ways to understand these eruptions. We present two of these experiments that can be fun, cheap, and helpful to high school and university instructors to demonstrate caldera formation. The first experiment illustrates how magma chamber roofs collapse to produce different style calderas, the second experiment demonstrates how the magma in the chamber affects the collapse style and magma mixing during a supervolcanic eruption. The collapse of a magma chamber can be demonstrated in a simple sandbox containing a buried balloon filled with air connected to a tube that leads out of the sandbox. At this small scale the buried balloon is a good analogue for a magma chamber and sand has an appropriate strength to represent the earths crust. Faults propagate through the sand in a similar way to faults propagating through the crust on a larger scale. To form a caldera just let the air erupt out of the balloon. This experiment can be used to investigate what controls the shape and structure of calderas. Different shaped balloons, and different burial depths all produce sand calderas with different sizes and structures. Additionally, experiments can be done that erupt only part of the

  13. A Universal Logging System for LHCb Online

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaidis, Fotis; Brarda, Loic; Garnier, Jean-Christophe; Neufeld, Niko

    2011-12-01

    A log is recording of system's activity, aimed to help system administrator to traceback an attack, find the causes of a malfunction and generally with troubleshooting. The fact that logs are the only information an administrator may have for an incident, makes logging system a crucial part of an IT infrastructure. In large scale infrastructures, such as LHCb Online, where quite a few GB of logs are produced daily, it is impossible for a human to review all of these logs. Moreover, a great percentage of them as just "noise". That makes clear that a more automated and sophisticated approach is needed. In this paper, we present a low-cost centralized logging system which allow us to do in-depth analysis of every log.

  14. Offshore sand bank dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J. J.; MacDonald, N. J.; O'Connor, B. A.; Pan, S.

    2000-02-01

    The present paper reports some key results from field investigations and numerical modelling studies of the tide- and wind-induced hydrodynamics and sediment dynamics of Middelkerke Bank (MB) in the southern North Sea of Europe conducted during December 1992 to March 1993. Strong surface current refraction and acceleration effects were observed over MB using the HF radar system OSCR ( Ocean Surface Current Radar). Results suggest that OSCR data may be used remotely to monitor large-scale bathymetry in shallow coastal environments. Spatial variation in tidal propagation characteristics and modification of shoreward propagating waves was not detected at locations around MB during the experiment. Observed residual currents were found to be correlated strongly with wind speed and direction during the period 26 February to 18 March 1993. However, in low wind stress condition, a three-dimensional numerical model (3D-Bank) indicated the presence of a clockwise residual circulation of water around MB consistent with theory. Spatial and temporal variation in the average total drag coefficient ( Cd) of MB were investigated and found to correlate strongly with tidal current speed. Fluorescent sand tracers, used to monitor net sediment transport pathways, revealed a net clockwise movement of sediments around MB consistent with predictions by 3D-Bank and with theory.

  15. Logs Wanted - Dead or Alive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuchardt, A.; Morche, D.

    2015-12-01

    Rivers cover only a small part of the Earth`s surface, yet they transfer sediment in globally significant quantities. In mountainous regions, the majority of the total channel length occurs in headwater streams. Those mountain channels are influenced in terms of sediment connectivity by processes on the slopes. For example in such a sediment routing system, sediment originating from debris flows on the slopes is delivered along sediment pathways to the channel system and can be transported further downstream as solid load. Interruption of instream coarse sediment connectivity is closely related to the existence of channel blocking barriers which also can be formed by biota. By storing sediment large wood (LW) log jams disrupt in-channel sediment connectivity. We present a study design in order to decipher the short to long term effects (c. 10-2-102 years) of sediment (dis)connectivity effects of large wood. The study areas are two basins in mountain ranges in Germany and Austria. In Austria the drainage area of the river Fugnitz was chosen which is located in the National Park Thayatal. The other drainage area of the river Sieber in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, is located in the Harz National Park. Since studies on LW and its geomorphological effects in Central European rivers are still rare the main goals of the project are: •to identify important triggers for LW transport from slopes into the channels •to examine the spatial distribution and characterization of LW in main and slope channels by mapping and dGPS measurements •to determine the effects of LW on channel hydraulic parameters (e.g. slope, width, grains size composition, roughness) by field measurements of channel long profiles and cross section with dGPS and Wolman particle counts •to quantify the direct effects of LW on discharge and bed load transport by measuring flow velocity with an Ott-Nautilus current meter and to measure bed load up- and downstream of log jams using a portable Helley

  16. Saltation of Non-Spherical Sand Particles

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhengshi; Ren, Shan; Huang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Saltation is an important geological process and the primary source of atmospheric mineral dust aerosols. Unfortunately, no studies to date have been able to precisely reproduce the saltation process because of the simplified theoretical models used. For example, sand particles in most of the existing wind sand movement models are considered to be spherical, the effects of the sand shape on the structure of the wind sand flow are rarely studied, and the effect of mid-air collision is usually neglected. In fact, sand grains are rarely round in natural environments. In this paper, we first analyzed the drag coefficients, drag forces, and starting friction wind speeds of sand grains with different shapes in the saltation process, then established a sand saltation model that considers the coupling effect between wind and the sand grains, the effect of the mid-air collision of sand grains, and the effect of the sand grain shape. Based on this model, the saltation process and sand transport rate of non-spherical sand particles were simulated. The results show that the sand shape has a significant impact on the saltation process; for the same wind speed, the sand transport rates varied for different shapes of sand grains by as much as several-fold. Therefore, sand shape is one of the important factors affecting wind-sand movement. PMID:25170614

  17. Simulating Sand Behavior through Terrain Subdivision and Particle Refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clothier, M.

    2013-12-01

    Advances in computer graphics, GPUs, and parallel processing hardware have provided researchers with new methods to visualize scientific data. In fact, these advances have spurred new research opportunities between computer graphics and other disciplines, such as Earth sciences. Through collaboration, Earth and planetary scientists have benefited by using these advances in hardware technology to process large amounts of data for visualization and analysis. At Oregon State University, we are collaborating with the Oregon Space Grant and IGERT Ecosystem Informatics programs to investigate techniques for simulating the behavior of sand. In addition, we have also been collaborating with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's DARTS Lab to exchange ideas on our research. The DARTS Lab specializes in the simulation of planetary vehicles, such as the Mars rovers. One aspect of their work is testing these vehicles in a virtual "sand box" to test their performance in different environments. Our research builds upon this idea to create a sand simulation framework to allow for more complex and diverse environments. As a basis for our framework, we have focused on planetary environments, such as the harsh, sandy regions on Mars. To evaluate our framework, we have used simulated planetary vehicles, such as a rover, to gain insight into the performance and interaction between the surface sand and the vehicle. Unfortunately, simulating the vast number of individual sand particles and their interaction with each other has been a computationally complex problem in the past. However, through the use of high-performance computing, we have developed a technique to subdivide physically active terrain regions across a large landscape. To achieve this, we only subdivide terrain regions where sand particles are actively participating with another object or force, such as a rover wheel. This is similar to a Level of Detail (LOD) technique, except that the density of subdivisions are determined by

  18. Test wells TW1 and TW2, and TW3, White Sands Missile Range, Otero County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, R.G.; Pinckley, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    Three test wells, TW1, TW2, and TW3, were drilled at White Sands Missile Range in south-central New Mexico in July, August, and October 1983 as part of a joint military training program sponsored by the U.S. Navy and U.S. Army in July, August, and October 1983. The test wells were drilled as exploratory and monitoring wells for the toxic waste storage facility at White Sands Missile Range. Information obtained from these wells includes lithologic logs for all wells and borehole-geophysical logs for the cased wells. (Author 's abstract)

  19. Leak checker data logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, J.J.; Gannon, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    A portable, high speed, computer-based data logging system for field testing systems or components located some distance apart employs a plurality of spaced mass spectrometers and is particularly adapted for monitoring the vacuum integrity of a long string of a superconducting magnets such as used in high energy particle accelerators. The system provides precise tracking of a gas such as helium through the magnet string when the helium is released into the vacuum by monitoring the spaced mass spectrometers allowing for control, display and storage of various parameters involved with leak detection and localization. A system user can observe the flow of helium through the magnet string on a real-time basis hour the exact moment of opening of the helium input valve. Graph reading can be normalized to compensate for magnet sections that deplete vacuum faster than other sections between testing to permit repetitive testing of vacuum integrity in reduced time.

  20. Analysis of Web Proxy Logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Bennie; Eloff, Jan; Olivier, Martin; Venter, Hein

    Network forensics involves capturing, recording and analysing network audit trails. A crucial part of network forensics is to gather evidence at the server level, proxy level and from other sources. A web proxy relays URL requests from clients to a server. Analysing web proxy logs can give unobtrusive insights to the browsing behavior of computer users and provide an overview of the Internet usage in an organisation. More importantly, in terms of network forensics, it can aid in detecting anomalous browsing behavior. This paper demonstrates the use of a self-organising map (SOM), a powerful data mining technique, in network forensics. In particular, it focuses on how a SOM can be used to analyse data gathered at the web proxy level.

  1. Leak checker data logging system

    DOEpatents

    Gannon, J.C.; Payne, J.J.

    1996-09-03

    A portable, high speed, computer-based data logging system for field testing systems or components located some distance apart employs a plurality of spaced mass spectrometers and is particularly adapted for monitoring the vacuum integrity of a long string of a superconducting magnets such as used in high energy particle accelerators. The system provides precise tracking of a gas such as helium through the magnet string when the helium is released into the vacuum by monitoring the spaced mass spectrometers allowing for control, display and storage of various parameters involved with leak detection and localization. A system user can observe the flow of helium through the magnet string on a real-time basis hour the exact moment of opening of the helium input valve. Graph reading can be normalized to compensate for magnet sections that deplete vacuum faster than other sections between testing to permit repetitive testing of vacuum integrity in reduced time. 18 figs.

  2. Log interpretation of shaly sandstones

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    The determination of water saturation from electrical resistivity measurements to evaluate the potential of reservoirs is a fundamental tool of the oil industry. Shaly sandstones are difficult to evaluate because clays are conductive and they lower the resistivity of the rock. A review of shaly-sandstone research concerning ''volume-of-shale'' equations reveals three theoretical categories: (1) laminated clay equations, (2) dispersed clay equations, and (3) equations that assume that the effect of the clays on the conductivity measurement is directly related to water saturation. A new model for predicting the relative amounts of laminated and dispersed shales and accounting for their effects according to their abundance can be used for any sandstone, clean or shaly. Equations representing each of the three theoretical categories and the new equation were tested on cored Wilcox sandstones from two wells. Cores were analyzed to determine the volume and distribution of clays and to correlate porosity with the well logs.

  3. Leak checker data logging system

    DOEpatents

    Gannon, Jeffrey C.; Payne, John J.

    1996-01-01

    A portable, high speed, computer-based data logging system for field testing systems or components located some distance apart employs a plurality of spaced mass spectrometers and is particularly adapted for monitoring the vacuum integrity of a long string of a superconducting magnets such as used in high energy particle accelerators. The system provides precise tracking of a gas such as helium through the magnet string when the helium is released into the vacuum by monitoring the spaced mass spectrometers allowing for control, display and storage of various parameters involved with leak detection and localization. A system user can observe the flow of helium through the magnet string on a real-time basis hour the exact moment of opening of the helium input valve. Graph reading can be normalized to compensate for magnet sections that deplete vacuum faster than other sections between testing to permit repetitive testing of vacuum integrity in reduced time.

  4. Modeling of slow sand filtration for disinfection of secondary clarifier effluent.

    PubMed

    Langenbach, K; Kuschk, P; Horn, H; Kästner, M

    2010-01-01

    Due to increasing water scarcity, appropriate technologies are needed for disinfection of wastewater to enable safe reuse. Research on hygienisation of secondary effluent using slow sand filters is very limited but promising with removal of fecal indicator bacteria of >2log-units. A quantitative description of the processes leading to bacteria removal is lacking and therefore a model was developed for E. coli removal from secondary clarifier effluent in slow sand filters. Removal was successfully simulated for sands of variable grain size distribution and under a range of hydraulic loading rates compared to data obtained at pilot-scale filters. The most important process was retention of bacteria at the "schmutzdecke" and sand surface leading to an enrichment by a factor of up to 600 compared to the surrounding bulk phase. Bacteria elimination and inactivation both in the bulk phase and the schmutzdecke can be described by a first order kinetic. PMID:19833374

  5. Diurnal patterns of blowing sand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diurnal pattern of blowing sand results from a complex process that involves an interaction between solar heating, thermal instability, atmospheric turbulence, wind strength, and surface threshold conditions. During the day, solar heating produces thermal instability, which enhances the convect...

  6. METHOD OF PROCESSING MONAZITE SAND

    DOEpatents

    Calkins, G.D.

    1957-10-29

    A method is given for the pretreatment of monazite sand with sodium hydroxide. When momazite sand is reacted with sodium hydroxide, the thorium, uranium, and rare earths are converted to water-insoluble hydrous oxides; but in the case of uranium, the precipitate compound may at least partly consist of a slightly soluble uranate. According to the patent, monazite sand is treated with an excess of aqueous sodium hydroxide solution, and the insoluble compounds of thorium, uranium, and the rare earths are separated from the aqueous solution. This solution is then concentrated causing sodium phosphate to crystallize out. The crystals are removed from the remaining solution, and the solution is recycled for reaction with a mew supply of momazite sand.

  7. Aeolian sand ripples around plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian-Hua; Miao, Tian-De

    2003-05-01

    Plants in the desert may locally change the aeolian process, and hence the pattern of sand ripples traveling nearby. The effect of plants on ripples is investigated using a coupled map lattice model with nonuniform coupling coefficients. PMID:12786143

  8. Modern Graywacke-Type Sands.

    PubMed

    Hollister, C D; Heezen, B C

    1964-12-18

    A preliminary study of more than 100 deep-sea cores from abyssal plains has revealed two examples of recent muddy sands of the graywacke type which, together with the microcrystalline matrix, form a bimodal-size distribution sands have a well-sorted framework of quartz, feldspar, and rock fragments which, together with the microcrystalline matrix, form a bimodal-size distribution that is also typical of ancient graywackes. The matrix is considered to be primary. PMID:17775982

  9. Calibration models for measuring moisture in unsaturated formations by neutron logging

    SciTech Connect

    Engelman, R.E.; Lewis, R.E.; Stromswold, D.C.

    1995-10-01

    Calibration models containing known amounts of hydrogen have been constructed to simulate unsaturated earth formations for calibrating neutron well logging tools. The models are made of dry mixtures of hydrated alumina (Al(OH){sub 3}) with either silica sand (SiO{sub 2}) or aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Hydrogen in the hydrated alumina replaces the hydrogen in water for neutron scattering, making it possible to simulate partially saturated formations. The equivalent water contents for the models are 5%, 12%, 20%, and 40% by volume in seven tanks that have a diameter of 1.5 m and a height of 1.8 m. Steel casings of inside diameter 15.4 cm (for three models) and diameter 20.3 cm (for four models) allow logging tool access to simulate logging through cased boreholes.

  10. Correlating Log Messages for System Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Gunasekaran, Raghul; Dillow, David A; Shipman, Galen M; Maxwell, Don E; Hill, Jason J; Park, Byung H; Geist, Al

    2010-01-01

    In large-scale computing systems, the sheer volume of log data generated presents daunting challenges for debugging and monitoring of these systems. The Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility s premier simulation platform, the Cray XT5 known as Jaguar, can generate a few hundred thousand log entries in less than a minute for many system level events. Determining the root cause of such system events requires analyzing and interpretation of a large number of log messages. Most often, the log messages are best understood when they are interpreted collectively rather than individually. In this paper, we present our approach to interpreting log messages by identifying their commonalities and grouping them into clusters. Given a set of log messages within a time interval, we group the messages based on source, target, and/or error type, and correlate the messages with hardware and application information. We monitor the Lustre log messages in the XT5 console log and show that such grouping of log messages assists in detecting the source of system events. By intelligent grouping and correlation of events in the log, we are able to provide system administrators with meaningful information in a concise format for root cause analysis.

  11. Dust and Sand Mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 10 November 2003

    The bright and dark tones observed in this THEMIS image of part of an unnamed impact crater (85 km in diameter) near the larger impact crater Schiaparelli are due to variable amounts of bright dust and dark sand covering the surface. Wind Shadows observed around small impact craters at the top of the image and small grooves and ripple-like marks observed throughout the scene illustrate dynamic and continued aeolian processes on Mars.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -1.4, Longitude 10.9 East (349.1 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  12. Shallow gas reservoir in a Pleistocene transgressive sand sheet developed during the drowning of retrograde delta lobes, Louisiana continental shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Flakes, L.G.; Fillon, R.H.

    1996-12-31

    A strongly negative seismic amplitude discovered in our 3-D data set at 450 ms has been tied to the interface marking the top of a thick sand section ca. -1300 ft sub-sea. Sequence stratigraphic and stacking pattern analysis of SP and GR logs point to a Late Pleistocene low-stand delta bar origin for the thick, blocky sands in the lower part of the section. Resistivity data shows the delta bar sands are wet with salt water while an uppermost, thin sand member, capped by shale constituting a notable flooding surface, and potential vertical seal, exhibited a high resistivity signature. With other evidence, this is considered to reflect the presence of free gas in the sand`s pore spaces. An amplitude extraction made to evaluate the reservoir potential of the gas-charged sand member revealed a pattern consistent with three, deltaic lobes aligned along a former drainage axis. The mapped features are considered the result of retrograde delta migration and geomorphic evolution in response to rising sea levels late in the low stand. The upper, gas-charged sand member was interpreted, based on modern analogs, as a transgressive sand sheet containing a combination of facies related to the sub-environments of delta lobe destruction and flooding during rapid marine transgression, e.g.: re-worked barrier island; marine sand shoal; and, inner neuritic shelf sands. The Chandeleur Islands and Ship Shoal are modern examples of these features. Because of the relatively thin but widespread character and good sand quality expected for a transgressive sand sheet, this prospect was selected as a low-risk, low-cost candidate for horizontal drilling and completion.

  13. Selective logging and its relation to deforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asner, Gregory P.; Keller, Michael; Lentini, Marco; Merry, Frank; Souza, Carlos, Jr.

    Selective logging is a major contributor to the social, economic, and ecological dynamics of Brazilian Amazonia. Logging activities have expanded from low-volume floodplain harvests in past centuries to high-volume operations today that take about 25 million m3 of wood from the forest each year. The most common highimpact conventional and often illegal logging practices result in major collateral forest damage, with cascading effects on ecosystem processes. Initial carbon losses and forest recovery rates following timber harvest are tightly linked to initial logging intensity, which drives changes in forest gap fraction, fragmentation, and the light environment. Other ecological processes affected by selective logging include nutrient cycling, hydrological function, and postharvest disturbance such as fire. This chapter synthesizes the ecological impacts of selective logging, in the context of the recent socioeconomic conditions throughout Brazilian Amazonia, as determined from field-based and remote sensing studies carried out during the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia program.

  14. Optimal message log reclamation for independent checkpointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yi-Min; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1993-01-01

    Independent (uncoordinated) check pointing for parallel and distributed systems allows maximum process autonomy but suffers from possible domino effects and the associated storage space overhead for maintaining multiple checkpoints and message logs. In most research on check pointing and recovery, it was assumed that only the checkpoints and message logs older than the global recovery line can be discarded. It is shown how recovery line transformation and decomposition can be applied to the problem of efficiently identifying all discardable message logs, thereby achieving optimal garbage collection. Communication trace-driven simulation for several parallel programs is used to show the benefits of the proposed algorithm for message log reclamation.

  15. Flow rate logging seepage meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reay, William G. (Inventor); Walthall, Harry G. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely measuring and logging the flow rate of groundwater seepage into surface water bodies. As groundwater seeps into a cavity created by a bottomless housing, it displaces water through an inlet and into a waterproof sealed upper compartment, at which point, the water is collected by a collection bag, which is contained in a bag chamber. A magnet on the collection bag approaches a proximity switch as the collection bag fills, and eventually enables the proximity switch to activate a control circuit. The control circuit then rotates a three-way valve from the collection path to a discharge path, enables a data logger to record the time, and enables a pump, which discharges the water from the collection bag, through the three-way valve and pump, and into the sea. As the collection bag empties, the magnet leaves the proximity of the proximity switch, and the control circuit turns off the pump, resets the valve to provide a collection path, and restarts the collection cycle.

  16. Revisiting hydrostratigraphy in Bandung-Soreang groundwater basin: A well-logs re-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunarwan, B.; Irawan, D. E.; Puradimaja, D. J.; Notosiswoyo, S.; Sadisun, I. A.; Setiawan, T.; Anugrah, R. M.

    2015-09-01

    An attempt to revisit the hydro-stratigraphy of Bandung-Soreang Groundwater Basin (BSGB) has been done based on 111 well-logging training dataset. Transformation of resistivity values from well-log data to relative porosity and permeability used Chillingarian approach and Baker-Hughes Atlas of log responses. Then boundary marker was drawn to separated different aquifer layers. Simple linear regression equations were derived from the transformation: (a) tuf layers: θ = -0.0023ρ + 2.5619, μ = -63.514θ + 167.38, σ = 22.912 μ + 238.78; (b) clay layers: θ = -0.0181 ρ + 2.6281, μ = -61.842 θ + 163.91, σ = 5.1202 μ - 11.503; (c) sand layers: θ = -0.0078 ρ + 2.5992, μ = -60.75 θ + 161.02, σ = 394.35 μ - 2156.8. Based on the new aquifer taxonomy, three hydro-stratigraphic units (HSU) and six sub HSU have been defined. UHs 1 is the top layer of the BSGB, located at elevation above 650 masl. It has three sub HSU that consists of tuf and sand. The permeability (K) values of this unit range from 0,0014 to 0.1 m per day. HSU-2 with two sub HSU consists of tuf and sand, located at elevation from 625 to 650 masl. This unit has K values from 0.1 to 6 m per day. HSU-3, which is located at elevation from 500 to 625 masl, has only one sub HSU. This unit consists of tuf, sand, and volcanic breccias, with K values from 0.3 to 7.1 m per day. This models, however, are still needed more test to new dataset.

  17. Disturbance of the inclined inserting-type sand fence to wind-sand flow fields and its sand control characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jian-jun; Lei, Jia-qiang; Li, Sheng-yu; Wang, Hai-feng

    2016-06-01

    The inclined inserting-type sand fence is a novel sand retaining wall adopted along the Lanxin High-Speed Railway II in Xinjiang for controlling and blocking sand movement. To verify the effectiveness of the new fence structure for sand prevention, a wind tunnel test was used for flow field test simulation of the sand fence. The results indicate that the inclined inserting-type sand fence was able to deflect the flow of the sand and was able to easily form an upward slant acceleration zone on the leeward side of the sand fence. As shown by the percentage change in sand collection rates on the windward side and the leeward side of the sand fence, the sand flux per unit area at 4 m height in the slant upward direction increased on the leeward side of the inclined inserting-type sand fence. By comparing the flow fields, this site is an acceleration zone, which also reaffirms the correspondence of wind-sand flow fields with the spatial distribution characteristic of the wind-carried sand motion. The field sand collection data indicates that under the effects of the inclined inserting-type sand fence, the sandy air currents passing in front and behind the sand fence not only changed in quality, but the grain composition and particle size also significantly changed, suggesting that the inclined inserting-type sand fence has a sorting and filtering effect on the sandy air currents that passed through. The fence retained coarse particulates on the windward side and fine particulates within the shade of the wind on the leeward side.

  18. Sand Dunes in Noachis Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    11 February 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark-toned sand dunes in a crater in eastern Noachis Terra. Most big martian dunes tend to be dark, as opposed to the more familiar light-toned dunes of Earth. This difference is a product of the composition of the dunes; on Earth, most dunes contain abundant quartz. Quartz is usually clear (transparent), though quartz sand grains that have been kicked around by wind usually develop a white, frosty surface. On Mars, the sand is mostly made up of the darker minerals that comprise iron- and magnesium-rich volcanic rocks--i.e., like the black sand beaches found on volcanic islands like Hawaii. Examples of dark sand dunes on Earth are found in central Washington state and Iceland, among other places. This picture is located near 49.0oS, 326.3oW. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the upper left; the image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  19. Scale-dependent gas hydrate saturation estimates in sand reservoirs in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea of Korea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Myung Woong; Collett, Timothy S.

    2013-01-01

    Through the use of 2-D and 3-D seismic data, several gas hydrate prospects were identified in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea of Korea and thirteen drill sites were established and logging-while-drilling (LWD) data were acquired from each site in 2010. Sites UBGH2–6 and UBGH2–10 were selected to test a series of high amplitude seismic reflections, possibly from sand reservoirs. LWD logs from the UBGH2–6 well indicate that there are three significant sand reservoirs with varying thickness. Two upper sand reservoirs are water saturated and the lower thinly bedded sand reservoir contains gas hydrate with an average saturation of 13%, as estimated from the P-wave velocity. The well logs at the UBGH2–6 well clearly demonstrated the effect of scale-dependency on gas hydrate saturation estimates. Gas hydrate saturations estimated from the high resolution LWD acquired ring resistivity (vertical resolution of about 5–8 cm) reaches about 90% with an average saturation of 28%, whereas gas hydrate saturations estimated from the low resolution A40L resistivity (vertical resolution of about 120 cm) reaches about 25% with an average saturation of 11%. However, in the UBGH2–10 well, gas hydrate occupies a 5-m thick sand reservoir near 135 mbsf with a maximum saturation of about 60%. In the UBGH2–10 well, the average and a maximum saturation estimated from various well logging tools are comparable, because the bed thickness is larger than the vertical resolution of the various logging tools. High resolution wireline log data further document the role of scale-dependency on gas hydrate calculations.

  20. Trip Information Log Tracking System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-06-23

    The system is focused on the Employee Business Travel Event. The system must be able to CRUD (Create, Retrieve, Update, Delete) instances of the Travel Event as well as the ability to CRUD frequent flyer milage associated with airline travel. Additionally the system must provide for a compliance reporting system to monitor reductions in travel costs and lost opportunity costs (i.e., not taking advantage of business class or 7 day advance tickets).

  1. Stratigraphy of a proposed wind farm site southeast of Block Island: Utilization of borehole samples, downhole logging, and seismic profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldon, Dane P. H.

    Seismic stratigraphy, sedimentology, lithostratigraphy, downhole geophysical logging, mineralogy, and palynology were used to study and interpret the upper 70 meters of the inner continental shelf sediments within a proposed wind farm site located approximately two to three nautical miles to the southeast of Block Island, Rhode Island. Core samples and downhole logging collected from borings drilled for geotechnical purposes at proposed wind turbine sites along with seismic surveys in the surrounding area provide the data for this study. Cretaceous coastal plain sediments that consist of non-marine to marine sand, silt, and clay are found overlying bedrock at a contact depth beyond the sampling depth of this study. The upper Cretaceous sediments sampled in borings are correlated with the Magothy/Matawan formations described regionally from New Jersey to Nantucket. An unconformity formed through sub-aerial, fluvial, marine, and glacial erosion marks the upper strata of the Cretaceous sediments separating them from the overlying deposits. The majority of Quaternary deposits overlying the unconformity represent the advance, pulsing, and retreat of the Laurentide ice sheet that reached its southern terminus in the area of Block Island approximately 25,000 to 21,000 years before present. The sequence consists of a basal glacial till overlain by sediments deposited by meltwater environments ranging from deltaic to proglacial lakefloor. A late Pleistocene to early Holocene unconformity marks the top of the glacial sequence and was formed after glacial retreat through fluvial and subaerial erosion/deposition. Overlying the glacial sequence are sediments deposited during the late Pleistocene and Holocene consisting of interbedded gravel, sand, silt, and clay. Sampling of these sediments was limited and surficial reflectors in seismic profiles were masked due to a hard bottom return. However, two depositional periods are interpreted as representing fluvial and estuarine

  2. Improve reliability with operator log sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Devender, A.V.; Ganesan, S.T.

    1996-01-01

    Recently, there have been significant improvements in computerized vibration and online performance monitoring systems. However, despite all the developments, the importance of monitoring rotating equipment through operator log sheets must not be overlooked or neglected. Operator log sheets filled out during shifts can be very useful tools in detecting problems early, provided they are diligently completed and evaluated during the operating shift. In most cases, performance deviations can be corrected by measured within the control of the operator. If the operator understands the purpose of log sheets, and knows the cause and effect of deviations in operating parameters, he or she will be motivated to complete the log sheets to increase equipment reliability. Logged data should include any operating data from equipment that reveals its mechanical condition or performance. The most common data logged are pressure, temperature, flow, power and vibration. The purposes of log sheets are to: establish and recognize the normal operating parameters and identify deviations in performance data; perform timely corrective actions on deviations to avoid unplanned shutdowns and catastrophic failures; avoid repetitive failures and increase mean time between failures; and provide base line data for troubleshooting. Two case histories are presented to illustrate the usefulness of logs: a compressor thrust bearing problem and steam turbine blade washing.

  3. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... part. (iii) An entry of each test and activation of the Emergency Alert System (EAS) pursuant to the requirement of part 11 of this chapter and the EAS Operating Handbook. Stations may keep EAS data in a special EAS log which shall be maintained at a convenient location; however, this log is considered a part...

  4. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... part. (iii) An entry of each test and activation of the Emergency Alert System (EAS) pursuant to the requirement of part 11 of this chapter and the EAS Operating Handbook. Stations may keep EAS data in a special EAS log which shall be maintained at a convenient location; however, this log is considered a part...

  5. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... part. (iii) An entry of each test and activation of the Emergency Alert System (EAS) pursuant to the requirement of part 11 of this chapter and the EAS Operating Handbook. Stations may keep EAS data in a special EAS log which shall be maintained at a convenient location; however, this log is considered a part...

  6. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... part. (iii) An entry of each test and activation of the Emergency Alert System (EAS) pursuant to the requirement of part 11 of this chapter and the EAS Operating Handbook. Stations may keep EAS data in a special EAS log which shall be maintained at a convenient location; however, this log is considered a part...

  7. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... part. (iii) An entry of each test and activation of the Emergency Alert System (EAS) pursuant to the requirement of part 11 of this chapter and the EAS Operating Handbook. Stations may keep EAS data in a special EAS log which shall be maintained at a convenient location; however, this log is considered a part...

  8. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Log handling. 1917.18 Section 1917.18 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.18 Log handling. (a) The employer shall ensure...

  9. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data...

  10. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records...

  11. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data...

  12. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records...

  13. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records...

  14. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data...

  15. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets...

  16. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records...

  17. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets...

  18. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets...

  19. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data...

  20. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data...

  1. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets...

  2. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records...

  3. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets...

  4. Learning Logs in Introductory Literature Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, Matthew James

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the beneficial and sometimes unpredictable implications of a daily reflective writing exercise for introductory literature courses: the learning log. Pseudonymous samples of student writing, coupled with instructor commentary, gesture toward ways in which the learning log's continual implementation and modification foster a…

  5. Discover Presidential Log Cabins. Teacher's Discussion Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Discover Presidential Log Cabins is a set of materials designed to help educate 6-8 grade students about the significance of three log cabin sites occupied by George Washington, Ulysses Grant, Abraham Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt. This teacher's discussion guide is intended for use as part of a larger, comprehensive social studies program, and…

  6. 10 CFR 34.71 - Utilization logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Utilization logs. 34.71 Section 34.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.71 Utilization logs. (a) Each licensee shall...

  7. Sands at Gusev Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth; Knoll, Andrew H.; Farmer, Jack; Arvidson, Raymond; Grin, Edmond; Li, Ronxing; Fenton, Lori; Cohen, Barbara; Bell, James F.; Aileen Yingst, R.

    2014-05-01

    Processes, environments, and the energy associated with the transport and deposition of sand at Gusev Crater are characterized at the microscopic scale through the comparison of statistical moments for particle size and shape distributions. Bivariate and factor analyses define distinct textural groups at 51 sites along the traverse completed by the Spirit rover as it crossed the plains and went into the Columbia Hills. Fine-to-medium sand is ubiquitous in ripples and wind drifts. Most distributions show excess fine material, consistent with a predominance of wind erosion over the last 3.8 billion years. Negative skewness at West Valley is explained by the removal of fine sand during active erosion, or alternatively, by excess accumulation of coarse sand from a local source. The coarse to very coarse sand particles of ripple armors in the basaltic plains have a unique combination of size and shape. Their distribution display significant changes in their statistical moments within the ~400 m that separate the Columbia Memorial Station from Bonneville Crater. Results are consistent with aeolian and/or impact deposition, while the elongated and rounded shape of the grains forming the ripples, as well as their direction of origin, could point to Ma'adim Vallis as a possible source. For smaller particles on the traverse, our findings confirm that aeolian processes have dominated over impact and other processes to produce sands with the observed size and shape patterns across a spectrum of geologic (e.g., ripples and plains soils) and aerographic settings (e.g., wind shadows).

  8. Sands at Gusev Crater, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Farmer, Jack D.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Grin, E.A.; Li, Ron; Fenton, Lori; Cohen, B.; Bell, J.F., III; Yingst, R. Aileen

    2014-01-01

    Processes, environments, and the energy associated with the transport and deposition of sand at Gusev Crater are characterized at the microscopic scale through the comparison of statistical moments for particle size and shape distributions. Bivariate and factor analyses define distinct textural groups at 51 sites along the traverse completed by the Spirit rover as it crossed the plains and went into the Columbia Hills. Fine-to-medium sand is ubiquitous in ripples and wind drifts. Most distributions show excess fine material, consistent with a predominance of wind erosion over the last 3.8 billion years. Negative skewness at West Valley is explained by the removal of fine sand during active erosion, or alternatively, by excess accumulation of coarse sand from a local source. The coarse to very coarse sand particles of ripple armors in the basaltic plains have a unique combination of size and shape. Their distribution display significant changes in their statistical moments within the ~400 m that separate the Columbia Memorial Station from Bonneville Crater. Results are consistent with aeolian and/or impact deposition, while the elongated and rounded shape of the grains forming the ripples, as well as their direction of origin, could point to Ma'adim Vallis as a possible source. For smaller particles on the traverse, our findings confirm that aeolian processes have dominated over impact and other processes to produce sands with the observed size and shape patterns across a spectrum of geologic (e.g., ripples and plains soils) and aerographic settings (e.g., wind shadows).

  9. Selective Logging in the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asner, Gregory P.; Knapp, David E.; Broadbent, Eben N.; Oliveira, Paulo J. C.; Keller, Michael; Silva, Jose N.

    2005-10-01

    Amazon deforestation has been measured by remote sensing for three decades. In comparison, selective logging has been mostly invisible to satellites. We developed a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote-sensing analysis of selective logging in the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon. Logged areas ranged from 12,075 to 19,823 square kilometers per year (+/-14%) between 1999 and 2002, equivalent to 60 to 123% of previously reported deforestation area. Up to 1200 square kilometers per year of logging were observed on conservation lands. Each year, 27 million to 50 million cubic meters of wood were extracted, and a gross flux of ~0.1 billion metric tons of carbon was destined for release to the atmosphere by logging.

  10. Coal-log pipeline system development

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.

    1991-12-01

    Project tasks include: (1) Perform the necessary testing and development to demonstrate that the amount of binder in coal logs can be reduced to 8% or lower to produce logs with adequate strength to eliminate breakage during pipeline transportation, under conditions experienced in long distance pipeline systems. Prior to conducting any testing and demonstration, grantee shall perform an information search and make full determination of all previous attempts to extrude or briquette coal, upon which the testing and demonstration shall be based. (2) Perform the necessary development to demonstrate a small model of the most promising injection system for coal-logs, and tests the logs produced. (3) Conduct economic analysis of coal-log pipeline, based upon the work to date. Refine and complete the economic model. (VC)

  11. Two-phase measurements of wind and saltating sand in an atmospheric boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yuan; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2007-07-01

    Wind-blown sand movement is a particle-laden two-phase flow related to wind erosion in which the velocity distributions of both wind and sand are of particular interest. In the present study, two types of natural sand, one collected from the Pohang beach (diameter d = 200-300 μm) in South Korea and the other from the Taklimakan desert ( d = 100-125 μm) in China, were tested in a simulated atmospheric boundary layer. A high-speed digital camera system was used to capture images of the saltating sand particles at 2000 fps with an exposure time of 1/3000 s. Instantaneous velocity fields of the saltating sand particles were obtained using a particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) method. From these data, the particle resultant velocity, volume concentration, and streamwise mass flux were estimated as a function of height. The results reveal that the resultant particle velocity has an approximate log-linear profile with vertical height. Both the particle concentration and streamwise mass flux decay dramatically in the near surface region ( z < 20 mm for the beach sand, and z < 15 mm for the desert sand), then decline mildly beyond this region. To investigate the modification of the surrounding wind by the saltating sand particles, a hot-wire anemometry with a robust hot-film probe was employed to measure the wind velocity profiles with and without saltation. The present experimental data on both the saltating sand and wind provide useful information that enhances our understanding of saltation transport and further development of control techniques of wind erosion.

  12. Virus removal vs. subsurface water velocity during slow sand filtration.

    PubMed

    Dizer, Halim; Brackmann, Bernhard; Rahman, M Azizur; Szewzyk, Regine; Sprenger, Christoph; Holzbecher, Ekkehard; López-Pila, Juan M

    2015-06-01

    In an attempt to obtain a conservative estimate of virus removal during slow sand and river bank filtration, a somatic phage was isolated with slow decay and poor adsorption to coarse sand. We continuously fed a phage suspension to a 7-m infiltration path and measured the phage removal. In a second set of experiments, we fed the phage suspension to 1-m long columns run at different pore water velocities. Using the data obtained, a mathematical model was constructed describing removal vs. pore water velocity (PWV), assuming different statistical distributions of the adsorption coefficient λ. The bimodal distribution best fit the results for PWVs higher than 1 m/d. It predicted a removal of approximately 4 log10 after 50 days infiltration at 1 m/d. At PWVs below 1 m/d the model underestimated removal. Sand-bound phages dissociated slowly into the liquid phase, with a detachment constant kdet of 2.6 × 10⁻⁵. This low kdet suggests that river bank filtration plants should be intermittently operated when viral overload is suspected, e.g. during flooding events or at high water-marks in rivers, in order for viruses to become soil-associated during the periods of standstill. Resuming filtration will allow only a very slow virus release from the soil. PMID:26042970

  13. Designing and Piloting a Leadership Daily Practice Log: Using Logs to Study the Practice of Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spillane, James P.; Zuberi, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to validate the Leadership Daily Practice (LDP) log, an instrument for conducting research on leadership in schools. Research Design: Using a combination of data sources--namely, a daily practice log, observations, and open-ended cognitive interviews--the authors evaluate the validity of the LDP log. Participants: Formal…

  14. Ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) drumming log and habitat use in Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buhler, M.L.; Anderson, S.H.

    2001-01-01

    We described 15 Ruffed Grouse (Bonasa umbellus) drumming logs and adjacent habitat within Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming. Drumming logs and adjacent habitat differed from 30 random non-drumming sites. Drumming logs had fewer limbs (8; P = 0.003) and a smaller percentage of bark remaining (12%; P = 0.0001). These logs were in advanced stages of decay but were still firm to the touch. Additionally, drumming logs were found close to clearings but in areas with increased amounts of undergrowth and mature trees. Adjacent habitat analysis (0.04-ha circular plot centered on logs) indicated drumming locations had significantly greater average canopy height, more vegetative cover consisting of conifer and total canopy cover, and more vertical foliage between 0.3 m and 3.0 m in height. Adjacent habitat was in advanced stages of maturity as indicated by significant numbers of both large-diameter logs and large-diameter lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) snags. Tree species dominating the canopy and subcanopy were large-diameter Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii), lodgepole pine, and quaking aspen. Subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) and quaking aspen saplings were more numerous at used sites. Ruffed Grouse drummed in coniferous areas within close proximity of quaking aspen.

  15. Use of well logs to characterize fluid flow in the Maljamar CO/sub 2/ Pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, J.C.

    1984-09-01

    The Maljamar CO/sub 2/ Pilot in Lea County, New Mexico, is a 5-acre inverted five spot. Two zones are being flooded. They are a Grayburg dolomitic sand at 3,700 feet and a San Andres dolomite at 4,050 feet. Two logging observation wells, completed with fiberglass casing through the section of interest, are located in line with the center injector and one of the corner producers. Nine months of freshwater injection in the center well was followed by nine months of brine. A series of induction logs monitored the passing of the fresh water/brine interface providing data for a preliminary characterization of flow in the zones. The brine also established a uniform salinity at the observation wells for saturation determination. Gamma emitting tracers were injected into each zone of the center well as part of a well-to-well tracer study. Frequent gamma ray logs were run in the observation wells to see whether the movement of the tracers could be detected and used to characterize water movement. The results were very encouraging and provided better vertical and time resolution than the induction logs. The numerous responding layers in each zone could be classified by tracer arrival times into only a few basic types. Injection of CO/sub 2/ and follow-up brine has been monitored with a series of induction and neutron logs to follow the changes in water and CO/sub 2/ saturation as the flood progressed.

  16. About White Sands Missile Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Information on the White Sands Missile Range is given in viewgraph form. Navy programs, test sites, rocket programs, research rockets' booster capacity, current boost capabilities, ordnance and payload assembly areas, commercial space launch history and agreements, and lead times are among the topics covered.

  17. Geology on a Sand Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    Earth science teachers know how frustrating it can be to spend hundreds of dollars on three-dimensional (3-D) models of Earth's geologic features, to use the models for only a few class periods. To avoid emptying an already limited science budget, the author states that teachers can use a simple alternative to the expensive 3-D models--sand. She…

  18. Sand and Water Table Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Ann H.; White, Mary J.; Stone, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    The authors observed preschoolers engaged at the sand and water table to determine if math could be found within their play. Wanting to understand how children interact with provided materials and what kinds of math ideas they explore during these interactions, the authors offer practical examples of how such play can promote mathematical…

  19. Registration of 'Centennial' Sand Bluestem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Centennial’ sand bluestem (PI 670042, Andropogon hallii Hack.) is a synthetic variety selected for greater percentage seed germination and percentage seedling establishment under field conditions. Centennial was tested under the experimental designation of ‘AB-Medium Syn-2’. Two cycles of recurren...

  20. Diurnal patterns of blowing sand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diurnal pattern of blowing sand results from a complex process that involves the interaction between the sun, wind, and earth. During the day, solar heating produces thermal instability, which enhances the convective mixing of high momentum winds from the upper levels of the atmosphere to the s...

  1. Coal log pipeline pilot plant study

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.; Lenau, C.W.; Burkett, W.

    2000-07-01

    After 8 years of extensive R and D in the new technology of coal log pipeline (CLP), a pilot plant is being built to demonstrate and test a complete CLP system for coal transportation. The system consists of a coal log fabrication plant, a 3,000-ft-length, 6-inch-diameter underground pipeline loop to transport 5.4-inch diameter coal logs, a log injection/ejection system, a pump bypass, a reservoir that serves as both the intake and the outlet of the CLP systems, an instrumentation system that includes pressure transducers, coal log sensors, and flowmeters, and an automatic control system that includes PLCs and a central computer. The pilot plant is to be completed in May of Year 2000. Upon completion of construction, the pilot plant will be used for running various types of coal, testing the degradation rate of drag reduction in CLP using Polyox (polyethylene oxide), testing the reliability of a special coal log sensor invented at the University of Missouri, testing the reliability and the efficiency of the pump-bypass system for pumping coal log trains through the pipe, and testing various hardware components and software for operating the pilot plant. Data collected from the tests will be used for designing future commercial systems of CLP. The pilot plant experiments are to be completed in two years. Then, the technology of CLP will be ready for commercial use.

  2. Application of reservoir characterization and advanced technologies to improve recovery and economics in a lower quality shallow shelf Sand Andreas Reservoir: Quarterly technical report, January 1, 1997--March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A.R., Hickman, T.S., Justice, J.J.

    1997-04-30

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: l.Advanced petrophysics 1547 2.Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic 3.Cross-well bore tomography 4.Advanced reservoir simulation 5.Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments 6.Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring 7. Mobility control agents SUMMARY OF TECHNICAL PROGRESS West Welch Unit is one of four large waterflood units in the Welch Field in the northwestern portion of Dawson County, Texas. The Welch Field was discovered in the early 1940`s and produces oil under a solution gas drive mechanism from the San Andres formation at approximately 4800 ft. The field has been under waterflood for 30 years and a significant portion has been infill-drilled on 20-ac density. A 1982- 86 Pilot C0{sub 2} injection project in the offsetting South Welch Unit yielded positive results. Recent installation of a C0{sub 2} pipeline near the field allowed the phased development of a miscible CO injection project at the South Welch Unit.

  3. Nonblocking and orphan free message logging protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvisi, Lorenzo; Hoppe, Bruce; Marzullo, Keith

    1992-01-01

    Currently existing message logging protocols demonstrate a classic pessimistic vs. optimistic tradeoff. We show that the optimistic-pessimistic tradeoff is not inherent to the problem of message logging. We construct a message-logging protocol that has the positive features of both optimistic and pessimistic protocol: our protocol prevents orphans and allows simple failure recovery; however, it requires no blocking in failure-free runs. Furthermore, this protocol does not introduce any additional message overhead as compared to one implemented for a system in which messages may be lost but processes do not crash.

  4. Recognizing Patterns In Log-Polar Coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiman, Carl F. R.

    1992-01-01

    Log-Hough transform is basis of improved method for recognition of patterns - particularly, straight lines - in noisy images. Takes advantage of rotational and scale invariance of mapping from Cartesian to log-polar coordinates, and offers economy of representation and computation. Unification of iconic and Hough domains simplifies computations in recognition and eliminates erroneous quantization of slopes attributable to finite spacing of Cartesian coordinate grid of classical Hough transform. Equally efficient recognizing curves. Log-Hough transform more amenable to massively parallel computing architectures than traditional Cartesian Hough transform. "In-place" nature makes it possible to apply local pixel-neighborhood processing.

  5. Formation of aeolian ripples and sand sorting.

    PubMed

    Manukyan, Edgar; Prigozhin, Leonid

    2009-03-01

    We present a continuous model capable of demonstrating some salient features of aeolian sand ripples: the realistic asymmetric ripple shape, coarsening of the ripple field at the nonlinear stage of ripple growth, saturation of ripple growth for homogeneous sand, typical size segregation of sand, and formation of armoring layers of coarse particles on ripple crests and windward slopes if the sand is inhomogeneous. PMID:19391931

  6. Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2010-03-09

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

  7. An Overview of Recent Logging Research at The University of Texas Petroleum Engineering Department

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlap, H.F.

    1989-03-21

    early phases of the work we studied why water resistivities calculated from the self potential log were so often wrong. and showed that most of the error came from use of incorrect mud filtrate resistivities in the calculation. Several papers and theses give details of this research. A recent problem has been the estimation of free gas saturation in a deep, thick, geopressured sand in the Hulin Well in South Louisiana. A pulsed neutron log run recently in this well supports free gas indications from open hole resistivity logs run in this well earlier by Superior Oil Company. The presence of free gas here is important, since the gas/water ratio from this zone will be much larger if free gas is present. Future logging research under consideration or being started at The University of Texas includes (1) petrophysical problems in tight gas sands (bimodal porosity systems, trace element effects, etc.), (2) resistivity versus water saturation relations at high desaturation pressures (1500 psi), and (3) improved theoretical and computer modeling of rock resistivity as affected by water saturation, rock wettability, saturation history, etc. Support of logging research at The University of Texas is currently from the Department of Energy and from a consortium of companies and organizations (Gas Research Institute, logging companies, and oil companies).

  8. Permeable weak layer in the gas hydrate reservoir presumed by logging-while-drilling log data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, K.; Fujii, T.; Takayama, T.

    2015-12-01

    One of the specific intervals attracted attention to analyze the 2012 gas-production test from methane-hydrate reservoir, because its pressure and temperature behavior was different from other intervals of the production zone. The pressure and temperature behavior implied the interval should be high permeability. We analyzed the interval to characterize the properties before gas-production test; i.e. the original properties of the interval. We checked the data of the logging-while-drilling data of AT1-MC, which was one of the monitoring wells at the gas-production test. The specific interval was described as 1290-1298m, where was boundary between upper sand and mud alteration layer and middle clayey zone. The first, we noticed that there were several layers that showed broad T2 distributions of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). On the basis of the T2 distributions and the resistivity data of the interval, there were large pores that showed the T2 distribution around 100ms, even though some amount of methane hydrate were contained. This result could be explained the interval showed high permeability below the 1294m. After checking their ultra-sonic caliper data in detail, we found interesting difference in the interval. The specific interval of 1294-1295m had different borehole-enlargement direction from other intervals of the methane-hydrate bearing zone, even though diameter of borehole was slightly enlarged. Other layers in the methane hydrate reservoir showed NW-SE directions of enlargement, however, the specific interval had NE-SW direction of enlargement. Hence, H-max stress and H-min stress of this specific interval could be very close values. Thus, near the 1294m, the lithology of the layer was permeable and weak. It might be useful to understand many phenomena occured during the gas-production test. This research was conducted as a part of the MH21 research, and the authors would like to express their sincere appreciation to MH21 and the Ministry of Economy

  9. Sisyphus - An Event Log Analysis Toolset

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-09-01

    Event logs are a ubiquitous source of system feedback from computer systems, but have widely ranging format and can be extremely numerous, particularly from systems with many logging components. Inspection of these logs is fundamental to system debugging; increased capability to quickly extract meaningful information will impact MTTR (mean time to repair) and may impact MTBF (mean time between failure). Sisyphus is a machine-leanring analysis system whose goal is to enable content-novice analysts to efficieniiymore » understand evolving trends, identify anomalies, and investigate cause-effect hypotheses in large multiple-souce log sets. The toolkit is comprised a framework for utilizing third-party frequentitemset data mining tools Teiresias and SLCT. and software to cluster messages according to time statistics, and an interactive results viewer.« less

  10. CMLOG: A common message logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.; Akers, W.; Bickley, M.; Wu, D.; Watson, W. III

    1997-12-01

    The Common Message Logging (CMLOG) system is an object-oriented and distributed system that not only allows applications and systems to log data (messages) of any type into a centralized database but also lets applications view incoming messages in real-time or retrieve stored data from the database according to selection rules. It consists of a concurrent Unix server that handles incoming logging or searching messages, a Motif browser that can view incoming messages in real-time or display stored data in the database, a client daemon that buffers and sends logging messages to the server, and libraries that can be used by applications to send data to or retrieve data from the database via the server. This paper presents the design and implementation of the CMLOG system meanwhile it will also address the issue of integration of CMLOG into existing control systems.