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Sample records for sanitary sewers

  1. SANITARY SEWER CALCULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Roy D. Clark

    1995-01-13

    This analysis defines and evaluates the surface sanitary sewer system on the North Portal, and addresses the requirements for the collection of sanitary sewage from each of the proposed surface buildings. A sewage treatment system will be defined that meets the needs of the North Portal, conforms to the existing site conditions, and meets the needs of the state and local permitting agencies.

  2. SANITARY-SEWER OVERFLOW CONTROL STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a strategy for the abatement of pollution from storm-generated sanitary-sewer overflows (SSO). Because of the great lengths of sanitary-sewer systems and their associated vast number of house-service laterals or building connections, it is often less expensive...

  3. SANITARY SEWER OVERFLOW ANALYSIS AND PLANNING (SSOAP) TOOLBOX

    EPA Science Inventory

    Description: The Nation's sanitary-sewer infrastructure is aging, with some sewers dating back over 100 years. Nationwide, there are more than 19,500 municipal sanitary-sewer collection systems serving an estimated 150 million people and about 40,000 SSO events per year. Becau...

  4. CONTROL STRATEGY FOR STORM-GENERATED SANITARY-SEWER OVERFLOWS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a strategy for the abatement of pollution from storm-generated sanitary-sewer overflows (SSO). Because of the great lengths of sanitary sewer systems, it is often less expensive to use alterantives to sewerline rehabilitation for infiltration/inflow (I/I) and ...

  5. CONTROL STRATEGY FOR STORM-GENERATED SANITARY-SEWER OVERFLOWS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a strategy for the abatement of pollution from storm-generated sanitary-sewer overflows (SSO). Because of the great lengths of sanitary-sewer systems and their associated vast number of house-service laterals or building connections, it is often less expensiv...

  6. SSOAP - A TOOLBOX FOR SANITARY SEWER OVERFLOW ANALYSIS AND PLANNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainfall Derived Infiltration and Inflow (RDII) into sanitary sewer systems has long been recognized as a source of operating problems in sewerage systems. RDII is the main cause of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) to basements, streets, or nearby streams and can also cause serio...

  7. Sanitary Sewer Overflow Analysis and Planning (SSOAP) Toolbox

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainfall-derived infiltration and inflow (RDII) into sanitary sewer systems has long been recognized as a source of operating problems in sewerage systems. RDII is the main cause of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) to basements, streets, or nearby receiving waters and can also ...

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF SANITARY SEWER OVERFLOW ANALYSIS AND PLANNING (SSOAP) TOOLBOX

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainfall Derived Infiltration and Inflow (RDII) into sanitary sewer systems has long been recognized as a source of operating problems in sewerage systems. RDII is the main cause of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) to basements, streets, or nearby streams. RDII can also cause se...

  9. SSOAP - A TOOLBOX FOR SANITARY SEWER OVERFLOW ANALYSIS AND PLANNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainfall Derived Infiltration and Inflow (RDII) into sanitary sewer systems has long been recognized as a source of operating problems in sewerage systems. RDII is the main cause of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) to basements, streets, or nearby streams and can also cause seriou...

  10. Control Strategy for Storm-Generated Sanitary Sewer Overflows

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation covers a strategy for the abatement of pollution from sanitary-sewer overflows (SSO). Because of the great lengths of sanitary sewer systems, it is often less expensive to use alternatives to sewerline rehabilitation for infiltration/inflow (I/I) and associated ...

  11. COMPUTER TOOLS FOR SANITARY SEWER SYSTEM CAPACITY ANALYSIS AND PLANNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainfall-derived infiltration and inflow (RDII) into sanitary sewer systems has long been recognized as a major source of operating problems, causing poor performance of many sewer systems. RDII is the main cause of SSOs to customer basements, streets, or nearby streams and can a...

  12. SSOAP - A USEPA Toolbox for Sanitary Sewer Overflow Analysis and Control Planning - Presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has identified a need to use proven methodologies to develop computer tools that help communities properly characterize rainfall-derived infiltration and inflow (RDII) into sanitary sewer systems and develop sanitary sewer...

  13. Sanitary sewer rehabilitation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Vellinger, R. J.; Burton, R.; Fritschy, B.

    1995-04-01

    The objectives of this paper are the following: to present LLNL`s collection system and innovative approach to sanitary sewer rehabilitation; share issues identified and lessons learned from over four (4) years of rehabilitation work; and discuss proposed system standards for ongoing maintenance and repair activities.

  14. Use of sanitary sewers as wastewater pre-treatment systems

    SciTech Connect

    Warith, M.A.; Kennedy, K.; Reitsma, R.

    1998-12-31

    As wastewater travels through a sewer system it undergoes changes in composition. The changes in composition may be caused by chemical, physical and/or biological processes. At present engineers do not take into consideration the impacts of these processes on the wastewater quality when designing wastewater treatment systems. However, the impact of these processes on the chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, nitrogen and phosphorus content of the wastewater can be significant. In the case of the biological processes, microorganisms present in the water as it travels through the sewer system are similar to those found in an activated sludge process. Given that the microorganism population and the hydraulic retention time often resembles that of an activated sludge process, it would seem only reasonable to look further into the possibility of using sewers as wastewater treatment systems. Furthermore, the plug flow regime of a sanitary sewer is inherently beneficial in terms of wastewater treatment as it is not subject to short-circuiting. The first part of this paper provides a technical review of the processes which take place in a sewer system and the resulting degradation of some of the more significant substances found in wastewater. The contribution of both the suspended biomass and the attached biomass to the degradation of substrate is also examined. The second part of this paper examines the use of the Toxchem computer model to predict the processes which are taking place in the sewer under a variety of conditions. The goal being to determine the magnitude of the degradation of substrate and dissolved oxygen depletion in a sewer system. In obtaining a better understanding of the processes that are taking place in sewer systems, engineers will be able to more accurately predict the degradation of substrates in sanitary sewer systems. This will result in a reduction in the size of wastewater treatment facilities (WWTFs).

  15. COMPUTER MODEL ANALYSIS FOR CONTROL PLANNING OF SANITARY-SEWER OVERFLOWS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Nation's sanitary-sewer infrastructure is aging with some sewers dating back over 100 years. There are more than 19,500 municipal sanitary-sewer collection systems nationwide serving an estimated 150 million people and comprising about 800,000 km (500,000 mi) of municipally ...

  16. Update on the Status of Sanitary Sewer Overflow Analysis and Planning (SSOAP) Toolbox

    EPA Science Inventory

    A properly designed, operated and maintained sanitary sewer system is meant to collect and convey all of the sewage that flows into it to a wastewater treatment plant. However, occasional unintentional discharges of raw sewage from municipal sanitary sewers – called sanitary sewe...

  17. A TOOLBOX FOR SANITARY SEWER OVERFLOW ANALYSIS AND PLANNING (SSOAP) AND APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainfall-derived infiltration and inflow (RDII) into sanitary sewer systems has long been recognized as a source of operating problems in these systems. RDII is the main cause of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) to basements, streets, or nearby streams and the resulting high flows...

  18. A TOOLBOX FOR SANITARY SEWER OVERFLOW ANALYSIS AND PLANNING (SSOAP) AND APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainfall Derived Infiltration and Inflow (RDII) into sanitary sewer systems has long been recognized as a source of operating problems in sewerage systems. RDII is the main cause of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) to basements, streets, or nearby streams and can also cause seriou...

  19. Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems Using the Sanitary Sewer Overflow Analysis and Planning (SSOAP) Toolbox

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Sanitary Sewer Overflow Analysis and Planning (SSOAP) Toolbox can serve as the foundation of wastewater collection system infrastructure research, among several applications, for analyzing monitored flow data to prioritize where to inspect, monitor, and to assess the performa...

  20. SANITARY SEWER SYSTEMS - LAND APPLICATION AREAS, NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED, NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North Carolina Rural Economic Development Center (NCREDC) in conjunction with Hobbs, Upchurch & Associates developed the digital Sewer system land applications as mapped by individual system owners as required by contract. The data collected will facilitate planning, siting a...

  1. SANITARY SEWER SYSTEMS - DISCHARGES, NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED, NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North Carolina Rural Economic Development Center (NCREDC) in conjunction with Hobbs, Upchurch & Associates developed the digital Sewer system discharges as mapped by individual system owners as required by contract. The data collected will facilitate planning, siting and impa...

  2. COMPUTER MODEL ANALYSIS FOR MITIGATION PLANNING OF SANITARY-SEWER OVERFLOWS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) are generally difficult to witness or document as they usually occur during rain events when people are indoors or out of sight. To anser where and when an SSO may occur, it is necessary to know the flow conveyance capacity at various parts of the ...

  3. EXFILTRATION IN SANITARY SEWER SYSTEMS IN THE U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many municipalities throughout the US have sewerage systems (separate and combined) that may experience exfiltration of untreated wastewater. This study was conducted to focus on the magnitude of the exfiltration problem from sewer pipes on a national basis. The method for estima...

  4. A review of the Y-12 Plant discharge of enriched uranium to the sanitary sewer (DEUSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is situated adjacent to the Oak Ridge city limits and is operated by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The Y-12 Plant is located on 4,860 acres, which is collectively referred to as the Y-12 Plant site. Among the missions for which the facility is in existence are producing nuclear weapons components, supporting weapon design laboratories, and processing special nuclear materials (SNM). The Y-12 Plant is under the regulatory guidance of DOE Order 5400.5 and has complied with the technical requirements governing SNM since its issue. However, an in-depth review with appropriate documentation had not been performed, prior to the effect presented herein, to substantiate this claim. As a result of the solid waste issue, it was determined that other types of waste should be formally reviewed for content with respect to SNM. Therefore, a project was formed to investigate the conveyance of SNM through the sanitary sewer system. It is emphasized that this project addresses only effluent from the sanitary sewer system and not the storm sewer system. The project reviewed sanitary sewer data both for the Y-12 Plant and the Y-12 Plant site.

  5. Post-rehabilitation evaluation of the sanitary sewer system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Royal, D.

    1995-11-01

    We are updating a CH2M Hill study which found that the sanitary sewer system is sufficient to transport peak dry weather flow. However, under peak wet weather conditions, the system has insufficient capacity to transport the projected flows for existing and future development. This is due to the amount of infiltration/inflow (I/I) that enters the sewer system when it rains. Our goal is to examine the existing system to determine its adequacy to accommodate present and future peak flows, and also to further update and improve the CH2M Hill study. A set of alternatives was also developed to address deficiencies of the existing system.

  6. REPORT ON COMPUTER TOOLS FOR PREDICTING RAINFALL DERIVED INFILTRATION/INFLOW IN SANITARY SEWER SYSTEMS AND SWMM MODELING FOR SSO CONTROL PLANNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Nation's sanitary-sewer infrastructure is aging, with some sewers dating back over 100 years. Nationwide, there are more than 19,500 municipal sanitary-sewer collection systems serving an estimated 150 million people and about 40,000 SSO events per year. Because of concerns o...

  7. Risk assessment of radionuclide discharges to sanitary sewers

    SciTech Connect

    Galpin, F.L.; Merrell, G.; Rogers, V.C.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation describes the basic approach and conduct of a study of the possible risks and consequences of radionuclide discharges into a sewage treatment system. The study`s objective was to determine if there were any possible significant exposures to either WSSC workers or the public form the discharge of radioactive material into the sewer system. The conduct of this study included a review of applicable regulations, and a case study of some past contamination events. The evaluation of potential occupational exposures involved measurements in the collection system were selected based on their location relative to potential dischargers. Measurement points at the treatment works were selected at points where biosolids might accumulate. Both passive, (TLD) and active, (scintillation detector) measurements were made. A limited number of samples were taken and analyzed. Potential doses to the public were estimated based on the possible pathways to man. Due both to limited resources and other project constraints several assumptions and bounding calculations were necessary to meet the objective. Although the study concluded that there were no present significant health concerns, followup evaluations were recommended. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F3 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-047

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-04-26

    The 1607-F3 waste site is the former location of the sanitary sewer system that supported the 182-F Pump Station, the 183-F Water Treatment Plant, and the 151-F Substation. The sanitary sewer system included a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipeline, all in use between 1944 and 1965. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  9. Evaluation of exposure pathways to man from disposal of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Aaberg, R.L.; Rhoads, K.C.; Hill, R.L.; Martin, J.B.

    1992-05-01

    In accordance with 10 CFR 20, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates licensees` discharges of small quantities of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. This generic study was initiated to examine the potential radiological hazard to the public resulting from exposure to radionuclides in sewage sludge during its treatment and disposal. Eleven scenarios were developed to characterize potential exposures to radioactive materials during sewer system operations and sewage sludge treatment and disposal activities and during the extended time frame following sewage sludge disposal. Two sets of deterministic dose calculations were performed; one to evaluate potential doses based on the radionuclides and quantities associated with documented case histories of sewer system contamination and a second, somewhat more conservative set, based on theoretical discharges at the maximum allowable levels for a more comprehensive list of 63 radionuclides. The results of the stochastic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were also used to develop a collective dose estimate. The collective doses for the various radionuclides and scenarios range from 0.4 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 5 (sludge incinerator effluent) to 420 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 3 (sewage treatment plant liquid effluent). None of the 22 scenario/radionuclide combinations considered have collective doses greater than 1000 person-rem/yr. However, the total collective dose from these 22 combinations was found to be about 2100 person-rem.

  10. Sanitary Sewer Overflows and Association with Gastrointestinal Illness: A case crossover analysis of Massachusetts Data, 2006-2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) occur when untreated sewage is discharged into water sources potentially causing contamination. SSOs are primarily caused by heavy rainfall, which is expected to become heavier and more episodic due to climate change. We conducted a case-crossover ...

  11. Septic systems, but not sanitary sewer lines, are associated with elevated estradiol in male frog metamorphs from suburban ponds.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Max R; Giller, Geoffrey S J; Skelly, David K; Bribiescas, Richard G

    2016-06-01

    Suburban neighborhoods are a dominant type of human land use. Many housing regions globally rely on septic systems, rather than sanitary sewers, for wastewater management. There is evidence that septic systems may contaminate waterbodies more than sewer lines. There is also mounting evidence that human activities contaminate waterways with endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which alter wildlife sexual development. While endocrine disruption is often associated with intense activities such as agriculture or wastewater treatment plant discharges, recent evidence indicates that endocrine disruption is pervasive in frogs from suburban neighborhoods. In conjunction with other putative EDC sources, one hypothesis is that wastewater is contaminating suburban waterways with EDCs derived from pharmaceuticals or personal care products. Here, we measure estradiol (E2) in metamorphosing green frogs (Rana clamitans) from forested ponds and suburban ponds adjacent to either septic tanks or sanitary sewers. We show that E2 is highest in male frogs from septic neighborhoods and that E2 concentrations are significantly lower in male frogs from forested ponds and from ponds near sewers. These results indicate that septic tanks may be contaminating aquatic ecosystems differently than sewer lines. This pattern contrasts prior work showing no difference in EDC contamination or morphological endocrine disruption between septic and sewer neighborhoods, implying that suburbanization may have varying effects at multiple biological scales like physiology and anatomy. PMID:26795918

  12. Post-rehabilitation flow monitoring and analysis of the sanitary sewer system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Brandstetter, E.R.; Littlefield, D.C.; Villegas, M.

    1996-03-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is operated by the University of California under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The Livermore site, approximately 50 miles southeast of San Francisco, occupies 819 acres. So far, there have been three phases in an assessment and rehabilitation of the LLNL sanitary sewer system. A 1989 study that used data collected from December 1, 1988, to January 6, 1989, to determine the adequacy of the LLNL sewer system to accommodate present and future peak flows. A Sanitary Sewer Rehabilitation (SSR) project, from October of 1991 to March of 1996, in which the system was assessed and rehabilitated. The third study is the post-rehabilitation assessment study that is reported in this document. In this report, the sanitary sewer system is described, and the goals and results of the 1989 study and the SSR project are summarized. The goals of the post-rehabilitation study are given and the analytical procedures and simulation model are described. Results, conclusions, and recommendations for further work or study are given. Field operations are summarized in Appendix A. References are provided in Appendix B.

  13. An analysis of the Cured-in-Place Pipe (CIPP) subproject of the sanitary sewer rehabilitation project

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, W.; Siemiatkoski, S.

    1994-01-25

    The comprehensive rehabilitation of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Sanitary Sewer System centers around a Cured-in-Place Pipe project. Driven by regulatory requirements to eliminate the potential for exfiltration, a careful condition assessment of the existing infrastructure was conducted. Under programmatic constraints to maintain continuous operations, the INLINER USA cured-in-place pipe system was selected as the appropriate technology, and the project is currently under contract.

  14. Attenuation of pollutants in sanitary sewer overflow: comparative evaluation of treatment with fixed media bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jing; Mancl, Karen M; Tuovinen, Olli H

    2010-03-01

    Five types of fixed media bioreactors (biofilters)--sand, felt (textile), peat, felt/sand, and peat/sand--were used to treat sanitary sewer overflow (SSO). A simulated 6-h peak flow of a 25-yr SSO event contained 40-125 mg/l biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)) and was loaded on the bioreactors at a high hydraulic loading rate of 0.2m/h. The sand bioreactors were the most effective in the treatment, reducing BOD(5) by 84+/-9%. The combination media peat/sand and felt/sand showed similar efficiency with peat, higher than felt. After the initial start-up, all the bioreactors reached >90% reduction of total suspended solids. The bioreactors also effectively removed ammonia and total phosphorus concentrations in a 2-h SSO loading, which would occur more often than a 6-h peak flow in a 25-yr SSO event. The effluent concentration of nutrients increased with continued loadings after the first 2h. PMID:19932657

  15. A potential sanitary sewer overflow treatment technology: fixed-media bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jing; Mancl, Karen M; Tuovinen, Olli H

    2011-08-01

    Under certain conditions, sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) containing raw wastewater may be discharged to public land and can contribute to environmental and public health issues. Although this problem has attracted the attention of local, state, and federal government and regulators, relatively little SSO abatement research has been published. This study used fixed-media bioreactors, a proven onsite technology in rural areas, to treat wet weather SSO wastewater and reduce its effects on the receiving water environment. The results of this 32-month laboratory study showed that fixed-media bioreactors, especially sand bioreactors, efficiently removed organic matter, solids, and nutrients during six-hour simulated SSO peak flows. Five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BODs) of the simulated SSO varied between 40 and 125 mg/L. The average effluent concentration of BOD5 was 13 mg/L in sand bioreactors at a hydraulic loading rate of 20.4 cm/h. In addition to having high hydraulic loadings, SSO events occur infrequently. This irregularity requires that treatment systems quickly start up and effectively treat wastewater after a period of no flow. This research found that an interval up to six months between two SSO peak flows did not affect the bioreactor performance. Based on this work, fixed-media bioreactors have the potential to reduce the effects of SSOs on the water environment by following proper design parameters and operation strategies. The pollution loading of approximately 18 g BODs/m2 x h is recommended for the efficient performance of sand bioreactors in the SSO treatment. PMID:21905408

  16. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-26:10, 1607-F3 Sanitary Sewer Pipelines (182-F, 183-F, and 151-F Sanitary Sewer Lines), Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-028

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-12-03

    The 100-F-26:10 waste site includes sanitary sewer lines that serviced the former 182-F, 183-F, and 151-F Buildings. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  17. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1) and the 100-F-26:8 (1607-F1) Sanitary Sewer Pipelines Waste Sites, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-130

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-14

    The 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1), consisted of a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipelines that received sanitary waste water from the 1701-F Gatehouse, 1709-F Fire Station, and the 1720-F Administrative Office via the 100-F-26:8 pipelines. The septic tank required remedial action based on confirmatory sampling. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  18. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F4 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-131

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-12-03

    The 1607-F4 waste site is the former location of the sanitary sewer system that serviced the former 115-F Gas Recirculation Building. The system included a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipeline that were in use from 1944 to 1965. The 1607-F4 waste site received unknown amounts of sanitary sewage from the 115-F Gas Recirculation Building and may have potentially contained hazardous and radioactive contamination. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  19. Isolation of heavy metal influx to the Cookeville sanitary sewer system and impact on municipal sludge management

    SciTech Connect

    George, D.B.; Borup, M.B.; Adams, V.D.; Prehn, M.P. )

    1989-04-01

    The city of Cookeville, Tennessee, has been experiencing problems with municipal sludge management. Of particular concern was the high concentration of regulated trace metals in the sludge. Primarily, cadmium limited the amount of sludge which was spread on the available cropland in 1985. The purpose of this project was to determine the major sources of heavy metal influx to the city's sanitary sewer system and the potential effects of heavy metals on sludge management. In general, the findings of the study indicate that city enforcement of existing State of Tennessee and city industrial pretreatment requirements will most likely extend the useful life of the currently available 388 ha land application sites to as much as ten years for certain sites. Cadmium governed the annual sludge application rates to the agricultural land. One plating industry discharged over 90% of the cadmium, copper, nickel, and zinc mass to the sanitary sewer. In addition, during 1986, the average concentration of most of the trace metals monitored in the municipal sludge deceased from levels reported in 1985.

  20. TYPE A SERVICE AREAS IN THE SANITARY SEWER SYSTEMS, NEUSE RIVER WATERHSED, NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North Carolina Rural Economic Development Center (NCREDC) in conjunction with Hobbs, Upchurch & Associates developed the digital Type ``A' Sewer Systems as mapped by individual system owners as required by contract. The data collected will facilitate planning, siting and impa...

  1. TREATMENT PLANTS IN THE SANITARY SEWER SYSTEMS, NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED, NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North Carolina Rural Economic Development Center (NCREDC) in conjunction with Hobbs, Upchurch & Associates developed the digital location and information of sewer treatment plants as mapped by individual system owners as required by contract. The data collected will facilitat...

  2. PIPE NETWORK FOR THE SANITARY SEWER SYSTEMS IN THE NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED, NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North Carolina Rural Economic Development Center (NCREDC) in conjunction with Hobbs, Upchurch & Associates developed the digital sewer pipe network as mapped by individual system owners as required by contract. The data collected will facilitate planning, siting and impact an...

  3. PUMPING STATIONS FOR THE SANITARY SEWER SYSTEMS IN THE NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED, NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North Carolina Rural Economic Development Center (NCREDC) in conjunction with Hobbs, Upchurch & Associates developed the digital location and information of sewer pumps as mapped by individual system owners as required by contract. The data collected will facilitate planning,...

  4. TYPE P SERVICE AREAS IN THE SANITARY SEWER SYSTEMS, NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED, NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North Carolina Rural Economic Development Center (NCREDC) in conjunction with Hobbs, Upchurch & Associates developed the digital ``P' Sewer System as mapped by individual system owners as required by contract. The data collected will facilitate planning, siting and impact ana...

  5. Identifying pathways for sanitary sewer pathogens to reach deep water supply wells in Madison, Wisconsin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous work conducted by the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey indicated that human enteric viruses from leaking sewers are present in several municipal wells in Madison, WI. These wells are the drinking water source for the City of Madison, are typically 700 to 900 feet deep, and pe...

  6. DUAL PROCESS HIGH-RATE FILTRATION OF RAW SANITARY SEWAGE AND COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pilot plant studies were conducted at New York's Newtown Creek Water Pollution Control Plant from 1975-1977 to investigate the suspended solids (SS) removal capabilities of the deep bed, high rate gravity filtration process on raw sewage and combined sewer overflows. The treatmen...

  7. Effects of sanitary sewers on ground-water levels and streams in Nassau and Suffolk Counties, New York; Part 3, development and application of southern Nassau County model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, T.E.; Buxton, H.T.

    1985-01-01

    By 1990, sanitary sewers in Nassau County Sewage Disposal Districts 2 and 3 and Suffolk County Southwest Sewer District will discharge to the ocean 140 cu ft of water per second that would otherwise be returned to the groundwater system through septic tanks and similar systems. To evaluate the effects of this loss on groundwater levels and streamflow, the U.S. Geological Survey developed a groundwater flow model that couples a fine-scale subregional model to a regional model of a larger scale. The regional model generates flux boundary conditions for the subregional model, and the subregional model provides detail in the area of concern. Results indicate that the water table will decline by as much as 90% from conditions in the early 1970's. This report is one of a three-part series describing the predicted hydrologic effects of sewers in southern Nassau and southwestern Suffolk Counties. (USGS)

  8. Effects of sanitary sewers on ground-water levels and streams in Nassau and Suffolk Counties, New York; Part 2, development and application of southwest Suffolk County model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buxton, H.T.; Reilly, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    By 1990, sanitary sewers in Nassau County Sewage Disposal Districts 2 and 3 and Suffolk County Southwest Sewer District will discharge to the ocean 140 cu ft of water/sec that would otherwise be returned to the groundwater system through septic tanks and similar systems. To evaluate the effects of this loss on groundwater levels and streamflow, the U.S. Geological Survey developed a groundwater flow model that couples a fine-scale subregional model to a regional model of larger scale. The regional model generates flux boundary conditions for the subregional model, and the subregional model provides detail in the area of concern. Results indicate that the water table will decline by as much as 8 ft along the Suffolk-Nassau county line, with effects decreasing eastward. Base flow is predicted to decrease by as much as 73% in a stream along the county line, but this effect will decrease to zero just east of the sewered area. This report is one of a series describing the predicted hydrologic effects of sewers in southern Nassau and southwest Suffolk Counties. (USGS)

  9. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-C-9:2 Sanitary Sewer Pipelines, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-013

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-07-11

    The 100-C-9:2 sanitary sewer pipelines include the feeder pipelines associated with the 1607-B8, the 1607-B9, the 1607-B10 and the 1607-B11 septic systems. Contaminated soil and piping from the feeder lines to the septic systems were removed and disposed of. The remaining soil in the excavations has been shown to meet the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  10. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-B2 Septic System and 100-B-14:2 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-006

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-03-21

    The 100-B-14:2 subsite encompasses the former sanitary sewer feeder lines associated with the 1607-B2 and 1607-B7 septic systems. Feeder lines associated with the 185/190-B building have also been identified as the 100-B-14:8 subsite, and feeder lines associated with the 1607-B7 septic system have also been identified as the 100-B-14:9 subsite. These two subsites have been administratively cancelled to resolve the redundancy. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  11. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-26:9, 1607-F2 Sanitary Sewer Pipelines, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-029

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron

    2008-10-29

    The 100-F-26:9 underground pipeline subsite consists of the sanitary sewers servicing the 105-F, 108-F, 184-F, 185-F, and 190-F buildings, and the 1700-F administration and service buildings (1704-F, 1707-F, 1707-FA, 1713-F, 1717-F, 1719-F, and 1722-F). In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory and verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  12. DUAL PROCESS HIGHRATE FILTRATION OF RAW SANITARY SEWAGE AND COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS (EPA/600/2-79/015)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pilot plant studies were conducted in New York City's Newtown Creek Water Pollution Control Plant from 19754977 to investigate the suspended solids (SS) removal capabilities of the deepbed, highrate gravity filtration process on raw sewage and combined sewer overflows.

  13. EXFILTRATION IN SEWER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study focused on the quantification of leakage of sanitary and industrial sewage from sanitary sewer pipes on a national basis. The method for estimating exfiltration amounts utilized groundwater talbe information to identify areas of the country where the hydraulic gradient...

  14. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1) and the 100-F-26:8 (1607-F1) Sanitary Sewer Pipelines Waste Sites, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-004

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-14

    The 100-F-26:8 waste site consisted of the underground pipelines that conveyed sanitary waste water from the 1701-F Gatehouse, 1709-F Fire Station, and the 1720-F Administrative Office to the 1607-F1 septic tank. The site has been remediated and presently exists as an open excavation. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  15. COMBINED-SEWER OVERFLOW CONTROL AND TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Combined-sewer overflow (CSO), along with sanitary-sewer overflow and stormwater are significant contributors of contamination to surface waters. During a rain event, the flow in a combined sewer system may exceed the capacity of the intercepting sewer leading to the wastewater t...

  16. U.S. EPA Issues Technical Guides and Computer Tools for Sewer Condition and Capacity Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nation's sanitary sewer infrastructure is aging, with some sewers more than100 years old. Nationwide, there are more than 19,500 municipal sanitary-sewer collection systems serving an estimated 150 million people and about 40,000 sanitary sewer overflow (SSO) events per year...

  17. Advances in Sewer Condition and Capacity Assessment – Development and Applications of EPA SSOAP Toolbox

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the United States, sanitary sewer infrastructure is aging, with some sewers dating back over 100 years. Nationwide, there are more than 19,500 municipal sanitary-sewer collection systems serving an estimated 150 million people and about 40,000 sanitary sewer overflow (SSO) ev...

  18. SEWER SEDIMENT AND CONTROL: A MANAGEMENT PRACTICES REFERENCES GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sewer-solids sediment is one of major sources of pollutants in urban wet-weather flow (WWF) discharges that include combined-sewer overflow (CSO), separate sanitary-sewer overflow (SSO), and stormwater runoff. During low-flow, dry-weather periods, sanitary wastewater solids depo...

  19. Measuring Flow Reductions in a Combined Sewer System using Green Infrastructure - abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2009, the Louisville and Jefferson County Metropolitan Sewer District (MSD) submitted an Integrated Overflow Abatement Plan (IOAP) addressing combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and sanitary sewer overflows. Many of the solutions involve gray infrastructure, such as large, end-of...

  20. Review of Sewer Design Criteria and RDII Prediction Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainfall-derived Infiltration and Inflow (RDII) into sanitary sewer systems has long been recognized as a source of operating problems in sewerage systems. RDII is the main cause of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) to basements, streets, or nearby streams and can also cause serio...

  1. CONTROL OF SEWER OVERFLOWS BY POLYMER INJECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past, the operator of a sewage collection system has had three alternatives for dealing with overloaded sanitary sewers; ignoring them, diverting them to storm sewers and streams, or pumping to other locations. An EPA-sponsored research program entitled, 'Polymers for Sewe...

  2. Effects of sanitary sewers on ground-water levels and streams in Nassau and Suffolk Counties, New York; Part 1, geohydrology, modeling strategy, and regional evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, T.E.; Buxton, H.T.; Franke, O.L.; Wait, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    A computer simulation of Long Island 's regional groundwater system has been used to evaluate the effects that new-installed sewers will have on ground-water levels. Results indicate maximum water-table decliners of as much as up to 18 feet in central Nassau County and about 9 feet in Suffolk County. Total stream base flows and freshwater outflow to the south shore bay system will decrease by 22%. The regional scale of the model does not permit detailed predictions for individual streams. To quantify the effects of lowered ground-water levels on individual streams, two fine-scale sub-regional models have been designed. This report, the first in a three-part series describing the simulated effects of sewers in southern Nassau and southwestern Suffolk Counties, presents the hydrogeologic setting, pertinent literature, modeling strategy, subregional model design, and the results obtained to date from the regional ground-water model. The regional model results described will be used in the later reports to generate flux boundary conditions for the subregional models. (USGS)

  3. Factors That Influence Properties of FOG Deposits and Their Formation in Sewer Collection Systems.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the formation of Fat, Oil, and Grease (FOG) deposits in sewer systems is critical to the sustainability of sewer collection systems since they have been implicated in causing sewerage blockages, which eventually lead to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). Recently, FOG deposits in sewer ...

  4. Evidence for fat, oil and grease (FOG) deposit formation mechanisms in sewer lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of hardened and insoluble fats, oil, and grease (FOG) deposits in sewer lines is a major cause of line blockages leading to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). Despite the central role that FOG deposits play in SSOs, little is known about the mechanisms of FOG deposit formation in sanitary...

  5. Focused Field Investigations for Sewer Condition Assessment with EPA SSOAP Toolbox

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Nation’s sanitary sewer infrastructure is aging, and is currently one of the top national water program priorities. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the Sanitary Sewer Overflow Analysis and Planning (SSOAP) Toolbox to assist communities in developing ...

  6. Focused Field Investigations for Sewer Condition Assessment with EPA SSOAP Toolbox - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Nation’s sanitary sewer infrastructure is aging, and is currently one of the top national water program priorities. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the Sanitary Sewer Overflow Analysis and Planning (SSOAP) Toolbox to assist communities in developing S...

  7. Focused Field Investigations for Sewer Condition Assessment with EPA SSOAP Toolbox - abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Nation’s sanitary sewer infrastructure is aging, and it is currently one of the top national water program priorities, and is one of the top priorities of the U.S. Conference of Mayors. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency developed the Sanitary Sewer Overflow Analysis a...

  8. Focused Field Investigations for Sewer Condition Assessment with EPA SSOAP Toolbox

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Nation’s sanitary sewer infrastructure is aging, and it is currently one of the top national water program priorities, and is one of the top priorities of the U.S. Conference of Mayors. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the Sanitary Sewer Overflow Anal...

  9. PHYSICAL AND SETTLING CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTICULATE IN STORM AND SANITARY WASTEWATERS (EPA/670/2-75/011)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An investigation was conducted, as part of model studies utilizing a swirl concentrator as a primary separator, helical combined sewer overflow regulator, and related studies, to characterize the properties of solids in sanitary sewage, combined sewer overflows, and stormwater ru...

  10. HIGH-RATE DISINFECTION OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wet-weather flow (WWF), including combined-sewer overflow (CSO, sanitary-sewer overflow, and stormwater (SW), is a significant contributor of microbial contamination to surface water and ground water. By using effective wastewater or SW disinfection, introduction of pathogen con...

  11. Contaminant transport pathways between urban sewer networks and water supply wells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water supply wells and sanitary sewers are critical components of urban infrastructure, but sewer leakage threatens the quality of groundwater in sewered areas. Previous work by our group has documented the presence of human enteric viruses in deep public supply wells. Our current research uses such...

  12. Sandia National Laboratories, California sewer system management plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, Robert C.

    2010-02-01

    A Sewer System Management Plan (SSMP) is required by the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Order No. 2006-0003-DWQ Statewide General Waste Discharge Requirements (WDR) for Sanitary Sewer Systems (General Permit). DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Sandia Site Office has filed a Notice of Intent to be covered under this General Permit. The General Permit requires a proactive approach to reduce the number and frequency of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) within the State. SSMPs must include provisions to provide proper and efficient management, operation, and maintenance of sanitary sewer systems and must contain a spill response plan. Elements of this Plan are under development in accordance with the SWRCB's schedule.

  13. Understanding the Spatial Formation and Accumulation of Fats, Oils & Grease Deposits in the Sewer Collection System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sanitary sewer overflows are caused by the accumulation of insoluble calcium salts of fatty acids, which are formed by the reaction between fats, oils and grease (FOG) and calcium found in wastewaters. Different sewer structural configurations (i.e., manholes, pipes, wet wells), which vary spatially...

  14. CONVENTIONAL AND ADVANCED SEWER DESIGN CONCEPTS FOR DUAL PURPOSE FLOOD AND POLLUTION CONTROL. A PRELIMINARY CASE STUDY, ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alternatives for pollution abatement from combined sewer overflows and stormwater discharges were evaluated. Separate storm and sanitary, conventional combined, and advanced combined systems with varying amounts of in-pipe and/or satellite storage and controlled flow routing were...

  15. DESIGN MANUAL: SULFIDE CONTROL IN SANITARY SEWERAGE SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    One characteristic by which sanitary sewage is known to the public is its potential for creating odor nuisances. Sometimes it is the odors escaping from sewer manholes that cause complaints; more commonly, the source is a wastewater treatment plant. Yet there are wastewater treat...

  16. Methane emission from sewers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiwen; Ni, Bing-Jie; Sharma, Keshab R; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-08-15

    Recent studies have shown that sewer systems produce and emit a significant amount of methane. Methanogens produce methane under anaerobic conditions in sewer biofilms and sediments, and the stratification of methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria may explain the simultaneous production of methane and sulfide in sewers. No significant methane sinks or methanotrophic activities have been identified in sewers to date. Therefore, most of the methane would be emitted at the interface between sewage and atmosphere in gravity sewers, pumping stations, and inlets of wastewater treatment plants, although oxidation of methane in the aeration basin of a wastewater treatment plant has been reported recently. Online measurements have also revealed highly dynamic temporal and spatial variations in methane production caused by factors such as hydraulic retention time, area-to-volume ratio, temperature, and concentration of organic matter in sewage. Both mechanistic and empirical models have been proposed to predict methane production in sewers. Due to the sensitivity of methanogens to environmental conditions, most of the chemicals effective in controlling sulfide in sewers also suppress or diminish methane production. In this paper, we review the recent studies on methane emission from sewers, including the production mechanisms, quantification, modeling, and mitigation. PMID:25889543

  17. Sewer Maintenance Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    Outlined are practices and procedures that should be followed in order to protect and fully realize the benefits of sewer systems and also to maximize service and minimize inconveniences to the public. Written in practical terms, the manual is designed to be of immediate use to municipal employees and others involved in sewer maintenance…

  18. Sewers as a source and sink of chlorinated-solvent groundwater contamination, Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, D.A.; Petkewich, M.D.; Lowery, M.A.; Landmeyer, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater contamination by tetrachloroethene and its dechlorination products is present in two partially intermingled plumes in the surficial aquifer near a former dry-cleaning facility at Site 45, Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, South Carolina. The northern plume originates from the vicinity of former above-ground storage tanks. Free-phase tetrachloroethene from activities in this area entered the groundwater. The southern plume originates at a nearby, new dry-cleaning facility, but probably was the result of contamination released to the aquifer from a leaking sanitary sewer line from the former dry-cleaning facility. Discharge of dissolved groundwater contamination is primarily to leaking storm sewers below the water table. The strong influence of sanitary sewers on source distribution and of storm sewers on plume orientation and discharge at this site indicates that groundwater-contamination investigators should consider the potential influence of sewer systems at their sites. ?? 2011, National Ground Water Association.

  19. City sewer collectors biocorrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksiażek, Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the biocorrosion of city sewer collectors impregnated with special polymer sulphur binders, polymerized sulphur, which is applied as the industrial waste material. The city sewer collectors are settled with a colony of soil bacteria which have corrosive effects on its structure. Chemoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria utilize the residues of halites (carbamide) which migrate in the city sewer collectors, due to the damaged dampproofing of the roadway and produce nitrogen salts. Chemoorganotrophic bacteria utilize the traces of organic substrates and produce a number of organic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, citric, oxalic and other). The activity of microorganisms so enables the origination of primary and secondary salts which affect physical properties of concretes in city sewer collectors unfavourably.

  20. BACHMAN TREATMENT FACILITY FOR EXCESSIVE STORM FLOW IN SANITARY SEWERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Bachman Treatment Facility was built in Dallas, Texas, to provide physical-chemical treatment to those municipal wastewater flows that during periods of heavy precipitation exceed the capacity of a downstream interceptor. The treatments provided in the facility include the ad...

  1. SEWER PIPELINE PERFORMANCE INDICATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wastewater collection systems are an extensive part of the nation's infrastructure. In the United States, approximately 150 million people are served by about 19,000 municipal wastewater collection systems representing about 500,000 miles of sewer pipe (not including privately o...

  2. Factors that influence properties of FOG deposits and their formation in sewer collection systems.

    PubMed

    Iasmin, Mahbuba; Dean, Lisa O; Lappi, Simon E; Ducoste, Joel J

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the formation of Fat, Oil, and Grease (FOG) deposits in sewer systems is critical to the sustainability of sewer collection systems since they have been implicated in causing sewerage blockages that leads to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). Recently, FOG deposits in sewer systems displayed strong similarities with calcium-based fatty acid salts as a result of a saponification reaction. The objective of this study was to quantify the factors that may affect the formation of FOG deposits and their chemical and rheological properties. These factors included the types of fats used in FSEs, environmental conditions (i.e. pH and temperature), and the source of calcium in sewer systems. The results of this study showed that calcium content in the calcium based salts seemed to depend on the solubility limit of the calcium source and influenced by pH and temperature conditions. The fatty acid profile of the calcium-based fatty acid salts produced under alkali driven hydrolysis were identical to the profile of the fat source and did not match the profile of field FOG deposits, which displayed a high fraction of palmitic, a long chain saturated fatty acid. It is hypothesized that selective microbial metabolism of fats and/or biologically induced hydrogenation may contribute to the FOG deposit makeup in sewer system. Therefore, selective removal of palmitic in pretreatment processes may be necessary prior to the discharge of FSE wastes into the sewer collection system. PMID:24317022

  3. Wastewater compounds in urban shallow groundwater wells correspond to exfiltration probabilities of nearby sewers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Do Gyun; Roehrdanz, Patrick R; Feraud, Marina; Ervin, Jared; Anumol, Tarun; Jia, Ai; Park, Minkyu; Tamez, Carlos; Morelius, Erving W; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L; Izbicki, John; Means, Jay C; Snyder, Shane A; Holden, Patricia A

    2015-11-15

    Wastewater compounds are frequently detected in urban shallow groundwater. Sources include sewage or reclaimed wastewater, but origins are often unknown. In a prior study, wastewater compounds were quantified in waters sampled from shallow groundwater wells in a small coastal California city. Here, we resampled those wells and expanded sample analyses to include sewage- or reclaimed water-specific indicators, i.e. pharmaceutical and personal care product chemicals or disinfection byproducts. Also, we developed a geographic information system (GIS)-based model of sanitary sewer exfiltration probability--combining a published pipe failure model accounting for sewer pipe size, age, materials of construction, with interpolated depths to groundwater--to determine if sewer system attributes relate to wastewater compounds in urban shallow groundwater. Across the wells, groundwater samples contained varying wastewater compounds, including acesulfame, sucralose, bisphenol A, 4-tert-octylphenol, estrone and perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS). Fecal indicator bacterial concentrations and toxicological bioactivities were less than known benchmarks. However, the reclaimed water in this study was positive for all bioactivity tested. Excluding one well intruded by seawater, the similarity of groundwater to sewage, based on multiple indicators, increased with increasing sanitary sewer exfiltration probability (modeled from infrastructure within ca. 300 m of each well). In the absence of direct exfiltration or defect measurements, sewer exfiltration probabilities modeled from the collection system's physical data can indicate potential locations where urban shallow groundwater is contaminated by sewage. PMID:26379202

  4. [Activity of sanitary supervision in big cities at the time of the second republic of Poland based on example of Lódz].

    PubMed

    Berner, Wlodzimierz

    2006-01-01

    At the time of the Second Republic of Poland łódź was a city with a very unfavourable sanitary and hygienic situation. It resulted from the long-lasting municipal negligence, dating back to the I World War, which included bad living conditions of the working class, problems with sewers and canalisation, and other shortages associated with the sanitary and maintenance status. All these factors contributed to prevalence of infectious diseases and other health threads. Therefore, the Authorities of łódź were obliged to organise the Sanitary Section at the Department of Public Health. Its executive body, i.e. sanitary surveillances dealt with control of acute infectious diseases, sanitary inspection of living quarters, sites of selling and producing food articles, as well as food surveillance. In each sanitary surveillance a doctor was employed together with a secretary and sanitary inspector subordinated to him. PMID:17249191

  5. Vacuum Flushing of Sewer Solids

    EPA Science Inventory

    The vacuum sewer and tank cleaning (flushing) technology removes sewer solids from urban drainage systems, such as storage tanks and pipes. This technology is both effective and inexpensive. In addition, it can be considered a true green technology. It operates under atmospheri...

  6. Modelling total suspended solids, E. coli and carbamazepine, a tracer of wastewater contamination from combined sewer overflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongmala, Khemngeun; Autixier, Laurène; Madoux-Humery, Anne-Sophie; Fuamba, Musandji; Galarneau, Martine; Sauvé, Sébastien; Prévost, Michèle; Dorner, Sarah

    2015-12-01

    Urban source water protection requires knowledge of sources of fecal contamination upstream of drinking water intakes. Combined and sanitary sewer overflows (CSOs and SSOs) are primary sources of microbiological contamination and wastewater micropollutants (WWMPs) in urban water supplies. To quantify the impact of sewer overflows, predictive simulation models are required and have not been widely applied for microbial contaminants such as fecal indicator bacteria and pathogens in urban drainage networks. The objective of this study was to apply a simulation model to estimate the dynamics of three contaminants in sewer overflows - total suspended solids, Escherichia coli (E. coli) and carbamazepine, a WWMP. A mixed combined and pseudo-sanitary drainage network in Québec, Canada was studied and modelled for a total of 7 events for which water quality data were available. Model results were significantly correlated with field water quality data. The model confirmed that the contributions of E. coli from runoff and sewer deposits were minor and their dominant source was from sewage. In contrast, the main sources of total suspended solids were stormwater runoff and sewer resuspension. Given that it is not present in stormwater, carbamazepine was found to be a useful stable tracer of sewage contributions to total contaminant loads and also provided an indication of the fraction of total suspended solids originating from sewer deposits because of its similar response to increasing flowrates.

  7. Separate and combined sewer systems: a long-term modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Mannina, Giorgio; Viviani, Gaspare

    2009-01-01

    Sewer systems convey mostly dry weather flow, coming from domestic and industrial sanitary sewage as well as infiltration flow, and stormwater due to meteoric precipitations. Traditionally, in urban drainage two types of sewer systems are adopted: separate and combined sewers. The former convey dry and wet weather flow separately into two different networks, while the latter convey dry and wet weather flow together. Which is the best solution in terms of cost-benefit analysis still remains a controversial subject. The present study was aimed at comparing the pollution loads discharged to receiving bodies by Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) and Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) for different kinds of sewer systems (combined and separate). To accomplish this objective, a comparison between the two systems was carried out using results from simulations of catchments characterised by different dimensions, population densities and water supply rate. The analysis was based on a parsimonious mathematical model able to simulate the sewer system as well as the WWTP during both dry and wet weather. The rain series employed for the simulations was six years long. Several pollutants, both dissolved and particulate, were modelled. The results confirmed the uncertainties in the choice of one system versus the other, emphasising the concept that case-by-case solutions have to be undertaken. Further, the compared systems showed different responses in terms of effectiveness in reducing the discharged mass to the RWB in relation to the particular pollutant taken into account. PMID:19657150

  8. The use of multiple tracers to evaluate the impact of sewered and non-sewered development on coastal water quality in a rural area of Florida.

    PubMed

    Meeroff, Daniel E; Bloetscher, Frederick; Long, Sharon C; Bocca, Thais

    2014-05-01

    When onsite wastewater treatment and disposal systems (OSTDS) are not sited appropriately or installed properly, wastewater constituents can be a source of adverse environmental impacts to soil and groundwater, which can lead to potential public health risks. A paired monitoring design developed to compare water quality in sewered and non-sewered areas is presented here. It is suggested as a possible monitoring scheme for assessing the impact of sewer installation projects. As such, two sets of single-family, rural residential Florida neighborhoods were evaluated over a two-year period to gain insight into the effects of small-community use of OSTDS on coastal water quality. One set of two neighborhoods were connected to the sanitary sewer network and the other set of two were served exclusively by OSTDS. Water quality sampling was conducted at the paired sites during seasonal high water table (SHWT) and seasonal low water table (SLWT) events. Measured surface water quality during the SHWT showed indications of environmental impacts from OSTDS in terms of nutrients, microbial pathogen indicators, and other water quality measures, such as turbidity and conductivity. However, during the SLWT events, no obvious impacts attributable to OSTDS were detected. The water quality results indicate that OSTDS impacts may be measureable in rural areas. Other factors, such as microbial indicator survival and regrowth potential, may confound the understanding of water quality impacts of sewer projects. For example, the microbial indicators Escherichia coli and enterococci were found to persist over time and therefore did not always represent true comparisons of OSTDS and sewered areas between seasons. The timeframe for evaluating the effects of sewer projects may be longer than anticipated because of this survival and regrowth phenomenon. PMID:24961071

  9. Sewer Gas: An Indoor Air Source of PCE to Consider During Vapor Intrusion Investigations

    PubMed Central

    Pennell, Kelly G.; Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen; McClean, Michael D.; Ames, Jennifer; Weldon, Brittany; Friguglietti, Leigh; Suuberg, Eric M.; Shen, Rui; Indeglia, Paul A.; Heiger-Bernays, Wendy J.

    2013-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is finalizing its vapor intrusion guidelines. One of the important issues related to vapor intrusion is background concentrations of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in indoor air, typically attributed to consumer products and building materials. Background concentrations can exist even in the absence of vapor intrusion and are an important consideration when conducting site assessments. In addition, the development of accurate conceptual models that depict pathways for vapor entry into buildings is important during vapor intrusion site assessments. Sewer gas, either as a contributor to background concentrations or as part of the site conceptual model, is not routinely evaluated during vapor intrusion site assessments. The research described herein identifies an instance where vapors emanating directly from a sanitary sewer pipe within a residence were determined to be a source of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) detected in indoor air. Concentrations of PCE in the bathroom range from 2.1 to 190 ug/m3 and exceed typical indoor air concentrations by orders of magnitude resulting in human health risk classified as an “Imminent Hazard” condition. The results suggest that infiltration of sewer gas resulted in PCE concentrations in indoor air that were nearly two-orders of magnitude higher as compared to when infiltration of sewer gas was not known to be occurring. This previously understudied pathway whereby sewers serve as sources of PCE (and potentially other VOC) vapors is highlighted. Implications for vapor intrusion investigations are also discussed. PMID:23950637

  10. Nutrient Input and Dynamics in a Restored Urban Stream Impacted by Mixed Sewer Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikora, M. T.; Elliott, E. M.; Bain, D. J.

    2008-12-01

    Export and retention of nutrients in urban watersheds remains poorly constrained. Available data is often based on studies conducted on large-scale, forested and mixed use watersheds rather than small urbanized systems. Additionally, there is a lack of data on the amount and impact of nutrients introduced into urban waterways as the result of stream-sewer interactions and a varied flow regime. In order to address this knowledge gap, water was sampled during baseflow (bi-weekly from April 2007 to present) and stormflow from a restored urban stream in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (USA) impacted by both Sanitary Sewer and Combined Sewer Overflow (SSO and CSO, respectively) networks. Nine Mile Run (NMR), a restored urban stream, drains a 1600 hectare urban watershed characterized as 38% impervious. Analysis of post-restoration water quality data suggests that atmospheric deposition and sewage both contribute nutrient pollution to the stream. We estimate input of atmospheric nitrate deposition to the watershed is 18.96 kg NO3- ha-1yr-1, yet a preliminary nitrogen budget suggests that nitrate export from the basin is consistently higher (~30 kg NO3- ha-1yr-1). Mean baseflow nitrate concentrations are substantially higher during the wetter portions of 2008 (12.07 mg NO3 -/L) as compared to the drier 2007 year (7.3 mg NO3 -/L). This suggests increased stream/sewer interactions during wetter periods. These results document the effect of Sanitary Sewer systems on an urban stream and highlight the challenges inherent in improving urban water quality through physical stream restorations.

  11. 46 CFR 176.818 - Sanitary inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitary inspection. 176.818 Section 176.818 Shipping...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 176.818 Sanitary inspection. At each inspection for... sanitary condition....

  12. 46 CFR 176.818 - Sanitary inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sanitary inspection. 176.818 Section 176.818 Shipping...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 176.818 Sanitary inspection. At each inspection for... sanitary condition....

  13. HANDBOOK: SEWER SYSTEM INFRASTRUCTURE ANALYSIS AND REHABILITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many of our Nation's sewer systems date back to the 19th Century when brick sewers were common. hese and more recent sewer systems can be expected to fail in time, but because they are placed underground, signs of accelerated deterioration and capacity limitations are not readily...

  14. Demonstration of Innovative Sewer System Inspection Technology SewerBatt

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of this EPA-funded study was to demonstrate innovative a sewer line assessment technology that is designed for rapid deployment using portable equipment. This study focused on demonstration of a technology that is suitable for smaller diameter pipes (less th...

  15. Space-Derived Sewer Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The QuadraScan Longterm Flow Monitoring System is a second generation sewer monitor developed by American Digital Systems, Inc.'s founder Peter Petroff. Petroff, a former spacecraft instrumentation designer at Marshall Space Flight Center, used expertise based on principles acquired in Apollo and other NASA programs. QuadraScan borrows even more heavily from space technology, for example in its data acquisition and memory system derived from NASA satellites. "One-time" measurements are often plagued with substantial errors due to the flow of groundwater absorbed into the system. These system sizing errors stem from a basic informational deficiency: accurate, reliable data on how much water flows through a sewer system over a long period of time is very difficult to obtain. City officials are turning to "permanent," or long-term sewer monitoring systems. QuadraScan offers many advantages to city officials such as the early warning capability to effectively plan for city growth in order to avoid the crippling economic impact of bans on new sewer connections in effect in many cities today.

  16. [Sewer gas induced myocardial toxicity].

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Dante; Sabanchiev, Avi; Rosner, Ehud; Turgeman, Yoav

    2014-07-01

    We report the case of a 19 year-old worker who collapsed after acute exposure to sewer gas. He rapidly developed cardiorespiratory failure with electrocardiographic, echocardiographic and laboratory findings of myocardial involvement. The mainstay of the therapy was mainly supportive treatment with a successful outcome. PMID:25189024

  17. Statistical evaluation of a radar rainfall system for sewer system management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieux, B. E.; Vieux, J. E.

    2005-09-01

    Urban areas are faced with mounting demands for managing waste and stormwater for a cleaner environment. Rainfall information is a critical component in efficient management of urban drainage systems. A major water quality impact affecting receiving waterbodies is the discharge of untreated waste and stormwater during precipitation, termed wet weather flow. Elimination or reduction of wet weather flow in metropolitan sewer districts is a major goal of environmental protection agencies and often requires considerable capital improvements. Design of these improvements requires accurate rainfall data in conjunction with monitored wastewater flow data. Characterizing the hydrologic/hydraulic performance of the sewer using distant rain gauges can cause oversizing and wasted expenditures. Advanced technology has improved our ability to measure accurately rainfall over large areas. Weather radar, when combined with rain gauge measurements, provides detailed information concerning rainfall intensities over specific watersheds. Knowing how much rain fell over contributing areas during specific periods aids in characterizing inflow and infiltration to sanitary and combined sewers, calibration of sewer system models, and in operation of predictive real-time control measures. Described herein is the design of a system for managing rainfall information for sewer system management, along with statistical analysis of 60 events from a large metropolitan sewer district. Analysis of the lower quartile rainfall events indicates that the expected average difference is 25.61%. Upper quartile rainfall events have an expected average difference of 17.25%. Rain gauge and radar accumulations are compared and evaluated in relation to specific needs of an urban application. Overall, the events analyzed agree to within ± 8% based on the median average difference between gauge and radar.

  18. Remote infrared thermal sensing of sewer voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weil, Gary J.

    1995-05-01

    Many sewers in America's cities are more than 125 years old and are subject to structural failure. In one year alone, St. Louis, Missouri had 4,000 sewer collapses that carried an astronomical repair tag. When a sewer caves in, it often takes the street, sidewalks, and surrounding buildings along with it endangering public health and safety. The ideal situation would be to repair a sewer before such cave-ins occur, as emergency repairs are far more costly than preventive measures. The question addressed by this paper is how to detect unseen problem areas in sewer systems before collapses occur. At the present, progressive sewer administrations may use crawl crews or remote controlled video cameras to inspect sewers at suspected problem locations. This can be extremely costly, dangerous, and not very accurate, as a void around the outside of the sewer is often invisible from within. Thus, even a crawl crew can fail to detect most voids. Sewer districts and independent engineering firms have found infrared thermography, a nondestructive testing method, to be extremely accurate in finding sewer voids, and accompanying pipeline leaks, before they can cause expensive and dangerous problems. Infrared thermography is a non-contact, remote sensing method, with the potential for surveying large areas quickly and efficiently.

  19. Biodegradation of fat, oil and grease (FOG) deposits under various redox conditions relevant to sewer environment.

    PubMed

    He, Xia; Zhang, Qian; Cooney, Michael J; Yan, Tao

    2015-07-01

    Fat, oil and, grease (FOG) deposits are one primary cause of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). While numerous studies have examined the formation of FOG deposits in sewer pipes, little is known about their biodegradation under sewer environments. In this study, FOG deposit biodegradation potential was determined by studying the biodegradation of calcium palmitate in laboratory under aerobic, nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Over 110 days of observation, calcium palmitate was biodegraded to CO2 under aerobic and nitrate-reducing conditions. An approximate 13 times higher CO2 production rate was observed under aerobic condition than under nitrate-reducing condition. Under sulfate-reducing condition, calcium palmitate was recalcitrant to biodegradation as evidenced by small reduction in sulfate. No evidence was found to support calcium palmitate degradation under methanogenic condition in the simulated sewer environment. Dominant microbial populations in the aerobic and nitrate-reducing microcosms were identified by Illumina seqeuncing, which may contain the capability to degrade calcium palmitate under both aerobic and nitrate-reducing conditions. Further study on these populations and their functional genes could shed more light on this microbial process and eventually help develop engineering solutions for SSOs control in the future. PMID:25715780

  20. Effects of Climate and Sewer Condition on Virus Transport to Groundwater.

    PubMed

    Gotkowitz, Madeline B; Bradbury, Kenneth R; Borchardt, Mark A; Zhu, Jun; Spencer, Susan K

    2016-08-16

    Pathogen contamination from leaky sanitary sewers poses a threat to groundwater quality in urban areas, yet the spatial and temporal dimensions of this contamination are not well understood. In this study, 16 monitoring wells and six municipal wells were repeatedly sampled for human enteric viruses. Viruses were detected infrequently, in 17 of 455 samples, compared to previous sampling at these wells. Thirteen of the 22 wells sampled were virus-positive at least once. While the highest virus concentrations occurred in shallower wells, shallow and deep wells were virus-positive at similar rates. Virus presence in groundwater was temporally coincident, with 16 of 17 virus-positive samples collected in a six-month period. Detections were associated with precipitation and occurred infrequently during a prolonged drought. The study purposely included sites with sewers of differing age and material. The rates of virus detections in groundwater were similar at all study sites during this study. However, a relationship between sewer age and virus detections emerged when compared to data from an earlier study, conducted during high precipitation conditions. Taken together, these data indicate that sewer condition and climate affect urban groundwater contamination by human enteric viruses. PMID:27434550

  1. Corrosion and odor management in sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guangming; Sun, Jing; Sharma, Keshab R; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-06-01

    Sewers emit hydrogen sulfide and various volatile organic sulfur and carbon compounds, which require control and mitigation. In the last 5-10 years, extensive research was conducted to optimize existing sulfide abatement technologies based on newly developed in-depth understanding of the in-sewer processes. Recent advances have also led to low-cost novel solutions targeting sewer biofilms. Online control has been demonstrated to greatly reduce the chemical usage. Dynamic models for both the water, air and solid (concrete) phases have been developed and used for the planning and maintenance of sewer systems. Existing technologies primarily focused on 'hotspots' in sewers. Future research should aim to achieve network-wide corrosion and emission control and management of sewers as an integrated component of an urban water system. PMID:25827114

  2. H. R. 3120: This title may be cited as the Estuarine Zone and Marine Waters Combined Sewer Overflow Control Act. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, First Session, August 3, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    H.R. 3120 is a bill to establish permit requirements for overflows from combined storm water and sanitary sewer systems discharging into the estuarine zone and marine waters and to require the correction of such systems to minimize discharges into those waters, to mitigate the effects of pollution discharges into estuaries and oceans, and for other purposes.

  3. In-place rehabilitation of process sewers

    SciTech Connect

    Arles, K.R.; Faller, C.C.

    1996-07-01

    The majority of petrochemical manufacturing facilities have thousands of feet of existing underground gravity sewers that convey the site`s industrial wastes to treatment facilities. The integrity of these sewer systems is a serious concern to owners. A potential consequence of leaks is soil and groundwater contamination. Prior to 1992, only two options were available to remedy this situation. The sewer systems could be replaced with either a new dual-walled, monitored underground pipe system via direct bury, or with an above ground pumped system. In 1992, Engineering, in conjunction with several trenchless technology vendors, developed and demonstrated modified relining systems that can rehabilitate existing sewers and result in monitored dual-walled gravity sewer systems. These proven systems have since been enhanced, upgraded, and installed at two operating facilities. With thorough sewer investigation and assessments, industry now has viable, cost effective options to rehabilitate underground chemical process sewers. These upgraded sewer systems provide the environmental security of monitored dual-walled pipe, enhanced flow characteristics, and retain accessibility for maintenance and inspections.

  4. MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives a basic overview of the U.S. government's involvements in developing countermeasures for the abatement of combined sewer overflow pollution. batement or prevention of pollution stormwater runoff and combined sewer overflows is one of the most challenging areas in ...

  5. Vacuum Flushing of Sewer Solids (Slides)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The vacuum sewer and tank cleaning (flushing) technology removes sewer solids from urban drainage systems, such as storage tanks and pipes. This technology is both effective and inexpensive. In addition, it can be considered a true green technology. It operates under atmospheri...

  6. Sanitary Landfill Supplemental Test Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, D.J.

    1999-07-28

    This report summarizes the performance of the Sanitary Landfill Supplemental Test data, an evaluation of applicability, conclusions, recommendations, and related information for implementation of this remediation technology at the SRS Sanitary Landfill.

  7. [Topical problems of sanitary and epidemiologic examination concerning projects of sanitary protection zones in airports].

    PubMed

    Isayeva, A M; Zibaryov, E V

    2015-01-01

    The article covers data on major errors in sanitary protection zones specification for civil airports, revealed through sanitary epidemiologic examination. The authors focus attention on necessity to develop unified methodic approach to evaluation of aviation noise effects, when justifying sanitary protection zone of airports and examining sanitary and epidemiologic project documents. PMID:25895251

  8. 46 CFR 115.818 - Sanitary inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sanitary inspection. 115.818 Section 115.818 Shipping... Inspections § 115.818 Sanitary inspection. At each inspection for certification and at every other vessel... be examined to determine that they are serviceable and in a sanitary condition....

  9. 46 CFR 115.818 - Sanitary inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitary inspection. 115.818 Section 115.818 Shipping... Inspections § 115.818 Sanitary inspection. At each inspection for certification and at every other vessel... be examined to determine that they are serviceable and in a sanitary condition....

  10. 40 CFR 35.927-2 - Sewer system evaluation survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sewer system evaluation survey. 35.927... § 35.927-2 Sewer system evaluation survey. (a) The sewer system evaluation survey shall identify the... results of the sewer system evaluation survey. In addition, the report shall include: (1) A...

  11. 40 CFR 35.927-2 - Sewer system evaluation survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sewer system evaluation survey. 35.927... § 35.927-2 Sewer system evaluation survey. (a) The sewer system evaluation survey shall identify the... results of the sewer system evaluation survey. In addition, the report shall include: (1) A...

  12. 40 CFR 35.927-2 - Sewer system evaluation survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sewer system evaluation survey. 35.927... § 35.927-2 Sewer system evaluation survey. (a) The sewer system evaluation survey shall identify the... results of the sewer system evaluation survey. In addition, the report shall include: (1) A...

  13. Infrared Thermal Sensing Of Sewer Voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weil, Gary J.

    1984-03-01

    The deterioration of sewer systems and their associated infrastructure is one of the most serious problems facing city, state, federal, and world authorities. As an example, three large sewer voids in the St. Louis Metropolitan area caused over $2,000,000 in repair costs in only one year. The detection of voids in and around underground sewer lines, as well as the detection of effluent leakages is necessary when determining the priority of structures for repair. At the present time sewer voids are sometimes detected by manual methods which are expensive, time consuming, and not extremely accurate. Most of the time, the void is not detected until the street caves in. Infrared thermography has been found to be capable of detecting voids around underground sewer systems because under certain conditions, temperature differentials exist between various types of materials, effluents, and cavities. This paper describes the problem of deteriorating sewer systems, the field tests used to detect sewer voids, the equipment used in the field tests, the theories used to design the tests, various complicating factors, and anticipated future refinements on the procedure.

  14. 300 Area process sewer piping upgrade and 300 Area treated effluent disposal facility discharge to the City of Richland Sewage System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by constructing and operating a new process sewer collection system that would discharge to the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The DOE is also considering the construction of a tie-line from the TEDF to the 300 Area Sanitary Sewer for discharging the process wastewater to the City of Richland Sewage System. The proposed action is needed because the integrity of the old piping in the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System is questionable and effluents might be entering the soil column from leaking pipes. In addition, the DOE has identified a need to reduce anticipated operating costs at the new TEDF. The 300 Area Process Sewer Piping Upgrade (Project L-070) is estimated to cost approximately $9.9 million. The proposed work would involve the construction and operation of a new process sewer collection system. The new system would discharge the effluents to a collection sump and lift station for the TEDF. The TEDF is designed to treat and discharge the process effluent to the Columbia River. The process waste liquid effluent is currently well below the DOE requirements for radiological secondary containment and is not considered a RCRA hazardous waste or a State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act dangerous waste. A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination, System (NPDES) permit has been obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for discharge to the Columbia River. The proposed action would upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by the construction and operation of a new combined gravity, vacuum, and pressurized process sewer collection system consisting of vacuum collection sumps, pressure pump stations, and buried polyvinyl chloride or similar pipe. Two buildings would also be built to house a main collection station and a satellite collection station.

  15. SEWER AND TANK SEDIMENT FLUSHING: CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the report summarized here is to demonstrate that sewer system and storage tank flushing that reduces sediment deposition and accumulation is of prime importance to optimizing performance, maintaining structural integrity, and minimizing pollution of receiving wa...

  16. Handbook: Sewer system infrastructure analysis and rehabilitation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The Handbook provides guidance on the evaluation and rehabilitation of existing sewers. It presents information on typical problems, procedures and methods for rehabilitation, case study information, budgetary costs, advantages and disadvantages of rehabilitation techniques, and application of these techniques and materials/equipment used in rehabilitation. It also guides the reader in understanding the importance of, and ways for, conducting the sewer system evaluation and identifying the rehabilitation procedure that best suits a particular problem.

  17. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is composed of the original 32-acre landfill, plus expansion areas to the north and south that added 16 and 22 acres, respectively, to the facility. The landfill is subject to the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and currently operates under South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Domestic Waste Permit 87A. Fifty-seven wells of the LFW series monitor the groundwater quality in Steed Pond Aquifer (formerly Aquifer Zone I/IIC[sub 2]) (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill. These wells are sampled quarterly for certain indicator parameters, inorganics, metals, radionuclides, volatile organics, and other constituents as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program and to comply with the SCDHEC domestic waste permit. This report reviews the 1992 activities of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  18. The hydraulic capacity of deteriorating sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Pollert, J; Ugarelli, R; Saegrov, S; Schilling, W; Di Federico, V

    2005-01-01

    Sewer and wastewater systems suffer from insufficient capacity, construction flaws and pipe deterioration. Consequences are structural failures, local floods, surface erosion and pollution of receiving waters bodies. European cities spend in the order of five billion Euro per year for wastewater network rehabilitation. This amount is estimated to increase due to network ageing. The project CARE-S (Computer Aided RE-habilitation of Sewer Networks) deals with sewer and storm water networks. The final project goal is to develop integrated software, which provides the most cost-efficient system of maintenance, repair and rehabilitation of sewer networks. Decisions on investments in rehabilitation often have to be made with uncertain information about the structural condition and the hydraulic performance of a sewer system. Because of this, decision-making involves considerable risks. This paper presents the results of research focused on the study of hydraulic effects caused by failures due to temporal decline of sewer systems. Hydraulic simulations are usually carried out by running commercial models that apply, as input, default values of parameters that strongly influence results. Using CCTV inspections information as dataset to catalogue principal types of failures affecting pipes, a 3D model was used to evaluate their hydraulic consequences. The translation of failures effects in parameters values producing the same hydraulic conditions caused by failures was carried out through the comparison of laboratory experiences and 3D simulations results. Those parameters could be the input of 1D commercial models instead of the default values commonly inserted. PMID:16477988

  19. Influence of characteristics on combined sewer performance.

    PubMed

    Möderl, M; Kleidorfer, M; Rauch, W

    2012-01-01

    Elements of combined sewer systems are among others sub-catchments, junctions, conduits and weirs with or without storage units. The spatial distribution and attributes of all these elements influence both system characteristics and sewer performance. Until today, little work has been done to analyse the influence of such characteristics in a case unspecific approach. In this study, 250 virtual combined sewer systems are analysed by defining groups of systems, which are representative for their different characteristics. The set was created with a further development of the case study generator (CSG), a tool for automatic generation of branched sewer systems. Combined sewer overflow and flooding is evaluated using performance indicators based on hydrodynamic simulations. The analysis of system characteristics, like those presented in this paper, helps researchers to understand coherences and aids practitioners in designing combined sewers. For instance, it was found that characteristics that have a positive influence on emission reduction frequently have a negative influence on flooding avoidance and vice versa. PMID:22797234

  20. 76 FR 35215 - Notice of EPA Workshop on Sanitary Sewer Overflows and Peak Wet Weather Discharges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... weather discharges. See 75 FR 30395 (June 1, 2010). Participants in the sessions offered both verbal and...'' section of EPA's notice announcing the 2010 Listening Sessions at 75 FR 30395 (June 1, 2010) and to... significant overlap with those highlighted for the 2010 listening sessions. See 75 FR 30399-30401 (June...

  1. Plutonium discharges to the sanitary sewer: Health impacts at the Livermore Water Reclamation Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Balke, B.K.

    1993-04-16

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the largest discharger of sewage treated by the Livermore Water Reclamation (LWRP), contributing approximately 7% by volume of the LWRP influent LILNL operations, as potential sources both of industrial pollutants and radioactivity, are therefore of particular concern to the LWRP. For this reason, LLNL has maintained vigorous wastewater discharge control and monitoring programs. In particular, the monitoring program has demonstrated that, except in a few rare instances, the concentration of contaminants in LLNL effluent have always remained below the appropriate regulatory standards. The exceptions have generally been due to inadvertent discharges of metals-bearing solutions produced by metal plating or cleaning operations.

  2. [Identifying dry-weather flow and pollution load sources of separate storm sewer systems with different degrees of illicit discharge].

    PubMed

    Meng, Ying-ying; Feng, Cang; Li, Tian; Wang, Ling

    2009-12-01

    Dry-weather flow quantity and quality of three representative separate storm sewer systems in Shanghai-H, G, N were studied. Based on survey of operating status of the pumping stations as well as characteristics of the drainage systems, it was obtained that the interception sewage volumes per unit area in the three systems were 3610 m3/(km2 x d), 1550 m3/(km2 x d), 2970 m3/(km2 x d) respectively; the sanitary wastewater included accounted for 25%, 85% and 71% respectively; the interception volume of H was mainly composed of infiltrated underground water, so the dry-weather flow pollution was slighter, and the interception volumes of G, N were both mainly composed of sanitary wastewater, so the dry-weather which were flow pollution was relatively serious. The water characteristics of potential illicit discharge sources of dry-weather which were flow-grey water, black water and underground water were preliminarily explored, so that treating three parameters-LAS/ NH4+ -N, NH4+ -N/K, Mg/K as tracer parameters of grey water, black water and underground water was put forward. Moreover, the water characteristics of grey water and sanitary wastewater including black water were summarized: the feature of grey water was LAS/NH4+ -N > 0.2, NH4+ -N/K <1, and sanitary wastewater was LAS/NH4+ -N < 0.2, NH4+ -N/K >1. Based on the above, the applications of flow chart method and CMBM method in dry-weather flow detection of monitored storm systems were preliminarily discussed, and the results were basically same as that obtained in flow quantity and quality comprehensive analysis. The research results and methods can provide guidance for analysis and diagnosis of dry-weather flow sources and subsequent reconstruction projects in similar separate storm sewer systems at home. PMID:20187382

  3. SMALL DIAMETER GRAVITY SEWERS: AN ALTERNATIVE FOR UNSEWERED COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The most recently introduced wastewater collection alternative for small unsewered communities is septic tank effluent drains or small diameter gravity sewers (SDGS). Unlike conventional sewers, SDGS only collect settled wastewater. Grit, grease and other troublesome solids which...

  4. 2. PORTAL VIEW OF BRIDGE FROM NORTH SIDE OF SANITARY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PORTAL VIEW OF BRIDGE FROM NORTH SIDE OF SANITARY AND SHIP CANAL, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Chicago, Madison & Northern Railroad, Sanitary & Ship Canal Bridge, Spanning Sanitary & Ship Canal, east of Kedzie Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  5. Groundwater intrusion into leaky sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Wittenberg, H; Aksoy, H

    2010-01-01

    Vast volumes of groundwater are drained by urban sewer systems. This unwanted flow component intrudes into sewer systems through leaky joints or connected house drains. However, unlike urban storm drainage, it has a high seasonal variation corresponding to groundwater storage and long slow recessions similar to baseflow in rivers also fed by shallow groundwater exfiltrating into the surface waters. By applying the nonlinear reservoir algorithm as used for baseflow separation from total flow in a river, groundwater flow is separated from daily measured influents to treatment plants in Lower Saxony and Baden-Württemberg, Germany and in the Terkos Lake watershed near Istanbul, Turkey. While waste water flows vary only moderately within a year, separated intruded groundwater flows show recessions and seasonal variations correlated to baseflow in neighbouring rivers. It is possible to conclude that recession characteristics of treatment plant influents allow quantification and prediction of groundwater intrusion into sewer systems. PMID:20595758

  6. Predicting concrete corrosion of sewers using artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guangming; Keller, Jurg; Bond, Philip L; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion is often a major failure mechanism for concrete sewers and under such circumstances the sewer service life is largely determined by the progression of microbially induced concrete corrosion. The modelling of sewer processes has become possible due to the improved understanding of in-sewer transformation. Recent systematic studies about the correlation between the corrosion processes and sewer environment factors should be utilized to improve the prediction capability of service life by sewer models. This paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN)-based approach for modelling the concrete corrosion processes in sewers. The approach included predicting the time for the corrosion to initiate and then predicting the corrosion rate after the initiation period. The ANN model was trained and validated with long-term (4.5 years) corrosion data obtained in laboratory corrosion chambers, and further verified with field measurements in real sewers across Australia. The trained model estimated the corrosion initiation time and corrosion rates very close to those measured in Australian sewers. The ANN model performed better than a multiple regression model also developed on the same dataset. Additionally, the ANN model can serve as a prediction framework for sewer service life, which can be progressively improved and expanded by including corrosion rates measured in different sewer conditions. Furthermore, the proposed methodology holds promise to facilitate the construction of analytical models associated with corrosion processes of concrete sewers. PMID:26841228

  7. 40 CFR 35.2024 - Combined sewer overflows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Combined sewer overflows. 35.2024... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2024 Combined sewer... from the State allotment for correction of combined sewer overflows provided that the project is on...

  8. FLUSHING FOR SEWER SEDIMENT, CORROSION, AND POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper overviews causes of combined-sewer deterioration and their heavy pollutant discharges caused by rain events together with a discussion of their control methods. In particular, it covers in-sewer and combined-sewer overflow (CSO) storage-tank-flushing systems for removi...

  9. FLUSHING FOR SEWER SEDIMENT, CORROSION, AND POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation overviews causes of sewer deterioration and heavy pollutant discharges caused by rain events together with a discussion of their control methods. In particular, it covers in-sewer- and combined sewer overflow- (CSO-) storage-tank-flushing systems for removal of ...

  10. 21 CFR 129.35 - Sanitary facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sanitary facilities. 129.35 Section 129.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION PROCESSING AND BOTTLING OF BOTTLED DRINKING WATER Buildings and Facilities § 129.35 Sanitary facilities. Each plant shall...

  11. 21 CFR 129.37 - Sanitary operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION PROCESSING AND BOTTLING OF BOTTLED DRINKING WATER Buildings and Facilities § 129.37 Sanitary operations. (a) The product water-contact surfaces of all multiservice containers, utensils, pipes... sanitary manner so as to preclude contamination of the bottled drinking water....

  12. 21 CFR 129.37 - Sanitary operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION PROCESSING AND BOTTLING OF BOTTLED DRINKING WATER Buildings and Facilities § 129.37 Sanitary operations. (a) The product water-contact surfaces of all multiservice containers, utensils, pipes... sanitary manner so as to preclude contamination of the bottled drinking water....

  13. 21 CFR 129.37 - Sanitary operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION PROCESSING AND BOTTLING OF BOTTLED DRINKING WATER Buildings and Facilities § 129.37 Sanitary operations. (a) The product water-contact surfaces of all multiservice containers, utensils, pipes... sanitary manner so as to preclude contamination of the bottled drinking water....

  14. 21 CFR 129.35 - Sanitary facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitary facilities. 129.35 Section 129.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION PROCESSING AND BOTTLING OF BOTTLED DRINKING WATER Buildings and Facilities § 129.35 Sanitary facilities. Each plant shall...

  15. 46 CFR 169.255 - Sanitary inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitary inspection. 169.255 Section 169.255 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.255 Sanitary inspection. At each inspection for...

  16. 46 CFR 169.255 - Sanitary inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sanitary inspection. 169.255 Section 169.255 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.255 Sanitary inspection. At each inspection for...

  17. 46 CFR 169.255 - Sanitary inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sanitary inspection. 169.255 Section 169.255 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.255 Sanitary inspection. At each inspection for...

  18. 46 CFR 169.255 - Sanitary inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sanitary inspection. 169.255 Section 169.255 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.255 Sanitary inspection. At each inspection for...

  19. 46 CFR 169.255 - Sanitary inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sanitary inspection. 169.255 Section 169.255 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.255 Sanitary inspection. At each inspection for...

  20. Dynamic online sewer modelling in Helsingborg.

    PubMed

    Hernebring, C; Jönsson, L E; Thorén, U B; Møller, A

    2002-01-01

    Within the last decade, the sewer system in Helsingborg, Sweden has been rehabilitated in many ways along with the reconstruction of the WWTP Oresundsverket in order to obtain a high degree of nitrogen and phosphorus removal. In that context a holistic view has been applied in order to optimise the corrective measures as seen from the effects in the receiving waters. A sewer catchment model has been used to evaluate several operation strategies and the effect of introducing RTC. Recently, a MOUSE ONLINE system was installed. In this phase the objective is to establish a stable communication with the SCADA system and to generate short-term flow forecasts. PMID:11936663

  1. Wastewater micropollutants as tracers of sewage contamination: analysis of combined sewer overflow and stream sediments.

    PubMed

    Hajj-Mohamad, M; Aboulfadl, K; Darwano, H; Madoux-Humery, A-S; Guérineau, H; Sauvé, S; Prévost, M; Dorner, S

    2014-01-01

    A sensitive method was developed to measure the sediment concentration of 10 wastewater micropollutants selected as potential sanitary tracers of sewage contamination and include: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (acetaminophen - ACE and diclofenac - DIC), an anti-epileptic drug (carbamazepine - CBZ), a β-blocker (atenolol - ATL), a stimulant (caffeine - CAF), a bronchodilator (theophylline - THEO), steroid hormones (progesterone - PRO and medroxyprogesterone - MedP), an artificial sweetener (aspartame - APM) and personal care products (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide - DEET). Natural sediments (combined sewer overflow and stream sediments) were extracted by ultrasonic-assisted extraction followed by solid-phase extraction. Analyses were performed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation in positive mode (APCI+) with a total analysis time of 4.5 min. Method detection limits were in the range of 0.01 to 15 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) for the compounds of interest, with recoveries ranging from 75% to 156%. Matrix effects were observed for some compounds, never exceeding |±18%|. All results displayed a good degree of reproducibility and repeatability, with relative standard deviations (RSD) of less than 23% for all compounds. The method was applied to an investigation of stream and combined sewer overflow sediment samples that differed in organic carbon contents and particle size distributions. Acetaminophen, caffeine and theophylline (as confounded with paraxanthine) were ubiquitously detected at 0.13-22 ng g(-1) dw in stream bed sediment samples and 98-427 ng g(-1) dw in combined sewer overflow sediment samples. Atenolol (80.5 ng g(-1) dw) and carbamazepine (54 ng g(-1) dw) were quantified only in combined sewer overflow sediment samples. The highest concentrations were recorded for DEET (14 ng g(-1) dw) and progesterone (11.5 ng g(-1) dw) in stream bed and combined

  2. OPIMIZATION OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW CONTROL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The highly variable and intermittent pollutant concentrations and flowrates associated with wet-weather events in combined sewersheds necessitates the use of storage-treatment systems to control pollution. A strategy should be adopted to develop an optimized combined sewer overfl...

  3. An Environmental Innovation: The Sewer Mouse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    In the effort to clean up America's waters, there is a little-known complicating factor: because they leak, sewer systems in many American cities are causing rather than preventing pollution of rivers and lakes. Fixing the leaks is difficult because their locations are unknown. Maintenance crews can't tear up a whole city looking for cracks in the pipes; they must first determine which areas are most likely suspects. An aerospace spinoff is providing help in that regard. The problem starts with heavy rains. Rainwater naturally flows into the sewers from streets, but sewage systems are designed to accommodate it. However, they are not designed to handle the additional flow of "groundwater", rain absorbed by the earth which seeps into the sewers through leaks in pipes and sewer walls. After a storm, groundwater seepage can increase the waterflow to deluge proportions, with the result that sewage treatment plants are incapable of processing the swollen flow. When that happens the sluices must be opened, dumping raw sewage into rivers and lakes.

  4. Real-time sewer effluent monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, S.; Yamauchi, R.K.

    1990-12-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has upgraded its early sewer monitoring system from the 1970's. LLNL must insure that its waste water is of a consistent and acceptable nature for the City of Livermore's community sewer system. The Sewer Monitor UpGrade system (SMUG) is now monitoring the Lab's sewer effluent. SMUG monitors the effluent for pH, flow rate, metals, and alpha, beta and gamma emitting isotopes. It turns on the appropriate alarms if present alarm levels are exceeded. The hardware consists of DEC Micro VAX II/GPX that has been repackaged by Nuclear Data Company as the Genie 9900 Data Acquisition and Display System. The gamma detector, three XRFAs, pH meter, and flow rate meter are commercially available. The metals sample cells are custom built at the Lab. The operating system is the VMS version 5.4. The application software is written in DEC's Fortran-77 and MACRO, and Nuclear Data software library. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Multistakeholder Evaluation of Condominial Sewer Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nance, Earthea

    2005-01-01

    A multistakeholder evaluation procedure is presented to address the many challenges in evaluating the performance of condominial sewer projects in Brazil. Condominial sewerage is a promising appropriate technology that is coproduced by users and public agencies, but little is known about project performance. This article shows that…

  6. MANUAL: REAL TIME CONTROL OF COMBINED SEWERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Managers, engineers, and operators of combined urban sewer systems are faced with difficult problems related to the operation and maintenance of their facilities. In addition to the issues related to the operation and upkeep of the system, many sewerage agencies are facing increa...

  7. Urban Runoff and Combined Sewer Overflow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Richard; Gardner, Bradford B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastewater treatment, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes areas such as: (1) urban runoff quality and quantity; (2) urban hydrology; (3) management practices; and (4) combined sewer overflows. A list of 140 references is also presented. (HM)

  8. OPTIMIZATION OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW CONTROL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The highly variable and intermittent pollutant concentrations and flowrates associated with wet-weather events in combined sewersheds necessitates the use of storage-treatment systems to control pollution.An optimized combined-sewer-overflow (CSO) control system requires a manage...

  9. Effects Of Leaky Sewers On Groundwater Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leschik, S.; Musolff, A.; Reinstorf, F.; Strauch, G.; Oswald, S. E.; Schirmer, M.

    2007-12-01

    The impact of urban areas on groundwater quality has become an emerging research field in hydrogeology. Urban subsurface infrastructures like sewer networks are often leaky, so untreated wastewater may enter the urban aquifer. The transport of wastewater into the groundwater is still not well understood under field conditions. In the research platform WASSER Leipzig (Water And Sewershed Study of Environmental Risk in Leipzig- Germany) the effects of leaky sewers on the groundwater quality are investigated. The research is focused on the occurrence and transport of so-called "xenobiotics" such as pharmaceuticals and personal care product additives. Xenobiotics may pose a threat on human health, but can also be considered a marker for an urban impact on water resources. A new test site was established in Leipzig to quantify mass fluxes of xenobiotics into the groundwater from a leaky sewer. Corresponding to the leaks which were detected by closed circuit television inspections, monitoring wells were installed up- and downstream of the sewer. Concentrations of eight xenobiotics (technical-nonylphenol, bisphenol-a, caffeine, galaxolide, tonalide, carbamazepine, phenazone, ethinylestradiol) obtained from first sampling programmes were found to be highly heterogeneous, but a relation between the position of the sampling points and the sewer could not be clearly identified. However, concentrations of sodium, chloride, potassium and nitrate increased significantly downstream of the sewer which may be due to wastewater exfiltration, since no other source is known on the water flowpath from the upstream to the downstream wells. Because of the highly heterogeneous spatial distribution of xenobiotics at the test site, a monitoring concept was developed comprising both high-resolution sampling and an integral approach to obtain representative average concentrations. Direct-push techniques were used to gain insight into the fine-scale spatial distribution of the target compounds

  10. Evaluating Cryptosporidium and Giardia concentrations in combined sewer overflow.

    PubMed

    Arnone, Russell D; Walling, Joyce Perdek

    2006-06-01

    Since the first identified Cryptosporidium outbreaks occurred in the 1980s and the massive 1993 Milwaukee, WI outbreak affected more than 400,000 people, the concern over the public health risks linked to protozoan pathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia has grown. Cryptosporidium and Giardia, found in streams, rivers, groundwater, and soil, form hardy, disinfection-resistant oocysts and cysts. Both organisms are recognized causative agents of gastrointestinal illnesses linked to the consumption of contaminated surface or groundwater. This study, the first in a planned series to estimate the urban contribution to the total Cryptosporidium and Giardia receiving-water loads, focused on combined sewer overflow (CSO). CSOs are discharges of mixed untreated sewage and stormwater released directly into receiving waters during rainfall. This engineered relief is necessary to accommodate hydraulic strain when the combined rain and sanitary flows exceed the system capacity. Limited comprehensive data are available assessing the CSO discharge contribution as a source of these two pathogens. Works by States et al. and Gibson et al. each found Cryptosporidium and much greater Giardia concentrations in CSOs draining parts of Pittsburgh, PA. This project estimated the relative detection frequency and concentration of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in CSO. Analytical results were obtained using a modification of Method 1623, originally developed for much cleaner environmental samples. These data are useful for drinking water treatment plants located downstream of CSOs. It is also significant in determining the potential concentrations of parasites at treatment plant intakes and for assessing health risks for water contact and fishing activities. Commonly monitored indicator organisms (total coliform, fecal coliform, E. coli, Enterococcus, and fecal streptococcus), endospores, and selected physical and chemical parameters were analyzed to further describe the samples. CSO from urban

  11. Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, and Trichococcus populations dominate the microbial community within urban sewer infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    VandeWalle, J. L.; Goetz, G.W.; Huse, S.M.; Morrison, H. G.; Sogin, M.L.; Hoffmann, R.G.; Yan, K.; McLellan, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the population structure and temporal dynamics of the dominant community members within sewage influent from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Milwaukee, WI. We generated >1.1M bacterial pyrotag sequences from the V6 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA genes from 38 influent samples and two samples taken upstream in the sanitary sewer system. Only a small fraction of pyrotags from influent samples (~15%) matched sequences from human fecal samples. The fecal components of the sewage samples included enriched pyrotag populations from Lactococcus and Enterobacteriaceae relative to their fractional representation in human fecal samples. In contrast to the large number of distinct pyrotags that represent fecal bacteria such as Lachnospiraceae and Bacteroides, only one or two unique V6 sequences represented Acinetobacter, Trichococcus and Aeromonas, which collectively account for nearly 35% of the total sewage community. Two dominant Acinetobacter V6 pyrotags (designated Acineto tag 1 and Acineto tag 2) fluctuated inversely with a seasonal pattern over a 3-year period, suggesting two distinct Acinetobacter populations respond differently to ecological forcings in the system. A single nucleotide change in the V6 pyrotags accounted for the difference in these populations and corresponded to two phylogenically distinct clades based on full-length sequences. Analysis of wavelet functions, derived from a mathematical model of temporal fluctuations, demonstrated that other abundant sewer associated populations including Trichococcus and Aeromonas had temporal patterns similar to either Acineto tag 1 or Acineto tag 2. Populations with related temporal fluctuations were found to significantly correlate with the same WWTP variables (5-day BOD, flow, ammonia, total phosphorous, and suspended solids). These findings illustrate that small differences in V6 sequences can represent phylogenetically and ecologically distinct taxa. This work provides insight into

  12. 30 CFR 71.501 - Sanitary toilet facilities; maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sanitary toilet facilities; maintenance. 71.501... COAL MINES Sanitary Toilet Facilities at Surface Worksites of Surface Coal Mines § 71.501 Sanitary toilet facilities; maintenance. Sanitary toilets provided in accordance with the provisions of §...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1712-10 - Underground sanitary facilities; maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground sanitary facilities; maintenance....1712-10 Underground sanitary facilities; maintenance. Sanitary toilets shall be regularly maintained in a clean and sanitary condition. Holding tanks shall be serviced and cleaned when full and in no...

  14. 21 CFR 1210.14 - Sanitary inspection of plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of plants. 1210.14 Section... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.14 Sanitary inspection of plants. The sanitary... provided by the score card for sanitary inspection of such plants in the form prescribed by the Secretary....

  15. Characterization of Washoff Behavior of In-Sewer Deposits in Combined Sewer Systems.

    PubMed

    Kim, WeonJae; Furumai, Hiroaki

    2016-06-01

    In-sewer deposits in combined sewer systems (CSSs) are closely related with the behavior of first foul flush and combined sewer overflows. The artificial flushing experiment separating the washoff of in-sewer deposits from the inflow of surface pollutants was carried out to simulate first foul flush in a CSS. The washoff behaviors of each pollutant including chemical pollutants, bacterial indicators, and enteric viruses were intensively investigated. By using several morphological analyses, some of which were suggested through this study, the characteristics of first foul flush were examined. As a result, the washoff behaviors of each pollutant were characterized according to their (i) event load ratios (ELRs), (ii) time-series concentration and load curves, (iii) concentration vs. flow rate curves, and (iv) dimensionless runoff concentrations (DRCs). The first foul flush patterns of each parameter were categorized into 3 typical groups: the strong-, partial-, and no first foul flush group. The order of these groups signifies their different physicochemical properties of in-sewer deposits in CSSs, their strength of first foul flush phenomena, and the washoff priority as well. PMID:27225785

  16. Impact of in-sewer transformation on 43 pharmaceuticals in a pressurized sewer under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Jelic, Aleksandra; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damia; Gutierrez, Oriol

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of 43 pharmaceuticals and 2 metabolites of ibuprofen was evaluated at the inlet and the outlet of a pressure sewer pipe in order to asses if in-sewer processes affect the pharmaceutical concentrations during their pass through the pipe. The target compounds were detected at concentrations ranging from low ng/L to a few μg/L, which are in the range commonly found in municipal wastewater of the studied area. The changes in concentrations between two sampling points were negligible for most compounds, i.e. from -10 to 10%. A higher decrease in concentrations (25-60 %) during the pass through the pipe was observed for diltiazem, citalopram, clarithromycin, bezafibrate and amlodipine. Negative removal was calculated for sulfamethoxazole (-66 ± 15%) and irbesartan (-58 ± 25%), which may be due to the conversion of conjugates back to their parent compounds in the sewer. The results show that microbial transformation of pharmaceuticals begins in sewer, albeit to different extents for different compounds. Therefore, the in-sewer transformation of pharmaceuticals should be assessed especially when their concentrations are used to estimate and refine the estimation of their per capita consumption in a catchment of interest in the sewage epidemiology approach. PMID:25462720

  17. Estimating sewer leakage from continuous tracer experiments.

    PubMed

    Rieckermann, Jörg; Bares, Vojtech; Kracht, Oliver; Braun, Daniel; Gujer, Willi

    2007-05-01

    Direct measurements of sewer leakage with continuous dosing of tracers are often considered too imprecise for practical applications. However, no mathematical framework for data analysis is reported in literature. In this paper, we present an improved experimental design and data analysis procedure together with a comprehensive framework for uncertainty assessment. Test runs in a 700 m-long watertight sewer showed no significant bias and a very high precision of the methodology. The standard error in the results was assessed to 2.6% of the labeled flow with a simplified model. It could be reduced to 1.2% when a dynamic data analysis procedure was applied. The major error contribution was caused by transient transport phenomena, which suggests that careful choosing of the experimental time is more important than the choice of a very specific tracer substance. Although the method is not intended to replace traditional CCTV inspections, it can provide complementary information for rational rehabilitation planning. PMID:17363025

  18. Assessing the Impact of a Combined Sewer Separation Project on Water Quality in Blackwater Creek, Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, K.; Warren, K. P.

    2013-12-01

    Over a century ago, the City of Lynchburg constructed a sanitary sewer system to deal with the increasing need for waste water treatment. State and federal environmental mandates require cities to eliminate sewer overflows, so in the 1990s, the City of Lynchburg devised a plan to fix the problem of combined sewer overflow. Since Lynchburg's Combined Sewer Separation (CSS) work began approximately twenty years ago, many of the overflow points have been eliminated, leaving 30 points to be closed in the future. It remains unclear, however, whether Blackwater Creek's freshwater ecosystems have begun to show improvement as a result of the City's CSS separation project. As recently as 2012, the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality characterized Blackwater Creek as a Category 5 Impaired Waterway, as assessed by benthic rapid bioassessment methods. Since 2003, the intro environmental science class at Randolph College has conducted stream assessment and water quality monitoring at two sites in Blackwater Creek, as a required field project. This work has involved nearly 300 students over that time, and includes rapid bioassessment (RBA) of aquatic macroinvertebrates, chemical and physical analysis, and riparian and channel vegetation assessment. Over this same period, the City has progressed through separation of the CSS system in a significant portion of Blackwater Creek's subwatershed, including our study area. We analyzed ten years of stream monitoring data in tandem with a geographic analysis of the progression of the CSS project to determine whether there has been resultant improvement in water quality. When analyzed in conjunction with the progress of the CSS project, the data did not exhibit a detectable difference between data collected before and after 2006. However, a simple linear regression of the data did show improvement in chemical and biological indicators of stream health, with a greater increase in results pertaining to the RBA. Further sampling is

  19. Sanitary Landfill 1991 annual groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.; Norrell, G.T.; Bennett, C.B.

    1992-02-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Sanitary Landfill is an approximately seventy acre site located just south of SRS Road C between the Savannah River Site`s B-Area and Upper Three Runs Creek. Results from the first through third quarter 1991 groundwater monitoring date continue to show evidence of elevated levels of several hazardous constituents beneath the Sanitary Landfill: tritium, vinyl chloride, total radium, cadmium, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,2 dichloroethane, 1,4 dichlorobenzene, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, and 1,1 dichloroethylene in excess of the primary drinking water standards were observed in at least one well monitoring the Sanitary Landfill during the third quarter of 1991. All of these constituents, except radium, were observed in the lower half of the original thirty-two acre site or the southern expansion site. Trichloroethylene and vinyl chloride are the primary organic contaminants in groundwater beneath the Sanitary Landfill. Vinyl chloride has become the primary contaminant during 1991. Elevated levels of benzene were consistently detected in LFW 7 in the past, but were not present in any LFW wells during the third quarter of 1991. A minor tritium plume is present in the central part of original thirty-two acre landfill. Elevated levels of tritium above the PDWS were consistently present in LFW 10A through 1991. This well has exhibited elevated tritium activities since the second quarter of 1989. Contaminant concentrations in the Sanitary Landfill are presented and discussed in this report.

  20. Sanitary Landfill 1991 annual groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.; Norrell, G.T.; Bennett, C.B.

    1992-02-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Sanitary Landfill is an approximately seventy acre site located just south of SRS Road C between the Savannah River Site's B-Area and Upper Three Runs Creek. Results from the first through third quarter 1991 groundwater monitoring date continue to show evidence of elevated levels of several hazardous constituents beneath the Sanitary Landfill: tritium, vinyl chloride, total radium, cadmium, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,2 dichloroethane, 1,4 dichlorobenzene, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, and 1,1 dichloroethylene in excess of the primary drinking water standards were observed in at least one well monitoring the Sanitary Landfill during the third quarter of 1991. All of these constituents, except radium, were observed in the lower half of the original thirty-two acre site or the southern expansion site. Trichloroethylene and vinyl chloride are the primary organic contaminants in groundwater beneath the Sanitary Landfill. Vinyl chloride has become the primary contaminant during 1991. Elevated levels of benzene were consistently detected in LFW 7 in the past, but were not present in any LFW wells during the third quarter of 1991. A minor tritium plume is present in the central part of original thirty-two acre landfill. Elevated levels of tritium above the PDWS were consistently present in LFW 10A through 1991. This well has exhibited elevated tritium activities since the second quarter of 1989. Contaminant concentrations in the Sanitary Landfill are presented and discussed in this report.

  1. INNOVATIVE METHODS FOR THE OPTIMIZATION OF GRAVITY STORM SEWER DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a new method for optimizing the design of urban storm sewer systems. Previous efforts to optimize gravity sewers have met with limited success because classical optimization methods require that the problem be well behaved, e.g. describ...

  2. 40 CFR 35.927-4 - Sewer use ordinance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sewer use ordinance. 35.927-4 Section... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.927-4 Sewer use ordinance. Each applicant for grant assistance for a step 2 or step 3 project...

  3. 7. VIEW TO NORTH SHOWING SEWER CONSTRUCTION IN FOREGROUND AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW TO NORTH SHOWING SEWER CONSTRUCTION IN FOREGROUND AND BUILDING F IN THE LEFT BACKGROUND. 8X10 black and white gelatin print. United States Coast Guard, Air Station Contract 1247, Sewer System. 1956. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. GATE AND VACUUM FLUSHING OF SEWER SEDIMENT: LABORATORY TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of a traditional gate-flushing device and a newly-designed vacuum-flushing device in removing sediment from combined sewers and CSO storage tanks. A laboratory hydraulic flume was used to simulate a reach of sewer or storag...

  5. EVALUATION OF TRENCHLESS SEWER CONSTRUCTION AT SOUTH BETHANY BEACH, DELAWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this project was to determine whether the trenchless method of sewer construction had inherent cost, safety and other advantages over conventional methods of sewer construction. Under similar site conditions, the trenchless method was more cost effective than conve...

  6. SEWER SEDIMENT GATE AND VACUUM FLUSHING TANKS: LABORATORY FLUME STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of a traditional gate-flushing device and a newly designed vacuum-flushing device in removing sediments from combined sewers and CSO storage tanks. A laboratory hydraulic flune was used to simulate a reach of sewer or storag...

  7. 40 CFR 35.927 - Sewer system evaluation and rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... environmental factors. (b) A sewer system evaluation will generally be used to determine whether or not... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sewer system evaluation and rehabilitation. 35.927 Section 35.927 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND...

  8. Modelling the viability of heat recovery from combined sewers.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aal, M; Smits, R; Mohamed, M; De Gussem, K; Schellart, A; Tait, S

    2014-01-01

    Modelling of wastewater temperatures along a sewer pipe using energy balance equations and assuming steady-state conditions was achieved. Modelling error was calculated, by comparing the predicted temperature drop to measured ones in three combined sewers, and was found to have an overall root mean squared error of 0.37 K. Downstream measured wastewater temperature was plotted against modelled values; their line gradients were found to be within the range of 0.9995-1.0012. The ultimate aim of the modelling is to assess the viability of recovering heat from sewer pipes. This is done by evaluating an appropriate location for a heat exchanger within a sewer network that can recover heat without impacting negatively on the downstream wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Long sewers may prove to be more viable for heat recovery, as heat lost can be reclaimed before wastewater reaching the WWTP. PMID:25051477

  9. Prediction of sulphide build-up in filled sewer pipes.

    PubMed

    Alani, Amir M; Faramarzi, Asaad; Mahmoodian, Mojtaba; Tee, Kong Fah

    2014-08-01

    Millions of dollars are being spent worldwide on the repair and maintenance of sewer networks and wastewater treatment plants. The production and emission of hydrogen sulphide has been identified as a major cause of corrosion and odour problems in sewer networks. Accurate prediction of sulphide build-up in a sewer system helps engineers and asset managers to appropriately formulate strategies for optimal sewer management and reliability analysis. This paper presents a novel methodology to model and predict the sulphide build-up for steady state condition in filled sewer pipes. The proposed model is developed using a novel data-driven technique called evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR) and it involves the most effective parameters in the sulphide build-up problem. EPR is a hybrid technique, combining genetic algorithm and least square. It is shown that the proposed model can provide a better prediction for the sulphide build-up as compared with conventional models. PMID:24956763

  10. 46 CFR 189.25-40 - Sanitary inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sanitary inspection. 189.25-40 Section 189.25-40... AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-40 Sanitary inspection. (a) At each inspection... sanitary condition....

  11. 46 CFR 131.515 - Periodic sanitary inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Periodic sanitary inspections. 131.515 Section 131.515..., Drills, and Inspections § 131.515 Periodic sanitary inspections. (a) The master shall make periodic... that those spaces are maintained in a sanitary condition. (b) The master shall enter in the...

  12. 46 CFR 91.25-40 - Sanitary inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sanitary inspection. 91.25-40 Section 91.25-40 Shipping... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 91.25-40 Sanitary inspection. (a) At each inspection for..., lockers, etc., shall be examined by the inspector to be assured that they are in a sanitary condition....

  13. 46 CFR 189.25-40 - Sanitary inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitary inspection. 189.25-40 Section 189.25-40... AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-40 Sanitary inspection. (a) At each inspection... sanitary condition....

  14. 46 CFR 71.25-40 - Sanitary inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitary inspection. 71.25-40 Section 71.25-40 Shipping... Annual Inspection § 71.25-40 Sanitary inspection. (a) At each annual inspection the passenger and crew... inspector to be assured that they are in a sanitary condition. (b)...

  15. 46 CFR 71.25-40 - Sanitary inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sanitary inspection. 71.25-40 Section 71.25-40 Shipping... Annual Inspection § 71.25-40 Sanitary inspection. (a) At each annual inspection the passenger and crew... inspector to be assured that they are in a sanitary condition. (b)...

  16. 46 CFR 131.515 - Periodic sanitary inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic sanitary inspections. 131.515 Section 131.515..., Drills, and Inspections § 131.515 Periodic sanitary inspections. (a) The master shall make periodic... that those spaces are maintained in a sanitary condition. (b) The master shall enter in the...

  17. 46 CFR 91.25-40 - Sanitary inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitary inspection. 91.25-40 Section 91.25-40 Shipping... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 91.25-40 Sanitary inspection. (a) At each inspection for..., lockers, etc., shall be examined by the inspector to be assured that they are in a sanitary condition....

  18. 21 CFR 1210.14 - Sanitary inspection of plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of plants. 1210.14 Section... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.14 Sanitary inspection of plants. The sanitary conditions of any plant handling milk or cream any part of which is to be shipped or transported into...

  19. 21 CFR 1210.14 - Sanitary inspection of plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of plants. 1210.14 Section... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.14 Sanitary inspection of plants. The sanitary conditions of any plant handling milk or cream any part of which is to be shipped or transported into...

  20. 21 CFR 1210.14 - Sanitary inspection of plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of plants. 1210.14 Section... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.14 Sanitary inspection of plants. The sanitary conditions of any plant handling milk or cream any part of which is to be shipped or transported into...

  1. 21 CFR 1210.14 - Sanitary inspection of plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of plants. 1210.14 Section... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.14 Sanitary inspection of plants. The sanitary conditions of any plant handling milk or cream any part of which is to be shipped or transported into...

  2. 5. DETAIL OF BUILDER'S PLATE, WHICH READS '1898, THE SANITARY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL OF BUILDER'S PLATE, WHICH READS '1898, THE SANITARY DISTRICT OF CHICAGO, BOARD OF TRUSTEES, WILLIAM BOLDENWECK, JOSEPH C. BRADEN, ZINA R. CARTER, BERNARD A. ECKART, ALEXANDER J. JONES, THOMAS KELLY, JAMES P. MALLETTE, THOMAS SMYTHE, FRANK WINTER; ISHAM RANDOLPH, CHIEF ENGINEER.' - Santa Fe Railroad, Sanitary & Ship Canal Bridge, Spanning Sanitary & Ship Canal east of Harlem Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  3. 21 CFR 1210.11 - Sanitary inspection of dairy farms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. 1210.11... UNDER THE FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.11 Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. The sanitary conditions of any dairy farm producing milk or cream to be shipped or transported...

  4. 21 CFR 1210.11 - Sanitary inspection of dairy farms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. 1210.11... UNDER THE FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.11 Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. The sanitary conditions of any dairy farm producing milk or cream to be shipped or transported...

  5. 21 CFR 1210.11 - Sanitary inspection of dairy farms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. 1210.11... UNDER THE FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.11 Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. The sanitary conditions of any dairy farm producing milk or cream to be shipped or transported...

  6. 21 CFR 1210.11 - Sanitary inspection of dairy farms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. 1210.11... UNDER THE FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.11 Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. The sanitary conditions of any dairy farm producing milk or cream to be shipped or transported...

  7. 21 CFR 1210.11 - Sanitary inspection of dairy farms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. 1210.11... UNDER THE FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.11 Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. The sanitary conditions of any dairy farm producing milk or cream to be shipped or transported...

  8. [Toxicological and sanitary characterization of bentonite nanoclay].

    PubMed

    Smirnova, V V; Tananova, O N; Shumakova, A A; Trushina, E N; Avren'eva, L I; Bykova, I B; Minaeva, L P; Soto, S Kh; Lashneva, N V; Gmoshinskiĭ, I V; Khotimchnko, S A

    2012-01-01

    Intragastric administration of nanoclay to rats during 28 days led to reductions in the relative weight of the liver, the activity of its conjugating enzymes, the antagonistic activity of bifidoflora, and the hyperproduction of colonic yeast microflora. The findings lead to the conclusion that nanoclays that may be present in foods must be the object of sanitary regulation. PMID:23088139

  9. Training of Sanitary Engineers in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Robert B., Ed.

    Sanitary engineering (also known as public health engineering in the United States) covers all fields where engineering activities are more efficient than medical action for dealing with public health concerns. This book focuses on the training of individuals for these fields. Part I provides information on the general organization of training in…

  10. An Evaluation of Sanitary Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, W. J.; Middlebrooks, E. J.

    This report is based on the 1966 and 1969 registers of graduate programs in the field of sanitary engineering. Data for both registers were collected by questionnaires. The first in 1965 included 56 colleges and the second in 1969 included 45 colleges offering graduate programs. The following chapters are included: Objective of the Register;…

  11. Valuing information for sewer replacement decisions.

    PubMed

    van Riel, Wouter; Langeveld, Jeroen; Herder, Paulien; Clemens, François

    2016-01-01

    Decision-making for sewer asset management is partially based on intuition and often lacks explicit argumentation, hampering decision transparency and reproducibility. This is not to be preferred in light of public accountability and cost-effectiveness. It is unknown to what extent each decision criterion is appreciated by decision-makers. Further insight into this relative importance improves understanding of decision-making of sewer system managers. As such, a digital questionnaire (response ratio 43%), containing pairwise comparisons between 10 relevant information sources, was sent to all 407 municipalities in the Netherlands to analyse the relative importance and assess whether a shared frame of reasoning is present. Thurstone's law of comparative judgment was used for analysis, combined with several consistency tests. Results show that camera inspections were valued highest, while pipe age was considered least important. The respondents were pretty consistent per individual and also showed consistency as a group. This indicated a common framework of reasoning among the group. The feedback of the group showed, however, the respondents found it difficult to make general comparisons without having a context. This indicates decision-making in practice is more likely to be steered by other mechanisms than purely combining information sources. PMID:27533854

  12. Identifiability analysis in conceptual sewer modelling.

    PubMed

    Kleidorfer, M; Leonhardt, G; Rauch, W

    2012-01-01

    For a sufficient calibration of an environmental model not only parameter sensitivity but also parameter identifiability is an important issue. In identifiability analysis it is possible to analyse whether changes in one parameter can be compensated by appropriate changes of the other ones within a given uncertainty range. Parameter identifiability is conditional to the information content of the calibration data and consequently conditional to a certain measurement layout (i.e. types of measurements, number and location of measurement sites, temporal resolution of measurements etc.). Hence the influence of number and location of measurement sites on the number of identifiable parameters can be investigated. In the present study identifiability analysis is applied to a conceptual model of a combined sewer system aiming to predict the combined sewer overflow emissions. Different measurement layouts are tested and it can be shown that only 13 of the most sensitive catchment areas (represented by the model parameter 'effective impervious area') can be identified when overflow measurements of the 20 highest overflows and the runoff to the waste water treatment plant are used for calibration. The main advantage of this method is very low computational costs as the number of required model runs equals the total number of model parameters. Hence, this method is a valuable tool when analysing large models with a long runtime and many parameters. PMID:22864432

  13. A sewer ventilation model applying conservation of momentum.

    PubMed

    Ward, M; Hamer, G; McDonald, A; Witherspoon, J; Loh, E; Parker, W

    2011-01-01

    The work presented herein was completed in an effort to characterize the forces influencing ventilation in gravity sewers and to develop a mathematical model, based on conservation of momentum, capable of accounting for friction at the headspace/pipe interface, drag at the air/water interface, and buoyancy caused by air density differences between a sewer headspace and ambient. Experiments were completed on two full scale sewer reaches in Australia. A carbon monoxide-based tracer technique was used to measure the ventilation rate within the sewer headspaces. Additionally, measurements of pressure, relative humidity, and temperature were measured in the ambient air and sewer headspace. The first location was a five kilometre long sewer outfall beginning at a wastewater treatment plant and terminating at the ocean. The second location was a large gravity sewer reach fitted with ventilation fans. At the first location the headspace was entirely sealed except for openings that were controlled during the experiments. In this situation forces acting on the headspace air manifested mostly as a pressure distribution within the reach, effectively eliminating friction at the pipe wall. At the second location, air was forced to move near the same velocity as the wastewater, effectively eliminating drag at the air/water interface. These experiments allowed individual terms of the momentum equation to be evaluated. Experimental results were compared to the proposed mathematical model. Conclusions regarding model accuracy are provided along with model application guidance and assumptions. PMID:22214094

  14. Transport of large solids in sewer pipes.

    PubMed

    Walski, Thomas; Edwards, Bryce; Helfer, Emil; Whitman, Brian E

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a method for determining the conditions under which large solids (i.e., solids with a vertical dimension greater than the depth of water) are able to move in a pipe. Depending on the value of a dimensionless number [s(d/y) - 1], where s = specific gravity of the solids, d = water depth, and y = height of solids, motion will occur if a sufficient velocity (also reported as a Froude number or modified "solids" Froude number) is exceeded. Flume experiments were used to determine the coefficients to be used in the design. The velocity required to reach fluid movement was approximately 0.6 to 1.0 m/s (2 to 3 ft/s), which is consistent, although slightly higher than values generally used in conventional sewer design practice. However, it was demonstrated that increasing the pipe slope to achieve a higher velocity does not ensure that the solid will move. PMID:19691252

  15. First flush in a combined sewer system.

    PubMed

    Barco, Janet; Papiri, Sergio; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2008-03-01

    Pollutant first flush was examined in an urban catchment with area of 12.7 ha and drained by a combined sewer system located in northern Italy. A total of 23 rainfall-runoff events were monitored and 281 samples were analyzed. The selected quality parameters were biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, settleable solids, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, lead, and zinc, specific conductivity and hydrocarbons. A subset of representative storms was selected for first flush analysis. The catchment presented a strong first flush for almost all storms and most constituents. The analysis shows that treating the maximum amount of the early part of the runoff is a better strategy than treating a constant flow rate. Best management practices that can treat or store the first runoff are favored in this kind of system for these water quality parameters. PMID:18191441

  16. Treatment shaft for combined sewer overflow detention.

    PubMed

    Wright, Steven J; Ghalib, Saad; Eloubaidy, Aziz

    2010-05-01

    A deep, large-diameter underground shaft to provide detention storage for combined sewer overflow control may be advantageous in urban environments, where space limitations require solutions with a small footprint. An underflow baffle wall is provided at the center of the treatment shaft to prevent short-circuiting of the flow. An additional objective is to maintain low headlosses through the structure. A physical model study was conducted to determine the effect of the bottom elevation of the baffle wall on the headloss and breakthrough curve for dye injected to the inflow. It was found that there is a considerable range of elevations for which the structure behaves acceptably in providing adequate contact time for disinfectant while maintaining small headlosses. PMID:20480764

  17. INTEGRATED CONTROL OF COMBINED SEWER REGULATORS USING WEATHER RADAR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Integrated operation was simulated of ten dynamic combined sewer regulators on a Montreal interceptor. Detailed review of digital recording weather radar capabilities indicated that it is potentially the best rainfall estimation means for accomplishing the runoff prediction that ...

  18. 40 CFR 35.925-21 - Storm sewers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-21 Storm sewers. That, under section 211(c) of the Act, the allowable project costs do not include costs...

  19. 40 CFR 35.925-21 - Storm sewers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-21 Storm sewers. That, under section 211(c) of the Act, the allowable project costs do not include costs...

  20. 40 CFR 35.925-21 - Storm sewers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-21 Storm sewers. That, under section 211(c) of the Act, the allowable project costs do not include costs...

  1. 40 CFR 35.925-21 - Storm sewers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-21 Storm sewers. That, under section 211(c) of the Act, the allowable project costs do not include costs...

  2. 40 CFR 35.925-21 - Storm sewers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-21 Storm sewers. That, under section 211(c) of the Act, the allowable project costs do not include costs...

  3. COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW CHARACTERISTICS FROM TREATMENT PLANT DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research was undertaken to evaluate the adequacy of using a mass balance technique with daily municipal wastewater treatment plant data to determine combined sewer runoff and overflow characteristics. The bias and variability associated with the mass balance technique togeth...

  4. MANAGEMENT OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW RESEARCH PROGRAM CAPSTONE

    EPA Science Inventory


    Combined-sewer overflow (CSO) is a mixture of urban storm drainage, municipal-industrial wastewater, and subterranean infiltration. Untreated discharges of CSOs have caused substantial pollution impacts on the quality of receiving-water bodies. Problem constituents include ...

  5. FLOCCULATION-FLOTATION AIDS FOR TREATMENT OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the flocculation/flotation characteristics of combined sewer overflow through laboratory and field testing. The concept involves the introduction of chemicals and buoyant flotation aids into the overflow and the subsequent cofloccu...

  6. Urban runoff and combined sewer overflow. [Wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Moffa, P.E.; Freedman, S.D.; Owens, E.M.; Field, R.; Cibik, C.

    1982-06-01

    The control, treatment and management of urban runoff and sewer overflow are reviewed. Simplified modeling and monitoring techniques are used to characterize urban runoff and to assess control alternatives. (KRM)

  7. MANAGEMENT OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW: RESEARCH PROGRAM CAPSTONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Combined-sewer overflow (CSO) is a mixture of urban storm drainage, municipal-industrial wastewater, and subterranean infiltration. Untreated discharges of CSOs have caused substantial pollution impacts on the quality of receiving-water bodies. Problem constituents include visi...

  8. Hanford 200 area (sanitary) waste water system

    SciTech Connect

    Danch, D.A.; Gay, A.E.

    1994-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site is located in southeastern Washington State. The Hanford Site is approximately 1,450 sq. km (560 sq. mi) of semiarid land set aside for activities of the DOE. The reactor fuel processing and waste management facilities are located in the 200 Areas. Over the last 50 years at Hanford dicard of hazardous and sanitary waste water has resulted in billions of liters of waste water discharged to the ground. As part of the TPA, discharges of hazardous waste water to the ground and waters of Washington State are to be eliminated in 1995. Currently sanitary waste water from the 200 Area Plateau is handled with on-site septic tank and subsurface disposal systems, many of which were constructed in the 1940s and most do not meet current standards. Features unique to the proposed new sanitary waste water handling systems include: (1) cost effective operation of the treatment system as evaporative lagoons with state-of-the-art liner systems, and (2) routing collection lines to avoid historic contamination zones. The paper focuses on the challenges met in planning and designing the collection system.

  9. Assessment of sewer source contamination of drinking water wells using tracers and human enteric viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, R.J.; Borchardt, M. A.; Richards, K.D.; Spencer, S. K.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the source, transport, and occurrence of human enteric viruses in municipal well water, focusing on sanitary sewer sources. A total of 33 wells from 14 communities were sampled once for wastewater tracers and viruses. Wastewater tracers were detected in four of these wells, and five wells were virus- positive by qRT-PCR. These results, along with exclusion of wells with surface water sources, were used to select three wells for additional investigation. Viruses and wastewater tracers were found in the groundwater at all sites. Some wastewater tracers, such as ionic detergents, flame retardants, and cholesterol, were considered unambiguous evidence of wastewater. Sampling at any given time may not show concurrent virus and tracer presence; however, given sufficient sampling over time, a relation between wastewater tracers and virus occurrence was identified. Presence of infectious viruses at the wellhead demonstrates that high-capacity pumping induced sufficiently short travel times for the transport of infectious viruses. Therefore, drinking-water wells are vulnerable to contaminants that travel along fast groundwater flowpaths even if they contribute a small amount of virus-laden water to the well. These results suggest that vulnerability assessments require characterization of "low yield-fast transport" in addition to traditional "high yield-slow transport", pathways. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  10. Exposure to airborne endotoxins among sewer workers: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Duquenne, Philippe; Ambroise, Denis; Görner, Pierre; Clerc, Frédéric; Greff-Mirguet, Guylaine

    2014-04-01

    Exploratory bioaerosol sampling was performed in order to assess exposure to airborne endotoxins during sewer work. Personal samples were collected in underground sewer pipes using 37-mm closed-face cassettes containing fibreglass filters (CFC-FG method) or polycarbonate filters (CFC-PC method). Endotoxins were quantified using the limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. Concentrations of airborne endotoxins at sewer workplaces (16-420 EU m(-3)) were higher than those measured outside the sewer network (0.6-122 EU m(-3)). Sewer worker exposure to airborne endotoxins depended on the workplace and on the tasks. Exposure levels were the highest for tasks involving agitation of water and matter, especially for 'chamber cleanup' and 'pipes cleanup' with a high-pressure water jet. Airborne endotoxin levels at the workplace tended to be higher when CFC-FG was used as the sampling method rather than CFC-PC. The adjusted mean of the measured concentrations for CFC-PC represents 57% of the mean observed with CFC-FG. The number of samples collected in the descriptive study was too low for drawing definitive conclusions and further exposure investigations are needed. Therefore, our exploratory study provides new exposure data for the insufficiently documented sewer working environment and it would be useful for designing larger exposures studies. PMID:24470536

  11. [Modern problems of the application of sanitary regulations concerning sanitary protection zones and sanitary classification of enterprises, buildings and other facilities].

    PubMed

    Lomtev, A Iu; Eremin, G B; Mozzhukhina, N A; Kombarova, M Iu; Mel'tser, A V; Giul'mamedov, É Iu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper there was performed an analysis of the application of sanitary norms and rules concerning sanitary protective zones and sanitary classification of enterprises, buildings and other facilities, including requirements for the sufficiency and accuracy of information in the performance of projects in sanitary protection zone (SPZ). There is presented an analysis of regulations that set requirements for implementation of mapping works in drafting the SPZ. The design of the SPZ was shown to be, on the one hand, the element of territorial planning subjects of the Russian Federation, on the other hand, the object of capital construction. The substantiations of requirements for graphic and text content, structure, and composition of data, sources of their obtaining, methods of data convergence are reported. There are revealed inconsistencies in Sanitary Regulations and Norms (SanPins) and in their relationship with the Town Planning and Land Code and other laws, and regulations adopted in their development. PMID:24624833

  12. [Sanitary and hygienic expert examination of consumer goods: toxicological aspects].

    PubMed

    Zav'ialov, N V; Skvortsova, E L; Chemechev, A P

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the results of toxicological and sanitary-chemical studies of domestic and imported products subject to sanitary-and-epidemiological assessment. It shows the groups of products that are currently the greatest potential danger to health in terms of toxicological and hygienic parameters. Recommendations are given on programs for manufacturing control over the observance of sanitary rules and the antiepidemic (preventive) actions at the enterprises engaged in the production and turnover of social consumer goods. PMID:20135874

  13. Assessing the Role of Sewers and Atmospheric Deposition as Nitrate Contamination Sources to Urban Surface Waters using Stable Nitrate Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikora, M. T.; Elliott, E. M.

    2009-12-01

    Excess nitrate (NO3-) contributes to the overall degraded quality of streams in many urban areas. These systems are often dominated by impervious surfaces and storm sewers that can route atmospherically deposited nitrogen, from both wet and dry deposition, to waterways. Moreover, in densely populated watersheds there is the potential for interaction between urban waterways and sewer systems. The affects of accumulated nitrate in riverine and estuary systems include low dissolved oxygen, loss of species diversity, increased mortality of aquatic species, and general eutrophication of the waterbody. However, the dynamics of nitrate pollution from each source and it’s affect on urban waterways is poorly constrained. The isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate have been proven effective in helping to distinguish contamination sources to ground and surface waters. In order to improve our understanding of urban nitrate pollution sources and dynamics, we examined nitrate isotopes (δ15N and δ18O) in base- and stormflow samples collected over a two-year period from a restored urban stream in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (USA). Nine Mile Run drains a 1,600 hectare urban watershed characterized by 38% impervious surface cover. Prior work has documented high nitrate export from the watershed (~19 kg NO3- ha-1 yr-1). Potential nitrate sources to the watershed include observed sewer overflows draining directly to the stream, as well as atmospheric deposition (~23 kg NO3- ha-1 yr-1). In this and other urban systems with high percentages of impervious surfaces, there is likely minimal input from nitrate derived from soil or fertilizer. In this presentation, we examine spatial and temporal patterns in nitrate isotopic composition collected at five locations along Nine Mile Run characterized by both sanitary and combined-sewer cross-connections. Preliminary isotopic analysis of low-flow winter streamwater samples suggest nitrate export from Nine Mile Run is primarily influenced by

  14. Using data from monitoring combined sewer overflows to assess, improve, and maintain combined sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Montserrat, A; Bosch, Ll; Kiser, M A; Poch, M; Corominas, Ll

    2015-02-01

    Using low-cost sensors, data can be collected on the occurrence and duration of overflows in each combined sewer overflow (CSO) structure in a combined sewer system (CSS). The collection and analysis of real data can be used to assess, improve, and maintain CSSs in order to reduce the number and impact of overflows. The objective of this study was to develop a methodology to evaluate the performance of CSSs using low-cost monitoring. This methodology includes (1) assessing the capacity of a CSS using overflow duration and rain volume data, (2) characterizing the performance of CSO structures with statistics, (3) evaluating the compliance of a CSS with government guidelines, and (4) generating decision tree models to provide support to managers for making decisions about system maintenance. The methodology is demonstrated with a case study of a CSS in La Garriga, Spain. The rain volume breaking point from which CSO structures started to overflow ranged from 0.6 mm to 2.8 mm. The structures with the best and worst performance in terms of overflow (overflow probability, order, duration and CSO ranking) were characterized. Most of the obtained decision trees to predict overflows from rain data had accuracies ranging from 70% to 83%. The results obtained from the proposed methodology can greatly support managers and engineers dealing with real-world problems, improvements, and maintenance of CSSs. PMID:25461106

  15. Sulfide elimination by intermittent nitrate dosing in sewer sediments.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanchen; Wu, Chen; Zhou, Xiaohong; Zhu, David Z; Shi, Hanchang

    2015-01-01

    The formation of hydrogen sulfide in biofilms and sediments in sewer systems can cause severe pipe corrosions and health hazards, and requires expensive programs for its prevention. The aim of this study is to propose a new control strategy and the optimal condition for sulfide elimination by intermittent nitrate dosing in sewer sediments. The study was carried out based on lab-scale experiments and batch tests using real sewer sediments. The intermittent nitrate dosing mode and the optimal control condition were investigated. The results indicated that the sulfide-intermittent-elimination strategy by nitrate dosing is advantageous for controlling sulfide accumulation in sewer sediment. The oxidation-reduction potential is a sensitive indicator parameter that can reflect the control effect and the minimum N/S (nitrate/sulfide) ratio with slight excess nitrate is necessary for optimal conditions of efficient sulfide control with lower carbon source loss. The optimal control condition is feasible for the sulfide elimination in sewer systems. PMID:25597685

  16. On-line monitoring of methane in sewer air

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiwen; Sharma, Keshab R.; Murthy, Sudhir; Johnson, Ian; Evans, Ted; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    Methane is a highly potent greenhouse gas and contributes significantly to climate change. Recent studies have shown significant methane production in sewers. The studies conducted so far have relied on manual sampling followed by off-line laboratory-based chromatography analysis. These methods are labor-intensive when measuring methane emissions from a large number of sewers, and do not capture the dynamic variations in methane production. In this study, we investigated the suitability of infrared spectroscopy-based on-line methane sensors for measuring methane in humid and condensing sewer air. Two such sensors were comprehensively tested in the laboratory. Both sensors displayed high linearity (R2 > 0.999), with a detection limit of 0.023% and 0.110% by volume, respectively. Both sensors were robust against ambient temperature variations in the range of 5 to 35°C. While one sensor was robust against humidity variations, the other was found to be significantly affected by humidity. However, the problem was solved by equipping the sensor with a heating unit to increase the sensor surface temperature to 35°C. Field studies at three sites confirmed the performance and accuracy of the sensors when applied to actual sewer conditions, and revealed substantial and highly dynamic methane concentrations in sewer air. PMID:25319343

  17. Wastewater-Enhanced Microbial Corrosion of Concrete Sewers.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guangming; Zhou, Mi; Chiu, Tsz Ho; Sun, Xiaoyan; Keller, Jurg; Bond, Philip L

    2016-08-01

    Microbial corrosion of concrete in sewers is known to be caused by hydrogen sulfide, although the role of wastewater in regulating the corrosion processes is poorly understood. Flooding and splashing of wastewater in sewers periodically inoculates the concrete surface in sewer pipes. No study has systematically investigated the impacts of wastewater inoculation on the corrosion of concrete in sewers. This study investigated the development of the microbial community, sulfide uptake activity, and the change of the concrete properties for coupons subjected to periodic wastewater inoculation. The concrete coupons were exposed to different levels of hydrogen sulfide under well-controlled conditions in laboratory-scale corrosion chambers simulating real sewers. It was evident that the periodic inoculation induced higher corrosion losses of the concrete in comparison to noninoculated coupons. Instantaneous measurements such as surface pH did not reflect the cumulative corrosion losses caused by long-term microbial activity. Analysis of the long-term profiles of the sulfide uptake rate using a Gompertz model supported the enhanced corrosion activity and greater corrosion loss. The enhanced corrosion rate was due to the higher sulfide uptake rates induced by wastewater inoculation, although the increasing trend of sulfide uptake rates was slower with wastewater. Increased diversity in the corrosion-layer microbial communities was detected when the corrosion rates were higher. This coincided with the environmental conditions of increased levels of gaseous H2S and the concrete type. PMID:27390870

  18. On-line monitoring of methane in sewer air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yiwen; Sharma, Keshab R.; Murthy, Sudhir; Johnson, Ian; Evans, Ted; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-10-01

    Methane is a highly potent greenhouse gas and contributes significantly to climate change. Recent studies have shown significant methane production in sewers. The studies conducted so far have relied on manual sampling followed by off-line laboratory-based chromatography analysis. These methods are labor-intensive when measuring methane emissions from a large number of sewers, and do not capture the dynamic variations in methane production. In this study, we investigated the suitability of infrared spectroscopy-based on-line methane sensors for measuring methane in humid and condensing sewer air. Two such sensors were comprehensively tested in the laboratory. Both sensors displayed high linearity (R2 > 0.999), with a detection limit of 0.023% and 0.110% by volume, respectively. Both sensors were robust against ambient temperature variations in the range of 5 to 35°C. While one sensor was robust against humidity variations, the other was found to be significantly affected by humidity. However, the problem was solved by equipping the sensor with a heating unit to increase the sensor surface temperature to 35°C. Field studies at three sites confirmed the performance and accuracy of the sensors when applied to actual sewer conditions, and revealed substantial and highly dynamic methane concentrations in sewer air.

  19. On-line monitoring of methane in sewer air.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiwen; Sharma, Keshab R; Murthy, Sudhir; Johnson, Ian; Evans, Ted; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    Methane is a highly potent greenhouse gas and contributes significantly to climate change. Recent studies have shown significant methane production in sewers. The studies conducted so far have relied on manual sampling followed by off-line laboratory-based chromatography analysis. These methods are labor-intensive when measuring methane emissions from a large number of sewers, and do not capture the dynamic variations in methane production. In this study, we investigated the suitability of infrared spectroscopy-based on-line methane sensors for measuring methane in humid and condensing sewer air. Two such sensors were comprehensively tested in the laboratory. Both sensors displayed high linearity (R(2) > 0.999), with a detection limit of 0.023% and 0.110% by volume, respectively. Both sensors were robust against ambient temperature variations in the range of 5 to 35°C. While one sensor was robust against humidity variations, the other was found to be significantly affected by humidity. However, the problem was solved by equipping the sensor with a heating unit to increase the sensor surface temperature to 35°C. Field studies at three sites confirmed the performance and accuracy of the sensors when applied to actual sewer conditions, and revealed substantial and highly dynamic methane concentrations in sewer air. PMID:25319343

  20. Combined sewer overflow: A management study. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, A.

    1988-01-01

    This project is part of the National Network for Environmental Management Studies under the auspices of the Office of Cooperative Environmental Management of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In many older cities in the U.S., the capacity of the combined sewer is exceeded on a daily basis due to both-wet weather storm surges and increased volumes of waste generated by new development. As a result, billions of gallons of untreated sewage are discharged on an annual basis into the nation's marine bays and estuaries in episodes called 'combined sewer overflow.' There are two primary reasons for the increasing frequency and severity of overflow episodes: the population of cities in coastal areas are growing at rates that far exceed the ability of the sewer infrastructure to accommodate them; the built-in inefficiencies of the original design of the combined sewer are being exploited by many municipalities to compensate for the increased volumes of sewage associated with the growth in population. Because each combined sewer, the area that it drains, and the receiving water into which it discharges constitutes a unique system, a management strategy should be site-specific. The document proposes a framework within which a site-specific and cost-effective management strategy may be formulated. By necessity, the emphasis is on providing tools and methods rather than explicit solutions.

  1. REVIEW OF ALTERNATIVES FOR EVALUATION OF SEWER FLUSHING DORCHESTER AREA--BOSTON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alternatives employing sewer flushing were developed for the Dorchester area of Boston and their cost effectiveness compared with the decentralized combined sewer overflow (CSO) storage/treatment and disinfection facilities proposed as Eastern Massachusetts Metropolitan Area (EMM...

  2. [Sanitary-and-epidemiologic examination of the food-products].

    PubMed

    Sukhanov, V B; Kerimova, M G; Elizarova, E V

    2011-01-01

    Some aspects of sanitary and epidemiologic examination of food products are considered. The examination is an important part of sanitary and epidemiologic control and surveillance in the sphere of food safety and quality, consumer rights protection, consumer market and human welfare. PMID:21574465

  3. 30 CFR 75.1712-10 - Underground sanitary facilities; maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground sanitary facilities; maintenance. 75.1712-10 Section 75.1712-10 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1712-10 Underground sanitary...

  4. 30 CFR 71.501 - Sanitary toilet facilities; maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitary toilet facilities; maintenance. 71.501 Section 71.501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sanitary Toilet Facilities...

  5. Fireplace for heating indoor spaces and water for sanitary use

    SciTech Connect

    Piazzetta, D.

    1984-03-13

    An improved fireplace for heating indoor spaces and sanitary water comprises a hearth whereon wood can be burned such as to define a heat source, and, adjacent the hearth, an air circulating space and a sanitary hot water generating heat exchanger.

  6. Molecular survey of concrete sewer biofilm microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Santo Domingo, Jorge W; Revetta, Randy P; Iker, Brandon; Gomez-Alvarez, Vicente; Garcia, Jarissa; Sullivan, John; Weast, James

    2011-10-01

    The microbial composition of concrete biofilms within wastewater collection systems was studied using molecular assays. SSU rDNA clone libraries were generated from 16 concrete surfaces of manholes, a combined sewer overflow, and sections of a corroded sewer pipe. Of the 2457 sequences analyzed, α-, β-, γ-, and δ-Proteobacteria represented 15%, 22%, 11%, and 4% of the clones, respectively. β-Proteobacteria (47%) sequences were more abundant in the pipe crown than any of the other concrete surfaces. While 178 to 493 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) were associated with the different concrete samples, only four sequences were shared among the different clone libraries. Bacteria implicated in concrete corrosion were found in the clone libraries while archaea, fungi, and several bacterial groups were also detected using group-specific assays. The results showed that concrete sewer biofilms are more diverse than previously reported. A more comprehensive molecular database will be needed to better study the dynamics of concrete biofilms. PMID:21981064

  7. Long-term pollution simulation in combined sewer networks.

    PubMed

    Masse, B; Zug, M; Tabuchi, J P; Tisserand, B

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents results of long term pollution simulations on the example of the sewerage system of Grand-Couronne. This modelling work is part of a study where objective is to develop a method to define the reference flow of a WWTP. The model HYDROWORKS DM has been successfully validated in hydraulics and pollution for the sewer network, for long time simulations. A conceptual model has been built to model the pollution in the tank at the outlet of the combined system. One synthetic year of rain has been used to simulate the working of the "up stream system" of the WWTP (combined sewer + tank + separate sewer + pre-treatments) and has been successfully validated by measurements of the 1998-1999 year. If this paper is focused on the "up stream system", the SIMBA/SIMBAD WWTP model has been successfully calibrated and validated too, and the combination represents a fully validated "Integrated Model" for the sewerage system. PMID:11385878

  8. Ocean waste disposal: Outfall sewers. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning design, construction, and environmental effects of outfall sewers. The citations discuss the impact of domestic sewage on aquatic ecosystems, and pollution control of outfall sewers. Monitoring of pollutants in outfall sewage and sludge, and modeling of outfall sewers are also included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Sewer rehabilitation. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the maintenance and rehabilitation of sewers. The citations discuss joint weatherization treatments, sewer grouts, and plastic sleeves for cover cracked pipes. Maintenance and rehabilitation programs in specific cities are also discussed. The citations also reference the economics of sewer repair. (Contains a minimum of 164 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. 40 CFR 35.935-16 - Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .../rehabilitation program. 35.935-16 Section 35.935-16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...-Clean Water Act § 35.935-16 Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program. (a) The grantee... sewer use ordinance, and the grantee is complying with the sewer system evaluation and...

  11. 40 CFR 35.935-16 - Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .../rehabilitation program. 35.935-16 Section 35.935-16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...-Clean Water Act § 35.935-16 Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program. (a) The grantee... sewer use ordinance, and the grantee is complying with the sewer system evaluation and...

  12. 40 CFR 35.935-16 - Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .../rehabilitation program. 35.935-16 Section 35.935-16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...-Clean Water Act § 35.935-16 Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program. (a) The grantee... sewer use ordinance, and the grantee is complying with the sewer system evaluation and...

  13. 40 CFR 35.935-16 - Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .../rehabilitation program. 35.935-16 Section 35.935-16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...-Clean Water Act § 35.935-16 Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program. (a) The grantee... sewer use ordinance, and the grantee is complying with the sewer system evaluation and...

  14. 40 CFR 35.2208 - Adoption of sewer use ordinance and user charge system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adoption of sewer use ordinance and user charge system. 35.2208 Section 35.2208 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 35.2208 Adoption of sewer use ordinance and user charge system. The grantee shall adopt its sewer...

  15. 40 CFR 35.2208 - Adoption of sewer use ordinance and user charge system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adoption of sewer use ordinance and user charge system. 35.2208 Section 35.2208 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 35.2208 Adoption of sewer use ordinance and user charge system. The grantee shall adopt its sewer...

  16. 40 CFR 35.2208 - Adoption of sewer use ordinance and user charge system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adoption of sewer use ordinance and user charge system. 35.2208 Section 35.2208 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 35.2208 Adoption of sewer use ordinance and user charge system. The grantee shall adopt its sewer...

  17. SEWER SYSTEM EVALUATION, REHABILITATION AND NEW CONSTRUCTION. A MANUAL OF PRACTICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Manual of Practice has been prepared for use by local authorities and consulting engineers for the investigation of sewer systems for infiltration/inflow. This Manual discusses three areas: sewer system evaluation, sewer rehabilitation, and design of new systems to minimize ...

  18. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Sewer System Upgrade Project. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment for a proposed Sewer System Upgrade Project at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) near Idaho Falls, Idaho. The proposed action would include activities conducted at the Central Facilities Area, Test Reactor Area, and the Containment Test Facility at the Test Area North at INEL. The proposed action would consist of replacing or remodeling the existing sewage treatment plants at the Central Facilities Area, Test Reactor Area, and Containment Test Facility. Also, a new sewage testing laboratory would be constructed at the Central Facilities Area. Finally, the proposed action would include replacing, repairing, and/or adding sewer lines in areas where needed.

  19. Risk assessment of sewer condition using artificial intelligence tools: application to the SANEST sewer system.

    PubMed

    Sousa, V; Matos, J P; Almeida, N; Saldanha Matos, J

    2014-01-01

    Operation, maintenance and rehabilitation comprise the main concerns of wastewater infrastructure asset management. Given the nature of the service provided by a wastewater system and the characteristics of the supporting infrastructure, technical issues are relevant to support asset management decisions. In particular, in densely urbanized areas served by large, complex and aging sewer networks, the sustainability of the infrastructures largely depends on the implementation of an efficient asset management system. The efficiency of such a system may be enhanced with technical decision support tools. This paper describes the role of artificial intelligence tools such as artificial neural networks and support vector machines for assisting the planning of operation and maintenance activities of wastewater infrastructures. A case study of the application of this type of tool to the wastewater infrastructures of Sistema de Saneamento da Costa do Estoril is presented. PMID:24552736

  20. Sanitary locking lip split well seal

    SciTech Connect

    Jozwiak, T.H.; Hunley, E.C. Jr.

    1992-05-12

    This patent describes a well seal for cooperating with a casing of a wall. It comprises a first split plate; a second split plate having a size and shape to allow insertion within the well casing; a split packer, which is provided with at least one tapered through hole, positioned between first split plate, and second split plate, the split packer having a size and shape approximately the same as an inner dimension of the well casing to allow insertion therein, split packer having at least two sections with interlocking lips to provide an effective sanitary seal by providing a leakproof labyrinth path to avoid a straight-through leak path; and clamp means for compressing split packer between first split plate and second split plates to expand the split packer into sealing engagement with an inner wall of the well casing.

  1. Sanitary engineering and water economy in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Krul, W. F. J. M.

    1957-01-01

    The author deals with a wide variety of aspects of water economy and the development of water resources, relating them to the sanitary engineering problems they give rise to. Among those aspects are the balance between available resources and water needs for various purposes; accumulation and storage of surface and ground water, and methods of replenishing ground water supplies; pollution and purification; and organizational measures to deal with the urgent problems raised by the heavy demands on the world's water supply as a result of both increased population and the increased need for agricultural and industrial development. The author considers that at the national level over-all plans for developing the water economy of countries might well be drawn up by national water boards and that the economy of inter-State river basins should receive international study. In such work the United Nations and its specialized agencies might be of assistance. PMID:13472427

  2. FIELD TESTING OF PROTOTYPE ACOUSTIC EMISSION SEWER FLOWMETER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This investigation concerns verifying the operating principles of the acoustic emission flowmeter (U.S. Patent 3,958,458) in the natural environment of three different storm sewer field sites in Nassau County, New York. The flowmeter is a novel, passive, nonintrusive method that ...

  3. COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW SEDIMENT TRANSPORT MODEL: DOCUMENTATION AND EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling package for studying the movement and fate of combined sewer overflow (CSO) sediment in receiving waters is described. The package contains a linear, implicit, finite-difference flow model and an explicit, finite-difference sediment transport model. The sediment model ...

  4. ASSESSMENT OF DISEASE RATES AMONG SEWER WORKERS IN COPENHAGEN, DENMARK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sewer workers in Copenhagen, Denmark, have a higher death rate than the comparable male population. An alarmingly high proportion of the deaths occur within the year that employment terminates. Attempts to correlate the statistics with sick leave records or chemicals in the envir...

  5. DEMONSTRATE REAL TIME AUTOMATIC CONTROL OF COMBINED SEWER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of this study was to develop a real time automatic control model that could be used in connection with a combined sewer system to minimize overflows during storms. The model was applied to the North Shore Outfall Consolidation Project in San Francisco. This ...

  6. 40 CFR 35.927 - Sewer system evaluation and rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... rehabilitation. 35.927 Section 35.927 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER... § 35.927 Sewer system evaluation and rehabilitation. (a) All applicants for step 2 or step 3 grant... evaluation survey and, if appropriate, a program, including an estimate of costs, for rehabilitation of...

  7. 40 CFR 35.927 - Sewer system evaluation and rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... rehabilitation. 35.927 Section 35.927 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER... § 35.927 Sewer system evaluation and rehabilitation. (a) All applicants for step 2 or step 3 grant... evaluation survey and, if appropriate, a program, including an estimate of costs, for rehabilitation of...

  8. 40 CFR 35.927 - Sewer system evaluation and rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... rehabilitation. 35.927 Section 35.927 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER... § 35.927 Sewer system evaluation and rehabilitation. (a) All applicants for step 2 or step 3 grant... evaluation survey and, if appropriate, a program, including an estimate of costs, for rehabilitation of...

  9. Incorporating Storm Sewer Exfiltration into SWMM: Proof of Concept

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluates the peak flow and volume reduction achieved by exfiltration from a perforated storm sewer in an urban catchment. There are three related objectives: [1] quantify peak flow and volume reduction; [2] demonstrate adaptability to climate change; and [3] evaluate ...

  10. LAWRENCE AVENUE UNDERFLOW SEWER SYSTEM: MONITORING AND EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new and bold concept in design of urban drainage systems was developed as a step forward in the solution of combined sewer overflow problems. A deep tunnel in bed rock about 200 to 250 feet (61 to 76 m) below the surface was designed and constructed for the Lawrence Avenue drai...